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Sample records for african american communities

  1. African American Pastors' Beliefs and Actions Regarding Childhood Incest in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Tesia Denis

    2012-01-01

    This quantitative study sought to explore African American pastors' beliefs and actions regarding childhood incest in the African American community and their decisions to inform the proper authorities. This exploratory study was developed in order to draw both public and academic attention to the understudied phenomenon of childhood incest…

  2. Race, Class, Gender and Community College Persistence among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walpole, MaryBeth; Chambers, Crystal Renee; Goss, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This inquiry is an exploration of the educational trajectories of African American women community college students. We compare the persistence of African American women to African American men and to all women college students using the 1996/2001 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Survey and the 1993/2003 Baccalaureate and Beyond…

  3. Expanding the Obesity Research Paradigm to Reach African American Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiriki K. Kumanyika, PhD, MPH

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is more prevalent among African Americans and other racial and ethnic minority populations than among whites. The behaviors that determine weight status are embedded in the core social and cultural processes and environments of day-to-day life in these populations. Therefore, identifying effective, sustainable solutions to obesity requires an ecological model that is inclusive of relevant contextual variables. Race and ethnicity are potent stratification variables in U.S. society and strongly influence life contexts, including many aspects that relate to eating and physical activity behaviors. This article describes a synthesis initiated by the African American Collaborative Obesity Research Network (AACORN to build and broaden the obesity research paradigm. The focus is on African Americans, but the expanded paradigm has broader implications and may apply to other populations of color. The synthesis involves both community and researcher perspectives, drawing on and integrating insights from an expanded set of knowledge domains to promote a deeper understanding of relevant contexts. To augment the traditional, biomedical focus on energy balance, the expanded paradigm includes insights from family sociology, literature, philosophy, transcultural psychology, marketing, economics, and studies of the built environment. We also emphasize the need for more attention to tensions that may affect African American or other researchers who identify or are identified as members of the communities they study. This expanded paradigm, for which development is ongoing, poses new challenges for researchers who focus on obesity and obesity-related health disparities but also promises discovery of new directions that can lead to new solutions.

  4. Diabetes in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, M.

    2005-01-01

    African Americans have a high risk for type 2 diabetes. Genetic traits, the prevalence of obesity, and insulin resistance all contribute to the risk of diabetes in the African American community. African Americans have a high rate of diabetic complications, because of poor glycaemic control and racial disparities in health care in the USA. African Americans with diabetes may have an atypical presentation that simulates type 1 diabetes, but then their subsequent clinical course is typical of t...

  5. Early Life Predictors of Adult Depression in a Community Cohort of Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Kerry M.; Fothergill, Kate E.; Robertson, Judith A.; Zebrak, Katarzyna A.; Banda, Deliya R.; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2012-01-01

    Depression among African Americans residing in urban communities is a complex, major public health problem; however, few studies identify early life risk factors for depression among urban African American men and women. To better inform prevention programming, this study uses data from the Woodlawn Study, a well-defined community cohort of urban African Americans followed from age 6 to 42 years, to determine depression prevalence through midlife and identify childhood and adolescent risk fac...

  6. Cultural knowledge and local vulnerability in African American communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller Hesed, Christine D.; Paolisso, Michael

    2015-07-01

    Policymakers need to know what factors are most important in determining local vulnerability to facilitate effective adaptation to climate change. Quantitative vulnerability indices are helpful in this endeavour but are limited in their ability to capture subtle yet important aspects of vulnerability such as social networks, knowledge and access to resources. Working with three African American communities on Maryland’s Eastern Shore, we systematically elicit local cultural knowledge on climate change and connect it with a scientific vulnerability framework. The results of this study show that: a given social-ecological factor can substantially differ in the way in which it affects local vulnerability, even among communities with similar demographics and climate-related risks; and social and political isolation inhibits access to sources of adaptive capacity, thereby exacerbating local vulnerability. These results show that employing methods for analysing cultural knowledge can yield new insights to complement those generated by quantitative vulnerability indices.

  7. The Four Cs of HIV Prevention with African Americans: Crisis, Condoms, Culture, and Community

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, JK; Wyatt, GE; Wingood, G

    2010-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to be a devastating epidemic with African American communities carrying the brunt of the impact. Despite extensive biobehavioral research, current strategies have not resulted in significantly decreasing HIV/AIDS cases among African Americans. The next generation of HIV prevention and risk reduction interventions must move beyond basic sex education and condom use and availability. Successful interventions targeting African Americans must optimize strategies that integrate ...

  8. African American Adolescents Living and Coping with Community Violence on Chicago's Southside

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter R.; Bird, Jason D. P.; Hardestry, Melissa; Shiu, Cheng Shi

    2011-01-01

    This study explores community violence exposures among African American adolescents and whether coping strategies were gendered. In-depth interviews are conducted with a sample of 32 African American high school students. Data are analyzed using a thematic analysis. The primary forms of violence exposures are physical attacks, fighting, and…

  9. Helping Moms, Saving Babies: Faith-Based Partnerships to Reduce Prematurity in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, LaToya L.

    2008-01-01

    The March of Dimes, Texas Chapter, partnered with the faith community to pilot Honey Child[SM], a prenatal education program for African American women. The program is designed to combat prematurity, which is the leading cause of death for African American infants. Honey Child uses a spiritual approach to promote prenatal health through…

  10. Suppressor Effects in Coping Research with African American Adolescents from Low-Income Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Holmbeck, Grayson N.; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study was to demonstrate the replicable nature of statistical suppressor effects in coping research through 2 examples with African American adolescents from low-income communities. Method: Participants in the 1st example included 497 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years, SD = 0.99; 57% female)…

  11. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  12. Community leaders’ perspectives on engaging African Americans in biobanks and other human genetics initiatives

    OpenAIRE

    Buseh, Aaron G.; Stevens, Patricia E.; Millon-Underwood, Sandra; Townsend, Leolia; Sheryl T. Kelber

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information about what African Americans think about biobanks and the ethical questions surrounding them. Likewise, there is a gap in capacity to successfully enroll African Americans as biobank donors. The purposes of this community-based participatory study were to: (a) explore African Americans’ perspectives on genetics/genomic research, (b) understand facilitators and barriers to participation in such studies, and (c) enlist their ideas about how to attract and sustain en...

  13. Cancer and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Population Profiles > Black/African American > Cancer Cancer and African Americans African Americans have the highest mortality rate ... 65MB] At a glance – Top Cancer Sites for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100, ...

  14. A Community Health Advisor Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk among Rural African-American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, C. E.; Littleton, M. A.; Greene, P. G.; Pulley, L.; Brownstein, J. N.; Sanderson, B. K.; Stalker, V. G.; Matson-Koffman, D.; Struempler, B.; Raczynski, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    The Uniontown, Alabama Community Health Project trained and facilitated Community Health Advisors (CHAs) in conducting a theory-based intervention designed to reduce the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among rural African-American women. The multiphased project included formative evaluation and community organization, CHA recruitment and…

  15. Evaluation findings from genetics and family health history community-based workshops for African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Manswell Butty, Jo-Anne; Richardson, Finie; Mouton, Charles P.; Royal, Charmaine D. M.; Green, Rodney D.; Munroe, Kerry-Ann

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the implementation and effectiveness of community education workshops to change genetics and health-related knowledge, intentions, and behavior of urban African Americans. Eight workshops were held and 183 participants consented to participate in the study. A majority of the participants were African American (97%) and female (84%) and just over half were 65 years and older (60%), and had some high school or were high school graduates (52%). The commun...

  16. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    OpenAIRE

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; James T. McLawhorn; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health educat...

  17. Obesity and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Data > Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Obesity Obesity and African Americans African American women have the ... ss6304.pdf [PDF | 3.38MB] HEALTH IMPACT OF OBESITY More than 80 percent of people with type ...

  18. Underserved, Underrepresented, Unprepared: Experiences of African American Females in Community College with Barriers to Academic Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, LaWanda D.

    2013-01-01

    African American women are enrolling and returning to college in large numbers across many community college campuses, especially those women who would be characterized as nontraditional students. This qualitative study examined and analyzed the experiences, stresses, and coping mechanisms of first generation, nontraditional, single parent,…

  19. African American Women Leaders in the Community College: Where They Get Their Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Florine

    1996-01-01

    Summarizes a study that interviewed 14 female upper-level African American community college administrators to identify commonalities in their experience. Most participants showed early signs of leadership, had strong spiritual beliefs, were caring and self-reliant, had close relationships with their mothers, valued their aloneness and their…

  20. Neighborhood Satisfaction and Colorectal Cancer Screening in a Community Sample of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halbert, Chanita Hughes; Melvin, Cathy; Briggs, Vanessa; Delmoor, Ernestine; Rice, LaShanta J; Lynch, Cheryl; Jefferson, Melanie; Johnson, Jerry C

    2016-02-01

    Social determinants are important to cancer screening among African Americans. To evaluate the association between social determinants (e.g., psychological characteristics, perceived social environment, cultural beliefs such as present temporal orientation) and colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African Americans. African American adults (n = 262) ages 50-75 completed a telephone interview. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors having significant independent associations with CRC screening. Only 57% of respondents reported having CRC screening. The likelihood of screening increased with greater neighborhood satisfaction (OR = 1.38, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.90, p = 0.04), older age (OR = 1.75, 95% CI = 1.24, 2.48, p = 0.002), greater self-efficacy (OR = 2.73, 95% CI = 1.40, 5.35, p = 0.003), and health care provider communication (OR = 10.78, 95% CI = 4.85, 29.94, p = 0.0001). Community resources are important precursors to CRC screening and outcomes among African Americans. In addition to addressing psychological factors and patient-provider communication, efforts to ensure the availability of quality health care facilities that provide CRC screening in the neighborhoods where African Americans live are needed. PMID:26184107

  1. A community-based collaborative approach to improve breast cancer screening in underserved African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karcher, Rachel; Fitzpatrick, Dawn C; Leonard, Dawn J; Weber, Scott

    2014-09-01

    Although African American women in the United States have a lower incidence of breast cancer compared with white women, those younger than 40 years actually have a higher incidence rate; additionally, African American women are more likely to die from breast cancer at every age compared with white women. Racial disparities in breast cancer mortality rates are especially significant in Maryland, which ranks fifth in the nation for breast cancer mortality, and in Baltimore City, which has the second highest annual death rate for African American women in Maryland. To address this disparity in care, Med-IQ, an accredited provider of CME, collaborated with Sisters Network Baltimore Metropolitan, Affiliate Chapter of Sisters Network® Inc., the only national African American breast cancer survivorship organization, to sponsor their community-based educational outreach initiative. The collaborative mission was to engage at-risk African American women, their families, local organizations, healthcare professionals, and clinics, with the goals of increasing awareness, addressing fears that affect timely care and diagnosis, and encouraging women to obtain regular mammograms. Intervention strategies included (1) a "Survivor Stories" video, (2) patient outreach consisting of neighborhood walks and an educational luncheon, and (3) a community outreach utilizing direct mailings to local businesses, community groups, and healthcare professionals. Trusted and well-known community resources were presented as mediums to promote the initiative, yielding achievement of broader and more effective outcomes. As a result of this patient-friendly initiative, two (2) of the women who sought screening were diagnosed with breast cancer and underwent treatment. PMID:24446167

  2. Community Violence, Interpartner Conflict, Parenting, and Social Support as Predictors of the Social Competence of African American Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oravecz, Linda M.; Koblinsky, Sally A.; Randolph, Suzanne M.

    2008-01-01

    Adopting an ecological framework, this study examines the role of community violence exposure, interpartner conflict, positive parenting, and informal social support in predicting the social skills and behavior problems of low-income African American preschoolers. Participants were 184 African American mothers and female caregivers of Head Start…

  3. Using community-based participatory mixed methods research to understand preconception health in African American communities of Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussaini, Khaleel S; Hamm, Eric; Means, Toni

    2013-12-01

    The article discusses Arizona's strategic implementation and evaluation of the first time motherhood initiative grant (FTMI) to understand preconception health among African American men and women in Arizona. Longitudinal focus groups assessed whether African American men and women in the targeted areas comprehended and recalled the messages related to preconception health. Matched pre and posttests assessed community members' knowledge of preconception as well as physicians' perceptions on preconception health and care. Focus-group data were transcribed and coded by independent coders to conduct content analyses. Inter-rater reliability and agreement among coders, bivariate and multivariate statistics were conducted for quantitative matched pre and posttests data using SAS v9.2 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). The social marketing campaign had limited impact in recall and comprehension of the preconception health message among African American men and women. Data from focus groups revealed that African American men and women perceived preconception health to be vital. And results from the pretest and posttests of community-based presentations, further supported this finding. Evidence from Grand Round presentations indicated that practitioners and health care providers had diverging views on preconception health. Use of community-based participatory mixed methods research can facilitate better understanding of the efficacy of strategic interventions such as FTMI and can provide valuable information on preconception health. Cost limitations often prohibit extensive evaluation of social marketing campaigns, hence, evaluators and researchers should assess the feasibility of conducting an efficacy study versus an effectiveness study in evaluating social marketing campaigns. PMID:23229170

  4. Disease Messaging in Churches: Implications for Health in African-American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmon, Brook E; Chock, Marci; Brantley, Elizabeth; Wirth, Michael D; Hébert, James R

    2016-08-01

    Using the right messaging strategies, churches can help promote behavior change. Frequencies of disease-specific messages in 21 African-American churches were compared to overall and cancer-specific mortality and morbidity rates as well as church-level variables. Disease messages were found in 1025 of 2166 items. Frequently referenced topics included cancer (n = 316), mental health conditions (n = 253), heart disease (n = 246), and infectious diseases (n = 220). Messages for lung and colorectal cancers appeared at low frequency despite high mortality rates in African-American communities. Season, church size, and denomination showed significant associations with health messages. Next steps include testing messaging strategies aimed at improving the health of churchgoing communities. PMID:26296703

  5. Promoting HIV Vaccine Research in African American Communities: Does the Theory of Reasoned Action Explain Potential Outcomes of Involvement?

    OpenAIRE

    Frew, Paula M; Archibald, Matthew; Martinez, Nina; del Rio, Carlos; Mulligan, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The HIV/AIDS pandemic continues to challenge the African American community with disproportionate rates of infection, particularly among young women ages 25 to 34 years. Development of a preventive HIV vaccine may bring a substantial turning point in this health crisis. Engagement of the African American community is necessary to improve awareness of the effort and favorably influence attitudes and referent norms. The Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) may be a useful framework for exploration o...

  6. Psychological Symptoms Linking Exposure to Community Violence and Academic Functioning in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Danielle R.; Lambert, Sharon F.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    African American adolescents are exposed disproportionately to community violence, increasing their risk for emotional and behavioral symptoms that can detract from learning and undermine academic outcomes. The present study examined whether aggressive behavior and depressive and anxious symptoms mediated the association between exposure to community violence and academic functioning, and if the indirect effects of community violence on academic functioning differed for boys and girls, in a community sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 491; 46.6% female). Structural equation modeling was used to examine the indirect effect of exposure to community violence in grade 6 on grade 8 academic functioning. Results revealed that aggression in grade 7 mediated the association between grade 6 exposure to community violence and grade 8 academic functioning. There were no indirect effects through depressive and anxious symptoms, and gender did not moderate the indirect effect. Findings highlight the importance of targeting aggressive behavior for youth exposed to community violence to not only improve their behavioral adjustment but also their academic functioning. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:23277294

  7. Heart Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Minority Population Profiles > Black/African American > Heart Disease Heart Disease and African Americans Although African American adults are ... were 30 percent more likely to die from heart disease than non-Hispanic whites. African American women are ...

  8. Infant Mortality and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... African American > Infant Heath & Mortality Infant Mortality and African Americans African Americans have 2.2 times the infant mortality rate ... birthweight as compared to non-Hispanic white infants. African Americans had almost twice the sudden infant death syndrome ...

  9. African Americans and Glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section African Americans and Glaucoma email Send this article to ... glaucoma is the leading cause of blindness in African Americans. Half of those with glaucoma don't ...

  10. African American Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    African American Suicide Fact Sheet Based on 2012 Data (2014) Overview • In 2012, 2,357 African Americans completed suicide in the U.S. Of these, ... 46 per 100,000. • The suicide rate for African Americans ages 10-19 was 2.98 per ...

  11. The Structure of Witnessed Community Violence amongst Urban African American Mothers: Latent Class Analysis of a Community Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Ronzio, Cynthia R.; Mitchell, Stephanie J.; Jichuan Wang

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of witnessed community violence (WCV) amongst urban populations in the USA is striking. WCV can be harmful to one's psychological health, and for mothers, the consequences may be more far-reaching as their mental health affects parenting and child development. This study used telephone interviews (n = 209) to explore the patterns and covariates of WCV amongst a sample of urban, African American mothers of infants. Mothers reported whether they had witnessed 11 different forms o...

  12. Perspectives on Efforts to Address HIV/AIDS of Religious Clergy Serving African American and Hispanic Communities in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Alder, Stephen C.; Simonsen, Sara Ellis; Duncan, Megan; Shaver, John; DeWitt, Jan; Crookston, Benjamin

    2007-01-01

    Introduction The HIV/AIDS epidemic in America is rapidly progressing in certain subpopulations, including African-American and Hispanic communities. Churches may provide a means for reaching high-risk minority populations with effective HIV/AIDS prevention. We report on a series of focus group interviews conducted with Utah clergy who primarily serve African American and Hispanic congregations. Methods A total of three focus groups (two with Catholic clergy serving Hispanic congregations and ...

  13. No Safe Havens: Protective Parenting Strategies for African American Youth Living in Violent Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voisin, Dexter; Berringer, Kathryn; Takahashi, Lois; Burr, Sean; Kuhnen, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Africans American youth experience disproportionately high rates of exposure to community violence. Such exposures are associated with a myriad of physical and mental health challenges. However, few qualitative studies have examined the ways in which parental figures have attempted to manage youth exposure to violence. This study recruited 4 focus groups composed of the parents of African American youth (n = 54). Participants reported that (a) there were no safe places immune from community violence, (b) there were no populations or subgroups protected from community violence, and (c) strategies to manage exposure to violence were often defined by the gender of the child. Although common protective parental strategies included mixed benefits, they ranged from "sheltering" (keeping children off the streets), "chauffeuring" (transporting or accompanying children to and from places), "removal" (enrolling children in schools outside of the neighborhood), and attempting "to rebuild the village." However, several of these strategies had constraints including money, time, and child maturation. Based on these findings, we offer research, policy, and practice implications in response to community violence exposure among this population. PMID:27075420

  14. Physical Health Screenings Among African-American Church and Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Erin W; Berkley-Patton, Jannette Y; Berman, Marcie; Burleson, Christine; Judah, Abigail

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to identify characteristics, including religiosity, related to having received health screenings among persons who attend African-American churches or receive church-based community outreach services. A sample of 602 was recruited during two phases as part of a larger project. Blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose screenings were the most frequently reported screenings ever and in the last 12 months. Although religiosity was significantly related to several of the health screenings in bivariate analysis, it is not a predictor of health screenings in multivariate analyses. Innovative strategies are needed to promote screenings such as church-based health fairs. PMID:27272330

  15. Effects of Exposure to Community Violence on Internalizing Symptoms: Does Desensitization to Violence Occur in African American Youth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.; Zelencik, Brett

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear and curvilinear associations of exposure to community violence to internalizing symptoms in 251 African American adolescents (mean age = 12.86, SD = 1.28). Participants reported on exposure to community violence, anxiety symptoms, and depressive symptoms. Regression analyses were used to…

  16. Faith-Based Adult Learning Initiatives for Diabetes Education in the African American Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Trudy

    2006-01-01

    Historically, religion and spirituality have been major influences in the social, cultural, and political lives of African Americans. Spirituality is deeply embedded into their rich cultural heritage, and it is intertwined into all aspects of their life, including beliefs about health and illness. For African Americans, health and illness are a…

  17. A Campus-Community Partnership to Disseminate Health Internet Technology Resources among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefield, Melissa B.; Edwards, Lorece; Akers, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    The Internet is increasingly used to disseminate health information about diseases and prevention and to help in obtaining health services. Although technology can empower African Americans to adopt healthy lifestyles, the gap in usage between African Americans and Whites undermines the potential power of health Internet technology (IT) to…

  18. Barriers to prostate cancer prevention and community recommended health education strategies in an urban African American community in Jackson, Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekúndayò, Olúgbémiga T; Tataw, David B

    2013-01-01

    This article describes the use of survey research in collaboration with the African American urban community of Georgetown, Jackson, Mississippi to identify and understand prostate cancer knowledge, resource utilization, and health education strategies considered most effective in reaching the community with prostate cancer prevention messages. The study revealed profound needs in disease identification and resources awareness and utilization. Barriers to utilization were identified by participants to include lack of self-efficacy, low self-esteem, lack of trust in the health care system, limited knowledge of prostate pathology, and limited ability to pay. Participants' recommended strategies for reaching the community with prostate cancer education include traditional and nontraditional strategies. The list of recommendations exclude modern-day outlets such as handheld devices, Twitter, Facebook, blogs, wikis, and other Internet-based outlets. The findings provide a road map for program development and an intervention research agenda custom-tailored to the Georgetown community of Jackson, Mississippi. PMID:23805806

  19. Unequal burden of disease, unequal participation in clinical trials: solutions from African American and Latino community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E; Siminoff, Laura A; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G; Smith, Daniel W; Diaz, Vanessa A; Soderstrom, Lea H; Jefferson, Melanie S; Tilley, Barbara C

    2013-02-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's Unequal Treatment conceptual framework was used. Six racially/ ethnically homogenous focus groups were conducted at five sites in three counties. Themes within groups and cross-cutting themes were identified. The NVIVO program was used for data classification. The data were reviewed for final coding and consensus. Shared solutions included addressing costs, recruiting in community contexts, conducting community and individualized patient education, and sharing patient safety information. Participants were unanimously in favor of clinical trials navigation recruitment interventions. Solutions specific to African Americans included diversifying research teams, recognizing past research abuses, and increasing community trust. Solutions specific to Latinos included providing low-literacy materials, providing Spanish-speaking clinicians and advocates, and clarifying that immigration status would neither be documented nor prevent participation. Solutions from African Americans and Latinos reflect their cultural backgrounds and historical experiences. The results suggest the importance of developing a tailored, barriers-focused navigation intervention to improve participation among diverse racial and ethnic populations. PMID:23539894

  20. HIV prevention interventions to reduce sexual risk for African Americans: the influence of community-level stigma and psychological processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Allecia E; Dovidio, John F; Ballester, Estrellita; Johnson, Blair T

    2014-02-01

    Interventions to improve public health may benefit from consideration of how environmental contexts can facilitate or hinder their success. We examined the extent to which efficacy of interventions to improve African Americans' condom use practices was moderated by two indicators of structural stigma-Whites' attitudes toward African Americans and residential segregation in the communities where interventions occurred. A previously published meta-analytic database was re-analyzed to examine the interplay of community-level stigma with the psychological processes implied by intervention content in influencing intervention efficacy. All studies were conducted in the United States and included samples that were at least 50% African American. Whites' attitudes were drawn from the American National Election Studies, which collects data from nationally representative samples. Residential segregation was drawn from published reports. Results showed independent effects of Whites' attitudes and residential segregation on condom use effect sizes. Interventions were most successful when Whites' attitudes were more positive or when residential segregation was low. These two structural factors interacted: Interventions improved condom use only when communities had both relatively positive attitudes toward African Americans and lower levels of segregation. The effect of Whites' attitudes was more pronounced at longer follow-up intervals and for younger samples and those samples with more African Americans. Tailoring content to participants' values and needs, which may reduce African Americans' mistrust of intervention providers, buffered against the negative influence of Whites' attitudes on condom use. The structural factors uniquely accounted for variance in condom use effect sizes over and above intervention-level features and community-level education and poverty. Results highlight the interplay of social identity and environment in perpetuating intergroup disparities

  1. Communicating Effectively About Clinical Trials With African American Communities: A Comparison of African American and White Information Sources and Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Andrea; Bergeron, Caroline D; Zheng, Yue; Friedman, Daniela B; Kim, Sei-Hill; Foster, Caroline B

    2016-03-01

    Clinical trial (CT) participation is low among African Americans (AAs). To better communicate with AAs about the importance of CTs, the purpose of this study was to explore the communication sources and perceived effective communication channels and strategies through which the general public, AAs, and White individuals receive CT information. A quantitative telephone survey was conducted with AAs and Whites in one Southern state (N = 511). The measures assessed CT sources of information, perceived effectiveness of communication channels and strategies, CT understanding, and CT participation. Descriptive and bivariate analyses were used to compare responses overall and by race. AAs reported being exposed to more CT information than Whites. AAs received CT information most often through television, social media, and doctors compared to Whites. Perceived effectiveness of communication strategies and channels varied by race. AAs preferred simple and easy-to-understand CT information distributed through faith-based organizations. Whites preferred to receive CT information through a trustworthy source (e.g., doctor). There were no significant differences between AAs and Whites in their perceived effectiveness of media sources (e.g., Internet). Recommendations are provided to help health promotion practitioners and CT recruiters tailor information and communicate it effectively to potential AA and White CT participants. PMID:26715695

  2. Shared Illness and Social Support Within Two HIV-Affected African American Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosack, Katie E; Stevens, Patricia E; Brouwer, Amanda M; Wendorf, Angela R

    2016-09-01

    A key source of resiliency within HIV-affected African American communities is informal social support. Data from dyadic conversations and focus groups were used to address the following research question: What are HIV-positive African Americans' social support experiences within their informal social networks in response to HIV-related problems? Circumstances that exacerbated HIV-related problems included others' fear of contagion, reticence to be involved, judgment and rejection, and disregard for privacy Support from HIV-negative others buffered the impact of problems when others communicate interest, take the initiative to help, or make a long-term investment in their success. Support from other HIV-positive persons was helpful given the shared connection because of HIV, the opportunity to commiserate about what is mutually understood, and the fight for mutual survival Based on these findings, we offer suggestions for future research and social network interventions aimed at bolstering connections between HIV-positive peers, reducing stigma, and improving family support. PMID:26515921

  3. Exposure to Community Violence and Protective and Risky Contexts among Low Income Urban African American Adolescents: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldner, Jonathan; Peters, Tracy L.; Richards, Maryse H.; Pearce, Steven

    2011-01-01

    This study examined protective and risky companionship and locations for exposure to community violence among African American young adolescents living in high crime, urban areas. The Experience Sampling Method (ESM), an in vivo data collection method, was employed to gather information from 233 students (62% female) over 3 years, beginning in the…

  4. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J.; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Riley, Natasha E.; Behar, Alma I.; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-01-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was…

  5. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanks, Starla Hairston; Treadwell, Henrie; Bazzell, Anya; Graves, Whitney; Osaji, Olivia; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  6. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzell, Anya; Dean, Juanita; McLawhorn, James T.; Stroud, Jareese Lee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW) Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW). Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW-) led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW. PMID:27493797

  7. Community Engaged Lifestyle Modification Research: Engaging Diabetic and Prediabetic African American Women in Community-Based Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starla Hairston Blanks

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The I Am Woman (IAW Program is a community-based, culturally responsive, and gender-specific nutrition, obesity, and diabetes educational prevention program designed for African American women (AAW. Chronic nutrition-related health conditions such as excess body weight, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and some forms of cancer are common among many African American women. Methods. IAW engaged AAW at risk for such deleterious health conditions by developing a health education intervention that aimed to support weight loss and management, improve knowledge about healthy lifestyle behavioral choices, and facilitate increased access to comprehensive healthcare. This Community Health Worker- (CHW- led program enrolled 79 AAW aged 18 and older in a 7-week group health education intervention. Results. Following the intervention, results indicated that participants had greater knowledge about nutrition and health, strategies for prevention and management of obesity and diabetes, increased engagement in exercise and fitness activities, and decreased blood pressure, weight, body, and mass index. Cholesterol levels remained relatively unchanged. Additionally, AAW visited a primary care doctor more frequently and indicated greater interest in addressing their health concerns. Conclusion. This model of prevention appears to be a promising approach for increasing awareness about ways to improve the health and well-being of AAW.

  8. Family health advocacy: an empowerment model for pregnant and parenting African American women in rural communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baffour, Tiffany D; Jones, Maurine A; Contreras, Linda K

    2006-01-01

    The model of family health advocacy built firmly upon principles of empowerment theory seeks to help individuals, families, and communities to improve their circumstances by incorporating multiple levels of intervention. The goal of family health advocacy is to improve the well-being of pregnant women and mothers of children younger than 2 years by providing social support and health education about risk factors related to infant mortality and prematurity. This program primarily targets rural African American women, a group at high risk. Advocacy and referral for needed medical and social services are provided. This article presents a comprehensive model of health advocacy, including social marketing strategies, recruitment efforts, and curriculum development. PMID:16775472

  9. Pro-drinking messages and message environments for young adults: the case of alcohol industry advertising in African American, Latino, and Native American communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, M L; Wilkes, C

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines targeted alcohol advertising in three ethnic communities: African Americans, Latinos, and Native Americans in the U.S. We focus on the appropriation of cultural systems and the reinvention of them as commodities to consumers. We outline the specific strategies used in each ethnic community. For African Americans, there is an emphasis on selling malt liquor to young adults through the use of "power" and gang-related images. For Latinos, there is an appropriation of historical and cultural symbols such as the national flags and maps of Mexico and Central America. Native Americans have coalesced to keep the image of a chief and warrior, Crazy Horse, from being used to market malt liquor. Each of the ethnic groups is engaged in action to prevent alcohol-related problems in their communities. Generating and implementing solutions is a universal social responsibility. PMID:9922620

  10. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few multilevel HIV interventions that have been developed, tailored or tested in rural communities for African Americans. We describe how Project GRACE int...

  11. A preliminary evaluation of a community-based campaign to increase awareness of concurrency and HIV transmission in African American and African-Born communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrasik, Michele Peake; Clad, Rachel; Bove, Joanna; Tsegaselassie, Solomon; Morris, Martina

    2015-10-01

    We evaluate an innovative grassroots community-based campaign in Seattle, WA focused on educating African American and African-born communities about concurrent partnerships and HIV transmission. Respondents completed a short self-administered questionnaire on a handheld personal digital assistant to evaluate the reach, acceptability and preliminary efficacy of the campaign. Of those who remembered seeing the campaign materials (82 %), social networks were the most common source of exposure (80 %). Respondents rated campaign materials very visually attractive (86 %), very interesting (91 %), and very important for themselves (90 %) and their community (93 %). Respondents reported that the campaign increased their knowledge about concurrency (84 %), changed their attitudes about it (77 %), and 65 % said it was likely or very likely that they would change their behavior as a result. This inexpensive grassroots campaign demonstrated extensive reach in the local black community and was able to move beyond individual exposure and into social networks. PMID:25711296

  12. Beliefs about causes of schizophrenia among urban African American community members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T

    2010-12-01

    The public's causal attributions of schizophrenia have far-reaching effects on the community and affected individuals. This study investigated causal beliefs within a community of predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban, African Americans in the southeastern United States. Two hundred eighty-two patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market participated in a self-administered survey assessing causal beliefs through a 30-item survey and self-reported causal opinions. Associations were assessed between causal attributions of schizophrenia and sociodemographic characteristics and exposure/familiarity variables. Certain sociodemographic variables, as well as key exposure/familiarity variables, predicted the nature of one's causal beliefs. The most common causal opinions reported included substance abuse, negative life events, and "mental illness." Findings from a subsample administered an exploratory multiple-choice question investigating understanding of causation revealed that the public may not fully understand the nature of causation. Although this study suggests potential determinants of causal beliefs held by community members, further research examining the public's conception of causation would enhance interpretation of studies on such beliefs. PMID:20623254

  13. Significance of the Amyloidogenic Transthyretin Val 122 Ile allele in African-Americans in the Arteriosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) and Cardiovascular Health (CHS) Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Buxbaum, Joel; Alexander, Alice; Koziol, James; Tagoe, Clement; Fox, Ervin; Kitzman, Dalane

    2010-01-01

    Many African-Americans carry an amyloidogenic transthyretin mutation (TTR V122I), with a high risk for cardiac TTR amyloid deposition after age 65. We wished to determine the allele frequency and its clinical penetrance in community-dwelling African-Americans.

  14. Exposure of African-American Youth to Alcohol Advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003

    The marketing of alcohol products in African-American communities has, on occasion, stirred national controversy and met with fierce resistance from African Americans and others. Despite occasional media and community spotlights on the marketing of alcohol products in the African-American community, there has been no systematic review of the…

  15. African-Americans and Alzheimer's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share Plus on Google Plus African-Americans and Alzheimer's alz.org | IHaveAlz Introduction 10 Warning Signs Brain ... African-Americans are at a higher risk for Alzheimer's disease. Many Americans dismiss the warning signs of ...

  16. The African American Wellness Village in Portland, Ore

    OpenAIRE

    McKeever, Corliss; Koroloff, Nancy; Faddis, Collaine

    2006-01-01

    More than 80% of African Americans in Oregon reside in the Portland metropolitan area; African Americans comprise 1.7% of the state's population. Although relatively small, the African American population in the state experiences substantial health disparities. The African American Health Coalition, Inc was developed to implement initiatives that would reduce these disparities and to promote increased communication and trust between the African American community and local institutions and or...

  17. African Americans in the Early Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Gary B.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses five topics on African Americans that are essential to studying United States History in the years between 1760 and 1830: (1) African Americans in the Revolutionary War ; (2) the rise of free black communities; (3) early abolitionism; (4) the spread of slavery; and (5) black resistance to slavery. (CMK)

  18. Unequal Burden of Disease, Unequal Participation in Clinical Trials: Solutions from African American and Latino Community Members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Marvella E.; Siminoff, Laura A.; Pickelsimer, Elisabeth; Mainous, Arch G.; Smith, Daniel W.; Diaz, Vanessa A.; Soderstrom, Lea H.; Jefferson, Melanie S.; Tilley, Barbara C.

    2013-01-01

    African Americans and Latinos are underrepresented in clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to elicit solutions to participation barriers from African Americans and Latinos. Fifty-seven adults (32 African Americans, 25 Latinos) ages 50 years and older participated. The Institute of Medicine's "Unequal Treatment" conceptual framework was…

  19. Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better: a community-based health awareness program for African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Leslie; Brown, Zaneta G; Gill, Jennifer E

    2008-12-01

    Statistics indicate that African-American women have the highest rate of obesity among all racial groups. In response, the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) developed "Sisters Together: Move More, Eat Better," a national program that encourages African-American women to maintain a healthy weight by becoming more physically active and by eating healthier foods. "Sisters Together" programs are run locally by individuals or community groups in locations such as churches and health departments. The NIDDK offers culturally relevant materials and technical assistance to program leaders, including a recently updated program guide. The guide walks leaders through program planning, promotion, implementation, and evaluation. It is based on obesity, nutrition, and physical activity research; evidence-based programs for African-American women; and proven health communication strategies. The guide is consumer friendly, using clear language and real-life examples. "Sisters Together" programs encourage African-American women and their families to improve their eating habits and their physical activity habits. PMID:19397055

  20. Problem posing and cultural tailoring: developing an HIV/AIDS health literacy toolkit with the African American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rikard, R V; Thompson, Maxine S; Head, Rachel; McNeil, Carlotta; White, Caressa

    2012-09-01

    The rate of HIV infection among African Americans is disproportionately higher than for other racial groups in the United States. Previous research suggests that low level of health literacy (HL) is an underlying factor to explain racial disparities in the prevalence and incidence of HIV/AIDS. The present research describes a community and university project to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit in the African American community. Paulo Freire's pedagogical philosophy and problem-posing methodology served as the guiding framework throughout the development process. Developing the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit occurred in a two-stage process. In Stage 1, a nonprofit organization and research team established a collaborative partnership to develop a culturally tailored HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In Stage 2, African American community members participated in focus groups conducted as Freirian cultural circles to further refine the HIV/AIDS HL toolkit. In both stages, problem posing engaged participants' knowledge, experiences, and concerns to evaluate a working draft toolkit. The discussion and implications highlight how Freire's pedagogical philosophy and methodology enhances the development of culturally tailored health information. PMID:22102601

  1. African American Undergraduate Students' Experiences in Residential Learning Communities at a Predominantly White Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Best, Julia Y.

    2006-01-01

    There is a nationwide decline in enrollment, retention and degree completion for African American students in predominantly White institutions (PWIs) in the United States. Colleges and Universities establish diversity initiatives to address these concerns, yet educational disparities persist. Institutions of higher learning also address ways to enhance the educational development of undergraduate students. One such initiative involves a paradigm shift to extend the curriculum into residential...

  2. Analysis of Body Composition Methods in a Community Sample of African American Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Ygnacio; O’Connor, Daniel P.; Ledoux, Tracey A.; Rebecca E. Lee

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of the authors in this study were: (1) to determine whether published body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations agreed with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry body fat percentage measures and (2) to estimate new body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations in a sample of African American women. Linear regression was used to determine how well 10 body mass index and bioelectrical impedance analysis equations reflected dual energy x-ray absorpti...

  3. Diabetes, gender, and left ventricular structure in African-Americans: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liebson Philip R

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiovascular risk associated with diabetes may be partially attributed to left ventricular structural abnormalities. However, the relations between left ventricular structure and diabetes have not been extensively studied in African-Americans. Methods We studied 514 male and 965 female African-Americans 51 to 70 years old, in whom echocardiographic left ventricular mass measurements were collected for the ARIC Study. In these, we investigated the independent association of diabetes with left ventricular structural abnormalities. Results Diabetes, hypertension and obesity prevalences were 22%, 57% and 45%, respectively. Unindexed left ventricular mass was higher with diabetes in both men (238.3 ± 79.4 g vs. 213.7 ± 58.6 g; p Conclusion In African-Americans, diabetes is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy and, with different patterns of left ventricular structural abnormalities between genders. Attenuation seen in adjusted associations suggests that the higher frequency of structural abnormalities seen in diabetes may be due to factors other than hyperglycemia.

  4. Before the Rescue Squad Arrived: Community Sponsorship of Exceptional African-American Children in Poor Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanfield, John H. II

    1999-01-01

    Investigated the social origins of black physicians from poor, rural, southern communities, examining contextual factors that helped explain their great academic and professional success as young adults. Argues that it was the community that identified and nurtured these gifted children, thus making it possible for them to attend college and…

  5. Immunizations and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease ... 13 to 17 years who ever received the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination, 2014 - Males # doses ... 240-453-2882 Office of Minority Health Resource Center Toll Free: 1-800-444-6472 / Fax: ...

  6. The Structure of Witnessed Community Violence amongst Urban African American Mothers: Latent Class Analysis of a Community Sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia R. Ronzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of witnessed community violence (WCV amongst urban populations in the USA is striking. WCV can be harmful to one's psychological health, and for mothers, the consequences may be more far-reaching as their mental health affects parenting and child development. This study used telephone interviews (n = 209 to explore the patterns and covariates of WCV amongst a sample of urban, African American mothers of infants. Mothers reported whether they had witnessed 11 different forms of violence in their current neighborhoods. A latent class analysis revealed two distinct groups of mothers, those with higher versus lower-exposure to WCV. Mothers in the higher-exposure group were more likely to be low-income, to have a high school education or less, and to have higher anxiety scores than those in the lower-exposure group. Depression was not associated with higher exposure to WCV. Distinguishing between higher- and lower-exposure samples can inform the development of targeted prevention and intervention strategies for metropolitan areas.

  7. A Qualitative Examination of Health Barriers and Facilitators Among African American Mothers in a Subsidized Housing Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Elizabeth W; Hamilton, Natia S; Kelly, Nichole R; Harney, Megan B; Greene, LaShaun; White, Kelly A; Mazzeo, Suzanne E

    2016-09-01

    Although African American families are at particular risk for obesity and its associated health comorbidities, few interventions have directly targeted low-income members of this group living in subsidized public housing. Using a consensual qualitative research approach, we conducted 11 interviews with African American mothers living in two public housing communities to enhance understanding of their perceived barriers and facilitators to health. Five primary domains emerged, including barriers (access, financial, personal, and neighborhood concerns), resources (personal and community), current behaviors (diet, physical activity, and program participation), definition of health (mental well-being, physical well-being, and health behaviors), and needs/interests in programming (health behavior-specific programs, non-health-related programs, child-focused programming, and qualities of programs and their leaders). Results demonstrate the complex interaction among social, environmental, and personal factors on health behaviors for this priority population, and highlight the need for community members' involvement in the development of community-based obesity prevention programming. PMID:27091605

  8. Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... American > Chronic Liver Disease Chronic Liver Disease and African Americans Among African Americans, chronic liver disease is a ... white women. At a glance – Cancer Rates for African Americans (2008-2012) Cancer Incidence Rates per 100,000 – ...

  9. The Process of Adaptation of a Community-Level, Evidence-Based Intervention for HIV-Positive African American Men Who Have Sex with Men in Two Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Beatrice E.; Galbraith, Jennifer S.; Lund, Sharon M.; Hamilton, Autumn R.; Shankle, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the process of adapting a community-level, evidence-based behavioral intervention (EBI), Community PROMISE, for HIV-positive African American men who have sex with men (AAMSM). The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Map of the Adaptation Process (MAP) guided the adaptation process for this new target population by two…

  10. HUB city steps: a 6-month lifestyle intervention improves blood pressure among a primarily African-American community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoellner, Jamie; Connell, Carol; Madson, Michael B; Thomson, Jessica L; Landry, Alicia S; Fontenot Molaison, Elaine; Blakely Reed, Vickie; Yadrick, Kathleen

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of community-based participatory research (CBPR) efforts to address the disproportionate burden of hypertension among African Americans remains largely untested. The objective of this 6-month, noncontrolled, pre-/post-experimental intervention was to examine the effectiveness of a CBPR intervention in achieving improvements in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, biological measures, and diet. Conducted in 2010, this multicomponent lifestyle intervention included motivational enhancement, social support provided by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, and monthly nutrition and physical activity education sessions. Of 269 enrolled participants, 94% were African American and 85% were female. Statistical analysis included generalized linear mixed models using maximum likelihood estimation. From baseline to 6 months, blood pressure decreased significantly: mean (± standard deviation) systolic blood pressure decreased from 126.0 ± 19.1 to 119.6 ± 15.8 mm Hg, P=0.0002; mean diastolic blood pressure decreased from 83.2 ± 12.3 to 78.6 ± 11.1 mm Hg, P<0.0001). Sugar intake also decreased significantly as compared with baseline (by approximately 3 tsp; P<0.0001). Time differences were not apparent for any other measures. Results from this study suggest that CBPR efforts are a viable and effective strategy for implementing nonpharmacologic, multicomponent, lifestyle interventions that can help address the persistent racial and ethnic disparities in hypertension treatment and control. Outcome findings help fill gaps in the literature for effectively translating lifestyle interventions to reach and engage African-American communities to reduce the burden of hypertension. PMID:24534602

  11. Koreans in the Hood: Conflict with African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Chung, Ed.

    The essays in this collection examine relationships between the Korean American and African American communities in Los Angeles, Chicago, and New York. The contrast between the economic power and lack of political power of Korean Americans and the political power and lack of economic power of African Americans is traced. Essays 2-5 cover Los…

  12. Impact of Self-Preference Community Fitness Interventions in High-Risk African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanek, Lisa R; Vaidya, Dhananjay; Kral, Brian G; Kalyani, Rita R; Moy, Taryn F; Stewart, Kerry J; Becker, Diane M

    2016-01-01

    African Americans have a high prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity, but few interventions have been successful in the long term. We describe a 1-year intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce cardiometabolic risk. Interventions incorporated the premise that self-selection into flexible venues and varying exercise modalities would result in improvement in fitness and risk factors. Results of this single-group pretest/posttest observational study show 1-year overall group reductions in body weight and body mass index and cardiometabolic factors including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and increases in dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry-derived absolute and percent lean mass and lean-fat ratio, and decreased fat mass. PMID:27536930

  13. African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pressure High Blood Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More African-Americans and Heart Disease, Stroke Updated:Apr 18, ... of getting those diseases are even higher for African-Americans. The good news is, African-Americans can ...

  14. The Healthy African American Families' risk communications initiative: using community partnered participatory research to address preterm birth at the local level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loretta; Wright, Kynna; Wright, Aziza; Brown, Neysa Dillon; Broussard, Marsha; Hogan, Vijaya

    2010-01-01

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant death for African Americans and is significantly associated with lifelong morbidity. Primary prevention efforts using medical strategies to reduce the rates of preterm birth have been unsuccessful. Using community partnered participatory processes, the Healthy African American Families project in Los Angeles developed a multilevel, risk communications strategy to promote awareness about preterm birth in the local community. Participants included community members, community-based organizations, local government, healthcare providers, and national-level advocates. The initiative focused on increasing social support for pregnant women, providing current information on preterm birth risks, and improving quality of health services. The initiative includes components addressing community education, mass media, provider education, and community advocacy. Products include 100 Intentional Acts of Kindness toward a Pregnant Woman, a doorknob brochure on signs and symptoms of preterm labor, and an education manual on preterm birth and other African American health issues. Cooperation, affiliation, and community self-help were key aspects of the planning process and the health promotion products. Additional community benefits included increased leadership and skills development. The process and products described here may be useful in other communities and for addressing other health outcomes in communities of color. PMID:20629244

  15. Adaptation of a Cancer Clinical Trials Education Program for African American and Latina/o Community Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelto, Debra J; Sadler, Georgia Robins; Njoku, Ogo; Rodriguez, Maria Carina; Villagra, Cristina; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Riley, Natasha E; Behar, Alma I; Jandorf, Lina

    2016-08-01

    The pilot study reported in this article culturally and linguistically adapted an educational intervention to promote cancer clinical trials (CCTs) participation among Latinas/os and African Americans. The single-session slide presentation with embedded videos, originally developed through a campus-community partnership in Southern California, was chosen for adaptation because it was perceived to fit the CORRECT model of innovation (credible, observable, relevant, relatively advantageous, easy to understand, compatible, and testable) and because of the potential to customize any components not identified as core, allowing them to be revised for cultural and linguistic alignment in New York City. Most of the 143 community participants (76.2%) were female; most (54.6%) were older than 59 years. More than half (78.3%) preferred to speak English or were bilingual in English and Spanish. A large proportion (41.3%) had not completed high school. Knowledge and perceived benefits and barriers regarding CCT showed small, though statistically significant, increases. There were no statistically significant group differences for changes in mean knowledge, perceived benefits, or perceived barriers when examined by ethnicity, education level, language, or other included sociodemographic variables. However, a small, but statistically significant difference in perceived barriers was observed when examined by country of origin, with the foreign born score worsening 0.08 points (SD = 0.47, p = .007) on the 5-point Likert-type scale administered posteducation compared to preeducation. Participants' open-ended comments demonstrated the acceptability of the topic and intervention. This adaptation resulted in an intervention with the potential to educate African American and Latina/o general community members in a new geographic region about the purpose, methods, and benefits of CCTs. PMID:26493870

  16. Storytelling Slide Shows to Improve Diabetes and High Blood Pressure Knowledge and Self-Efficacy: Three-Year Results among Community Dwelling Older African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertera, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    This study combined the African American tradition of oral storytelling with the Hispanic medium of "Fotonovelas." A staggered pretest posttest control group design was used to evaluate four Storytelling Slide Shows on health that featured community members. A total of 212 participants were recruited for the intervention and 217 for the…

  17. Turning the Tables: Double Benefits Attained from Training HBCU Students to Teach Geosciences in African-American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pride, C. J.; Olsen, M. M.

    2004-12-01

    To make the greatest impact on African-American participation in the geosciences it is most efficient to bring programs designed to recruit future geoscientists to neighborhoods, campuses, and communities where African-Americans are actually in the majority rather than the minority. The "Natural History Interpretation Training Program" sponsored by SE-COSEE (NSF), SSU and SINERR did just that and impacted two generations of students in coastal Georgia in the process. In the first implementation of this program, ten HBCU science majors participated in an intensive week-long training program on coastal ecosystems, outdoor education, and regional internship/employment opportunities. The training session was followed by the planning and implementation of a two-day science camp for the youth of Sapelo Island, GA in which the undergraduates taught 15 children of Gullah/Geechee heritage aged 6 to 14 about the geology and ecology of their barrier island home. Key components to successfully recruiting undergraduate participants were to coordinate training activities around the college schedule to accommodate students who needed to enroll in summer courses and to base acceptance into the training program on interest rather than GPA. We facilitated the participation of campers by holding the camp on Sapelo Island, providing transportation, and charging no fees. Having HBCU students teach younger minority students served multiple purposes. It inspired the undergraduates to further their studies in science, to explore internship opportunities, and to consider careers in science education. For some it provided an opportunity to review and master material from past courses and inspired confidence in their approach to future course work. The program also piqued the curiosity of Sapelo Island youth so that they would further explore the science of their island home and, hopefully, will consider college attendance and majoring in the geosciences a natural path to follow. HBCU

  18. Raising Cultural Awareness of Second Grade African American Students Using Mexican American Children's Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Sandra Lyniece

    2009-01-01

    An increase in the Mexican American population within the predominantly African American community and school was the basis of this qualitative study. The purpose of the study was to introduce African American second grade students to authentic Mexican and Mexican American children's literature. Interactive read-alouds of nonfiction and realistic…

  19. Creating a virtual community of practice to investigate legitimate peripheral participation by African American middle school girls in science activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Leslie D.

    How do teenage girls develop an interest in science? What kinds of opportunities can science teachers present to female students that support their engagement with learning science? I studied one aspect of this issue by focusing on ways students could use science to enhance or gain identities that they (probably) already valued. To do that I created technology-rich activities and experiences for an after school class in science and technology for middle school girls who lived in a low socio-economic urban neighborhood. These activities and experiences were designed to create a virtual community of practice whose members used science in diverse ways. Student interest was made evident in their responses to the activities. Four conclusions emerged. (1) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of admired African American business women interested students in learning by linking it to their middle-class aspirations and their interest in things that money and status can buy. (2) Opportunities to learn about the lives and work of African American women experts in science in a classroom context where students then practiced similar kinds of actual scientific tasks engaged students in relations of legitimate peripheral participation in a virtual and diverse community of practice focused on science which was created in the after-school classes. (3) Opportunities where students used science to show off for family, friends, and supporters of the after-school program, identities they valued, interested them enough that they engaged in long-term science and technology projects that required lots of revisions. (4) In response to the opportunities presented, new and enhanced identities developed around becoming a better student or becoming some kind of scientist.

  20. Profiles of Community Violence Exposure Among African American Youth: An Examination of Desensitization to Violence Using Latent Class Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K; Dickson, Daniel; Pierre, Cynthia

    2016-07-01

    The current study employed latent class analysis (LCA) to identify distinct profiles of community violence exposure and their associations to desensitization outcomes in 241 African American early adolescents (M age = 12.86, SD = 1.28) in the sixth through eighth grade from under-resourced urban communities. Participants self-reported on their exposure to community violence, as well as on depressive and anxiety symptoms. The LCA revealed three distinct classes: a class exposed to low levels of violence (low exposure class), a class exposed to moderately high levels of victimization (victimization class), and a class exposed to high levels of all types of violence (high exposure class). Consistent with predictions, the high exposure class showed the lowest levels of depressive symptoms, suggesting a desensitization outcome. Gender and age were also examined in relation to the classes, and age was significantly associated with an increased risk of being a member of the high exposure class relative to the low exposure class. Using person-based analyses to examine desensitization outcomes provides useful information for prevention and intervention efforts, as it helps to identify a specific subgroup of youth that may be more likely to show desensitization outcomes in the context of community violence. PMID:25716195

  1. African names for American plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Andel, van T.R.

    2015-01-01

    African slaves brought plant knowledge to the New World, sometimes applying it to related plants they found there and sometimes bringing Old World plants with them. By tracing the linguistic parallels between names for plants in African languages and in communities descended from African slaves, pie

  2. Older African American Women’s Lived Experiences with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, Earlise C.; Mengesha, Maigenete; Issa, Fathiya

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about older African American women’s lived experiences with depression. What does depression mean to this group? What are they doing about their depression? Unfortunately, these questions are unanswered. This study examined older African American women’s lived experiences with depression and coping behaviours. The common sense model provided the theoretical framework for present study. Thirteen community-dwelling African American women aged 60 and older (M =71 years) participa...

  3. Mental Health and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Program Grants Other Grants Planning and Evaluation Grantee Best Practices Black/African American Asthma Cancer Chronic Liver Disease Diabetes Heart Disease Hepatitis HIV/AIDS Immunizations Infant Heath & Mortality Mental Health Obesity Organ and Tissue Donation Stroke Stay Connected ...

  4. African American women and breastfeeding: an integrative literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky S; Grassley, Jane S

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this article is to present a review of literature regarding factors that influence breastfeeding intentions, initiation, and duration in the African American population. Research related to health disparities experienced by African Americans in the United States, as well as research regarding the protective benefits of breastfeeding for those specific health disparities, are also presented. Community and institutional interventions and promotional campaigns aimed at increasing initiation and duration of breastfeeding in the African American population are discussed. Future research regarding African American women's breastfeeding experiences using Black feminist thought as a theoretical foundation is recommended. PMID:23445372

  5. Vitamin D and African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitamin D insufficiency is more prevalent among African Americans than other Americans and, in North America, most young, healthy blacks do not achieve optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations at any time of the year. This is primarily due to the fact that pigmentation reduces vitamin D...

  6. School Characteristics and Experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American Youth in Rural Communities: Relation to Educational Aspirations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Matthew J.; Byun, Soo-yong; Meece, Judith L.; Reed, Karla S.; Farmer, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine differences in the school characteristics and experiences of African American, Hispanic/Latino, and Native American youth in rural high schools as well as their relation to educational aspirations. We also investigated the characteristics and experiences of students and their families given that…

  7. Colorectal Cancer in African Americans: An Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Renee; White, Pascale; Nieto, Jose; Vieira, Dorice; Francois, Fritz; Hamilton, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This review is an update to the American College of Gastroenterology (ACG) Committee on Minority Affairs and Cultural Diversity's paper on colorectal cancer (CRC) in African Americans published in 2005. Over the past 10 years, the incidence and mortality rates of CRC in the United States has steadily declined. However, reductions have been strikingly much slower among African Americans who continue to have the highest rate of mortality and lowest survival when compared with all other racial groups. The reasons for the health disparities are multifactorial and encompass physician and patient barriers. Patient factors that contribute to disparities include poor knowledge of benefits of CRC screening, limited access to health care, insurance status along with fear and anxiety. Physician factors include lack of knowledge of screening guidelines along with disparate recommendations for screening. Earlier screening has been recommended as an effective strategy to decrease observed disparities; currently the ACG and American Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopists recommend CRC screening in African Americans to begin at age 45. Despite the decline in CRC deaths in all racial and ethnic groups, there still exists a significant burden of CRC in African Americans, thus other strategies including educational outreach for health care providers and patients and the utilization of patient navigation systems emphasizing the importance of screening are necessary. These strategies have been piloted in both local communities and Statewide resulting in notable significant decreases in observed disparities. PMID:27467183

  8. African American legislators' perceptions of firearm violence prevention legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Erica; Thompson, Amy; Price, James H; Sheu, Jiunn-Jye; Dake, Joseph A

    2015-06-01

    Firearm mortality is the leading cause of death for young African American males, however, few studies have focused on racial/ethnic minority populations and firearm violence. The National Black Caucus of State Legislators advocates for legislation that promotes the health of African Americans. Thus, the purpose of this study was to collect baseline data on African American legislators' perceptions regarding firearm violence in the African American community. A cross-sectional study of African American legislators (n = 612) was conducted to investigate the research questions. Of the 612 questionnaires mailed, 12 were not deliverable, and 170 were returned (28%). Utilizing a three wave mailing process, African American legislators were invited to participate in the study. The majority (88%) of respondents perceived firearm violence to be very serious among African Americans. Few (10%) legislators perceived that addressing legislative issues would be an effective strategy in reducing firearm violence among African Americans. The majority (72%) of legislators perceived the most effective strategy to reducing firearm violence in the African American community should focus on addressing societal issues (e.g. crime and poverty). After adjusting for the number of perceived barriers, the number of perceived benefits was a significant predictor of legislators' perceived effectiveness of firearm violence prevention legislation for 8 of the 24 potential firearm violence prevention legislative bills. PMID:25301589

  9. Virtual Black Spaces: An Anthropological Exploration of African American Online Communities' Racial and Political Agency amid Virtual Universalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyward, Kamela S.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the strategic practice of virtual racial embodiment, as a case study of African Americans attempting to complicate current constructions of race and social justice in new media. I suggest that dominant racial constructions online teeter between racial stereotypes and the absence of race. Virtual racial classification and…

  10. Validity of the SF-12 for Use in a Low-Income African American Community-Based Research Initiative (REACH 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia O. Larson, PhD

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe objective of our study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Medical Outcomes Study’s 12-Item Short Form Survey Instrument (SF-12 for use in a low-income African American community. The SF-12, a commonly used functional health status assessment, was developed based on responses of an ethnically homogeneous sample of whites. Our assessment addressed the appropriateness of the instrument for establishing baseline indicators for mental and physical health status as part of Nashville, Tennessee’s, Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH 2010 initiative, a community-based participatory research study.MethodsA cross-sectional random residential sample of 1721 African Americans responded to a telephone survey that included the SF-12 survey items and other indicators of mental and physical health status. The SF-12 was assessed by examining item-level characteristics, estimates of scale reliability (internal consistency, and construct validity.ResultsConstruct validity assessed by the method of extreme groups determined that SF-12 summary scores varied for individuals who differed in self-reported medical conditions. Convergent and discriminate validity assessed by multitrait analysis yielded satisfactory coefficients. Concurrent validity was also shown to be satisfactory, assessed by correlating SF-12 summary scores with independent measures of physical and mental health status.ConclusionThe SF-12 appears to be a valid measure for assessing health status of low-income African Americans.

  11. The Transnationalization of the Akan Religion: Religion and Identity among the U.S. African American Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Guedj

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1965, Gus Dinizulu, an African American percussionist, traveled to Ghana with the dance company he was leading. There, he took the trip as an opportunity to explore his African roots and met Nana Oparebea, the Ghanaian chief-priestess of the Akonedi Shrine, one of the most famous shrine houses north of Accra. At the Akonedi Shrine, Nana Oparebea performed for Dinizulu a divination, during which she explained that his enslaved ancestors were parts of the Akan people of Ghana and gave him the mission to search for other African Americans who, like him, were of Ghanaian ancestries. She also offered him a set of altars, containing the spiritual forces of the deities revered in the Akonedi Shrine and asked him to import in the United States what was then labelled the Akan religion. Based on research led both in Ghana and in the United States, the aim of this paper will be to describe the process of diffusion, importation, transnationalization and indigenization of the Akan religion between West Africa and the East Coast of the United States. Focusing on ethnographic data, we will argue that this process can only be understood if it is placed in the context of African American identity formations. Therefore, we will show how in the context of globalization, religion and identity constructions are walking hand-in-hand, creating new discourses on hybridity and authenticity.

  12. Translating Culture: Contemporary African American Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Kočan Šalamon

    2015-01-01

    The paper interrogates cultural specifics of contemporary African American poetry and exhibits translation problems when translating this poetic work. African American writers have always included much of their cultural heritage in their writing and this is immediately noticed by a translator. The cultural elements, such as African American cuisine, attire and style in general, as well as spiritual and religious practices, often play a significant role for African American poets who are procl...

  13. Engaging African Americans in Smoking Cessation Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, Jacqueline; Randolph, Suzanne; Carter-Pokras, Olivia; Feldman, Robert; Kanamori-Nishimura, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans are disproportionately exposed to and targeted by prosmoking advertisements, particularly menthol cigarette ads. Though African Americans begin smoking later than whites, they are less likely to quit smoking than whites. Purpose: This study was designed to explore African American smoking cessation attitudes,…

  14. Examining Student Engagement of African American Community College Students: Focusing on the CCSSE Benchmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch Ervin, Saundra Elaina

    2010-01-01

    Research in the area of student engagement has shown that the more engaged minority students are with faculty and staff, with other students, and with the subject matter they study, the more likely they are to learn and persist toward achieving their academic goals. Secondary data from the Community College Survey of Student Engagement (CCSSE)…

  15. Wellness among African American Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Holcomb-McCoy, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    Although there are various definitions of wellness, few conceptual definitions have addressed the contextual dimensions of wellness relative to African American counselors. The authors present an overview of generic models of wellness, discuss factors that both inhibit and promote wellness, offer some culture-specific models of wellness, and…

  16. Perceptions of African American and European American Teachers on the Education of African American Boys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Ellen; Banks, Joy; Young, Kathryn; Jackson, Francesina R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors interviewed 27 teachers (16 African American and 11 European American) on instructional factors contributing to overidentification of behavior problems in African American boys. Interviews focused on teachers' perspectives of effective teachers, teacher-student relationships, and communication styles. Analysis of the interviews showed…

  17. Utilizing findings from a gender-based analysis to address chronic disease prevention and management among African-American women in a Michigan community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombard, Wendy; Burke, Jodi; Waddell, Sandra; Franke, Arthur

    2015-08-01

    This research note underscores the importance of including strategies to address gender-based disparities when planning and implementing community health improvement programs. Working in collaboration with the Inkster Partnership for a Healthier Community (IPHC), the National Kidney Foundation of Michigan conducted a gender-based analysis as part of its broader community health needs assessment efforts in Inkster, MI. The findings from these studies revealed significant challenges impacting women that were not being adequately addressed within the community. In response to these findings, the IPHC created a strategic action plan to respond to the highest priority needs by increasing community awareness of and linkages to resources that provide supportive services for low-income African-American women. PMID:25542367

  18. Promoting Breast Cancer Screening in Rural, African American Communities: The "Science and Art" of Community Health Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altpeter, Mary; Earp, Jo Anne L.; Shopler, Janice H.

    1998-01-01

    Social ecological theory, social-work community organization models, and health-promotion models are brought together to address ways to generate change at the individual and policy levels, and to provide guidance for community health-promotion programs. An eight-year cancer-prevention project is presented as a case study. (EMK)

  19. HIV Risk Behaviors among African American Women with at-Risk Male Partners

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, KC; Williams, JK; Bolden, S; Guzman, Y; Harawa, NT

    2013-01-01

    Background: HIV continues to impact African American women at alarming rates. Yet, few researchers have examined the relationship factors promoting unprotected sex within African American communities, especially instances in which women are aware that their male partners are engaging in high risk behaviors. This qualitative study explored the sexual behaviors, relationship characteristics, and HIV prevention strategies utilized by African American women in relationships with African American ...

  20. "It's In My Veins": Exploring the Role of an Afrocentric, Popular Education-Based Training Program in the Empowerment of African American and African Community Health Workers in Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgeman-Bunyoli, Arika; Mitchell, S Renee; Bin Abdullah, AbdulʼHafeedh M; Schwoeffermann, Ty; Phoenix, Toliver; Goughnour, Cat; Hines-Norwood, Richard; Wiggins, Noelle

    2015-01-01

    The role racism and other social determinants of health play in the creation of health inequities in African American communities in the United States is increasingly understood. In this article, we explore the effectiveness of an Afrocentric, popular education-based community health worker (CHW) training program in creating positive change among CHW participants and their communities in Portland, Oregon. Findings suggest that CHW participants experienced 4 types of awakening, in addition to changes in their interaction with their family members and increased community involvement. The CHWs identified group bond, Afrocentrism, public health knowledge, popular education, facilitators, and time management as important elements of an effective training program for this community. Psychological empowerment, self-reported health status, and health behavior among participants generally increased over time, but changes were not statistically significant. PMID:26353023

  1. The Concrete Jungle: City Stress and Substance Abuse among Young Adult African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C.; Braxton, Nikia D.; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2012-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, Afr...

  2. Faith Wellness Collaboration: A Community-Based Approach to Address Type II Diabetes Disparities in an African-American Community

    OpenAIRE

    AUSTIN, SANDRA A.; CLAIBORNE, NANCY

    2011-01-01

    Community-based participatory action research was utilized to form a collaboration that developed a Health Ministry program in four Northeastern urban Black Churches, in which they designed and implemented a culturally competent Type II Diabetes self management education program. Minister sponsorship and a program coordinator synchronized the four Health Ministries’ development and diabetes program planning. A case study design, and participant observations and a focus group methodology were ...

  3. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  4. Female genital mutilation in African and African American women's literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darja Marinšek

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The article builds on the existing dispute between African and African American women writers on the competence of writing about female genital mutilation (FGM, and tries to determine the existence and nature of the differences between the writings of these two groups. The author uses comparative analysis of two popular African and African American novels, comparing their ways of describing FGM, its causes and consequences, the level ob objectivity and the style of the narrations.This is followed by a discussion on the reasons for such differences, incorporating a larger circle of both African and African American women authors, at the same time analysing the deviance within the two groups. While the differences between African American writers are not that great, as they mostly fail to present the issue from different points of view, which is often the result of their lack of direct knowledge of the topic, African authors' writing is in itself discovered to be ambivalent and not at all invariable. The reasons for such ambivalence are then discussed in greater context, focusing on the effect of the authors' personal contact with circumcision as well as their knowledge and acceptance of Western values. The author concludes by establishing the African ambivalent attitude towards FGM, which includes different aspects of the issue, as the most significant difference between their and African American writers' description of this practice.

  5. LGBT African-American Individuals and African-American Same-Sex Couples

    OpenAIRE

    Gates, Gary J.; Kastanis, Angel

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 1,018,700 or 3.7 percent of African-American adults consider themselves lesbian, gay, bisexual or transgender (LGBT) and 34 percent of African-American same-sex couples are raising children. Currently, the estimated 84,000 African-American individuals in same-sex couples tend to live in areas where there are higher proportions of African-Americans. For example, a quarter of African-American same-sex couples live in Georgia, New York, North Carolina, and Maryland. The rep...

  6. Depression, Sociocultural Factors, and African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunn, Vanessa Lynn; Craig, Carlton David

    2009-01-01

    The authors discuss depression in African American women from a sociocultural perspective, including aspects of oppression and racism that affect symptom manifestation. The authors highlight John Henryism as a coping mechanism, the history and continuing role of the African American church as a safe haven, and strategies for culturally competent…

  7. Cancer and the African American Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    The first plenary of the EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans explores the many factors that lead to inequalities in cancer care outcomes for African Americans.

  8. African-American Student Achievement Research Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagstaff, Mark; Melton, Jerry; Lawless, Brenda; Combs, Linda

    Data from the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) reveal that gains in performance for the African American student population of Region VII of the state's educational system were not keeping pace with the performance of African Americans in the rest of Texas. This study investigated practices in school districts in the region in which…

  9. Prevalence and correlates of knowledge of male partner HIV testing and serostatus among African-American women living in high poverty, high HIV prevalence communities (HPTN 064)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Larissa; Rompalo, Anne M.; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James; Adimora, Adaora A.; Hodder, Sally; Soto-Torres, Lydia E.; Frew, Paula M.; Haley, Danielle F.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of sexual partners' HIV infection can reduce risky sexual behaviors. Yet, there are no published studies to-date examining prevalence and characteristics associated with knowledge among African-American women living in high poverty communities disproportionately affected by HIV. Using the HIV Prevention Trial Network's (HPTN) 064 Study data, multivariable logistic regression was used to examine individual, partner, and partnership-level determinants of women's knowledge (n=1,768 women). Results showed that women's demographic characteristics alone did not account for the variation in serostatus awareness. Rather, lower knowledge of partner serostatus was associated with having two or more sex partners (OR=0.49, 95%CI: 0.37-0.65), food insecurity (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), partner age>35 (OR=0.68, 95%CI: 0.49-0.94), and partner concurrency (OR=0.63, 95%CI: 0.49-0.83). Access to financial support (OR=1.42, 95%CI: 1.05-1.92) and coresidence (OR=1.43, 95%CI: 1.05-1.95) were associated with higher knowledge of partner serostatus. HIV prevention efforts addressing African-American women's vulnerabilities should employ integrated behavioral, economic, and empowerment approaches. PMID:25160901

  10. MISCONCEPTIONS OF DEPRESSION IN AFRICAN AMERICANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohaib eSohail

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Major depression is a very common disabling disorder. Although the relationship between race and depression is complex, depression affects all races, all ethnic and geographic locations as well as all age groups. The prevalence of depression in African Americans is controversial, due to the paucity of research. The deficit in the knowledge and skills in treating depression in African Americans have not been adequately addressed so far. Inadequate and insufficient data on African Americans contributes to the problems of under diagnoses, misdiagnosis and under treatment of depression. This article will highlight the existing problem of depression in Afro American with a focus on diagnostic and treatment issues.

  11. The genetic structure and history of Africans and African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Tishkoff, Sarah A; Reed, Floyd A; Friedlaender, Françoise R; Ehret, Christopher; Ranciaro, Alessia; Froment, Alain; Hirbo, Jibril B.; Awomoyi, Agnes A; Bodo, Jean-Marie; Doumbo, Ogobara; Ibrahim, Muntaser; Juma, Abdalla T; Kotze, Maritha J.; Lema, Godfrey; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the source of all modern humans, but characterization of genetic variation and of relationships among populations across the continent has been enigmatic. We studied 121 African populations, four African American populations, and 60 non-African populations for patterns of variation at 1327 nuclear microsatellite and insertion/deletion markers. We identified 14 ancestral population clusters in Africa that correlate with self-described ethnicity and shared cultural and/or linguistic p...

  12. A community-integrated home based depression intervention for older African Americans: descripton of the Beat the Blues randomized trial and intervention costs

    OpenAIRE

    Gitlin Laura N; Harris Lynn; McCoy Megan; Chernett Nancy L; Jutkowitz Eric; Pizzi Laura T

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary care is the principle setting for depression treatment; yet many older African Americans in the United States fail to report depressive symptoms or receive the recommended standard of care. Older African Americans are at high risk for depression due to elevated rates of chronic illness, disability and socioeconomic distress. There is an urgent need to develop and test new depression treatments that resonate with minority populations that are hard-to-reach and under...

  13. Individual and Ecological Assets and Thriving among African American Adolescent Male Gang and Community-Based Organization Members: A Report From Wave 3 of the "Overcoming the Odds" Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Carl S.; Smith, Pamela R.; Taylor, Virgil A.; von Eye, Alexander; Lerner, Richard M.; Balsano, Aida Bilalbegovic; Anderson, Pamela M.; Banik, Rumeli; Almerigi, Jason B.

    2005-01-01

    The third wave of the Overcoming the Odds longitudinal study involves data about individual and ecological developmental assets and thriving among African American male adolescents in inner-city Detroit gangs (N = 43) or in youth development, community-based organizations (CBO; N = 50). Both groups had comparable levels of either low or high…

  14. Social distance and stigma toward individuals with schizophrenia: findings in an urban, African-American community sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broussard, Beth; Goulding, Sandra M; Talley, Colin L; Compton, Michael T

    2012-11-01

    Because schizophrenia is arguably among the most stigmatized health conditions, research assessing correlates of stigma is essential. This study examined factors associated with stigma in predominantly Protestant, low-income, urban African Americans in the Southeastern United States. A survey was distributed to 282 patrons of an inner-city food court/farmers' market. Associations were assessed between two measures of stigma--an adapted version of the Social Distance Scale (SDS) and a Semantic Differential Measure (SDM) of attributes such as dangerousness, dirtiness, and worthlessness--and several key variables addressing sociodemographic characteristics and exposure to/familiarity with mental illnesses. Independent predictors of scores on the two measures were identified using linear regression modeling. Higher stigma (as measured by the SDM) was predicted by a family history of psychiatric treatment, whereas lower stigma (as indicated by the SDS) was predicted by personal psychiatric treatment history and higher annual income. The results suggest special considerations when working with disenfranchised populations, especially family members of individuals with mental illnesses, in treatment settings. PMID:23124176

  15. Psychocultural Correlates of Mental Health Service Utilization Among African American and European American Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasui, Miwa; Hipwell, Alison E; Stepp, Stephanie D; Keenan, Kate

    2015-11-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to examine the effects of cultural factors (ethnic identity, perceived discrimination), family relations, and child problem type on mental health service utilization in a community sample of 1,480 adolescent girls (860 African American, 620 European American) between ages 15 and 17 years enrolled in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Results revealed ethnic identity, caregiver attachment, and conduct disorder were related to service use among African American girls. Among European American girls, correlate patterns differed by clinical need. Findings highlight the need for research on health disparities to examine racially specific influences on service utilization. PMID:25380787

  16. Brief report: Explaining differences in depressive symptoms between African American and European American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; King, Vinetra; Windle, Michael

    2016-01-01

    African American adolescents report more depressive symptoms than their European American peers, but the reasons for these differences are poorly understood. This study examines whether risk factors in individual, family, school, and community domains explain these differences. African American and European American adolescents participating in the Birmingham Youth Violence Study (N = 594; mean age 13.2 years) reported on their depressive symptoms, pubertal development, aggressive and delinquent behavior, connectedness to school, witnessing violence, and poor parenting. Primary caregivers provided information on family income and their education level, marital status, and depression, and the adolescents' academic performance. African American adolescents reported more depressive symptoms than European American participants. Family socioeconomic factors reduced this difference by 29%; all risk factors reduced it by 88%. Adolescents' exposure to violence, antisocial behavior, and low school connectedness, as well as lower parental education and parenting quality, emerged as significant mediators of the group differences in depressive symptoms. PMID:26580552

  17. 76 FR 6519 - National African American History Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-04

    ... imagined, African Americans have strengthened our Nation by leading reforms, overcoming obstacles, and... of African Americans to our Nation's history and identity. This year's theme, ``African Americans and... enslaved within rebellious areas, he also opened the door for African Americans to join the Union...

  18. African and non-African admixture components in African Americans and an African Caribbean population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Tanda; Beaty, Terri H; Mathias, Rasika A; Rafaels, Nicholas; Grant, Audrey Virginia; Faruque, Mezbah U; Watson, Harold R; Ruczinski, Ingo; Dunston, Georgia M; Barnes, Kathleen C

    2010-09-01

    Admixture is a potential source of confounding in genetic association studies, so it becomes important to detect and estimate admixture in a sample of unrelated individuals. Populations of African descent in the US and the Caribbean share similar historical backgrounds but the distributions of African admixture may differ. We selected 416 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate and compare admixture proportions using STRUCTURE in 906 unrelated African Americans (AAs) and 294 Barbadians (ACs) from a study of asthma. This analysis showed AAs on average were 72.5% African, 19.6% European and 8% Asian, while ACs were 77.4% African, 15.9% European, and 6.7% Asian which were significantly different. A principal components analysis based on these AIMs yielded one primary eigenvector that explained 54.04% of the variation and captured a gradient from West African to European admixture. This principal component was highly correlated with African vs. European ancestry as estimated by STRUCTURE (r(2)=0.992, r(2)=0.912, respectively). To investigate other African contributions to African American and Barbadian admixture, we performed PCA on approximately 14,000 (14k) genome-wide SNPs in AAs, ACs, Yorubans, Luhya and Maasai African groups, and estimated genetic distances (F(ST)). We found AAs and ACs were closest genetically (F(ST)=0.008), and both were closer to the Yorubans than the other East African populations. In our sample of individuals of African descent, approximately 400 well-defined AIMs were just as good for detecting substructure as approximately 14,000 random SNPs drawn from a genome-wide panel of markers. PMID:20717976

  19. Media and Cultural Influences in African-American Girls' Eating Disorder Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Lakaii A.; Cook-Cottone, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To investigate media and cultural influences in eating disorder development in African-American adolescent females. Method. Fifty-seven participants were recruited through churches and community organizations to complete a questionnaire. Results. Mainstream sociocultural identification was associated with more eating disorder behavior in African-American females; cultural ethnic identification was not significantly associated with eating disorder behavior in African-American female...

  20. Prevalence and Severity of Symptoms in a Sample of African Americans and White Participants

    OpenAIRE

    Taneja, Indu; So, Suzanna; Stewart, Julian M.; Evans, Meredyth; Jason, Leonard A.

    2015-01-01

    According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2013), African Americans have a substantially greater prevalence of a range of health conditions when compared to other racial or ethnic groups. Many of these conditions have been attributed to the historical and contemporary social and economic disparities faced by the African American community. While many health conditions occur at a higher rate in African Americans, it is unclear whether there are specific symptom clusters that ...

  1. African-American culture and AIDS prevention. From barrier to ally.

    OpenAIRE

    Bowser, B P

    1992-01-01

    African Americans make up an increasing proportion of persons with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). I identify and describe cultural elements such as oral traditions, multiple naming, a collective identity, extended families, and sexuality influenced by myth and exaggeration that condition African Americans' reactions to AIDS prevention. I also offer suggestions on how these cultural elements can be used for effective AIDS prevention efforts in African-American communities.

  2. Gender Role Orientation and Anxiety Symptoms among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palapattu, Anuradha G.; Kingery, Julie Newman; Ginsburg, Golda S.

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated gender role theory as an explanation for the observed gender differences in anxiety symptoms among adolescents. Specifically, the relation between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., masculinity and femininity), self-esteem, and anxiety symptoms was examined in a community sample of 114 African Americans aged 14 to…

  3. Contextual Stress and Health Risk Behaviors among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Lambert, Sharon F.; Chen, Yi-Fu; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal association between contextual stress and health risk behaviors and the role of protective factors in a community epidemiologically-defined sample of urban African American adolescents (N = 500; 46.4% female). Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable measuring contextual stress…

  4. Knowledge and Attitudes about Colon Cancer Screening among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Aimee S.; Daley, Christine M.; Greiner, K. Allen

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To explore knowledge and attitudes about colorectal cancer (CRC) screening among African American patients age 45 and older at a community health center serving low-income and uninsured patients. Methods: We conducted 7 focus groups and 17 additional semistructured interviews. Sessions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed…

  5. Fostering Healthy Lifestyles in the African American Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murimi, Mary; Chrisman, Matthew S.; McAllister, Tiffany; McDonald, Olevia D.

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 8.3% of the U.S. population (25.8 million people) is affected by type 2 diabetes. The burden of diabetes is disproportionately greater in the African American community. Compared with non-Hispanic Caucasian adults, the risk of diagnosed type 2 diabetes was 77% higher among non-Hispanic Blacks, who are 27% more likely to die of…

  6. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction ... being ignorant to prostate cancer -- and not knowing what it was -- that was my first, first, first- ...

  7. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly suggest to the African-American that ... then my dad four months later. And then I was told by doctors that I should be ...

  8. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walker: The researchers don't know exactly why. It is suggested that maybe our diet, maybe our ... African-American that we treat this as what it is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to ...

  9. Africans in the American Labor Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan

    2015-10-01

    The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845

  10. African American Culture and Hypertension Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Peters, Rosalind M.; Aroian, Karen J.; Flack, John M.

    2006-01-01

    A qualitative study was done to explore attitudes and beliefs of African Americans regarding hypertension-preventive self-care behaviors. Five focus groups, with 34 participants, were held using interview questions loosely based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Analysis revealed themes broadly consistent with the TPB, and also identified an overarching theme labeled “circle of culture.” The circle is a metaphor for ties that bind individuals within the larger African American communit...

  11. Recruiting African Americans into Research on Cognitive Aging

    OpenAIRE

    McDougall, Graham J.; Holston, Ezra C.; Wilke, Pat

    2001-01-01

    A total of 218 adults with an average age of seventy-eight years participated in a study of memory performance in community elders. A computer-generated random zip code list of adults ≥70 years of age was purchased and a four-phase telephone-screening plan was adopted. During the second year, the sampling plan had to be changed, with a convenience-sampling plan being adopted to recruit adequate numbers of African-American subjects. Fifty-seven percent of the African-American subjects (N = 55)...

  12. African Literature and the American University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Richard

    While African literature appears to be firmly established in American colleges and universities, its expansion, and in some cases its continuance, is threatened by two factors: racialism and departmental conservatism. As demands for courses in black literature can be met by an increased supply of scholars in Afro-American literature, fewer schools…

  13. African American Students and College Choice: A Consideration of the Role of School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Crystal Gafford

    2008-01-01

    Misinformation in the African American community regarding college costs, access, and the benefits of a college education abound. Counseling from a trustworthy, supportive school counselor can make a difference in stemming African American talent loss, especially among young Black men. Using the 1988 National Educational Longitudinal Survey, the…

  14. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Irvin, Matthew J.; Thompson, Jana H.; Hutchins, Bryan C.; Leung, Man-Chi

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates…

  15. Incorporating Spirituality and Religion into the Treatment of African American Clients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd-Franklin, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the process of incorporating spirituality and religion into the treatment of African American clients. It addresses religious diversity within the African American community. The roles of spirituality and religion as survival and coping mechanisms for overcoming racism, adversity, and loss are emphasized. The cases presented…

  16. Relationships between Weight and Body Dissatisfaction, Body Esteem, and Teasing in African American Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Chermaine; Johnston, Craig A.; Dalton, William T., III; Foreyt, John P.

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed the relation between weight and weight-related factors (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body esteem, teasing frequency, and the effects of teasing) in a community sample of prepubescent African American girls. African American girls (N = 97) in Grades 3 to 5 completed the McKnight Risk Factor Survey-Third Edition and had their…

  17. African American Educational Leadership in the School Superintendency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Eva C.

    2013-01-01

    African American educational leadership has long been part of American education and African American activism to resist oppression. However, the field of educational leadership has rarely included the contributions of African American leaders, particularly women leaders, into mainstream leadership theory and practices. This omission is difficult…

  18. Disease Management to Promote Blood Pressure Control Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brennan, Troyen; Spettell, Claire; Villagra, Victor; Ofili, Elizabeth; McMahill-Walraven, Cheryl; Lowy, Elizabeth J.; Daniels, Pamela; Quarshie, Alexander; Mayberry, Robert

    2010-01-01

    African Americans have a higher prevalence of hypertension and poorer cardiovascular and renal outcomes than white Americans. The objective of this study was to determine whether a telephonic nurse disease management (DM) program designed for African Americans is more effective than a home monitoring program alone to increase blood pressure (BP) control among African Americans enrolled in a national health plan.

  19. Marital Status, Hypertension, Coronary Heart Disease, Diabetes, and Death among African American Women and Men: Incidence and Prevalence in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwandt, Hilary M.; Coresh, Josef; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2010-01-01

    Heart disease is the leading cause of death in the United States, and African Americans disproportionately experience more cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease (CHD), hypertension, and diabetes. The literature documents a complex relationship between marital status and health, which varies by gender. We prospectively examine…

  20. Strategies to Build Trust and Recruit African American and Latino Community Residents for Health Research: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sankaré, IC; Bross, R; Brown, AF; del Pino, HE; Jones, LF; Morris, DM; C. Porter; Lucas-Wright, A; Vargas, R.; Forge, N; Norris, KC; Kahn, KL

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Background: This study used Community Partnered Participatory Research (CPPR) to address low participation of racial and ethnic minorities in medical research and the lack of trust between underrepresented communities and researchers. Methods: Using a community and academic partnership in July 2012, residents of a South Los Angeles neighborhood were exposed to research recruitment strategies: referral by word-of-mouth, community agencies, direct marketing, and e...

  1. "Just Piles of Rocks to Developers but Places of Worship to Native Americans" - Exploring the Significance of Earth Jurisprudence for South African Cultural Communities

    OpenAIRE

    Ratiba, Matome M

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the years cultural communities across the world have borne witness to many unending attempts at the destruction of their places of worship. This endemic problem has arisen in a number of places, such as in the USA and in most of the world's former colonies. Having been colonised, South African cultural communities have experienced the same threats to their various sacred sites. This article seeks to argue and demonstrate that cultural communities in South Africa stand to benefit fr...

  2. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  3. Metabolic Syndrome in African Americans: Views on Making Lifestyle Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkendoll, Kenya D.; Clark, Patricia C.; Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; Igho-Pemu, Priscilla; Mullis, Rebecca M.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores African American adults’ understanding of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and their motivations for making lifestyle changes. African Americans have a greater risk for components of MetS, such as hypertension.

  4. Beyond the cathedral: building trust to engage the African American community in health promotion and disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Angela F; Reddick, Karen; Browne, Mario C; Robins, Anthony; Thomas, Stephen B; Crouse Quinn, Sandra

    2009-10-01

    Effective efforts to eliminate health disparities must be grounded in strong community partnerships and trusting relationships between academic institutions and minority communities. However, there are often barriers to such efforts, including the frequent need to rely on time-limited funding mechanisms that take categorical approaches. This article provides an overview of health promotion and disease prevention projects implemented through the Community Outreach and Information Dissemination Core (COID) of the Center for Minority Health, within the Graduate School of Public Health at the University of Pittsburgh. The COID is one of five Cores that comprised the University of Pittsburgh's NIH Excellence in Partnerships for Community Outreach, and Research on Disparities in Health and Training (EXPORT Health) funded from 2002 to 2007 by the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities. Based in large part on the success of the community engagement activities, in 2007, the National Center on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institutes of Health, designated the CMH as a Research Center of Excellence on Minority Health Disparities. COID major initiatives included the Community Research Advisory Board, Health Disparity Working Groups, Health Advocates in Reach, Healthy Class of 2010, and the Healthy Black Family Project. Lessons learned may provide guidance to other academic institutions, community-based organizations, and health departments who seek to engage minority communities in changing social norms to support health promotion and disease prevention. PMID:19809000

  5. Situational Stability and Variability in African American Racial Identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, J. Nicole; Sellers, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated the stable and situational properties of African American racial identity using the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity (MMRI). African American undergraduate students completed the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity, which assessed dimensions of the MMRI. African American racial identity had stable and situational…

  6. An Exploration of African American Students' Attitudes toward Online Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwumabua, Theresa M.; Walker, Kristin M.; Hu, Xiangen; Watson, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    The current work presents exploratory research findings concerning African American students' attitudes toward online learning. The Online Tutoring Attitudes Scale (OTAS; Graff, 2003) was administered to 124 African American students in a positive youth development program. Findings suggest that African American students' attitudes toward…

  7. Seeing African Americans as Competent Parents: Implications for Family Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla

    2011-01-01

    One of the primary roles of parents is to guide and socialize children to make meaningful life choices. African American parents, in particular, have the additional tasks of preparing their children to thrive in an environment that has historically been hostile toward African Americans. Yet, many African American parents are often depicted as…

  8. African American Single Mothers Raising Sons: Implications for Family Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gantt, Ann L.; Greif, Geoffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Being raised by a single mother is one factor that has been suggested as contributing to the plight of African American males. Yet few studies have focused specifically on African American single mothers' experiences with raising sons. This qualitative study explored the following questions: (1) What are the experiences of African American single…

  9. Oral Cancer in African Americans: Addressing Health Disparities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodd, Virginia J.; Watson, Jennifer M.; Choi, Youjin; Tomar, Scott L.; Logan, Henrietta L.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To explore factors underlying African Americans' perceptions of oral cancer and the oral cancer exam. Study findings were used to guide development of oral cancer messages designed to increase oral cancer exams among African Americans. Methods: Focus groups were conducted to understand African Americans' attitudes and expectations…

  10. Correlates of Polyvictimization Among African American Youth: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsaesser, Caitlin M; Voisin, Dexter R

    2015-10-01

    African American adolescents are exposed to high rates of community violence, and recent evidence indicates that these youth may also be at high risk of polyvictimization. Guided by an ecological approach, this study explored individual, familial, and extra-familial correlates of single and multiple forms of violence exposures (i.e., witnessing verbal parental aggression, witnessing or being a victim of community violence exposures) among a sample of 563 urban African American adolescents. Findings indicated that boys reported higher levels of polyvictimization than girls. In addition, the correlates of violence exposures varied by typology and gender. These findings support the development and use of gender-oriented approaches for identifying youth at risk of various types of violence exposures. PMID:25392381

  11. School Adjustment and the Academic Success of Rural African American Early Adolescents in the Deep South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leung, M.-C.

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between end-of-year grades and the academic, behavioral, and social characteristics of rural African American youth. Participants included 392 7th and 8th grade students from 2 rural middle schools in the south. Participants were African American and were from 2 communities that have child poverty rates exceeding 50% for public school students. Girls were more likely to have positive characteristics than boys. Academic, behavioral, and social difficulties were linked to low end-of-year grades, and positive characteristics were linked to high grades. Implications for supporting low-achieving African American students from low-resource communities are discussed.

  12. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in Cincinnati is a very serious problem, with more than half of the respondents indicating that in the past 3 years violence in Cincinnati stayed the same. More importantly, these findings emphasize that the riots in Cincinnati is not a central event in the African American community, instead for some, it represents another example of why violence always seem to exist and there is a low morale among the African American community and police officers.

  13. Violence exposure and teen dating violence among African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Beverly M; Chido, Lisa M; Preble, Kathleen M; Weisz, Arlene N; Yoon, Jina S; Delaney-Black, Virginia; Kernsmith, Poco; Lewandowski, Linda

    2015-07-01

    This study examines the relationships between exposure to violence in the community, school, and family with dating violence attitudes and behaviors among 175 urban African American youth. Age, gender, state support and experiences with neglect, school violence, and community violence were the most significant predictors of acceptance of dating violence. Experiences with community violence and age were important predictors of dating violence perpetration and victimization. Findings highlight the importance of planning prevention programs that address variables affecting attitudes and behaviors of high-risk youth who have already been exposed to multiple types of violence. PMID:25287413

  14. The role of public schools in HIV prevention: perspectives from African Americans in the rural south

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd, Stacey W.; Ferguson, Yvonne Owens; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Ellison, Arlinda; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara J.; Youmans, Selena; Muhammad, Melvin R; Wynn, Mysha; Adimora, Adaora; Akers, Aletha

    2012-01-01

    Though African American youth in the south are at high risk for HIV infection, abstinence until marriage education continues to be the only option in some public schools. Using community-based participatory research methods, we conducted 11 focus groups with African American adults and youth in a rural community in North Carolina with high rates of HIV infection with marked racial disparities. Focus group discussions explored participant views on contributors to the elevated rates of HIV and ...

  15. Social and Environmental Risk Factors for Hypertension in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Selina; Hu, Howard; McNeely, Eileen; Rahman, Saleh M. M.; Krieger, Nancy; Waterman, Pamela; Peters, Junenette; Harris, Cynthia; Harris, Cynthia H.; Prothrow-Stith, Deborah; Gibbs, Brian K.; Brown, Perry C.; Johnson, Genita; Burgess, Angela; Gragg, Richard D

    2008-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that disparities of hypertension risk in African Americans is related to lead exposure, perceptions of racism, and stress, among urban (Roxbury, MA) and rural (Gadsden, FL) communities. Analysis of preliminary data from Phase I reveal 60% in Gadsden and 39% in Roxbury respondents self-reported having hypertension. In Gadsden 80% people did not know if their residence contained lead paint, compared to 45% in Roxbury. In Gadsden County, 58% of respondents reporte...

  16. African American Students' Attitudes toward Entrepreneurship Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Fred O.; Panigrahi, Bhagaban; Calcich, Stephen E.

    1998-01-01

    A survey of 171 African-American students found that 72% came from nonentrepreneurial family backgrounds; only 24.5% intended to start their own businesses, there were no gender differences in entrepreneurship attitudes, and seniors and those from entrepreneurial backgrounds were more favorable toward entrepreneurship. (SK)

  17. African American College Women's Suicide Buffers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Michelle S.; Range, Lillian M.

    2003-01-01

    To examine the relationships buffers may have with suicide ideation, 300 African American female college students completed measures of suicide ideation and buffers. Three variables accounted for a significant and unique portion of the variance in suicide ideation: family support, a view that suicide is unacceptable, and a collaborative religious…

  18. Legacy of a Pioneer African American Educator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazers, Gunars; Curtner-Smith, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose was to reconstruct the historical and legendary contribution of one exemplary African American physical education teacher educator who lived and worked in the Deep South prior to and immediately following the 1954 Brown v. Board of Education court case. The following questions guided data collection and analysis: To what…

  19. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  20. Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPEC-O (Education in Palliative and End-of-Life Care for Oncology) Self-Study: Cultural Considerations When Caring for African Americans is a free comprehensive multimedia curricula for health professionals caring for persons with cancer and their families.

  1. African American Vernacular English and Rap Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡波

    2015-01-01

    African American Vernacular English (AAVE) is the language spoken by almost 20 milion speakers al over the world. It is also used frequently in rap lyrics. Studying the origin and grammar rules of AAVE is a very important topic in today's English Language and English Teaching Studies.

  2. Educational Resilience in African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Michael; Swanson, Dena Phillips

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to examine factors within the school context that facilitates educational resilience among African American high school students. The authors expected academic self-esteem to be positively associated with future expectations (academic and general). They expected perceptions of school-based social support to have…

  3. Saying Grace: Praying over the Loss of African-American Religious and Food Culture (and How They Are Related)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, Mary

    2008-01-01

    This article investigates the joint losses of food and religious culture in the African-American community, which has had a significant impact on the African-American community. Beginning with a historical perspective on the role of food in both a religious and cultural context, the article offers an analysis of why the dual losses have occurred,…

  4. Risk and Protective Factors for Alcohol and Marijuana Use among African-American Rural and Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Trenette T.; Nguyen, Anh B.; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine individual, family, peer, and community risk and protective factors associated with past-30-days alcohol and marijuana use among African-American adolescents living in rural and urban communities. This study used data collected from 907 tenth- and twelfth-grade African-American students who completed the…

  5. Intervention Mapping as a Participatory Approach to Developing an HIV Prevention Intervention in Rural African American Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Akers, Aletha; Blumenthal, Connie; Council, Barbara; Wynn, Mysha; Muhammad, Melvin; Stith, Doris

    2010-01-01

    Southeastern states are among the hardest hit by the HIV epidemic in this country, and racial disparities in HIV rates are high in this region. This is particularly true in our communities of interest in rural eastern North Carolina. Although most recent efforts to prevent HIV attempt to address multiple contributing factors, we have found few…

  6. The myth of meritocracy and African American health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwate, Naa Oyo A; Meyer, Ilan H

    2010-10-01

    Recent theoretical and empirical studies of the social determinants of health inequities have shown that economic deprivation, multiple levels of racism, and neighborhood context limit African American health chances and that African Americans' poor health status is predicated on unequal opportunity to achieve the American Dream. President Obama's election has been touted as a demonstration of American meritocracy-the belief that all may obtain the American Dream-and has instilled hope in African Americans. However, we argue that in the context of racism and other barriers to success, meritocratic ideology may act as a negative health determinant for African Americans. PMID:20724679

  7. "Brothers Gonna Work It Out:" Understanding the Pedagogic Performance of African American Male Teachers Working with African American Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Anthony L.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from ethnographic data, this paper explores how African American male teachers working with African American male students performed their pedagogy. This paper highlights how teachers' understanding of African American males social and educational needs shaped their pedagogical performance. Interestingly however, teachers' performance was…

  8. An African-American family with dystonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschmann, Andreas; Xiao, Jianfeng; Bastian, Robert W; Searcy, Jill A; LeDoux, Mark S; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2011-08-01

    The genetic cause of late-onset focal and segmental dystonia remains unknown in most individuals. Recently, mutations in Thanatos-associated protein domain containing, apoptosis associated protein 1 (THAP1) have been described in DYT6 dystonia and associated with some cases of familial and sporadic late-onset dystonia in Caucasians. We are not aware of any previous descriptions of familial dystonia in African-Americans or reports of THAP1 mutations in African-Americans. Herein, we characterize an African-American (AA) kindred with late-onset primary dystonia, clinically and genetically. The clinical phenotype included cervical, laryngeal and hand-forearm dystonia. Symptoms were severe and disabling for several family members, whereas others only displayed mild signs. There were no accompanying motor or cognitive signs. In this kindred, age of onset ranged from 45 to 50 years and onset was frequently sudden, with symptoms developing within weeks or months. DYT1 was excluded as the cause of dystonia in this kindred. The entire genomic region of THAP1, including non-coding regions, was sequenced. We identified 13 sequence variants in THAP1, although none co-segregated with dystonia. A novel THAP1 variant (c.-237-3G>T/A) was found in 3/84 AA dystonia patient alleles and 3/212 AA control alleles, but not in 5870 Caucasian alleles. In summary, although previously unreported, familial primary dystonia does occur in African-Americans. Genetic analysis of the entire genomic region of THAP1 revealed a novel variant that was specific for African-Americans. Therefore, genetic testing for dystonia and future studies of candidate genes must take genetic background into consideration. PMID:21601506

  9. H.U.B city steps: methods and early findings from a community-based participatory research trial to reduce blood pressure among african americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molaison Elaine

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Community-based participatory research (CBPR has been recognized as an important approach to develop and execute health interventions among marginalized populations, and a key strategy to translate research into practice to help reduce health disparities. Despite growing interest in the CBPR approach, CBPR initiatives rarely use experimental or other rigorous research designs to evaluate health outcomes. This behavioral study describes the conceptual frameworks, methods, and early findings related to the reach, adoption, implementation, and effectiveness on primary blood pressure outcomes. Methods The CBPR, social support, and motivational interviewing frameworks are applied to test treatment effects of a two-phased CBPR walking intervention, including a 6-month active intervention quasi experimental phase and 12-month maintenance randomized controlled trial phase to test dose effects of motivational interviewing. A community advisory board helped develop and execute the culturally-appropriate intervention components which included social support walking groups led by peer coaches, pedometer diary self-monitoring, monthly diet and physical activity education sessions, and individualized motivational interviewing sessions. Although the study is on-going, three month data is available and reported. Analyses include descriptive statistics and paired t tests. Results Of 269 enrolled participants, most were African American (94% females (85% with a mean age of 43.8 (SD = 12.1 years. Across the 3 months, 90% of all possible pedometer diaries were submitted. Attendance at the monthly education sessions was approximately 33%. At the 3-month follow-up 227 (84% participants were retained. From baseline to 3-months, systolic BP [126.0 (SD = 19.1 to 120.3 (SD = 17.9 mmHg; p Conclusions This CBPR study highlights implementation factors and signifies the community's active participation in the development and execution of this study. Reach

  10. Smoking Cessation Intervention Preferences Among Urban African Americans: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Cathy J; Palmer, Sheena D; Lee, Chia-Wen Vianne

    2016-06-01

    African Americans suffer disproportionately from smoking-related morbidity and mortality and make more quit attempts but report less success in quitting. Smokers tend to identify more strongly with African American culture. Qualitative interviews were conducted to elicit perceptions toward smoking and intervention content. Seventy-one African American smokers recruited from community locations participated. The majority stated they would not use any cessation aids if trying to quit smoking, despite the availability of free nicotine replacement. Acculturative stress scores were significantly higher in younger participants and those with higher income. Higher African American acculturation did not predict smoking cessation intervention preference. Family and social relationships were cited as both reasons for wanting to quit and reasons for continuing to smoke. Based on these findings, interventions for urban African Americans should address household members continuing to smoke, social/family connections, stress management, and cultural identification in urban areas. PMID:26809884

  11. The landscape of recombination in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Anjali G Hinch; Tandon, Arti; Patterson, Nick; Song, Yunli; Rohland, Nadin; Palmer, Cameron D; Chen, Gary K.; Wang, Kai; Buxbaum, Sarah G.; Akylbekova, Meggie; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Amos, Christopher; Bandera, Elisa V.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Recombination, together with mutation, is the ultimate source of genetic variation in populations. We leverage the recent mixture of people of African and European ancestry in the Americas to build a genetic map measuring the probability of crossing-over at each position in the genome, based on about 2.1 million crossovers in 30,000 unrelated African Americans. At intervals of more than three megabases it is nearly identical to a map built in Europeans. At finer scales it differs significantl...

  12. "Give a Brotha a Break!": The Experiences and Dilemmas of Middle-Class African American Male Students in White Suburban Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Beverly M.

    2012-01-01

    Background/Context: Today, in the era of the first African American president, approximately one third of all African Americans live in suburban communities, and their children are attending suburban schools. Although most research on the education of African American students, particularly males, focuses on their plight in urban schooling, what…

  13. Lactose intolerance and health disparities among African Americans and Hispanic Americans: an updated consensus statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Rahn K; Fileti, Cecelia Pozo; Keith, Jeanette; Tropez-Sims, Susanne; Price, Winston; Allison-Ottey, Sharon Denise

    2013-01-01

    Dairy foods contribute nine essential nutrients to the diet including calcium, potassium and vitamin D; nutrients identified by the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans as being "of public health concern" within the U.S. population. Milk and milk product intake is associated with better diet quality and has been associated with a reduced risk of chronic diseases or conditions including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, Type 2 Diabetes and osteoporosis. Some research also indicates dairy food intake may be linked to reduced body fat, when accompanied by energy-restriction. On average, both African Americans and Hispanic Americans consume less than the recommended levels of dairy foods, and perceived or actual lactose intolerance can be a primary reason for limiting or avoiding dairy intake. True lactose intolerance prevalence is not known because healthcare providers do not routinely measure for it, and no standardized assessment method exists. Avoiding dairy may lead to shortfalls of essential nutrients and increased susceptibility to chronic disease. This updated Consensus Statement aims to provide the most current information about lactose intolerance and health, with specific relevance to the African American and Hispanic American communities. Topics covered include diagnostic considerations, actual and recommended dairy food intake and levels of consumption of key dairy nutrients among African Americans and Hispanic Americans; prevalence of self-reported lactose intolerance among various racial/ethnic groups; the association between dairy food intake, lactose intolerance and chronic disease; and research-based management recommendations for those with lactose intolerance. PMID:24079212

  14. Racial Respect and Racial Socialization as Protective Factors for African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGruy, Joy; Kjellstrand, Jean M.; Briggs, Harold E.; Brennan, Eileen M.

    2012-01-01

    African American adolescents must negotiate the transition to adulthood in a society that makes the achievement of positive cultural identity and self-respect difficult. Frequently, young men turn to violence in an attempt to achieve respect in their communities. This article explores factors that predict the use of violence among African American…

  15. "Just Piles of Rocks to Developers but Places of Worship to Native Americans" - Exploring the Significance of Earth Jurisprudence for South African Cultural Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matome M Ratiba

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the years cultural communities across the world have borne witness to many unending attempts at the destruction of their places of worship. This endemic problem has arisen in a number of places, such as in the USA and in most of the world's former colonies. Having been colonised, South African cultural communities have experienced the same threats to their various sacred sites. This article seeks to argue and demonstrate that cultural communities in South Africa stand to benefit from the properly construed and rich earth jurisprudence arising out of the courtroom experiences of some of the cultural communities identified elsewhere in the world. It also proposes several arguments peculiar to South Africa which could be advanced by cultural communities seeking to protect their sacred lands.

  16. Defensive Localism in White and Black: A Comparative History of European-American and African-American Youth Gangs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, Christopher

    2000-01-01

    Compares European American and African American youth gangs in four historical periods (seaboard, immigrant, racially changing, and hypersegregated cities), showing that differences can be traced to race-specific effects of labor, housing, and consumer markets, government policies, local politics, and organized crime on their communities.…

  17. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Schneck

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  18. Online Health Information and Low-Literacy African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Birru, Mehret S; Steinman, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    African Americans with low incomes and low literacy levels disproportionately suffer poor health outcomes from many preventable diseases. Low functional literacy and low health literacy impede millions of Americans from successfully accessing health information. These problems are compounded for African Americans by cultural insensitivity in health materials. The Internet could become a useful tool for providing accessible health information to low-literacy and low-income African Americans. O...

  19. The Reflection of Race and Law in African American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Schneck

    2008-01-01

    Since the law has been crucial in defining and delineating the dimensions of African American experience both in slavery and in freedom, the encounter with the American legal system and its representatives has left a strong imprint on African American cultural and literary memory and expression. The article sketches out a few aspects and features which characterize the reflection of law and race in African American culture and literature.

  20. Experiences and Learning Needs of African American Family Dementia Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Zoe Blake; Parker, Monica; Dye, Clinton; Hepburn, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Dementia family caregivers display significant rates of psychological and physical symptoms. African Americans (AAs) are disproportionately affected by dementia. African American caregivers display unique patterns of symptomology and responses to interventions designed to promote caregiver well-being. This study analyzed qualitative focus group data from 32 AA caregivers to explore how issues of race and culture may be incorporated into a culturally sensitive intervention for AA dementia family caregivers. Caregivers were asked scripted questions about their caregiving experiences and to suggest alterations to an existing psychoeducation program. Analysis revealed 4 key themes: the tradition of family care, caregiving and caregiving issues, culturally appropriate care, and navigating without a map. Suggestions for an educational program included a focus on developing caregiver skills and knowledge for caregiving, promotion of self-care, and reflection on the AA family and community as resources for care. PMID:26953236

  1. SUBJECTIVE MEMORY IN OLDER AFRICAN AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Whitfield, Keith E.; Ayotte, Brian J.; Gamaldo, Alyssa A.; Edwards, Christopher L.; Allaire, Jason C.

    2011-01-01

    The current analysis examined (a) if measures of psychological well-being predict subjective memory, and (b) if subjective memory is consistent with actual memory. Five hundred seventy-nine older African Americans from the Baltimore Study of Black Aging completed measures assessing subjective memory, depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, locus of control, and verbal and working memory. Higher levels of perceived stress and greater externalized locus of control predicted poorer subjecti...

  2. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Mehari, Alem; Afreen, Samina; Ngwa, Julius; Setse, Rosanna; Thomas, Alicia N.; Poddar, Vishal; Davis, Wayne; Polk, Octavius D.; Hassan, Sheik; Thomas, Alvin V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Obesity prevalence in United States (US) adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs). However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA). Objective To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have...

  3. Treatment disparities among African American men with depression: implications for clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankerson, Sidney H; Suite, Derek; Bailey, Rahn K

    2015-02-01

    A decade has passed since the National Institute of Mental Health initiated its landmark Real Men Real Depression public education campaign. Despite increased awareness, depressed African American men continue to underutilize mental health treatment and have the highest all-cause mortality rates of any racial/ethnic group in the United States. We review a complex array of socio-cultural factors, including racism and discrimination, cultural mistrust, misdiagnosis and clinician bias, and informal support networks that contribute to treatment disparities. We identify clinical and community entry points to engage African American men. We provide specific recommendations for frontline mental health workers to increase depression treatment utilization for African American men. Providers who present treatment options within a frame of holistic health promotion may enhance treatment adherence. We encourage the use of multidisciplinary, community-based participatory research approaches to test our hypotheses and engage African American men in clinical research. PMID:25702724

  4. A community-integrated home based depression intervention for older African Americans: descripton of the Beat the Blues randomized trial and intervention costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitlin Laura N

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary care is the principle setting for depression treatment; yet many older African Americans in the United States fail to report depressive symptoms or receive the recommended standard of care. Older African Americans are at high risk for depression due to elevated rates of chronic illness, disability and socioeconomic distress. There is an urgent need to develop and test new depression treatments that resonate with minority populations that are hard-to-reach and underserved and to evaluate their cost and cost-effectiveness. Methods/Design Beat the Blues (BTB is a single-blind parallel randomized trial to assess efficacy of a non-pharmacological intervention to reduce depressive symptoms and improve quality of life in 208 African Americans 55+ years old. It involves a collaboration with a senior center whose care management staff screen for depressive symptoms (telephone or in-person using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9. Individuals screened positive (PHQ-9 ≥ 5 on two separate occasions over 2 weeks are referred to local mental health resources and BTB. Interested and eligible participants who consent receive a baseline home interview and then are randomly assigned to receive BTB immediately or 4 months later (wait-list control. All participants are interviewed at 4 (main study endpoint and 8 months at home by assessors masked to study assignment. Licensed senior center social workers trained in BTB meet with participants at home for up to 10 sessions over 4 months to assess care needs, make referrals/linkages, provide depression education, instruct in stress reduction techniques, and use behavioral activation to identify goals and steps to achieve them. Key outcomes include reduced depressive symptoms (primary, reduced anxiety and functional disability, improved quality of life, and enhanced depression knowledge and behavioral activation (secondary. Fidelity is enhanced through procedure manuals and staff

  5. Word on the Street: Engaging Local Leaders in a Dialogue About Prostate Cancer Among African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Elinor R; Francis, Linda E

    2016-09-01

    African American men face the highest rates of prostate cancer, yet with no consensus for screening and treatment, making informed health care decisions is difficult. This study aimed to identify approaches to empowering African American men as proactive participants in prostate cancer decision making using an established community-campus partnership employing elements of community-based participatory research methods. Community stakeholders with an interest in, and knowledge about, health care in two local African American communities were recruited and completed key informant interviews (N = 39). Grounded theory coding identified common themes related to prostate cancer knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and responses to them. Common barriers such as gender roles, fear, and fatalism were identified as barriers to work-up and treatment, and both communities' inadequate and inaccurate prostate cancer information described as the key problem. To build on community strengths, participants said the change must come from inside these communities, not be imposed from the outside. To accomplish this, they suggested reaching men through women, connecting men to doctors they can trust, making men's cancer education part of broader health education initiatives designed as fun and inexpensive family entertainment events, and having churches bring community members in to speak on their experiences with cancer. This study demonstrated the success of community engagement to identify not only barriers but also local strengths and facilitators to prostate cancer care in two suburban/rural African American communities. Building collaboratively on community strengths may improve prostate cancer care specifically and health care in general. PMID:25595017

  6. A Cancer Center’s Approach to Engaging African American Men About Cancer: The Men’s Fellowship Breakfast, Southeastern Michigan, 2008–2014

    OpenAIRE

    Langford, Aisha T.; Griffith, Derek M.; Beasley, Derrick D.; Braxton, Effat Id-Deen

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite disproportionate rates of cancer morbidity and mortality among African American men, few community-based efforts have been developed and sustained to educate African American men about cancer. The University of Michigan Comprehensive Cancer Center implemented a series of breakfasts to improve cancer awareness, screening, and education among African American men. This article describes the rationale for and history of the community intervention. Community Context The 21 brea...

  7. Predictors of serum testosterone and DHEAS in African-American men

    OpenAIRE

    Haren, Matthew T.; Banks, William A.; Perry, H.M.; Patrick, Ping; Malmstrom, Theodore K.; Miller, Douglas K.; Morley, John E.

    2008-01-01

    There are few reported data on biochemical and functional correlates of androgen levels in African-American men. This study aimed at reporting physical and biochemical correlates of serum total testosterone (total T), bioavailable testosterone (BT) and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulphate (DHEAS) levels in community-dwelling, African-American men aged 50–65 years. Home-based physical examinations and health status questionnaires were administered to randomly sampled men. Body composition (dual-ene...

  8. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-01-01

    A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congre...

  9. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women

    OpenAIRE

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins‐Jackson, Paris B.; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non‐Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to e...

  10. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    OpenAIRE

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-01-01

    Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seem...

  11. Phonological Awareness Skills in Young African American English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitri, Souraya Mansour; Terry, Nicole Patton

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine African American children's performance on a phonological awareness task that included items reflecting differences between African American English (AAE) and mainstream American English. The relationship between spoken production of AAE forms and performance on phonological awareness, vocabulary, and…

  12. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission among heterosexual African-American men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Ronald J

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As part of qualitative research for developing a culturally sensitive and developmentally appropriate videotape-based HIV prevention intervention for heterosexual African- American men, six focus groups were conducted with thirty African-American men to determine their perceptions of AIDS as a threat to the African-American community, characteristics of past situations that have placed African Americans at risk for HIV infection, their personal high risk behaviors, and suggestions on how HIV intervention videotapes could be produced to achieve maximum levels of interest among African-American men in HIV training programs. Methods The groups took place at a low-income housing project in Houston, Texas, a major epicenter for HIV/AIDS. Each group was audiotaped, transcribed, and analyzed using theme and domain analysis. Results The results revealed that low-income African-American men perceive HIV/AIDS as a threat to their community and they have placed themselves at risk of HIV infection based on unsafe sex practices, substance abuse, and lack of knowledge. They also cite lack of income to purchase condoms as a barrier to safe sex practice. They believe that HIV training programs should address these risk factors and that videotapes developed for prevention should offer a sensationalized look at the effects of HIV/AIDS on affected persons. They further believe that programs should be held in African-American communities and should include condoms to facilitate reduction of risk behaviors. Conclusions The results indicate that the respondents taking part in this study believe that HIV and AIDS are continued threats to the African-American community because of sexual risk taking behavior, that is, failure to use condoms. Further, African-American men are having sex without condoms when having sex with women often when they are under the influence of alcohol or other mind-altering substances and they are having sex with men while

  13. The college life experiences of African American women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, R M; Kuperminc, G P; Damas, A

    1997-10-01

    The present study provides a descriptive analysis of four areas of African American women student athletes' college life experiences: academic performance; alienation and abuse; perceived social advantage as the result of athletics; and life satisfaction. Multivariate comparisons were made between the four areas of college life experiences of 154 African American women student athletes and 793 White women student athletes, 250 African American women nonathletes, and 628 African American men student athletes from a national sample of 39 NCAA Division I universities. Overall, African American women student athletes are performing adequately academically, integrating socially within the university, perceiving some social advantage as the result of being athletes, and are fairly satisfied with their life. Their experiences seem most consistent with African American women nonathletes. Results are discussed in the context of potential policy recommendations as well as the need for more research on this particular population. PMID:9485580

  14. Reconsidering the Relationship between Race and Crime: Positive and Negative Predictors of Crime among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Entner Wright, Bradley R.; Younts, C. Wesley

    2009-01-01

    Studies of race and crime have emphasized the effects of social disadvantage and discrimination on increasing crime among African Americans. The authors extend this literature by examining various beliefs and institutions that have developed within African American communities that, in contrast, decrease criminal behavior. A model of…

  15. Liver Transplantation Outcomes Among Caucasians, Asian Americans, and African Americans with Hepatitis B

    OpenAIRE

    Bzowej, Natalie; Han, Steven; Degertekin, Bulent; Keeffe, Emmet B.; Emre, Sukru; Brown, Robert; Reddy, Rajender; Lok, Anna S

    2009-01-01

    Several previous studies found that Asians transplanted for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection had worse post-transplant outcomes than Caucasians. Data on post-transplant outcomes of African Americans and waitlist outcomes of Asian Americans and African Americans with hepatitis B are scant. The aim of this study was to compare waitlist and post-transplant outcomes among Asian Americans, African Americans, and Caucasians who had HBV-related liver disease. Data from a retrospective-prospective s...

  16. Reading the (In)visible Race: African-American Subject Representation and Formation in American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hollingsworth, Lauren Colleen

    2010-01-01

    This project began with the intention to examine the connection between the aesthetic and the political in American literature's construction of African-American subjectivity, or the relationship between resistance and representation in literary portrayals of the African-American subject. I was specifically interested in the moments in American literature where the convergence between aesthetic form and political practice creates a particular crisis in representation for African-American subj...

  17. Transgenerational Consequences of Racial Discrimination for African American Health

    OpenAIRE

    Goosby, Bridget J.; Heidbrink, Chelsea

    2013-01-01

    Disparities in African American health remain pervasive and persist transgenerationally. There is a growing consensus that both structural and interpersonal racial discrimination are key mechanisms affecting African American health. The Biopsychosocial Model of Racism as a Stressor posits that the persistent stress of experiencing discrimination take a physical toll on the health of African Americans and is ultimately manifested in the onset of illness. However, the degree to which the health...

  18. Family Support and Colorectal Cancer Screening among Urban African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Brittain, Kelly; Taylor, Jacquelyn Y.; Loveland-Cherry, Carol; Northouse, Laurel; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2012-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third leading cause of cancer death among African Americans. Less than 50% of African Americans have had CRC screening. This study examined the relationships between family support and influence, cultural identity, CRC beliefs, and a screening informed decision among 129 urban African Americans. Family support (p < .01) significantly predicted CRC beliefs and CRC beliefs significantly predicted informed decision (p < .01). Based on study results, practitioners s...

  19. African Americans, hypertension and the renin angiotensin system.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, SF; Nicholas, SB; Vaziri, ND; Norris, KC

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system (RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovas...

  20. Mild test anxiety influences neurocognitive performance among African Americans and European Americans: Identifying interfering and facilitating sources

    OpenAIRE

    Thames, AD; Panos, SE; Arentoft, A; Byrd, DA; Hinkin, CH; Arbid, N

    2015-01-01

    © 2014 American Psychological Association. The current study examined ethnic/racial differences in test-related anxiety and its relationship to neurocognitive performance in a community sample of African American (n = 40) and European American (n = 36) adults. The authors hypothesized the following: (a) Test-anxiety related to negative performance evaluation would be associated with lower neurocognitive performance, whereas anxiety unrelated to negative evaluation would be associated with hig...

  1. Don't Believe the Hype. Fighting Cultural Misinformation about African-Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chideya, Farai

    This book is designed to give readers enough information to question the depictions of blacks that have become standard in newspapers and television and radio news. Chapter-by-chapter, it provides facts about the African-American community that often run counter to prevailing ideas. Americans of different races still tend not to live together or…

  2. Young Adult, Rural, African American Stimulant Users: Antecedents and Vulnerabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Teresa L.; Han, Xiaotong; Booth, Brenda M.

    2009-01-01

    Early initiation of substance use appears to be an alarming trend among rural minorities. This study focuses on 18–21 year old African American stimulant users in the Arkansas Mississippi Delta. Most participants had no high school diploma and were unemployed; 74.5% had already been arrested. Substance use was initiated early, and nearly all of the men and three quarters of the women already met criteria for lifetime abuse or dependence. Only 18% reported they had ever received substance abuse treatment. The results suggest that substance use interventions in rural communities will require multi-faceted strategies addressing economic, educational and healthcare disparities. PMID:20098663

  3. Exploring resiliency factors of older African American Katrina survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Cecilia L

    2012-01-01

    Through this qualitative study the author explores the resiliency processes demonstrated by older African American Hurricane Katrina survivors who relocated in the aftermath of the storm and were consequently faced with difficult challenges. In-depth interviews were used to assess the multidimensional characteristics of resiliency that enabled these older adults to deal with adversity. These findings highlight distinct processes reflecting resiliency: (a) Trusting in a higher power, and the importance of (b) living in the present, (c) activating resources, (d) creating community, and (e) doing for others. The author concludes this study with suggestions on how these findings may inform social work practice with older adults. PMID:22830937

  4. African-American sexuality and HIV/AIDS: recommendations for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Gail E; Williams, John K; Myers, Hector F

    2008-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to create a significant health crisis in African-American communities and health disparities within the United States. Understanding African-American sexuality within a culturally congruent and ethnocentric approach is critical to decreasing the HIV infection and transmission rates for African Americans. This brief discusses two major factors: 1) confusion about race-based stereotypes; and 2) historical health disparities and mistrust, which have influenced our understanding of African-American sexuality despite that fact that very little research has been conducted in this area. This paper discusses the limitations of what is known and makes recommendations for research surrounding sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Research trainings for new and established investigators and collaborations among health, community, religious, political organizations, and historically black colleges and universities are needed to disseminate relevant HIV prevention messages. Conducting research to better understand African-American sexuality will facilitate the development of behavioral interventions that address health, HIV and mental health risk reduction within the context of African-American life. PMID:18277807

  5. DETERMINANTS OF FOOD AWAY FROM HOME AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICANS

    OpenAIRE

    Pert, Calvert; Bhuyan, Sanjib

    2007-01-01

    The prominence of FAFH on consumers food expenditure raises some important questions, particularly those related to the health impact of such a trend. This is particularly true among African-Americans because on average African Americans are twice as likely as white Americans to develop Type 2 diabetes, which has been known to have some correlation with ones diet. There is a plethora of studies focusing on FAFH by American consumers. However, there are very few studies that focus exclusively ...

  6. “We as Drug Addicts Need that Program”: Insight from Rural African American Cocaine Users on Designing a Sexual Risk Reduction Intervention for Their Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Brooke E. E.; Stewart, Katharine E.; Wright, Patricia B.; McSweeney, Jean; Booth, Brenda M.

    2013-01-01

    This focused ethnographic study examines data collected in 2007 from four gender- and age-specific focus groups (FGs) (N = 31) to inform the development of a sexual risk reduction intervention for African American cocaine users in rural Arkansas. A semi-structured protocol was used to guide audio-recorded FGs. Data were entered into Ethnograph and analyzed using constant comparison and content analysis. Four codes with accompanying factors emerged from the data and revealed recommendations for sexual risk reduction interventions with similar populations. Intervention design implications and challenges, study limitations, and future research are discussed. The study was supported by funds from the National Institute of Nursing Research (P20 NR009006-01) and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (1R01DA024575-01 and F31 DA026286-01). PMID:22216991

  7. Africans and Black Americans in the United States: Social Distance and Differential Acculturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emoungu, Paul-Albert

    1992-01-01

    Presents an exploratory examination of the causes of social distance characterizing the association between Africans and African Americans. African American's perceptions about Africa and Africans are assessed through anecdotes and impressions, and thoughts and criticisms of Africans about African Americans are considered. A social science…

  8. Examining Church Capacity to Develop and Disseminate a Religiously Appropriate HIV Tool Kit with African American Churches

    OpenAIRE

    Berkley-Patton, Jannette; Thompson, Carole Bowe; Martinez, David Alfonso; Hawes, Starlyn Montez; Moore, Erin; Williams, Eric; Wainright, Cassandra

    2012-01-01

    Increasingly, African American churches have been called upon to assist in efforts to address HIV/AIDS in underserved communities. African Americans churches may be well-positioned to provide HIV education, screening, and support services, particularly if they are equipped with church-appropriate, easy-to-deliver HIV tools that can be implemented through the naturalistic church environment. To inform the development of a church-based HIV tool kit, we examined church capacity with African Amer...

  9. It's All About Relationships: African-American and European-American Women's Hotel Management Careers

    OpenAIRE

    Farrar, Angela L.

    1996-01-01

    Among the 44000-plus general managers employed in United States' hotels in 1993, there were only 100 women, 15 African-Americans, and three African-American women. Additionally, less than 0.5 percent of corporate hospitality managers were women. Given this relative underrepresentation of European-American women and African-Americans, combined with the increasing diversity of hotel clientele and service p...

  10. Work Stress in the Family Life of African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broman, Clifford L.

    2001-01-01

    Investigated the link between job-related stressors and family life among African Americans. Data from African Americans who participated in the America's Changing Lives survey indicated that job latitude positively affected marital harmony, and physical demands negatively affected marital harmony. Psychosocial demands, job bother, and chronic…

  11. Social Achievement Goals: Validation among Rural African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Martin H.; Mueller, Christian E.; Royal, Kenneth D.; Shim, Sungok Serena; Hart, Caroline O.

    2013-01-01

    Little extant research attempts to understand why rural African Americans engage in social relationships with peers in school. This is somewhat surprising as rural students' peer interactions often affect their scholastic desires, and peers can alter African Americans' academic performance. Hence, the current study examined both the…

  12. Interaction of African American Learners Online: An Adult Education Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Haijun; Yang, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This study examines how various life factors and personal attributes affect African American adult learners' use of the three types of learning interaction-learner-content, learner-instructor, and learner-learner. Multivariate multiple regression analyses were used. The aggregate effect of life factors on African American adult learners' use of…

  13. Counseling Groups for African American Women: A Focus on Spirituality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Carmen Braun; Frame, Marsha Wiggins; Green, Evelyn

    1999-01-01

    Explains cultural and spiritual traditions within African American women's experience that form the foundation for group counseling strategies. Reviews literature regarding African American women's experience in groups. Explains group interventions such as art, music, dance, imagery, journaling, and rituals that can help transcend, empower, and…

  14. African Americans Respond Poorly to Hepatitis C Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    African Americans have a significantly lower response rate to treatment for chronic hepatitis C than non-Hispanic Whites, according to a new study led by Duke University Medical Center researchers. Some African Americans--19 percent--did respond to the drug combination of peginterferon alfa-2b and ribavirin. But in non-Hispanic Whites with the…

  15. 78 FR 34241 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-06

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-13643 Filed 6-5-13; 11:15 am] Billing code 3295-F3 ... June 6, 2013 Part III The President Proclamation 8992--African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013... May 31, 2013 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2013 By the President of the United States...

  16. Asthma Management Disparities: A Photovoice Investigation with African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans-Agnew, Robin

    2016-01-01

    Disparities in asthma management are a burden on African American youth. The objective of this study is to describe and compare the discourses of asthma management disparities (AMDs) in African American adolescents in Seattle to existing youth-related asthma policies in Washington State. Adolescents participated in a three-session photovoice…

  17. Teaching Experiences of African American Educators in the Rural South

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidore, Ellene; Edmonson, Stacey L.; Slate, John R.

    2010-01-01

    A scarcity of research exists regarding the voices of African American teachers who taught in the rural South. In this study, we report the life experiences, perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of three female African American educators as they pertain to their experiences teaching before, during, and after desegregation. Three female African…

  18. Perspectives of African Americans on Lung Cancer: A Qualitative Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lathan, Christopher S.; Waldman, Laura Tesler; Browning, Emily; Gagne, Joshua; Emmons, Karen

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study suggests that African American smokers are aware of the relationship between smoking and lung cancer and are interested in smoking-cessation treatment. These data also indicate that lung cancer disparities are unlikely to be associated with differential willingness to receive care but that African Americans may perceive financial and insurance barriers to lung cancer treatment.

  19. Language Learning and Use by African American Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battle, Dolores E.

    1996-01-01

    This article reviews recent investigations of the development of phonology, morphology, semantics, and pragmatics in the development of speech and language by African American children. Clinical implications are offered to aid the distinction between normal language development using features of African American English and language disorders.…

  20. African American Youth Unemployment: Current Trends and Future Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Herbert M.

    1990-01-01

    Examines African American employment trends compared with increases or decreases in economic growth and Federal welfare spending during the 1970s and 1980s, focusing primarily on unemployment and labor force participation rates among African American youth. Studies the impact of structural unemployment, racial discrimination, and immigration on…

  1. African American English: Implications for School Counseling Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Vines, Norma L.; Barto, Heather H.; Booker, Beverly L.; Smith, Kim V.; Barna, Jennifer; Maiden, Brian S.; Zegley, Linda; Felder, Monique T.

    2009-01-01

    African American English (AAE) refers to the systematic, rule-governed linguistic patterns of found among African Americans. This article provides an overview of AAE. More specifically, the article enumerates the historical underpinnings associated with AAE, identifies a representative set of AAE characteristics, reviews relevant research, and…

  2. Academic Achievement and the Third Grade African American Male

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shropshire, Delia F. B.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine to what extent teaching style relates to third grade African American male academic achievement. The problem in this study addressed the factors affecting the academic achievement of the African American third grade male. This problem led the researcher to investigate the teaching styles of the…

  3. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  4. Perceived Racism and Encouragement among African American Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowles, Joanna; Duan, Changming

    2012-01-01

    Racial discrimination has negatively affected African Americans in the United States for centuries and produced one of the most publicly recognized histories of social oppression. Extensive research has shown the deleterious effects of racism on African American people and clearly demonstrated that perceived racism and discrimination may…

  5. African Americans Who Teach German Language and Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fikes, Robert Jr.

    2001-01-01

    A large number of black scholars have pursued advanced degrees in the German language, history, and culture. Describes the history of African American interest in the German language and culture, highlighting various black scholars who have studied German over the years. Presents data on African Americans in German graduate programs and examines…

  6. African American Homeschooling and the Question of Curricular Cultural Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2013-01-01

    Homeschooling, and academic interest in this phenomenon, have increased tremendously over the last decade. The surge of African American involvement in the homeschool movement has also become noticeable. However, there continues to be a general paucity of research on the motivations of African American parents that choose homeschooling. In order…

  7. 20 African-Americans Your Students Should Meet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardeen, Tara

    2008-01-01

    There is more to Black History Month than honoring Martin Luther King Jr. Black History Month is a time to honor the significant contributions of African-Americans throughout history. This article presents 20 super-achievers new generation of African-Americans heroes students should meet: (1) Kimberly Oliver; (2) John Lewis; (3) Rita Dove; (4)…

  8. Gendered Resource Returns: African American Institutions and Political Engagement

    OpenAIRE

    Robnett, Belinda

    2007-01-01

    While numerous studies discuss the importance of black churches and race-based organizations to African American political participation, few of them systematically analyze the gendered nature of such engagement. Employing data from the 1994 National Black Politics Survey, this study compares the influence of church-based activities and race-based organizational participation on African American men’s and women’s electoral and non-electoral political participation, and finds that 1) African ...

  9. African Americans,hypertension and the renin angiotensin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sandra; F; Williams; Susanne; B; Nicholas; Nosratola; D; Vaziri; Keith; C; Norris

    2014-01-01

    African Americans have exceptionally high rates of hypertension and hypertension related complications. It is commonly reported that the blood pressure lowering efficacy of renin angiotensin system(RAS) inhibitors is attenuated in African Americans due to a greater likelihood of having a low renin profile. Therefore these agents are often not recommended as initial therapy in African Americans with hypertension. However, the high prevalence of comorbid conditions, such as diabetes, cardiovascular and chronic kidney disease makes treatment with RAS inhibitors more compelling. Despite lower circulating renin levels and a less significant fall in blood pressure in response to RAS inhibitors in African Americans, numerous clinical trials support the efficacy of RAS inhibitors to improve clinical outcomes in this population, especially in those with hypertension and risk factors for cardiovascular and related diseases. Here, we discuss the rationale of RAS blockade as part of a comprehensive approach to attenuate the high rates of premature morbidity and mortality associated with hypertension among African Americans.

  10. Chronic Pain in Older African American Grandparent Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Staja Q

    2016-06-01

    African American grandparent caregiving is increasing, and evidence shows that grandparent caregiving influences health and its management. As older adults age, their potential of experiencing chronic pain increases, and this is profound given that physiological research shows that African Americans, aside from aging, may have a predisposition for developing chronic pain. Research shows older African Americans experience significant chronic pain, but few have discussed the implications of managing chronic pain in older African Americans who have added parental responsibility. Many older African Americans receive home healthcare services and there is a unique role for home healthcare clinicians in caring for this vulnerable population. This article discusses the impact of pain on caregiving, challenges in pain management, and practice and policy implications to assist home healthcare clinicians maintain the safety and protection of both the older grandparent and grandchildren. PMID:27243429

  11. Tenancy and African American Marriage in the Postbellum South.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloome, Deirdre; Muller, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    The pervasiveness of tenancy in the postbellum South had countervailing effects on marriage between African Americans. Tenancy placed severe constraints on African American women's ability to find independent agricultural work. Freedwomen confronted not only planters' reluctance to contract directly with women but also whites' refusal to sell land to African Americans. Marriage consequently became one of African American women's few viable routes into the agricultural labor market. We find that the more counties relied on tenant farming, the more common was marriage among their youngest and oldest African American residents. However, many freedwomen resented their subordinate status within tenant marriages. Thus, we find that tenancy contributed to union dissolution as well as union formation among freedpeople. Microdata tracing individuals' marital transitions are consistent with these county-level results. PMID:26223562

  12. African American Participation in Oncology Clinical Trials-Focus on Prostate Cancer: Implications, Barriers, and Potential Solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaghotu, Chiledum; Tyler, Robert; Sartor, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In the United States, the incidence and mortality rates of many cancers, especially prostate cancer, are disproportionately high among African American men compared with Caucasian men. Recently, mortality rates for prostate cancer have declined more rapidly in African American versus Caucasian men, but prostate cancer is still the most common cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths in African American men in the United States. Compared with Caucasian men, prostate cancer occurs at younger ages, has a higher stage at diagnosis, and is more likely to progress after definitive treatments in African American men. Reasons for racial discrepancies in cancer are multifactorial and potentially include socioeconomic, cultural, nutritional, and biologic elements. In addition to improving access to novel therapies, clinical trial participation is essential to adequately establish the risks and benefits of treatments in African American populations. Considering the disproportionately high mortality rates noted in these groups, our understanding of the natural history and responses to therapies is limited. This review will explore African American underrepresentation in clinical trials with a focus on prostate cancer, and potentially effective strategies to engage African American communities in prostate cancer research. Solutions targeting physicians, investigators, the community, and health care systems are identified. Improvement of African American participation in prostate cancer clinical trials will benefit all stakeholders. PMID:26786562

  13. Conceptualizing the African American Mathematics Teacher as a Key Figure in the African American Education Historical Narrative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Lawrence M.; Jones Frank, Toya; Davis, Julius

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: Historians and researchers have documented and explored the work and role of African American teachers in the U.S. educational system, yet there has been limited attention to the specific work, role, and experiences of African American mathematics teachers. To meaningfully and responsibly conceptualize the role of African…

  14. Psychometric evaluations of the efficacy expectations and Outcome Expectations for Exercise Scales in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murrock, Carolyn J; Gary, Faye

    2014-01-01

    This secondary analysis tested the reliability and validity of the Self-Efficacy for Exercise (SEE) and the Outcome Expectations for Exercise (OEE) scales in 126 community dwelling, middle aged African American women. Social Cognitive Theory postulates self-efficacy is behavior age, gender and culture specific. Therefore, it is important to determine ifself-efficacy scales developed and tested in older Caucasian female adults are reliable and valid in middle aged, minority women. Cronbach's alpha and construct validity using hypothesis testing and confirmatory factor analysis supported the reliability and validity of the SEE and OEE scales in community dwelling, middle aged African American women. PMID:25612395

  15. The concrete jungle: city stress and substance abuse among young adult African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Puja; Murray, Colleen C; Braxton, Nikia D; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among African American men living in urban communities. The impact of substance use on the social, psychological, and physical health of African American men has important public health implications for families, communities, and society. Given the adverse consequences of alcohol and drug abuse within communities of color, this study evaluated the relationship between city stress, alcohol consumption, and drug use among African American men. Eighty heterosexual, African American men, 18 to 29 years old, completed psychosocial risk assessments that assessed substance use and city stress. Multiple logistic regression analyses, controlling for age, indicated that participants reporting high levels of urban stress, relative to low levels of urban stress, were more likely to report a history of marijuana use (AOR = 5.19, p = .05), history of ecstasy and/or GHB use (AOR = 3.34, p = .04), having family/friends expressing strong concerns about their illicit drug use (AOR = 4.06, p = .02), and being unable to remember what happened the night before due to drinking (AOR = 4.98, p = .01). African American men living within the confines of a stressful urban environment are at increased risk for exposure to and utilization of illicit substances. Culturally competent public health interventions for substance use/abuse should address psychological factors, such as stress and neighborhood violence. PMID:22739803

  16. Attachment Style Differences and Depression in African American and European American College Women: Normative Adaptations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Eileen L.; Garcia, Amber L.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined ethnic differences in attachment styles and depression among African American and European American college women. African American women reported less favorable views of others, which suggests that attachment styles emphasizing caution in relationships may be normative and adaptive for these women. There were no differences…

  17. Upstream Ecological Risks for Overweight and Obesity Among African American Youth in a Rural Town in the Deep South, 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Alison J Scott; Wilson, Rebecca F.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have focused on overweight and obesity among rural African American youth in the Deep South, despite disproportionately high rates in this group. In addition, few studies have been conducted to elucidate how these disparities are created and perpetuated within rural communities in this region. This descriptive study explores community-based risks for overweight and obesity among African American youth in a rural town in the Deep South. Methods We used ecological theor...

  18. Understanding African American Men’s Perceptions of Racism, Male Gender Socialization, and Social Capital Through Photovoice

    OpenAIRE

    Ornelas, India J.; Amell, Jim; Tran, Anh N.; Royster, Michael; Armstrong-Brown, Janelle; Eng, Eugenia

    2009-01-01

    In this study we used a participatory qualitative research approach—photovoice—to collect information about African American men’s perceptions of the factors that influenced their own health and the health of their communities. Photovoice was conducted as part of the “Men as Navigators (MAN) for Health” project, an evaluation of a male lay health advisor (LHA) intervention in central North Carolina. Twelve African American men living in both urban and rural communities took photographs and di...

  19. Nonabusive physical punishment and child behavior among African-American children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Ivor Braden; Joseph, Jill G.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The use of nonabusive physical punishment as a form of discipline has been greatly debated in the scientific and popular literature. Impact on child behavioral outcomes has frequently been found; however, the effects of its use are not clear, particularly for African-American children. This systematic review of the literature examined the impact of exposure to nonabusive physical punishment on the behavior of African-American children. METHODS: A search was conducted of PubMed and Psyclnfo from 1970 to 2000 using the key terms: corporal punishment, physical punishment, disciplinary practices, and discipline and parenting. Studies that described ethnicity of the population and included a majority of a well-described African-American population were included. Each study was required to include measurable data on child behavioral outcomes and at least one measure of discipline that assessed use of nonabusive physical punishment in children 0-14 years of age. RESULTS: All seven included studies used lower socioeconomic status (SES) and/or urban African-American populations. Study design and rural versus urban populations differentiated beneficial and detrimental outcomes. In all longitudinal studies, African-American children had beneficial or neutral outcomes. DISCUSSION: This review suggests that it is possible that there are benefits to nonabusive physical punishment for African-American children. However, needed are further longitudinal studies that better assess the multiple confounders that impact the use of discipline, such as SES, parental education level, and exposure to community or domestic violence. PMID:15481744

  20. Ready to die: a postmodern interpretation of the increase of African-American adolescent male suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Leigh A; Coombs, David W; Cockerham, William C; Frison, Sonja L

    2002-09-01

    African-Americans have typically registered lower rates of suicide than other ethnic groups. In the last 20 years this pattern has changed, particularly among young African-Americans between the ages of 15 and 19 (National Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Mortality Statistics, 1998, Atlanta, GA). Today, young African-American males are as likely to commit suicide as their White counterparts. To date, the research conducted regarding this phenomenon has been inconclusive and existing suicide interventions appear to have no effect on reducing this behavior among young African-Americans. This paper synthesizes classical (Durkheim, Suicide, 1979, Free Press, New York) and postmodern (Beck, Risk Society: Towards a New Modernity, 1992, Sage, London; Bauman, Modernity and Ambivalence, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 1991) social theories in order to provide a more complete theoretical explanation for the increase in the suicide rate among adolescent African-American males. Postmodern society is typified by: (1) institutional deconstruction; (2) decreased collectivism; (3) increased normlessness and helplessness; and (4) exacerbated personal risk for stress. It is therefore possible to hypothesize that postmodernity characteristically loosens the bonds between the individual and society, thereby increasing vulnerability to depression, related pathologies (such as substance abuse), and suicide. African-Americans tend to be more affected/vulnerable because they are concentrated in resource-poor, low income areas, and institutions that provided social support (family, religious, community) and protected individuals from societal risk factors, have gradually been dissolving in postmodern societies. We argue that young African-American males of today are more exposed to stressors which increase psychological distress thus increasing depression and related pathological behaviors such as suicide. The main reason behind this increase is found in the inability of

  1. Is Native American R Y-Chromosome of African Origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Clyde Winters

    2011-01-01

    Controversey surrounds the phylogeography and origin of the R haplotype among Native Americans. Some researchers have suggested that Europeans spread this haplotype among Native Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin of the R-M173 y-chromosome among Native Americans . It is the third most frequent y-chromosome possessed by Native Americans. Native Americans with the highest frequency of R-M173 haplotypes like the Ojibwa and Seminoles mated frequently with African mal...

  2. Dietary Fat Intake among Urban, African American Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Di NOIA, JENNIFER; Schinke, Steven P.; Contento, Isobel R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined commonly consumed high-fat food sources to estimate dietary fat intake among 314 urban, African American adolescents (mean age (SD) = 12.57 (.98) years; 66% female; 91% African American non-Hispanic; and 9% African American Hispanic). Youths’ fat intake was measured using the Block Fat Screener. Most (77%) participants had diets very high in fat (i.e., 40% to 50% of energy). Mean frequencies of consumption revealed youths’ preferences for the following high-fat food items:...

  3. Expecting the Unexpected: a Comparative Study of African-American Women's Experiences in Science during the High School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Sandra L.; Johnson, Elizabeth Palmer

    Data from the National Educational Longitudinal Study (NELS) for the years 1988 to 1992 are used to explore the science experiences of young African-American women during the high school years. The comparison groups we use in trying to understand these experiences involve White women (for a race contrast) and African-American men (for a gender contrast). Within the context of a critical feminist perspective, it is argued that gender is constructed in a different way in White and African-American communities. Instead of expecting a disadvantage for young African-American women because of their gender and minority statuses, it is suggested that unique gender ideologies and work-family arrangements in the African-American community give these young women the resources and agency that allow them to compete with their White female counterparts and their African-American male counterparts in the science domain. Results from our analyses of the NELS data confirm these expectations. We find that on a majority of science measures, African-American women do as well as - and sometimes better than - White women and African-American men. For example, there are no differences between African-American women and men on attitudes toward science. And when compared with White women, African-American women tend to have more positive attitudes. When disadvantages appear for these young African-American women, they are more likely to be race effects then gender effects. The minimal gender effects in the science experiences of young African-Americans is in contrast to the more frequent male advantage in the White sample. A careful examination of family and individual resources shows that African-American families compensate for disadvantages on some resources (e.g., family socioeconomic status) by providing young women with an excess of other resources (e.g., unique gender ideologies, work expectations, and maternal expectations and involvement). And, unlike White parents, they sometimes

  4. Digital Solutions for Informed Decision Making: An Academic-Community Partnership for the Development of a Prostate Cancer Decision Aid for African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Otis L; Friedman, Daniela B; Brandt, Heather M; Bernhardt, Jay M; Hébert, James R

    2016-05-01

    African American (AA) men are significantly more likely to die of prostate cancer (PrCA) than other racial groups, and there is a critical need to identify strategies for providing information about PrCA screening and the importance of informed decision making (IDM). To assess whether a computer-based IDM intervention for PrCA screening would be appropriate for AA men, this formative evaluation study examined their (1) PrCA risk and screening knowledge; (2) decision-making processes for PrCA screening; (3) usage of, attitudes toward, and access to interactive communication technologies (ICTs); and (4) perceptions regarding a future, novel, computer-based PrCA education intervention. A purposive convenience sample of 39 AA men aged 37 to 66 years in the Southeastern United States was recruited through faith-based organizations to participate in one of six 90-minute focus groups and complete a 45-item descriptive survey. Participants were generally knowledgeable about PrCA. However, few engaged in IDM with their doctor and few were informed about the associated risks and uncertainties of PrCA screening. Most participants used ICTs on a daily basis for various purposes including health information seeking. Most participants were open to a novel, computer-based intervention if the system was easy to use and its animated avatars were culturally appropriate. Because study participants had low exposure to IDM for PrCA, but frequently used ICTs, IDM interventions using ICTs (e.g., computers) hold promise for AA men and should be explored for feasibility and effectiveness. These interventions should aim to increase PrCA screening knowledge and stress the importance of participating in IDM with doctors. PMID:25563381

  5. A Strategy of Responsible Militancy: A Template for Today's African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Robert O.

    1989-01-01

    Proposes a strategy for African-Americans of responsible militancy comprised of an individual determination to excel, a high degree of positive self-determination, and political confrontation of harmful policies and practices. Emphasizes the restoration of pride in the family and community. (FMW)

  6. Racial Identity, Language Attitudes and Educational Experiences: The Voices of African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines the language attitudes, racial identity and educational experiences of 75 African American university and community college students. This study is motivated by the hypothesis that the power of language attitudes dictates, to a large extent, the language one speaks, which is intimately tied to one's sense of…

  7. The Longitudinal Effect of Drug Use on Productivity Status of Nonmetropolitan African American Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldós, María Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal effect of marijuana and heavy alcohol use on the productivity status of nonmetropolitan African American young adults. This analysis was based on secondary data from the Family and Community Health Study. For alcohol, the study evaluated the effects on productivity status for…

  8. Marriage Expectations among African American Couples in Early Adulthood: A Dyadic Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Ashley B.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2012-01-01

    Using Family and Community Health Study data consisting of 168 unmarried, primarily African American couples, the current study sought to understand the dyadic interplay among school, work, and partner-specific marriage expectations in early adulthood. Drawing on the economic prospects, adult transitions, and work-family literatures, the authors…

  9. Determinants of Physical Activity in Active and Low-Active, Sixth Grade African-American Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trost, Stewart G.; Pate, Russell R.; Ward, Dianne S.; Saunders, Ruth; Riner, William

    1999-01-01

    Compared determinants of physical activity in active and low-active African-American sixth graders, surveying students and making objective assessments of physical activity over seven days. Results indicated that physical activity self-efficacy, beliefs about physical activity outcomes, involvement in community-based physical activity, perception…

  10. School Day Eating Habits of Inner-City, African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDuffie, Thomas E.; George, Richard J.

    2009-01-01

    School administrators and food providers need to better understand what factors drive young consumers' food choices in order to keep them as customers and avoid a potential backlash from parents, the community, and public policymakers. This article reports the findings of a study on African American adolescents and food, specifically, their…

  11. Comparative Validity of MMPI-2 Scores of African American and Caucasian Mental Health Center Clients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, John L.; Graham, John R.; Ben-Porath, Yossef S.; Stein, L. A. R.

    1997-01-01

    The comparative validity of Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scores for 123 African American and 561 Caucasian clients from a community mental health center was studied by contrasting mean MMPI-2 scores and correlations between these scores and therapists' ratings. Correlations were not significantly different for racial…

  12. It Takes a Village: Protecting Rural African American Youth in the Context of Racism

    OpenAIRE

    Berkel, Cady; Murry, Velma McBride; Hurt, Tera R.; Chen, Yi-fu; Gene H. Brody; Simons, Ronald L.; Cutrona, Carolyn; Gibbons, Frederick X.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research demonstrates negative consequences of racism, however, little is known about community, parenting, and intrapersonal mechanisms that protect youth. Using a mixed-methods approach, this study illuminated linkages between positive and negative contextual influences on rural African American adolescent outcomes. Quantitative results provide support for Structural Ecosystems Theory, in that the influence of discrimination and collective socialization on adolescent outcomes was medi...

  13. The Time Is Now! Talking with African American Youth about College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Stephanie Power; Damico, James S.; Kumasi-Johnson, Kafi

    2008-01-01

    This article explores our work with African American youth in an after-school community literacy program. We examine how a group of these students used a set of Internet-based technology tools to evaluate whether or not a group of colleges would affirm their cultural identity and help them succeed. What we learned from the students has caused us…

  14. The Impact of Racial Discrimination and Coping Strategies on Internalizing Symptoms in African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Cunningham, Jamila A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study examined the impact of racial discrimination stress on internalizing symptoms and coping strategies in a sample of 268 African American early adolescents (mean age = 12.90; 56% female) from low-income communities. Information about discrimination stress, coping, and internalizing symptoms was obtained via adolescents'…

  15. Eating Behaviors among Early Adolescent African American Girls and Their Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Monique; Dancy, Barbara; Holm, Karyn; Wilbur, JoEllen; Fogg, Louis

    2013-01-01

    African American (AA) girls aged 10-12 living in urban communities designated as food deserts have a significantly greater prevalence of overweight and obesity than girls that age in the general population. The purpose of our study was (a) to examine the agreement in nutritional intake between AA girls aged 10-12 and their mothers and (b) to…

  16. Overcoming Adversity: High-Achieving African American Youth's Perspectives on Educational Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Joseph M.; Bryan, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative multicase research study identified the home, school, and community factors and processes that contributed to the academic success of 8 urban, African American high school graduates from low-income, single-parent families. Ten main themes emerged: school-related parenting practices, personal stories of hardship, positive…

  17. African American Women's Breastfeeding Experiences: Cultural, Personal, and Political Voices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Becky; Wambach, Karen; Domain, Elaine Williams

    2015-07-01

    The low rate of breastfeeding among African American women in the United States is a poorly understood, persistent disparity. Our purpose in this study was to gain an understanding of how African American women experience breastfeeding in the context of their day-to-day lives. The Sequential-Consensual Qualitative Design (SCQD), a 3-stage qualitative methodology aimed at exploring the cultural, personal, and political context of phenomena, was used to explore the experiences of African American women who felt successful with breastfeeding. An integration of qualitative content analysis and Black feminist theory was used to analyze the data. Themes that emerged from Stage-2 data analysis included self-determination, spirituality and breastfeeding, and empowerment. In Stage 3 of the study, participant recommendations regarding breastfeeding promotion and support initiatives for African American breastfeeding were categorized into three themes, including engaging spheres of influence, sparking breastfeeding activism, and addressing images of the sexual breast vs. the nurturing breast. PMID:25288408

  18. Urbanisation and coronary heart disease mortality among African Americans in the US South.

    OpenAIRE

    Barnett, E; Strogatz, D; Armstrong, D; Wing, S

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: Despite significant declines since the late 1960s, coronary mortality remains the leading cause of death for African Americans. African Americans in the US South suffer higher rates of cardiovascular disease than African Americans in other regions; yet the mortality experiences of rural-dwelling African Americans, most of whom live in the South, have not been described in detail. This study examined urban-rural differentials in coronary mortality trends among African American...

  19. Strategies for Achieving Healthy Energy Balance Among African Americans in the Mississippi Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groesbeck P. Parham, MD

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionLow-income African Americans who live in rural areas of the Deep South are particularly vulnerable to diseases associated with unhealthy energy imbalance. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC has suggested various physical activity strategies to achieve healthy energy balance. Our objective was to conduct formal, open-ended discussions with low-income African Americans in the Mississippi Delta to determine 1 their dietary habits and physical activity levels, 2 their attitudes toward CDC’s suggested physical activity strategies, and 3 their suggestions on how to achieve CDC’s strategies within their own environment. MethodsA qualitative method (focus groups was used to conduct the study during 2005. Prestudy meetings were held with African American lay health workers to formulate a focus group topic guide, establish inclusion criteria for focus group participants, select meeting sites and times, and determine group segmentation guidelines. Focus groups were divided into two phases.ResultsAll discussions and focus group meetings were held in community centers within African American neighborhoods in the Mississippi Delta and were led by trained African American moderators. Phase I focus groups identified the following themes: overeating, low self-esteem, low income, lack of physical exercise, unhealthy methods of food preparation, a poor working definition of healthy energy balance, and superficial knowledge of strategies for achieving healthy energy balance. Phase 2 focus groups identified a preference for social support-based strategies for increasing physical activity levels. ConclusionEnergy balance strategies targeting low-income, rural African Americans in the Deep South may be more effective if they emphasize social interaction at the community and family levels and incorporate the concept of community volunteerism.

  20. Spirit, Space & Survival: African American Women in (White) Academe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Joy, Ed.; Farmer, Ruth, Ed.

    This volume presents the stories of 11 African American women working in higher education and confronting racist and sexist practices. The chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Mixed Blood, New Voices" (Kaylynn Sullivan Two Trees); (2) "Carrying On" (Joyce Scott); (3) "African Philosophy, Theory, and 'Living Thinkers'" (Joy James);…

  1. Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art

    OpenAIRE

    E. N. Anderson

    2010-01-01

    Review of Grass Roots: African Origins of an American Art. Dale Rosengarten, Theodore Rosengarten, and Enid Schildkrout, eds. 2008. Museum for African Art, New York. Distributed by University of Washington Press, Seattle. Pp. 269, copiously illustrated in black-and-white and color. ISBN (cloth) 978-0-945802-50-1, (paper) 978-0-945802-51-8.

  2. African American women making race work in science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Stephanie Nicole

    members of their academic communities and early exposure to the cultural norms of their academic disciplines. These findings have implications for how Black feminist thought explicates the complex, assorted experiences of highly successful African American women in STEM and how the social construction of academic identities evolves during the course of formalized education.

  3. Recruiting intergenerational African American males for biomedical research Studies: a major research challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Goldie S; Edwards, Christopher L; Kelkar, Vinaya A; Phillips, Ruth G; Byrd, Jennifer R; Pim-Pong, Dora Som; Starks, Takiyah D; Taylor, Ashleigh L; Mckinley, Raechel E; Li, Yi-Ju; Pericak-Vance, Margaret

    2011-06-01

    The health and well-being of all individuals, independent of race, ethnicity, or gender, is a significant public health concern. Despite many improvements in the status of minority health, African American males continue to have the highest age-adjusted mortality rate of any race-sex group in the United States. Such disparities are accounted for by deaths from a number of diseases such as diabetes, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), cancer, and cardiovascular disease, as well as by many historical and present social and cultural constructs that present as obstacles to better health outcomes. Distrust of the medical community, inadequate education, low socioeconomic status, social deprivation, and underutilized primary health care services all contribute to disproportionate health and health care outcomes among African Americans compared to their Caucasian counterparts. Results of clinical research on diseases that disproportionately affect African American males are often limited in their reliability due to common sampling errors existing in the majority of biomedical research studies and clinical trials. There are many reasons for underrepresentation of African American males in clinical trials, including their common recollection and interpretation of relevant historical of biomedical events where minorities were abused or exposed to racial discrimination or racist provocation. In addition, African American males continue to be less educated and more disenfranchised from the majority in society than Caucasian males and females and their African American female counterparts. As such, understanding their perceptions, even in early developmental years, about health and obstacles to involvement in research is important. In an effort to understand perspectives about their level of participation, motivation for participation, impact of education, and engagement in research, this study was designed to explore factors that impact their willingness to participate. Our

  4. Academic attainment and the high school science experiences among high-achieving African American males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trice, Rodney Nathaniel

    This study examines the educational experiences of high achieving African American males. More specifically, it analyzes the influences on their successful navigation through high school science. Through a series of interviews, observations, questionnaires, science portfolios, and review of existing data the researcher attempted to obtain a deeper understanding of high achieving African American males and their limitations to academic attainment and high school science experiences. The investigation is limited to ten high achieving African American male science students at Woodcrest High School. Woodcrest is situated at the cross section of a suburban and rural community located in the southeastern section of the United States. Although this investigation involves African American males, all of whom are successful in school, its findings should not be generalized to this nor any other group of students. The research question that guided this study is: What are the limitations to academic attainment and the high school science experiences of high achieving African American males? The student participants expose how suspension and expulsion, special education placement, academic tracking, science instruction, and teacher expectation influence academic achievement. The role parents play, student self-concept, peer relationships, and student learning styles are also analyzed. The anthology of data rendered three overarching themes: (1) unequal access to education, (2) maintenance of unfair educational structures, and (3) authentic characterizations of African American males. Often the policies and practices set in place by school officials aid in creating hurdles to academic achievement. These policies and practices are often formed without meaningful consideration of the unintended consequences that may affect different student populations, particularly the most vulnerable. The findings from this study expose that high achieving African American males face major

  5. Social justice in climate services: Engaging African American farmers in the American South

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Furman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to efforts to develop more inclusive climate services, understood as institutional arrangements and processes that generate and disseminate science-based climate information to promote improved preparedness to climate impacts. Discussion on equity in climate services tends to focus on the specific challenges of women and the poor in developing countries. We seek to broaden this scope by considering a farming population in the southern United States, whose particular circumstances are shaped by rural poverty as well as by racial discrimination, namely African American farmers. The research is based on a phone survey, in-depth interviews, and a workshop, and was conducted in collaboration with a civil right organization that helped the research team gain trust and entry to this community. The findings show that farmers in this study are vulnerable to drought given their relatively limited access to resources and risk management mechanisms. Climate forecasts can help these farmers move from coping strategies to deal with the effects of climate anomalies to proactive planning to anticipate and mitigate those effects. Research participants were able to identify a range of options for using such information in risk management decisions. Provision of climate services to African American farmers, however, must be consistent with existing patterns of knowledge management. These patterns are shaped by major trends stemming from the transformation of rural Southern life. Social networks of mutual assistance and knowledge transmission have been eroded by the outmigration of African American farmers from rural areas. Additionally, their relationship with public agencies is marred by a legacy of racial inequities, which makes it difficult for well-meaning projects involving the same agencies to establish legitimacy in this community. We discuss how insights from research findings and research process have guided programmatic efforts

  6. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    OpenAIRE

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-01-01

    This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME) majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal sci...

  7. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academi...

  8. Critical Inquiry into Urban African American Students' Perceptions of Engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Denson, Cameron D.; Avery, Zanj K.; Schell, John W.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to critically examine the perceptions that African- American high school students have towards engineering. A qualitative research design using criterion sampling and snowballing was used to select seven African-American students from urban high schools to participate in the research. Semi-structured interviews were used to collect data from participants attending urban high schools on the east and west coast. Using Critical Race Theory (CRT) as the theoretical f...

  9. Donation Intentions for Cancer Genetics Research Among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Weathers, Benita; Barg, Frances K.; Troxel, Andrea B; Shea, Judy A; Bowen, Deborah; Guerra, Carmen E.; Halbert, Chanita Hughes

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Scientific agencies rely on individuals to donate their DNA to support research on chronic conditions that disproportionately affect African Americans; however, donation is variable in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify sociodemographic characteristics, health care variables, and cultural values having significant independent associations with intentions to donate blood or saliva samples for cancer genetics research among African American adults. Method: Cross-se...

  10. HIV Stigma and Social Support among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Galvan, Frank H.; Davis, E. Maxwell; Banks, Denedria; Bing, Eric G.

    2008-01-01

    HIV-related stigma and discrimination negatively impact African Americans living with HIV. Social support theory hypothesizes that social support can serve to protect individuals against the negative effects of stressors, such as discrimination, by leading them to interpret stressful occasions less negatively. This study sought to examine the relationship between perceived social support and perceived HIV stigma among HIV-positive African Americans. A cross-sectional convenience sample of 283...

  11. African American women's perceptions of cancer clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Haynes-Maslow, Lindsey; Godley, Paul; DiMartino, Lisa; White, Brandolyn; Odom, Janice; Richmond, Alan; Carpenter, William

    2014-01-01

    Cancer clinical trials are important for resolving cancer health disparities for several reasons; however, clinical trial participation among African Americans is significantly lower than Caucasians. This study engaged focus groups of 82 female African American cancer survivors or cancer caregivers, including those in better resourced, more urban areas and less resourced, more rural areas. Informed by an integrated conceptual model, the focus groups examined perceptions of cancer clinical tri...

  12. An Empirical Examination of Inter-Ethnic Stereotypes: Comparing Asian American and African American Employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Jackie; Carr-Ruffino, Norma; Ivancevich, John M.; Lownes-Jackson, Millicent

    2003-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=127) read career histories (including photographs) of fictitious employees in a 2x2x2 design depicting job type (engineer/human resources), ethnicity (Asian or African American), and gender, with the same qualifications and performance information. African-American males were rated most negatively on work characteristics;…

  13. Perceived racism and suicide ideation: mediating role of depression but moderating role of religiosity among African American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Rheeda L; Salami, Temilola K; Carter, Sierra E; Flowers, Kelci

    2014-10-01

    Suicide is a public health problem for African Americans who are young and of working age. The purpose of this study was to examine mediated and moderated effects of perceived racism on suicide ideation in a community sample of 236 African American men and women. Measures of suicide ideation, depression symptoms, intrinsic/extrinsic religiosity, and perceived racism were administered. Perceived racial discrimination was directly and indirectly associated with suicide ideation. For participants who reported low levels of extrinsic religiosity, the mediated effect of perceived racism (via depression symptoms) was significant. These findings provide some insight into suicide vulnerability for specific subgroups of African Americans. PMID:24690042

  14. Generational Difference in Feminist Identities? Exploring Gender Conscious Identities Among African American Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine E. Harnois

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the general population have found strong generational differences in how women and men relate to feminism. But how well do these findings reflect feminism among African American men and women? The results of this study show that generational differences are very important for understanding feminism within the Black community. Also important are gender and involvement in the paid labor force. For African Americans of the baby bust generation, working in the paid labor force seems an especially important even in the development of gender-conscious identities.

  15. African American Men and Prostate Cancer: Be Your Own Advocate and Understand Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    AFRICAN AMERICAN MEN AND PROSTATE CANCER: BE YOUR OWN ADVOCATE AND UNDERSTAND SCREENING By the National Cancer ... American men. For reasons that are still unknown, African American men are more likely to get prostate ...

  16. Facts about Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Peripheral Arterial Disease (P.A.D.) for African Americans One in every 20 Americans over the age ... stroke. P.A.D. is more common in African Americans than any other racial or ethnic group. This ...

  17. Obesity and Pulmonary Function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alem Mehari

    Full Text Available Obesity prevalence in United States (US adults exceeds 30% with highest prevalence being among blacks. Obesity is known to have significant effects on respiratory function and obese patients commonly report respiratory complaints requiring pulmonary function tests (PFTs. However, there is no large study showing the relationship between body mass index (BMI and PFTs in healthy African Americans (AA.To determine the effect of BMI on PFTs in AA patients who did not have evidence of underlying diseases of the respiratory system.We reviewed PFTs of 339 individuals sent for lung function testing who had normal spirometry and lung diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO with wide range of BMI.Functional residual capacity (FRC and expiratory reserve volume (ERV decreased exponentially with increasing BMI, such that morbid obesity resulted in patients breathing near their residual volume (RV. However, the effects on the extremes of lung volumes, at total lung capacity (TLC and residual volume (RV were modest. There was a significant linear inverse relationship between BMI and DLCO, but the group means values remained within the normal ranges even for morbidly obese patients.We showed that BMI has significant effects on lung function in AA adults and the greatest effects were on FRC and ERV, which occurred at BMI values < 30 kg/m2. These physiological effects of weight gain should be considered when interpreting PFTs and their effects on respiratory symptoms even in the absence of disease and may also exaggerate existing lung diseases.

  18. Qualitative study of African-American job satisfaction in a scientific/technical research environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krossa, C.D. [San Francisco Univ. (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Many studies have been conducted in the area of job satisfaction. Its necessary attributes sor components have been studied, analyzed, validated, standardized, and normed, onpredominantly white male populations. Few of these studies have focused on people of color, specifically African-Americans, and fewer still on those African-Americans working in a high-tech, scientific and research environments. The researchers have defined what is necessary for the current dominent culture`s population, but are their findings applicable and valid for our nation`s other cultures and ethnic groups? Among the conclusions: the subjects felt that there was no real difference in job satisfiers from their white colleagues; however the subjects had the sense of community (African-American) and the need to give back to it. Frustrations included politics, funding, and lack of control.

  19. Is Native American R Y-Chromosome of African Origin?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clyde Winters

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Controversey surrounds the phylogeography and origin of the R haplotype among Native Americans. Some researchers have suggested that Europeans spread this haplotype among Native Americans. The purpose of this study was to determine the origin of the R-M173 y-chromosome among Native Americans . It is the third most frequent y-chromosome possessed by Native Americans. Native Americans with the highest frequency of R-M173 haplotypes like the Ojibwa and Seminoles mated frequently with African males. Our findings indicate that the African male, Native American female pattern of mating in the United States probably led to the introduction and spread of R-M173 among Native Americans during slavery.

  20. Concordance Rates for Cognitive Impairment among Older African American Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Whitfield, Keith E.; Kiddoe, Jared; Gamaldo, Alyssa; Andel, Ross; Christopher L Edwards

    2009-01-01

    We calculated concordance rates and heritability for cognitive impairment in 95 same-sexed pairs of African American twins from the Carolina African American Twin Study on Aging (CAATSA). The average age of the sample was 59.6 yrs (SD = 8.6 years, range 50–88 years) and 60% of the sample was female. The Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status (TICS) was used in the assessment of cognitive impairment. We lowered the cutoff for cognitive impairment based on our previous research with African A...

  1. Recruitment of a hidden population: African Americans with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Monnica T; Proetto, Dante; Casiano, Delane; Franklin, Martin E

    2012-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a leading cause of disability worldwide, however for reasons that are poorly understood ethnic minority groups are not well represented in clinical research studies. Thus, although African Americans experience equivalent rates of OCD according to epidemiological surveys, the generalizability of findings from clinical trials remains unknown. Research designed to improve identification, assessment and treatment of OCD is an important public health priority. The purpose of this study is to report outreach methods used to recruit African American adults for participation in an OCD research study. A variety of methods were employed, including radio advertisements, public transportation advertising, community outreach, and online advertising. A total of 83 African American adult participants were recruited over a 9.5 month period at the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, and given comprehensive psychiatric assessments. African Americans with OCD symptoms were reliably identified and assessed, for a total of 75 with lifetime OCD (4 past and 71 current diagnoses). There was variability in the success and cost effectiveness of study recruitment methods. Radio ads were the most expensive means of recruitment, newspaper ads accounted for the largest number of eligible participants, and no cost methods such as Craig's List and word of mouth were also effective. The authors conclude that, with focused efforts, there are many effective methods for recruiting African Americans with OCD. Guidelines for recruitment are discussed, with a focus on cultural considerations. PMID:21983626

  2. Long-Term Patterns of Drug Use Among an Urban African-American Cohort: The Role of Gender and Family

    OpenAIRE

    Doherty, Elaine Eggleston; Green, Kerry M.; Reisinger, Heather Schacht; Ensminger, Margaret E.

    2008-01-01

    Cross-sectional analyses and the little existing longitudinal analyses on substance use over the life course have been integral in providing information about the epidemiology of substance use in the United States. However, it is unclear whether these estimates provide an accurate portrayal of long-term substance use patterns among African-American men and women who have grown up in an inner city environment. The current study uses longitudinal data from a community cohort of African-American...

  3. Multiple Measures of Physical Activity, Dietary Habits and Weight Status in African American and Hispanic or Latina Women

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Rebecca E; Mama, Scherezade K.; Medina, Ashley V; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Banda, Jorge A.; Layne, Charles S.; Baxter, Meggin; O’Connor, Daniel P; McNeill, Lorna; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Compared measures of physical activity and dietary habits used in the Health Is Power (HIP) study, and described the associations of physical activity and dietary habits among African American and Hispanic or Latino women, adjusted for weight status. Cross-sectional baseline data were compared for community dwelling, healthy African American (N = 262) and Hispanic or Latina women (N = 148) who participated in HIP. Physical activity was measured using the International Physical Activity Questi...

  4. Coparenting Experiences in African American Families: An Examination of Single Mothers and their Non-Marital Coparents

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Michelle; Jones, Deborah J.; Parent, Justin

    2014-01-01

    African American youth from single mother homes continue to be overrepresented in statistics on risk behavior and delinquency, a trend that many be attributed to father-absence, socioeconomic disadvantage, and compromises in parenting more typical of single than two-parent families. Yet, this risk-focused perspective ignores a long-standing strength of the African American community, the involvement and potential protective impact of extended family members in childrearing. This study describ...

  5. A review of hair product use on breast cancer risk in African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiel, Laura; Adkins-Jackson, Paris B; Clark, Phyllis; Mitchell, Eudora; Montgomery, Susanne

    2016-03-01

    The incidence rate of breast cancer for African American women has recently converged with that of non-Hispanic White women in the United States, although African Americans have a higher mortality rate due to this disease. Although most research exploring health disparities associated with this phenomenon has focused on differences between women based on biology and behavior, both the academic and lay communities have begun to explore the potential role of environmental exposure to estrogen and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). This study reviews the current state of the science associating one such means of exposure, hair products containing EDCs, with breast cancer risk in African American women. We found a growing body of evidence linking: (1) environmental estrogen and EDC exposures to breast cancer risk, (2) the presence of such chemicals in personal care products, including hair products, and (3) the use of certain hair products with potential breast cancer risk in African Americans. At the same time, there is also increasing concern in the lay community about this risk. These results indicate the need for additional research, and the opportunity to benefit from strategic partnerships in community-collaborative approaches in order to better understand the potential "cost of beauty." PMID:26773423

  6. Fat, fibre and cancer risk in African Americans and rural Africans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Keefe, S.J.; Li, J.V.; Lahti, Leo; Ou, J.; Carbonero, F.; Khaled, M.; Postma, J.M.; Kinross, J.; Wahl, E.; Ruder, E.; Vipperla, K.; Naidoo, V.; Mtshali, L.; Tims, S.; Puylaert, P.G.B.; DeLany, J.; Krasinskas, A.; Benefiel, A.C.; Kaseb, H.O.; Newton, K.; Nicholson, J.K.; Vos, De W.M.; Gaskins, H.R.; Zoetendal, E.G.

    2015-01-01

    Rates of colon cancer are much higher in African Americans (65:100,000) than in rural South Africans (<5:100,000). The higher rates are associated with higher animal protein and fat, and lower fibre consumption, higher colonic secondary bile acids, lower colonic short-chain fatty acid quantities and

  7. African Self-Consciousness and Health-Promoting Behaviors among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Shawn N.; Chambers, John W., Jr.

    2000-01-01

    Investigated three models of relationships between African self-consciousness, health consciousness, and health-promoting behaviors among African American college students. The models included the mediator model, moderator model, and independent model. Surveys of 80 students supported the independent model, suggesting that African…

  8. Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Christopher Sze-Ming

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation, Not To Repeat History: Racialization and Combinatory Textuality in Contemporary Asian American and African American Experimental Writing, examines the relationship between textual strategies and political imagination at work in Asian American and African American experimental writers Nathaniel Mackey, Myung Mi Kim, and Ed Roberson. Providing one of the first cross-cultural studies of contemporary Asian American and African American experimental writing, I contend that these...

  9. Teachers' Perceptions of African American Principals' Leadership in Urban Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cornel

    2002-01-01

    Examined the perceptions of teachers of color and European American teachers regarding their African American principals' ability to lead successful urban schools. Survey and interview data indicated that in the areas of image management and relationship development, the two groups perceived their principals' leadership differently.(SM)

  10. 77 FR 33595 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13944 Filed 6-6-12; 8:45 am] Billing... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8832 of June 1, 2012 African-American Music... piece of American culture, music offers a vibrant soundtrack to the story of our people and our...

  11. An analysis of African American Vernacular English in Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Chen-yang

    2014-01-01

    AAVE is a form of American English spoken primarily by African Americans. Although an AAVE speaker's dialect may exhibit regional variation, there are still many salient features. The relationship between Black Music and Standard American Eng-lish is a reflection of the special situation of the mutual influence and infiltration of the African-American sub-culture and the main-stream American culture. African-American sub-culture is shaped under pressure from the main-stream culture, and af-fected the latter to so great an extent that African-American sub-culture has been identified as one of the most important feature of American culture. The origin and development of Black Music are closely related to the cultural life of the Blacks. Because of its innate cultural connotation and the musical feature such as lively rhythm, fast talking, omission of pronunciation, full of ob-scene language and rhyme, all the features mentioned above help to have a great effect on the development of the AAVE.

  12. 75 FR 32075 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... indelible contributions to our Nation and our world. Throughout our history, African-American music has... traces our Nation's history. These quintessentially American styles of music have helped provide a common... America the two hundred and thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-13660 Filed 6-4-10; 8:45...

  13. Standing on a Strong Foundation of Servitude: The 1960's Civil Rights Movement, Septima Clark and Other South Carolina African American Women Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Iris Renell

    2012-01-01

    This research study examines nine African American women educators during the 1960s Civil Rights Movement in South Carolina. Additionally, the study conducts an analogous study of the lifeworks and contributions of Septima Clark, an African American woman educator who made significant community activist contributions during this period. For its…

  14. Literacy Practices in the Homes of African American Families and the Perceived Affects on the Language and Literacy Development of Their Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Delilah A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the tenacities, practices, and discourse of family-based literacy practices and their connection in African American families. It scrutinized the influence of the practices of African American families on the multiple contexts of literacy practices in their passageway across the school-community periphery.…

  15. Genetic Ancestry-Smoking Interactions and Lung Function in African Americans: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Melinda C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Colangelo, Laura A.; Williams, L. Keoki; Sen, Saunak; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Meibohm, Bernd; Galanter, Joshua; Hu, Donglei; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad; Zmuda, Joseph; Garcia, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 Afr...

  16. Fine-mapping and initial characterization of QT interval loci in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy L Avery

    Full Text Available The QT interval (QT is heritable and its prolongation is a risk factor for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. Most genetic studies of QT have examined European ancestral populations; however, the increased genetic diversity in African Americans provides opportunities to narrow association signals and identify population-specific variants. We therefore evaluated 6,670 SNPs spanning eleven previously identified QT loci in 8,644 African American participants from two Population Architecture using Genomics and Epidemiology (PAGE studies: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study and Women's Health Initiative Clinical Trial. Of the fifteen known independent QT variants at the eleven previously identified loci, six were significantly associated with QT in African American populations (P≤1.20×10(-4: ATP1B1, PLN1, KCNQ1, NDRG4, and two NOS1AP independent signals. We also identified three population-specific signals significantly associated with QT in African Americans (P≤1.37×10(-5: one at NOS1AP and two at ATP1B1. Linkage disequilibrium (LD patterns in African Americans assisted in narrowing the region likely to contain the functional variants for several loci. For example, African American LD patterns showed that 0 SNPs were in LD with NOS1AP signal rs12143842, compared with European LD patterns that indicated 87 SNPs, which spanned 114.2 Kb, were in LD with rs12143842. Finally, bioinformatic-based characterization of the nine African American signals pointed to functional candidates located exclusively within non-coding regions, including predicted binding sites for transcription factors such as TBX5, which has been implicated in cardiac structure and conductance. In this detailed evaluation of QT loci, we identified several African Americans SNPs that better define the association with QT and successfully narrowed intervals surrounding established loci. These results demonstrate that the same loci influence variation in QT

  17. Caregiver perceptions of the food marketing environment of African-American 3–11-year-olds: a qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskin, Monica L; Herbey, Ivan; Williams, Ronnie; Ard, Jamy D; Ivankova, Nataliya; Odoms-Young, Angela

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess caregivers’ perceptions of the extent to which the food marketing environment influences food consumption among African-American children (aged 3–11 years) in order to generate potential strategies to make the marketing environment more favourable to healthier eating. Design Individual semi-structured interviews with caregivers were conducted by trained community leaders to ascertain their awareness of and perceptions about food marketing environments contributing to African-American children’s food consumption. Setting Six predominantly African-American communities in metro Birmingham, Alabama, USA with high proportions of school-age children and lower-income residents. Subjects Caregivers (n 25) were predominantly female (93 %) and either parents/guardians (64 %) or grandparents (28 %) of African-American children aged 3–11 years. Caregiver mean age was 43 years and 46% had lived in their current residence for over 10 years. Results Caregivers reported all aspects of the food marketing matrix as supporting unhealthy eating among African-American youth. Child preference for foods higher in fat and sugar, lower pricing of less healthy foods, limited access to healthier food retailers and targeted advertisements were particularly influential on the food selection, acquisition and consumption of children. Company loyalty, corporate sponsorship of local events and conflicts over parental v. food company responsibility contributed to less consensus about the overall impact (positive or negative) of food companies in African-American communities. Conclusions While caregivers perceived aspects of their food marketing environments as primarily contributing to unhealthy eating among African-American children, framing the demand for changes in the food marketing environments of African-American youth may be particularly challenging. PMID:23830058

  18. Feature Articles on African Americans in Sports Illustrated in the 1990s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angela Lumpkin

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive study examined whether the coverage of African Americans in the feature articles in Sports Illustrated during the 1990s was representative of their participation levels. Nearly half of the articles featured European Americans; about one-third featured African Americans. More African Americans were featured in basketball, boxing,…

  19. Informal learning in SME majors for African American female undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezella McPherson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This research investigates how eight undergraduate African American women in science, math, and engineering (SME majors accessed cultural capital and informal science learning opportunities from preschool to college. It uses the multiple case study methodological approach and cultural capital as the framework to better understand their opportunities to engage in free-choice science learning. The article demonstrates that African American women have access to cultural capital and informal science learning inside and outside of home and school environments in P-16 settings. In primary and secondary schools, African American girls acquire cultural capital and access to free-choice science learning in the home environment, museums, science fairs, student organizations and clubs. However, in high school African American female teenagers have fewer informal science learning opportunities like those such as those provided in primary school settings. In college, cultural capital is transmitted through informal science learning that consisted of involvement in student organizations, research projects, seminars, and conferences. These experiences contributed to their engagement and persistence in SME fields in K-16 settings. This research adds to cultural capital and informal science learning research by allowing scholars to better understand how African American women have opportunities to learn about the hidden curriculum of science through informal science settings throughout the educational pipeline.

  20. The Diabetic Health of African American Grandmothers Raising their Grandchildren

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carthron, Dana L.; Busam, Maria Rivera

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to compare the health of primary caregiving African American grandmothers with diabetes with African American women with diabetes who were not primary caregivers. DESIGN Using a comparative, descriptive, cross-sectional design, 34 African American primary caregiving grandmothers were compared with 34 non-caregiving women with diabetes mellitus; women aged 55–75 years were recruited for this study throughout the central Arkansas. METHODS To measure the overall health, data on blood pressure, body mass index measurements, HbA1c levels, total cholesterol, and urine protein and creatinine levels were collected from all the participants. RESULTS Statistically significant differences between the caregivers and non-caregivers groups in systolic pressure (t = −3.42, P = 0.001) and diastolic pressure (t = −3.790, P = 0.000) and urine protein (W = 294.00, P = 0.000) were noted. Additionally, a clinically significant difference in HbA1c was noted between groups. CONCLUSION Differences in systolic and diastolic pressures, urine protein, and clinically significant differences in HbA1c suggest that African American primary caregiving grandmothers with diabetes mellitus may have more difficulty in maintaining their diabetic health than non-caregiving African American women. PMID:27398044

  1. Adding to the Education Debt: Depressive Symptoms Mediate the Association between Racial Discrimination and Academic Performance in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2016-08-01

    Although the United States faces a seemingly intractable divide between white and African American academic performance, there remains a dearth of longitudinal research investigating factors that work to maintain this gap. The present study examined whether racial discrimination predicted the academic performance of African American students through its effect on depressive symptoms. Participants were a community sample of African American adolescents (N=495) attending urban public schools from grade 7 to grade 9 (Mage=12.5). Structural equation modeling revealed that experienced racial discrimination predicted increases in depressive symptoms 1year later, which, in turn, predicted decreases in academic performance the following year. These results suggest that racial discrimination continues to play a critical role in the academic performance of African American students and, as such, contributes to the maintenance of the race-based academic achievement gap in the United States. PMID:27425564

  2. Transthyretin isoleucine-122 mutation in African and American blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolabi, I; Hamidi Asl, K; Nakamura, M; Jacobs, P; Hendrie, H; Benson, M D

    2000-06-01

    The gene frequency of the transthyretin (TTR) mutation (Val122Ile) was studied in African and African-American populations. The African populations analyzed included the Zulu and Xhosa of South Africa, and Yorubas from the city of Ibadan, Nigeria. The African-American population included patients at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Indianapolis, and newborns from a local hospital in Indianapolis. The Val122Ile TTR mutation was identified in 1 of 55 Zulu, 0 of 34 Xhosa, 0 of 9 Nigerian subjects, 5 of 51 Veteran patients, and 3 of 103 newborns. Assuming the 2.91% prevalence in newborns to be the norm, there is a significant increased prevalence in the VA patient population. PMID:10842715

  3. Aging out: a qualitative exploration of ageism and heterosexism among aging African American lesbians and gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woody, Imani

    2014-01-01

    African Americans elders, like their non-African American counterparts, are not a homogeneous group; however an early characteristic placed on all African Americans is in their shared history in the United States. As members of multiple minority groups, older lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people of African descent have survived racism, heterosexism, homophobia, and now ageism. This article describes a qualitative study grounded in Black feminist and minority stress theories that explored the issues of perceived social discrimination and alienation of 15 older African American lesbians and gay males whose lived experiences were captured using in-depth, face-to-face interviews. Several themes were identified in the study, including (a) Sense of Alienation in the African American Community, (b) Deliberate Concealment of Sexual Identity and Orientation, (c) Aversion to LGBT Labels, (d) Perceived Discrimination and Alienation From Organized Religion, (e) Feelings of Grief and Loss Related to Aging, (f) Isolation, and (g) Fear of Financial and Physical Dependence. The implication of the findings suggests that the ethos and needs of older African American lesbian women and gay men need to be addressed to eliminate potential barriers to successful aging for this cohort. PMID:24313257

  4. A Qualitative Evaluation of a Faith-Based Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening Intervention for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Alicia K.; Berrios, Nerida; Darnell, Julie S.; Calhoun, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    This article presents a formative evaluation of a CDC Racial and Ethnic Approaches to Community Health (REACH) 2010 faith-based breast and cervical cancer early detection and prevention intervention for African American women living in urban communities. Focus groups were conducted with a sample of women (N = 94) recruited from each church…

  5. They Lift My Spirit Up: Stakeholders' Perspectives on Support Teams for African Americans Facing Serious Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, LeRon C.; Hanson, Laura C.; Hayes, Michelle; Green, Melissa; Peacock, Stacie; Corbie-Smith, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Background: Active social and spiritual support for persons with cancer and other serious illnesses has been shown to improve psychological adjustment to illness and quality of life. Objective: To evaluate a community-based support team intervention within the African American community using stakeholder interviews. Methods: Support team members…

  6. “There Wasn't a Lot of Comforts in Those Days:” African Americans, Public Health, and the 1918 Influenza Epidemic

    OpenAIRE

    Gamble, Vanessa Northington

    2010-01-01

    When the 1918 influenza epidemic began, African American communities were already beset by many public health, medical, and social problems, including racist theories of black biological inferiority, racial barriers in medicine and public health, and poor health status. To address these problems, African Americans mounted efforts such as establishing separate hospitals and professional organizations and repudiating racist scientific theories. Contradicting prevailing theories about African Am...

  7. Sexual health communication within religious African-American families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Terrinieka T; Pichon, Latrice C; Campbell, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    While research suggests youth prefer parents and family members to serve as the primary sources of sexual health information, fear and discomfort around discussing sex with their parents may leave youth misinformed and underinformed. This study explored sexual heath communication within religious African-American families. Thirty adolescents participated in four focus groups, and 19 adults and 30 adolescents participated in six focus groups, at two predominantly African-American Christian churches in Flint, MI. All data were analyzed inductively using a constant comparison approach. Nearly all participants reported attending church weekly. Three themes emerged and are described: initiating sex talks, using mistakes as teaching tools, and clarifying prevention messages. Participants highlighted the need for religious parents to offer both religious and practical guidance to adolescents about sexual health. Findings from this study may be used to inform future sexual health promotion interventions for religious African-American families. PMID:24901449

  8. Family therapy with unmarried African American mothers and their adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, D; Liddle, H A

    2001-01-01

    Almost two-thirds of African American births are to unmarried mothers, and these single parents are among the most economically vulnerable in the United States. The effects of chronic stressors such as poverty can compromise the ability of these mothers to parent effectively, particularly during the developmental period of adolescence, typically a stressful phase of parenting. This article describes a multidimensional family therapy (MDFT) approach to working with African American adolescents who have drug and/or behavior problems. It is maintained that addressing the intrapersonal functioning of African American single mothers is vital if they are to re-establish the attachment bonds necessary for the maintenance of essential parental influence in the lives of their adolescents. Through systematic attention to the parent as an individual, leading to a balance between self-care and care for others, parental supervision is more easily achieved and relational impasses between parent and adolescent more equitably resolved. PMID:11802488

  9. African American Women’s Perceptions and Experiences about Breastfeeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia S Obeng

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There are health benefits to breastfeeding for both mothers and their children. The preventive health effects of breastfeeding continue into adulthood, lowering rate of various chronic illnesses. African American women, especially of lower socioeconomic status, are less likely to breastfeed in comparison to their racial and ethnic counterparts. The purpose of this study was to explore how African American women experience breastfeeding in the early stages of postpartum care. Two focus groups (N=20, 10 in each group were conducted with African American mothers. Results revealed that participants felt that there were health benefits to breastfeeding, and organizations such as WIC provided support. However, participants stated that lack of information, negative perceptions, and unforeseen circumstances were barriers to breastfeeding. This study proposes support and interventions for this group to increase breastfeeding among this population.

  10. Prostate cancer screening in African American and Caribbean males: detriment in delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parchment, Yvonne D

    2004-01-01

    Men of the African diaspora are diagnosed with prostate cancer much later than Caucasians and the mortality rate is significantly higher in these groups than among Caucasians. This study investigates health beliefs surrounding prostate health in a sample of African American and Caribbean men and identifies reasons men have for delaying or avoiding prostate screenings. One hundred African American and Caribbean men recruited from three churches, aged 37-89, were surveyed about their health seeking behaviors and knowledge of prostate cancer. Forty-five of these men also attended a seminar on the importance of early detection. Eighty percent of the men revealed they were embarrassed to have digital rectal examinations. Sixty percent feared impotence and incontinence after treatment if diagnosed with cancer. Findings reveal that attention to cultural realities may assist healthcare professionals in planning culturally sensitive educational interventions in the community that may narrow the health disparities gap in this population. PMID:18399361

  11. Writing Differences in Teacher Performance Assessments: An Investigation of African American Language and Edited American English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szpara, Michelle Y.; Wylie, E. Caroline

    2008-01-01

    Differential performance results occur when a specific population subgroup achieves a passing rate which is significantly lower than that of the normative reference group. African Americans do less well, in general, on all types of assessments, including constructed-response tests. The present study examined the writing styles of African American…

  12. The Decline in African-American Representation in Unions and Auto Manufacturing, 1979-2004

    OpenAIRE

    John Schmitt; Ben Zipperer

    2006-01-01

    This report examines the unionization rates of African-American workers and finds that the relative representation of African Americans has been steadily declining in unions, manufacturing, and auto manufacturing.

  13. What Factors Influence Consumption of Food Away From Home by African-Americans?

    OpenAIRE

    Tegegne, Fissesha; Ekanem, Enefiok; Singh, Surendra P.; Speller-Henderson, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    This paper documents consumption of Food Away From Home (FAFH) by selected African­ Americans residing in Nashville, Tennessee, and identifies factors that influence the decision of African-Americans to consume FAFH.

  14. Cognitive Skill, Skill Demands of Jobs, and Earnings among Young European American, African American, and Mexican American Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farkas, George; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Analyses of National Longitudinal Survey data indicate that cognitive skill level affects access to high-skill occupations and earnings. Lower cognitive skill levels for African Americans and U.S.-born Mexican Americans explain a substantial proportion of income differences between these groups and European Americans but not the gender gap in pay…

  15. African American Perceptions about Crime in Cincinnati, Ohio since the 2001 Riots: Over a Decade Later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derrick J. Jenkins, Sr. Ph.D.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In 1994, the city of Cincinnati, Ohio was named the most livable city in America by Places Rated Almanac (Clark, 1993. Couched within this distinction is the variance of perceived categorizations as the building blocks of a utopian-esque society such as a robust job market, low cost of living, affordable housing, highly educated populous, high arts and recreation and low crime rates. What happened within under a decade that transformed the national perception of the queen city from the most livable city in 1994 to the most recent and largest urban hot bed of racial and civil unrest since the Los Angeles riots? However, no study has explicitly assessed the perceptions of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. The purpose of this study is to assess perceptions about crime in the local community since the 2001 Cincinnati riots. Methods: We surveyed 71 participants as part of a cross-sectional study designed to assess perception of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio. We conducted a questionnaire of a random sample of African American residents in Cincinnati, Ohio. The city of Cincinnati was chosen because of its large African American community and in part due to its long lasting history of police violence and riots in the African American community.  Analyses: Most participants felt the level of crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was a very serious problem. However, a large majority of both males (22.6% and females (10% believed crime in Cincinnati, Ohio was somewhat serious. The remaining respondents perceived crime in Cincinnati as serious (males: 16.1%, females: 12.5% or not at all serious (males 3.2%, females: 0%. A larger portion of the males (54.8% than females (40% responded that in the last 3- year’s crime in Cincinnati, Ohio relatively stayed the same.  Conclusion: The results indicate that there was little difference in African American perceptions of violence in Cincinnati in 2001 and 11 years later in 2012. Most people felt that violence in

  16. Religious Authority in African American Churches: A Study of Six Churches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Hye-cheon Kim Yeary

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A sociological study of religious authority and gender in the context of a rural, impoverished community was conducted in African American churches in one county of the Arkansas Lower Mississippi Delta region to understand relationships between religious leadership, gender, race, and social justice. Three female and three male African American pastors were interviewed as key-informants of their churches to investigate views of female religious authority, and to compare and contrast the congregational culture of female-headed vs. male-headed churches. Among male-headed congregations, views of gender and leadership were complex, with beliefs ranging from no support to full support for female-headed congregations. Two congregational cultures emerged from the data: Congregations with a Social Activist orientation focused on meeting the social needs of the community through Christ, whereas congregations with a Teach the Word orientation stressed the importance of meeting the spiritual needs of the community through knowing the Word of God. Although aspects of both congregational cultures were present to some extentin all six congregations studied, the Social Activist culture played a more dominant narrative in female-headed congregations, whereas the Teach the Word culture was more evident in male-headed congregations. This study reports preliminary information about gender and religious authority in rural African American churches by revealing the different clergy training requirements and church placements of female and male clergy, a myriad of views about female religious authority in the African American faith community, and through uncovering two distinct congregational cultures. This study also enhances understanding on the role of gender in Black churches’ perceptions and interactions with rural, socioeconomically challenged communities.

  17. Anthropometric Changes Using a Walking Intervention in African American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Kilpatrick, PhD

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction African American women exhibit a higher mortality rate from breast cancer than do white women. African American women are more likely to gain weight at diagnosis, which may increase their risk of cancer recurrence and comorbidities. Physical activity has been shown to decrease body mass index and improve quality of life in cancer survivors. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility and impact of a community-based exercise intervention in African American breast cancer survivors. Methods A theory-based eight-week community intervention using pedometers with scheduling, goal setting, and self-assessment was tested in a convenience sample of African American breast cancer survivors (n = 24. Data were collected at three time points to examine changes in steps walked per day, body mass index, and other anthropometric measures, attitudes, and demographic variables. Results Statistically significant increases in steps walked per day and attitude toward exercise as well as significant decreases in body mass index, body weight, percentage of body fat, and waist, hip, and forearm circumferences, as well as blood pressure, were reported from baseline to immediate post-intervention. Positive changes were retained or improved further at three-month follow-up except for attitude toward exercise. Participant retention rate during eight-week intervention was 92%. Conclusion Increasing walking for exercise, without making other changes, can improve body mass index, anthropometric measures, and attitudes, which are associated with improved quality of life and reduced risk of cancer recurrence. The high participant retention rate, along with significant study outcomes, demonstrate that among this sample of African American breast cancer survivors, participants were motivated to improve their exercise habits.

  18. Race-Conscious Professionalism and African American Representation in Academic Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Brian W; White, Augustus A; Oriol, Nancy E; Jain, Sachin H

    2016-07-01

    African Americans remain substantially less likely than other physicians to hold academic appointments. The roots of these disparities stem from different extrinsic and intrinsic forces that guide career development. Efforts to ameliorate African American underrepresentation in academic medicine have traditionally focused on modifying structural and extrinsic barriers through undergraduate and graduate outreach, diversity and inclusion initiatives at medical schools, and faculty development programs. Although essential, these initiatives fail to confront the unique intrinsic forces that shape career development. America's ignoble history of violence, racism, and exclusion exposes African American physicians to distinct personal pressures and motivations that shape professional development and career goals. This article explores these intrinsic pressures with a focus on their historical roots; reviews evidence of their effect on physician development; and considers the implications of these trends for improving African American representation in academic medicine. The paradigm of "race-conscious professionalism" is used to understand the dual obligation encountered by many minority physicians not only to pursue excellence in their field but also to leverage their professional stature to improve the well-being of their communities. Intrinsic motivations introduced by race-conscious professionalism complicate efforts to increase the representation of minorities in academic medicine. For many African American physicians, a desire to have their work focused on the community will be at odds with traditional paths to professional advancement. Specific policy options are discussed that would leverage race-conscious professionalism as a draw to a career in academic medicine, rather than a force that diverts commitment elsewhere. PMID:26760060

  19. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS), and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I us...

  20. African-American mitochondrial DNAs often match mtDNAs found in multiple African ethnic groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Fatimah

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA haplotypes have become popular tools for tracing maternal ancestry, and several companies offer this service to the general public. Numerous studies have demonstrated that human mtDNA haplotypes can be used with confidence to identify the continent where the haplotype originated. Ideally, mtDNA haplotypes could also be used to identify a particular country or ethnic group from which the maternal ancestor emanated. However, the geographic distribution of mtDNA haplotypes is greatly influenced by the movement of both individuals and population groups. Consequently, common mtDNA haplotypes are shared among multiple ethnic groups. We have studied the distribution of mtDNA haplotypes among West African ethnic groups to determine how often mtDNA haplotypes can be used to reconnect Americans of African descent to a country or ethnic group of a maternal African ancestor. The nucleotide sequence of the mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS-I usually provides sufficient information to assign a particular mtDNA to the proper haplogroup, and it contains most of the variation that is available to distinguish a particular mtDNA haplotype from closely related haplotypes. In this study, samples of general African-American and specific Gullah/Geechee HVS-I haplotypes were compared with two databases of HVS-I haplotypes from sub-Saharan Africa, and the incidence of perfect matches recorded for each sample. Results When two independent African-American samples were analyzed, more than half of the sampled HVS-I mtDNA haplotypes exactly matched common haplotypes that were shared among multiple African ethnic groups. Another 40% did not match any sequence in the database, and fewer than 10% were an exact match to a sequence from a single African ethnic group. Differences in the regional distribution of haplotypes were observed in the African database, and the African-American haplotypes were more likely to match haplotypes

  1. Missing Voices: African American School Psychologists' Perspectives on Increasing Professional Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2013-01-01

    Since the mid 1960s, there has been a noticeable decrease in the percentage of African American educators. Although a sizeable literature is dedicated to understanding how to recruit African American teachers, fewer studies focus on recruiting and retaining African American school psychologists. Therefore, this exploratory qualitative study…

  2. Mentoring and Professional Identity Development for African American Female Doctoral Students: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Nettavia Doreen

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the impact mentoring relationships, between African American women doctoral students and faculty members, has on the students' professional identity development. Of particular interest is an examination of whether matched mentoring relationships between African American women doctoral students and African American female…

  3. "Brother Where Art Thou?" African American Male Instructors' Perceptions of the Counselor Education Profession

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Michael; Steen, Sam

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the perceptions of African American male counselor educators regarding the limited number of African American male faculty members in counselor education. Implications and suggestions on how universities can recruit and retain African American male faculty members are provided.

  4. Comparison of Role Perceptions of White and African American Foster Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasuti, John P.; York, Reginald; Sandell, Karen

    2004-01-01

    The number of U.S. children entering foster care is increasing faster than the number of available foster parents. Of particular concern are the growing number of African American children in foster care and the lack of African American foster parents to care for them. This study compares role perceptions of African American and white foster…

  5. Orienting African American Male Adolescents toward Meaningful Literacy Exchanges with Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred W.

    2014-01-01

    Drawing from a sociohistorical understanding of the roles of texts for African American males and data from a recent survey of teens' meaningful experiences with texts, the author provides a general understanding of the roles of texts among African American males and African American male adolescents' meaningful relationships with texts. These…

  6. Nuances of Error: Considerations Relevant to African American Vernacular English and Learning to Read

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compton-Lilly, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores the presence of African American Vernacular English patterns in the reading of one child over a 20-week period. In this paper, I present insights from linguists about African American Vernacular English, list linguistic patterns characteristic of African American Vernacular English speakers, examine the relationship between the…

  7. Examining the Writing of Adolescent African American English Speakers: Suggestions for Assessment and Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton-Ikard, RaMonda; Pittman, Ramona T.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the use of African American English (AAE) in the written and oral language of African American adolescents who struggle with writing. Written and oral language samples of 22 African American 10th-grade students were transcribed, analyzed, and coded for AAE, grammatical errors, spelling errors, and punctuation errors. Four…

  8. Identifying Barriers to Colonoscopy Screening for Nonadherent African American Participants in a Patient Navigation Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sly, Jamilia R.; Edwards, Tiffany; Shelton, Rachel C.; Jandorf, Lina

    2013-01-01

    African Americans have a higher rate of colorectal cancer (CRC) mortality than other racial/ethnic groups. This disparity is alarming given that CRC is largely preventable through the use of endoscopy (screening colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy), yet rates of CRC screening among African Americans is suboptimal. Only 48.9% of African Americans are…

  9. Lifting the Voices of High-Achieving, Middle-Class, African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Stacey Marvetta

    2012-01-01

    The state of African American education is complex. Beginning in the 17th century, African Americans fought for an education that allowed them to read and write. During the 21st century, African Americans value on education extends beyond only reading and writing to using these skills and other skills to maintain strong academic and leadership…

  10. African American Faculty Expressing Concerns: Breaking the Silence at Predominantly White Research Oriented Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Henry H.; Edwards, Willie J.

    2016-01-01

    A Delphi method was used with a panel of 24 African American faculty employed at 43 predominantly white doctoral extensive universities to arrive at a group consensus on a list of concerns that African American faculty in general experienced or held. Using the Delphi method a panel of African American faculty initially worked from a list of eight…

  11. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mama, Scherezade K; Li, Yisheng; Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W; Nguyen, Nga T; Reitzel, Lorraine R; McNeill, Lorna H

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  12. Psychosocial Mechanisms Linking the Social Environment to Mental Health in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basen-Engquist, Karen; Lee, Rebecca E.; Thompson, Deborah; Wetter, David W.; Reitzel, Lorraine R.

    2016-01-01

    Resource-poor social environments predict poor health, but the mechanisms and processes linking the social environment to psychological health and well-being remain unclear. This study explored psychosocial mediators of the association between the social environment and mental health in African American adults. African American men and women (n = 1467) completed questionnaires on the social environment, psychosocial factors (stress, depressive symptoms, and racial discrimination), and mental health. Multiple-mediator models were used to assess direct and indirect effects of the social environment on mental health. Low social status in the community (p < .001) and U.S. (p < .001) and low social support (p < .001) were associated with poor mental health. Psychosocial factors significantly jointly mediated the relationship between the social environment and mental health in multiple-mediator models. Low social status and social support were associated with greater perceived stress, depressive symptoms, and perceived racial discrimination, which were associated with poor mental health. Results suggest the relationship between the social environment and mental health is mediated by psychosocial factors and revealed potential mechanisms through which social status and social support influence the mental health of African American men and women. Findings from this study provide insight into the differential effects of stress, depression and discrimination on mental health. Ecological approaches that aim to improve the social environment and psychosocial mediators may enhance health-related quality of life and reduce health disparities in African Americans. PMID:27119366

  13. Challenges and opportunities for HIV prevention and care: insights from focus groups of HIV-infected African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buseh, Aaron G; Stevens, Patricia E; McManus, Patricia; Addison, Reverend Jim; Morgan, Sarah; Millon-Underwood, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Given the inordinate burden of HIV illness borne by African American men, investigations of HIV prevention and care in this population are urgently needed. In this qualitative study, a sample of 20 HIV-infected African American men participated in two focus groups in which they exchanged experiences and ideas about living with HIV. They shared details about how they were personally impacted by HIV, and together they constructed a perspective on the larger societal context in which the HIV infection rate among African American men continues unabated. The men focused on growing complacency about HIV/AIDS in the United States, underfunding of supports and services, stigmas operative in African American communities, and differential care based on race, gender, and diagnosis. They saw opportunity in personal strategies that help individual men infected with HIV to take a more empowered stance to deal with the disease and improve their health but looked for changes undertaken by African Americans at the community level to make a real difference in the epidemic. Their vision included enhanced support for HIV prevention and care from influential community institutions like Black churches, more open dialogue about drugs and sexual behavior, and capacity-building for families whose members are HIV-infected or at risk for HIV. PMID:16849084

  14. Living Arrangements during Childrearing Years and Later Health of African American Mothers

    OpenAIRE

    Fothergill, Kate E.; Ensminger, Margaret E.; Green, Kerry M.; Thorpe, Roland J.; Robertson, Judy; Kasper, Judith D.; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2009-01-01

    Using longitudinal data from the Woodlawn Project (N=680), this study examined how patterns of living arrangements among a community cohort of African American mothers were associated with later physical and emotional health. We identified eight patterns of stability and transition in living arrangements during the childrearing years. Health outcomes include SF-36 Physical Functioning, SF-36 Bodily Pain, depressed mood, and anxious mood. Specific patterns of living arrangements were related t...

  15. Adapting Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Prevention of Excessive Weight Gain in Rural African American Girls

    OpenAIRE

    Cassidy, Omni; Sbrocco, Tracy; Vannucci, Anna; Nelson, Beatrice; Jackson-Bowen, Darlene; Heimdal, James; Mirza, Nazrat; Wilfley, Denise E.; Osborn, Robyn; Shomaker, Lauren B.; Young, Jami F.; Waldron, Heather; Carter, Michele; Tanofsky-Kraff, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To obtain focus group data regarding the perspectives of rural African American (AA) girls, parents/guardians, and community leaders on obesity, loss of control (LOC) eating, relationships, and interpersonal psychotherapy for the prevention of excessive weight gain (IPT-WG). Methods 7 focus groups (N = 50 participants) were moderated and the transcripts analyzed by Westat researchers using widely accepted methods of qualitative and thematic analysis. A session was held with experts ...

  16. The influence of functional social support on executive functioning in middle-aged African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Sims, Regina C.; Levy, Shellie-Anne; Mwendwa, Denée T.; Callender, Clive O; Campbell, Alfonso L.

    2011-01-01

    Social support has a positive influence on cognitive functioning and buffers cognitive decline in older adults. This study examined the relations between social support and executive functioning in middle-aged adults. A community-based sample of African Americans completed the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List, a measure of functions of social support, and two measures of executive functioning, the Stroop Color Word Test and the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Hierarchical regression ...

  17. How does Violence Exposure Affect the Psychological Health and Parenting of Young African American Mothers?

    OpenAIRE

    Lewin, Amy; Horn, Ivor B; Valentine, Dawn; Sanders-Phillips, Kathy; Joseph, Jill G

    2009-01-01

    Urban, minority, adolescent mothers are particularly vulnerable to violence exposure, which may increase their children’s developmental risk through maternal depression and negative parenting. The current study tests a conceptual model of the effects of community and contextual violence exposure on the mental health and parenting of young, African American mothers living in Washington DC. A path analysis revealed significant direct effects of witnessed and experienced violence on mothers’ dep...

  18. The Health Intervention Project: HIV risk reduction among African American women drug users.

    OpenAIRE

    Sterk, Claire E.

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This article describes the Health Intervention Project, an intervention for African American women in Atlanta, Georgia, who are crack cocaine users. METHODS:A formative phase involved ethnographic mapping of the physical and social infrastructure of the study communities and in-depth interviews with women crack cocaine users. Key findings that were incorporated into the intervention program included the exchange of sex for money or drugs, the women's experience with trauma and abus...

  19. How do Urban African Americans and Latinos View the Influence of Diet on Hypertension?

    OpenAIRE

    Horowitz, Carol R.; Tuzzio, Leah; Rojas, Mary; Monteith, Sharifa A.; Sisk, Jane E.

    2004-01-01

    Uncontrolled hypertension and its complications continue to be major health problems that disproportionately affect poor minority communities. Although dietary modification is an effective treatment for hypertension, it is not clear how hypertensive minority patients view diet as part of their treatment, and what barriers affect their abilities to eat healthy diets. We conducted nine focus groups with 88 African American and Latino patients treated for hypertension to assess their knowledge, ...

  20. African American Women Leaders in Academic Research Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Sharon K.

    2008-01-01

    Effective leadership and increasing diversity are central concerns in the library profession. Using qualitative interviewing and research methods, this study identifies the attributes, knowledge, and skills that African American women need in order to be successful leaders in today's Association of Research Libraries (ARL). These findings indicate…

  1. HIV among African American Gay and Bisexual Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among African American Gay and Bisexual Men Format: ...

  2. Culturally Responsive Collegiate Mathematics Education: Implications for African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jett, Christopher C.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author utilizes the culturally congruent work of Gay (2010) and Ladson-Billings (2009) to highlight culturally responsive teaching as a viable option for African American students in higher education mathematics spaces. He offers translations of Gay and Ladson-Billings' work to Africana mathematics and argues that these…

  3. A Motivational Intervention for African American Boys Labeled as Aggressive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Sandra; Taylor, April; Hudley, Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    A 12-week, 32-lesson afterschool intervention was conducted with third-to fifth-grade urban African American boys classified as aggressive. Grounded in attribution theory and organized around the construct of perceived responsibility in self and others, the intervention focused on increasing both social skills and academic motivation. Participants…

  4. Environmental Attitudes and Information Sources among African American College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E. Bun

    2008-01-01

    The author examined the environmental attitudes of African American college students by using the 15-item New Ecological Paradigm (NEP) Scale. The author also attempted to determine their everyday environmental behaviors such as recycling and conservation and investigated major information sources for local, national, and international…

  5. African American Homeschooling and the Quest for a Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazama, Ama; Lundy, Garvey

    2015-01-01

    Academic interest in homeschooling has increased over the last decade, as what was once perceived as a marginal development, has, in fact, turned into a significant and growing phenomenon. There has been, in recent years, a noticeable surge in African American involvement in the homeschooling movement as well. However, there continues to be a…

  6. Albert Sidney Beckham: The First African American School Psychologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graves, Scott L., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Albert Sidney Beckham was the first African American to hold the title school psychologist. This article examines the life and professional career of Beckham in the context of his contributions to the field of school psychology. It explores his graduate education, the founding of Howard University's Psychological Laboratory and his research and…

  7. Early Academic Experiences of Recently Incarcerated African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffers, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…

  8. Cultural Identification and Academic Achievement among African American Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irving, Miles Anthony; Hudley, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between intercultural perceptions, identity, and academic achievement among African American males. Specifically, this study investigated the relationship of academic achievement, cultural mistrust, oppositional cultural attitudes, ethnic identity development and educational outcome expectations and value,…

  9. African American Male Student-Athletes: Identity and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Kathryn Mary

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the current research was to examine racial, male and athletic identities and their individual and collective impact on the academic performance of African American male Division I student-athletes (AAMSAs). Data was collected using the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity (MIBI), the Male Role Norms Scale (MRNS), and the…

  10. Constructing Academic Inadequacy: African American Athletes' Stories of Schooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Kirsten F.

    2000-01-01

    This qualitative study interviewed eight academically "at risk" African American athletes at a southeastern university with a major revenue-producing football program. Analysis suggested that the athletes' marginal academic performance was constructed in a system of interrelated practices engaged in by all the significant members of the academic…

  11. African American adolescents' academic persistence: a strengths-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Chavous, Tabbye M; Hurd, Noelle; Varner, Fatima

    2013-09-01

    African American adolescents are faced with the challenge to be successful academically, even though they may experience racial discrimination within school settings. Unfortunately, relatively little scholarship explores how African American adolescents draw on personal and cultural assets to persist and thrive in the face of discriminatory experiences. Additionally, little research has explored the buffering role of assets (e.g., racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance) on the relationship between school-based racial discriminatory experiences and the academic persistence of African American adolescents. Participants in the current study included 220 (58 % girls) socioeconomically diverse African American adolescents. Latent class analysis was utilized to identify clusters based on participants' racial pride, self-efficacy, and self-acceptance. Three cluster groups were identified. The majority of the students belonged to the average group in which adolescents reported average levels of the three study assets. Adolescents in the higher group reported higher assets relative to their peers in the study and those in the lower group reported lower strength-based assets relative to their peers. Results indicated that school-based racial discrimination was associated with lower levels of academic persistence. Additionally, adolescents in the higher assets group reported higher academic persistence in comparison to the average and low group. Our model reflected a promotive but not protective influence of adolescents' assets on their academic persistence. PMID:23700259

  12. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  13. 76 FR 32851 - African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-07

    .... (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-14170 Filed 6-6-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ...#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8684 of May 31, 2011 African-American Music Appreciation Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation The music of...

  14. Eating Disorders in African American Girls: Implications for Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talleyrand, Regine M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the recent focus on eating disorders in children, it is imperative that counselors consider eating concerns that affect children of all racial and ethnic groups and hence are effective in working with this population. The author discusses risk factors that potentially contribute to eating disorders in African American girls given their…

  15. Young African American Boys Narrating Identities in Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Justine M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study is to bring the voices of African American boys front and center in science education research in an effort to strengthen our understandings of their experiences of school and science. Using an interpretivist perspective within a narrative inquiry approach, I focus on the student and science-student identities two African…

  16. African American Students with Disabilities: Beneficiaries of the Legacy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Rosalie S.; King-Berry, Arlene

    2007-01-01

    Impressive advancements have been made in educational opportunities for students with disabilities, whose historic relationship with American public schools has been marked by educational disenfranchisement or mis-education. Critical judicial impetus for these educational opportunities was provided by landmark court cases in which African American…

  17. The Origins of African-American Family Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Steven

    1994-01-01

    Uses the Integrated Public Use Microdata Series to trace race differences in African American family structure between 1880 and 1980. Confirms a long-standing high incidence rate of single parenthood and children residing without their parents. Data also show blacks have had a consistently higher percentage of extended households than have whites.…

  18. Alternatives to Suspending African American High School Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter P. KIRIAKIDIS

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The research site was one high school in the southern United States where African American males were suspended at greater rates than their counterparts. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine the perspectives of high school administrators and teachers regarding alternatives to suspending African American males in one southern high school within a public school district. Guided by the social learning theory, the research question focused on the suspensions of these students. Data were collected through in-depth, semi structured, face-to-face interviews with a purposive sample of 6 high school teachers and 2 administrators, and coded and analyzed for emergent themes. The findings revealed that African American high school males might benefit from education programs such as character education programs to develop social, academic, and discipline skills. The findings of this study may be used for professional development for teachers and administrators regarding strategies to reduce suspensions of African American high school males, which might facilitate their graduation from high school and subsequent entry into higher education or the workforce.lications to display the level of psychological strain and workplace stressors among nurses as part of the postmodern organizational problems. Classification-JEL: A23

  19. Gender and Homework Management Reported by African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong

    2010-01-01

    The present study linked gender and grade level to homework management strategies and homework completion behaviours. The participants were 685 African American students in the south-eastern USA, including 370 eighth graders and 315 eleventh graders. Gender appeared related to the majority of homework measures examined in the present study.…

  20. Why African American College Students Miss the Perfect Test Score

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentry, Ruben; Stokes, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Many African Americans were imbued with the cliché that they must work twice as hard as others to be a success in life. Entering college, students with this belief put extensive effort into earning top grades to ensure quality preparation for their chosen career; yet, some fail to earn top scores. Why? This is the million dollar question, but the…

  1. Leadership Development and the African American Male College Student Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oaks, D'Arcy John; Duckett, Kirstan; Suddeth, Todd; Kennedy-Phillips, Lance

    2013-01-01

    Qualitative interviews were employed to assess the effectiveness of a leadership program geared toward African American male personal and professional development, and to examine the relationship between program participation and connectedness. Elements of both social engagement (mentoring and being mentored, peer-to-peer relationships, and…

  2. Behavioural Precursors and HIV Testing Behaviour among African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhrig, Jennifer D.; Davis, Kevin C.; Rupert, Doug; Fraze, Jami

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether there is an association between knowledge, attitudes and beliefs, reported intentions to get an HIV test, and reported HIV testing behaviour at a later date among a sample of African American women. Design: Secondary analysis of data collected from October 2007 through March 2008 for a randomized controlled experiment…

  3. Reasons for African American Student Attrition from School Psychology Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proctor, Sherrie L.; Truscott, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study used a series of three in-depth interviews with seven African American participants, for a total of 21 interviews, to explore their experiences in the specialist and doctoral level school psychology programs they left prior to obtaining a professional entry-level degree. The study's purpose was to investigate what…

  4. Neighborhood Matters: Racial Socialization of African American Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Nettles, Saundra Murray; O'Campo, Patricia J.; Lohrfink, Kimberly Fraleigh

    2006-01-01

    Differences in racial socialization practices and their effects were examined in a sample of 241 African American 1st graders (average age 6.59 years) living in an urban area. Child outcomes included cognitive development, receptive language skills, and child problem behavior. The cultural environment of the home was associated with higher…

  5. What Are the Real Risk Factors for African American Children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Jacquelyne Faye

    1999-01-01

    Educators should banish the specter of African-American children as high-risk, budding disasters and closely examine these children's schooling environment. Black children of all incomes are schooled in highly segregated settings, due to residential segregation. Exposure to health hazards (lead-based paint) and corporal punishment are serious…

  6. African American College Students: Literacy of Depression and Help Seeking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansbury, Kim L.; Wimsatt, Maureen; Simpson, Gaynell Marie; Martin, Fayetta; Nelson, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Depression is a serious public health concern in the United States affecting almost 18.8 million adults. It is a common mental disorder in college students, with estimates of 1 in 4 "experiencing an episode by age 24." African American college students are at an elevated risk for depression due to racism, stress, sleep deprivation, and lack of…

  7. Dismantling the Wall: A White Professor and African American Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koger, Alicia Kae

    1995-01-01

    A white woman professor teaching a black theater history course describes her experiences in the classroom, including the realization of students' expectations of her, her own fears of miscommunicating, the perspectives expressed by students in their journals, differences in white and African American student responses to the same material, and…

  8. The Role of Religiosity in African American Preadolescent Aggression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Khiela J.; Lochman, John E.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the role of parent and preadolescent religiosity in aggression among African American preadolescents with moderate to high aggression. Hierarchical regression analyses were used to determine (a) which aspects of parent and preadolescent religiosity (i.e., church attendance, private religious activities, and intrinsic…

  9. Biculturalism and Academic Achievement of African American High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jonathan P.; Jackson, Margo A.; Ponterotto, Joseph G.; Blumberg, Fran C.

    2011-01-01

    Biculturalism was examined as a factor that may positively affect the academic achievement of African American high school students, beyond cultural identity and self-esteem. Hierarchical regression analyses determined that cultural identity and academic self-esteem were important factors for academic achievement, but not biculturalism.…

  10. Substance Abuse: Implications for Counseling African American Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wade, Jay C.

    1994-01-01

    Examines factors--such as unemployment, economic deprivation, racism, issues pertaining to gender roles--and their contribution to substance abuse in African American men. Specifically reviews the use of alcohol, opiates, crack, and cocaine. Argues that a biopsychosocial model offers the best framework in conceptualizing substance abuse and…

  11. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset among African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2010-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship…

  12. African American Accounting Majors and the 150-hr Requirement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booker, Quinton; Hill, Cecil L.; Wright, Carl

    2010-01-01

    The study provides information on African American accounting majors' views regarding 150-hr issues. The authors collected data from 152 students at two schools. Students at one school supported the requirement while those at the other school did not. However, students believed that the 150-hr requirement enhances the quality of certified public…

  13. Diary of an African-American Freshman at Harvard College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millner, Caille

    1998-01-01

    An African-American freshman at Harvard University keeps a diary of her first year at college, noting experiences of racial isolation and solidarity, and the difficulties in being both Black and female in the highly competitive Harvard environment. A recurring theme is that of her alienation from others. (SLD)

  14. African American Women and Eating Disturbances: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Shannon K.

    2003-01-01

    Data from 18 studies were reviewed to investigate the relationship between ethnicity and eating disturbances, focusing on the relationship between African American and white women. Although white women had more risk of eating disturbances, the effect size was small. White women had slightly more risk for all eating disturbances combined. African…

  15. The Sociocultural Benefits of Writing for African American Adolescent Males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Alfred; Gue, Valerie

    2012-01-01

    Historically speaking, reading and writing among African Americans were collaborative acts involving a wide range of texts that held social, economic, political, or spiritual significance. One of the constants of literacy collaboratives was being regularly and purposefully engaged with print within a meaningful social context. During the summer of…

  16. Vitamin D supplementation in young White and African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, J Christopher; Jindal, Prachi S; Smith, Lynette M

    2014-01-01

    There is limited information on the effects of vitamin D on serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) in young people and none on African Americans. The main objective of this trial was to measure the effect of different doses of vitamin D3 on serum 25OHD and serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) in young women with vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25OHD ≤ 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L). A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial of vitamin D3 was conducted in young white and African American women, age 25 to 45 years. A total of 198 healthy white (60%) and African American (40%) women were randomly assigned to placebo, or to 400, 800, 1600, or 2400 IU of vitamin D3 daily. Calcium supplements were added to maintain a total calcium intake of 1000 to 1200 mg daily. The primary outcomes of the study were the final serum 25OHD and PTH levels at 12 months. The absolute increase in serum 25OHD with 400, 800, 1600, and 2400 IU of vitamin D daily was slightly greater in African American women than in white women. On the highest dose of 2400 IU/d, the mixed model predicted that mean 25OHD increased from baseline 12.4 ng/mL (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.2-15.7) to 43.2 ng/mL (95% CI, 38.2-48.1) in African American women and from 15.0 ng/mL (95% CI, 12.3-17.6) to 39.1 ng/mL (95% CI, 36.2-42.0) in white women. There was no significant effect of vitamin D dose on serum PTH in either race but there was a significant inverse relationship between final serum PTH and serum 25OHD. Serum 25OHD exceeded 20 ng/mL in 97.5% of whites on the 400 IU/d dose and between 800 and 1600 IU/d for African Americans. The recommended dietary allowance (RDA) suggested by the Institute of Medicine for young people is 600 IU daily. The increase in serum 25OHD after vitamin D supplementation was similar in young and old, and in white and African American women. PMID:23761326

  17. African American and European American Students' Peer Groups during Early Adolescence: Structure, Status, and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Travis; Karimpour, Ramin; Rodkin, Philip C.

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on a sample of 382 African American (206 female) and 264 European American (132 female) students in diverse fourth and fifth grade classrooms, this study investigated three questions concerning the connections between peer groups and academic achievement during early adolescence: (a) How is group structure (i.e., hierarchy and cohesion)…

  18. Relational Variables and Life Satisfaction in African American and Asian American College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkel, LaVerne A.; Constantine, Madonna G.

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored associations among relationship harmony, perceived family conflicts, relational self-concept, and life satisfaction in a sample of 169 African American and Asian American college women. As hypothesized, higher relational self-concept, or the extent to which individuals include close relationships in their self-concepts, and…

  19. Dialect Awareness and Lexical Comprehension of Mainstream American English in African American English-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jan; Gross, Megan; Chen, Jianshen; MacDonald, Maryellen C.; Kaplan, David; Brown, Megan; Seidenberg, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study was designed to examine the relationships among minority dialect use, language ability, and young African American English (AAE)-speaking children's understanding and awareness of Mainstream American English (MAE). Method: Eighty-three 4- to 8-year-old AAE-speaking children participated in 2 experimental tasks. One task…

  20. Kill Them Before They Grow. Misdiagnosis of African American Boys in American Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Michael

    This book contends that the American public education system has made "black male" synonymous with "disabled" through the creation of the labels "Behavior Disorders" and "Emotional Disorders." These labels, which say that African American boys cannot behave without special treatment, juvenile probation, and, in many cases, drugs, condemns African…

  1. Parenting within Cultural Context: Comparisons between African-American and Asian-American Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Fang; Qi, Sen

    2005-01-01

    Using the sub-samples drawn from the National Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Kindergarten (ECLS-K) database, this study examines similarities and differences between African-American and Asian-American parents in their parenting practice (i.e., parental involvement at home, expectations of child, emotional expressiveness, school involvement,…

  2. Parenting and Perceived Maternal Warmth in European American and African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Newsom, Julia; Buchanan, Christy M.; McDonald, Richard M.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional conceptualizations of parenting style assume certain associations between parenting practices/philosophies and parental warmth. This study examines whether those links are similar for European American and African American adolescents. Two hundred and ninety-eight early adolescents and their mothers reported on discipline and control…

  3. Exploring perceptions of health needs among young African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Arik V; Jagers, Robert J; Mayden, Bronwyn; Mobley, Cynthia

    2010-03-01

    Recent recommendations advocate involving young men in reproductive health programs. We know little about how young men perceive their reproductive health needs. For this study, 47 African American young men (mean age, 17.9 years) recruited from four community-based organizations completed a brief survey to explore life priorities and perceptions of health needs across 12 to 14, 15 to 19, and 20 to 25-year-olds. Participants' life priorities varied by age group with overall top categories, including education, economics, and family members. Health was listed as a salient life priority among older participants aged 15 to 25 years, though it was not highly ranked. Participants' top health concerns included sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS, with limited mention of other reproductive health concerns. Understanding where young men start from when thinking about reproductive health can better help us meet their needs. Future studies warrant examining how health needs change over time among a larger and more diverse sample of young men. PMID:19477738

  4. Successful African American women in science: A narrative inquiry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Cailisha L.

    This study used narrative inquiry as a methodology to explore the lived experiences of five African American women in science across the academic spectrum, from doctoral candidate to full professor. The research questions guiding the inquiry included one overarching question and three sub-questions: What are the lifestories of successful African American women in science?; a) How do successful African American women in science define themselves?; b) What have been the facilitators and barriers encountered by successful African American women in science?; and c) What have been the systems of support for African American women in science? The study was theoretically positioned within the frameworks of Critical Race Theory and Black Feminist Thought. The two theories were used to guide all aspects of the study including methodology, data collection, and analysis. Data included eleven 40-60 minute semi-structured interview transcripts as well as the participants' Curriculum Vitae. The study design and data analysis were built upon Clandinin and Connelly's (2000) and Clandinin's (2006) model of narrative inquiry which explores narratives as a means to understand experience. Analysis and interpretation created three dominant narratives: Scientific Beginnings, An Unexpected Journey, and Lift as You Climb. Each narrative set explores multiple stories that describe storylines which aligned with the participants' goals of who they were and who they were becoming as scientists; and, storylines of tension which ran counter to the women's goals and aspirations. Barriers and support systems are revealed, as well as the meanings the participants made of their experiences and how it affected their lives.

  5. Multiple loci associated with renal function in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Shriner

    Full Text Available The incidence of chronic kidney disease varies by ethnic group in the USA, with African Americans displaying a two-fold higher rate than European Americans. One of the two defining variables underlying staging of chronic kidney disease is the glomerular filtration rate. Meta-analysis in individuals of European ancestry has identified 23 genetic loci associated with the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR. We conducted a follow-up study of these 23 genetic loci using a population-based sample of 1,018 unrelated admixed African Americans. We included in our follow-up study two variants in APOL1 associated with end-stage kidney disease discovered by admixture mapping in admixed African Americans. To address confounding due to admixture, we estimated local ancestry at each marker and global ancestry. We performed regression analysis stratified by local ancestry and combined the resulting regression estimates across ancestry strata using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effects model. We found that 11 of the 24 loci were significantly associated with eGFR in our sample. The effect size estimates were not significantly different between the subgroups of individuals with two copies of African ancestry vs. two copies of European ancestry for any of the 11 loci. In contrast, allele frequencies were significantly different at 10 of the 11 loci. Collectively, the 11 loci, including four secondary signals revealed by conditional analyses, explained 14.2% of the phenotypic variance in eGFR, in contrast to the 1.4% explained by the 24 loci in individuals of European ancestry. Our findings provide insight into the genetic basis of variation in renal function among admixed African Americans.

  6. Associations of cigarette smoking with rheumatoid arthritis in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikuls, Ted R.; Sayles, Harlan; Yu, Fang; LeVan, Tricia; Gould, Karen A.; Thiele, Geoffrey M.; Conn, Doyt; Jonas, Beth L.; Callahan, Leigh F.; Smith, Edwin; Brasington, Richard; Moreland, Larry W.; Reynolds, Richard; Bridges, S. Louis

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the associations of cigarette smoking with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in African Americans and to determine to whether this association is impacted by HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE). Methods Smoking status, cumulative smoking exposure, and SE status were measured in African American patients with RA and in healthy controls. Associations of smoking with RA were examined using age- and gender-adjusted logistic regression. Additive and multiplicative SE-smoking interactions were examined. Results After adjusting for age and gender, ever (OR = 1.45; 95% CI 1.07 to 1.97) and current smoking (OR = 1.56; 95% CI 1.07 to 2.26) were more common in African American RA cases (n = 605) than in controls (n = 255). The association of smoking with RA was limited to those with a cumulative exposure exceeding 10 pack-years, associations that were evident in both autoantibody positive and negative disease. There was evidence of a significant additive interaction between SE status and heavy smoking (≥ 10 pack-years) in RA risk (attributable proportion due to interaction [AP] of 0.58, p = 0.007) with an AP of 0.47 (p = 0.006) between SE status and ever smoking. There was no evidence of multiplicative interactions. Conclusion Among African Americans, cigarette smoking is associated not only with the risk of autoantibody positive RA but also with the risk of autoantibody negative disease. RA risk attributable to smoking is limited to African Americans with more than 10 pack-years of exposure and is more pronounced among individuals positive for HLA-DRB1 SE. PMID:20722010

  7. Culturally sensitive instructional practices for African-American learners with disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, M E

    1992-01-01

    This article discusses the cultural and educational needs of African-American learners with disabilities. Six theoretical assumptions establish some basic suppositions about culturally and linguistically diverse learners and effective instructional practices. A review of the literature describes African-American cultural practices, interests, and cognitive styles; highlights the attitudes, perceptions, and instructional practices of effective teachers of African-American students; and includes patterns of teacher-student and peer-group interactions that promote high academic achievement among African-American learners. Recommendations include organizing teaching, learning, and performance in ways that are compatible with the social structure of African-American students with disabilities. PMID:1425853

  8. Peer navigation in African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mollica MA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Michelle A Mollica,1 Lynne S Nemeth,1 Susan D Newman,2 Martina Mueller,1 Katherine Sterba31College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 2South Carolina Clinical and Translation Research Center for Community Health Partnerships, College of Nursing, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USA; 3Department of Public Health Sciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC, USAPurpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility and acceptability of a peer navigation survivorship program for African American (AA breast cancer survivors (BCS and its potential effects on selected short-term outcomes according to the Quality of Life Model Applied to Cancer Survivors.Methods: An AA BCS who completed treatment over 1 year prior to the study was trained as a peer navigator (PN, and then paired with AA women completing primary breast cancer treatment (n=4 for 2 months. This mixed-methods, proof of concept study utilized a convergent parallel approach to explore feasibility and investigate whether changes in scores are favorable using interviews and self-administered questionnaires.Results: Results indicate that the PN intervention was acceptable by both PN and BCS, and was feasible in outcomes of recruitment, cost, and time requirements. Improvements in symptom distress, perceived support from God, and preparedness for recovery outcomes were observed over time. Qualitative analysis revealed six themes emerging from BCS interviews: “learning to ask the right questions”, “start living life again”, “shifting my perspective”, “wanting to give back”, “home visits are powerful”, and “we both have a journey”: support from someone who has been there.Conclusion: Results support current literature indicating that AA women who have survived breast cancer can be an important source of support, knowledge, and motivation for those completing breast cancer treatment. Areas

  9. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country the ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46-year- ...

  10. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... is -- an epidemic. Winston Dyer: My introduction to prostate cancer started with the death of my 46- ...

  11. Asian American and African American masculinities : race, citizenship, and culture in post-civil rights

    OpenAIRE

    Chon-Smith, Chong

    2006-01-01

    Through the interpretation of labor department documents, journalism, and state discourses, I historicize the formation of both the construction of black "pathology" and the Asian "model minority" by analyzing the comparative racialization of African Americans and Asian Americans in the United States. Beginning with the Moynihan Report and journalistic reports about Asian Americans as "model minority," Black and Asian men were racialized together, as if "racially magnetized," in an attempt to...

  12. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  13. Keep It Up: development of a community-based health screening and HIV prevention strategy for reaching young African American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Lydia; Bonaparte, Beverly; Joseph, Heather; Agronick, Gail; Leow, Deborah McLean; Myint-U, Athi; Stueve, Ann

    2009-08-01

    This article addresses the challenge of developing HIV prevention interventions that not only prove to be efficacious but also are designed from the outset to overcome obstacles to reaching priority populations. We describe how community input has informed development of Keep It Up (KIU), a community health screening and behavioral prevention program for young Black men. KIU embeds HIV prevention in a broader health promotion campaign, with the goal of reducing stigma and reaching a population that bears a disproportionate burden of HIV/AIDS and other health problems-hypertension, high cholesterol, diabetes, asthma, and obesity. Information from community partners, expert advisers, and focus groups was collected at key junctures and incorporated into four core components: social marketing, a computerized behavioral learning module, biological testing for HIV and other conditions, and a personalized health profile and risk reduction plan. A pilot with 116 participants provided evidence that the KIU model of integrating HIV prevention with other health screening is acceptable and has the potential to reach Black men at risk for HIV as well as other chronic health conditions. PMID:19670966

  14. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  15. Risk Factors of Sexual Harassment by Peers: A Longitudinal Investigation of African American and European American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Sara E.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Davis-Kean, Pamela E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2007-01-01

    The present research explores risk factors for, and longitudinal associations of, sexual harassment by peers during adolescence. Eight-hundred and seventy-two African American and European American adolescents (65.4% African American, 51.1% females) were assessed during the summer after the eighth grade (mean age=14.2 years) and then again in the…

  16. Do Birds of a Feather Flock Together? The Variable Bases for African American, Asian American, and European American Adolescents' Selection of Similar Friends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jill V.

    2000-01-01

    Examined variability in adolescent-friend similarity in African American, Asian American, and European American adolescents. Found greatest similarity for substance use, modest for academic orientation, and low for ethnic identity. Found that compared with other groups, African Americans chose friends who were less similar in academic orientation…

  17. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources. PMID:26899801

  18. Obesity in African-American Women--The Time Bomb is Ticking: An Urgent Call for Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Barbara A

    2015-12-01

    The "time bomb is ticking" because there is an obesity crisis associated with higher rates of chronic diseases such as stroke, hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer in African-American women compared to White women. African-American women incur higher medical costs from hospitalizations, decreased productivity in the work setting, lost wages, the needfor medical benefits and pharmacy-associated costs, and more time away from family than White women. Numerous factors, such as the socio-cultural context of eating, acceptance of a larger weight status, the emotionally liberating effects offood, and preference for highfat and high caloric, sugary-content, and sodium-laden food influences the obesity crisis in African-American women. The interplay of poverty and lower socioeconomic status, residential segregation, health literacy, availability of fast foods and scarce produce in local convenience food marts, physical inactivity, and conflicting messages from social media public service announcements (PSAs) and ads in national magazines affect the obesity crisis in African-American women. There is an urgent call for sustainable, community-driven health policy initiatives that improve access to healthy foods in lower-income, minority communities. Furthermore, African-American women are challenged to modify their health behaviors by preparing healthy meals for themselves and theirfamilies, and by engaging in physical activity. PMID:27045156

  19. What African Americans with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure Need to Know: Get Checked for Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... m our online catalog. Alternate Language URL What African Americans with Diabetes or High Blood Pressure Need to ... is the #1 cause of kidney failure among African Americans. High blood pressure is the #2 cause. African ...

  20. Racial Discrimination, John Henryism, and Depression Among African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Darrell L.; Neighbors, Harold W.; Geronimus, Arline T.; Jackson, James S.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence from previous studies indicates that racial discrimination is significantly associated with depression and that African Americans with higher levels of socioeconomic status (SES) report greater exposure to racial discrimination compared to those with lower SES levels. Coping strategies could alter the relationship between racial discrimination and depression among African Americans. This study first examined whether greater levels of SES were associated with increased reports of racial discrimination and ratings of John Henryism, a measure of high-effort coping, among African Americans. Second, we examined whether high-effort coping moderated the relationship between racial discrimination and depression. Data were drawn from the National Survey of American Life Reinterview (n = 2,137). Analyses indicated that greater levels of education were positively associated with racial discrimination (p < .001) and increased levels of racial discrimination were positively related to depression (p < .001), controlling for all sociodemographic factors. Greater levels of John Henryism were associated with increased odds of depression but there was no evidence to suggest that the relationship between discrimination and depression was altered by the effects of John Henryism. PMID:16259481

  1. Increasing HIV/AIDS awareness among African-American women: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ludella; Tabi, Marian M

    2013-07-01

    This exploratory study was conducted to assess the effect of an HIV/AIDS prevention program on producing positive changing attitudes among African-American women in Southeast Georgia. This study used a faith-based approach. Data were collected from 23 respondents recruited from a local African-American church. HIV training was conducted over four 1-hour sessions using web-based interactive videos and lectures on HIV/AIDS. Constructs from the Social Cognitive Theory comprised the framework upon which the women received HIV/AIDS prevention training. Participants completed a 25-item pre- and post-intervention questionnaire to measure any changes that occurred in their attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS. Results showed a statistically significant difference in mean scores of individual knowledge and attitudes about HIV. The difference in mean scores for the remaining items was found to be statistically insignificant. The overall change in attitudes was also statistically significant, t = 2.27, df = 22, p < 0.05, which provided further evidence that when peers educate their communities on HIV/AIDS, it makes a significant difference in changing their attitudes about this disease. Although findings were positive, further data is needed to substantiate and validate the use of community peers to increase knowledge and awareness about HIV/AIDS among the African-American population. PMID:24218873

  2. African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care: assets, challenges and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Jennifer M; Thompson, Keitra; Rogers, Christopher

    2016-06-01

    The US National HIV AIDS strategy promotes the use of faith communities to lessen the burden of HIV in African American communities. One specific strategy presented is the use of these non-traditional venues for HIV testing and co-location of services. African American churches can be at the forefront of this endeavour through the provision of HIV testing and linkage to care. However, there are few interventions to promote the churches' involvement in both HIV testing and linkage to care. We conducted 4 focus groups (n = 39 participants), 4 interviews and 116 surveys in a mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of a church-based HIV testing and linkage to care intervention in Philadelphia, PA, USA. Our objectives were to examine: (1) available assets, (2) challenges and barriers and (3) needs associated with church-based HIV testing and linkage to care. Analyses revealed several factors of importance, including the role of the church as an access point for testing in low-income neighbourhoods, challenges in openly discussing the relationship between sexuality and HIV, and buy-in among church leadership. These findings can support intervention development and necessitate situating African American church-based HIV testing and linkage to care interventions within a multi-level framework. PMID:26652165

  3. Beauty salon health intervention increases fruit and vegetable consumption in African-American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Latasha T; Ralston, Penny A; Jones, Ethel

    2010-06-01

    African Americans, especially women, have low fruit and vegetable consumption, which is related to higher rates of obesity, morbidity, and mortality in comparison to whites. Community-based approaches are recommended to address this problem, including beauty salons, which are conducive environments for health information dissemination. The purpose of this pilot study, conducted in 2007, was to determine the effectiveness of a 6-week beauty salon-based health intervention, Steps for a New You, in improving diet, physical activity, and water consumption behaviors in African-American women using a quasiexperimental design. A random sample of 20 African-American women was selected from a list of regular clients at two beauty salons (n=10 each for treatment and comparison salons) located in a Southern rural community. The intervention included scripted motivational sessions between the cosmetologist and clients, information packets, and a starter kit of sample items. Data were collected using pre- and posttest questionnaires. The results showed that mean intake of fruit and vegetables was significantly higher at posttest for the treatment group but not for the comparison group. These findings suggest that the intervention may have had a positive effect on fruit and vegetable consumption by treatment group participants. However, further work is needed to refine the methodology, especially strengthening the intervention to increase physical activity and water consumption. PMID:20497787

  4. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in this country ... have even suggested that our testosterone runs higher. We really don't know. But I would strongly ...

  5. African American Men and Prostate Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: We know that black Americans have one of the highest incidences of prostate cancer in the world, and in ... not go to the doctor's. Curtis Pettaway, M.D.: Those are the individuals where the message really ...

  6. Design of a trial to evaluate the impact of clinical pharmacists and community health promoters working with African-Americans and Latinos with Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerber Ben S

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing prevalence of diabetes and the lack of patients reaching recommended therapeutic goals, novel models of team-based care are emerging. These teams typically include a combination of physicians, nurses, case managers, pharmacists, and community-based peer health promoters (HPs. Recent evidence supports the role of pharmacists in diabetes management to improve glycemic control, as they offer expertise in medication management with the ability to collaboratively intensify therapy. However, few studies of pharmacy-based models of care have focused on low income, minority populations that are most in need of intervention. Alternatively, HP interventions have focused largely upon low income minority groups, addressing their unique psychosocial and environmental challenges in diabetes self-care. This study will evaluate the impact of HPs as a complement to pharmacist management in a randomized controlled trial. Methods/Design The primary aim of this randomized trial is to evaluate the effectiveness of clinical pharmacists and HPs on diabetes behaviors (including healthy eating, physical activity, and medication adherence, hemoglobin A1c, blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. A total of 300 minority patients with uncontrolled diabetes from the University of Illinois Medical Center ambulatory network in Chicago will be randomized to either pharmacist management alone, or pharmacist management plus HP support. After one year, the pharmacist-only group will be intensified by the addition of HP support and maintenance will be assessed by phasing out HP support from the pharmacist plus HP group (crossover design. Outcomes will be evaluated at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. In addition, program and healthcare utilization data will be incorporated into cost and cost-effectiveness evaluations of pharmacist management with and without HP support. Discussion The study will evaluate an innovative, integrated

  7. Structural Ecosystems Therapy for HIV-Seropositive African American Women: Effects on Psychological Distress, Family Hassles, and Family Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szapocznik, Jose; Feaster, Daniel J.; Mitrani, Victoria B.; Prado, Guillermo; Smith, Lila; Robinson-Batista, Carleen; Schwartz, Seth J.; Mauer, Magaly H.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    This study tests the efficacy of Structural Ecosystems Therapy (SET), a family-ecological intervention, in improving psychosocial functioning when compared with an attention-comparison person-centered condition and a community control condition. A sample of 209 HIV-seropositive, urban, low-income, African American women was randomized into 1 of…

  8. Multiple Risks, Emotion Regulation Skill, and Cortisol in Low-Income African American Youth: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliewer, Wendy; Reid-Quinones, Kathryn; Shields, Brian J.; Foutz, Lauren

    2009-01-01

    Associations between multiple risks, emotion regulation skill, and basal cortisol levels were examined in a community sample of 69 African American youth (mean age = 11.30 years; 49% male) living in an urban setting. Multiple risks were assessed at Time 1 and consisted of 10 demographic and psychosocial risk factors including parent, child, and…

  9. African-American English and Reading Achievement: The Relationships among Dialect Awareness, Dialect Shifting and Reading Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajous-Brady, Daphne Lucienne

    2012-01-01

    When children begin to connect spoken speech to print, regardless of their language, they all encounter disparities between oral and written representations. Children who speak the African-American English (AAE) dialect at home and in their communities may encounter an even greater number of disparities between oral and written representations…

  10. Moving Heaven and Earth: Administrative Search and Selection Processes and the Experience of an African American Woman Senior Administrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett-Johnson, Kim R.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case/phenomenological study was to examine a collegiate administrative search and selection process and the experience of an African American woman who was selected to the position of chancellor. A case concerning the search process of a regional campus of Ivy Tech Community College of Indiana was identified and chosen.…

  11. Impact of College Environments on the Spiritual Development of African American Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weddle-West, Karen; Hagan, Waldon Joseph; Norwood, Kristie M.

    2013-01-01

    This study focused on the impact of college environments on the spiritual development of African American students. Using the Armstrong Measure of Spirituality (AMOS) survey administered to 125 African American college students, the study sought to ascertain whether or not there were differences in spirituality as reported by African American…

  12. Pragmatic Features in Original Narratives Written by African American Students at Three Grade Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kersting, Jessica M.; Anderson, Michele A.; Newkirk-Turner, Brandi L.; Nelson, Nickola W.

    2015-01-01

    African American English has a rich oral tradition, with identifiable features across all 5 systems of language--phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics. This is an investigation of the extent to which pragmatic features of African American oral storytelling traditions are apparent in the written stories of African American…

  13. Neighborhood Racial Composition, Racial Discrimination, and Depressive Symptoms in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    English, Devin; Lambert, Sharon F.; Evans, Michele K.; Zonderman, Alan B

    2014-01-01

    While evidence indicates that experienced racial discrimination is associated with increased depressive symptoms for African Americans, there is little research investigating predictors of experienced racial discrimination. This paper examines neighborhood racial composition and sociodemographic factors as antecedents to experienced racial discrimination and resultant levels of depressive symptoms among African American adults. The sample included 505 socioeconomically-diverse African America...

  14. The production of disability culture among young African-American men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlieger, Patrick J; Albrecht, Gary L; Hertz, Miram

    2007-05-01

    During the past two decades, debate about disability definitions, concepts, models and policies has been led primarily by Western white middle class disability activists and scholars. This paper contributes to the discussion by examining how disability is conceived and disability culture is developed in a poor, African-American community. The recognition of disability as a defining identity and disability culture as a cohesive force is unusual in the African-American community, and we ask what conditions are necessary for such an identity and culture to develop. To address this question, in 1998 we began a 5 year ethnographic research project concerning young African-American men in the spinal cord injury unit of an inner city rehabilitation hospital in Chicago USA. Based on this research, we argue that there are three necessary conditions for a disability culture to emerge in a group of African-Americans who acquired their disability violently. First, is the perception of social alienation from family and fellow gang members. Second, is immersion in a supportive physical and social environment where disability meanings are produced, reinforced and passed on across generations. Third, is the development of personal narratives and metaphors that give meaning to disability, anchor behavioral changes and help to reconcile value conflicts. Our analysis allows us to understand a change in identity among these young men and the emergence of a shared disability culture represented through signs, symbols, language, rules and ceremonies. This analytical framework also permits us to re-examine disability culture in white society and in specific disability cultures such as deaf culture and to suggest that while there are similarities across groups, disability culture is not monolithic. PMID:17363124

  15. Digital expression among urban, low-income African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christina M; Staiano, Amanda E; Calvert, Sandra L

    2011-01-01

    Digital production is a means through which African American adolescents communicate and express their experiences with peers. This study examined the content and the form of the digital productions of 24 urban, low-income African American adolescents who attended a summer academic program. The content of student digital productions focused on academic experiences and friendships. Their production styles revealed that youth used perceptually salient production features, such as rapid scene changes and loud rap music. The results suggest that when placed in a supportive, academic environment and provided with digital production resources, students who traditionally face barriers due to cultural and economic inequalities digitally express to their peers an interest in academics and positive peer relationships, and that these youth communicate their experiences through a shared production style that reflects their broader cultural experiences. PMID:21910270

  16. Home Literacy Environment of African American Head Start Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janese Daniels

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have documented culturally specific family literacy practices in which low-income families engage, which are often a function of the context in which the family is currently embedded.  These practices are well documented in ethnographic literature. Although this evidence exists, its utility is limited due to small sample sizes and lack of quantitative documentation on their contribution to children’s language and literacy development.  This study attempted to quantify those culturally specific family literacy practices.  51 low-income African-American mother-child dyads participated.  The contribution of multiple literacy practices was examined in relation to child language and literacy outcomes.  Most low-income African-American families engaged in multiple literacy practices.  Recommended areas for future research directions are discussed.

  17. Culturally competent practice with African American juvenile sex offenders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venable, Victoria M; Guada, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    African American juveniles adjudicated for sexual offenses may struggle with the mistrust of both the judicial and treatment systems. Unlike general mental health services, juvenile sex offender treatment is often mandated by the court or child welfare services, thus these youths and their families must engage in the treatment process. Without clinicians and services that can acknowledge and respond to a minority youth's experience in a sensitive, culturally competent manner, there could be significant resistance to treatment. Traditional treatment approaches fail to prioritize issues involving cultural competence. This article addresses the unique challenges of African American juvenile sex offenders and makes recommendations for creating culturally competent practice for these youth and their families. PMID:24641684

  18. Academic Growth Trajectories and Family Relationships among African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotterer, Aryn M.; Lowe, Katie; McHale, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    This study explored trajectories of African American youths’ academic functioning and assessed whether changes in parent-adolescent relationships were associated with changes in youths’ academic functioning. The data were drawn from a three-year longitudinal study of gender socialization and development in two-parent African American families and included 197 families. Findings revealed gender differences in achievement trajectories and indicated that boys not only had lower levels of academic achievement compared to girls, but also experienced steeper declines in school self-esteem during adolescence. Changes in parent-adolescent relationship quality were linked to changes in academic functioning: Increases in conflict were related to decreases in GPA, school bonding, and school self-esteem and increases in warmth were related to increases in school bonding and school self-esteem. PMID:27122959

  19. Men Do Matter: Ethnographic Insights on the Socially Supportive Role of the African American Uncle in the Lives of Inner-City African American Male Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Joseph B., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the role of the African American uncle as a vital yet overlooked form of social support and social capital in the lives of adolescent African American male sons living in single-female-headed households. Research rarely examines the affective roles and functions of men in Black families; moreover, poor urban Black male youth…

  20. Impegno nero: Italian intellectuals and the African-American struggle

    OpenAIRE

    Leavitt, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Second World War, Italian intellectuals participated in Italy’s reconstruction with an ideological commitment inspired by the African-American struggle for equal rights in the United States. Drawing on the work of many of the leading figures in postwar Italian culture, including Italo Calvino, Giorgio Caproni, Cesare Pavese, and Elio Vittorini, this essay argues that Italian intellectual impegno—defined as the effort to remake Italian culture and to guide Italian socia...

  1. Health information-seeking behavior and older African American women.

    OpenAIRE

    Gollop, C J

    1997-01-01

    This study explored the ways in which urban, older, African American women obtain health information and some of the factors that influence such activity. Among the possible determinants examined were self-perceived literacy, access to health information, and mobility. The findings suggest that respondents receive health information from their physicians, the mass media, and members of their social networks. The results of this research also indicated that members of this population have a hi...

  2. Excessive Drinking Among African American Men: Individual and Contextual Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    DePadilla, Lara; Elifson, Kirk; McCarty, Frances; Sterk, Claire

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we explored associations of multiple domains with regular drinking and getting drunk among adult African American men. Questionnaire-based, computer-assisted interviews were conducted with 484 men in Atlanta, Georgia. Data analysis involved multivariate logistic regression analyses. Findings show that being older increased the odds of both drinking behaviors. Sensation seeking increased the odds of regular drinking and having experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse incre...

  3. Developmental Origins of Perfectionism Among African American Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, Keith C.; Trotter, Reid; Reinke, Wendy M.; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The present study used a person-centered latent variable approach to classify types of perfectionism among 6th-grade African American children living in an urban setting. In particular, the authors were interested in determining whether an adaptive subtype could be found and validated against external criteria. The authors also attempted to identify any developmental precursors that could reliably differentiate the perfectionist subtypes. A social learning and competence framework was used to...

  4. African American Women, Hair Care, and Health Barriers

    OpenAIRE

    Gathers, Raechele Cochran; Mahan, Meredith Grace

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of hair loss among African American women; explore the psychosocial impact of hair grooming difficulties; and examine both perceptions related to physician encounters in this group and the relationship between hair grooming, physical activity, and weight maintenance. Design: An anonymous retrospective and qualitative survey, the Hair Care Assessment Survey, is an 18-question novel survey instrument designed at the Henry F...

  5. Opportunities to address lung cancer disparities among African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Coughlin, Steven S.; Matthews-Juarez, Patricia; Juarez, Paul D.; Melton, Courtnee E; King, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Race and socioeconomic status are well known to influence lung cancer incidence and mortality patterns in the U.S. Lung cancer incidence and mortality rates are higher among blacks than whites. In this article we review opportunities to address disparities in lung cancer incidence, mortality, and survivorship among African Americans. First, we summarize recent advances in the early detection and treatment of lung cancer. Then we consider black-white disparities in lung cancer treatment includ...

  6. Substance Use Correlates of Depression among African American Male Inmates

    OpenAIRE

    Holliday, Rhonda Conerly; Braithwaite, Ronald L.; Yancey, Elleen; Akintobi, Tabia; Stevens-Watkins, Danielle; Smith, Selina; Powell, C. Lamonte

    2016-01-01

    Substance use correlates of depressive symptoms among incarcerated adult male African American substance users were examined in the current study. Frequency of drug use was assessed with 12 items specific to an individual’s substance use. The Patient Depression Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to assess symptoms of depression. Approximately 90% of the sample displayed symptoms of depression ranging from minimal to severe. Regression models revealed that three substance use variables demonstrate...

  7. Child Maltreatment and Delinquency Onset Among African American Adolescent Males

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, James Herbert; Van Dorn, Richard A.; Bright, Charlotte Lyn; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Nebbitt, Von E.

    2009-01-01

    Child welfare and criminology research have increasingly sought to better understand factors that increase the likelihood that abused and neglected children will become involved in the juvenile justice system. However, few studies have addressed this relationship among African American male adolescents. The current study examines the relationship between child maltreatment (i.e., neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and other/mixed abuse) and the likelihood of a delinquency petition using a...

  8. Promoting Physical Activity Among Overweight Young African American Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-01-15

    This podcast is an interview with Nefertiti Durant, MD, MPH, from the University of Alabama at Birmingham about promoting physical activity among overweight and obese young African American Women using Internet-based tools.  Created: 1/15/2014 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 1/15/2014.

  9. Healthy Eating Index and Alternate Healthy Eating Index among Haitian Americans and African Americans with and without Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma G. Huffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethnicities within Black populations have not been distinguished in most nutrition studies. We sought to examine dietary differences between African Americans (AA and Haitian Americans (HA with and without type 2 diabetes using the Healthy Eating Index, 2005 (HEI-05, and the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI. The design was cross-sectional =471 (225 AA, 246 HA and recruitment was by community outreach. The eating indices were calculated from data collected with the Harvard food-frequency questionnaire. African Americans had lower HEI-05 scores =−10.9 (−8.67, 13.1; SE=1.12, <.001 than HA. Haitian American females and AA males had higher AHEI than AA females and HA males, respectively, (=.006 adjusting for age and education. Participants with diabetes had higher adherence to the HEI-05 =3.90 (1.78, 6.01, SE=1.08, <.001 and lower adherence to the AHEI =−9.73 (16.3, −3.19, SE=3.33, =.004, than participants without diabetes. The findings underscore the importance of disaggregating ethnicities and disease state when assessing diet.

  10. Epigenetic Markers of Renal Function in African Americans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha M. Bomotti

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing concern in the United States due to its rapidly rising prevalence, particularly among African Americans. Epigenetic DNA methylation markers are becoming important biomarkers of chronic diseases such as CKD. To better understand how these methylation markers play a role in kidney function, we measured 26,428 DNA methylation sites in 972 African Americans from the Genetic Epidemiology Network of Arteriopathy (GENOA study. We then evaluated (1 whether epigenetic markers are associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, (2 whether the significantly associated markers are also associated with traditional risk factors and/or novel biomarkers for eGFR, and (3 how much additional variation in eGFR is explained by epigenetic markers beyond established risk factors and biomarkers. The majority of methylation markers most significantly associated with eGFR (24 out of the top 30 appeared to function, at least in part, through pathways related to aging, inflammation, or cholesterol. However, six epigenetic markers were still able to significantly predict eGFR after adjustment for other risk factors. This work shows that epigenetic markers may offer valuable new insight into the complex pathophysiology of CKD in African Americans.

  11. African Americans and the Spanish-American War and Philippine Insurrection: Military Participation, Recognition, and Memory, 1898-1904

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Timothy Dale

    2013-01-01

    The Spanish-American War, which began in 1898, coincided with a virulent campaign of racial violence and legal segregation directed at African Americans throughout the "Jim Crow" South. As the jingoism of the day stirred American nationalism, the question of whether to support the war against Spain was much more complicated to even the most patriotic African Americans as they faced an unceasing assault on their civil rights. Utilizing numerous editorials from the black press, and letters fr...

  12. Evaluation of a Structural Model of Objectification Theory and Eating Disorder Symptomatology among European American and African American Undergraduate Women

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Karen S.; Mazzeo, Suzanne E.

    2009-01-01

    The current study evaluated a structural equation model of objectification theory among European American (n = 408) and African American women (n = 233). Modeling results indicated a particularly strong association between thin-ideal internalization/body monitoring and eating disorder symptoms, with weaker relationships among body dissatisfaction, depression, anxiety, and eating disorder symptoms. The measurement model was not equivalent for European Americans and African Americans; however, ...

  13. U.S. Volunteering in the Aftermath of the Great Recession: Were African Americans a Significant Factor?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon B. Carter

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Great Recession weakened U.S. families’ abilities to make charitable gifts. Although African Americans are generally especially hard hit by these types of economic crises, they have a long and distinctive history of volunteerism and mutual assistance. Consequently, the purpose of this study is to examine African American volunteering in nonprofit organizations in the aftermath of the 2008–2009 recession. Specifically, we examined race as well as other factors with the potential to influence volunteering in four categories of organizations: poverty organizations, senior service agencies, social action groups, and religious affiliated organizations. Using the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID data, this secondary analysis produced significant findings regarding volunteerism among African Americans in these community-based organizations.

  14. Development of a Spiritually Based Educational Intervention to Increase Informed Decision Making for Prostate Cancer Screening Among Church-Attending African American Men

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Wynn, Theresa A.; Southward, Penny; Litaker, Mark S.; Jeames, Sanford; Schulz, Emily

    2009-01-01

    One way of developing culturally relevant health communication in the African American church setting is to develop spiritually based interventions, in which the health message is framed by relevant spiritual themes and scripture. In this article we describe the development of a community health advisor (CHA)-led intervention aimed at increasing informed decision making (IDM) for prostate cancer screening among church-attending African American men. Full-color print educational booklets were ...

  15. Pneumococcal Tricuspid Valve Endocarditis in a Young African American: A Case for Inclusion of African Americans in Pneumococcal Vaccine Criteria

    OpenAIRE

    John J. Murray; Joseph Akamah; Oghenerukevwe Odiete; Olagoke Akinwande

    2010-01-01

    Following the development of penicillin, complications from streptococcus pneumonia such as endocarditis have become rare. However, certain independent risk factors such as cigarette smoking and being of African-American (AA) decent have been associated with a higher incidence of invasive pneumococcal disease, but only cigarette smoking has been targeted by current recommendations from the Advisory Committee on Immunological Practices (ACIPs). We report a case of a young AA smoker, who develo...

  16. The Impact of Negative Stereotypes & Representations of African-Americans in the Media and African-American Incarceration

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Tamara Therese

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the sociological impact of public polices enacted during slavery in the United States. Another goal was to discover whether the negative stereotypes of African-Americans in film are related to the reinforcement of negative perceptions established during slavery. Finally, a review of the disparate outcomes produced by new discriminatory policies within the criminal justice system details the impact of current policies that disproportionately impac...

  17. Race and Class in America's Elite Preparatory Boarding Schools: African Americans as the "Outsiders Within."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr.; Persell, Caroline Hodges

    1991-01-01

    Examines elements of the African American experience in American prep schools, using data from a survey of 55 schools. African Americans must cope with both racial and class distinctions in these schools, but the majority subsequently gain admission to highly selective colleges. (DM)

  18. Anxiety Psychopathology in African American Adults: Literature Review and Development of an Empirically Informed Sociocultural Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Lora Rose; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    In this review, the extant literature concerning anxiety psychopathology in African American adults is summarized to develop a testable, explanatory framework with implications for future research. The model was designed to account for purported lower rates of anxiety disorders in African Americans compared to European Americans, along with other…

  19. Digital History: Using the Internet to Enhance African American Studies in the Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuerell, Scott; Jaeger, Matt

    2015-01-01

    The authors discuss how high school students participated in a unit in which they learned about African American history in a 1:1 computer classroom--in particular, how they were able to use digital history to learn about a variety of African American leaders who are not frequently covered in the traditional American History textbook. In addition,…

  20. The Relationship between Maladaptive Eating Behaviors and Racial Identity among African American Women in College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flowers, Kelci C.; Levesque, Maurice J.; Fischer, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Research on eating disorders has shown that European American women suffer from eating disorders and body image dissatisfaction more than African American women. However, recent meta-analyses suggest these differences may be decreasing and that some African American women may be particularly susceptible to body dissatisfaction and eating disorder…

  1. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Volkov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD, but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans report more “problems” with change in seasons than African Americans, we expected that the seasonal changes in sleep duration would be greater in African students than in African American students. Based on Seasonal Pattern Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ responses, African American and African college students in Washington, D.C. (N = 575 were grouped into a winter SAD/S-SAD group or a no winter diagnosis group, and winter and summer sleep length were determined. We conducted a 2 (season × 2 (sex × 2 (ethnicity × 2 (winter diagnosis group ANCOVA on reported sleep duration, controlling for age. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found that African and African American students with winter SAD/S-SAD report sleeping longer in the summer than in the winter. No differences in seasonality of sleep were found between African and African American students. Students with winter SAD or S-SAD may need to sacrifice sleep duration in the winter, when their academic functioning/efficiency may be impaired by syndromal or subsyndromal depression, in order to meet seasonally increased academic demands.

  2. Mentoring African American Expatriates: Providing The Bridge To Success Abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria C. Crawley

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Employment predictions continue to forecast increasing racial diversity in the American workforce as firms face global competition and strive to grasp the challenges of a global business landscape.  As American multinational corporations use expatriate assignments; supplemented by flexipatriates and inpatriates to meet customer preferences in the global marketplace, growing racial diversity may generate more expatriates of color.  Global human resource management research has focused on issues such as adjustment and cross-cultural development and recently mentoring as critical factors for expatriate success.  A growing body of mentoring research details the career experiences of employees with diverse backgrounds, yet few studies center on the experiences of the African American expatriate.  This article aims to examine African Americans mentoring opportunities in a global environment, with a focus on understanding the role mentoring plays for this particular population group. This work is intended to contribute to the increasing literature on global mentoring and will help to influence the thinking of multinational corporations’ response to the increasing diversity of their global workforce.

  3. Barriers to Clinical Trial Participation: Comparing Perceptions and Knowledge of African American and White South Carolinians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sei-Hill; Tanner, Andrea; Friedman, Daniela B; Foster, Caroline; Bergeron, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Analyzing data from a survey of African American and White residents in South Carolina, this study attempts to understand how to better promote clinical trial participation specifically within the African American population. To explore why participation is lower in the African American population, the authors examined two sets of potential barriers: structural/procedural (limited accessibility, lack of awareness, doctors not discussing clinical trial options, lack of health insurance) and cognitive/psychological (lack of subjective and factual knowledge, misperceptions, distrust, fear, perceived risk). Findings revealed that African Americans were significantly less willing than Whites to participate in a clinical trial. African Americans also had lower subjective and factual knowledge about clinical trials and perceived greater risk involved in participating in a clinical trial. The authors found that lack of subjective knowledge and perceived risk were significant predictors of African Americans' willingness to participate in a clinical trial. Implications of the findings are discussed in detail. PMID:26042496

  4. School and peer influences on the academic outcomes of African American adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler-Barnes, Sheretta T; Estrada-Martinez, Lorena; Colin, Rosa J; Jones, Brittni D

    2015-10-01

    Little scholarship explores how adolescents' beliefs about school and peers influence the academic outcomes of African American boys and girls. The sample included 612 African American boys (N = 307, Mage = 16.84) and girls (N = 305, Mage = 16.79). Latent class analysis (LCA) revealed unique patterns for African American boys and girls. Findings indicate that for African American boys, school attachment was protective, despite having peers who endorsed negative achievement values. Furthermore, socio-economic (SES) status was associated with higher grade point averages (GPA) for African American girls. Overall, these findings underscore the unique role of school, peer, and gendered experiences in lives of African American adolescents. PMID:26277404

  5. Father Knows Best: Paternal Presence and Sexual Debut in African-American Adolescents Living in Poverty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langley, Cheri

    2016-03-01

    Adolescents found within single-parent families without a residential father have reported higher levels of sexual debut and higher levels of reported pregnancy. Using data from the Mobile Youth Survey, the purpose of this study is to determine the impact of the presence of a father figure on the sexual debut of African-American adolescents living in poverty and to determine if gender moderates the relationship between the presence of a father figure and sexual debut. Additionally, this study will examine the family processes in which the presence of a father figure can affect the sexual debut of African-American adolescents who live within economically and socially disadvantaged communities. The results revealed that African-American adolescents reporting a father figure had lower rates of sexual debut than those youth reporting no father figure. Gender was not found to be a significant moderator in the relationship between father figure presence and sexual debut. However, existing curfews and family rules did account for some of the effects of presence of a father figure and sexual debut. The results suggest that when adolescents have a father figure in their lives, it may reduce the possibility of early sexual debut. PMID:25582779

  6. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Nunn

    Full Text Available In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after

  7. Keeping the faith: African American faith leaders' perspectives and recommendations for reducing racial disparities in HIV/AIDS infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Amy; Cornwall, Alexandra; Chute, Nora; Sanders, Julia; Thomas, Gladys; James, George; Lally, Michelle; Trooskin, Stacey; Flanigan, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    In Philadelphia, 66% of new HIV infections are among African Americans and 2% of African Americans are living with HIV. The city of Philadelphia has among the largest numbers of faith institutions of any city in the country. Although faith-based institutions play an important role in the African American community, their response to the AIDS epidemic has historically been lacking. We convened 38 of Philadelphia's most influential African American faith leaders for in-depth interviews and focus groups examining the role of faith-based institutions in HIV prevention. Participants were asked to comment on barriers to engaging faith-based leaders in HIV prevention and were asked to provide normative recommendations for how African American faith institutions can enhance HIV/AIDS prevention and reduce racial disparities in HIV infection. Many faith leaders cited lack of knowledge about Philadelphia's racial disparities in HIV infection as a common reason for not previously engaging in HIV programs; others noted their congregations' existing HIV prevention and outreach programs and shared lessons learned. Barriers to engaging the faith community in HIV prevention included: concerns about tacitly endorsing extramarital sex by promoting condom use, lack of educational information appropriate for a faith-based audience, and fear of losing congregants and revenue as a result of discussing human sexuality and HIV/AIDS from the pulpit. However, many leaders expressed a moral imperative to respond to the AIDS epidemic, and believed clergy should play a greater role in HIV prevention. Many participants noted that controversy surrounding homosexuality has historically divided the faith community and prohibited an appropriate response to the epidemic; many expressed interest in balancing traditional theology with practical public health approaches to HIV prevention. Leaders suggested the faith community should: promote HIV testing, including during or after worship services and in

  8. Stakeholder Perspectives on Barriers for Healthy Living for Low-Income African American Families

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Veronnie Faye; Rowland, Michael L.; Young, Linda; Atwood, Katherine; Thompson, Kirsten; Sterrett, Emma; Honaker, Sarah Morsbach; Joel E. Williams; Johnson, Knowlton; Davis, Deborah Winders

    2014-01-01

    Background: Childhood obesity is a growing problem for children in the United States, especially for children from low-income, African American families. Objective: The purpose of this qualitative study was to understand facilitators and barriers to engaging in healthy lifestyles faced by low-income African American children and their families. Methods: This qualitative study used semi-structured focus group interviews with eight African American children clinically identified as overwe...

  9. Lifestyle Behaviors of African American Breast Cancer Survivors: A Sisters Network, Inc. Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Wendell C Taylor; Shine Chang; Courneya, Kerry S.; Jones, Lovell A.

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: African American breast cancer survivors experience poor cancer outcomes that may, in part, be remedied by healthy lifestyle choices. Few studies have evaluated the health and lifestyle behaviors of this population. The purpose of this study was to characterize the health and lifestyle habits of African American breast cancer survivors and evaluate the socio-demographic and medical correlates of these behaviors. METHODS: A total of 470 African American breast cancer survivors (m...

  10. African American Women’s Limited Knowledge and Experiences with Genetic Counseling for Hereditary Breast Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Sheppard, Vanessa B.; Graves, Kristi D.; Christopher, Juleen; Hurtado-de-Mendoza, Alejandra; Talley, Costellia; Williams, Karen Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Genetic counseling and testing for hereditary breast cancer have the potential benefit of early detection and early interventions in African American women. However, African American women have low use of these services compared to White women. We conducted two focus groups with African American women diagnosed with breast cancer (affected group, n=13) and women with at least one first-degree relative with breast/ovarian cancer (unaffected group, n= 8). A content analysis approach was employe...

  11. Reducing Stereotype Threat in Academically At-Risk African-Americans Students: A Self-

    OpenAIRE

    Simmons, Crystal Marie

    2011-01-01

    AbstractReducing Stereotype Threat in Academically At-Risk African- Americans Students: A Self- Affirmation InterventionbyCrystal Marie SimmonsDoctor of Philosophy in EducationUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Frank C. Worrell, ChairIn this study, I examined the effectiveness of a self-affirmation intervention (Cohen et al., 2006) with a sample of African American high school students who were at risk for academic failure. Participants consisted of 47 African-American students from ...

  12. A Qualitative Examination of the Maternal Racial Socialization of African American Preschool Children

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Adrienne Laney

    2014-01-01

    The salience of racial socialization among African American families has received considerable attention in the literature; however, few scholars have examined how the process of racial socialization unfolds in families with very young children. This study investigated how African American mothers of preschool-age children approached the process of racial socialization. I interviewed African American mothers who were at least age 18 (N=12) with biological children between the ages of three an...

  13. Effect of Adolescent Obesity on Cardiometabolic Risk in African-Americans and Caucasians

    OpenAIRE

    Hoffman, Robert P.

    2012-01-01

    African-Americans have more hypertension, stroke, and type 2 diabetes than do Caucasians. Endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance are precursors for each. Since these diseases have origins in pediatrics and are associated with obesity, this study was designed to determine if obesity has different effects on endothelial function, insulin sensitivity, and secretion in African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Thirty-three Caucasian and 25 African-Americans (10–18 years old) were subdiv...

  14. Differences in cancer incidence, mortality, and survival between African Americans and whites.

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, B.; Figgs, L.W.; Zahm, S H

    1995-01-01

    This report highlights selected evidence of different cancer patterns among African Americans and whites and considers potential risk factors associated with these cancers. During the years 1987 to 1991, African Americans experienced higher incidence and mortality rates than whites for multiple myeloma and for cancers of the oropharynx, colorectum, lung and bronchus, cervix, and prostate. African Americans had lower incidence and mortality for cancer of the urinary bladder. The incidence of b...

  15. A Review of Genetics, Arterial Stiffness, and Blood Pressure in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Jennifer L.; Duprez, Daniel A; Barac, Ana; Rich, Stephen S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in African Americans in the United States is amongst the highest in the world and increasing. The identification of genes and pathways regulating blood pressure in African Americans has been challenging. An early predictor of hypertension is arterial stiffness. The prevalence of arterial stiffness is significantly higher in African Americans compared to Caucasians. Approximately 20% of the variance in arterial stiffness is estimated to be heritable. Identifying ...

  16. Assessment of Genotype Imputation Performance Using 1000 Genomes in African American Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Dana B.; Levy, Joshua L.; Gaddis, Nathan C.; Bierut, Laura J; Saccone, Nancy L.; Page, Grier P.; Johnson, Eric O.

    2012-01-01

    Genotype imputation, used in genome-wide association studies to expand coverage of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), has performed poorly in African Americans compared to less admixed populations. Overall, imputation has typically relied on HapMap reference haplotype panels from Africans (YRI), European Americans (CEU), and Asians (CHB/JPT). The 1000 Genomes project offers a wider range of reference populations, such as African Americans (ASW), but their imputation performance has had l...

  17. A Case Study of Middle Class African American Males Taking Advanced Mathematics Classes in High School

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Zella Higginbotham

    2011-01-01

    African American males in all socioeconomic levels are underperforming in school. Many researchers have conducted studies hoping to find reasons for the underperformance. This study focused on three middle class African American males in a suburban school district. These African American male students took upper level math courses that included Algebra III, Math Analysis, AP Calculus, and AP Statistics. This study modeled the study by E. Wayne Harris. He believed students were influenced...

  18. Protective Factors for Depression among African American Children of Predominantly Low-Income Mothers with Depression

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Waanders, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Maternal depression has a deleterious impact on child psychological outcomes, including depression symptoms. However, there is limited research on the protective factors for these children and even less for African Americans. The purpose of the study is to examine the effects of positive parenting skills on child depression and the potential protective effects of social skills and kinship support among African American children whose mothers are depressed and low-income. African American moth...

  19. Overview of substance use disorders and incarceration of African American males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata K Mukku

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Incarceration affects the lives of many African American men and often leads to poverty, ill health, violence, and a decreased quality of life. There has been an unprecedented increase in incarceration among African American males since 1970. In 2009, the incarceration rate among black males was 6.7 times that of white males and 2.6 times of Hispanic males. Substance abuse in African American males leads to higher mortality rates, high rates of alcohol-related problems, more likely to be victims of crimes and HIV/AIDS. African Americans comprised only 14% of the US population but comprised 38% of the jail population. The cost of incarcerating persons involved in substance related crimes has increased considerably over the past two decades in the United States. A reduction in the incarceration rate for non-violent offences would save an estimated $17 billion per year. Substance use disorder makes the individual more prone to polysubstance use and leads to impulse control problems, selling drugs and other crimes. The high rate of incarceration in U.S. may adversely affect health care, the economy of the country and will become a burden on society. Implementation of good mental health care, treatment of addiction during and after incarceration will help to decrease the chances of reoffending. Therapeutic community programs with prison-based and specialized treatment facilities, cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for 91–180 days, and 12-step orientation with staff specialized in substance abuse can be helpful. It is essential for health care professionals to increase public awareness of substance abuse and find ways to decrease the high rates of incarceration.

  20. Rape Victimization and High Risk Sexual Behaviors: A Longitudinal Study of African-American Adolescent Females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lang, Delia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: African-American women are affected by disproportionately high rates of violence and sexually transmitted infections (STI/human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. It is imperative to address the intersection of these two urgent public health issues, particularly as these affect African-American adolescent girls. This study assessed the prevalence of rape victimization (RV among a sample of African-American adolescent females and examined the extent to which participants with a history of RV engage in STI/HIV associated risk behaviors over a 12-month time period.Methods: Three hundred sixty-seven African-American adolescent females ages 15-21, seeking sexual health services at three local teenager-oriented community health agencies in an urban area of the Southeastern United States, participated in this study. Participants were asked to complete an audio computer-assisted self-interview (ACASI at baseline, six- and 12-month follow-up. We assessed sociodemographics, history of RV and sexual practices. At baseline, participants indicating they had experienced forced sex were classified as having a history of RV.Results: Twenty-five percent of participants reported a history of RV at baseline. At six- and 12-months, victims of RV had significantly lower proportions of condom-protected sex (p=.008, higher frequency of sex while intoxicated (p=.005, more inconsistent condom use (p=.008, less condom use at last sex (p=.017, and more sex partners (p=.0001 than non-RV victims. Over the 12-month follow-up period, of those who did not report RV at baseline, 9.5% reported that they too had experienced RV at some point during the 12-month time frame.Conclusion: African-American adolescent females who experience RV are engaging in more risky sexual behaviors over time than non-RV girls, thereby placing themselves at higher risk for contracting STIs. In light of the results from this unique longitudinal study, we discuss considerations for

  1. The oral histories of six African American males in their ecology of Advanced Placement Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halasa, Katrina Bassam

    The major purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the past in order to understand the complex phenomenon of students engaging in science (Newman, Ridenour, Newman, & DeMarco, 2003) specifically through the oral histories of six self-identified African American males enrolled in a high school Advanced Placement Biology class and the oral histories about events that followed during their post high school experiences. To elucidate an understanding of this phenomenon, this research explored the ecology of African American males' descriptions of their school science, their peer school science community, their lived experiences during and after graduation, and their meso-community (Bronfenbrenner, 1979). Many minority and low-income students are less likely to enroll in rigorous courses during high school (Education Trust, 2006). This study is of utmost importance because capturing the informants' oral histories may improve rigorous science education. Many African American male students are attending urban schools with an ever growing achievement gap among their White counterparts (Norman, Ault, Bentz, & Meskimen, 2001); therefore, they are disengaging in science. As a result, African American males are underrepresented in both science careers and achievements in science (Atwater, 2000; National Science Foundation, 1994). The six oral histories highlighted the ecological factors that affected African American males regarding (1) the impact of their relationship with their mothers, (2) the understanding of personal responsibility, (3) the notion of a scientist, (4) the issue of gender being more of an obstacle than race, (5) the understanding that education is valuable, (6) the interactions and influence of relationships with others on their decisions, (7) the development of integrity through the participation in sports, (8) the ecological neighborhood environment influences an image, (9) the enrollment of Advanced Placement Biology course helped the transition

  2. Abnormal endothelial function in young African-American females: discordance with blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bransford, T. L.; St Vrain, J. A.; Webb, M.

    2001-01-01

    In this pilot study, we sought to compare the vasodilatory and hemodynamic properties of the peripheral vasculature in the forearms of young, healthy African-American females to similarly matched white females. We used high-resolution ultrasound of the brachial artery to evaluate 11 African-American females and 8 white females. When normalized to nitrate-induced dilation, endothelium-dependent dilation was reduced in young African American females compared to white females (0.6 in African American females compared to 1.0 in white females). These results indicate the need for a larger study to examine this phenomenon. PMID:12653397

  3. Incidence and Risk Factors for Cognitive Impairment No Dementia and Mild Cognitive Impairment in African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Unverzagt, Frederick W.; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Taler, Vanessa; Gao, Sujuan; Lane, Ms. Kathleen A.; Baiyewu, Olusegun; Gureje, Oye; Smith-Gamble, Valerie; Hake, Ann; Hendrie, Hugh C.; Hall, Kathleen S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the age-specific incidence of cognitive impairment, no dementia and mild cognitive impairment (CIND/MCI) in a large, community-based sample of older African Americans in Indianapolis, IN. A longitudinal, prospective, two-stage design was used with follow-up assessments 2 and 5 years after the baseline. A total of 1668 participants completed the 2-year follow-up and a total of 1255 participants completed the 5-year follow-up. The person–years method was us...

  4. The Great Recession and health risks in African American youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edith; Miller, Gregory E; Yu, Tianyi; Brody, Gene H

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated associations of macro-economic conditions - the Great Recession - with cellular epigenetic aging, allostatic load, and self-reported health, in a group that experiences significant health disparities, African Americans. A sample of 330 African American adolescents in Georgia was followed from pre-recession (2007, M age=16.6) to post-recession (2010, M age=19.3). Economic data were collected in both 2007 and 2010. Three groups were formed to represent economic trajectories across the period of the Great Recession (stable low economic hardship, downward mobility, and stable high economic hardship). At age 19, measures of cellular epigenetic aging (derived from leukocyte DNA methylation profiles, reflecting the disparity between a person's biological and chronological age), allostatic load (composite of blood pressure, C reactive protein, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, and body mass index), and adolescent self-report of health were obtained. Linear trend analyses documented significant differences across all outcomes. The more time adolescents spent under economic hardship, the higher their epigenetic aging [estimate=1.421, SE=0.466, p=.002] and allostatic load [estimate=1.151, SE=0.375, p=.002] scores, and the worse their self-report of health [estimate=4.957, SE=1.800, p=.006]. Specific group comparisons revealed that adolescents in the downward mobility group had higher levels of allostatic load than adolescents in the stable low hardship group [p<.05]. Overall, these findings suggest that the health profiles of African American youth may in part be shaped by environmental macro-economic societal conditions, and that effects on biological markers can be detected relatively early in life. PMID:26718449

  5. Introduction to Exporting American Dreams: Thurgood Marshall's African Journey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary L. Dudziak

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Thurgood Marshall became a living icon of civil rights when he argued Brown v. Board of Education before the Supreme Court in 1954. Six years later, he was at a crossroads. A rising generation of activists were making sit-ins and demonstrations rather than lawsuits the hallmark of the civil rights movement. What role, he wondered, could he now play? When in 1960 Kenyan independence leaders asked him to help write their constitution, Marshall threw himself into their cause. Here was a new arena in which law might serve as the tool with which to forge a just society. In Exporting American Dreams, Mary Dudziak recounts with poignancy and power the untold story of Marshall's journey to Africa. African Americans were enslaved when the U.S. constitution was written. In Kenya, Marshall could become something that had not existed in his own country: a black man helping to found a nation. He became friends with Kenyan leaders Tom Mboya and Jomo Kenyatta, serving as advisor to the Kenyans, who needed to demonstrate to Great Britain and to the world that they would treat minority races (whites and Asians fairly once Africans took power. He crafted a bill of rights, aiding constitutional negotiations that helped enable peaceful regime change, rather than violent resistance. Marshall's involvement with Kenya's foundation affirmed his faith in law, while also forcing him to understand how the struggle for justice could be compromised by the imperatives of sovereignty. Marshall's beliefs were most sorely tested later in the decade when he became a Supreme Court Justice, even as American cities erupted in flames and civil rights progress stalled. Kenya's first attempt at democracy faltered, but Marshall's African journey remained a cherished memory of a time and a place when all things seemed possible.

  6. Keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in young African American women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quaker E Harmon

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Keloids and fibroids share a number of biologic and demographic similarities however there are no published reports of the association between them. The objective of this study was to investigate the association between self-reported keloids and ultrasound detected fibroids in a population of young African American women. STUDY DESIGN: The Study of Environment, Life-style & Fibroids (SELF, is a volunteer cohort of over 1600 African American women aged 23-34 years recruited in Detroit, Michigan. Enrollment occurred between December 2010 and December 2012. Data are available for the first 1196 participants. Participants self-reported a history of raised (hypertrophic scars or scars extending beyond the limits of the original injury (keloid and had an enrollment pelvic ultrasound examination to detect prevalent fibroids. Log linear regression was used to model the association between abnormal scars and prevalent fibroids controlling for possible covariates. Among women with fibroids, associations between particular fibroid characteristics (tumor location, size or number and scarring were assessed using chi-square and Mann Whitney U-tests. RESULTS: Both abnormal scarring (keloids, 9.0%; hypertrophic scars, 28.3% and fibroids (23.3% were common in this cohort. There was no indication [adjusted Risk Ratio (95% Confidence Interval: 0.7 (0.5-1.1] of an association between self-reported keloids and prevalent fibroids. Nor was there any association with hypertrophic scars. Specific characteristics of the prevalent fibroids were not associated with abnormal scarring. CONCLUSION: Despite similarly dysregulated extracellular matrices in keloids and fibroids, these conditions did not tend to co-occur in this young African American population.

  7. Atrial Fibrillation and Colonic Neoplasia in African Americans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Nouraie

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC and atrial fibrillation/flutter (AF share several risk factors including increasing age and obesity. However, the association between CRC and AF has not been thoroughly examined, especially in African Americans. In this study we aimed to assess the prevalence of AF and its risk factors in colorectal neoplasia in an African American.We reviewed records of 527 African American patients diagnosed with CRC and 1008 patients diagnosed with benign colonic lesions at Howard University Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. A control group of 731 hospitalized patients without any cancer or colonic lesion were randomly selected from the same time and age range, excluding patients who had diagnosis of both CRC and/or adenoma. The presence or absence of AF was based upon ICD-9 code documentation. The prevalence of AF in these three groups was compared by multivariate logistic regression.The prevalence of AF was highest among CRC patients (10% followed by adenoma patients (7.2% then the control group (5.4%, P for trend = 0.002. In the three groups of participants, older age (P<0.008 and heart failure (P<0.001 were significantly associated with higher risk of AF. After adjusting for these risk factors, CRC (OR: 1.4(95%CI:0.9-2.2, P = 0.2 and adenoma (OR: 1.1(95%CI:0.7-1.6, P = 0.7 were not significantly associated AF compared to control group.AF is highly prevalent among CRC patients; 1 in 10 patients had AF in our study. The predictors of AF in CRC was similar to that in adenoma and other patients after adjustment for potential confounders suggesting that the increased AF risk in CRC is explained by higher prevalence of AF risk factors.

  8. Seasonal Changes in Sleep Duration in African American and African College Students Living In Washington, D.C.

    OpenAIRE

    Janna Volkov; Kelly J. Rohan; Yousufi, Samina M.; Minh-Chau Nguyen; Jackson, Michael A.; Thrower, Courtney M.; Stiller, John W.; Teodor T. Postolache

    2007-01-01

    Duration of nocturnal melatonin secretion, a marker of “biological night” that relates to sleep duration, is longer in winter than in summer in patients with seasonal affective disorder (SAD), but not in healthy controls. In this study of African and African American college students, we hypothesized that students who met criteria for winter SAD or subsyndromal SAD (S-SAD) would report sleeping longer in winter than in summer. In addition, based on our previous observation that Africans repor...

  9. Early and mid-adolescence risk factors for later substance abuse by African Americans and European Americans.

    OpenAIRE

    Gil, Andres G.; Vega, William A.; Turner, R. Jay

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study examines the relationship between risk factors experienced during adolescence by African Americans and European Americans and DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse or dependence in early adulthood. METHODS: The authors followed a cohort of adolescents from 1990-91 (grades 6 and 7) to 1998-2000 (ages 19-21), evaluating risk factors during early adolescence as predictors of DSM-IV alcohol dependence and marijuana abuse and dependence. RESULTS: African Americans had...

  10. Iron Status of Inner-City African-American Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lozoff, Betsy; Angelilli, Mary Lu; Zatakia, Jigna; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Calatroni, Agustin; Beard, John

    2007-01-01

    The iron status of African-American infants continues to be subject to debate. We characterized the iron status of 198 9-month-old inner-city infants (94% fed iron-fortified formula) using a comprehensive panel of measures and assessing lead and inflammation markers. The proportion with iron deficiency was calculated based on three approaches (≥ 2 abnormal iron measures with or without anemia for MCV model—NHANES II, ferritin model—NHANES III, or Sweden/Honduras study) and a promising new mea...

  11. Adherence discourse among African-American women taking HAART

    OpenAIRE

    A. Sankar; Luborsky, M.; Schuman, P.; Roberts, G.

    2002-01-01

    Low adherence is the single most important challenge to controlling HIV through the use of high acting anti-retrovirals (HAART). Non-adherence poses an immediate threat to individuals who develop resistant forms of the virus as well as a public health threat if those individuals pass on treatment-resistant forms of the virus. To understand the concerns and perceptions that promote or deter adherence to antiretroviral medication by HIV-positive African-American women, we conducted in-depth int...

  12. Promoting the interest of African American teenage girls in science: What can we learn from an exemplary African American science teacher?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMath, Cynthia Stewart

    This study focused on science teaching that promoted the interest of African American teenage girls in the science classroom of an exemplary African American science teacher. It focused on, observed and examined the planning, teaching and learning strategies used by the science teacher. It also described what the science teacher experienced during her high school years, during college, during her teaching career. The case study approach/method was used for this research to capture the description and examination of the practices of the science teacher. This research described how an African American female science teacher serves as a role model and influence a number of African Americans students, especially girls, who experience careers in science. During the interviews and observations the researcher used a system of record keeping for the study to include note taking, audio taping and pictures. It is evident in the findings that the teacher in this study had qualities of an exemplary teacher according to the research. It is further evident that the teacher served as a role model for her students. The results indicated that the exemplary African America science teacher was motivated by her former African American science teacher that served as a role model. The results in this study implied that the lack of the presence of more exemplary African American science teachers has an impact on the level of interest that African American students have in science. Further, it is implied that there is a great need for more practical research that may lead to closing the gap of missing African American science teachers.

  13. African Americans and Network Disadvantage: Enhancing Social Capital through Participation on Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Taana Smith

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the participation of African Americans on social networking sites (SNS, and evaluates the degree to which African Americans engage in activities in the online environment to mitigate social capital deficits. Prior literature suggests that compared with whites, African Americans have less social capital that can enhance their socio-economic mobility. As such, my research question is: do African Americans enhance their social capital through their participation on SNS? I use nationally representative data collected from the Pew Internet and American Life Project to explore the research question. The results suggest that the online environment is potentially a space in which African Americans can lessen social capital deficits.

  14. An Examination of the Tripartite Model of Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms in African American Youth: Stressors and Coping Strategies as Common and Specific Correlates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Elmore, Corinn A.; Campbell, Cynthya L.; Wethington, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the tripartite model of depression and anxiety in a community-based sample of 278 African American adolescents (M age = 12.89) from low-income communities and to identify stressors and coping strategies that were associated with the specific features of each disorder. Participants reported on…

  15. "You Have to Hunt for the Fruits, the Vegetables": Environmental Barriers and Adaptive Strategies to Acquire Food in a Low-Income African American Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenk, Shannon N.; Odoms-Young, Angela M.; Dallas, Constance; Hardy, Elaine; Watkins, April; Hoskins-Wroten, Jacqueline; Holland, Loys

    2011-01-01

    This qualitative study sought to understand food acquisition behaviors and environmental factors that influence those behaviors among women in a low-income African American community with limited food resources. We drew on in-depth interviews with 30 women ages 21 to 45 years recruited from a community health center in Chicago, Illinois. Data were…

  16. The nature of culturally responsive pedagogy in two urban African American middle school science classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondima, Michelle Harris

    This ethnographic in nature study explores how two middle school science teachers who have classes populated by urban African Americans teach their students and how their students perceive their teaching. Since urban African American students continue to perform lower than desired on measures of science achievement, there is an urgent need to understand what pedagogical methodologies assist and hinder urban African American students in achieving higher levels of success in science. A pedagogical methodology that theorists posit assists subordinated school populations is culturally responsive pedagogy. Culturally responsive pedagogy is defined as a teaching methodology concerned with preparing students to question inequality, racism, and injustice. Teachers who use culturally responsive pedagogy respect the culture students bring to the class, and require that the teachers willingly do whatever is necessary to educate students (Nieto, 2000). The teacher participants were two female African Americans who were identified by their school supervisors as being highly effective with urban African American students. The researcher presented the teachers in separate case studies conducted over a data collection period of nine months. Data were collected by participant observation, interviews, and artifact collection. Data were analyzed by application of grounded theory techniques. Findings of the teachers' (and the students') beliefs about pedagogy that both assisted and hindered the students' performance in science were reported in a rich and nuanced storytelling manner based on multiple perspectives (teachers', students', and the researcher's). Pedagogical methodologies that the teachers used that assisted their students were the use of cultural metaphors and images in science and applications of motivational techniques that encouraged a nurturing relationship between the teacher and her students. Pedagogical methodologies that hindered students varied by teacher

  17. Less drinking, yet more problems: understanding African American drinking and related problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapolski, Tamika C B; Pedersen, Sarah L; McCarthy, Denis M; Smith, Gregory T

    2014-01-01

    Researchers have found that, compared to European Americans, African Americans report later initiation of drinking, lower rates of use, and lower levels of use across almost all age groups. Nevertheless, African Americans also have higher levels of alcohol problems than European Americans. After reviewing current data regarding these trends, we provide a theory to understand this apparent paradox as well as to understand variability in risk among African Americans. Certain factors appear to operate as both protective factors against heavy use and risk factors for negative consequences from use. For example, African American culture is characterized by norms against heavy alcohol use or intoxication, which protects against heavy use but also provides within-group social disapproval when use does occur. African Americans are more likely to encounter legal problems from drinking than European Americans, even at the same levels of consumption, perhaps thus resulting in reduced consumption but more problems from consumption. There appears to be one particular group of African Americans, low-income African American men, who are at the highest risk for alcoholism and related problems. We theorize that this effect is due to the complex interaction of residential discrimination, racism, age of drinking, and lack of available standard life reinforcers (e.g., stable employment and financial stability). Further empirical research will be needed to test our theories and otherwise move this important field forward. A focus on within-group variation in drinking patterns and problems is necessary. We suggest several new avenues of inquiry. PMID:23477449

  18. Beyond parenting practices: extended kinship support and the academic adjustment of African-American and European-American teens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallock, Linda L; Lamborn, Susie D

    2006-10-01

    This study examined adolescents' perceptions of parenting practices and extended kinship support in relation to academic adjustment for 104 African American and 60 European American 9th and 10th graders (14 and 15 year olds). For African-American teens, parental acceptance was associated with school values, teacher bonding, and work orientation. Higher levels of behavioral control and lower levels of psychological control were associated with a stronger work orientation. After accounting for the demographic variables and the three parenting practices, higher levels of extended kinship support related to stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. For European-American teens, parental acceptance related to academic adjustment, including stronger school values, higher teacher bonding, and a stronger work orientation. European-American adolescents with stronger extended kinship networks reported higher teacher bonding and a stronger work orientation. Results indicate the importance of extended kinship support for both African-American and European-American adolescents. PMID:16455133

  19. Ending Racial Profiling of African-Americans in the Selective Enforcement of Laws: In Search of Viable Remedies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Floyd Weatherspoon

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available In theory, the American justice system is designed to ensure that each American’s basic constitutional rights are preserved and protected. Most Americans, including African-Americans, believe that the justice system protects the constitutional rights of all Americans. However, the extent of this protection is viewed differently by whites and African-Americans. Indeed, African-Americans feel that their constitutional rights have been marginalized by the very systems in place to protect their rights.

  20. Ending Racial Profiling of African-Americans in the Selective Enforcement of Laws: In Search of Viable Remedies

    OpenAIRE

    Floyd Weatherspoon

    2004-01-01

    In theory, the American justice system is designed to ensure that each American’s basic constitutional rights are preserved and protected. Most Americans, including African-Americans, believe that the justice system protects the constitutional rights of all Americans. However, the extent of this protection is viewed differently by whites and African-Americans. Indeed, African-Americans feel that their constitutional rights have been marginalized by the very systems in place to protect t...

  1. My Iowa Journey: The Life Story of the University of Iowa's First African American Professor. Singular Lives: The Iowa Series in North American Autobiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Philip G.

    This autobiography recounts the life story of an African American educator at the University of Iowa from 1965 to 1991, as its first African American professor and then as its first African American administrator. The book recounts his childhood and family relations, his student years at the university and his graduation as an electrical engineer,…

  2. The Ellison\\Baraka debate: the conflict in (African) American music

    OpenAIRE

    Mazman, Alper

    2007-01-01

    65 pages The Ellison/Baraka Debate: The Conflict in (African) AmericanAcknowledgementsI. Introduction: Critical Representations of African AmericanMusic…… 1II. The Songs of Sorrow: The Spirituals in the Process ofAmericanization…… 6III. The People of the Blues: The Snowball Effect of the BluesAesthetic…… 16IV. The Representation of Modern Jazz and the Theory of AfricanAmerican Music…… 381. The conflict of the Old and New Guard: Bebop and the Future ofJazz…… 382. The Signifiyin(g) African A...

  3. Factors Associated with Pregnancy among Incarcerated African American Adolescent Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Simone C; Holmes, Kristin; Bradford, Denise R

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the social and behavioral factors associated with pregnancy history among a sample of African American adolescent girls recruited from a short-term juvenile detention center in order to better understand the needs of this vulnerable population. Data were collected from a sample of 188 detained African American, 13-17-year-old girls in Atlanta, Georgia, who participated in a larger HIV prevention study. An audio computer-assisted self-interviewing survey was completed by participants to obtain information on socioecological factors to include individual, parental/familial, sexual risk, psychosocial, and substance use factors. Among the 188 participants, 25.5 % reported a history of pregnancy. A multivariable logistic regression model showed that girls with a history of pregnancy were more likely to live in a household receiving government aid, use hormonal contraceptives at last sex, participate in sex trading, have casual sex partners, have condomless sex in the past 90 days, and have a history of physical abuse. Girls with no history of pregnancy were more likely to have been incarcerated at least twice and to have previously used alcohol. Detention-based interventions and pregnancy prevention programs for this vulnerable population may benefit by addressing factors related to sexual behavior and development, substance use, individual background, and psychosocial health. PMID:27271026

  4. Depressive Symptomatology and College Persistence among African American College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyraz, Güler; Horne, Sharon G; Owens, Archandria C; Armstrong, Aisha P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between depressive symptomatology and college outcomes among African American students, as well as to determine whether these relationships were moderated by gender and type of university. Participants included 569 African American first-year students attending two public universities in the Southeast United States: a historically Black college/university (HBCU) and a predominantly White institution (PWI). Using a longitudinal study design, data were collected at three time points. Results indicated that, after adjusting for the effects of the control variables (gender, type of institution, high school GPA, participation in on-campus activities, institutional and goal commitments), depressive symptomatology present in the first semester of college was associated with increased likelihood of dropping out of college before the end of the second year of college. The relationship between these two variables was mediated by first-year cumulative GPA. Results also indicated that the hypothesized relationships did not vary as a function of gender and the university type. PMID:27055080

  5. Unheard and Unseen: How Housing Insecure African American Adolescents Experience the Education System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Addie Lucille; Geller, Kathy D.

    2016-01-01

    This narrative study is based on stories told by African American adolescents experiencing homelessness. It offers insights into their lived experiences and describes the challenges faced in negotiating the urban education system. African American youth are disproportionately represented in the adolescent homeless demographic. "Unheard and…

  6. African-American Women Journalists and Their Male Editors: A Tradition of Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitmatter, Rodger

    1993-01-01

    Suggests that African-American women journalists have not been hampered by the sexist attitudes of men to the same degree that white women journalists have been. Presents six case studies of African-American women journalists (three from the nineteenth century and three from the twentieth) in support of this contention. (SR)

  7. Academic Bullying: A Barrier to Tenure and Promotion for African-American Faculty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frazier, Kimberly N.

    2011-01-01

    The author discusses the problem of retention of African American faculty due to tenure and promotion issues. The author outlines obstacles that African American face in the workplace while seeking tenure and promotion in academia. A case example is presented that illuminates how these stressors manifest in the academic setting and recommendations…

  8. Engaging African American Fathers in Behavioral Parent Training: To Adapt or Not Adapt

    OpenAIRE

    Kohl, Patricia L.; Seay, Kristen D.

    2015-01-01

    The Positive Parenting Program, Triple P, is an evidence-based parenting program with strong empirical support that increases parenting skills and decreases child behavior problems. Few studies on Triple P include fathers or African American fathers. This study was undertaken to determine if adaptation to Triple P level 4 is necessary to ensure fit with urban African American fathers.

  9. Perceived Fatherhood Roles and Parenting Behaviors among African American Teen Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschal, Angelia M.; Lewis-Moss, Rhonda K.; Hsiao, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Despite the growing body of research on the topic of adolescent parenthood, few studies have examined the perceptions and lived experiences of African American teen fathers. The primary aim of this study was to examine how this group defines and performs the father role. In-depth interviews were conducted with 30 African American fathers aged 14…

  10. The Perpetual Homelessness of College Experiences: Tensions between Home and Campus for African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkle-Wagner, Rachelle

    2009-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate about whether African American students need to sever ties with their families to be successful in college. Adding nuance to this debate, this ethnographic study examines African American women's experiences of navigating family relationships in a predominantly White institution. The women described multiple pressures…

  11. Superstar or Scholar? African American Male Youths' Perceptions of Opportunity in a Time of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conchas, Gilberto Q.; Lin, Alex R.; Oseguera, Leticia; Drake, Sean J.

    2015-01-01

    Through a Multiple Marginality Framework, this exploratory case study highlights how African American male youth in an urban high school setting perceive the opportunity structure during the historic election of the first African American President. Youth optimism generated by Obama's election gives students a sense of hope despite the persistent…

  12. Institutional Barriers to Participation in Adult Education among African Americans within Religious Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaac, Paulette; Rowland, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Examined institutional deterrents to participation in adult education among African American Christian church members. Focus group interview data highlighted six categories of deterrents: lack of relevance, programmatic, communication, individual/personal, instructional techniques, and interpersonal. Results suggest that African American Christian…

  13. The Influence of Social Capital Factors on African-American and Hispanic High School Student Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline L.

    2009-01-01

    The underachievement of African American and Hispanic students has been an ongoing problem for schools in the United States. The purpose of this investigation was to add to the existing body of knowledge concerning social capital of African American and Hispanic high school students' academic achievement. Using a nationally representative sample…

  14. African-American College Student Attitudes toward Physics and Their Effect on Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Carl Timothy

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate factors affecting the attitudes that African-American college students have towards introductory college physics. The population targeted for this study consisted of African-American males and females enrolled in introductory college physics classes at an urban public historical black college or…

  15. Not Just Pushing and Shoving: School Bullying among African American Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Kevin M.; Dulin, Akilah J.; Piko, Bettina F.

    2007-01-01

    Background: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of bullying among a sample of African American adolescents and the risk factors associated with odds that a student engages in bullying behavior. Methods: Using a self-report school-based survey, 1542 African American adolescents from a single school district (grades 5-12)…

  16. Sisters in the Struggle: African American Female Graduate Students Coping with Racism and Racism-Related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kelsie

    2013-01-01

    This study examined if coping was predictive of perceived racism and racism related stress of African American female graduate students. Participants were 217 African American female graduate students attending Predominantly White Institutions (PWIs), Hispanic Serving Institutions (HSIs) and Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) and…

  17. Critical Race Theory: A Counternarrative of African American Male Medical Students Attending Predominately White Medical Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Adrienne L.

    2013-01-01

    The history of African Americans seeking medical education in the United States is rooted in a legacy of racial segregation, cultural constructs, and legal doctrine that differs from other ethnic and racial groups. The disturbing results of this legacy are that while African Americans account for 12.9% of the U.S. population, they only account for…

  18. Mentoring 101: Advancing African-American Women Faculty and Doctoral Student Success in Predominantly White Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Cosette M.; Ghee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    This article is purposed with operationalizing the concept of mentoring as a nuanced approach and attempt to thwart the upward trajectories of African-American women in predominantly White institutions (PWIs). We struggled as African-American women to balance and decipher the various facets inherent in our respective roles--professor and doctoral…

  19. Stereotype Threat Effects on African American Children in an Urban Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasserberg, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated whether a diagnostic testing condition leads to stereotype threat effects for African American children (n = 198) at an urban elementary school. Results indicated that presenting a reading test as diagnostic of abilities hindered the performance of African American children aware of racial stereotypes but not of those…

  20. Racial Identity Development and Academic Achievement of Academically Gifted African American Students: Implications for School Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Natalie F.; Dowden, Angel Riddick

    2014-01-01

    Gifted African American students are underrepresented and underserved in gifted education. The current article provides an overview of proper identification, racial identity development implications, psycho-social concerns and the importance of family involvement in the development of gifted African American students. A case study is presented to…