Josiah Adeyemo; Folasade Adeyemo; Fred Otieno
Pollutants in stormwater are detrimental to the receiving water bodies. The study of pollutants in stormwater is important to know the appropriate management techniques to remove these pollutants. This paper presents an explorative study of runoff in Pretoria, South Africa. Common pollutants in stormwater are studied to determine their correlation with total suspended solids found in four different sites in Pretoria. The metals are strongly correlated with total suspended solids. It is sugges...
Objectives The study aimed to assess the oral health promotion services provided as part of the maternal and child health (MCH) services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa. Methods The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a modified standard questionnaire. The population was drawn from the parents/caregivers (PCGs) and the MCH nurses at seven clinics during June 2012 and June 2013 in Pretoria. Results The nurses’ response rate was 83%; average age ...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female. Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to
Full Text Available Freshwater snails are known to serve as first intermediate hosts for various parasitic diseases such as schistosomosis and fasciolosis. Snails were collected on several occasions in the proximity of Pretoria, South Africa and their cercarial sheddings were studied. This article describes three different types of cercariae shed by the freshwater snail, Lymnaea natalensis, viz. a fork-tailed cercaria of a Trichobilharzia sp., an avian parasite belonging to the family Schistosomatidae, an echinostomatid cercaria of the family Echinostomatidae, also avian parasites and a xiphidiocercaria of the family Plagiorchiidae which parasitise avians and amphibians. The morphology of these cercariae was studied by light and scanning electron microscopy.
This article outlines the type of work on hydraulic transportation of solids which has been and is being carried out by the National Mechanical Engineering Research Institute at Pretoria. Special emphasis is placed on handling mineral slurries, since the mining industry plays an important part in the South African economy.
The paper outlines the type of work on hydraulic transportation of solids which has been and is being carried out by the National Mechanical Engineering Research Institute at Pretoria. Special emphasis is placed on handling mineral slurries, since the mining industry plays an important part in the South African economy. (7 refs.)
Browne Felicia A
Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined cross-sectional data collected from substance-using female sex workers (FSW and non-sex workers (non-SW in Pretoria, South Africa, who entered a randomized controlled trial. Methods Women who reported alcohol use and recently engaging in sex work or unprotected sex were recruited for a randomized study. The study sample (N = 506 comprised 335 FSW and 171 female non-SW from Pretoria and surrounding areas. Self-reported data about alcohol and other drug use as well as treatment needs and access were collected from participants before they entered a brief intervention. Results As compared with female non-SW, FSW were found to have a greater likelihood of having a past year diagnosis of alcohol or other drug abuse or dependence, having a family member with a history of alcohol or other drug abuse, having been physically abused, having used alcohol before age 18, and having a history of marijuana use. In addition, the FSW were more likely to perceive that they had alcohol or other drug problems, and that they had a need for treatment and a desire to go for treatment. Less than 20% of participants in either group had any awareness of alcohol and drug treatment programs, with only 3% of the FSW and 2% of the non-SW reporting that they tried but were unable to enter treatment in the past year. Conclusion FSW need and want substance abuse treatment services but they often have difficulty accessing services. The study findings suggest that barriers within the South African treatment system need to be addressed to facilitate access for substance-using FSW. Ongoing research is needed to inform policy change that fosters widespread educational efforts and sustainable, accessible, woman-sensitive services to ultimately break the cycle for current and future generations of at-risk South African women.
E.B.E. Moema; King, P H; BAKER, C
Freshwater snails are known to serve as first intermediate hosts for various parasitic diseases such as schistosomosis and fasciolosis. Snails were collected on several occasions in the proximity of Pretoria, South Africa and their cercarial sheddings were studied. This article describes three different types of cercariae shed by the freshwater snail, Lymnaea natalensis, viz. a fork-tailed cercaria of a Trichobilharzia sp., an avian parasite belonging to the family Schistosomatidae, an...
J. M.M. Viljoen
Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this paper is to get a better understanding of the role and linkages of buy-back centres (BBCs in the recycling industry. The first objective is to analyse the institutional profile of the BBCs in two different geographical areas - namely, Pretoria and Bloemfontein. The second objective is to discuss the role and linkages of BBCs with the informal sector activities and specifically the activities of street waste pickers. The third objective is to explain the linkages that exist between BBCs and recycling companies. Problem investigated: Recycling, and specifically the collection and sorting of waste, is currently receiving much attention on the national as well as municipal level. To understand the recycling industry, and to make informed policy decisions concerning the recycling industry, policy makers need to have an understanding of the role and crucial link of all role players in the industry. Knowledge on the BBCs, who act as a link between the formal and informal sector activities in the recycling industry, is of the utmost importance. Design/Methodology/Approach: A mixed method approach consisting of a quantitative survey coupled with qualitative questions was used. The mixed method approach is used to collect as much data as possible from the BBCs, which is beyond the scope of what a structured questionnaire on its own can achieve. A lack of accurate location information on BBCs necessitated an intensive search for BBCs in the two areas. Findings/Implications: The BBCs in Pretoria and Bloemfontein act as an important link between informal sector activities and recycling companies and therefore promote informal and formal job opportunities. Formal job opportunities are created at the BBC sites as well as formal jobs at the upper end of the recycling chain, namely at formal recycling companies. Informal income generating opportunities are created for the informal waste collectors. Any changes in the formal or
du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Morris, Neil Kennith; Meyer, Pieter; Saayman, Gert
In South Africa bee stings are most commonly caused by either Apis mellifera capensis or A. mellifera scutellata, indigenous species which are notoriously aggressive when compared to European honey bees. According to Statistics South Africa, 109 deaths were documented for the period 2001-2011 as having been caused by hornets, wasps, and bees (ICD10-X26). This appears to be a small number but, as was reported in Australia, these statistics might be inaccurate due to either over- or underreporting of cases. We report 3 cases of fatalities due to bee stings, including one with postmortem features of diffuse intravascular coagulopathy. A brief overview of the venom of the honey bee, reactions following a bee sting and possible mechanisms of death are presented. Confirming the diagnosis in these cases may be very problematic for the forensic pathologist, as in many cases minimal history is available and both external and internal examination could fail to reveal any specific signs of bee sting or other obvious morphologic abnormalities. Thus, there is a need for reliable confirmatory or supportive diagnostic tests. PMID:26759134
Full Text Available Objectives: The study aimed to assess the oral health promotion services provided as part of the maternal and child health (MCH services in the Tshwane Health District, Pretoria, South Africa.Methods: The research design was a descriptive cross-sectional study using a modified standard questionnaire. The population was drawn from the parents/caregivers (PCGs and the MCH nurses at seven clinics during June 2012 and June 2013 in Pretoria.Results: The nurses’ response rate was 83%; average age of 37 years. The majority of the nurses (65% were females; 60% were professional nurses. Most (63% of the nurses reported that they provided oral health education (OHE services. A shortage of dental education materials (43%, staff time (48%, and staff training (52% were large constraints to nurses providing OHE. The majority of PCGs (n = 382; mean age 31.5 years had a low education level (76%. About 55% of PCGs received information on children’s oral health from the television and 35% at the MCH clinics. PCGs beliefs were worrying as about 38% believed primary dentition is not important and need not be saved.Conclusion: There is evidence of minimal integration of OHE at MCH sites. Parents’ beliefs are still worrying as a significant number do not regard the primary dentition as important. The MCH site remains an important easily accessible area for integration of oral health services with general health in complementing efforts in prevention of early childhood caries.Keywords: Oral health; Promotion integration
C.A. Du Toit
Full Text Available Spirocerca lupi (Spirurida: Spirocercidae is a cosmopolitan parasite, principally of domestic dogs and dung beetles are its main intermediate hosts. In South Africa there has recently been growing concern over the upsurge of reported cases of clinical spirocercosis in dogs, while little is known or understood about the dynamics of the host-parasite associations between dung beetles and this nematode. We determined and compared the prevalence of infection in dung beetles between rural, urban and periurban areas of Tshwane (Pretoria Metropole. Dung beetles were sampled during April and October 2006, at various localities in each of these areas. Localities were selected on the basis of being focal areas of high infection with S. lupi in dogs. Pig, dog and cow dung-baited pitfall traps were used for sampling the beetles. Trap contents were collected 48 h after the traps had been set and only dung beetles were collected from the traps. In total, 453 specimens belonging to 18 species were collected from 63 pitfall traps in all three areas. The numbers of species that were collected varied among the three areas. Dung beetles, irrespective of species (18 and numbers (447, predominantly preferred pig dung. The prevalence of dung beetles infected with the larvae of S. lupi varied considerably in the three areas. In the urban area 13.5 % of the dung beetles dissected were infected, while the prevalence of S. lupi in dung beetles in the rural area was 2.3 %. All the dung beetles that were infected with this nematode showed a preference for omnivore (pig and dog dung.
Current management of HIV involves the use of conventional prescription medicines, called 'antiretroviral drugs' (ARV), over-the-counter (OTC), complementary and alternative medicines (CAM), as well as African traditional medicine (ATM). The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of use of traditional, complementary and over-the-counter medicines. A cross-sectional survey of HIV-infected patients who started ART between July 2004 and August 2005 at Dr George Mukhari Hospital (Pretoria), who consented to be interviewed, was conducted. Using a pre-tested structured questionnaire, data were collected by two trained interviewers on sociodemographic characteristics, and on non-prescribed medicines used of three sources: African traditional medicine (ATM), complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and over-the-counter (OTC) medicines. The 180 patients who consented to be interviewed had a mean age of 36.7 (+/-8.1) years old; 68.8% were female, 86.7% unemployed, 73.9% with high school level of education, 77.8% single. Some 8.9% of respondents used at least one non-prescribed medicine. In descending order, 4.4% of respondents used ATM, 3.3% CAM, and 1.7% OTC medicines. The ATM products used included unspecified traditional mixtures, and those made of the African potato (Hypoxis hemerocallidea), and coconut (Cocos nucifera); OTC products used were paracetamol and sennosides (Senokot) tablets as well as a soap containing triclosan 1.5%; CAM products used were "sex booster" capsules of unknown composition, mercury-containing soaps (Mekako), and the Zion Church of Christ special tea, a mixture of Rooibos tea (Aspalathus linearis) plus sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus) and prayed for. In conclusion, only 8.9% of HIV-infected patients on ART in this study used a limited range of over-the-counter products as well as those from traditional, complementary and alternative medicine practices. PMID:20161889
Justin W Adams
Full Text Available Nearly a century of paleontological excavation and analysis from the cave deposits of the Cradle of Humankind UNESCO World Heritage Site in northeastern South Africa underlies much of our understanding of the evolutionary history of hominins, other primates and other mammal lineages in the late Pliocene and early Pleistocene of Africa. As one of few designated fossil repositories, the Plio-Pleistocene Palaeontology Section of the Ditsong National Museum of Natural History (DNMNH; the former Transvaal Museum curates much of the mammalian faunas recovered from the fossil-rich deposits of major South African hominin-bearing localities, including the holotype and paratype specimens of many primate, carnivore, and other mammal species (Orders Primates, Carnivora, Artiodactyla, Eulipotyphla, Hyracoidea, Lagomorpha, Perissodactyla, and Proboscidea. Here we describe an open-access digital archive of high-resolution, full-color three-dimensional (3D surface meshes of all 89 non-hominin holotype, paratype and significant mammalian specimens curated in the Plio-Pleistocene Section vault. Surface meshes were generated using a commercial surface scanner (Artec Spider, Artec Group, Luxembourg, are provided in formats that can be opened in both open-source and commercial software, and can be readily downloaded either via an online data repository (MorphoSource or via direct request from the DNMNH. In addition to providing surface meshes for each specimen, we also provide tomographic data (both computerized tomography [CT] and microfocus [microCT] for a subset of these fossil specimens. This archive of the DNMNH Plio-Pleistocene collections represents the first research-quality 3D datasets of African mammal fossils to be made openly available. This simultaneously provides the paleontological community with essential baseline information (e.g., updated listing and 3D record of specimens in their current state of preservation and serves as a single resource of
Bon, Anna; De Schryver, Tom; Twinomurinzi, Hossana; Jordaan, Dolf
Technological innovations in ICTs have unleashed new educational practices worldwide. Most higher education institutions nowadays use different kinds of e-learning. In this paper we will show that constraining local conditions have triggered fast adoption of mobile technology in the distance education – coined m-learning - by the University of Pretoria. Because many distant students in South Africa only have a mobile device instead of a computer at their disposal, the University of Pretoria w...
J. van Rooy
Full Text Available Exsiccatae in the bryophyte collection of the National Herbarium in Pretoria (PRE are catalogued for the first time. Most of the 66 series represented in PRE were issued in Europe, but the USA is the country where the largest number of exsiccatae originated. The exsiccatae span three centuries, with the earliest specimens issued in 1845 and the latest in 2009. This indicates the long-standing exchange of material and transfer of knowledge between herbaria in South Africa and countries of the northern Hemisphere. Many of the exsiccatae in PRE are incomplete and specimens were received as duplicates in exchange sets rather than exsiccatae. PRE houses a number of important African and southern hemisphere exsiccatae including two different sets of A. Rehmann’s Musci Austro-Africani (1875–1877 and Musci Austro-Africani cont., and R. Ochyra’s Bryophyta Antarctica exsiccata.
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Documentation: Approval by OJARS. 20.23 Section 20.23 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE CRIMINAL JUSTICE INFORMATION SYSTEMS State and Local Criminal History Record Information Systems § 20.23 Documentation: Approval by OJARS. Within...
On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.
Mashau, Thinandavha Derrick
The gap between the rich and the poor is widening daily and the proportion of people living in poverty in South Africa is steadily on the rise. The phenomenon of white poverty has existed since the 1890s and is becoming a more common trend across South Africa. White poverty left a number of whites in South Africa homeless. Consequently, they are forced to live in the streets, in shelters and informal settlements such as Bethlehem Mission Centre in Pretoria. A descriptive study was undertaken ...
Assesses the relationship between the United States and South Africa. Examines the educational inequalities in South Africa and the contradictions of recent reforms. Concludes that United States policies reinforce the strategies of the White minority government of Pretoria. (JOW)
C. J. Schenck
Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to compare the economic dynamics of day labouring in two Southern African capital cities, namely Windhoek and Pretoria, against the background of the experiences of day labourers in a developed country such as the United States. Problem investigated: People waiting at the side of the road, hoping to obtain a piece job for the day, is a typical phenomenon in a situation where people are forced to venture into the informal sector to generate an income. Day labour is a national and international phenomenon that seems to be on the increase. Literature on the similarities and differences across different geographical areas and levels of economic development is limited, however. Approach: For the purpose of this study, day labourers in Pretoria were the subject of a case study which was compared with studies done in Windhoek and the United States during the same period, namely 2003 to 2004. The general demographics of day labourers in these two cities were investigated, as well as their employment history and the income earned. Findings and implications: Day labourers in Pretoria and Windhoek were mainly male, fairly young, generally low skilled, earning low and uncertain levels of income and working under harsh conditions. This corresponds to the demographic characteristics of day labourers in the United States. In both the United States and Southern Africa, day labour pays poorly. It was found that day labourers seldom earn more than the subsistence level of income for the respective countries discussed in this paper. A significant portion of day labourers in Pretoria, Windhoek and the United States previously held formal sector jobs. The biggest difference is to be found in the future prospects of day labourers. The opportunity for day labourers in the United States to make the transition into the formal sector of the economy is far better than for their counterparts in Southern Africa.Value of the research: The
1. Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa's Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978-1-86888-456-8, xix + 342 pp. 2. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978-0-415-47420-7, 253 pp. 3. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot "Cold War": The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978-0745324722, 320 pp.
Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africaâ€™s Late-Cold War Conflicts , Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation , Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot â€œCold Warâ€ : The USSR in Southern Africa , London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 p...
Full Text Available Around the world, most professional people are requested and expected to participate in continuing training, which is often referred to as �continuing professional development�. Many denominations expect their pastors and other clergy to participate in such training. The Dutch Reformed Church has an official policy, in terms of which it expects such continuing theological training and ministry development of its ordained pastors. The introduction to this article offers some insight into the rationale behind such an expectation. After describing the history and programme of one of the first centres that offers such training, the history and programme of the ecumenical Centre for Contextual Ministry, Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria is described.�
Pieter (Piet G.J. Meiring
Full Text Available During the centenary year of the University of Pretoria (2008, the Department of Science of Religion and Missiology took stock of its activities during the past 55 years, since the first professor in Missiology, H.D.A. du Toit, was appointed. In his wake a number of missiologists followed � C.W.H. Boshoff, D. Crafford, P.G.J. Meiring, J.J. Kritzinger, P.J. van der Merwe, A.S. van Niekerk and C.J.P. Niemandt � each of whom has contributed to the formation of hundreds of ministers and missionaries, as well as to the development of missiology and science of religion in South Africa through their research and writings. In this article, the place of missiology among the other theological disciplines at the University of Pretoria is discussed, together with an analysis of the nature and the mandate of missiology and science of religion in South Africa in our day. This article discusses five specific challenges to missiology at the beginning of the third millennium, namely to maintain its theological �roots�; to operate in close relationship with the church; to focus on our African context; to concentrate on a relevant agenda; and to develop a responsible methodology. Attention is given to some of the more important publications by members of the Department.
J. P. Oberholzer
Full Text Available Retrospection on the Faculty of Theology (Sec A, University of Pretoria, and its members - a survey of literature A short, selective survey of literature on the motives for the founding of the Faculty of Theology (Sec A, University of Pretoria, and its history is given. Special attention is given to the typification of the theology of Faculty members by recent writers.
G.E. Swan; N.P.J. Kriek
Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa.Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and ag...
Since the National Conference on Nuclear Energy: application of isotopes and radiation, Pretoria (1963), radiotherapy has advanced steadily as an established medical discipline in South Africa. In compiling this bibliography the author has limited the field to publications in radiotherapy by South Africans. General information an photon teletherapy, interstitial and intracavitary radiotherapy, and particle beams is given in this bibliographic review
"On December 1–3, 2003, the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), Capacity Building International, Germany (InWent), the Technical Center for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation (CTA), and the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) assembled a group of experienced agricultural, trade, and finance specialists from government and the private sector and from across Africa to help review, summarize, and distill conclusions from the case studies of African successes. Toget...
Full Text Available This article celebrates the centenary of the University of Pretoria (UP in 2008. The editors of Verbum et Ecclesia and HTS Theological Studies, the two theological journals associated with the Faculty of Theology at UP, reflect on the journals’ historical roots, editorial focuses, distinctive features, subscription and language statistics and on their’ contribution to support the academic study of theology and related disciplines. The Faculty of Theology was founded in 1917 and celebrated its ninetieth birthday in 2007. The origin of its journals dates back to 1943. This article discusses the challenges that academic journals face in South Africa and undertakes strategic planning for the future. A concluding addendum, consisting of statistical diagrams with regard to the journals’ profile during the last five years, illustrates the argument.
J. W Morris
Full Text Available The contents of the computerized information storage and retrieval system (PRECIS of the National Herbarium, Pretoria (PRE are described at length mainly by means of frequency histograms of descriptor codes. The frequency distributions found are discussed in the light of the history of the herbarium, the geography of the area and the habits of plant collectors. Two uses of PRECIS are illustrated by example. Firstly, the flowering phenology of Eragrostis capensis, Themeda triandra and Heteropogon contortus is plotted and, secondly, the route followed by Dinter in South West Africa/Namibia from December 1933 until March 1935 is described. It is concluded that the system should be o f particular use in revisionary studies, regional floras and biogeographic research.
A. J. Engelbrecht
Full Text Available An ecological bibliography for southern Africa up until 1975 is currently being compiled. References recorded by researchers at the Botanical Research Institute, Pretoria are being expanded and incorporated into a computer data base. All references are annotated with codes, key words, biomes and regions where applicable. The IBM/STAIRS programme package is used for retrieving references by means of authors and subject headings as well as sorting alphabetically.
Shaughnessy, Michael F.; Moore, Tammy Lynne; Maree, Kobus
Always regarded as somewhat of an "outsider" (the child of an English-speaking (Catholic) mother and an Afrikaans (Protestant) father in an exclusively Afrikaans milieu) and growing up extremely poor, seeing the hardship of others and realising how much talent was going to waste, Kobus Maree took a particular interest in gifted disadvantaged…
Alexandre Achille Grandinetti; Vinicius Kniggendorf; Luciane Bugmann Moreira; Carlos Augusto Moreira Junior; Ana Tereza Ramos Moreira
ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate and compare corneal topographic changes following pars plana vitrectomy with the 23-gauge (G) and 25-G transconjuntival sutureless vitrectomy system as well as the standard 20-G vitrectomy system.Methods:We prospectively evaluated corneal topographic changes in 45 eyes of 45 patients divided into three groups according to vitrectomy system used (20-, 23-, and 25-G). All patients underwent computer-assisted videokeratography using an EyeSys System 3000 topographer p...
Marchetti-Mercer, Maria C.; Cleaver, Glenda
Describes a specific training method developed in a family therapy course at the University of Pretoria in South Africa, where genograms and family sculpting were used to improve cross-cultural understanding among psychology masters students. Discusses the theoretical implications of the group training process for the training of psychologists in…
Johan M. Van der Merwe; Cas J.A. Vos
In 1938 the Faculty of Theology Section B was established at the University of Pretoria, which could be likened to a small fountain. As the fountain flowed through the decades of history, it grew and became a river that made a huge impact on the university, the Church and society. The aim of this article, coinciding with the centenary of the University of Pretoria, is to focus on the positive contribution of the Faculty of Theology towards university, church and society. Like any river it wen...
Helen Brenda Oosthuizen
In 2014, the Music Therapy Master’s training course at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, celebrated its 15th anniversary. To mark the occasion, two showcases held in Gauteng and Port Elizabeth celebrated the work that is being done by music therapists and community musicians across the country, both those with many years of experience, students and recent graduates. This report of the showcases highlights the calibre of exciting music therapy projects that are emerging and developing ...
Alexandre Achille Grandinetti
Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate and compare corneal topographic changes following pars plana vitrectomy with the 23-gauge (G and 25-G transconjuntival sutureless vitrectomy system as well as the standard 20-G vitrectomy system.Methods:We prospectively evaluated corneal topographic changes in 45 eyes of 45 patients divided into three groups according to vitrectomy system used (20-, 23-, and 25-G. All patients underwent computer-assisted videokeratography using an EyeSys System 3000 topographer preoperatively and at one week, one month, and three months postoperatively.Results:In the 20-G vitrectomy group, we found statistically significant postoperative changes in corneal curvature parameters with an average steepening of 0.98 ± 0.18 D (P<0.001 and 0.93 ± 0.21 D (P<0.001 at one week and one month, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed at the three-month follow-up visit. In the 23- and 25-G groups, no statistically significant changes in corneal curvature parameters were observed at any postoperative follow-up visit.Conclusion:Twenty-three-gauge and 25-gauge transconjunctival sutureless vitrectomy did not induce topographic corneal changes following surgery, whereas 20-G vitrectomy was found to induce transient topographic corneal changes that had returned to preoperative levels at three months postoperatively.
My neighbour at Pretoria University Music Department is Meki Nzwei. Master drummer and music ethnologist, he speaks with passion and authority as befits an elder in Africa. We disagree on many things. And the more I listen to what it is that I disagree with, the more I think he has a point or two. Meki, who hails from Nigeria, maintains that music in Africa is healing, and what is music therapy other than some colonial import? Why is music therapy separate from music-making? Why is it calling...
Full Text Available My neighbour at Pretoria University Music Department is Meki Nzwei. Master drummer and music ethnologist, he speaks with passion and authority as befits an elder in Africa. We disagree on many things. And the more I listen to what it is that I disagree with, the more I think he has a point or two. Meki, who hails from Nigeria, maintains that music in Africa is healing, and what is music therapy other than some colonial import? Why is music therapy separate from music-making? Why is it calling itself thus in South Africa, instead of imbibing African music-healing traditions? My blood pressure rises instantly, and I suggest to him that perhaps African music-healing, too, might absorb something from music therapy. This is where Meki and I are at the moment. I think that this is where music therapy in South Africa - and much of Africa - is at the moment.
Johan M. van der Merwe
Full Text Available In 1938 the Faculty of Theology Section B was established at the University of Pretoria, which could be likened to a small fountain. As the fountain flowed through the decades of history, it grew and became a river that made a huge impact on the university, the Church and society. The aim of this article, coinciding with the centenary of the University of Pretoria, is to focus on the positive contribution of the Faculty of Theology towards university, church and society. Like any river it went through different stages. There were times of peace and tranquillity, but also times of raging rapids. At certain stages of growth and development both lecturers and students made a huge impact, playing leading roles in Church and society, clearly voicing the call of the Church. The voice of the Faculty was not always welcome and was at times met by strong reaction, which was possibly one of the reasons for the murder of Prof. J.A. Heyns. In 2000 a new era dawned when the stream that became a river was joined by streams of different denominations. This made the river even stronger, with much more impact. This article tells the story of the origin, growth and struggle of the Dutch Reformed Church at the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria from 1938 to 2008.
Hough, J.H.; Slabbert, J.P. (Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria (South Africa). National Accelerator Centre)
Radiobiological investigations with fast neutrons have been initiated at the CSIR cyclotron in Pretoria. It was proposed some years ago to create a neutron therapy facility using the CSIR cyclotron. Neutrons are classified as high linear energy transfer (LET) particles. Biological damage occurring in tissue is a direct function of the LET of the incident radiation. To quantify the biological effects of different types of radiation on mammalian cells, several procedures and concepts have evolved from radiobiological research. Probably the most significant laboratory techniques developed, were the derivation of cell survival curves which are obtained by determining the number of cell colonies that have survived a certain radiation dose. A semi-logarithmic plot of surviving fraction versus the absorbed dose yields the survival curve. Dose modifying factors such as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of the radiation can be quantified in terms of this relationship. A radiobiological programme has to be undertaken before patients can receive neutron therapy at the CSIR cyclotron. The article is a discussion of this programme.
Nthabiseng Audrey Ogude
Full Text Available A concerted institutional approach to improving student outcomes resulted in a faculty-based, student-focussed model for student success at the University of Pretoria (UP. The student academic development and excellence model (SADEM, developed by a Steering Committee for student success, employs developmental research and systems theory and targets all years of undergraduate study while prioritising the first year. Underpinned by a systemic metric framework and continuous improvement, interventions comprise institutional and faculty-based projects that target high impact modules and diverse students to improve retention, pass, and throughput rates. Though context specific, it offers solutions to international concerns - lack of a systemic approach; initiatives located in peripheral units; initiatives located outside academic disciplines and lack of participation by academic staff and a focus on retention of limited student subgroups instead of retention, pass, graduation and throughput rates of all students. The circumstances that led to its development, its key features and application at the UP, ways it can be adapted to other contexts, as well as its limitations and possible future directions are presented.
J. P. Oberholzer
Full Text Available Old Testament Studies in the Faculty of Theology (Sec A, University of Pretoria, 1917-1982 Elsewhere in this volume short treatments of the theology and work of scholars in the Department of Old Testament Studies in the Faculty can be found. This article intends to give a brief survey of the University of Pretoria’s earliest period of Hebrew and Old Testament Studies, as well as a general history of the Department during the 75 years of its existence.
This article traces the development of agricultural science at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, near Pretoria, from its founding in 1908 until the 1950s, by which time many enzootic and epizootic diseases had either been eradicated, or were largely controllable through various forms of prophylaxis. The Institute demonstrated the political and economic significance attributed to the pastoral industry in South Africa and the conviction that scientific discoveries could increase output. D...
A. B. Wessels
Full Text Available Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is concluded that for fresh fruit production these cultivars are best suited for planting in the Pretoria region and in areas with similar climatic conditions.
Helen Brenda Oosthuizen
Full Text Available In 2014, the Music Therapy Master’s training course at the University of Pretoria, South Africa, celebrated its 15th anniversary. To mark the occasion, two showcases held in Gauteng and Port Elizabeth celebrated the work that is being done by music therapists and community musicians across the country, both those with many years of experience, students and recent graduates. This report of the showcases highlights the calibre of exciting music therapy projects that are emerging and developing within diverse contexts and communities throughout our country.
S. M. Perold
Full Text Available Riccia moenkemeyeri was twice described by Stephani (1887, 1891, the second time as R abnormis. Amell (1952 described it as R. undulata. It is clearly a plastic species (Jones 1957 and is widely distributed in tropical Africa, from Sierra Leone (as R. undulata, Nigeria, Cameroon and into the Congo Basin. Until recendy, Sim’s specimens from the Matopos in Zimbabwe, were the most southerly records known, but the species has now also been collected in southern Africa, just east of Pretoria and at Kransberg, in the western Transvaal.
Full Text Available Staffing needs affect the nursing department’s budget, staff productivity, the quality of care provided to patients and even the retention of nurses. It is unclear how the role players (the nursing agency manager, the nurse manager and the agency nurse perceive the staffing of agency nurses in intensive care units (ICUs. The purpose of this study was to explore and describe the factors that guide nurse managers regarding the staffing of agency nurses in ICUs at private hospitals in Pretoria. A quantitative exploratory and descriptive design was used. A survey by means of a structured questionnaire was carried out. Probability sampling was implemented to obtain a study sample (n = 124. One similar self-administered 5-point scale instrument was completed by the participants. Data was analysed by means of descriptive and inferential statistics. The principles of validity and reliability were adhered to and ethical considerations were also taken into account. The results indicated limitations in the determining of posts, recruitment and advertising, as well as the selection and appointment of agency nurses in ICUs at private hospitals in Pretoria. Recommendations on staffing are made to nurse managers in ICUs.
Full Text Available Spirituality in an affluent culture. A focus on the Eastern suburbs of Pretoria The eastern suburbs of Pretoria is a white, mainly Afrikaans speaking and Dutch Reformed community with a relatively high level of education and income and a mostly stable family life. Religion is important to most of the inhabitants. Church life is characterised by movement and change. Church members move to and fro between different churches and congregations, while many congregations experience change in their worship services. This leads to pain and schism in congregations, and members experience marginalisation. The research has been done by listening to the stories of individuals (co-researchers. The story of the research has developed under the themes of leadership, so called �American� and �European� attitudes towards life, change, relationships and service. The story reaches a climax when the predominant attitudes of prosperity and success is deconstructed in values that are shared by all the co-researchers, namely worship, care and service.
Full Text Available Orientation: Domestic work provides employment to many women. The wages or salaries and employment conditions of domestic workers have raised worldwide concern. Domestic work is an unstable, lowly paid, insecure and unprotected form of employment. Abuse and exploitation are common. The regulation of this sector is the result.Research purpose: The purpose of this article was to analyse and compare the effects of, and level of compliance with, the regulation of the domestic worker sector in two very different residential areas in Pretoria.Motivation for the study: Researchers have conducted all previous micro-study investigations of the topic in Langenhoven Park, Bloemfontein. We need more micro-level studies to investigate the effects of regulating this labour market because areas with different socioeconomic conditions may yield different results.Research design, approach and method: The researchers followed a quantitative micro- research design using structured questionnaires. They used the research methodology applied in similar micro-studies as the basis of the survey to make the results comparable. They used the criterion sampling technique. Respondents completed 87 questionnaires in Orchards and 89 in Soshanguve.Main findings: Evidence suggests that areas in close proximity to one another in the same metropolis yield significant differences in the wages or salaries and non-wage working conditions of domestic workers. A blanket approach to identifying and monitoring the effects of the legislation for this sector is not an appropriate one.Practical/managerial implications: The sector needs micro-studies over an extended period and in different areas to form a more nuanced picture of this multifaceted labour market. This study emphasised the necessity for improved monitoring of the existing legislation.Contribution/value-add: This is the first micro-study to compare the effects of regulating the domestic workers sector of two residential areas
Full text: The opportunity to design a new radiation oncology facility only presents itself once in a professional lifetime (if you're lucky). The new Pretoria Academic Hospital evolved over a period of more than ten years of planning. Since there were no clear guidelines or budget presented during the acquisition of equipment we posed the question: what is appropriate? The factors determining appropriateness will be discussed and the various options tested against these. The recent experience of our facility with new equipment will be used as the basis for the arguments. Although there were national and regional plans available for oncology services, we were left in limbo with regard to budgets, expected service levels and time frames. Our department drew up a plan loosely based on the replacement of current technology with the equivalent new technology and rough estimates of expected patient numbers. We opted for a high tech approach. The next hurdle was to work within the tender system to draw up appropriate specifications and to manage the acquisition process. A sophisticated evaluation was done based on cost of ownership over a seven year period. The lessons learned from this experience will be shared. Commissioning of equipment and new techniques presented a huge challenge since it had to be performed with available resources while normal patient treatment had to be maintained. The whole philosophy of the department changed and we dragged a number of personnel kicking and screaming into the 21st century. As of today IMRT and SRS have become a routine part of life and IGRT capabilities are being developed. The experience in our department has shown how a high tech approach can be implemented successfully in a developing world setting to improve productivity and personnel morale. However, the needs and expectations vary between centres and our findings will be extrapolated to different scenarios. The answer to this question is neither clear cut nor static and
This paper describes the neutron tomography investigation on archaeological artifacts from museums in South Africa. While X-rays fail to penetrate the brass matrix of the samples, neutrons can easily reveal, on a non-invasive manner, the content and structure of these precious samples. The South African Neutron Radiography (SANRAD) facility, located at the SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa near Pretoria, South Africa, was utilized in a tomography mode during the investigations. For the 3D tomographical reconstruction of the sample, 375 projections were collected while the sample was rotated around a defined axis through 360 deg. rotation interval. The results show that the technique is able to reconstruct structural features very well and in particular, highly absorbing zones and the presence of defects in the bulk. The samples originate from collections at museums in South Africa and these investigations were the first of its kind performed in the country.
Full Text Available Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds. (2008, Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed. (2009, Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008, The Hot “Cold War”: The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 pp. Review Article: Kalter Krieg im Südlichen Afrika Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds. (2008, Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts, Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 S. Sue Onslow (ed. (2009, Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation, Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 S. Vladimir Shubin (2008, The Hot “Cold War”: The USSR in Southern Africa, London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 S.
There is a pressing need to enhance fish production in Africa through improved farm management and the use of improved fish breeds and/or alien species in aquaculture while at the same time conserve the aquatic genetic diversity. This paper presents the outcome of the Expert Consultation on Biosafety and Environmental Impact of Genetic Enhancement and Introduction of Improved Tilapia Strains/Alien Species in Africa held in Nairobi, Kenya on 20-23 February 2002. The main topics discussed were ...
Full Text Available Veterinary education commenced in South Africa in 1920 at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute in South Africa in association with the Transvaal University College, now the University of Pretoria. Sir Arnold Theiler, Director of Veterinary Research and Education, was the first Dean. Today there are 46 veterinary training institutions in Africa of which 21 are in sub-Saharan Africa.Veterinary services are indispensable to the sustained health and wellbeing of animals and humans, and agricultural economies of countries worldwide. Veterinary education, postgraduate training, and research, and adequate numbers of veterinarians, are essential to satisfy the millennium development goals, the objectives of NEPAD and the African Union, and the agreements regulating international trade.
Rogerson Jayne M.
Full Text Available Within sub-Saharan Africa South Africa is one of the leaders in greening and initiatives for sustainable urban development. Notwithstanding the central role of climate change impacts and of the green challenge for the future, the greening of urban development has not been a major focus in local geographical research. The task in this paper is to investigate one aspect of reorienting the economy towards a pathway of low carbon growth and of addressing the green urban challenge. Specifically, issues around the greening of commercial property developments in South Africa are explored. Under the ratings of the Green Building Council of South Africa 50 green buildings existed by early 2014. Geographically these properties cluster in South Africa’s major cities, in particular Johannesburg, the country’s economic powerhouse and centre for corporate headquarters, and Pretoria, the administrative capital. New proposals for building retrofitting may result in a greater spatial spread of green buildings in the near future.
Cristian Alexandru Groza
Full Text Available The aim of the study is to show the evolution of the National Legionary State from its beginnings to its final form of revolt (20-23rd January 1941. This type of state was created on 14th September 1940 by the royal wish of Michael I of Romania, who was influenced by General Ion Antonescu. The study has the purpose to show how anti-Semitism can transform itself from a philosophy concept, through the ideas of Nae Ionescu, to a state ideology. The main documents which I studied are based on archives, the constitution of the state, during the period mentioned in the title, and the journals of general Ion Antonescu, or main political figures, and the notes written by Filip Browner, known better as Filip Brunea Fox, in his City of massacre. Journal of Legionary, Rebellion and Crime. This study is important because it analyzes a totalitarian regime that was made possible by the intervention of political arrangements alongside the help of the Legion of the Archangel Michael, founded by the Corneliu Zelea Codreanu in 1927.
Full Text Available Abstract There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle to their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Systemwide Initiative on Malaria and Agriculture convened a multi-sectoral technical consultation on urban malaria in Pretoria, South Africa from 2nd to 4th December, 2004. The aim of the meeting was to identify strategies for the assessment and control of urban malaria. This commentary reflects the discussions held during the meeting and aims to inform researchers and policy makers of the potential for containing and reversing the emerging problem of urban malaria.
Donnelly, Martin J; McCall, P J; Lengeler, Christian;
There are already 40 cities in Africa with over 1 million inhabitants and the United Nations Environmental Programme estimates that by 2025 over 800 million people will live in urban areas. Recognizing that malaria control can improve the health of the vulnerable and remove a major obstacle to...... their economic development, the Malaria Knowledge Programme of the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine and the Systemwide Initiative on Malaria and Agriculture convened a multi-sectoral technical consultation on urban malaria in Pretoria, South Africa from 2nd to 4th December, 2004. The aim of the...... meeting was to identify strategies for the assessment and control of urban malaria. This commentary reflects the discussions held during the meeting and aims to inform researchers and policy makers of the potential for containing and reversing the emerging problem of urban malaria....
Fifteen spineless prickly pear cultivars (Opuntia ficus-indica) were evaluated for three successive seasons at the University of Pretoria Research Farm. Yields were recorded and external and internal fruit quality factors were identified and considered. Following this investigation, minimum standards were suggested and the cultivars under review were compared. The cultivars Morado, Algerian, Fusicaulis van Heerden, Fresno, Mexican and Nudosa met all or most of the standards set. It is con...
Morris, J W; R. Manders
The contents of the computerized information storage and retrieval system (PRECIS) of the National Herbarium, Pretoria (PRE) are described at length mainly by means of frequency histograms of descriptor codes. The frequency distributions found are discussed in the light of the history of the herbarium, the geography of the area and the habits of plant collectors. Two uses of PRECIS are illustrated by example. Firstly, the flowering phenology of Eragrostis capensis, Themeda triandra and Heter...
Westaway, Margaret S; Jordaan, Esmè R; Tsai, Jennifer
Interviewers administered the Rosenberg Self-Esteem scale (RSES) to five groups of Black (formal township and informal settlement), White, Indian, and mixed race adult residents of Greater Pretoria. The results demonstrated that the RSES was psychometrically sound for the five groups. The minimal effects of sociodemographic characteristics on global self-esteem showed that the RSES and its two dimensions, self-competence (SC) and self-liking (SL), were suitable in this setting. All five groups scored above the theoretical midpoint of the RSES, indicating that generally positive self-evaluations appear to be universal. The relationships between positively and negatively worded items, SC, and SL attested to the following: internal structure reliability, congruence between positive and negative items, no negative biases in response, and concordance between SC and SL dimensions. The significant differences between informal settlement residents and the other four groups on global self-esteem, positively and negatively worded items, and SC and SL were possibly due to physiological needs taking precedence over higher order needs. PMID:24064430
Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure
Cervenka, Z.; Rogers, B.
Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure.
We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 firstname.lastname@example.org corresponding author
Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano
a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Female strangulation in South Africa occurs in a context of pervasive and often extreme violence perpetrated against women, and therefore represents a major public health, social and human rights concern. South African studies that provide accurate descriptions of the occurrence of strangulation incidents among female homicide victims are limited. The current study describes the extent, distribution and patterns of homicidal strangulation of women in the four largest South African metropolitan centres, Tshwane/Pretoria, Johannesburg, Cape Town and Ethekwini/Durban. Methods The study is a register-based cross sectional investigation of female homicidal strangulation, as reported in the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System for the four cities, for the period 2001 to 2005. Crude, unadjusted female strangulation rates for age and population group, and proportions of strangulation across specific circumstances of occurrence were compiled for each year and aggregated in some cases. Results This study reports that female homicidal strangulation in urban South Africa ranges from 1.71/100 000 to 0.70/100 000. Rates have generally declined in all the cities, except Cape Town. The highest rates were reported in the over 60 and the 20 to 39 year old populations, and amongst women of mixed descent. Most strangulations occurred from the early morning hours and across typical working hours in Johannesburg and Durban, and to a lesser extent in Cape Town. Occurrences across Johannesburg, Durban and Pretoria were distributed across the days of the week; an exception was Cape Town, which reported the highest rates over the weekend. Cape Town also reported distinctly high blood alcohol content levels of strangulation victims. The seasonal variation in strangulation deaths suggested a pattern of occurrence generally spanning the period from end-winter to summer. Across cities, the predominant crime scene was linked to the domestic
Ayodele Joseph Adesina; Kanike Raghavendra Kumar; Venkataraman Sivakumar; Derek Griffith
The present study uses the data collected from Cimel Sunphotometer of Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) for the period from January to December,2012 over an urban site,Pretoria (PTR; 25.75°S,28.28°E,1449 m above sea level),South Africa.We found that monthly mean aerosol optical depth (AOD,Ta) exhibits two maxima that occurred in summer (February) and winter (August) having values of 0.36 ± 0.19 and 0.25 ± 0.14,respectively,high-to-moderate values in spring and thereafter,decreases from autumn with a minima in early winter (June) 0.12 ± 0.07.The Angstrom exponents (α440-870) likewise,have its peak in summer (January) 1.70 ± 0.21 and lowest in early winter (June) 1.38 ± 0.26,while the columnar water vapor (CWV) followed AOD pattem with high values (summer) at the beginning of the year (February,2.10 ± 0.37 cm) and low values (winter) in the middle of the year (July,0.66 ± 0.21 cm).The volume size distribution (VSD) in the fine-mode is higher in the summer and spring seasons,whereas in the coarse mode the VSD is higher in the winter and lower in the summer due to the hygroscopic growth of aerosol particles.The single scattering albedo (SSA) ranged from 0.85 to 0.96 at 440 nm over PTR for the entire study period.The averaged aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) computed using SBDART model at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) was-8.78 ± 3.1 W/m2,while at the surface it was-25.69 ± 8.1 W/m2 leading to an atmospheric forcing of +16.91 ± 6.8 W/m2,indicating significant heating of the atmosphere with a mean of 0.47 K/day.
In October 1999, the South African and Dutch Ministers of Transport signed a protocol on bilateral co-operation in the field of transport and infrastructure development. The South African Netherlands Transport Forum (SANTF) was establish to drive the co-operative programmes. One of the projects iden
Recounts a teacher's experiences on a trip to Africa. Describes her pleasant moments with her fellow travelers; her appreciation of the natural setting; her visit to an impoverished native school; and her confrontation with a Maasai warrior. (TB)
THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.
Full Text Available When opening this conference, Professor Lizette Rabe quoted a statistic that struck a chord with me.
In a six-month period between March and August 2000, the TransAfrica Forum in the USA had counted 89 stories on Africa published by The New York Times and Washington Post. Of the 89, 75 were negative, and 63 of the 89 were about conflict in Africa.
What this statistic does is to portray in a small way the massive problem of how Africa is reported by the Western media, and which we, the African media, sometimes reflect and amplify in our reporting of the continent, by mimicking the Western media.
No right-thinking African will ever deny that conflict does happen in Africa. However, the problem with the negative reporting is that it does not put the raw facts in context.
Africa is a continent of 53 countries. It is the most variegated continent on Earth. Conflict is part and parcel of human nature, of life. In that context, Africans would not be human if conflict did not happen on this huge, variegated continent.
This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation
Aluoneswi C. Mashau
Full Text Available Background: Schoenefeldia is a genus of C4 grasses, consisting of two species in Africa, Madagascar and India. It is the only representative of the genus found in southern Africa, where it was previously only known from a few collections in the southern part of the Kruger National Park (Mpumalanga Province, South Africa, dating from the early 1980s.Objectives: The objective of this study was to document a newly recorded population of Schoenefeldia transiens in an area that is exploited for coal mining.Method: A specimen of S. transiens was collected between Musina and Pontdrift, about 30 km east of Mapungubwe National Park, in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. The specimen was identified at the National Herbarium (Pretoria.Results: This is not only a new distribution record for the quarter degree grid (QDS: 2229BA, but is also the first record of this grass in the Limpopo Province. The population of S. transiens has already been fragmented and partially destroyed because of mining activities and is under serious threat of total destruction.Conclusion: It is proposed that the population of S. transiens must be considered to be of conservation significance, and the population should be made a high priority in the overall environmental management programme of the mining company that owns the land.
This book records the proceedings of the second international conference on the theme of planning and operation of open-pit and strip mines. The conference was held in Pretoria during April 1984. The major portion of South African iron ore and copper is mined in open-pit mines. The rapid expansion of the open-pit and strip mining industry has led to the thriving industry of today. Notable areas of growth have been the introduction of capital-intensive machinery such as walking drag-lines, large capacity shovels, in-pit crushers, extensive use of conveyor belts, large haul tracks and ore-dressing plants. Among other areas where corresponding progress has been made are blasting techniques, maintenance planning, computer applications, and large-scale stock-piling of bulk materials. The conference touched on all these subjects under four main headings: mine planning, mining operations, equipment selection and maintenance, and new developments. One paper looks at open-pit production control at Rossing Uranium Limited
A year highlighted by a new nation,regime change,famine and hopes for climate change solutions THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.
Africa Development Indicators 2006 is the latest annual report from the World Bank on social and economic conditions across the continent. It was revamped this year to better report and monitor the challenges and transformations in Africa. Africa Development Indicators has evolved from a single data book, and this year consists of three independent but complementary products: this book, which brings together an essay and key outcome indicators for Africa, the Little Data Book on Africa 2006, ...
The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which China and Africa began a friendship that was built around Beijing’s political backing and developmental aid to a crop of emerging indepen- dent African nations.In the 1980s and 1990s,China shifted its focus by devoting more efforts to establishing a rapport with big powers and neighboring countries to create a sound environment for self-development.Since the turn of the cen- tury,however,the African continent has been rediscovered by China as a strategic partner in many areas.As the Chinese market has flourished,so too has the African economy,which maintained a growth momentum in recent years and has achieved a modest prosperity rarely seen in its history. He Fan,Deputy Director of the Research Center on International Finance affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shared his comments about this partnership on blog on the eve of the New Year.
Accelerator radioisotopes have been manufactured in South Africa since 1965 with the 30 MeV cyclotron at the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria. After its closure in 1988, the radioisotope production programme was continued at the National Accelerator Centre (NAC) with the 200 MeV separated sector cyclotron (SCC) utilizing the 66 MeV proton beam, which is shared with the neutron therapy programme during part of the week. A variety of radiopharmaceuticals, such as 18F-FDG, 67Ga-citrate, a 67Ga-labelled resin. 111In-chloride, 111In-oxine and 111In-labelled resin. 123I-sodium iodide and 123I-labelled compounds, 201Tl-chloride, as well as the 81Rb/81mKr gas generator, are prepared for use in the nuclear medicine departments of 12 State hospitals and about 28 private nuclear medicine clinics in South Africa. A few longer-lived radioisotopes, such as 22Na, 55Fe and 139Ce, are also produced for research or industrial use. A research and development programme is running to develop new production procedures to produce radioisotopes and radiopharmaceuticals, or to improve existing production procedures. As part of a programme to utilize the beam time optimally, the production of some other radioisotopes is investigated. (author)
D. J. Human
Full Text Available Interpreting the Bible in the 'new' South Africa DJ Human Department of Biblical Studies (Sec B University of Pretoria The Bible plays an important role in South African society. The interpretation of this book within or outside the Christian community has become an increaslingly major source of debate. It has been used and misused in several spheres of society. This article does not intend providing an extensive and composite picture of the problems and character of biblical hermeneutics. Nor will it attempt to elaborate on or explain the origins, development and influences of all the different her-meneutical approaches. Rather, it poses to be an introduction to a few of the problem(s encountered in the attempt to understand the Bible, especially in terms of the 'new' South Africa. Within the framework of this scope, remarks will be made regarding the challenges involved in interpreting the Bible, the role of the interpreter in the interpretation process, the varied forms of literature to be found in Scripture, and in the last instance, to take cognisance of a few methodological approaches to the text analysis of the Bible.
The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) in some parts of Africa in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Algeria, Angola, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia
In this paper, the author presents the theory that for Africa to work towards reduction of global warming, it must first address its environmental problems; i.e. land use, deforestation, desertification, poverty and hunger. He argues that Africa should aim for growth in the productivity and quantity of energy use. The following suggestions were made: Africa must shift from low-quantity biomass to secondary sources in the short term; developed countries must avoid pushing experimental and frontier technologies on Africa; with financial and technical help, Africa could develop its largely untapped reserves of hydropower. Nuclear power should not be an option because reliable production is not possible at present
The aim of this report is to shine a light on the latest developments in the South African energy sector and to show that the energy sector is a favourable sector in South Africa for Dutch commercial involvement. Above all, an answer is given to the question why there is almost no Dutch export or investment in South Africa's energy sector and how we can boost more Dutch commercial involvement. The country has abundant coal reserves and this is one of the reasons why it can supply the cheapest electricity in the world. This also makes it very difficult for other primary energy products to compete with coal. But things are starting to change due to important external and internal facts. The current electricity crisis contributes the most to the changing energy landscape in South Africa and will therefore be discussed in detail. The first chapter will give an overview of the fossil and sustainable energy sector in South Africa. It will describe how the different energy sources contribute to the energy mix of the country. In the second chapter, the most important developments in the energy field will be introduced and discussed. There will be a focus on internal and external factors which influence developments in South Africa. A SWOT analyses will be presented to give an overview of what is important to keep in mind when one looks at the South African energy sector. Chapter three will give an answer to the question where the best opportunities are for Dutch companies to invest in, export to or cooperate within the South African energy sector. This report should be read in cooperation with the two market surveys that were conducted for the Netherlands Foreign Trade Agency (EVD) and the Dutch Embassy in Pretoria. Both for fossil as for the sustainable energy opportunities are abundant, this does not mean that market entry is very easy. Furthermore, some recommendations are given on how more Dutch involvement in the South African energy sector could be achieved
Jaars, K.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Venter, A. D.; Josipovic, M.; Pienaar, J. J.; Vakkari, Ville; Aaltonen, H.; Laakso, H.; Kulmala, M.; Tiitta, P.; Guenther, Alex B.; Hellen, H.; Laakso, L.; Hakola, H.
Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa) that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters), the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters), the Johannesburg-Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people), the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and industries), the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry) and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours 1 during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass 2 selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the 3 monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. 4 Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant 5 species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant 6 differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal cycles could be
Full Text Available Aromatic hydrocarbons are associated with direct adverse human health effects and can have negative impacts on ecosystems due to their toxicity, as well as indirect negative effects through the formation of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosol that affect human health, crop production and regional climate. Measurements were conducted at the Welgegund measurement station (South Africa that is considered to be a regionally representative background site. However, the site is occasionally impacted by plumes from major anthropogenic source regions in the interior of South Africa, which include the western Bushveld Igneous Complex (e.g. platinum, base metal and ferrochrome smelters, the eastern Bushveld Igneous Complex (platinum and ferrochrome smelters, the Johannesburg–Pretoria metropolitan conurbation (>10 million people, the Vaal Triangle (e.g. petrochemical and pyrometallurgical industries, the Mpumalanga Highveld (e.g. coal-fired power plants and petrochemical industry and also a region of anti-cyclonic recirculation of air mass over the interior of South Africa. The aromatic hydrocarbon measurements were conducted with an automated sampler on Tenax-TA and Carbopack-B adsorbent tubes with heated inlet for one year. Samples were collected twice a week for two hours during daytime and two hours during night-time. A thermal desorption unit, connected to a gas chromatograph and a mass selective detector was used for sample preparation and analysis. Results indicated that the monthly median total aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations ranged between 0.01 to 3.1 ppb. Benzene levels did not exceed local air quality standards. Toluene was the most abundant species, with an annual median concentration of 0.63 ppb. No statistically significant differences in the concentrations measured during daytime and night-time were found and no distinct seasonal patterns were observed. Air mass back trajectory analysis proved that the lack of seasonal
Evans, M. Y.
section and 4,610 ±30 at the bottom section. References: Klein, R.G., Cruz-Uribe, K., Beaumont, P.B., 1991. Environmental, ecological, and paleoanthropological implications of the Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Equus Cave, northern Cape Province, South Africa. Quaternary Research. 36, 94 119. Lee-Thorp, J.A., Beaumont. PB., 1995. Vegetation and seasonality shift during the late Quaternary deduced from 13C/12C ratios of grazers at Equus Cave, South Africa. Quaternary Research. 43, 426 432. Partridge, T.C., Demenocal, P.B., Lorentz, S.A., Paiker, M.J., Vogel, J.C., 1997: Orbital forcing of climate over South Africa: A 200,000-year rainfall record from Pretoria Saltpan, Quaternary Science Reviews, 16, 1125-1133. Partridge, T.C., Kerr, S.J., Metcalfe, S.E., Scott, L., Vogel, J.C., 1993: The Pretoria Saltpan: A 200,000 year South African lacustrine sequence. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 101, 317-337. Scott, L. and Thackeray, J.F., 1987: Multivariate analysis of late Pleistocene and Holocene pollen spectra from Wonderkrater, Transvaal, South Africa. South African Journal of Science, 83, 93- 98. Talma, A.S. and Vogel, J.C., 1992: Late Quaternary palaeotemperatures derived from a speleotherm from Cango Caves, Cape Province, South Africa, Quaternary Research, 37, 203-213. Vogel, J.C., 1983. Isotopic evidence for past climates and vegetation of southern Africa. Bothalia 14, 391-394.
Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no menti...
Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. The paper attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. It argues that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features which globally cause problems but which are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These f...
Full Text Available Since the late 1980s a distinct form of focally-extensive mucoid to mucopurulent uterine body chronic placentitis, caused by nocardioformorganisms, has been recognised in horses in the USA state of Kentucky and possibly in other areas. This disease has led to increasing numbers of foal losses from late abortions, still-births, prematurity, or early neonatal deaths. The foals are usually not infected, but may be small or emaciated. Modes of infection and transmission are as yet unknown. Nocardia spp. and related nocardioformbacteria as causes of equine infertility, endometritis and foal death are briefly reviewed. A case of near full-term abortion involving a Friesian mare in the Pretoria district of Gauteng Province in South Africa during February 2000, with the same placental lesion as described in the Kentucky cases, is presented. Nocardioform organisms were visualised on impression smears and histological sections of affected foetal membranes, and were also cultured. The organism has been identified at the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center of the University of Kentucky as an Amycolatopsis sp. of the less-commonly diagnosed group of nocardioforms causing placentitis in the USA. The organism was cultured from the uterus of the mare 18 days post-foaling, but after a 2-week course of oral trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, based on antibiogram sensitivity testing, a uterine flush yielded no growth. A semen sample from the sire of the aborted foal did not yield any Gram-positive filamentous branching bacteria. The mare subsequently conceived to a single insemination.
A marketing trial was launched within a few days following the granting of clearances for several irradiated products in South Africa. Irradiated potatoes, strawberries, papayas and mangoes were marketed. The trial included 20 supermarkets in the Pretoria-Johannesburg area over a period of eight months. The effectiveness of irradiation in reducing disease in strawberries and mangoes as well as over-ripening in papayas and greening in potatoes, was reflected in the positive response (88 - 95 %) of consumers. Several problems were encountered during these trials. These included the indifferent attitude of retail staff, poor handling, inadequate storage facilities and the supply of inferior quality food by the primary supplier. Emphasis is placed on the need for a well-formulated marketing campaign including the dissemination of relevant information before and during the trial as well as a follow-up program aimed at the education of the consumer, retailer and industrialist as to the benefits and limitations of irradiation. Unless this is successfully carried out, commercialisation cannot be considered
Favennec, Jean-Pierre; Fattouh, Bassam; Khadduri, Walid; Copinschi, Philippe; Doucet, Gerald; Fall, Latsoucabé
Jean-Pierre Favennec on the importance of oil in Africa; Bassam Fattouh considers the history of foreign oil companies in Libya; Walid Khadduri looks at Algerian petroleum development and its imperfections; Philippe Copinschi assesses frustrated contested oil ambitions in Nigeria; Gerald Doucet and Latsoucabé Fall stress the importance of the Inga hydropower projects for Africa;
You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David
Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…
World Bank Group
The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa report describes the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of their policies and institutions. Some of the results from this report include: The overall quality of policies and institutions in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa was unchanged in 2014, but there was much variation in performance across co...
Kinkel Hans F
Full Text Available Abstract Background In South Africa the ever increasing demand for antiretroviral treatment (ART runs the risk of leading to sub-optimal care in public sector ART clinics that are overburdened and under resourced. This study assessed the quality of ART services to identify service areas that require improvement. Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out at 16 of 17 public ART clinics in the target area in greater Pretoria, South Africa. Trained participant observers presented as ART qualifying HIV positive patients that required a visit to assess treatment readiness. They evaluated each facility on five different occasions between June and November 2009, assessing the time it took to get an appointment, the services available and accessed, service quality and the duration of the visit. Services (reception area, clinician’s consultation, HIV counselling, pharmacy, nutrition counselling and social worker’s assessment were assessed against performance standards that apply to all clinics. Service quality was expressed as scores for clinic performance (CPS and service performance (SPS, defined as the percentage of performance standards met per clinic and service area. Results In most of the clinics (62.5% participant observers were able to obtain an appointment within one week, although on the day of their visit essential services could not always be accessed. The median CPS of the assessed facilities was 68.5 with four clinics not meeting minimum standards (CPS > 60. The service areas that performed least well were the clinician’s consultation (SPS 67.3 and HIV counselling (SPS 70.7. Most notably, clinicians performed a physical examination in only 41.1% of the visits and rarely did a complete TB symptom screening. Counsellors frequently failed to address prevention of HIV transmission. Conclusions Overall public sector ART clinics in greater Pretoria were easily accessible and their services were of an acceptable quality. However
World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank
The Africa competitiveness report 2011 comes out as the world emerges from the most significant financial and economic crisis in generations. While many advanced economies are still struggling to get their economies back on a solid footing, Africa has, for the most part, weathered the storm remarkably well. The Africa competitiveness report focuses on harnessing Africa's underutilized reso...
Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.
This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a
Chuhan-Pole, Punam; Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Calderon, Cesar; Christiaensen, Luc; Evans, David; Kambou, Gerard; Boreux, Sebastien; Korman, Vijdan; Kubota, Megumi; Buitano, Mapi
Africa’s Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macro-economic outlook for the region. It also includes a section focusing on a topic that represents a particular development challenges for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region.This issue is an analysis of issues shaping Africa's economic future. Growth remains stable in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some countries are seeing a slowdown, but the region's economic pros...
Punam, Chuhan-Pole; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.
Africa’s Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macro-economic outlook for the region. It also includes a section focusing on a topic that represents a particular development challenges for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region.This issue is an analysis of issues shaping Africa's economic future. Growth remains stable in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some countries are seeing a slowdown, but the region's economic pros...
The paper discusses the role of basic sciences in the development of technology. This is then tied up with the broader issue of the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in the socio-economic development of a country. Physics forms the basis for most of the natural and applied sciences and technology. The state of physics in Africa is reviewed. The need for regional and international cooperation in physics education and research in Africa is stressed. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs
Richard B. Freeman; David L. Lindauer
Various arguments have been used to explain Sub-Saharan Africa's economic decline. We find that a stress on investments in education as a prerequisite for more rapid growth is misplaced; that greater openness is far from sufficient to insure economic progress; that income inequality and urban bias are not so extreme as to foreclose prospects for more rapid growth and poverty alleviation; and that the constraints imposed by Sub-Saharan Africa's human and physical geography are not core explana...
Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn
1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...
Full Text Available Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no mention of the current debate on how Africa's 'ethnic' wars are interpreted by the international media, and its assumed impact on humanitarian and military intervention. If they have not done so already, the editors should read Tim Allen and Jean Seaton's new book, The Media of Conflict. Here the implications of the so-called second scramble for Africa, including the role of aid agencies and the International Monetary Fund, are scrutinised. Seaton and Allen reject the notion of mindless, primordial violence in Africa, and instead examine the repercussions of foreign intervention (most egregiously French meddling in Rwanda as well as the rational economic motivations of the assorted warlords.
Huis in ’t Veld Diana
Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol abuse comes with risks for increased morbidity and mortality among patients with HIV. This study aims to determine the prevalence of alcohol use and other risk factors in a sample of primary care patients with HIV in South Africa and to assess a brief intervention to reduce the use of alcohol in this group. Methods/Design A single-blinded randomized controlled trial is designed to determine the efficacy of a brief intervention to reduce hazardous alcohol use in patients with HIV. The study will be carried out on out-patients with HIV in two primary healthcare HIV clinics near Pretoria, South Africa. Alcohol use will be assessed with the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test questionnaire. Other data that will be collected relate to health-related quality of life, depression, sexual behavior, internalized AIDS stigma, HIV-related information and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (self-reported 7-day recall of missed doses, Visual Analog Scale and pill count. The intervention consists of a brief counseling session to reduce alcohol risk; the control group receives a health education leaflet. Discussion The findings will be important in the public health setting. If the intervention proves to be efficient, it could potentially be incorporated into the HIV care policy of the Ministry of Health. Trial registration Pan African Clinical trial Registry: PACTR201202000355384
Full Text Available The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa’s most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa – for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.
Full text: In the Africa Region only South Africa operates Nuclear Power Plants for electricity generation. But since 2005 about sixteen other African countries have made political commitment to develop Nuclear Power Programme for electricity generation or for desalination of sea water. Similar interests have been shown by Member States in other Regions. In this regard, it is significant to consider the development and the status of radiation safety infrastructure in the region over the past one-and a- half decades, vis-a-vis the IAEA Model Project on 'Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructure', which was introduced in 1994. The main objective of the Model Project was not only to recommend but to work together, 'shoulder to shoulder' with Member States, to eliminate the shortcomings in their safety infrastructure and control of radiation sources. The Model Project has been adjudged very successful. In addition to the improved level of radiation and waste safety infrastructure in the region, Member States in the Region have even taken steps to consolidate the gains of the Model Project by appreciating the networking and the peer review mechanism provided under the Model Project and have gone ahead in 2008 to establish a regional association of regulatory bodies, which is similar to those in the other regions. This is the Forum of Nuclear Regulatory Bodies in Africa (FNRBA), the Charter of which was launched in Pretoria, South Africa in March 2009. This paper seeks to leverage on the lessons and the experiences garnered from the Model Project on the 'Strengthening Radiation Protection Infrastructure' to develop a paradigm or template for developing a Regional Model Project on the Development of Nuclear Safety Infrastructure in Member States of the Agency seeking nuclear power for the first time. Already, this is one of the seven thematic working areas the Forum wants to address in the next three years. The requirements for nuclear safety in terms of political
Full Text Available The presence of low back pain (LBP can be influenced by psychosocial stress experienced at work. The aim of this study was to determine the point prevalence for LBP and the psychological stress expe-rienced at work as a factor associated with the presence of LBP amongst staff employed at district hospital in Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by all participants. Results indicated that the point prevalence for LBP was 47.46%. Sixty five point five seven percent of employees who experienced stress at work all the time, suffered from LBP (p=0.001. Stress experienced at work all the time increased the risk of LBP (OR 3.47 CI 1.46 ; 8.23. A clinical recommendation resulting from this study is that healthcare providers need to include the provision of education, support and appropriate referral for patients who perceive themselves to have high levels of stress.
Whitelock, Patricia A
The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...
Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S
Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...
Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter
The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130
Emmanuel, Nikolas G.
peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...
Makani, Julie; Roberts, David J
This review of hematology in Africa highlights areas of current practice and the immediate needs for development and clinical research. Acute hematological practice is dominated by anemia, sickle cell disease, and the need to provide a safe and rapidly available supply of blood. There is a growing need for specialist services for bleeding and coagulation, hematological malignancy, and palliative care. There are many areas of practice where straightforward measures could yield large gains in patient care. There is an urgent need for good clinical research to describe the epidemiology, natural history, and management of hematological diseases in Africa. PMID:27040965
Full Text Available Librarians Leslie Christianson and Julie Watson from Marywood University have been working to educate Catholic nuns in Africa. Funded by a grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa (HESA project is a partnership between Marywood University and Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA in Nairobi, Kenya.
This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.
This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa
Garcia, Marito; Fares, Jean
Youth and Africa have received increased attention in recent policy discussions and World Bank work, as articulated in the Africa action plan and the World Development Report 2007: development and the next generation. The Africa action plan offers a framework to support critical policy and public action led by African countries to achieve well-defined goals, such as the Millennium Developm...
South African nuclear landscape: - Koeberg Nuclear Power Station: Koeberg has been generating electricity for the past 19 years. Work began shortly after the contract with the French consortium was signed in 1976. In 1984 Koeberg started their commercial operation. Koeberg is located 30 km north of Cape Town. Comprises of two 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactors. Produces 6.5% of South Africa's electricity needs. The reactor at Koeberg is cooled by cold water from the Atlantic Ocean. Low and intermediate level waste from Koeberg is transported by road in steel and concrete containers to a rural disposal site at Vaalputs, 600 km away in the Kalahari Desert. - PBMR company: The PBMR team is currently preparing for the building of a commercial scale power reactor project at Koeberg near Cape Town, where Africa's only nuclear power station is based, and a fuel plant at Pelindaba near Pretoria, where the pebble fuel will be manufactured. PBMR is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with a closed cycle, gas turbine power conversion system. Although it is not the only HTR currently being developed in the world, the South African project is on schedule to be the first commercial scale HTR in the power generation field. A steel pressure vessel holds the enriched uranium dioxide fuel encapsulated in graphite spheres. The system is cooled with helium and heat is converted into electricity through a turbine. - iThemba Labs: The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences is a group of multi-disciplinary research laboratories administered by the National Research Foundation. Based at two sites in Western Cape and Gauteng, these provide facilities for: Basic and applied research using particle beams, Particle radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The supply of accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine and research. iThemba Labs focuses on providing scientifically and medically useful radiation through the acceleration of charged particles using the
Naidoo, Kameshni [South African National Nuclear Regulator, 17 Atlantic Road, Duynefontein, 07441 Cape Town (South Africa)
South African nuclear landscape: - Koeberg Nuclear Power Station: Koeberg has been generating electricity for the past 19 years. Work began shortly after the contract with the French consortium was signed in 1976. In 1984 Koeberg started their commercial operation. Koeberg is located 30 km north of Cape Town. Comprises of two 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactors. Produces 6.5% of South Africa's electricity needs. The reactor at Koeberg is cooled by cold water from the Atlantic Ocean. Low and intermediate level waste from Koeberg is transported by road in steel and concrete containers to a rural disposal site at Vaalputs, 600 km away in the Kalahari Desert. - PBMR company: The PBMR team is currently preparing for the building of a commercial scale power reactor project at Koeberg near Cape Town, where Africa's only nuclear power station is based, and a fuel plant at Pelindaba near Pretoria, where the pebble fuel will be manufactured. PBMR is a High Temperature Reactor (HTR) with a closed cycle, gas turbine power conversion system. Although it is not the only HTR currently being developed in the world, the South African project is on schedule to be the first commercial scale HTR in the power generation field. A steel pressure vessel holds the enriched uranium dioxide fuel encapsulated in graphite spheres. The system is cooled with helium and heat is converted into electricity through a turbine. - iThemba Labs: The iThemba Laboratory for Accelerator-Based Sciences is a group of multi-disciplinary research laboratories administered by the National Research Foundation. Based at two sites in Western Cape and Gauteng, these provide facilities for: Basic and applied research using particle beams, Particle radiotherapy for the treatment of cancer. The supply of accelerator-produced radioactive isotopes for nuclear medicine and research. iThemba Labs focuses on providing scientifically and medically useful radiation through the acceleration of charged particles using
Full Text Available Jamal Zekri,1 Lydia M Dreosti,2 Marwan Ghosn,3 Emad Hamada,4 Mohamed Jaloudi,5 Ola Khorshid,6 Blaha Larbaoui7 1College of Medicine, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Centre, Alfaisal University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia; 2Department of Medical Oncology, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa; 3Faculty of Medicine Hematology, Oncology Department, Saint Joseph University, Beirut, Lebanon; 4Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Kasr Alainy, Cairo, Egypt; 5Oncology Hematology Department, Tawam Hospital, Al Ain, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates; 6National Cancer Institute, Cairo University, Kasr El Ainy, Cairo, Egypt; 7Oncology Service, Université Djillali Liabés, Sidi Bel Abbés, Algeria Abstract: The management of renal cell carcinoma (RCC has evolved considerably in recent years. This report represents the consensus of 22 relevant medical specialists from Africa and the Middle East region engaged in the management of RCC. Partial or radical nephrectomy is the standard of care for most patients with localized RCC. It is essential that patients are followed up appropriately after surgery to enable local and distant relapses to be identified and treated promptly. The treatment of advanced/metastatic disease has changed dramatically with the introduction of targeted therapies. Follow-up of these patients enables therapy optimization and assessment of response to treatment. There was universal agreement on the importance of management of RCC by a multidisciplinary team supported by a multidisciplinary tumor board. Barriers hindering this approach were identified. These included lack of awareness of the benefits of multidisciplinary team role, poor communication among relevant disciplines, time constraints, and specifics of private practice. Other challenges include shortage of expert specialists as urologists and oncologists and lack of local management guidelines in some countries. Solutions were proposed and discussed. Medical
Hostland, Douglas; Marcelo M. Giugale
Much of Sub-Saharan Africa's post-independence macroeconomic history has been characterized by boom-bust cycles. Growth accelerations have been common, but short lived. Weak policy formulation and implementation led to large external and fiscal imbalances, excessive debt accumulation, volatile inflation, and sharp exchange rate fluctuations. This characterization changed, however, in the m...
Pigato, Miria; Tang, Wenxia
Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has averaged roughly 5 percent per year over the past decade, improving living standards and bolstering human development indicators across the continent. Stronger public institutions, a supportive, private sector focused policy environment, responsible macroeconomic management, and a sustained commitment to structural reforms have greatly expand...
European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace to the...
This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…
Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.
Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…
Bridgman, David; Adamali, Aref
The World Bank Group has been working on investment climate reform in Sub-Saharan Africa for nearly a decade, a period characterized by dramatic economic growth on the continent. Establishing links between such reform interventions and economic growth, however, is a complex problem. Although this note finds some connection between investment climate reform and economic growth, establishing ...
Brown, Barbara B.
Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)
Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul
Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The ...
The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy
After its introduction into Africa in the 1880s, rinderpest became the most feared and most devastating disease to afflict the continent's cattle and wildlife herds. Outbreaks of the classical disease in cattle caused mortality rates of 10 to 90 percent. So devastating was this 'cattle plague' that many countries worldwide made concerted efforts to stamp it out and, having once eliminated it, prevent its re-emergence. The disease was a serious threat to the livelihoods of millions of people in Africa. The presence or suspected presence in a country served as a major barrier to livestock trade, and many countries of the world, particularly in Africa, were denied access to valuable external livestock markets. This devastating blow to trade impoverished the pastoral peoples of Africa and dealt considerable blows to the economies of their countries. The present-day African Union3 Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AUIBAR) 4 was established in 1951 with responsibility for eliminating rinderpest from Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa, where continual east-west cattle movements prevented effective control by individual countries. Since then, with the European Union (EU) as the main donor, AU-IBAR has coordinated the eradication of rinderpest from Africa through five main projects: Joint Project 15 (JP15), 1962 to 1976; the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC), 1986 to 1998; the Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics (PACE), 1999 to 2007; the African Wildlife Veterinary Project (AWVP), 2002 to 2003; and the Somali Ecosystem Rinderpest Eradication Coordination Unit (SERECU) project, 2006 to 2010. In tandem with rinderpest eradication, the need to strengthen veterinary services was addressed. From JP15 to SERECU, the main objective was the eradication of rinderpest from Africa. Alongside this main objective were other complementary and synergistic objectives. Under PARC, these were controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) through mass
China is in Africa in a vigorous way,and doing business in several countries like Sudan,Congo DRC,Angola,South Africa,and Nigeria.In the short term,the relationship may appear to be mutually beneficial.This paper seeks to address the issue of Africa's perspectives on China-Africa Relations and the FOCAC and examine the concept of strategic partnerships,determine the state of China-Africa relations,examines FOCAC and draw conclusion as well as recommendation on possible ways and issues for future engageme...
Water scarcity is a matter of urgent, national, regional and international concern. For those people, usually women, who are responsible for the daily task of obtaining sufficient water for household use, water shortages are a perpetual worry. It is a situation which affects many individual families and communities throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. The isotope studies conducted thus far have proved that the majority of regional groundwater systems in northern Africa and the Sahel zone are paleowaters, replenished thousands of years ago, without the possibility of significant replenishment under present climatic conditions. Therefore, removal from such underground reservoirs will eventually deplete the resource. Mapping these paleowaters, and estimating their reservoir sizes, is a priority. (IAEA)
In this paper, I aim to evaluate whether increasing or decreasing the level of consociationalism in South Africa would be beneficial for the country's stability. Analysing South Africa's political structure since the implementation of free and fair elections, I review the effects of its current degree of consociationalism and debate the arguments of those who contest South Africa's current institutional framework and its capacity to govern.
Pinkovskiy, Maxim; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier
We present evidence that the recent African growth renaissance has reached Africa's poor. Using survey data on African income distributions and national accounts GDP, we estimate income distributions, poverty rates, and inequality indices for African countries for the period 1990-2011. Our findings are as follows. First, African poverty is falling rapidly. Second, the African countries for which good inequality data exist are set to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) poverty reductio...
Hayes, Edward B
Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...
Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik; Jeppesen, Søren; Langevang, Thilde
This working paper is a report from the workshop on Entrepreneurship Development arranged by the Centre for Business and Development Studies at CBS and the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in September 2010. The objective of the workshop was to use the participants’ joint knowledge and experiences to discuss and provide conclusions on what role entrepreneurship development has played and can play to stimulate growth and employment in Africa. Entrepreneurship development is understood as the...
Yibin Mu; Peter Phelps; Janet Gale Stotsky
African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to bette...
Lul Raka; Monica Guardo
Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...
WHILE there are meaningful objections to the nature and structure of much of the new investment in African agriculture,it is dear that the introduction of new capital,skills and technology is an essential component in unlocking the continent's ultimate allure.Investments of $83 billion annually are said to be needed to elevate the developing world's agricultural sector.At least half of this amount is required in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone.
Despite repeated policy initiatives from donors and governments, the human and economic cost of continued lack of access to safe water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Progress is in large part constrained by a persistent ‘financing gap’. This paper shows that a radical reorientation of policy is needed to achieve a significant increase in investment finance in order to raise access levels. Rather than continuing to pursue policies that have failed for the past two decades, ...
This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...
Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic
Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...
Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.
Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.
The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...
Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present....
Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias
Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…
International Monetary Fund
The external current account in South Africa has strengthened significantly in 1999, mainly owing to a large decline in imports. Compared with a deficit of about 1.5 percent of GDP in recent years, it is close to balance during the first three quarters of 1999. A resumption of investor confidence has led to an increase in international reserves and facilitated a decline in the net open forward position (NOFP). The external current account deficit has declined to 0.2 percent of GDP during the ...
change that was also expected and demanded by the international community. As a consequence of this change, South Africa is now trying to lead by example, trying to export particular values and norms to the rest of the continent, while at the same time carrying Africa’s banner on the international stage....... A state wanting to be recognized and perceived as a benign “peacemaker” cannot use military power in the same way as a pariah state. To cultivate a reputation as a benign power, it must use force in a way that is acceptable to its neighbours and the international community at large. The purpose of...
What lies at the core of both poor nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa as well as an elevated percentage of the population living in extreme poverty is the inability of local countries to establish a foundation for long-term economic growth. The main reason for this is their inability to establish adequate governance systems, which commenced in the 1960s, when African countries successively obtained independence. Two former superpowers, both the USA and the USSR, have their share of blame in this...
Laner, F. J.
The modernized metric system, known universally as the International System of Units (abbreviated SI under the French name) was renamed in 1960 by the world body on standards. A map shows 98 percent of the world using or moving toward adoption of SI units. Only the countries of Burma, Liberia, Brunei, and Southern Yemen are nonmetric. The author describes a two-week session in Pretoria and Johannesburg on metrication, followed by additional meetings on metrication in Rhodesia. (MCW)
Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L. Van Steeg. (DB)
Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest
This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...
In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).
World Bank, (WB)
This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in South Africa, within the broader context of institutional capacity available for ensuring high-quality financial reporting. National accounting and auditing standards in South Africa are developed on the basis of international standards; but lack of legal backing for accounting standards give rise to problems. South...
Contains Executive Summary and Chapters on: Overview of financing trends in Africa; Multilateral support - Bedrock of Africa's first generation energy projects; ECA insurance and financing; Bilateral development finance; Offshore commercial bank lending; Local commercial bank finance; Capital markets; Legal ramifications ; Risk factors; Conclusions. (Author)
Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa......Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa...
In this report, the authors propose an overview of the main perceivable orientations of the energy sector in African until 2050, and suggest some other perspectives and state some recommendations for new guidelines. In its first part, the report proposes an analysis of the present situation and identifies possible directions. Several issues are addressed: major challenges, African as a continent of energy divide, energy efficiency in Africa, situation of energy per sectors, per energies and per regions. The second part addresses the prospective dimension (by 2050): world context in 2050, Africa within this context, tomorrow's energy and economy for Africa. Appendices address the following topics: the Energizing Africa initiative, promotion of substitutes for wood, alternative fuels and energies for transport, energy in Africa per region and per source
The case study of the Office of External Activities in Cape Coast, Ghana has turned out to be a successful story in promoting research and capacity building of young scientists. The total involvement of many organizations show how laudable the idea has been. This centre has come to serve as a place to solve scientific problems as well as problems of national interest. It is foreseen that its activities can be a means to congregate African scientists to solve common problems. I think the bold step taken by OEA and some organs of ICTP, Trieste, Italy, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Firenze, Italy has helped up and coming African scientists to come face to face with the challenges of Laser research. Such projects seem feasible and sustainable since experts in these areas can serve as contact persons in Africa to undertake common research using optical techniques. This project has made it possible to explore various areas in optics that can be used to solve problems peculiar to the continent. This ICAC programme in Cape Coast has been successful thanks to the cooperation of the organs of ICTP as well as various international organizations. It is hoped that scientists elsewhere will have the interest to collaborate with us in order to uplift the image of optics in the continent - Africa. (author)
Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.
Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.
Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)
For the second year running, a team from CERN comprising experts in the design and running of digital libraries has taken part in a workshop in Africa. The aim of the workshop, which was held in Morocco from 22 to 26 November 2010, was to pass on their expertise and help train librarians and IT engineers from five African countries. Participants of the training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco). Although digital libraries are rapidly expanding across the Globe, a large proportion of the professionals working in the field have not followed relevant training, which poses a real challenge. To help to remedy the situation and encourage the development of digital libraries in Africa, CERN and UNESCO organised a training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco) in November. "The success of the first CERN-UNESCO digital library school, which took place in Rwanda in 2009, encouraged...
Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the BRICS as a whole and an analysis of each member’s policies in Africa. It exploresthe countries’ political and economic interests in Africa, the various patterns and strategies of each country’s cooperationwith Africa, and estimates the impact of BRICS aid and investment on the African economy and Africa’s development. TheBRICS countries have emerged as the new effective actors in the world arena. Their global economic weight and politicalinfluence continue to grow. Not only is the group focusing its attention on strengthening the internal ties of its members, but itis also focusing on assistance to Africa, as a way to implement the emerging powers efforts to change the existing world order.The BRICS is deepening its engagement with African countries, which gained great success in their development in recentyears. Its focus on Africa is determined by the important role of African resources and by the continent’s growing influencein the world economy and contemporary international relations. BRICS countries are major trade partners of Africa, andAfrica’s trade with BRICS members is growing faster than its trade with the traditional partners. Africa has become themain destination for BRICS development aid and investment. The BRICS is also focusing on African infrastructure. BRICScountries use soft power widely, through developing humanitarian ties with Africa, particularly in health care and education.The BRICS is also an active participant in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa. Members currently tend tocompete in Africa, but they are taking steps toward collaboration. The BRICS contributes much to the African economy. Itspresence has become important for the continent and receives a positive response there.
Full Text Available Ndumiso Tshuma,1 Keith Muloongo,1 Geoffrey Setswe,2 Lucy Chimoyi,4 Bismark Sarfo,5 Dina Burger,6 Peter S Nyasulu3,7 1Community AIDS Response, Norwood, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2HIV/AIDS, STI and TB (HAST research program, Human Science Research Council (HSRC, Pretoria, South Africa; 3School of Public Health, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 4Wits Reproductive Health and HIV Research Institute (WHRI, Hillbrow, Johannesburg, South Africa; 5Department of Epidemiology and Disease Control, School of Public Health University of Ghana, Legon-Accra, Ghana; 6The Research Office, Monash South Africa, Ruimsig, Johannesburg, South Africa; 7School of Health Sciences, Monash University, Ruimsig, Johannesburg, South AfricaBackground: This study aimed to determine barriers to accessing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV counseling and testing (HCT services among a commuter population.Methods: A cross-sectional, venue-based intercept survey was conducted. Participants were recruited during a 2-day community campaign at the Noord Street taxi rank in Johannesburg, South Africa. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire loaded onto an electronic data collection system and analyzed using Stata software. Factors contributing to barriers for HCT were modeled using multivariate logistic regression.Results: A total of 1,146 (567 male and 579 female individuals were interviewed; of these, 51.4% were females. The majority (59.5% were aged 25–35 years. Significant factors were age group (15–19 years, marital status (married, educational level (high school, distance to the nearest clinic (>30 km, area of employment/residence (outside inner city, and number of sexual partners (more than one. Participants aged 15–19 years were more likely to report low-risk perception of HIV as a barrier to HCT (odds ratio [OR] 1.62; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01–2.59, the married were more likely to report low-risk perception of HIV
A new dinucleating 24-membered hexaazadiphenol macrocyclic ligand, 3,6,9,17,20, 23-hexaaza-29,30- dihydroxy-13,27-dimethyl-tricyclo [23, 3, 1, 111, 15] triaconta -1(28), 11,13, 15(30),25, 26-hexaene, BDBPH, was synthesized by the NaBH4 reduction of the Schiff-base obtained from the [2+2] condensation between diethylenetriamine and diformyl -p-cresol. The structure was characterized by elemental analysis, 1HNMR and FAB-MS. The synthetic method was also discussed.
Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.
In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.
JohnD.Bennett; NasserEnnih; S.FelixToteu
History and objectives,The ambitious and forward-looking decision to establish a pan-African geological society was taken during the course of a conference on African geology held in Ibadan, Nigeria in 1970. A Steering Committee was convened at that meeting under the Chairmanship of Professor Russell Black of the Department of Geology, Haile Selassie University, Addis Ababa, and the provisional constitution drafted by his Committee was approved at a second conference on African geology in Addis Ababa in 1973. Thus was the Geological Society of Africa (GSA.t) born. Its first President was Professor M O Owawoye (Nigeria) and Dr S M E1 Rabba (Sudan) became its first Secretary General.
Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica
Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217
Full Text Available Ebola viral disease (EVD is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.
Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.
, the current piece provides an umbrella for the 25-article collection, including current gaps and remaining research needs. Finally, post-CONTRAST initiatives are discussed and a speculative viewpoint is given on how schistosomiasis control/elimination will have evolved over the next several years....... countries through innovation, validation and application of new tools and locally adapted intervention strategies complementary to preventive chemotherapy. Moreover, CONTRAST articulated a research agenda for schistosomiasis elimination, framed by 10 key questions. Here, we provide a rationale for CONTRAST...... and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial...
Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne,Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza
In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. ...
The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty
Full Text Available Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs, open access to higher education (HE was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery, MOOCs place the developing countries at the centre of universal access to HE. This paper provides the strategy for MOOC implementation in the context of limited resources in Africa. The strategy is clustered under five baseline requirements: national accredited MOOC curriculum, electronic content development, development of an online and offline eLearning platform, establishment and funding of MOOC coordination units at public HEIs, and establishment of MOOC access hubs at strategic locations. Emerging from this paper is the insight that a new era of universal access to HE in Africa is achievable through MOOCs only if initial requirements are met by the respective governments.
Summary: With the fall of apartheid Mandela and his Government expressed the need to commit itself to the Southern African region arguing that South Africa cannot prosper in a continuous underdeveloped region. Mandela s Government expressed the importance of not dominating or using power strength towards its neighbours. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether South Africa can be said to act as a benevolent regional hegemon in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). F...
While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal
Crisis highlights deep-seated food security problems on the African continent Worsening famine in the Horn of Africa, which threatens the lives of millions in countries including Ethiopia, Djibouti,Kenya and Somalia,
I.P. van Staveren (Irene); A. Oduro (Amo)
textabstractDespite Africa's relatively commendable growth performance since 2000, growth has not been accompanied by structural transformations. First, there has been little diversification from agriculture into industry, particularly manufacturing. Second, the poverty headcount and inequality rema
Africa must be left to solve its own internal problems RECENTLY social unrest has spread widely in Arab countries in North Africa and the Middle East,which led to military actions against the Libyan regime by NATO.In addition,under the support of the UN peacekeepers and French forces,the former president of Cote d’Ivoire was arrested and power transferred to
The absolute and relative lack of infrastructure in Africa suggests that the continentâ€™s competitiveness could be boosted by scaling up investments in infrastructure. Such investments would facilitate domestic and international trade, enhance Africaâ€™s integration into the global economy and promote better human development outcomes, especially, by bringing unconnected rural communities into the mainstream economy. While there are yawning gaps in all infrastructure subsectors, inadequate e...
Ramirez, J. Martin
Africa faces three simultaneous problems that must be addressed; economic development, disease, and peace. Drawing on the work of Jeffrey Sachs and others, this article explains the nature of each of these problems and possible solutions. A comprehensive program of action is advocated with sustained commitment to support those nations that are truly using that support to free themselves from the vicious cycles of war, disease, and poverty that currently plague much of Africa.
Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.
Chartier, Alex T.; Kinrade, Joe; Mitchell, Cathryn N.; Rose, Julian A. R.; Jackson, David R.; Cilliers, Pierre; Habarulema, John-Bosco; Katamzi, Zama; Mckinnell, Lee-Anne; Matamba, Tshimangadzo; Opperman, Ben; Ssessanga, Nicholas; Giday, Nigussie Mezgebe; Tyalimpi, Vumile; Franceschi, Giorgiana De; Romano, Vincenzo; Scotto, Carlo; Notarpietro, Riccardo; Dovis, Fabio; Avenant, Eugene; Wonnacott, Richard; Oyeyemi, Elijah; Mahrous, Ayman; Tsidu, Gizaw Mengistu; Lekamisy, Harvey; Olwendo, Joseph Ouko; Sibanda, Patrick; Gogie, Tsegaye Kassa; Rabiu, Babatunde; Jong, Kees De; Adewale, Adekola
ionospheric specification is necessary for improving human activities such as radar detection, navigation, and Earth observation. This is of particular importance in Africa, where strong plasma density gradients exist due to the equatorial ionization anomaly. In this paper the accuracy of three-dimensional ionospheric images is assessed over a 2 week test period (2-16 December 2012). These images are produced using differential Global Positioning System (GPS) slant total electron content observations and a time-dependent tomography algorithm. The test period is selected to coincide with a period of increased GPS data availability from the African Geodetic Reference Frame (AFREF) project. A simulation approach that includes the addition of realistic errors is employed in order to provide a ground truth. Results show that the inclusion of observations from the AFREF archive significantly reduces ionospheric specification errors across the African sector, especially in regions that are poorly served by the permanent network of GPS receivers. The permanent network could be improved by adding extra sites and by reducing the number of service outages that affect the existing sites.
Buah-Bassuah, P K
The case study of the Office of External Activities in Cape Coast, Ghana has turned out to be a successful story in promoting research and capacity building of young scientists. The total involvement of many organizations show how laudable the idea has been. This centre has come to serve as a place to solve scientific problems as well as problems of national interest. It is foreseen that its activities can be a means to congregate African scientists to solve common problems. I think the bold step taken by OEA and some organs of ICTP, Trieste, Italy, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Firenze, Italy has helped up and coming African scientists to come face to face with the challenges of Laser research. Such projects seem feasible and sustainable since experts in these areas can serve as contact persons in Africa to undertake common research using optical techniques. This project has made it possible to explore various areas in optics that can be used to solve proble...
The first African School of Physics draws to a close tomorrow, and I’m proud that CERN has been a part of it. From an initiative launched by Fermilab scientist Christine Darve, the African School of Physics has grown to involve institutes and universities from all over Europe and the United States. It’s being hosted by South Africa’s National Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, at Stellenbosch, and has attracted 150 applicants from all over the continent and beyond for the 65 places available. That alone makes it a success, even before NITheP Director Frederik Scholtz uttered his words of welcome nearly three weeks ago.. When I show people the map of where CERN’s users come from, it’s gratifying to see it spanning the world, and in particular to see southern hemisphere countries starting to join the global particle physics family. Africa, however, remains notable more for the number of countries that are not involved than for those that ...
Andersen, John; Bilfeldt, Annette
Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika......Abstract til ALARA 9th Action Learning Action Research and 13th Participatory Action Research World Congress, South Africa from 4 – 7 November 2015 Pretoria, Sydafrika...
Industrialization and the monetary economy have changed the relationship between society and nature that characterized majority of African cultures. Modernization is raping the environment, and impersonal and formal attitudes are on the rise. To determine what African life would be like by the year 2000, 3 scenarios are proposed, based upon the relationship of lifestyle to the African people's most pressing needs and aspirations, and the ways in which these can be satisfied: 1) the prolongation of present tendencies. This means the continued exploitation of African raw materials, concurrent increase of energy imports with growth rates, and modernization pattern following the European or American model. Environmental damage is dealt with by a limited policy, mainly in smart areas and big agglomerations, and in certain tourist spots. 2) distributing benefits of development--the dominant countries redistribute benefits of development (e.g., improved terms of trade for Africa); the African economy, however is still directed to the outside, even if it is partly managed by African managers. Intermediate lifestyles are fostered by the money economy, and the African masses aspire for imported models. 3) environmental development--African society no longer depends on the world market but instead tries to meet the basic needs of its people, with the environment as the permanent focal point of reference. This necessitates the adoption of a tough strategy and new options in use of technology, in consumption levels, in cultural models, and in distribution of activities between town and country. Currently, the future environment and life styles of the African people are being decided by various centres of decision-making--big powers, multinationals, governments, local interests--without their being aware of it. It is not unreasonable to expect that a great public debate on whether to conform or to imitate, or to be independent, may soon unfold to determine the aspirations of the
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is believed to have begun in Rwanda with the transmission of green monkey virus to humans; the virus spread among prostitutes and truck drivers along the highways and then to the cities. In the most threatened areas, for example, Kinshasa in Zaire, 20% of the inhabitants are infected. 8% of pregnant women are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive. Social conditions are important. In Kenya prostitutes who work along the highways are carriers of socially transmitted diseases and genital sores. They are 60-80% HIV-positive. The better-off prostitutes at bars and hotels enjoy better health and fewer contacts and are 30% HIV-positive. It should be possible to develop a vaccine against the AIDS virus, but only a few virologists believe that this can be done within 10 years. Because HIV virus mutates rapidly, many different vaccines would have to be prepared. About 80 countries are cooperating with the World Health Organization to combat HIV and AIDS in Africa. Traveling and working abroad is beginning to be a problem. 15 countries have introduced restrictions on foreign visitors. Swedish midwives have an important role to play in fighting HIV. Their youth counseling activities can spread information about HIV and AIDS. Children who are in early stages of sexuality are probably the most important group to be influenced. It is already too late to begin informing 15-17 year olds about the disease. Midwives should probably be starting much sooner, perhaps even with 10-year olds. PMID:3692943
Fiander, A; Hughes, D
The main drawback for young doctors from developed countries working in Africa or other developing area, is the lack of supervision. Medical and nursing care standards are low, with poor facilities and infrastructure and the problems encountered are enormous. Attitudes and expectations will have to change and mistakes will inevitably occur. Additional frustrations are poor motivation of the local staff, lack of essential supplies and the doctor coming down with tropical diseases. However, much can be gained by this type of experience: basic skills will be improved and self-confidence gained in ones own judgement; technical abilities will grow because of limited resources and equipment, and the need to justify their use only when absolutely necessary. Management and administrative skills will also improve, and opportunities found for teaching and making little changes. The personal thanks and appreciation of the patients, despite their great poverty and their quiet suffering also adds to the experience. Valuable lessons can be learned from the nurses, both medically and culturally and they have been accepting and friendly. Planning for such an experience takes 1-2 years. It is hard to find suitable jobs and one should seek the advice of consultants or other experts with experience abroad. Organizations concerned with health in developing countries such as the Institute of Child Health, International Centre for Eye Health, Christian Medical Fellowship, are resources for obtaining positions. Placement may be with a missionary organization, nongovernmental organization, college program, or a hospital exchange. The best time is when the doctor has completed the specialist exams and has something specific to offer. A 2-year contract is a reasonable time period to plan for. Keeping up with the literature and some standard teaching tools are important and publishing the experiences gained will be valuable for others. Prepare for this by keeping records of work, including a
The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA . South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.
Haemorrhagic diarrhoea and reproductive failure in Bonsmara cattle resulting from anomalous heavy metal concentrations in soils, forages and drinking water associated with geochemical anomalies of toxic elements on the farm Puntlyf, South Africa
Elsenbroek, J. H.; Meyer, J.; Myburgh, J.
Poor livestock health conditions are associated with geochemical Pb anomalies on a farm approximately 40km east of Pretoria, South Africa. A generic risk assessment of drinking water for Bonsmara cattle obtained from three separate subterranean water sources on the farm, revealed the presence of several potentially hazardous constituents suspected for the development of adverse health effects in the herd. The two main symptoms of the herd, namely, severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea in calves and reproductive failure in cows, have been investigated. A selenium-induced copper deficiency was proposed as the main cause to the calf diarrhoea, due to complexing between high concentrations of Se, Mo, Hg and Pb in drinking water. It was also anticipated that such Cu deficiencies would lead to low systemic Se inducing hypothyroidism in the cows due to inadequate iodine activation required for thyroid hormone formation and consequently adversely affect reproduction. The anomalous Pb in borehole drinking water on the southem part of the farm, suggests a clear genetic link with the underlying geochemical Pb anomalies detected by means of an ongoing regional geochemical survey.
In recent years the purely morphological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been increasingly flanked by so-called functional imaging methods, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), to obtain additional information about tissue or pathological processes. This review article presents two MR techniques that can detect physiological processes in the human body. In contrast to all other functional MR imaging techniques, which are based on hydrogen protons, the first technique presented (X-nuclei imaging) uses the spin of other nuclei for imaging and consequently allows a completely different insight into the human body. In this article X-nuclei imaging is focused on sodium (23Na) MRI because it currently represents the main focus of research in this field due to the favorable MR properties of sodium. The second MR technique presented is the relatively novel chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging that can detect exchange processes between protons in metabolites and protons in free water. The first part of this article introduces the basic technical principles, problems, advantages and disadvantages of these two MR techniques, whereas the second part highlights the potential clinical applications. Examples illustrate several potential applications in neuroimaging (e. g. stroke and tumors), musculoskeletal imaging (e. g. osteoarthritis and degenerative processes) and abdominal imaging (e. g. kidneys and hypertension). Both techniques inherently contain an incredible potential for future imaging but are still on the threshold of clinical use and are currently under evaluation in many university centers. (orig.)
The emperor Nero is etched into the Western imagination as one of ancient Rome’s most infamous villains, and Tacitus’ Annals have played a central role in shaping the mainstream historiographical understanding of this flamboyant autocrat. This section of the text plunges us straight into the moral cesspool that Rome had apparently become in the later years of Nero’s reign, chronicling the emperor’s fledgling stage career including his plans for a grand tour of Greece; his participation in a ...
Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg
The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....
, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade......To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... by looking at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly...
Olsen, Gorm Rye
For a number of years, there has been an international debate on whether and to what extent small member states can influence the common external policies of the European Union. Recent research on the role of small EU states concludes that these states are neither per se political dwarfs nor power...... affairs including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has...... taken place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....
China's relations with African states have undergone significant changes in recent years. China has projected its relationship with Africa as one of equality and ‘mutual help’. Such perceptions of foreign policy stem from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the shared experience of...... imperialist domination and economic underdevelopment. Moreover, various public statements by China's elites suggest that China is expected to play a much more prominent, even exceptional role in Africa. This purportedly entails moving beyond the hegemonic West's interventionist aid or security policies, and...... is also implicitly designed to highlight the West's shortcomings in promoting African economic growth or peace. Yet where does this perception of exceptionalism come from? Why does Beijing feel that it has to play a leading role in Africa's development? How can Beijing distinguish itself from the...
Page, John; Shimeles, Abebe
Growth and poverty reduction in Africa are weakly linked. This paper argues that the reason is that Africa has failed to create enough good jobs. Structural transformation - the relative growth of employment in high productivity sectors - has not featured in Africa's post-1995 growth story. As a result, the region's fastest growing economies have the least responsiveness of employment to growth. The role of development aid in this context is problematic. Across Africa more aid went to countri...
Samson A Fatokun
In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa), this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christi...
Jeppesen, Soeren; Claire MAINGUY
Little is known about impact of FDI on economic development in Africa compared to other developing countries, which the paper seeks to address by focusing on examples of impact in Mali and South Africa. The arugment put forward is that the impact has to be identified at the level of the industry or sector and the level of the firm with regard to employment effect, income generation and skills development. The mining and electricity and railway sectors in Mali are investigated and compared to ...
Dengue outbreaks and epidemics have been reported in all regions of Africa, and it is believed that all four dengue virus serotypes are in circulation. Available data suggest that dengue is endemic to 34 African countries and that Aedes aegypti mosquitoes – the primary vector for dengue transmission – are known to be present in all but five countries. Whether populations in Africa are susceptible to dengue at the same rates as in Asia and Latin America is difficult to determine from the avail...
International Monetary Fund
This Selected Economic Issues paper examines economic development in South Africa during 1995â€“96. The paper highlights that in 1995, the economy of South Africa grew by 3.3 percent, the third consecutive year of economic growth, and it is expected to grow between 3Â½ and 4 percent in 1996. Some aspects of the unemployment problem are addressed in this paper. The paper also focuses on the implications for policy of the steps taken in 1994 and 1995 to establish an outward-oriented economy, af...
Adjei, Stephen Baffour
Programme (UNDP) as a universal benchmark for assessing gender inequality. It has been highlighted that agency is a necessary component in the conceptualisation and realisation of women empowerment particularly in Africa. The article further demonstrates that the GEM has capitalist, elitist and Eurocentric......This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development...
Thisted, Karen Panum; Hansen, Michael W.
the poverty related development challenges endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, this paper presents six tales of social enterprises from the Kenyan BOP, who all have managed to pursue a social agenda while at the same time achieving commercial viability. While the cases contribute to the BOP...... social enterprises is generation of social change through commercial means which is effectuated through innovative business model hybrids. At the bottom of pyramid (BOP) in developing Sub-Saharan Africa, the need for sustainable solutions is greater than ever and social enterprises are increasingly in...
Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.
In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit
Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.
Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…
The little data book on Africa 2007 is a pocket edition of Africa Development Indicators 2007. It contains some 100 key indicators on economics, human development, governance, and partnership and is intended as a quick reference for users of the Africa Development Indicators 2007 book and African development indicators online. The country tables present the latest available data for World ...
Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter;
1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys...
Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.
Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature
Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal
The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...
The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has be
Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac
This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…
Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig
Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences in ...
Garrett, Carly Sporer
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…
World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015 comes out at a promising time for the continent: for 15 years growth rates have averaged over 5 percent, and rapid population growth holds the promise of a large emerging consumer market as well as an unprecedented labor force that - if leveraged - can provide significant growth opportunities. Moreover, the expansion of innovative business models, suc...
Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.
Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…
Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…
South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic
Rosalind E Howes
Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health
Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I
Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well
South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic
"This paper assesses the economy-wide impact of implementing and financing a universal or basic income grant (BIG) in South Africa. The various financing scenarios suggested by the proponents of the grant are presented, and these are compared using an applied general equilibrium model for the South African economy. The results indicate that the required changes in direct and indirect tax rates needed to finance the grant without increasing the government deficit are substantially higher than ...
You, Liang Zhi
In Sub-Saharan Africa, rainfall is highly variable and, in many places, plainly in sufficient. Although irrigation has the potential to boost agricultural yields by at least 50 percent, food production in the region is almost entirely rain-fed. The irrigated area, extending over 6 million hectares, makes up just 5 percent of the total cultivated area, compared to 37 percent in Asia and 14 ...
Wilmshurst, Jo M; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R
The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level. PMID:22019842
Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D
It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa. PMID:18191263
Patrick Honohan; Stephen A. O'Connell
In post-independence sub-Saharan Africa, institutional arrangements for monetary policy have taken a variety of forms, although the historical evolution of many African financial systems has been similar. This paper identifies five different regimes and examines how they evolved over time. It focuses on how the alternative institutional arrangements have influenced the performance of monetary policy under fiscal pressure, and concludes that, although the trend appears to be toward more flexib...
Beegle, Kathleen; Christiaensen, Luc; Dabalen, Andrew; Gaddis, Isis
This report begins by evaluating Africa’s data landscape to monitor poverty. It maps out and assesses in detail the availability and quality of the data needed to track monetary poverty (expenditures, prices, GDP) and also reflects on the governance and political processes that underpin the current situation. Carrying the work from the first chapter forward, it then evaluates in whether poverty statistics in Africa look different, if one takes seriously issues of data comparability, data qual...
Corrans, Ian James; Svoboda, Jan
The use of magnetic separators in the various mineral processing facilities in South Africa is described. A large number are used to recover medium in dense medium plants. The manufacture of various types of magnetic separation machines by three local suppliers is highlighted. The potential use of highgradient and/or high–intensity magnetic separation in the recovery of gold, uranium, and phosphate minerals is discussed.
Adele D. Berndt
Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.
Mabogunje, O A; Lawrie, J H
12 cases of conjoined twins from West Africa were reported between 1936 and 1978. Eight sets were liveborn and were surgically separated either in local hospitals or abroad. Four were stillborn. Two new cases of stillborn conjoined twins were recently delivered at this hospital. The most common type and the ones most likely to be born alive were the omphalopagi. Surgical separation was successful in 5 cases but the twins separated at Zaria died about a month later. Emergency operations were p...
Abstract This paper contributes to the international research project ‘Capturing the Gains: Economic and Social Upgrading in Global Production Networks and Trade’. Its main aim is to analyse the operations of international airlines in Africa and assess the influence of the international aviation industry on the development of tourism in selected African states. Simultaneously, through an exploration of the different ways in which international airline groups can foster the development of the ...
This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.
South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...
ABSTRACT This dissertation addresses something which is extremely important for both individual enterprises as well as entire nations i.e. the ability to deliver quality goods and services. Notwithstanding its geographical distant location, South Africa is increasingly becoming a more important participant in the global economy and increasingly relying on export. Local businesses therefore need to meet international quality standards. For this matter this dissertation investigated the sta...
Svendsen, Mark; Ewing, Mandy; Msangi, Siwa
"The paper develops indicators to look at the performance of the irrigation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, where demand for food is high and irrigation has a proven potential to boost levels of agricultural productivity. By looking at six indicator categories—institutional framework, water resource use, irrigation area, irrigation technology, agricultural productivity, and poverty and food security—we assess the potential for improving performance in the agricultural food security sector throu...
Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.
Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El
E S Nwauche
Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.
There is a need in Africa to test prevailing theories and concepts in population studies to see how they apply to this culture. Most of the prevailing perspective on population issues can be influenced by development strategies and policies affecting demographic variables. So research designed to determine the longterm consequences of rural settlement policies on subsequent access to family planning or family planning policies are also needed, as are studies which zero in on the work and results of specific population projects. The following issues are considered worth special consideration in Africa, where the vast majority of women live in rural areas where family planning services will not reach for some time. The areas of investigation which seem most pertinent in sub-saharan Africa are: side effect of contraceptive devices and agents; infertility assessments, social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies, the means of offering effective population education in rural African areas, the possible effects of fertility control programs on demographic transition, and potential funding sources. PMID:12336771
Dlamini Thula Sizwe
Full Text Available Soybeans are a small but important and growing component of South Africa’s agricultural economy. Large-scale production of soybeans did not begin until the late 1990s in South Africa, and area planted to soybeans has expanded rapidly. Rising yields supported by a favourable agricultural policy environment backing the commercialisation and use of agricultural biotechnologies, has facilitated a smooth transition of commercial farmers from the production of traditional grains to soybean production and to be able to rotate soybeans with other grain crops to maximise profits. Although soybeans are produced in nearly all the 9 provinces in South Africa, there is significant variation in output from one province to the other. Using data from the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF, this paper examines the production efficiency of each province with respect to area under production, output and yield per hectare for the past 25 years. Despite the potential of the former homelands in soybean production, there is little progress owing to infrastructural problems and unfamiliarity with the crop. In order to improve production and consumption of soybeans in these areas of South Africa, it may help to set up soybean out-grower schemes, which will encourage smallholder farmers to pool their output and earn income from soybeans whilst learning the food value of the crop.
Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.
Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.
In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges
Samson A Fatokun
Full Text Available In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa, this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christianity elsewhere. Moreover, Christianity in Africa can be found almost everywhere on the continent and indigenous varieties of the tradition developed which allowed it to become as part of Africa as African traditional religions.
Young people constitute a large and rapidly growing proportion of the population in most countries of Africa and in many parts of the world as a whole. These young people live in a rapidly changing world, faced with many pressures. Young people on the whole experience discomforting confusion, disquieting irritations and perplexities, and adjustment problems as a result of rapid social change. There is an increase in drug and alcohol use among youth leading to vandalism and disrespect toward their elders and authority. There also are teenage pregnancies and school dropouts. Illegal abortion is being practiced by many girls which sometime lead to premature death. Urbanization also has accentuated various kinds of evils and crimes. Modernization and western influences have helped to erode traditional Africa values. The family system has lost ground rapidly, and the indigenous systems of education have largely disappeared. The passing away of old Africa has contributed to laxity in morals. The current socioeconomic conditions in Africa block the progress of the Africa youth. Early marriages complicate matters for youth and increase the burdens of youth. Ignorance, illiteracy, and insufficient knowledge about fertility regulation methods all have helped to increase early childbearing. These are reinforced by African traditional values attached to childbearing. Furthermore, in traditional African society, the young people depended for guidance in behavior and personal relationships on some member of the family. This teaching was gradual and continued until the child was an adult. Today, the family has had to relinquish much of the responsibility of guiding youth on these concerns. Much of the task has been left to formal education and to chance. Problems relating to young people should be attacked at their roots. Such an effort should aim to inform, teach, educate, and orient youth so that they can face the reality of their sexual life. Family Life and Sex Education
This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the
Introduction The need for regional integration in Africa has never seemed more compelling, however the numerous programmes and institutions have achieved very little since independence. Regionalization reveals itself in sub-Saharan Africa through complex and often conflicting trends of interaction. Commitment to regional integration in Africa has been constrained by a highly ambivalent critique of the colonial heritage. At independence, the leaders of the new states readily acknowledged the d...
Gallagher, J.; Death, C.; Sabaratnam, Meera; Smith, K.
Africa has often been defined and represented by outsiders. In International Studies, the continent is frequently viewed as peripheral and uninteresting. This is clearly a problem, and an increasingly apparent one as the number of courses on Africa and IS grow, both in Africa and beyond. Many academics who run these courses are keen to challenge the continent’s traditional marginalisation and perceived dependency, but they are limited by the resources available to them, and the fact that many...
Jim W. Simons
Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...
If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF), it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor). According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published ...
Investment by organizations and agencies has led to a growing body of evidence and information to assist ophthalmologists and others to meet the needs of children with cataract in Africa. The geographic distribution of research, training, and programme development across Africa has been uneven; investment has been greatest in eastern and southern Africa. Population based surveys (using key informants) suggest that 15–35% of childhood blindness is due to congenital or developmental cataract. T...
Over the past five decades relations between Africa and China have stood the test of time and are currently thriving. Launched in 2000, the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation marked the beginning of a new stage in Sino-African ties. Sino-African relations are deepening and being defined in broader terms. Enhanced Sino-Africa relations will further solidify solidarity between developing countries and promote South-South cooperation.
Peltier, Jean-Philippe N.
The universal theory of state formation, as discussed by Weber, Tilly and others, is relevant and appropriate to Africa when properly applied. Africa has her own unique history and the variables affecting state development, such as land tenure, remain the same. The value of these variables is what differs from the European experience. As such, state development in Africa remains strikingly similar throughout its history. It is a struggle between the center and the periphery in which the cente...
International Monetary Fund
This paper discusses findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for South Africa. South Africaâ€™s financial sector operates in a challenging economic environment. Despite remarkable progress since the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africa still has one of the worldâ€™s highest unemployment and income inequality rates. Slow economic growth since 2008 has further aggravated unemployment, real disposable income is stagnant, and households are heavily indebted. Relatively high capita...
Golub, Stephen; Hayat, Faraz
This paper documents and analyses the predominance of informal employment in Africa and shows that lack of demand for labour rather than worker characteristics is the main reason for pervasive underemployment. Integration into the global economy and exports of labour-intensive products are vital to boosting the demand for labour in Africa. Africa has some potential to become competitive in light manufacturing, but the most promising avenue for export-led growth of employment in many African c...
A striking feature of South Africa`s trade liberalisation is that, until 1995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation was the reduction of anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalent tariffs and other duties. This distinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happened in other African liberalisations. A second distinction (and the two are in all likelihood connected) is that South Africa was not p...
Tony Addison; George Mavrotas; Mark McGillivray
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) give aid to Africa a new emphasis. Yet aid flows to Africa have trended downward over the last decade, and as a consequence more Africans now live in poverty. This is especially true of Sub-Saharan Africa. Any progress towards the main MDG target of halving the number of people living in poverty clearly requires more aid. It also requires a better understanding of what drives aid volumes to Africa and precisely how these flows impact on African economie...
The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…
Full Text Available Faith Moyo,1 Charles Chasela,2,3 Alana T Brennan,1,4 Osman Ebrahim,5 Ian M Sanne,1,6 Lawrence Long,1 Denise Evans1 1Health Economics and Epidemiology Research Office, Department of Internal Medicine, School of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Epidemiology and Biostatistics Department, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 3Epidemiology and Strategic Information (ESI, HIV/AIDS/STIs and TB, Human Sciences Research Council, Pretoria, South Africa; 4Center for Global Health and Development, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA; 5Brenthurst Clinic, Parktown, South Africa; 6Right to Care, Helen Joseph Hospital, Westdene, Johannesburg, South Africa Background: Despite the widely documented success of antiretroviral therapy (ART, stakeholders continue to face the challenges of poor HIV treatment outcomes. While many studies have investigated patient-level causes of poor treatment outcomes, data on the effect of health systems on ART outcomes are scarce.Objective: We compare treatment outcomes among patients receiving HIV care and treatment at a public and private HIV clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa.Patients and methods: This was a retrospective cohort analysis of ART naïve adults (≥18.0 years, initiating ART at a public or private clinic in Johannesburg between July 01, 2007 and December 31, 2012. Cox proportional-hazards regression was used to identify baseline predictors of mortality and loss to follow-up (>3 months late for the last scheduled visit. Generalized estimating equations were used to determine predictors of failure to suppress viral load (≥400 copies/mL while the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used to compare the median absolute change in CD4 count from baseline to 12 months post-ART initiation.Results: 12,865 patients initiated ART at the public clinic compared to 610 at the private
du Toit, Japie
After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals. PMID:12743881
Du Guerney, J
Migration is a domain of human behavior implicated in the spread of AIDS that has been largely neglected in research and prevention campaigns. Recognition of the role of mobility in the spread of AIDS has been largely anecdotal, as in the case of East African truck drivers. Like sexuality, mobility is a fundamental human behavior and very difficult to modify. Now that the AIDS epidemic has become worldwide, the importance of mobility in its spread is clear. Movement in space allowed the virus to be transported to new populations. The spread of the virus is then determined by sexual behavior. Population movements in Africa occur from one rural area or city to another, or between the city and the countryside. The view that AIDS is primarily an urban phenomenon ignores on the one hand return migration of migratory labor or other circuits between the city and countryside, and on the other the significant mobility from one rural area to another, such as that of seasonal plantation workers. Other forms of movement are also very important in Africa, which has more refugees and displaced persons than any other continent. Various armed conflicts involve movement, as does the international drug traffic. Each of these types of movement has tended to increase in recent years because of political instability or economic crisis. Exposure to risk of HIV infection consequently also increases. Officials of some national AIDS control programs have begun to cooperate with each other. Although the epidemic has spread widely, it has not reached its peak even in Africa, especially in rural areas. Systematic interventions at strategic points of migratory currents would be very useful in prevention. PMID:12178209
Sitas, F; Newton, R
Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199
Ellis, S.D.K.; Haar, Gerrie ter
All religion is based on a belief in the existence of invisible forces which influence human destiny. So important is belief of this sort in contemporary thought, the authors argue, that many Africans appear to believe that the widely attested malaise of their public life may be explained largely by reference to these invisible forces. Among the evidence for this assertion is the rapid growth of movements of religious renewal or revival which are to be found in all parts of Africa today. Some...
Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems
Adams, Jonathan; Hook, Daniel; Leydesdorff, Loet
Recent discussion about the increase in international research collaboration suggests a comprehensive global network centred around a group of core countries and driven by generic socio-economic factors where the global system influences all national and institutional outcomes. In counterpoint, we demonstrate that the collaboration pattern for countries in Africa is far from universal. Instead, it exhibits layers of internal clusters and external links that are explained not by monotypic global influences but by regional geography and, perhaps even more strongly, by history, culture and language. Analysis of these bottom-up, subjective, human factors is required in order to provide the fuller explanation useful for policy and management purposes.
Bonilla, Marie-Laure Allain
Au moment où le Centre Pompidou propose un nouvel accrochage de ses collections d’art moderne négligeant d’y inscrire la photographie africaine, la publication éditée par John Peffer et Elizabeth L. Cameron sur l’usage du portrait et des pratiques photographiques en Afrique sub-saharienne depuis le XIXe siècle survient à point nommé. Loin des ouvrages disponibles depuis les années 1990, qui fétichisent la photographie en Afrique, Portraiture and Photography in Africa fournit des arguments pré...
The paper deals with public perceptions of nuclear power. These perceptions were shaped initially by the worlds violent introduction to nuclear power when the first nuclear bombs were exploded during 1945. Public perceptions have deteriorated due to the Three Mile Island and Chernobyl accidents. Although there are signs of improvement the nuclear industry internationally is facing opposition, a situation which also obtains in South Africa, although to a lesser degree. Public concern in respect of fossil fuels have lessened the pressure on nuclear power. (author)
Full Text Available Concerns about the environmental and ecological consequences of hydraulic fracturing have accompanied the shale boom in developed countries at the forefront of shale exploration and production. These environmental and ecological consequences may be of even greater concern in developing countries with less governance capacity. We present a conceptual framework that specifies several variables that are expected to contribute to sustainable hydraulic fracturing. We use the framework to characterize prospects for sustainable hydraulic fracturing in South Africa and Botswana. The framework and evidence clarifies the institutional capacity and institutional challenges confronting the sub-Saharan African countries as extraction of natural resources using hydraulic fracturing begins in earnest.
Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie
The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to 15-foot-high stilts wearing…
@@ 1 Introduction The global financial crisis, whose effects have been most severe on the world's largest banks, has created a vacuum in banking sector in Africa by stalling investment from the traditional investor. The world's largest banks, brought to their knees by the crisis, and having had to be bailed out, are in no position to continue investing in the banking sector in Africa.
Fox, Louise M.; Liebenthal, Robert B.
By all measures, poverty in Africa as a whole has increased and deepened. But in fact, Africa contains a number of undocumented success stories of poverty reduction. This book presents case studies of thirteen of these success stories, giving grounds for some real hope, and providing useful learning for all policymakers, governments, businesses, service providers, non-governmental organiza...
This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.
Narenda P. Sharma
This study, African water resources: challenges and opportunities for sustainable management propose a long-term strategy for water resource management, emphasizing the socially sustainable development imperatives for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The message of this strategy is one of optimism - the groundwork already exists for the sustainable management of Africa's water resources. The stra...
This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…
C.L. Bennett (Clare); S. McCann (S.); B. Radley (Ben)
markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report examines the practical impact of Chinese investment on human rights in Africa, in order to assess how the positive effects of China in Africa can be maximised and how the negative effects – which have the potential to be particularly damaging in states that
Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele
When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…
Gopal, Gita; Adu, Elizabeth
Gender issues, particularly with respect to women's status and rights, have for a considerable period, been in the forefront of donors' dialogue on social issues with Africa. While Africa countries have fully acknowledged the seriousness of the issues and the urgent need for action, the dialogue has been largely donor-driven and issues and priorities been donor-set. Recognizing the need fo...
"Postcolonial" Chapter I - The borders in Africa: an overview 1.1 The critical issues of European borders in Africa 1.2 Pre-colonial Africa and the value of land 1.3 The appearance of arbitrary lines 1.4 Africa after the borders 1.5 Borders as lines of instability Chapter II - Beyond the Nation-State 2.1 The...... concept of nation-state: a comparison between Europe and Africa 2.2 Giving new meaning to the concept of "migration": why not in Africa? 2.3 Why is that an urgent matter? 2.4 Migrants and social policies Chapter III - Saying Europe, meaning Eurafrica 3.1 The accounts with the past 3.2 Eurafrica, profile......Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at: http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy of an...
M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)
textabstractThis book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western developm
Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…
Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla
The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....
te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene
This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…
Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric
Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…
Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.
The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…
David H. Peters; Kandola, Kami; Elemendorf, A. Edward; Chellaraj, Gnanaraj
In the past thirty years, Sub-Saharan African countries have made remarkable improvements in health conditions and status. However, they still suffer from some of the worst health problems in the world, and AIDS is making conditions much worse than they will be otherwise. This study, health expenditures, services, and outcomes in Africa considers 48 countries of Sub-Saharan Africa and outl...
This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…
Although the extraction of mineral wealth has been the major influence in the history of Johannesburg and the surrounding Witwatersrand regions (with about 45% of all gold ever mined coming from there), the discovery of now-famous hominid fossils at the Sterkfontein Caves, and the convening of the world's largest-ever conference on environment and development, are setting a new stage for the future. The United Nations began the second Development and Environment Conference in Johannesburg on August 26, 2002. This meeting addresses the implementation of international goals to fight poverty and protect the global environment that were established at the first such conference held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992. The Johannesburg summit involves about forty thousand participants, and perhaps 100 world leaders. One of several official opening ceremonies for the conference was held at the Sterkfontein Caves to recognize the outstanding universal value of the paleo-anthropological fossils found there.These views from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) highlight a number of the land use, vegetation, and geological features found within Gauteng Province (including the urban center of Johannesburg and the capital city Pretoria) and parts of the North West and Free State Provinces. The image on the right displays vegetation in red hues and is a false-color view utilizing data from MISR's near-infrared, red and blue bands. Both the natural-color view (left) and the false-color version were acquired by MISR's nadir camera on June 16, 2002. The urban areas appear as gray-colored pixels in the natural-color view, and exhibit colors corresponding with the relative abundance of vegetation found in the urban parts of this arid region.The mountains trending east-west near the center of the images extend from Pretoria in the east to Rustenberg in the west. These ranges, the Magaliesberg and Witwatersberg, separate the low-lying, hotter bushveld to the north from the cooler
Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward.
Rabinowitz, Philip D.; Woods, Stephen
Madagascar separated from Africa in the Middle-Late Jurassic and has been in its present position relative to Africa since the Early Cretaceous (˜120-130 my). Several Early Eocene to Late Oligocene (˜50-26 my) terrestrial mammalian groups are observed on Madagascar that have a similar ancestral lineage to those found in Africa. These mammalian groups means of transport across the Mozambique Channel from Africa to Madagascar was either by traversing on exposed land masses across a land bridge or by swimming/rafting, since (1) Madagascar has been separated from mainland Africa for at least 70 my before their arrival, and (2) it is unlikely that similar ancestral lineage's evolved simultaneously in separated regions. No evidence has been found for a land bridge across the Mozambique Channel. The mammals thus either swam or have been swept away on vegetation mats from rivers flowing out of Mozambique or Tanzania.
Africa is a home to around 800 million people. The total population is expected to reach 1.3 billion by 2020. Efficient, clean energy forms are vital to Africa's sustainable development and fight against poverty. Nuclear power is a sustainable, clean, safe and economic way to met the African countries demand for electrical energy and water desalination As of 29 January 2007, there were 435 nuclear power plants in operation around the world. They total about 369 G We of generating capacity and supply about 16% of the world electricity. Of the 435 nuclear power plants in operation, just two are in Africa: Koeberg-1 and Koeberg-2 in South Africa. Both are 900 M We PWRs.There are also 28 new nuclear power plants under construction none in Africa. In this paper, varies factors , which support the attractiveness of nuclear power for African countries are identified and discussed
This article reports on a case study of the e-learning production unit at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. Phase 1 of the study, completed in 2003, was the design and development of a process-based quality management system for web-supported learning (WSL) using a basic ISO 9000 approach (University of Pretoria, 2003). The second phase,…
Fortelný, Ivan; Luzuriaga, S.; Kovářová, Jana
Pretoria : Polymer Processing Society, 2006, s. 1-8. [Europe/Africa Meeting of Polymer Processing Society PPS. Pretoria (ZA), 09.10.2006-13.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/0729 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : recycling * compatibilization * stabilization Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry
Peprníček, T.; Kuřitka, I.; Pleštil, Josef; Pavlova, Ewa; Kalendová, A.
Pretoria : Polymer Processing Society, 2006, s. 1-5. [Europe/Africa Meeting of Polymer Processing Society PPS. Pretoria (ZA), 09.10.2006-13.10.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polypropylene * nanocomposites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry
Kovářová, L.; Šlouf, Miroslav; Maláč, J.; Pientka, Zbyněk; Šimoník, J.
Pretoria : Polymer Processing Society, 2006, s. 1-9. [Europe/Africa Meeting of Polymer Processing Society PPS. Pretoria (ZA), 09.10.2006-13.10.2006] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 500361 - NANOFUN-POLY Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : layered silicates * nanocomposites * morphology Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry
Sedláček, T.; Filip, Petr; Sáha, P.
Pretoria : Polymer Processing Society, 2006, B4. [Europe/Africa Meeting of Polymer Processing Society PPS. Pretoria (ZA), 09.10.2006-13.10.2006] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA2060202 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : polymer melt * pressure-temperature dependent viscosity * PVT behaviour Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics
Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen
The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029
In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.
During the last decade, Algeria, Egypt and Libya have improved their fiscal terms for oil and gas development to attract more investment in this area. As a group, the three countries are implementing plans to increase crude oil production capacity 16 % from 3.15 million barrels per day (Mb/d) in 1995 to 3.65 Mb/d in the year 2000. Natural gas liquid are also being developed and their production capacity is planned to increase 30 % to 0.82 Mb/d in 2000. Concurrently, natural gas production capacity is being expanded about 50 % by 200 and natural gas exporting capacity should see a 92 % increase in 2000 over 1995 levels in short, the North Africa hydrocarbon producers are rapidly expanding their production and export capacity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons. This is the first IEA study to focus on North Africa. It shows how changing hydrocarbon legislation or production sharing agreements can result in changes in crude oil and natural gas production capacity. Much of the expansion outlined in this study is being guided by international oil companies attracted by the improved fiscal terms
Krüger, P P
Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...
Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R
Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) 'cut-point' approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita(-1) day(-1). Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, 'cut-point' approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting HarvestPlus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331
Although there are abundant water resources in Africa - about 17 large rivers and 160 lakes greater than 27 km2 - most of these resources are located in the humid and sub-humid regions around the equator. The surface runoff in Africa, on average, is much lower than average precipitation as a result of high evaporation and evapotranspiration, resulting in endemic drought in parts of the continent. Consequently, groundwater is a very important resource for Africa, providing nearly two-thirds of drinking water on the continent, and an even greater proportion in northern Africa. Despite the importance of groundwater for many societies, there is a lack of corresponding public concern about its protection, perhaps because the extent and availability of groundwater are not easily measured. The impact of increasing degrees of temporal and spatial climatic variability on water resources is also an important consideration, and groundwater to some extent provides an opportunity to mitigate the impacts of climate change. Applications of isotopes in hydrology are based on the general concept of 'tracing', in which naturally occurring or environmental isotopes (either radioactive or stable) are used to study hydrological processes on large temporal and spatial scales through their natural distribution in a hydrological system. Thus, environmental isotope methodologies are unique in regional studies of water resources to obtain integrated characteristics of groundwater systems. The most frequently used environmental isotopes include those of the water molecule, hydrogen (2H or D, also called deuterium, and 3H, also called tritium) and oxygen (18O), as well as of carbon (13C and 14C, also called radiocarbon or carbon-14) occurring in water as constituents of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon compounds. 2H, 13C and 18O are stable isotopes of the respective elements, whereas 3H and 14C are radioactive isotopes. Among the most important areas where isotopes are useful in
Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the
Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.
During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field
Full Text Available Zimbabwe Society for Animal Production Gold Medal Award for outstanding contribution to the livestock industryJ F Kapnek Charitable Trust Award for exceptional managerial commitment to the Zimbabwe Veterinary Journal and contributions to the veterinary professionCommercial Farmers’ Union Farming Oscar for outstanding contribution to the livestock industry and in particular ensuring continued beef exportsResearch Council of Zimbabwe award for distinguished contribution to the agricultural sector in the service of ZimbabweOIE Meritorious Medal, 20112011 World Veterinary Day Commemorative Award from Fellow Veterinary Professionals of Zimbabwe for many years of committed service to the Zimbabwe Veterinary ProfessionNational Liberation War Hero of ZimbabweStuart Kenneth Hargreaves was born in Salisbury, Southern Rhodesia, on 6 August 1946. He attended Routledge and Prince Edward schools in Salisbury. After studying at the University of Natal, South Africa, he graduated in veterinary medicine at Onderstepoort (University of Pretoria in 1970. He passed away on 28 August 2012 in Harare, Zimbabwe.He devoted his entire career to Zimbabwe’s Ministry of Agriculture, initially as a field and provincial veterinary officer (1971-1983: Zvishavane, Bindura and Harare, then Deputy Director (1983-1988 and Director (1988-2002 before being promoted to Principal Director, Livestock and Veterinary Services (2002-2012. He held this position from its inception until his death. He acted as Permanent Secretary within the Ministry of Agriculture on numerous occasions.Dr Hargreaves untiringly defended and argued for the countries of Africa on the international animal health stage and contributed to securing the voice Africa now enjoys in international animal health debates. He was ahead of the times in a number of areas, for example in vigorously defending, with others, the commodity-based trade principle. The success of this approach demonstrated that products could be
Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie
The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...
Introduction to the Featured Topic "New Nationalism and Xenophobia in Africa", Africa Spectrum, Vol. 44, No. 1 (2009) Einführung in den Themenschwerpunkt "New Nationalism and Xenophobia in Africa" in Heft 1, Jahrgang 44 (2009) der Zeitschrift "Africa Spectrum".
Modern energy access in Africa is critical to meeting a wide range of developmental challenges including poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite having a huge amount and variety of energy resources, modern energy access in the continent is abysmal, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Only about 31% of the Sub-Saharan African population have access to electricity while traditional biomass energy accounts for over 80% of energy consumption in many Sub-Saharan African countries. With energy use per capita among the lowest in the world, there is no doubt that Africa will need to increase its energy consumption to drive economic growth and human development. Africa also faces a severe threat from global climate change with vulnerabilities in several key areas or sectors in the continent including agriculture, water supply, energy, etc. Low carbon development provides opportunities for African countries to improve and expand access to modern energy services while also building low-emission and climate-resilient economies. However, access to finance from different sources will be critical in achieving these objectives. This paper sets out to explore the financial instruments available for low carbon energy access in Africa including the opportunities, markets and risks in low carbon energy investments in the continent. - Highlights: ► Access to finance will be critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa. ► Domestic finance will be important in leveraging private finance. ► Private sector participation in modern and clean energy in Africa is still low. ► Many financing mechanisms exist for low carbon energy access in Africa. ► The right institutional frameworks are critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa.
YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association
Full Text Available Protected areas in Africa are threatened by a lack of funds to conduct their work effectively and by extremely poor communities that surround their resource-rich areas. We believe that conservation staff suffer from mental blocks. They assume that business and profitability reflect unethical processes that destroy natural resources. We developed a workshop process that allows conservationists to integrate entrepreneurial thinking with conservation principles and ethics. We measured perceptions both before and after such a workshop to assess the impact of the process. The process assisted conservationists at the Southern African Wildlife College to develop the integrated mental frameworks that are required to develop conservation into a sustainable business. The group internalised the new mental framework, whereby conservation and business, when integrated in an ethical manner, are viewed as virtually synonymous. The group also identified many innovative ways in which they could derive sustainable income from their natural resources while simultaneously achieving their conservation objectives.
Antonella Del Rosso
Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices… Participants in the African School of Physics with CERN's John Ellis. “Attending a school like this is an opportunity no student should miss. This school unlocks one's mind and we are so exposed to many exciting things happening in the world of physics. It's just amazing!” says Suzan Phumudzo Bvumbi from the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Suzan is among the 50 students who have spent over three weeks this summer attending the second edition of the African School of Physics (ASP2012). The school was held in Kumasi, Ghana. "Hosting ASP2012 has given us the opportunity to demonstrate the capacity and resources avai...
Perhaps no part of the health system is as imperiled by neoliberal economic reforms as the public drug sector. The national bill for pharmaceuticals can claim one-third of a developing country's annual health budget. This article describes the essential drugs program created by WHO in the 1980s to protect financially reduced ministries of health from the high prices charged by multinational pharmaceutical companies. It describes the backlash from the World Bank and UNICEF, which launched the Bamako Initiative and other community financing schemes and revolving drug plans in which individuals, families or community groups buy drugs above the wholesale purchase price; clinics use the proceeds to maintain drug supplies and subsidize other health services. When this plan failed, the Bank proposed outright privatization of drug purchase and supply, returning power to the multinational suppliers. The article ends with a consideration of patents and the new intellectual property rights as they pertain to pharmaceutical production in Africa. PMID:11469153
The development of isotope applications has been a main theme of the erstwhile Atomic Energy Board which organized a national conference in Pretoria in 1963 'to take stock of the work done in the country so far'. Radioactive isotopes and radiation have achieved widespread use in all fields of medicine, agriculture, science and technology. It was recommended that the AEC publish a review of relevant South African work. This publication therefore consists of listings of available publications by South African-based scientists since the 1963 Conference and is divided into the four categories: radiotherapy, clinical and laboratory medicine, agriculture, and industry, preceded by overviews. The terms of reference were construed not to include stable isotopes and it was accordingly decided to concentrate only on radioisotope applications
Jim W. Simons
Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.
Sørensen, Jannick Kirk
that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in West Africa? Can ideals for user-involvement be directly transferred? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the communication of interaction design knowledge in West Africa by discussing whether insights...... from Scandinavian Participatory design can be used to localize the learning process and make interaction design methods sensitive to the West African context. The paper is based on the author’s reflection on his experiences teaching interaction design in West Africa. ...
Mveyange, Anthony Francis
A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent with the...... predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions of the...
In his article "Obama, Africa, and the Post-Racial" Michael Janis examines aspects of U.S. president Barack Obama's election in the context of the epistemology and history of racism. Following an introduction to the history of racism in Europe and in the U.S., Janis discusses the media in the U.S. and in Africa in relation to African American and African politics. The debates on race ignited by the campaign are considered in the light of Africana perspectives on relations between Africa and t...
Mangrove swamp rice cultivation, located in coastal areas where the population is relatively dense, is one of the oldest forms of rice culture in West Africa. Of approximately 1.2 million hectares of mangrove swamp in West Africa about 200 000 ha is cleared for mangrove swamp rice production in Guinea Bissau, the Gambia, Guinea, Senegal and Sierra Leone. The mangrove swamp rice areas in West Africa cover a wide range of climatic conditions from dry tropical climate (savanna) with 800 mm or le...
Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun;
Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... in Africa has also traditionally been constrained either because of high costs or, especially in Equatorial Africa, owing to frequent cloud cover. To meet these challenges the European Space Agency has launched GlobWetland Africa as a major initiative to facilitate the exploitation of satellite...... observations for the conservation, wiseuse and effective management of wetlands in Africa and to provide African stakeholders with the necessary EO methods and tools to better fulfil their commitments and obligations towards the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The main objective of GlobWetland Africa (GW-A) is...
Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009).......Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009)....
In this paper, different scenarios of increased cooperation between China and African countries are simulated. Recent intensifications of political and economic ties between China and Sub-Saharan African countries may give hope that an economic improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is possible. Three channels may lead to a catching-up of Africa with China : a reduction in Africa's investment ristk, an increase in its total factor productivity (TFP) and an improvement of its worker skills. A...
Carolyn Jenkins; Michael Bleaney; Merle Holden
A striking feature of South Africa's trade liberalisation is that, until 2995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation wsa the reduction of the anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalnet tariffs and other duties. This ditinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happended in other African liberalisations. A seconddistinction (an the two are in in all liklihood conected) is that South Africa was no...
Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig
The chapter begins by arguing why it is interesting to study higher education and capacity building in Africa. Without essentialising Africa, we wish to contribute to a better understanding of the multi-faceted and dynamic development of contemporary universities in Africa. Then we explain our...... change in Africa – whose reality counts? And Part III: Creating and using academic knowledge in Africa – decolonising research?...
Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.
Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi
The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)
HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)
The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)
Full Text Available If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF, it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor. According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS, South Africa has 250 Centurian/Olifant tanks, 1 600 Eland armoured cars, 1 500 Ratel Infantry combat vehicles, 372 combat aircraft, 16 armed helicopters and 144 other helicopters. The SADF can mobilize over 400 000 personnel. Defence expenditures for 1985/6 were 2,27 billion dollars. The defence budget for 1986/7 indicates allocations of 2,012 billion dollars.
Currently, there are 17 member states in Africa of the Illicit Trafficking Database. These member states have together reported 54 incidences. There were 23 more incidents reported in open sources and are awaiting confirmation by the states involved.
Zanoni, Brian C. [Harvard Medical School, Baylor International AIDS Initiative, Boston, MA (United States)
HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)
Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui
The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.
Published by Palgrave Macmillan Over the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are...
Ernest Ngoepe; Christine Fehlner-Gardiner; Alex Wandeler; Claude Sabeta
There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus anti...
Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)
This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.
Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline
Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...
Full Text Available The end of the Second Anglo-Boer War also put an end to the commando system that had been the core of military strength in South Africa. With the formation of the Union in 1910 it was realized that South Africa will have to provide its own defence. It was to be no easy task; seeing that the English and Afrikaans-speaking sections of the population had just concluded a bitter war which had left deep scars.
This paper explores the relationships between openness, poverty and inequality in Africa. The analysis begins with a review of social development on the continent since 1980, followed by a discussion of openness and a lengthy exploration of the patterns of trade and finance that link Africa to the rest of the world. The macroeconomic policy framework that guided African policymaking over the last three decades is the lens through which poverty and inequality are further examined. The paper hi...
The first edition of the Report The Lighting Fixtures Market in Africa offers a comprehensive analysis of the market for lighting fixtures and lamps in 23 African countries (Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Egypt, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Tunisia and Uganda). For each country, It provides figures for consumption and production in 2013, and...
Jacqueline Munalula Musiitwa
Africa is undergoing many positive soft infrastructure developments such as improved rule of law, reduced corruption, improved trade policies and so on changes that are reassuring investors that Africa is indeed open for business. Of note is that some of these changes are prompted by factors not previously considered in development strategies. Jacqueline Munalula Musiitwa addresses the role of netizens, the growing and better organized private sector and financial diplomacy. However, in order...
Bennett, Brett; Kruger, Fred
This innovative interdisciplinary study focuses on the history, science, and policy of tree planting and water conservation in South Africa. South Africa’s forestry sector has sat—often controversially—at the crossroads of policy and scientific debates regarding water conservation, economic development, and biodiversity protection. Bennett and Kruger show how debates about the hydrological impact of exotic tree planting in South Africa shaped the development of modern scientific ideas and sta...
In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Climate change along with rapid population growth are likely to impact all water resources, but the response of groundwater will be slower than that of surface water providing a potential buffer to help support adaptation. Here an interdisciplinary team from the UK and Africa present the results of a DFID funded researc...
Kessides, Ioannis N.
Over the past decade, Africa has been experiencing an economic resurgence. Yet, the continent is facing several difficult challenges and many economies of the region continue to be among the least competitive in the world. Africa's competitiveness is adversely affected by: (i) poor regional infrastructure networks; and (ii) weak institutional capacity. Increased regionalization could potentially address both these challenges. Regional integration of regulation, combined with regionalization o...
The main objective of the State of Environment in Africa report is to identify and highlight the major environmental issues of concern on the continent and to make recommendations for action. The information presented confirms that the state of the environment in Africa has been (and continues to be) influenced principally by rapid population growth, increasing and chronic poverty and inappropriate development practices, especially agriculture production methods. These facto...
Janvier Nkurunziza; Bates, Robert H.
The purposes of this paper include (a) a review of the literature on the so-called "African dummy;" (b) an explication of the system GMM method of estimation, by which Hoeffler (2002) shows the "Africa dummy" to be an artifact of the application of inappropriate estimation techniques; and (c) an effort to employ this technique to measure the impact of political variables - measures of stability, regime type, and violence - on economic growth in Africa.
Kirui, Oliver Kiptoo; Mirzabaev, Alisher
Land degradation remains a serious impediment to improving livelihoods in the Eastern Africa region. This working paper presents a general overview of the state and extent of land degradation in East Africa, explores its proximate and underlying drivers, identifies the land degradation hotspots in the region, and also discusses the productivity and poverty impacts of land degradation in the region. It is intended to serve as an exploratory tool for the ensuing more detailed quantitative analy...
Raheem, Kolawole; Kupari, Pekka; Lasonen, Johanna
Educational systems in Africa during the colonial period focused on a school system that was based on the perspectives of the colonial rulers. Nearly half a century ago African leaders, after the independence granted to their countries, were expressing the high hopes of positive political and economic development in their countries. But alas, the development has been regressive. Today Africa is the only continent in the world that has become poorer in the past 25 years. There h...
Africa, which comprises a significant number of developing countries, is an important force working for world peace and stability and global economic development. The African continent is rich in natural and human resources and potentials for development. For years, however, Africa gave people the impression that it was a poverty-stricken, backward land ravaged by successive wars and epidemic diseases. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there have been some
Booth, D.; Dietz, A.J.; Golooba-Mutebi, F.; Fuady, A.H.; Henley, D; Kelsall, T.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Donge, van, J.K.
Many African countries have experienced sustained economic growth, but few have achieved the type of structural change, driven by rising productivity, that has transformed mass living standards in parts of Asia. In the Developmental Regimes in Africa Synthesis Report, editor David Booth examines how DRA research has shed new light on how developmental regimes might emerge and be sustained in Africa in the 21st century. He outlines a concept with defining features at three levels: policy conte...
Alessandra Scagliarini; Silvia Piovesana; Filippo Turrini; Federica Savini; Fortune Sithole; Cheryl M. McCrindle
A survey amongst sheep and goat producers and veterinarians was undertaken to collect epidemiological data on orf in South Africa. Previous epidemiological studies on the presence of the disease in the country have not been documented and this report is the first descriptive epidemiological study of orf in South Africa. A seven-month investigation, realised by direct and indirect interviews and field observation, enabled us to outline incidence and risk factors of this disease and to bet...
Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia
The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....
Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Akarolo-Anthony, Sally Nneoma Sarah; Adebamowo, Clement Adebayo
Cancer is an increasingly important public health problem in developing countries, including Africa . As public and professional awareness of the cancer problem has grown, so has interest in the pattern of disease presentation, its epidemiology and treatment outcome. To date, however, there has been limited research about breast cancer in Africa. In the absence of systematic population-based cancer registration, most information has come from small clinical and pathology case series and th...
Martin Gustafsson; Servaas van der Berg; Debra Shepherd; Cobus Burger
In South Africa there has been a surge in publicly funded adult literacy education in recent years. There is a recognition that for the effective monitoring of adult literacy, direct measures of literacy are required. Grade attainment, self-reported ability to read and behavioural variables relating to, for instance, reading habits produce vastly different measures of adult literacy in South Africa. It is noteworthy that self-reported values change over time as people’s perceptions of what co...
Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.
The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling land claims in Africa, including Madagascar (Sandra Evers, Marja Spierenburg and Harry Wels); Communal tenure 'from above' and 'from below': land rights, authority and livelihoods in rural South Afri...
Kuperman Alan J.
The CDCM project explores whether and how constitutional reform could reduce political instability and violence in Africa, by addressing the question in three steps. First, case studies of seven African countries identify how at key turning points the domestic political institutions either mitigated – or exacerbated – violent outcomes. Second, an unprecedented database of constitutional design in all of Africa reveals that most countries on the continent have highly centralized political inst...
Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region's presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa's participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa's share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa's overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa's share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%)
Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.
Makinwa-adebusoye, P K
This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the
The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on 'Climate Change Mitigation in Africa' between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)
Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.
The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)
The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.
Association du personnel
Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...
Steven L. Chown
Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.
This Africa's pulse newsletter includes the following headings: economic prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa remain strong, but growth is vulnerable to a sharp decline in commodity prices; the region's progress on reducing poverty has been slow, hindered by high inequality; and faster reduction in poverty will require growth with equity.
This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. In all the different facets of the ICTs for education prism, South Africa boasts more than a...
Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser
The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of
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ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior
The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels
Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. Details are given of the steps taken in South Africa to transform the unfavourable public image associated with the process. The approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. (author)
Africa is facing serious challenges in geoscience education. This has been as a result of absence of or very young/small Earth Science Departments in some universities (e.g., Mauritius, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi): Limited capacity (staff and equipment needed for practicals) to cope with the growing number of students, compounded by brain drain of academic staffs and the fact that current tertiary programmes do not seem to produce graduates suitable for the industry are some of the contributing factors to the challenges, (UNESCO-AEON Report, 2009). As such Earth Science studies in Africa have been one of the career paths that has not been promoted or highly preferred by many students. In January 2011, the YES Network African chapter was launched through the YES Africa 2011 Symposium that took place at the University of Johannesburg South Africa in Conjunction with the 23rd Colloquium of Africa Geology from the 08-14th January 2011. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium was organized by five YES African National networks from Southern, Central, Eastern and Northern Africa to bring young geoscientists from all regions of Africa together to present their research about African geoscience topics. The symposium also included roundtable discussions about increasing the involvement of youth's participation in geoscience issues in Africa, about how to increase the number of youths in African geosciences education university programs, and about how to promote geoscience careers to university students in Africa c. Roundtable discussions revealed that many African colleges and universities do not provide adequate infrastructure and resources to support the students studying in the department. As such, most students graduate with poor preparation for geoscience careers, having gained a theoretical understanding of geology, but not the practical application of the discipline. The recommendations from the YES Africa 2011 Symposium also highlighted on the best ways of
Felix Toteu, Sadrack; Malcolm Anderson, John; de Wit, Maarten
' Africa Alive Corridors' (AAC) addresses major stewardship goals in Africa through a selection of 20 heritage Corridors (varying from 1000 to 4000 km in length and 50 to 100 km wide). These include more than 400 heritage nodes (World Heritage Sites, Biosphere Reserves, biodiversity hotspots, Geoparks, etc.). AAC tracks Africa's journey from around 4 billion years ago to the present day through these chronologically sequenced Corridors. And so, the 4-billion-year autobiography of the continent is told. It encompasses the geological, biological and anthropological/cultural history of Africa's 54 nations - a (hi-) story without borders. The wealth of scientific and biographical knowledge archived in this network of Corridors tells the story of continental drift, mega-geohazards, climate variability and change, and the origin and extinction of biodiversity; and includes our human roots, culture and spirituality, our impact on the Earth and our potential to influence its future. In telling this story of Africa, new research avenues will be discovered and new learning methodologies will be experienced and developed and shared. In this way, the AAC provide loci along which the eight UN-Millennium Development Goals may be readily and realistically achieved. In concert, they can form the basis for a new collective endeavour - of Pan African Earth Stewardship Science. In this, the final - 2010 - phase of IYPE (the International Year of Planet Earth), we aim to make a start at bringing the ' Africa Alive Corridors' into real-life context. Whilst the concept of the Corridors has been formulated and presented at various international forums—most recently in Africa at the launch of IYPE in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 2008—here we present in brief their conceptual framework, and summarize the rationale behind the selection of the 20 African Corridors. Then, we describe, for the first time, how the AAC concept might evolve. To achieve the latter, we focus on an exploratory
This article first proposes an overview of the present situation of the electricity sector in Africa: the continent is an energy giant because of all the resources it possesses, but an electricity dwarf regarding its present and actual capacities. The author outlines the differences between potential and actual productions, gives an overview of the current status of supply and of production capacities. She comments the status of electricity demand, electricity consumption and electricity markets in the different parts of Africa (data of electricity consumption, of global, urban and rural electrification in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa with or without South Africa), and issues related to costs and tariffs. She proposes some explanations for the observed discrepancies between African regions and countries: history, too small markets supported by too fragile economies, political and economic failures. Then, she discusses how to favour a durable development of the African electricity sector
This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...
I. C. Verdoon
Full Text Available The species of Dombeya Cav. occurring in southern Africa are revised and a key is provided to the eight species present in the region. A new record for southern Africa, D. quinqueseta (Del. Exell, is included.
Brett Van Niekerk
Full Text Available For a long time, the African continent was regarded as the ‘Dark Continent’. The rapid assimilation of information technologies into the African economies has placed Africa firmly on a trajectory that will see it compete and integrate with the developed world. As nations and organisations become more information-centric, it is natural that conflicts and competition amongst the various nations or organisations will become increasingly information-based. In this article, the authors reflect upon information-based conflict in Africa. Areas of information conflict that are discussed include censorship, communications intercepts, the use of information and communications to instigate violence and uprisings, and the possibility of cyberwarfare. The article shows that the use of technology to conduct information conflict in Africa is prevalent, and that it is likely to increase.
Adrian D. van Breda
Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.
Thomas K Karikari
Full Text Available Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.
This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…
R. A. Houghton
Full Text Available An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y−1 for the period 2000–2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y−1 and land use change (240 TgC y−1. Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000–2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y−1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y−1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y−1. The average amount of carbon (C emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US $ of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/$, close to the world average of 199 gC/$. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.
Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G
Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling. PMID:23958719
In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Despite this, there is little quantitative information on groundwater resources in Africa, and groundwater storage is consequently omitted from assessments of freshwater availability. Here we present the first quantitative continent-wide maps of aquifer storage and potential borehole yields in Africa based on an extensive review of available maps, publications and data. We estimate total groundwater storage in Africa to be 0.66 million km3 (0.36–1.75 million km3). Not all of this groundwater storage is available for abstraction, but the estimated volume is more than 100 times estimates of annual renewable freshwater resources on Africa. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed: the largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan. Nevertheless, for many African countries appropriately sited and constructed boreholes can support handpump abstraction (yields of 0.1–0.3 l s−1), and contain sufficient storage to sustain abstraction through inter-annual variations in recharge. The maps show further that the potential for higher yielding boreholes ( > 5 l s−1) is much more limited. Therefore, strategies for increasing irrigation or supplying water to rapidly urbanizing cities that are predicated on the widespread drilling of high yielding boreholes are likely to be unsuccessful. As groundwater is the largest and most widely distributed store of freshwater in Africa, the quantitative maps are intended to lead to more realistic assessments of water security and water stress, and to promote a more quantitative approach to mapping of groundwater resources at national and regional level. (letter)
Full Text Available Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism – where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem
Saayman, Melville; 10811281 - Du Plessis, Engelina
Abstract: Grading and price in the accommodation sector of South Africa This article analyses the relationship between grading and price in the accommodation sector in South Africa. The literature review investigates whether the accommodation grading system is a good indicator of accommodation quality, and whether tourists get what they are paying for. The research was conducted in cooperation with the major role players in the accommodation sector in South Africa, namely the South Africa...
Maur, Jean-Christophe; Shepherd, Ben
The report Africa Can Help Feed Africa (World Bank 2012) showed that increasing food staples1 supply can be met by better connecting African markets to each other. That report called for a stronger focus on removing trade barriers and building on the forces of regional integration. This report builds on the lessons of Africa Can Help Feed Africa by looking into the specific circum¬stances ...
Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang
SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.
Although the flora of Africa is rather poor in plant species when compared to the floras of Tropical America or South-east Asia, this vast continent is the home of a wide range of plants useful to Man. Many of these have become famous in cultivation around the world. Coffee now provides an important source of income for certain countries, and the Yams yield one of the world’s staple foods. The Oil Palm and Cola trees are widely cultivated in Africa itself and elsewhere. African Mahoganies and...
Klopper, J M; Taylor, S P
The per capita gross national product (GNP) in South Africa is examined as it relates to life expectancy and the infant mortality rate. Despite South Africa's relative wealth in per capita GNP terms, life expectancy at birth is 63-65 years and the national infant mortality rate according to Unicef, is unlikely to reach the target of 50/1,000 live births by the year 2000. The distribution of expenditure on health is contrasted between the former provincial administrations, the major local authorities, the national states and the homelands. The health resources allocation distribution is unlikely to ensure health for all by the year 2000. PMID:3120325
Filmer, Deon; Fox, Louise
Sub-Saharan Africa has just experienced one of the best decades of growth since the 1960s. Between 2000 and 2012, gross domestic product (GDP) grew more than 4.5 percent a year on average, compared to around 2 percent in the prior 20 years (World Bank various years). In 2012, the region's GDP growth was estimated at 4.7 percent- 5.8 percent if South Africa is excluded (World Bank 2013). About one-quarter of countries in the region grew at 7 percent or better, and several African countries are...
NCEP/NCAR data are used to study the modulating circulations of the hydro climate of tropical North Africa. Wavelet analysis is used to identify modes of variability of stream flows within the region. Ocean-atmosphere circulation composites are considered to unravel the mechanisms for swing of stream flows. The one of the main finding of the study reveals that hydro climate variability swings within ENSO and decadal timescale. Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures control the hydro climate mode of variability. Associated to Pacific sea surface temperature, the Atlantic Walker Circulation modulates the hydro climate swing of tropical North Africa. The detail result will be discussed.(Author)
The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires
Aboah, J.; White, B.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.
This study seeks to examine investor perceptions towards investing in SMEs in Africa. Data was collected via an online survey sent to investors on the Venture Capital for Africa (VC4Africa) platform. The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to determine the degree of agreement among investo
ISRIC World Soil Information is compiling legacy soil profile data of Sub Saharan Africa, as a project activity of the AfSIS project (Globally integrated Africa Soil Information Service). http://www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile The Africa Soil Profiles database, version. 1.1 (March 2013) holds
The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of georeferen
Full Text Available South Africa’s first mobile LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging
system is being developed at the National Laser Centre (NLC of the
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR in Pretoria
(25°45’S; 28°17’E. The system is designed primarily for remote
sensing of the atmosphere. At present, the system is being optimised
for measuring vertical atmospheric backscatter profiles of aerosols
and clouds. In this paper, we describe the complete LIDAR system,
including laser transmission, telescope configuration, data acquisition,
data archival and post-processing.
C. Bollig; C. van der Westhuizen; D. Moema; Sivakumar, V.; Sharma, A.
South Africa’s first mobile LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging)
system is being developed at the National Laser Centre (NLC) of the
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) in Pretoria
(25°45’S; 28°17’E). The system is designed primarily for remote
sensing of the atmosphere. At present, the system is being optimised
for measuring vertical atmospheric backscatter profiles of aerosols
and clouds. In this paper, we de...
Yang Wei; Gong Liming
@@ Since the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was held in November last year, Africa, this beautiful and amazing land has attracted more and more attention and interests from the Chinese people and enterprises.That vast and fertile continent does not only boast of breath-holding natural sightseeing, mysterious and historical ventures and legends, but also is a virgin land full of opportunities with investment and cooperation.
Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon; Måns Söderbom
Firm-level data for the manufacturing sector in Africa, presented in this paper, shows very low levels of investment. A positive effect from profits onto investment is identified in a flexible accelerator specification of the investment function controlling for firm fixed effects. There is evidence that this effect is confined to smaller firms. A comparison with other studies shows that, for such firms, the profit effect is much smaller in Africa than in other countries. Reasons for the relat...
Paulin Houanye; Sibao Shen
At the end of the 20th century, when investors were actively seeking a favorable and secure place for their capital investment, the African continent rarely crossed their minds. Recent misgivings experienced by financial markets around the world and the increased demand of natural supplies forced investors to focus on Africa. This circumstance, for over a decade, has put all Africa, including both developed and industrialized countries in an embarrassing position with very low foreign investm...
Timbali technology incubator in the Mpumalanga region of South Africa seeks to help rural farmers whose livelihood has been undercut by high-volume large farms. Supported by government financing and fee-based services, Timbali is largely based on a franchise model. Its clients supply cut flowers to Amablom, Timbali's commercial arm. Individual clients can begin generating revenue almost im...
We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events, and harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures, seismic anisotropy tomography and gravity anomaly, into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies obtained from the analysis of late Quaternary faulting and geodetic data will serve as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map will be useful for the seismic hazard assessment and earthquake risk mitigation for significant infrastructures and their socio-economic implications in Africa. The constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of this map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014, now extended to 2016).
J. Quirk; D. Vigneswaran
Slavery in Africa is commonly associated with the distant past: images of maritime slavery in the Gold Coast, Biafra, Angola and Zanzibar together with the horrors of the 'Middle Passage' to the Americas. However, widespread evidence of human trafficking, wartime enslavement and other forms of bonda
Pahl, Ronald H.
Argues that the media portrayal of Africa remains highly selective, focusing almost solely on negative and violent stories. Positive stories (local initiatives, political reform) go unreported as does much of the Western powers involvement in famine and destruction. Includes a list of sources on African current affairs. (MJP)
Alemna, Anaba A.
Examines UNESCO guidelines for developing national library and information policies, and describes common policy elements of developing countries. Also identifies obstacles that Africa faces in creating policies: lack of awareness by government officials of information uses, the poor image of the library profession, and the low quality of national…
@@ Instability has been always harassing African cotton textile industry.According to the statistics form ITMF (International Textile Manufacturers Federation),there were 5.565 million ring spinnings,170 thousand rotor spinnings,15 thousand shuttleless looms,and 61 thousand shuttlelooms in Africa in 2008.
Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W
African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004
The film industry in Africa began in 1963. Since then, development has been slow because of funding problems and political restrictions. Television is available to only a fraction of the population and imported programming represents almost one-half of the programming. However, there are some successful African produced television programs. The…
Pretorius, Anne-Marié; Birtles, Richard J.
We report the first laboratory-confirmed case of Rickettsia mongolotimonae infection in Africa. The patient sought treatment for an eschar on his toe; lymphangitis, severe headaches, and fever subsequently developed. After a regimen of doxycycline, symptoms rapidly resolved. R. mongolotimonae infection was diagnosed retrospectively by serologic tests and molecular-based detection of the organism in biopsy specimens of eschar material.
Materu, Peter; Righetti, Petra
This article assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on degree-granting tertiary institutions. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints.…
Looy, van de J.; Haan, de L.J.
Relations between Africa and China have increased over the years and become more dominated by China's economic interests. With an annual growth rate of 8-9 per cent, and a booming economy, China's dependency on accessing natural resources is a top priority and has accordingly expanded its horizons.
J. van de Looy (Judith); L.J. de Haan (Leo)
textabstractRelations between Africa and China have increased over the years and become more dominated by China's economic interests. With an annual growth rate of 8-9 per cent, and a booming economy, China's dependency on accessing natural resources is a top priority and has accordingly expanded it
In South Africa, a country that is rich in natural resources, gross domestic product has risen steadily since the historic elections in April 1994. In 1995, foreign trade made up almost 50 per cent of the country's gross national product. Unemployment and concurrent shortage of skilled labour are some of the major challenges that still exist for South Africa. Sasol is one of South Africa's top 10 private companies. It was founded in 1950; it supplies 44 per cent of South Africa's liquid fuel needs and produces most of the feedstocks used by the chemical and plastics industries in the country. The company is known for innovative technologies, such as the Sasol Synthol Process. It produces high-quality synthetic fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, gas and furnace oils. The unique Sasol Synthol Process was described. Coal is put under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen, is converted to crude gas, purified by removing sulfur and is then used in the production of gasoline, diesel and other fuels. The process also yields 120 other chemical products for domestic and international markets. 3 refs., 5 figs
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…
Garrett, Carly Sporer
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…
Garrett, Carly Sporer
The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Narrative vs.…
Cheung, Yin-Wong; de Haan, Jakob; Qian, Xingwang; Yu, Shu
The empirical determinants of China's outward direct investment (ODI) in Africa are examined using an officially approved ODI dataset and a relatively new OECDIMF format ODI dataset. China's ODI is found responding to the canonical economic determinants that include the market seeking motive, the ri
Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane
PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.
Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan
PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956
Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan
PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956
Rossouw, S. F.
The background of online information retrieval at the Institute for Medical Literature (IML), South Africa's center for providing such services to the country's biomedical community, is briefly sketched as an introduction to this description of IML's program to train medical librarians in online searching techniques. Materials used in the training…
Chemistry education and research in Africa is challenging -- a fact that is clearly reflected by publication metrics. Yet this is far from the full story on a continent that has youth on its side, a cultural link to chemistry through its strong interest in plants and indigenous medicine, and an increasing number of ways forward.
Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.
Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…
Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Naerssen, A.L.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.
Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' pa
Wilson, Angene H.
To support the hypothesis that much misinformation and many stereotypic attitudes are presented about Africa to elementary school pupils, the article analyzes 10 readers for African content and assesses effects of an African content intervention strategy on elementary school students. (DB)
Kumar, Meghan; Lehmann, Joel; Rucogoza, Aniceth; Kayobotsi, Claver; Das, Ashis; Schneidman, Miriam
This report summarizes the main findings from the application of performance based incentives linked to progress on a standardized, globally recognized metric - the stepwise laboratory improvement process towards accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist - under the East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP) in Rwanda. The lab performance-based financing (PBF) pilot was intro...
This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...
World Bank Group
Promoting faster growth and poverty alleviation through competition is particularly important for South Africa, which is facing weak economic growth and limited fiscal resources and has to look to avenues outside the fiscal space to stimulate faster sustainable growth and progress towards its ultimate goal of eliminating poverty, outlined in the 2030 National Development Plan (NDP). The up...
Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars;
for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa. To navigate this site, please use the menu on the left. For the latest news and updates, check out our Google+ page. And if you want to contact us for questions, comments or any other reason, please...
Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell
This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…
Andrimihaja, Noro Aina; Cinyabuguma, Matthias; Devarajan, Shantayanan
Not only do Africa's fragile states grow more slowly than non-fragile states, but they seem to be caught in a "fragility trap". For instance, the probability that a fragile state in 2001 was still fragile in 2009 was 0.95. This paper presents an economic model where three features -- political instability and violence, insecure property rights and unenforceable contracts, and corruption --...
Hartemink, A.E.; Keulen, van H.
Soil degradation in Sub-Sahara Africa has been much debated in the past decades. Although there are many different views, at the extremes there are those who are of the opinion that the problem is very serious and the main cause for the poverty and food crises and those that are convinced that it is
White, Aaronette M.; Potgieter, Cheryl A.
Examines a community psychology course that stresses community empowerment, the myth of neutrality and objectivity in community psychology, and democratic accountability to the community. The course includes a brief history of race, class, and gender oppression in South Africa and concludes with a unit on converting social theory into practice.…
A. De Schryver
Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are defined as a group of communicable diseases which have in common that they are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact. The number of agents now known to be sexually transmitted include some 20 pathogens. Some of these agents (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, hepatitis B-virus, human immunodeficiency virus tend to replace the classical "venereal diseases" both in importance and frequency as these agents are often more difficult to detect, treat, and control. Sexually transmitted diseases are a major public health problem in most African countries on account of their frequency, their associated morbidity and mortality, their impact on paternal and infant health, as well as their economic costs in terms of health expenditure and lost productivity, and, last but not least, because of their social consequences. Recent epidemiological studies using sophisticated diagnostic technologies greatly extend our knowledge on the true spectrum of complications and sequelae associated with these infections. Nongonococcal urethritis - caused to 40% by Chlamydia trachomatis - and gonococcal infections are together the most frequent sexually transmitted diseases. The increasing importance of chlamydial infections, in contrast to a gradual decrease of gonococcal infections, is related to the fact that these infections frequently cause asymptomatic or mild disease and do not motivate patients to seek medical care, resulting in an extended period of infectivity and high risk of developing complications. Untreated gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections are the most common causes of epididymitis in males under the age of 35 years and may lead to decreased fertility. In some parts of sub-saharan Africa where urethritis often goes untreated, epididymitis is the leading course of male infertility. Also urethral strictures still from a large part of urogenital practice in some African
terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...
Throop, Henry B.
Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.
Mans, Janet; Armah, George E.; Steele, A. Duncan; Taylor, Maureen B.
Norovirus (NoV) is recognised as a leading cause of gastroenteritis worldwide across all age groups. The prevalence and diversity of NoVs in many African countries is still unknown, although early sero-prevalence studies indicated widespread early infection. Reports on NoVs in Africa vary widely in terms of study duration, population groups and size, inclusion of asymptomatic controls, as well as genotyping information. This review provides an estimate of NoV prevalence and distribution of genotypes of NoVs in Africa. Inclusion criteria for the review were study duration of at least 6 months, population size of >50 and diagnosis by RT-PCR. As regions used for genotyping varied, or genotyping was not always performed, this was not considered as an inclusion criteria. A literature search containing the terms norovirus+Africa yielded 74 publications. Of these 19 studies from 14 out of the 54 countries in Africa met the inclusion criteria. Data from studies not meeting the inclusion criteria, based on sample size or short duration, were included as discussion points. The majority of studies published focused on children, under five years of age, hospitalised with acute gastroenteritis. The mean overall prevalence was 13.5% (range 0.8–25.5%) in children with gastroenteritis and 9.7% (range 7–31%) in asymptomatic controls, where tested. NoV GII.4 was the predominant genotype identified in most of the studies that presented genotyping data. Other prevalent genotypes detected included GII.3 and GII.6. In conclusion, NoV is a common pathogen in children with diarrhoea in Africa, with considerable carriage in asymptomatic children. There is however, a paucity of data on NoV infection in adults. PMID:27116615
Full Text Available A survey amongst sheep and goat producers and veterinarians was undertaken to collect epidemiological data on orf in South Africa. Previous epidemiological studies on the presence of the disease in the country have not been documented and this report is the first descriptive epidemiological study of orf in South Africa. A seven-month investigation, realised by direct and indirect interviews and field observation, enabled us to outline incidence and risk factors of this disease and to better understand how the local farmers in rural areas relate to it. The results may contribute to better management of the disease in rural areas. By means of molecular analyses the phylogenetic relationships between field isolates from different areas have been identified. The findings gave a first important contribution to the general assessment of the economic impact of orf virus infections and the extent of the risk to human health.
The intersection of present vulnerability and the prospect of climate change in Africa warrants proactive action now to reduce the risk of large-scale, adverse impacts. The process of planning adaptive strategies requires a systematic evaluation of priorities and constraints, and the involvement of stakeholders. An overview of climate change in Africa and case studies of impacts for agriculture and water underlie discussion of a typology of adaptive responses that may be most effective for different stakeholders. The most effective strategies are likely to be to reduce present vulnerability and to enhance a broad spectrum of capacity in responding to environmental, resource and economic perturbations. In some cases, such as design of water systems, an added risk factor should be considered. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 48 refs
There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost. PMID:20637906
Full Text Available Owing to the changing nature of international conflict, the 1990s witnessed agrowing need for humanitarian peacekeeping operations, especially in Africa. Thereluctance of the United Nations to be involved in peacekeeping operations in Africacompelled South Africa to take part in peacekeeping to assist neighbouring conflictriddenstates. There is, however, a discrepancy between the conceptualisation andapplication of peacekeeping and peace-enforcement operations. This notion ismanifest in the changing nature of post-Cold War conflicts and requisite strategies,doctrines and operational procedures to execute these operations. A shift in SouthAfrican defence policy was necessary to accommodate an expanded mandate tomake provision for African peacekeeping missions. These humanitarian missionsunfortunately also have unintended, latent consequences for the host populations,which can harm the peace operations as such.The aim of this article is to investigate traditional peacekeeping shifting topeace-building as a manifest, intended consequence and the way in whichunintended, latent consequences of peacekeeping come about.
The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.
Richards, Guy A; Weyer, Jacqueline; Blumberg, Lucille H
Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) include a diverse array of diseases caused by a broad range of viruses transmitted from various animal hosts and originating from almost all the continents in the world. These are potentially fatal and highly transmissible diseases without specific treatments or prophylactic vaccines. As has been demonstrated during the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa, the consequences of VHFs are not limited to specific countries - they may become epidemic, and may have considerable economic impact and disrupt local public health and social service structures. Intensive public health intervention is necessary to contain these diseases. Here we provide a concise overview of the VHFs that are of current public health importance to South Africa. PMID:26428973
Full Text Available We have examined the temperature time series across several locations in Africa. In particular, we focus on three countries, South Africa, Kenya, and Côte d’Ivoire, examining the monthly averaged temperatures from three weather stations at different locations in each country. We examine the presence of deterministic trends in the series in order to check if the hypothesis of warming trends for these countries holds; however, instead of using conventional approaches based on stationary I(0 errors, we allow for fractional integration, which seems to be a more plausible approach in this context. Our results indicate that temperatures have only significantly increased during the last 30 years for the case of Kenya.
According to Xinhua News Agency,athough Africa is a diverse continent,containing a variety of countries and cultures,the representatives of African countries do have one thing in common:their desire to attract Chinese investment.“We look forward to Chinese enterprises'investments.Chinese investment helps us to fund the construction of transportation and medical infrastructure,” Bernadette Artivor,executive director of the Namibia Investment Center,said on September 8.Artivor made the remark at the High-Level Symposium for China-Africa Investment and Cooperation,an event held as part of the 15th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) which opened in southeast Chinas coastal city of Xiamen.
Luis María Mora
Full Text Available The relations between sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have developed at a considerable rate over the recent decades. The economic figures and political interests are testimony to a new distribution of influences on the Dark Continent, insomuch as the powerful nations along the Asiatic shore are now competing with both the former colonial mother counties and the United States. Indeed, if the economic weight of Africa’s market is weak world-wide, this does not make it unattractive from a strategic point of view for those Asiatic countries looking for international prestige or resources for their growing economies. This rapprochement, motivated by political reasons also, seems exemplified by the growing presence of major economies like Japan and China - as well as those aspirations of the middle-sized powers like South Korea and Malaysia - in the international issues concerning sub-Saharan Africa.
Full Text Available In recent decades, biennials and festivals have multiplied across Africa, proof of the growing dynamism of the cultural sector, to which private actors and governments take a special interest, for several reasons. Cultural reasons related to the preservation of diversity with the threat of globalization seen as potential factor of standardization. But also economics reasons on having turned the African creators into conquerors of markets. Based on the case of the countries of Central Africa –considered to be the Cradle of Humankind, as the oldest hominid fossil was found in 2001 in Chad–, the aim of this article is to determine cultural policies in this region. Also it highlights the challenges and the opportunities to carry out development mechanisms of the cultural industry from policies that generate wealth, jobs and, above all, to return dignity to peoples.
Full Text Available The foreign debt problem of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, although an important obstacle against economic growth, is not the region's major economic problem. The creditors are less concerned about the relative small debt figures of SSA because of the lower risks for the equilibrium of the financial system. But from the debtors' viewpoint, the debt situation is possibly even more critical in low-income Africa than in the richer major debtor countries. SSA has a predominance of official creditors with the best obtainable credit terms. Notwithstanding these good terms, SSA is so poor that it has difficulties with fulfilling its debt service. There is no single solution for the African debt crisis. Anyway the official creditors have to adopt a more flexible attitude. The debtor countries have also to accept their own responsibility in the solutions of the problem.
Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.
Megafans are a really extensive continental sediment bodies, fluvially derived, and fan-shaped in planform. Only those >80 km long were included in this study. Africa's megafans were mapped for purposes of both comprehensive geomorphic description and as a method of mapping by remote sensing large probable fluvial sediment bodies (we exclude sediment bodies deposited in well defined, modern floodplains and coastal deltas). Our criteria included a length dimension of >80 km and maximum width >40 km, partial cone morphology, and a radial drainage pattern. Visible and especially IR imagery were used to identify the features, combined with topographic SRTM data. We identified 99 megafans most of which are unstudied thus far. Their feeder rivers responsible for depositing megafan sediments rise on, and are consequent drainages oriented down the slopes of the swells that have dominated African landscapes since approximately 34 Ma (the high points in Africa's so-called basin-and-swell topography ). Most megafans (66%) have developed along these consequent rivers relatively near the swell cores, oriented radially away from the swells. The vast basins between the swells provide accommodation for megafan sediment wedges. Although clearly visible remotely, most megafans are inactive as a result of incision by the feeder river (which then no longer operates on the fan surface). Two tectonic settings control the location of Africa's megafans, 66% on swell flanks, and 33% related to rifts. (i) Swell flanks Most megafans are apexed relatively near the core of the parent swell, and are often clustered in groups: e.g., six on the west and north flanks of the Hoggar Swell (Algeria), seven on the north and south flanks of the Tibesti Swell (Libya-Chad borderlands), twelve on the west flank of the Ethiopian Swell, four on the east flank of the East African Swell (Kenya), Africa's largest, and eight around Angola's Bié Swell (western Zambia, northern Namibia). A cluster of possible
This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year
Capturing free nitrogen from the atmosphere, also called nitrogen fixation, through the use of legumes as a rotation crop is a step forward in feeding the soil and improving farmers' incomes. Nitrogen fixation as measured by the stable nitrogen-15 isotope is a potentially important technique in the following project N2AFRICA, lead by Ken Giller from Wageningen University. N2AFRICA is a large scale research project focused on 'Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa'. N2AFRICA is funded by 'The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation' through a grant to Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, in the Netherlands. It is led by Wageningen University together with CIAT-TSBF, IITA and has many partners in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. Goals: At the end of the 4-year project we will have: identified niches for targeting nitrogen fixing legumes; tested multi-purpose legumes to provide food, animal feed, and improved soil fertility; promoted the adoption of improved legume varieties; supported the development of inoculum production capacity through collaboration with private sector partners; developed and strengthened capacity for legumes research and technology dissemination; delivered improved varieties of legumes and inoculant technologies to more than 225,000 smallholder farmers in eight countries of sub-Saharan Africa
Ángel Pérez González
The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions) and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not) as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models...
Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P
The persistence of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa, while all other world regions have been able to control population growth, represents a grave threat. Tradtional explanations for this phenomenon--e.g., lower levels of income, education, health, and urbanization--are not adequate, given the fact that many Asian countries have been able to reduce fertility in the face of the same obstacles. It is suggested, instead, that the primary cause of sub-Saharan Africa's high fertility can be found in its social and family patterns. Central cultural precepts include the notions that many descendents must be produced to ensure the survival of lineage, the equation of female virtue with the production of a large number of children, the stronger influence of the lineage than the nuclear family, and a belief in the power of ancestral spirits. Given the overriding importance of lineage and the relative weakness of emotional and economic conjugal links, the factors believed to be producing lowered birth rates in other developed countries (e.g., the high costs of child raising and the negative impact of large family size on the standard of living in that family) are not operable in sub-Saharan Africa. Most African fathers receive far more from their children, in terms of loyalty and support, than they expend on them, giving them little motivation to restrict fertility. Women's growing determination to extend their current economic independence into the domain of reproduction represents the most likely source of change in sub-Saharan Africa's fertility patterns. Also essential is reduced infant and child mortality through integrated health services-family planning programs. Progress can be expected to be slow, however, given the persistence of the African traditional social structure and belief system. PMID:2333491
Ghenghesh, Khalifa Sifaw; Franka, Ezzedin; Tawil, Khaled; Wasfy, Momtaz; Ahmed, Salwa F.; Rubino, Salvatore; Klena, John D.
Typhoid fever is endemic in the Mediterranean North African countries (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and Egypt) with an estimated incidence of 10-100 cases per 100,000 persons. Outbreaks caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi are common and mainly due to the consumption of untreated or sewage-contaminated water. Salmonella enterica Paratyphi B is more commonly involved in nosocomial cases of enteric fever in North Africa than expected and leads to high mortality rates among infants w...
Sabah M. Quraishi; Hsing, Ann W.; Hongmei Zhang; Jamie Ritchey; Devesa, Susan S.; Chu, Lisa W.
African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973–2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC sh...
Aron, Janine; Muellbauer, John
Low domestic saving rates in South Africa may perpetuate a low-growth trap. The decline in government saving, a major reason for the overall decline in saving, is now being reversed. However, personal saving rates have fallen since 1993, and corporate rates since 1995, and both may decline further with lower real interest rates. It is important to understand both personal and corporate saving behaviour in order to formulate policies to raise the domestic saving rate in line with the needs of ...
Okey K. N. Mawussé
This paper examines the macroeconomic determinants of scientific production in Africa by focusing on direct and indirect roles that political and economic institutions may play. A theoretical model of scientific production that integrates the quality of institutions, as well as econometric estimations conducted on a panel of 47 African countries over the period 1994 to 2009, suggest significant direct and indirect effects of institutions on scientific research performance.
@@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.
Jensen, Robert E.; Simpson, Larry; Englund, Paul T.
Julius Lukeš and co-workers evaluated the evolutionary origin of Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites that cause horse and camel diseases. Although similar to T. brucei, the sleeping-sickness parasite, these trypanosomes do not cycle through the tsetse fly and have been able to spread beyond Africa. Transmission occurs sexually, or via blood-sucking flies or vampire bats. They concluded that these parasites, which resemble yeast petite mutants, are T. brucei sub-species, w...
The aim of this paper is to explain why poverty and material deprivation in South Africa are significantly higher among those of African descent than among whites. To do so, we estimate the conditional levels of poverty and deprivation Africans would experience had they the same characteristics as whites. By comparing the actual and counterfactual distributions, we show that the racial gap in poverty and deprivation can be attributed to the cumulative disadvantaged characteristics of Africans...
Deon Erasmus; Angus Lloyd Hornigold
The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventu...
Calderon, Cesar; Nguyen, Ha
This paper examines whether domestic output growth helps attract capital inflows and, in turn, capital inflows help boost output growth in a set of 38 Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a two-step approach to address reverse causality and omitted variable issues, the paper finds that output growth in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa does not attract capital inflows. However, aid and forei...
The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) project is coming to an end in 2015 and is being replaced by ambitious and aspirational Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although the MDGs have been nearly achieved, this is not true in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is still unnecessarily high infant and childhood mortality and where there are many challenges to providing modern child health care. To achieve the SDGs in the next fifteen years, in low-income countries, national minis...
Konar, M.; K. K. Caylor
A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they dimin...
It is widely believed that rural forest and agricultural resources in Southern Africa are overused, in the sense that both biomass and harvest levels are significantly below levels of maximum sustainable yield. However, economic theory suggests that high interest and time preference rates cause the economic optimum to coincide with generally-observed patterns. In addition, low income may be the driving factor behind high interest and time preference rates. In macro-economic terms, Southern Af...
Oleg Badunenko; Daniel J. Henderson; Romain Houssa
We employ bootstrap techniques in a production frontier framework to provide statistical inference for each component in the decomposition of labor productivity growth, which has essentially been ignored in this literature. We show that only two of the four components have significantly contributed to growth in Africa. Although physical capital accumulation is the largest force, it is not statistically significant. Thus, ignoring statistical inference would falsely identify physical capital a...
There are various themes which emerge in a consideration of South Africa's involvement in British naval policy. There is the expansion of the British empire itself, from its Atlantic beginnings into eastern seas and its century-long conflict with France. There is the theme of India, and the fluctuating fortunes of a trading company. There are the changes in marine technology and the world's balance of naval power. All of these broad themes must be considered if the South African contribution ...
Celestine Chukwuemeka Mbaegbu
This article investigates the role of music in Africa. The study is primarily motivated by the fact that music plays an indispensable role in the being of Africans at work, in politics, in their socio-economic engagements, in religious worship, integral development, in their moral life, etc. The primary objective therefore is to ascertain the influence of music with regard to the integral development of the Africans and the overall acknowledgment of this indispensable role on the active and m...
Haroon Bhorat; Ravi Kanbur; Natasha Mayet
Minimum wage legislation is central in South African policy discourse, with both strong support and strong opposition. The validity of either position depends, however, on the effectiveness of minimum wage enforcement. Using detailed matching of occupational, sectoral and locational codes in the 2007 Labour Force Survey to the gazetted minimum wages, this paper presents, we believe for the first time, estimates of minimum wage violation in South Africa. Our results give considerable cause for...
Campbell, Carlos C.; Richard W Steketee
A concerted effort to control malaria in Africa has produced dramatic reductions in childhood death in the past decade. This early success has prompted the global community to commit to eradication of malaria deaths and eventually all transmission. Evidence suggests that this is a feasible goal using currently available interventions, augmented with newer tools such as vaccines, which are in development. Malaria deaths are entirely preventable now, and our sustained political and financial co...
Croucher, Richard; Miles, Lilian
Focusing on employees as stakeholders, we analyse corporate governance initiatives in South Africa encouraging and requiring companies to look beyond their shareholders' interests. Successive non-binding codes and the provisions of the recent Companies Act 2008 promoting this have been lauded by many commentators. The 2008 Act provides certain opportunities for employees and their representatives to exercise influence at the margins. We nevertheless question how far current corporate governan...
Naerssen, A.L. van; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.
Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' paradigm, however, can be questioned on economic, ecological and social grounds. The history of land tenure reform in Kenya, especially that of group titles in the semiarid areas, is a case in point....
Simplice A, Asongu; Brian A., Jingwa
Recent distressing trends in climate change, population explosion and deforestation inspired this paper, which completes existing literature by providing empirical justification to hypothetical initiatives on the impact of population growth on forest sustainability in Africa. Using three instruments of forest exploitation, the study shows how rural, agricultural and national population growths affect forest-area and agricultural-land. In this particular study the findings indicate that instru...
John B. Knight
The paper uses the Lewis model as a framework for examining the labour market progress of two labour-abundant countries, China and South Africa, towards labour shortage and generally rising labour real incomes. In the acuteness of their rural-urban divides, forms of migrant labour, rapid rural-urban migration, and high and rising real wages in the formal sector, the two economies are surprisingly similar. They differ, however, in the dynamism of their formal sector growth of output and employ...
The high rate of unemployment in South Africa stands out in an otherwise vastly improved set of macroeconomic fundamentals compared to the situation in the early 1990s. One might be tempted to argue that by this single indicator alone, government policies such as GEAR have been a failure. This paper explains why jumping to such a conclusion would be a mistake and focuses on the relationship between economic growth and employment and shows how estimates of the employment coefficient have chang...
Africa is the world’s youngest continent, with the majority of its population under the age of 24. Although during the past decade the continent has experienced considerable economic growth, this has not translated into job creation and greater equity. Soaring unemployment rates have severely affected the younger generation especially; young people find it difficult to carve out a decent future. Most young Africans are living in a period of suspension between childhood and adul...
Midling, Michael B
The majority of Africans still live in rural areas, and an astonishing one in three Africans, or 215 million people, are malnourished. At the same time, eleven African countries use less than half the arable land within their borders (Economist). 62% of Africa’s population (excluding South Africa) works in agriculture, generating 27% of these countries’ GDP. An astonishing 80% of Africans depend on subsistence agriculture to provide food for their families (Bunting). An agriculture-led strate...
For over 20 years,Di Guoyong has taught daily martial arts classes in Beijing’s Zizhuyuan (Purple Bamboo) Park.This wellknown figure in the city’s martial arts circles also introduced wushu (literally meaning martial arts) to Cameroon in the late 1980s. Recently,Di sat down with ChinAfrica reporter to talk about his experiences teaching Chinese martial arts in Cameroon.
Francis Teal; John McArthur
This paper uses survey data to investigate empirically the importance of corruption in determining firm performance in Africa. We allow for the possibility of perception bias on the part of the respondents and for corruption being endogenous. We find that corruption is linked to significant adverse effects on firm performance in two ways. At the firm (or ^Slocal^T) level, companies that pay bribes have 20 percent lower levels of output per worker. At the economywide (or ^Sglobal^T) level, fir...
The principal aim of this paper is to examine the developmental effectiveness of aid to Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). The author uses an informal analytical framework to accomplish this. The framework provides a production-type equation for determining income growth and conveys that : 1) there are many influences besides aid on country economic performance; 2) domestic policies have a pervasive influence on the whole system; and 3) aid has an important influence in raising import and investment c...
Simplice A, Asongu
How do economic prosperity, health expenditure, savings, price-stability, demographic change, democracy, corruption-control, press-freedom, government effectiveness, human development, foreign-aid, physical security, trade openness and financial liberalization play-out in the fight against health-worker crisis when existing emigration levels matter? Despite the acute concern of health-worker crisis in Africa owing to emigration, lack of relevant data has made the subject matter empirically vo...
Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the ...
Whitelock, Patricia Ann
Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.
This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that...
The process of political change and transition across much of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continued into 2013, with a great degree of heterogeneity across countries. The crisis in Syria has escalated and caused massive impact on the inflow of refugees to Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq. Creating the right environment for growth will be critical as only growth can drive job cre...
Estrella, de la, M.; M. A. Mateo; Wieringa, J. J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J
Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of s...
Stanley G M Ridge
This paper describes some of the challenges facing the language teacher as South Africa moves into a new era. The discussion is structured around three areas of change: change in the country, changes brought about by the official language policy, and changes in the school system itself. It explores the implications for language teaching of jour key words of the new era: inclusive, non-racial, democracy, and empowerment. In relation to the 11 official languages policy, it examines the status o...
This thesis explains the background to the shortage of indigenous black technical management in Sub Saharan Africa by focusing on a number of countries in the Southern African region. It explains the implications of this shortage particularly for Zimbabwe and its mining industry which at independence in 1980 had no black technical managers. Having looked at management development worldwide and the experience of leading developed countries, the thesis goes on to consider the views and theories...
You, Liangzhi; RINGLER, Claudia; Nelson, Gerald; Wood-Sichra, Ulrike; Robertson, Richard; Wood, Stanley; Guo, Zhe; Zhu, Tingju; Sun, Yan
Although irrigation in Africa has the potential to boost agricultural productivities by at least 50 percent, food production on the continent is almost entirely rainfed. The area equipped for irrigation, currently slightly more than 13 million hectares, makes up just 6 percent of the total cultivated area. Eighty-five percent of Africa’s poor live in rural areas and mostly depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. As a result, agricultural development is key to ending poverty on the contin...
Introduction : The challenge of structural economic vulnerability for African developmentIn 2006, at a time when growth had clearly resumed in Africa, the opening speech at the first African Economic Conference organized by the African Development Bank and AERC was entitled “Economic vulnerability, still a challenge for African growth” (Guillaumont 2007, 2008). Eight years on, including a global recession, food and fuel price spikes, and recent state crises in Africa—although in many countrie...
Carey, Sabine C.
This article analyzes how the selection process for the executive affects the risk of rebellion and insurgencies in sub-Saharan Africa between 1971 and 1995. Four executive recruitment processes are distinguished, which are characteristic for the African context: (1) a process without elections, (2) single candidate elections, (3) single party, multiple candidate elections, and (4) multiparty executive elections. The results suggest that single candidate elections and multiparty elections sub...
textabstractThe paper looks at South Africa’s complex history and policies of racism, social separation and control and the impact that this has had on the nature of migration and refugee policy. The paper argues that this legacy has resulted in policy and implementation that is highly racialized, coupled with a society expressing growing levels of xenophobia. Some causes and manifestations of xenophobia in South Africa are explored. It further examines how actions of police and civil servant...
This paper aims at analyzing the effects of social policies on income inequalities in South Africa since the 1990s. Based on a framework of historical institutionalism, the heritage of a distributional regime based on institutional racism is highlighted. This had lasting effects on social policies which also had both liberal and conservative characteristics. Democratisation at the beginning of the 1990s led to the abolishing of institutional racism and conservative features, while the new fra...
This article discusses the persistence and transformation of rain rituals in contemporary African Christianity. It argues that the concept �hybridity� might be a useful addition to the vocabulary of scholars studying contemporary global Christianity. The use of hybridity could replace ideologically loaded terms, such as syncretism, while still describing the interaction between different religious traditions on the phenomenological level. In Africa, as elsewhere, there are ongoing internal di...
Highlights: • South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. • A phased-in tax of US$30 per ton can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. • Ignoring all potential benefits, the tax reduces national welfare by about 1.2 percent in 2025. • Border carbon adjustments reduce welfare losses while maintaining emissions reductions. • The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes. - Abstract: South Africa is considering introducing a carbon tax to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Following a discussion of the motivations for considering a carbon tax, we evaluate potential impacts using a dynamic economywide model linked to an energy sector model including a detailed evaluation of border carbon adjustments. Results indicate that a phased-in carbon tax of US$30 per ton of CO2 can achieve national emissions reductions targets set for 2025. Relative to a baseline with free disposal of CO2, constant world prices and no change in trading partner behavior, the preferred tax scenario reduces national welfare and employment by about 1.2 and 0.6 percent, respectively. However, if trading partners unilaterally impose a carbon consumption tax on South African exports, then welfare/employment losses exceed those from a domestic carbon tax. South Africa can lessen welfare/employment losses by introducing its own border carbon adjustments. The mode for recycling carbon tax revenues strongly influences distributional outcomes, with tradeoffs between growth and equity
Vail, J. R.
Over 625 igneous complexes throughout Africa and Arabia have been selected and classified on the basis of petrographic association and chronology into six broad age groups forming 29 provinces. The groups range from Mid-Proterozoic to Tertiary and include gabbro, granite, syenite, foid syenite and carbonatite plutonic rocks, the majority in the form of ring-dykes, cone-sheets, plugs, circular intrusions, and their associated extrusive phases. Pan-African late or post-orogenic complexes (720-490 Ma) are common in the Arabian-Nubian and Tuareg shields of north Africa originating from subduction zone derived magmatism. Anorogenic complexes in Egypt, NE and central Sudan, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaïre-Burundi, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola span 550 to 50 Ma and are dominantly alkali granites and foid syenites. Many groups occur as en-echelon bands within linear arrays, and show migrating centres of intrusion in variable directions. In W. Africa there was a progressive shift of emplacement southwards during early Ordovician to Mid-Cretaceous times. Distribution patterns suggest thatdeep seated features, such as shear zones associated with lithospheric plate movements,controlled melting, and the resultant location of the complexes. Economic mineralization is not widespread in the rocks of the African ring complexes and is mainly restricted to small deposits of Sn, W, F, U and Nb.
Jobson, Geoffrey A; Theron, Liesl B; Kaggwa, Julius K; Kim, He-Jin
Transgender people are an important key population for HIV risk globally, and several studies have found HIV prevalence rates in transgender populations that are significantly higher than those among other key populations such as men who have sex with men (MSM). There is a lack of research on transgender populations in Africa, and at present, there is almost no data available on HIV prevalence and risk among transgender people on the continent. It is possible that the invisibility of transgender people in epidemiological data from Africa is related to the criminalisation of same-sex behaviour in many countries and the subsequent fear of negative repercussions from participation in research. Alternatively, transgender people may be being overlooked in research due to confusion among researchers about how to ask questions about gender identity. It is also possible that transgender populations have simply been ignored in research to date. Without research on transgender-specific HIV prevalence and risk, it is very difficult to know what interventions and services are needed for this risk population. Therefore, it is important that researchers, governments, Non Governmental Organisations (NGOs) and donor organisations begin to pay explicit attention to transgender people in their HIV-related research and programmes in Africa. PMID:23237071
Kaschula, Ronald Otto Christian
In attempting to advance the health of women and children in Africa, practitioners should be cognizant of the history of health care delivery in the continent and the nature of the existing systems. Although autopsies began in Africa several millennia ago, traditional healers have held sway for many centuries and continue to do so for most of Africa's people. The role of laboratory medicine in advancing modern health care has been impeded by its ever-increasing high cost, lack of confidence in the system, lack of adequately trained personnel, and inadequate provision of facilities and training opportunities. This is partly caused by the continent having the highest proportion of young children in the world, an exceptionally heavy disease burden, and a low proportion of tax payers. For laboratory medicine to have its intended effect in making accurate diagnoses, national, minimal standards for certification and practice should be formulated. There should be periodic inspections, rewards for excellence, and opportunities for professional development. It is recommended that laboratory medicine be practiced in a 4-tier system, with the highest in teaching hospitals, and the lowest in primary health care clinics. For the practice of anatomic pathology to advance, an effective referral system and an equitable minimal and maximal workload for each pathologist are needed. The changing dynamics of urbanization, with massive unemployment rates, unhealthy life styles, and the continued role of traditional healers calls for gifted leaders to come to the fore and facilitate internal and external cooperation with diverse health care agencies. PMID:23721269
Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.
South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures
Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to
W. H. Eshbaugh
Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C. annuum and C. frutescens.
Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.
Full Text Available The objective of the journal Governance in Africa (GiA is to engage with the contemporary and evolutionary debates on transformative governance for sustainable and equitable development, and stability, in Africa. In recent years, there have been signs of a move away from conventional approaches to governance reform — constructed through the analytical lens of western powers — toward a new convention that uses African localities and everyday norms as the starting point for transformation. This is an approach that is also informed by orthodox analytical approaches. The objective of this journal is therefore to provide an exploratory space for creative thinking and to encourage a wider, deeper and more nuanced debate from a broader knowledge base. It aims for a different assessment of what transformative governance might mean in Africa, and adopts a multidisciplinary approach to the issues. It seeks to provide a unique platform for the presentation of new evidence or new theory from a variety of well-informed voices, and to cross-pollinate ideas. It is the goal of GiA to align innovative thinking, research and policy making in this complex and dynamic field.