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Sample records for africa inter-provincial comparisons

  1. An Empirical Analysis of the Export Competitiveness of Agricultural Products in Hubei Province Based on Inter-provincial Comparison

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling WANG

    2016-01-01

    With the six provinces of Central China and China’s six major provinces of exporting agricultural products as the reference objects,this paper uses revealed comparative advantage index and export growth advantage index to perform the empirical analysis and comparison on the export competitiveness of agricultural products in Hubei Province,and finally makes the corresponding policy recommendations in order to enhance the export competitiveness of agricultural products in Hubei Province.

  2. Inter-provincial migration in Spain: temporal trends and age-specific patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Coll, A; Stillwell, J

    1999-01-01

    "This paper provides interpretation of the changing patterns of internal migration in Spain at the inter-provincial scale, and new analysis of age-specific migration during the 1980s using a 10% sample of anonymised records from the 1991 census. Schedules of age-specific gross migration rates are constructed and classified according to their shape and level relative to the national schedule, and the relationships between in-migration and out-migration rates are examined for four selected age groups to demonstrate how aggregate patterns of inter-provincial migration conceal a wide diversity of age specific experience."

  3. Regulation of the inter-provincial establishment of companies: applying the private interest approach to China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, Guang; Philipsen, N.J.; Philipsen, N.J.; Weishaar, S.E.; Xu, G.

    2016-01-01

    Existing empirical evidence shows that Chinese companies sometimes face difficulties when they try to establish themselves across provinces in China. A significant cause of this problem is the way in which local authorities apply the existing rules on inter-provincial establishment of companies. Mor

  4. The Inter-provincial Transfer of Transportation Hidden Carbon in China’s Provinces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Ping; Wang, Jian Wei; Zhang, Shuai

    2017-01-01

    Recognize the characteristics of the inter-provincial transportation hidden carbon transfer scientifically, which is significant to evaluate regional carbon emission correctly and reasonably and make the regional carbon reduction policies. With the China’s interregional input-output tables in 2007 and 2010 years, this paper measures the transportation hidden carbon and researches the features of inter-provincial transportation hidden carbon transfer. The results show that: (1) The Shanxi, Hubei and et al in central-western regions is the major importer of carbon emission, and the Tianjin, Jiangsu, Fujian and et al in eastern regions is the net exporter; (2)The transfer size and density of the eastern, central and western regions present the decreasing tendency. The more advanced the economy, the higher the transportation hidden carbon emission. In China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Economic Band is the most cohesive region about size and density. As the results, the responsibility of provincial transportation carbon emission should be properly adjusted, and regional linkage carbon emission policies should be implemented.

  5. Uncovering regional disparity of China's water footprint and inter-provincial virtual water flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Huijuan; Geng, Yong; Fujita, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Minoru; Hao, Dong; Yu, Xiaoman

    2014-12-01

    With rapid economic development in China, water crisis is becoming serious and may impede future sustainable development. The uneven distribution of water resources further aggravates such a problem. Under such a circumstance, the concepts of water footprint and virtual water have been proposed in order to respond water scarcity problems. This paper focuses on studying provincial disparity of China's water footprints and inter-provincial virtual water trade flows by adopting inter-regional input-output (IRIO) method. The results show that fast developing areas with larger economic scales such as Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Zhejiang, Shanghai and Xinjiang had the largest water footprints. The most developed and water scarce areas such as Shanghai, Beijing, Tianjin and Shandong intended to import virtual water, a rational choice for mitigating their water crisis. Xinjiang, Jiangsu, Heilongjiang, Inner Mongolia, Guangxi and Hunan, had the largest per GDP water intensities and were the main water import regions. Another key finding is that agriculture water footprint was the main part in water footprint composition and water export trade. On the basis of these findings, policy implications on agriculture geographical dispersion, consumption behavior changes, trade structure adjustment and water use efficiency improvement are further discussed.

  6. Performance assessment of Saskatchewan's water resource system under uncertain inter-provincial water supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanzadeh, Elmira; Elshorbagy, Amin; Nazemi, Ali; Wheater, Howard

    2014-05-01

    The trans-boundary Saskatchewan River Basin supports livelihoods and the economy of the province of Saskatchewan, Canada. Water users include irrigated agriculture, hydropower, potash mining, urban centers, and ecosystem services. Water availability in Saskatchewan is highly dependent on the flows from the upstream province of Alberta. These flows mostly originate from the Rocky Mountains headwaters and are highly regulated, due to intensive water use and redistribution before they get to the Alberta/Saskatchewan border. Warming climate and increasing water demands in Alberta have changed the incoming flow characteristics from Alberta to Saskatchewan. It is critical to assess the performance and the viability of Saskatchewan's water resources system under uncertain future inter-provincial inflows. For this purpose, a possible range of future changes in the inflows from Alberta to Saskatchewan is considered in this study. The considered changes include various combinations of shifts in the timing of the annual peak and volumetric change in the annual flow volumes. These shifts are implemented using a copula-based stochastic simulation method to generate multiple realizations of weekly flow series at two key locations of inflow to Saskatchewan's water resources system, in a way that the spatial dependencies between weekly inflows are maintained. Each flow series is of 31-years length and constitutes a possible long term water availability scenario. The stochastically generated flows are introduced as an alternative to the historical inflows for water resources planning and management purposes in Saskatchewan. Both historical and reconstructed inflows are fed into a Sustainability-oriented Water Allocation, Management, and Planning (SWAMP) model to analyze the effects of inflow changes on Saskatchewan's water resources system. The SWAMP model was developed using the System Dynamics approach and entails irrigation/soil moisture, non-irrigation uses and economic

  7. A research on cooperation mechanism of inter-provincial sports scientific research in China from perspective of symbiosis theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHI Weijin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the cooperation mechanism of the inter provincial scientific research from the perspective of symbiosis theory by adopting the research methods including literature analysis,social network analysis,mathematical statistics and calculating analysis.The result indicates that there exists the symbiosis in inter provincial sports scientific research among the symbiosis units (Except of Tibet and Taiwan.However,the degrees of symbiosis and correlation are varied in between.Provinces are inclined to select cooperative partners abundant in scientific paper,which shows a regular regional distribution.Symbiosis model mainly refers to the symmetric reciprocity model,but still there is asymmetric reciprocity model.The symbiosis environment presents the feature of large number of research groups and high degree of different schools.The symbiosis interface consists of media interface and non media interface.Therefore,the paper suggests constructing a symbiont of coordinated regional integration with three layers:the Core Layer (Beijing,Shanghai and Guangdong,the Radiation Center Layer (Tianjin,Jiangsu,Zhenjiang,Fujian,Anhui,Shandong,Henan,Liaoning and Hubei and the Margin Layer (the rest 22 provinces.

  8. Institutional Factors and Inter-provincial Difference of Economic Growth in the Middle Part of China%中部地区经济增长的制度因素及省际差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光栋; 左家玲

    2011-01-01

    将制度因素纳入C-D生产函数的扩展模型,利用1978-2009年我国中部六省的面板数据,对中部地区经济增长中的制度因素的作用进行实证分析,并进一步说明中部地区经济增长水平的省际差异及其影响因素.研究结果表明,制度对中部地区经济增长存在显著的影响,但相对于物质资本积累和劳动力而言,制度的贡献较小;中部地区经济增长存在着明显的省际差异,而制度环境的省际差异是最重要的影响因素.%Using extended model of the Cobb - Douglas production function including institutional factors, this paper conducts an empirical analysis on the function of the institutional factors of economic growth with a provincial panel data from 1978 to 2009 in the middle part of China. Inter - provincial difference of economic growth in the middle part of China and influencing factors of it are further illustrated. The results show that, on the one hand, institutional factors have significant effect on economic growth of the middle part of China, however, compared with the capital accumulation and the labor power, the influence of institution is little; on the other hand, there are remarkable inter - provincial difference of economic growth in the middle part of China, and inter - provincial difference of the institutional environment is its most important influencing factor.

  9. Study on inter-provincial shrimp industry cluster competitiveness with GEM model%基于GEM模型的我国省际间对虾产业集群竞争力研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晨

    2012-01-01

    GEM model with six elements is used to analyze the status of inter-provincial competitiveness of China's shrimp industry. Results showed that the competitiveness of shrimp industrial cluster was much higher in Guangdong and Fujian, and it grew fast in Guangxi and Hainan, while it showed downward trend in Shanghai and Shandong. The article drew the conclusion that the input to the seedling breeding technology should be raised, the shrimp industry chain be integrated to protect the limited number of marine and land resources, and a new type of farming relationship be built, to ensure the inter-provincial competitiveness of China' s shrimp industry cluster.%基于GEM模型的6个要素分析我国对虾产业省际间竞争力的现状,研究表明:广东和福建对虾产业集群竞争力普遍较高,广西和海南对虾产业集群竞争力提升水平较快,而上海和山东对虾产业集群竞争力普遍呈下降趋势。文章的结论是:应加大种苗繁育技术投入力度、整合对虾产业链、保护有限的海洋和土地资源以及构建新型养殖关系,确保我国省际间对虾产业集群竞争力的不断提升。

  10. The Influence of Inter-provincial Migration On Regional Gap---Analysis Based on Grey Correlation Analysis Method%跨省迁移对地区差距的影响--基于灰色关联度的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊勋胜; 余吉祥

    2015-01-01

    Based on the neoclassical growth theory,inter-provincial migration is a power of elimi-nating income gap among regions.Bat according to the new economic geography,inter-provincial mi-gration may expand the income gap among regions.Using the fifth and sixth national population cen-sus data and grey correlation analysis method,this article calculates the inter-provincial migration’s influcnce on emigration region and its regional economic growth,finding that the correlation coeffi-cient between inter-provincial migration and immigration’s regional economic growth is higher than that between inter-provincial migration and emigration’s regional economic growth.This confirms that inter-provincial migration is the main power to expand the regional gap,so that our government should reform the household registration system to promote the free-flowing of rural workforce, meanwhile,it should focus on providing biased-financial support for the less developed areas.%基于新古典增长理论,跨省人口迁移是缩小地区差距的力量。但基于新经济地理学,跨省人口迁移又会通过规模经济效应扩大地区差距。本文使用全国人口普查数据,采用灰色关联度分析方法,同时研究了跨省人口迁移对迁出地和迁入地经济发展的影响。结果发现,跨省人口迁移与迁入地经济发展之间的平均关联度高于与迁出地经济发展的平均关联度。这一结果意味着跨省人口迁移在现阶段是扩大地区差距的力量,因此,中央政府在改革户籍制度促进农村劳动力自由流动的同时,应注重向欠发达地区提供偏向性的财政政策支持。

  11. An Analysis of Pig Production Efficiency and Regional Differences in China Based on Malmquist-DEA Model and Inter-provincial Panel Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanyuan ZHANG; Shimin SUN

    2015-01-01

    Pig production efficiency and its regional differences in China have strategic importance to the transformation of pig production mode and optimization of pig production layout in China. In this paper,Malmquist-DEA model is adopted to analyze the statistical data; TFP and its decomposition indicators of different pig breeding scale among the top ten pig producing provinces are calculated; both horizontal and longitudinal comparisons are made. Results show that among different pig breeding scales,free-range breeding scale is dominant in Hunan,small breeding scale is dominant in Sichuan,medium breeding scale is dominant in Sichuan and Hunan,and large breeding scale is dominant in Sichuan,Shandong and Jiangsu; among the provinces,pig production efficiency varies with breeding scale,and small-scale pig breeding in Sichuan,Guangdong and Hebei,free-range and medium-scale pig breeding in Hunan,medium-scale pig breeding in Henan and Yunnan,largescale pig breeding in the rest of the provinces,have significant efficiency advantage.

  12. Comparison of Interglacial fire dynamics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brücher, Tim; Daniau, Anne-Laure

    2016-04-01

    Responses of fire activity to a change in climate are still uncertain and biases exist by integrating this non-linear process into global modeling of the Earth system. Warming and regional drying can force fire activity in two opposite directions: an increase in fire in fuel supported ecosystems or a fire reduction in fuel-limited ecosystems. Therefore, climate variables alone can not be used to estimate the fire risk because vegetation variability is an important determinant of fire dynamics and responds itself to change in climate. Southern Africa (south of 20°S) paleofire history reconstruction obtained from the analysis of microcharcoal preserved in a deep-sea core located off Namibia reveals changes of fire activity on orbital timescales in the precession band. In particular, increase in fire is observed during glacial periods, and reduction of fire during interglacials such as the Eemian and the Holocene. The Holocene was characterized by even lower level of fire activity than Eemian. Those results suggest the alternance of grass-fueled fires during glacials driven by increase in moisture and the development of limited fueled ecosystems during interglacials characterized by dryness. Those results question the simulated increase in the fire risk probability projected for this region under a warming and drying climate obtained by Pechony and Schindell (2010). To explore the validity of the hypotheses we conducted a data-model comparison for both interglacials from 126.000 to 115.000 BP for the Eemian and from 8.000 to 2.000 BP for the Holocene. Data out of a transient, global modeling study with a Vegetation-Fire model of full complexity (JSBACH) is used, driven by a Climate model of intermediate complexity (CLIMBER). Climate data like precipitation and temperature as well as vegetation data like soil moisture, productivity (NPP) on plant functional type level are used to explain trends in fire activity. The comparison of trends in fire activity during the

  13. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...... we have engaged with Africa in a similar manner as we have done with other emerging economies? We also introduce the papers published in this special issue and highlight directions for future research....

  14. The Relationship between China's Inter-Provincial Coal Consumption and GDP Growth and Forecast of Its Inflection Point%中国省际煤炭消费与GDP增长关系及拐点预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘顺艳; 孙根年

    2009-01-01

    deal with the contradiction between economic growth and energy consumption, is especially important. In the present paper, we revealed the variation in China' s coal consumption and economic growth during 1980-2006 through adequately considering China's actual situations and utilizing data associated with economy and coal consumption from 1997 to 2006. Moreover, the authors analyzed the relationship between China's inter-provincial per-capita coal consumption and GDP in detail, on the basis of which a two-dimensional matrix was constructed. It was found from the matrix that all China's provinces, except Tibet, could be basically classified into 4 types, i.e., provinces with a larger per capita GDP increase and a smaller per capita coal consumption increase, provinces with a larger per capita GDP increase and a larger per capita coal consumption increase, provinces with a smaller per capita GDP increase and a larger per capita coal consumption increase, and provinces with a smaller per capita GDP increase and a smaller per person coal consumption increase. This seems to practically represent China's actual situations. Finally, in terms of statistics from 1997 to 2006, we selected 7 typical provinces from these 4 types, exploring the relationship between per capita GDP and per capita coal consumption increase, predicting the inflection point of the coal consumption along with the economic growth process. The findings would provide some meaningful reference for making economy and energy policies, romoting the establishment of energy conservation society.

  15. South Atlantic continental margins of Africa: a comparison of the tectonic vs climate interplay on the evolution of equatorial west Africa and SW Africa margins

    CERN Document Server

    Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie

    2005-01-01

    The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...

  16. 宏观税负与财政民生支出增长——基于省际动态面板数据模型的经验分析%Macro Tax Burden and Financial Expenditure of People's Livelihood Based on the Experience Analysis of Inter-provincial Dynamic Panel Data Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李普亮

    2012-01-01

    基于中国1998—2009年的省际面板数据,通过构建动态面板模型,运用系统GMM实证检验宏观税负与财政民生支出的数量关系。结果显示:宏观税负上升带动了财政民生支出绝对额的小幅增长,但对财政民生支出份额的影响在统计上并不显著,这表明中国的宏观税负与财政民生支出的协调性不容乐观,财政民生支出强度不足不应主要归因于政府财力规模不足。因此,囿于宏观税负高低之争并无实质意义,关键在于实现宏观税负与财政民生支出的协调和匹配,确保财政收入更好地“取之于民,用之于民”。%Based on the inter-provincial panel data from 1998 to 2009 in China, system GMM is advanced to analyze the quantitative relationship between macro tax burden and financial expenditure of people's livelihood by building the inter-provincial dynamic panel data model. The result reveals that the rising of macro tax burden can contribute to the slight increase of financial expenditure of people's livelihood in absolute terms. But the effect of macro tax burden on the expenditure share is not statistically significant, which indicates the coordination be- tween macro tax burden and financial expenditure of people' livelihood is hardly optimistic. However, the inadequate financial expenditure should not be mainly attributed to the government financial scale. Therefore, it is of no real significance to discuss the level of macro tax burden. It is essential to coordinate macro tax burden and financial expenditure of people's livelihood and ensure that the financial revenue is take from the people and is used in the interest of the people.

  17. Bibliometric analysis of public health research in Africa: The overall trend and regional comparisons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh-Shan Ho

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Many diseases in Africa can be prevented with appropriate public health interventions. This study aimed to assess the bibliometric characteristics of public health related research articles published by researchers in African institutions from 1991 to 2005. Data used in this study were obtained from the online version of the ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded. Articles published between 1991 and 2005 that had the phrase ‘public health’ in the title, author keywords or abstract, and had at least one author whose contact address was in an African country, were selected for analysis. The annual number of public health related articles published by African researchers significantly increased from 28 articles in 1991 to 135 articles in 2005, a 382% increase. International collaboration also increased: from 45% of articles having international collaborators during 1991–1995, to 52% during1996–2000, and to 67% during 2001–2005. Collaborations were mostly with European and North American countries. Keywords, subject categories and collaboration patterns of articles varied across regions, reflecting differences in needs and collaboration networks. Public health related research output, as well as international collaborations, have been increasing in Africa. Regional variation observed in this study may assist policymakers to facilitate the advancement of public health research in different regions of Africa, and could be useful for international organisations in identifying needs and to allocate research funding. Future bibliometric analyses of articles published by African researchers, can consider conducting regional comparisons using standardised methods, as well as describing the overall patterns, in order to provide a more comprehensive view of their bibliometric characteristics.

  18. Comparisons of invasive plants in southern Africa originating from southern temperate, northern temperate and tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Henderson

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available A subset of invasive alien plant species in southern Africa was analysed in terms of their history of introduction, rate of spread, countries/region of origin, taxonomy, growth forms, cultivated uses, weed status and current distribution in southern Africa, and comparisons made of those originating from south of the tropic of Capricorn, north of the tropic of Cancer and from the tropics. The subset of 233 species, belonging to 58 families, includes all important declared species and some potentially important species. Almost as many species originate from temperate regions (112 as from the tropics (121. Most southern temperate species came from Australia (28/36, most tropical species from tropical America (92/121 and most northern temperate species from Europe (including the Mediterranean and Asia (58/76. Transformers account for 33% of  all species. More transformers are of tropical origin (36 than of northern temperate (24 and southern temperate origin (18. However. 50% of southern temperate species are transformers, compared to 32% of northern temperate and 29% of tropical species. Southern temperate transformer species are mainly woody trees and shrubs that were established on a grand scale as silvicultural crops, barriers (hedges, windbreaks and screens and cover/binders. Most aquatics, herbs, climbers and succulent shrubs an. trom the tropics. Ornamentals are the single largest category of plants from all three regions, the tropics having contributed twice as many species as temperate regions.

  19. Interlaboratory comparison schemes for fibre counting: AFRICA and the WHO/EURO reference scheme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, P.W.; Jones, A.D. [Institute of Occupational Medicine, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2001-03-01

    Airborne fibres, particularly asbestos, can present serious risks to human health, therefore laboratories need to produce reliable measurements of their concentrations. To help achieve this, they participate in interlaboratory comparisons, in the form of national or international proficiency testing schemes for fibre counting. Two of the international schemes are the Asbestos Fibre Regular Informal Counting Arrangement (AFRICA), for asbestos fibres, and the WHO/EURO Reference Scheme, for man-made mineral fibres. Both schemes have operated since the 1980s, offering several benefits to participants. The schemes employ a method similar in principle to that of other proficiency testing programmes. Participants are rated 1 to 3 depending on how close their results are to pre-defined reference values. The majority of laboratories perform well; and in each round an average of only 3% of WHO/EURO scheme participants and 8% of AFRICA participants were rated 3 (unsatisfactory). There is also evidence that new members improve after they join the schemes. (orig.)

  20. The 1 Ma Lake Bosumtwi (West Africa) Paleoclimate Record: Comparisons to Marine and Polar Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, J. A.; Shanahan, T. M.; King, J. W.; Overpeck, J. T.; Scholz, C. A.; Heil, C.; Forman, S. L.; Amoako, P. Y.

    2007-12-01

    Lake Bosumtwi is a hydrologically closed lake occupying a 1.07 Ma impact crater in Ghana, West Africa. The lake lies beneath the path of the seasonal migration of the ITCZ and therefore can provide a sedimentary record of monsoon variability in West Africa. Scientific drilling recovered a 291-m long sediment section that spans the full 1 Ma history of the lake. This long continental record is ideal for comparison to long marine and ice-core records at both glacial-interglacial and abrupt-change timescales. Oxygen-isotope stratigraphy, derived from calcareous fossils, often provides age control and a way to place individual marine sediment cores into a global stratigraphic framework. Lacking a direct tie-in to the marine oxygen-isotope stratigraphy, individual lacustrine basins can present challenges for global correlation. Through radiocarbon, optically stimulated luminescence and paleomagnetic dating, limited age control has been established for the 1 Ma Lake Bosumtwi sediment sequence. Within a Bosumtwi sediment sequence that is mostly laminated occur intervals of non-laminated sediment having increased density, decreased organic content and a high-coercivity magnetic mineral assemblage. Some of these massive layers contain slump-folding and intraformational clasts. These lithologies are interpreted to represent lake-level lowstands when a diminished West African summer monsoon resulted in decreased moisture balance and lake-level regression. Some Bosumtwi lake-level lowstands match intervals of increased sea surface salinity in the Gulf of Guinea resulting from reduced river discharge (Weldeab et al. 2007, Science, 316, 1303-1307). However, during other intervals (MIS2) there are differences between the two records. Corresponding to glacial stages and stadials, increased amounts of high-coercivity magnetic minerals are present in the Lake Bosumtwi sediment. Elevated aerosol dust export from arid Sahel sources, possibly accompanied by enhanced magnetic

  1. 城市家庭住房自有率的省际差异及其影响因素--基于“六普”数据的研究%Inter-provincial Difference on Homeownership Rates of Urban Households in China and Its Influential Factors--research based on the“Sixth National Population Census”data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王人扬; 张惠

    2014-01-01

    中国城市家庭住房自有率的整体上升趋势日渐受到关注,但少有对住房自有率地区差异的研究。在使用“六普”数据,建立多元线性回归方程模型,对中国城市家庭住房自有率的省际差异及其影响因素研究中发现,城市家庭住房自有率在不同省份之间呈现较大差异;房价收入比、流动人口比例和失业率对其均有显著负向影响;65岁及以上人口比例、已婚人口比例、家庭规模对其则均有显著正向影响。最后讨论了以上研究发现的政策涵义。%The overall upward trend on homeownership rates of urban households in China has attracted increasing attention,while the researches on the regional differences of homeownership rates are rare. Putting this as a breakthrough,using the“sixth national population census”data, establishing the multiple linear regression equation model,the inter-provincial difference on homeownership rates of urban households in China and its influential factors are researched in this paper. The main conclusions are: firstly, there exist large differences on the homeownership rates of urban households between different provinces. secondly,housing price to income ratio,the proportion of immigration,unemployment rate are all have significant negative impacts on the homeownership rates. thirdly,the proportion of age 65 and above population,the proportion of married population, the size of urban households are all have significant positive impacts on the homeownership rates. At last,the policy implications from the above conclusions are discussed.

  2. Ionospheric tomography over South Africa: Comparison of MIDAS and ionosondes measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giday, Nigussie M.; Katamzi, Zama T.; McKinnell, Lee-Anne

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims to show the results of an ionospheric tomography algorithm called Multi-Instrument Data Analysis System (MIDAS) over the South African region. Recorded data from a network of 49-53 Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers over the South African region was used as input for the inversion. The inversion was made for April, July, October and December representing the four distinct seasons (Autumn, Winter, Spring and Summer respectively) of the year 2012. MIDAS reconstructions were validated by comparing maximum electron density of the F2 layer (NmF2) and peak height (hmF2) values predicted by MIDAS to those derived from three South African ionosonde measurements. The diurnal and seasonal trends of the MIDAS NmF2 values were in good agreement with the respective NmF2 values derived from the ionosondes. In addition, good agreement was found between the two measurements with minimum and maximum coefficients of determination (r2) between 0.84 and 0.96 in all the stations and validation days. The seasonal trend of the NmF2 values over the South Africa region has been reproduced using this inversion which was in good agreement with the ionosonde measurements. Moreover, a comparison of the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI-2012) model NmF2 values with the respective ionosonde derived NmF2 values showed to have higher deviation than a similar comparison between the MIDAS reconstruction and the ionosonde measurements. However, the monthly averaged hmF2 values derived from IRI 2012 model showed better agreement than the respective MIDAS reconstructed hmF2 values compared with the ionosonde derived hmF2 values.The performance of the MIDAS reconstruction was observed to deteriorate with increased geomagnetic conditions. MIDAS reconstructed electron density were slightly elevated during three storm periods studied (24 April, 15 July and 8 October) which was in good agreement with the ionosonde measurements.

  3. An economic comparison of typical dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndambi, Oghaiki Asaah; Hemme, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Population growth, urbanisation and increased per capita milk consumption are main reasons for recent increasing milk demand in Africa. Due to globalisation, it is important to know how competitive various production systems are, especially as most governments promote local production and disfavour dairy imports. The TIPI-CAL (Technology Impact, Policy Impact Calculations model) was used to analyse and compare costs and returns of predominant dairy farming systems in South Africa, Morocco, Uganda and Cameroon. Results show that, as farms grew larger in size, family resources (especially land and labour) became insufficient and there was need for their acquisition from external sources. Though extensive dairy farming systems had the lowest cost of milk production (Africa had relatively low costs (Investment (ROI) due to a higher efficiency of input utilisation. It was concluded that, intensification of dairy farming and simultaneously increasing the scale of production will greatly increase productivity of farm inputs, thus recommended for development of the dairy sector in African countries.

  4. Comparison of five gridded precipitation products at climatological scales over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsanola, A. A.; Ogunjobi, K. O.; Ajayi, V. O.; Adefisan, E. A.; Omotosho, J. A.; Sanogo, S.

    2016-12-01

    The paper aimed at assessing the capabilities and limitations of five different precipitation products to describe rainfall over West Africa. Five gridded precipitation datasets of the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) Multi-Platform Analysis (TMPA 3B43v7); University of Delaware (UDEL version 3.01); Climatic Research Unit (CRU version 3.1); Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC version 7) and African Rainfall Climatology (ARC version 2) were compared and validated with reference ground observation data from 81 stations spanning a 19-year period, from January 1990 to December 2008. Spatial investigation of the precipitation datasets was performed, and their capability to replicate the inter-annual and intra-seasonal variability was also assessed. The ability of the products to capture the El Nino and La Nina events were also assessed. Results show that all the five datasets depicted similar spatial distribution of mean rainfall climatology, although differences exist in the total rainfall amount for each precipitation dataset. Further analysis shows that the three distinct phases of the mean annual cycle of the West Africa Monsoon precipitation were well captured by the datasets. However, CRU, GPCC and UDEL failed to capture the little dry season in the month of August while UDEL and GPCC underestimated rainfall amount in the Sahel region. Results of the inter-annual precipitation anomalies shows that ARC2 fail to capture about 46% of the observed variability while the other four datasets exhibits a greater performance (r > 0.9). All the precipitation dataset except ARC2 were consistent with the ground observation in capturing the dry and wet conditions associated with El Nino and La Nina events, respectively. ARC2 tends to overestimate the El Nino event and failed to capture the La Nina event in all the years considered. In general GPCC, CRU and TRMM were found to be the most outstanding datasets and can, therefore, be used for precipitation

  5. Interactive media audiences in Africa: A comparison of four constituencies in Kenya and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The PiMA Working Papers are a series of peer-reviewed working papers that present findings and insights from Centre of Governance and Human Rights’ (CGHR) Politics and Interactive Media in Africa (PiMA) research project (2012-14). The project, jointly funded by the ESRC and DFID (ES/J018945/1), focuses on expressions of ‘public opinion’ in broadcast media via new information and communication technologies (ICT) such as mobile phones in Kenya and Zambia. PiMA examines the political implication...

  6. Elimination of HIV in South Africa through expanded access to antiretroviral therapy: a model comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A C Hontelez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART using universal test and treat (UTT has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized widely, and other modeling studies did not always confirm the study's finding. The objective of our study is to better understand the implications of different model structures and assumptions, so as to arrive at the best possible predictions of the long-term impact of UTT and the possibility of elimination of HIV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed nine structurally different mathematical models of the South African HIV epidemic in a stepwise approach of increasing complexity and realism. The simplest model resembles the initial deterministic model, while the most comprehensive model is the stochastic microsimulation model STDSIM, which includes sexual networks and HIV stages with different degrees of infectiousness. We defined UTT as annual screening and immediate ART for all HIV-infected adults, starting at 13% in January 2012 and scaled up to 90% coverage by January 2019. All models predict elimination, yet those that capture more processes underlying the HIV transmission dynamics predict elimination at a later point in time, after 20 to 25 y. Importantly, the most comprehensive model predicts that the current strategy of ART at CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl will also lead to elimination, albeit 10 y later compared to UTT. Still, UTT remains cost-effective, as many additional life-years would be saved. The study's major limitations are that elimination was defined as incidence below 1/1,000 person-years rather than 0% prevalence, and drug resistance was not modeled. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous predictions that the HIV epidemic in South Africa can be eliminated through universal testing and immediate treatment at 90% coverage. However, more realistic

  7. A comparison of competitive intelligence activities in Brazil, Malaysia, Morocco and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeline S.A. du Toit

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: This article compared competitive intelligence activities in Brazil, Malaysia, Morocco and South Africa.Research purpose: The purpose was to determine how these countries can use competitive intelligence to increase their competitiveness in the global economy.Motivation for the study: Competitive intelligence is a challenge in developing economies.Research design, approach and method: A questionnaire survey was sent to competitive intelligence professionals in the four study countries.Main findings: The most important primary information source used in all four countries is direct customer feedback and the most important secondary information source used is corporate websites. Companies in all four countries did not use advanced analysis techniques.Practical/managerial implications: It is recommended that all four countries should develop a competitive intelligence culture by creating awareness of competitive intelligence amongst their employees.Contribution/value added: It is crucial to apply competitive intelligence in the four countries in order to become more competitive in the global economy.

  8. Dementia prevalence estimates in sub-Saharan Africa: comparison of two diagnostic criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella-Maria Paddick

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have previously reported the prevalence of dementia in older adults living in the rural Hai district of Tanzania according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV criteria. The aim of this study was to compare prevalence rates using the DSM-IV criteria with those obtained using the 10/66 diagnostic criteria, which is specifically designed for use in low- and middle-income countries. Methods: In phase I, 1,198 people aged 70 and older were screened for dementia. A stratified sample of 296 was then clinically assessed for dementia according to the DSM-IV criteria. In addition, data were collected according to the protocol of the 10/66 Dementia Research Group, which allowed a separate diagnosis of dementia according to these criteria to be established. Results: The age-standardised prevalence of clinical DSM-IV dementia was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.9–7.9% and of ‘10/66 dementia’ was 21.6% (95% CI 17.5–25.7%. Education was a significant predictor of ‘10/66 dementia’, but not of DSM-IV dementia. Conclusions: There are large discrepancies in dementia prevalence rates depending on which diagnostic system is used. In rural sub-Saharan Africa, it is not clear whether the association between education and dementia using the 10/66 criteria is a genuine effect or the result of an educational bias within the diagnostic instrument. Despite its possible flaws, the DSM-IV criteria represent an international standard for dementia diagnosis. The 10/66 diagnostic criteria may be more appropriate when identification of early and mild cognitive impairment is required.

  9. Validation and Inter-comparison of Satellite Rainfall Products over East Africa's Complex Topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinku, T.; Ceccato, P.; Grover-Kopec, E.; Connor, S. J.; Ropelewski, C. F.

    2006-05-01

    A relatively dense station network of about 140 stations over the highlands of Ethiopia is used to perform an extensive validation and inter-comparison of different semi-operational satellite rainfall products. The validation region is located over 5oN to 13oN, and 35oE to 40oE. It has a very complex topography with alternating valleys and mountain ranges that varies between a point at below sea level and a highest peak of about 4620 meters. The gauge data are obtained from the National Meteorological Services Agency of Ethiopia. The data used in the current research covers the period 1990 to 2004. Though the gage data has already gone through routine quality control by NMSA, it has been subjected to further quality control. The validation and inter-comparison exercise is performed for three groups of products. The first group has low spatial (2.5o) and temporal (monthly) resolutions. These include Global Precipitation Climatology (GPCP) estimates, NOAA-CPC (Climate Prediction Center) Merged Analysis (CMAP), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) combined "TRMM and Other Sources" product (3B43). The later product has higher spatial resolution (0.25o), but has been remapped to 2.5o in order to compare it with the other products. The second group consists of products with high spatial (0.1o to 1o) and temporal (three-hourly to daily) resolutions. These products include NOAA-CPC African Rainfall Estimation Algorithm (CPC-RFE), GPCP One- Degree-Daily, and TRMM combined "TRMM and Other Satellites" product (3B42). These products are aggregated to a common one-degree and 10-daily total for comparison. The 10-day aggregation period is selected because it is the aggregation used in many operational early warning activities. The third category consists of a relatively new product (available starting from December 2002) from NOAA-CPC named CPC Morphing Technique (CMORPH). CMORPH is available at three-hourly temporal resolution and 0.25o spatial resolution, and it

  10. Validation of the regional climate model MAR over the CORDEX Africa domain and comparison with other regional models using unpublished data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prignon, Maxime; Agosta, Cécile; Kittel, Christoph; Fettweis, Xavier; Michel, Erpicum

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the CORDEX project, we have applied the regional model MAR over the Africa domain at a resolution of 50 km. ERA-Interim and NCEP-NCAR reanalysis have been used as 6 hourly forcing at the MAR boundaries over 1950-2015. While MAR was already been validated over the West Africa, it is the first time that MAR simulations are carried out at the scale of the whole continent. Unpublished daily measurements, covering the Sahel and more areas up South, with a large set of variables, are used as validation of MAR, other CORDEX-Africa RCMs and both reanalyses. Comparisons with the CRU and the ECA&D databases are also performed. The unpublished daily data set covers the period 1884-2006 and comes from 1460 stations. The measured variables are wind, evapotranspiration, relative humidity, insolation, rain, surface pressure, temperature, vapour pressure and visibility. It covers 23 countries: Algeria, Benin, Burkina, Canary Islands, Cap Verde, Central Africa, Chad, Congo, Ivory Coast, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sudan and Togo.

  11. 区域间技术转移的网络结构及空间分布特征研究——基于我国2006-2010省际技术市场成交合同的分析%Study on the network structure and spatial distribution of inter-regional technology transfer:analysis based on inter-provincial technical market transaction of China in 2006-2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤朝; 马荣康

    2013-01-01

    Taking advantage of 2006 -2010 bilateral data of technical market transaction between regions in China. This paper investigates the network structure and spatial feature of inter - regional technology transfer through the social network analysis and GIS spatial analysis. Results show that, firstly, the inter - provincial technology transfer activities become increasingly frequent since 2006. With the changes of regional technology capacity and technology gap among regions, the "core - periphery" structure of inter - regional technology transfer network with Beijing as the central is getting weaken. Secondly, the bulk technology transfer is spreading to other regions with Beijing as the central, which is barely constrained by geographical distance. The whole technology transfer shows several regional blocks with various forms of spatial aggregation or dispersion, and the geographical distance plays different roles in the evolution of each regional block. Finally, with the changes of technology capacity in each region and its adjacent regions, the regional blocks e-volve from ' weak - weak' subgroup to ' strong - weak' subgroup or ' weak - strong' subgroup, and then move to ' strong - strong' subgroup with good interaction.%利用我国31个省区2006-2010年技术市场成交合同数据,运用社会网络分析和GIS空间分析方法,研究了区域间技术转移的网络结构及空间分布特征.结果表明:(1)2006年以来,我国省际技术转移活动越来越密切和频繁,随着各区域技术实力及区域间技术差距的变化,技术转移网络以北京为中心的“核心—边缘”结构有逐步削弱的趋势.(2)大宗技术转移以北京为核心向其他区域扩散,受地理距离的约束较小;整体技术转移表现为空间聚集(分散)形态各异的几个区域板块,地理距离在各区域板块演变中的作用存在一定差异.(3)随着各区域及其邻近区域技术实力的变化,区域间技术转移的实现路径

  12. Comparison of resistance to third-generation cephalosporins in Shigella between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, B; Zhou, M; Ke, X; Pan, S; Cao, Y; Huang, Y; Zhuang, L; Liu, G; Tong, M

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review to compare resistance to third-generation cephalosporins (TGCs) in Shigella strains between Europe-America and Asia-Africa from 1998 to 2012 based on a literature search of computerized databases. In Asia-Africa, the prevalence of resistance of total and different subtypes to ceftriaxone, cefotaxime and ceftazidime increased markedly, with a total prevalence of resistance up to 14·2% [95% confidence interval (CI) 3·9-29·4], 22·6% (95% CI 4·8-48·6) and 6·2% (95% CI 3·8-9·1) during 2010-2012, respectively. By contrast, resistance rates to these TGCs in Europe-America remained relatively low--less than 1·0% during the 15 years. A noticeable finding was that certain countries both in Europe-America and Asia-Africa, had a rapid rising trend in the prevalence of resistance of S. sonnei, which even outnumbered S. flexneri in some periods. Moreover, comparison between countries showed that currently the most serious problem concerning resistance to these TGCs appeared in Vietnam, especially for ceftriaxone, China, especially for cefotaxime and Iran, especially for ceftazidime. These data suggest that monitoring of the drug resistance of Shigella strains should be strengthened and that rational use of antibiotics is required.

  13. Perspectives on Tolerance in Education Flowing from a Comparison of Religion Education in Estonia and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Johannes L.

    2013-01-01

    The question that prompted this investigation into religion education (RE) in Estonia and in South Africa was whether two countries from such totally different parts of the world, with such vastly different populations and cultures though with somewhat parallel histories, had tackled the same or similar problems regarding the provision of RE in…

  14. A Comparison of the Effects of Witnessing Community Violence and Direct Victimization among Children in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, Nancy; Nadasen, Kathy; Pierce, Lois

    2009-01-01

    This study is based on a sample of children from the Cape Town area in South Africa. The study compares the effects of witnessing school or neighborhood violence compared with being victimized in each context on psychological distress. The findings suggest that in the context of the school, victimization has a somewhat stronger effect on distress…

  15. Comparison of the entrepreneurial intent of master’s business students in developing countries: South Africa and Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecile Nieuwenhuizen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem investigated: The objective of this study was to assess the differences in the levels of entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents of the master’s business students who had no exposure to entrepreneurial education from two culturally different countries, South Africa and Poland. A validated entrepreneurial intent instrument was administered to final-year master’s business management students from a university in South Africa and a university in Poland.Methodology: A cross-sectional survey design with two samples, one from each country, was used. A previously validated questionnaire developed from Ajzen’s Theory of Planned Behaviour model was administered. The results were factor analysed and new scales extracted. These refined scales were used to assess the differences between the two countries. A total of 182 questionnaires were collected from the two universities, University of Johannesburg in South Africa and Krakow Business School in Poland.Findings/implications: From the t-tests statistically significant differences between the two groups were found on 10 of the newly defined scales. Except on one scale, the South African students scored higher than the Polish students.Originality/value of research: This is the first study comparing differences between master’s business management students from two culturally diverse countries, South Africa and Poland, in terms of entrepreneurial intent and its antecedents.Conclusion: Possible reasons for the differences were offered as gleaned from other research, but further research is required to identify the determining factors for the differences.

  16. [Sleep habits and traffic accidents in inter-provincial bus drivers of Arequipa, Peru].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Alex; Rey de Castro, Jorge; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo

    2014-01-01

    In order to determine sleep habits in bus drivers and their relationship to accidents in the city of Arequipa, Peru, a cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in a non-probabilistic sample of 166 drivers. Driving hours per day were 9.4 ± 3.7. 54% (89) drive over 4 hours without stopping; 74% (123) drive at night; and 87% (145) sleep on the bus. 75% reported fatigue while driving (124). 27% (45) had drowsiness; 24% (40) reported having been in or on the verge of an accident while driving. Sleepiness or fatigue while driving was common in this population and their driving and rest habits could contribute to this.

  17. Calibrating Alonso's General Theory of Movement: the Case of Inter-Provincial Migration Flows in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    J Ledent

    1980-01-01

    First, it is shown that Alonso's general theory of movement relies on a standard doubly-constrained spatial interaction model which subsumes the usual gravity and entropy-derived formulations. Such a finding then suggests the use of a biproportional adjustment method (RAS method) to adequately estimate the systemic variables specified in the underlying model. This eventually leads to the development of a complete and precise methodology for calibrating the Alonso model. This methodology is il...

  18. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...

  19. Mortality of HIV-infected patients starting antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: comparison with HIV-unrelated mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin W G Brinkhof

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality in HIV-infected patients who have access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART has declined in sub-Saharan Africa, but it is unclear how mortality compares to the non-HIV-infected population. We compared mortality rates observed in HIV-1-infected patients starting ART with non-HIV-related background mortality in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Patients enrolled in antiretroviral treatment programmes in Côte d'Ivoire, Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe were included. We calculated excess mortality rates and standardised mortality ratios (SMRs with 95% confidence intervals (CIs. Expected numbers of deaths were obtained using estimates of age-, sex-, and country-specific, HIV-unrelated, mortality rates from the Global Burden of Disease project. Among 13,249 eligible patients 1,177 deaths were recorded during 14,695 person-years of follow-up. The median age was 34 y, 8,831 (67% patients were female, and 10,811 of 12,720 patients (85% with information on clinical stage had advanced disease when starting ART. The excess mortality rate was 17.5 (95% CI 14.5-21.1 per 100 person-years SMR in patients who started ART with a CD4 cell count of less than 25 cells/microl and World Health Organization (WHO stage III/IV, compared to 1.00 (0.55-1.81 per 100 person-years in patients who started with 200 cells/microl or above with WHO stage I/II. The corresponding SMRs were 47.1 (39.1-56.6 and 3.44 (1.91-6.17. Among patients who started ART with 200 cells/microl or above in WHO stage I/II and survived the first year of ART, the excess mortality rate was 0.27 (0.08-0.94 per 100 person-years and the SMR was 1.14 (0.47-2.77. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality of HIV-infected patients treated with combination ART in sub-Saharan Africa continues to be higher than in the general population, but for some patients excess mortality is moderate and reaches that of the general population in the second year of ART. Much of the

  20. HIV/AIDS and admission to intensive care units: A comparison of India, Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kantharuben Naidoo

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In resource-constrained settings and in the context of HIV-infected patients requiring intensive care, value-laden decisions by critical care specialists are often made in the absence of explicit policies and guidelines. These are often based on individual practitioners’ knowledge and experience, which may be subject to bias. We reviewed published information on legislation and practices related to intensive care unit (ICU admission in India, Brazil and South Africa, to assess access to critical care services in the context of HIV. Each of these countries has legal instruments in place to provide their citizens with health services, but they differ in their provision of ICU care for HIV-infected persons. In Brazil, some ICUs have no admission criteria, and this decision vests solely on the ‘availability, and the knowledge and the experience’ of the most experienced ICU specialist at the institution. India has few regulatory mechanisms to ensure ICU care for critically ill patients including HIV-infected persons. SA has made concerted efforts towards non-discriminatory criteria for ICU admissions and, despite the shortage of ICU beds, HIV-infected patients have relatively greater access to this level of care than in other developing countries in Africa, such as Botswana. Policymakers and clinicians should devise explicit policy frameworks to govern ICU admissions in the context of HIV status. S Afr J HIV Med 2013;14(1:15-16. DOI:10.7196/SAJHIVMED.887

  1. What are we measuring? Comparison of household food security indicators in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriks, Sheryl L; van der Merwe, Corné; Ngidi, Mjabuliseni S; Manyamba, Christopher; Mbele, Mondli; McIntyre, Angela M; Mkandawire, Elizabeth; Molefe, Queeneth N; Mphephu, Mulalo Q; Ngwane, Lithle

    2016-01-01

    The development of national food security information systems is constrained by a lack of guidance on which indicators to use. This paper compares food security indicators across two seasons (summer and winter) in one of the most deprived areas of the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. The results show that only anthropometric indicators are sensitive enough to differentiate levels of food insecurity. The lack of consistent classification across indicators means that surveys must use a combination of food consumption and experience of hunger measures backed up by anthropometric measures. Targeting interventions is difficult if the measures cannot be relied on. Further investigation is needed to identify a suite of appropriate indicators for a national information and surveillance system.

  2. A comparison of anthropogenic and elephant disturbance on Acacia xanthophloea (fever tree populations in the Lowveld, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Botha

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Acacia xanthophloea (the ‘fever tree’ is a popular medicinal species that is traded widely in South Africa. Although it occurs throughout southern Africa, there is increasing pressure on its riverine and marshy habitats. This study compares the impact of harvesting on an A. xanthophloea population located on private land near Komatipoort, Mpumalanga, with two protected populations situated within the Kruger National Park. The densities of the harvested and protected populations were similar (84±8 trees/ha and 85±20 trees/ha, respectively. There were fluctuations in the quotients between frequencies of trees in successive diameter classes, which is common in savanna where high levels of fire, mega-herbivore and anthropogenic disturbance are experienced. The extent of stem damage (stripping of bark and breakage by elephants in the protected area was significantly higher than the extent of harvesting on private land, although the degree of damage was relatively low, with only 7 % of the populations having been damaged at rates >26 %. The degree of harvesting on private land was relatively low, with the majority of trees having been harvested at rates of less than 10 % of the stem below 2 m. Despite this, ringbarking had occurred (4 %. The basal diameters and heights were significantly lower in the protected population than in the harvested one, suggesting that over time elephant impact was the more severe disturbance. Acacia xanthophloea exhibited high resilience to disturbance, with all the elephant damaged trees and harvested individuals surviving. However, the mean bark thickness measured in local markets (6.3±1.4 mm was significantly lower than that measured in either the harvested (12.4±1.0 mm or the KNP (10.3±0.8 mm populations. As harvesters tend to select the largest individuals in a population to maximise their financial returns, this could mean that smaller individuals are being harvested, and/or bark is not being given

  3. A Comparison of Five Brief Screening Tools for HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders in the USA and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joska, J A; Witten, J; Thomas, K G; Robertson, C; Casson-Crook, M; Roosa, H; Creighton, J; Lyons, J; McArthur, J; Sacktor, N C

    2016-08-01

    Screening for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) is important to improve clinical outcomes. We compared the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the mini-mental state examination, International HIV dementia scale (IHDS), Montreal cognitive assessment, Simioni symptom questionnaire and cognitive assessment tool-rapid version (CAT-rapid) to a gold standard neuropsychological battery. Antiretroviral-experienced participants from Cape Town, South Africa, and Baltimore, USA, were recruited. The sensitivity and specificity of the five tools, as well as those of the combined IHDS and CAT-rapid, were established using 2 × 2 contingency tables and ROC analysis. More than a third (65165) had symptomatic HAND. In detecting HIV-D, the CAT-Rapid had good sensitivity (94 %) and weak specificity (52 %) (cut-point ≤10), while the IHDS showed fair sensitivity (68 %) and good specificity (86 %) (cut-point ≤10). The combined IHDS and CAT-rapid showed excellent sensitivity and specificity for HIV-D at a cut-off score of ≤16 (out of 20; 89 and 82 %). No tool was adequate in screening for any HAND. The combination IHDS and CAT-rapid tool appears to be a good screener for HIV-D but is only fairly sensitive and poorly specific in screening for any HAND. Screening for milder forms of HAND continues to be a clinical challenge.

  4. A comparison of the job-satisfied and job-dissatisfied environmental health officer in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Louw

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Environmental health is one of the key areas in the Reconstruction and Development Programme in South Africa because of its close links with the primary prevention of disease. The possibility of individual differences between job-satisfied and job-dissatisfied environmental health officers were investigated. The individual differences found between these groups can be used to select and train students for training who show a tendency towards the indicated personality traits. A relationship is indicated by researchers between job-satisfaction and job performance; it can therefore be expected that the selection of environmental health officers with the indicated tendencies in personality, values, achievement motivation, interests and biographical information will have a positive effect on productivity in environmental health. Opsomming Omgewingsgesondheid is een van die sleutelareas in die Heropbou- en Ontwikkelingsprogram in Suid-Afrika, vanwee die noue band wat dit met die primere voorkoming van siektes het. Hierdie studie ondersoek die moontlikheid van individuele verskille tussen werkstevrede en nie-werkstevrede omgewingsgesondheidsbeamptes. Die individuele verskille wat tussen die groepe gevind is, kan gebruik word vir die keuring en opieiding van studente met n neiging tot die aangeduide persoonlikheidstrekke.'n Verband word tussen werkstevredenheid en werksprestasie word deur navorsers aangedui. Daar kan dus verwag word dat die keuring van omgewingsgesondheidsbeamptes met die aangeduide geneigdhede in persoonlikheid, waardes, prestasiemotiverings, belangstellings en biografiese besonderhede, n positiewe bydrae tot produktiwiteit in Omgewingsgesondheid sal lewer.

  5. CSIR South Africa mobile LIDAR—First scientific results: comparison with satellite, sun photometer and model simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Bollig, C.; Mengistu, G.; Sharma, A.; W. Alemu; D. Moema; Tesfaye, M; Sivakumar, V

    2010-01-01

    We present the first scientific results from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research–National Laser Centre (CSIR-NLC) mobile LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) and its validation and comparison with other ground-based and space-borne measurements. The LIDAR results are compared with aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratosphere Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE) II, optical depth derived from sun photometers employed under the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) and backscatter c...

  6. A Comparison of the Antimicrobial Activity and Toxicity of Six Combretum and Two Terminalia Species from Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I E Cock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plants of the family Combretaceae are amongst the most widely used plants for traditional medicinal purposes in southern Africa. In particular, many species of Combretum and Terminalia are used for their antibacterial, antifungal, antiprotozoal, antiviral, antidiarrhoeal, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, yet their antimicrobial potential has not been rigorously studied and compared. Materials and Methods: A survey of antimicrobial activity was undertaken on selected South African Combretum and Terminalia species. Sixteen extracts from 6 Combretum and 2 Terminalia plant species with a history of medicinal usage were investigated by disc diffusion assay against a panel of bacteria and fungi and their MIC values were determined. Toxicity was determined using the Artemia franciscana nauplii bioassay. Results: All extracts tested displayed broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 12-16 (75-100% of the bacteria tested, with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria being approximately equally susceptible. Potent antibacterial activities (generally in the range 200-5000 μg/ml were evident for all Combretaceae extracts against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the extracts also displayed good antifungal activity, inhibiting the growth of 2-3 (66.7-100% of the fungal species tested, with fungal growth inhibition activities generally in the range 200-4000 μg/ml. In general, the Terminalia extracts had better efficacies than the Combretum extracts. Furthermore, the methanol extracts were generally better antimicrobial agents than the water extracts. All extracts were also shown to be non-toxic in the Artemia nauplii bioassay. Conclusion: The lack of toxicity of these extracts and their inhibitory bioactivity against a panel of bacteria and fungi indicate their potential as medicinal agents and partially validate their usage in multiple South

  7. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Zahn

    Full Text Available In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM.

  8. Human Rights Violations among Men Who Have Sex with Men in Southern Africa: Comparisons between Legal Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahn, Ryan; Grosso, Ashley; Scheibe, Andrew; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Ketende, Sosthenes; Dausab, Friedel; Iipinge, Scholastica; Beyrer, Chris; Trapance, Gift; Baral, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    In 1994, South Africa approved a constitution providing freedom from discrimination based on sexual orientation. Other Southern African countries, including Botswana, Malawi, and Namibia, criminalize same-sex behavior. Men who have sex with men (MSM) have been shown to experience high levels of stigma and discrimination, increasing their vulnerability to negative health and other outcomes. This paper examines the relationship between criminalization of same-sex behavior and experiences of human rights abuses by MSM. It compares the extent to which MSM in peri-urban Cape Town experience human rights abuses with that of MSM in Gaborone, Botswana; Blantyre and Lilongwe, Malawi; and Windhoek, Namibia. In 2008, 737 MSM participated in a cross-sectional study using a structured survey collecting data regarding demographics, human rights, HIV status, and risk behavior. Participants accrued in each site were compared using bivariate and multivariate logistic regression. Encouragingly, the results indicate MSM in Cape Town were more likely to disclose their sexual orientation to family or healthcare workers and less likely to be blackmailed or feel afraid in their communities than MSM in Botswana, Malawi, or Namibia. However, South African MSM were not statistically significantly less likely experience a human rights abuse than their peers in cities in other study countries, showing that while legal protections may reduce experiences of certain abuses, legislative changes alone are insufficient for protecting MSM. A comprehensive approach with interventions at multiple levels in multiple sectors is needed to create the legal and social change necessary to address attitudes, discrimination, and violence affecting MSM.

  9. CSIR South Africa mobile LIDAR—First scientific results: comparison with satellite, sun photometer and model simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Bollig

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available We present the first scientific results from the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research–National Laser Centre (CSIR-NLC mobile LIght Detection And Ranging (LIDAR and its validation and comparison with other ground-based and space-borne measurements. The LIDAR results are compared with aerosol extinction measurements from the Stratosphere Aerosol Gas Experiment (SAGE II, optical depth derived from sun photometers employed under the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET and backscatter coefficients simulated from weather balloon humidity measurements.

  10. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain-Alkhateeb, Laith; Fottrell, Edward; Petzold, Max; Kahn, Kathleen; Byass, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Background Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA) is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Method Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228) from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Results Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15–49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Conclusion Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low community

  11. Local perceptions of causes of death in rural South Africa: a comparison of perceived and verbal autopsy causes of death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laith Hussain-Alkhateeb

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding how lay people perceive the causes of mortality and their associated risk factors is important for public health. In resource-limited settings, where verbal autopsy (VA is used as the most expedient method of determining cause of death, it is important to understand how pre-existing concepts of cause of death among VA-informants may influence their VA-responses and the consequential impact on cause of death assessment. This study describes the agreement between VA-derived causes of death and informant-perceived causes and associated influential factors, which also reflects lay health literacy in this setting. Method: Using 20 years of VA data (n=11,228 from the Agincourt Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS site in rural South Africa, we explored the agreement between the causes of death perceived by the VA-informants and those assigned by the automated Inter-VA tool. Kappa statistics and concordance correlation coefficients were applied to measure agreement at individual and population levels, respectively. Multivariable regression models were used to explore factors associated with recognised lay perceptions of causes of mortality. Results: Agreement between informant-perceived and VA-derived causes of death at the individual level was limited, but varied substantially by cause of death. However, agreement at the population level, comparing cause-specific mortality fractions was higher, with the notable exception of bewitchment as a cause. More recent deaths, those in adults aged 15–49 years, deaths outside the home, and those associated with external causes showed higher concordance with InterVA. Conclusion: Overall, informant perception of causes of death was limited, but depended on informant characteristics and causes of death, and to some extent involved non-biomedical constructs. Understanding discordance between perceived and recognised causes of death is important for public health planning; low

  12. Comparison of mosquito control programs in seven urban sites in Africa, the Middle East, and the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impoinvil, Daniel E.; Ahmad, Sajjad; Troyo, Adriana; Keating, Joseph; Githeko, Andrew K.; Mbogo, Charles M; Kibe, Lydiah; Githure, John I.; Gad, Adel M.; Hassan, Ali N.; Orshan, Laor; Warburg, Alon; Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Sánchez-Loría, Victoria M.; Velit-Suarez, Rosanna; Chadee, Dave D.; Novak, Robert J.; Beier, John C.

    2007-01-01

    Mosquito control programs at seven urban sites in Kenya, Egypt, Israel, Costa Rica, and Trinidad are described and compared. Site-specific urban and disease characteristics, organizational diagrams, and strengths, weaknesses, obstacles and threats (SWOT) analysis tools are used to provide a descriptive assessment of each mosquito control program, and provide a comparison of the factors affecting mosquito abatement. The information for SWOT analysis is collected from surveys, focus group discussions, and personal communication. SWOT analysis identified various issues affecting the efficiency and sustainability of mosquito control operations. The main outcome of our work was the description and comparison of mosquito control operations within the context of each study site’s biological, social, political, management, and economic conditions. The issues identified in this study ranged from lack of inter-sector collaboration to operational issues of mosquito control efforts. A lack of sustainable funding for mosquito control was a common problem for most sites. Many unique problems were also identified, which included lack of mosquito surveillance, lack of law enforcement, and negative consequences of human behavior. Identifying common virtues and shortcomings of mosquito control operations is useful in identifying “best practices” for mosquito control operations, thus leading to better control of mosquito biting and mosquito-borne disease transmission. PMID:17316882

  13. AFRICA2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.

  14. Activity measurements of the radionuclides 18F and 99mTc for the NMISA, South Africa in the ongoing comparisons BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Nonis, M.; Van Rooy, M. W.; Van Staden, M. J.; Lubbe, J.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, comparisons of activity measurements of 18F and 99mTc using the Transfer Instrument of the International Reference System (SIRTI) took place at the National Metrology Institute of South Africa (NMISA, South Africa). Ampoules containing about 25 kBq of 18F and 99mTc solutions were measured in the SIRTI for more than two half-lives. The NMISA standardized the activity in the ampoules by ionization chamber measurements traceable to 4π(LS)β-γ coincidence measurements. The comparisons, identifiers BIPM.RI(II)-K4.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K4.Tc-99m, are linked to the corresponding BIPM.RI(II)-K1.F-18 and BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Tc-99m comparisons and degrees of equivalence with the respective key comparison reference values have been evaluated. Main text To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  15. A comparison of the research and publication patterns and output of academic librarians in eastern and southern Africa from 1990-2006:a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sitienei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the research and publication patterns of academic librarians in eastern and southern Africa. The study confined its scope to publications produced between 1990 and 2006. Bibliometric techniques through content analysis were used as a research method. Two online databases, namely LISTA and WORLDCAT were used for publication searches. Names of academic librarians were retrieved from their respective academic library websites and used as keywords for retrieving data from the two online databases. A total of 866 academic librarians, i.e. 755 from southern Africa and 111 from eastern Africa, were identified and their research publication records analysed. The results indicate that in terms of publications per librarian there was no significant difference between southern Africa and eastern Africa; South Africa was the most productive country in terms of publications; the University of Botswana Library was the most prolific library; Muswazi from the University of Witwatersrand and Pienaar from the University of Pretoria were the most productive academic librarians; academic librarians in eastern Africa preferred publishing in foreign journals while those from southern Africa published more in domestic journals led by South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science; the publication output of the two regions was inconsistent (up-down trend during this period; the main subject area of librarians in both regions was Information Technology; most academic librarians from both regions preferred publishing individually; and the most published type of document in both regions was journal articles.

  16. Specialist physician knowledge of chronic kidney disease: A comparison of internists and family physicians in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonios H. Tzamaloukas

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postgraduate training is aimed at equipping the trainee with the necessary skills to practise as an expert. Non-nephrology specialist physicians render the bulk of pre-end-stage renal disease care for patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD. We sought to ascertain the knowledge of CKD amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians who serve as trainers and examiners for a training, accrediting and certifying body in postgraduate medicine in West Africa. We also compared the knowledge of family physicians and non-nephrology internists.Methods: Self-administered questionnaires were distributed to non-nephrology specialist physicians who serve as examiners for the West African College of Physicians.Results: Only 19 (27.5% of the respondents were aware of the Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiatives guidelines for CKD management. Twenty five (36.2% of the respondents had adequate knowledge of CKD. There was no significant difference in the proportion of family physicians and non-nephrology internists who had adequate knowledge of CKD (27.3% vs. 40.4% respectively; p = 0.28. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were identified by all of the physicians as risk factors for CKD. Non-nephrology internists more frequently identified systemic lupus erythematosus as a risk factor for CKD, urinalysis with microscopy as a laboratory test for CKD evaluation, and bone disease as a complication of CKD than family physicians.Conclusion: There is a lack of adequate CKD knowledge amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians, since many of them are unaware of the CKD management guidelines. Educational efforts are needed to improve the knowledge of CKD amongst non-nephrology specialist physicians. Guidelines on CKD need to be widely disseminated amongst these physicians.Connaissances des spécialistes des maladies rénales chroniques : Une comparaison des internistes et des médecins de famille en Afrique de l’OuestContexte: La formation de troisi

  17. Epilepsy: Asia versus Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, Devender; Tchalla, Achille Edem; Marin, Benoît; Ngoungou, Edgard Brice; Tan, Chong Tin; Preux, Pierre-Marie

    2014-09-01

    Is epilepsy truly an "African ailment"? We aimed to determine this, since international health agencies often refer to epilepsy as an African disease and the scientific literature has spoken the same tone. Various published materials, mainly reports, articles, were used to gather Asian and African evidence on various aspects of epilepsy and many of its risk and associated factors. Our results suggest that in no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment and such characterization is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. In comparison to Africa, Asia has a 5.0% greater burden from all diseases, and is 17.0% more affected from neuropsychiatric disorders (that include epilepsy). Given that more countries in Asia are transitioning, there may be large demographic and lifestyle changes in the near future. However these changes are nowhere close to those expected in Africa. Moreover, 23 million Asians have epilepsy in comparison to 3.3 million Africans and 1.2 million sub-Saharan Africans. In comparison to Africa, Asia has more untreated patients, 55.0% more additional epilepsy cases every year, because of its larger population, with greater treatment cost and possibly higher premature mortality. Of several associated factors discussed herein, many have more importance for Asia than Africa. The current state of epilepsy in Asia is far less than ideal and there is an urgent need to recognize and accept the importance of epilepsy in Asia. In no way can epilepsy be considered as an African ailment. This is most likely based on popular beliefs rather than scientific evidence. A PowerPoint slide summarizing this article is available for download in the Supporting Information section here.

  18. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  19. Climate scenarios for semi-arid and sub-humid regions. A comparison of climate scenarios for the dryland regions, in West Africa from 1990 to 2050

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Born GJ; Schaeffer M; Leemans R; NOP

    2001-01-01

    The identification of climate scenarios for dryland areas in Sub-Saharan West Africa is part of a project to assess the impact of climate change on water availability, agriculture and food security in drylands (ICCD-project). The project is financed by Netherlands Research Programme on Global Air P

  20. West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  1. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  2. Efficacy comparison between anti-malarial drugs in Africans presenting with mild malaria in the Central Republic of Africa: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nambei W.S.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Drug resistance to Plasmodium falciparum contributes to major health problems in central Africa and, as a consequence, poverty. We have analyzed the efficacy of three currently available antimalarial drugs to treat symptomatic, uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria in semiimmune adults living in Bangui, Central Republic of Africa. 210 consecutive individuals were enrolled in the survey, of which 45 were excluded. Those having received dihydroartemisin proved significantly less parasitemic than those having received quinine per os or sulfadoxin-pyrimethamin (χ2 = 16.93 ; p < 0.05, and 75 % recovered in two days compared to 57 and 44 %, respectively. The 25 % who did not recover benefited from a second cure with dihydroartemisin, which proved 100 % efficient. The most accurate protocol remains to be established by analyzing clinical and parasitological data and taking into account the economics of the country.

  3. Climate scenarios for semi-arid and sub-humid regions. A comparison of climate scenarios for the dryland regions, in West Africa from 1990 to 2050

    OpenAIRE

    van den Born GJ; Schaeffer M; Leemans R; NOP

    2001-01-01

    The identification of climate scenarios for dryland areas in Sub-Saharan West Africa is part of a project to assess the impact of climate change on water availability, agriculture and food security in drylands (ICCD-project). The project is financed by Netherlands Research Programme on Global Air Pollution and Climate Change (NRP) and part of theme 'Vulnerability of Natural and Social Systems for Climate'. The report describes the development and description of climate scenarios by ...

  4. The pull of inter-provincial migration of rural labor force and its influence on policy-making

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huo Weidong; Deng Guoying; Wang Peng; Yang Xiaojun

    2006-01-01

    As a social phenomenon closely related to development of economy, the population is always the focus of economists' attention. Based on the fifth census in 2001, this paper analyzes labor migration in Hubei Province and establishes an econometric model to analyze the pull according to the push and pull theory, which is the famous theory on the population flow and migration. It points out that the per capita consumption and the employment rate attract strongly the rural labors and makes a deep exploration into the ensuing problems. Such conclusion is a special reference to the decision-making of government. The government can provide some guidance to the rural labors according to the per capita consumption and the employment rate in order to avoid the futility of blind migration.

  5. Towards an optimal design of target for tsetse control: comparisons of novel targets for the control of Palpalis group tsetse in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Baptiste Rayaisse

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tsetse flies of the Palpalis group are the main vectors of sleeping sickness in Africa. Insecticide impregnated targets are one of the most effective tools for control. However, the cost of these devices still represents a constraint to their wider use. The objective was therefore to improve the cost effectiveness of currently used devices. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments were performed on three tsetse species, namely Glossina palpalis gambiensis and G. tachinoides in Burkina Faso and G. p. palpalis in Côte d'Ivoire. The 1 × 1 m(2 black blue black target commonly used in W. Africa was used as the standard, and effects of changes in target size, shape, and the use of netting instead of black cloth were measured. Regarding overall target shape, we observed that horizontal targets (i.e. wider than they were high killed 1.6-5x more G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides than vertical ones (i.e. higher than they were wide (P < 0.001. For the three tsetse species including G. p. palpalis, catches were highly correlated with the size of the target. However, beyond the size of 0.75 m, there was no increase in catches. Replacing the black cloth of the target by netting was the most cost efficient for all three species. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Reducing the size of the current 1*1 m black-blue-black target to horizontal designs of around 50 cm and replacing black cloth by netting will improve cost effectiveness six-fold for both G. p. gambiensis and G. tachinoides. Studying the visual responses of tsetse to different designs of target has allowed us to design more cost-effective devices for the effective control of sleeping sickness and animal trypanosomiasis in Africa.

  6. Rediscovering Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which China and Africa began a friendship that was built around Beijing’s political backing and developmental aid to a crop of emerging indepen- dent African nations.In the 1980s and 1990s,China shifted its focus by devoting more efforts to establishing a rapport with big powers and neighboring countries to create a sound environment for self-development.Since the turn of the cen- tury,however,the African continent has been rediscovered by China as a strategic partner in many areas.As the Chinese market has flourished,so too has the African economy,which maintained a growth momentum in recent years and has achieved a modest prosperity rarely seen in its history. He Fan,Deputy Director of the Research Center on International Finance affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shared his comments about this partnership on blog on the eve of the New Year.

  7. Quantifying the role of biosphere-atmosphere feedbacks in climate change: coupled model simulations for 6000 years BP and comparison with palaeodata for northern Eurasia and northern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Texier, D.; de Noblet, N. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. de Modelisation du Climat et de l`Environnement; Harrison, S.P.; Laarif, F. [Dynamic Palaeoclimatology, Lund University, Box 117, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden); Haxeltine, A. [Physical Geography, Lund University, S-22100 Lund (Sweden); Jolly, D.; Prentice, I.C. [Global Systems Group, Department of Ecology, Ecology Building, S-223 b2 Lund (Sweden); Joussaume, S. [CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Lab. de Modelisation du Climat et de l`Environnement]|[Laboratoire d`Oceanographie Dynamique et de Climatologie, CNRS/ORSTOM/UPCM, Paris (France); Tarasov, P. [Dynamic Palaeoclimatology, Lund University, Box 117, S-221 00 Lund (Sweden)]|[Department of Geography, Moscow State University, 119 899 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-01

    The LMD AGCM was iteratively coupled to the global BIOME1 model in order to explore the role of vegetation-climate interactions in response to mid-Holocene (6000 y BP) orbital forcing. The sea-surface temperature and sea-ice distribution used were present-day and CO{sub 2} concentration was preindustrial. The land surface was initially prescribed with present-day vegetation. Initial climate ``anomalies`` (differences between AGCM results for 6000 y BP and control) were used to drive BIOME1; the simulated vegetation was provided to a further AGCM run, and so on. Results after five iterations were compared to the initial results in order to identify vegetation feedbacks. These were centred on regions showing strong initial responses. The orbitally induced high-latitude summer warming, and the intensification and extension of Northern Hemisphere tropical monsoons, were both amplified by vegetation feedbacks. Vegetation feedbacks were smaller than the initial orbital effects for most regions and seasons, but in West Africa the summer precipitation increase more than doubled in response to changes in vegetation. In the last iteration, global tundra area was reduced by 25% and the southern limit of the Sahara desert was shifted 2.5 N north (to 18 N) relative to today. These results were compared with 6000 y BP observational data recording forest-tundra boundary changes in northern Eurasia and savana-desert boundary changes in northern Africa. Although the inclusion of vegetation feedbacks improved the qualitative agreement between the model results and the data, the simulated changes were still insufficient, perhaps due to the lack of ocean-surface feedbacks. (orig.) With 8 figs., 4 tabs., 80 refs.

  8. Adventure in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelProsser

    2004-01-01

    In 1990 to 1991, my wife and I taught at the University of Swaziland in southeast Africa. Swaziland is one of the only three country kingdoms in Africa, with Morocco and Leaotho as the others. Swaziland is surrouded by South Africa on three sides and on one side by Mozambique. it has ling been called the peaceful kingdom and is 97% black.

  9. The Dragon Enters Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    Tren , Richard. "State in Fear: Zimbabwe’s Tragedy is Africa:s Shame", . May-June 2005, 10, http:/ /www.reliefweb.int/library/documents/2005/afm...Ncube, Roger Bate, and Richard Tren , "State in Fear: Zimbabwe’s Tragedy is Africa’s Shame", May-June 2005, 10, http:/ /www.reliefweb.int/library

  10. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in collecti

  11. Social Security Programs Throughout the World: Africa, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — This report, which is part of a four-volume series, provides a cross-national comparison of the social security systems in 48 countries in Africa. It summarizes the...

  12. Prevalence and comparison of Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus in raw and fermented dairy products from East and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jans, Christoph; Kaindi, Dasel Wambua Mulwa; Böck, Désirée; Njage, Patrick Murigu Kamau; Kouamé-Sina, Sylvie Mireille; Bonfoh, Bassirou; Lacroix, Christophe; Meile, Leo

    2013-10-15

    Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius (Sii) and Streptococcus gallolyticus subsp. macedonicus are members of the Streptococcus bovis/Streptococcus equinus complex (SBSEC) associated with human infections. SBSEC-related endocarditis was furthermore associated with rural residency in Southern Europe. SBSEC members are increasingly isolated as predominant species from fermented dairy products in Europe, Asia and Africa. African variants of Sii displayed dairy adaptations to lactose metabolism paralleling those of Streptococcus thermophilus including genome decay. In this study, the aim was to assess the prevalence of Sii and possibly other SBSEC members in dairy products of East and West Africa in order to identify their habitat, estimate their importance in dairy fermentation processes and determine geographic areas affected by this potential health risk. Presumptive SBSEC members were isolated on semi-selective M17 and SM agar media. Subsequent genotypic identification of isolates was based on rep-PCR fingerprinting and SBSEC-specific16S rRNA gene PCR assay. Detailed identification was achieved through application of novel primers enhancing the binding stringency in partial groES/groEL gene amplification and subsequent DNA sequencing. The presence of S. thermophilus-like lacS and lacZ genes in the SBSEC isolates was determined to elucidate the prevalence of this dairy adaptation. Isolates (n = 754) were obtained from 72 raw and 95 fermented milk samples from Côte d'Ivoire and Kenya on semi-selective agar media. Colonies of Sii were not detected from raw milk despite high microbial titers of approximately 10(6)CFU/mL on M17 agar medium. However, after spontaneous milk fermentation Sii was genotypically identified in 94.1% of Kenyan samples and 60.8% of Kenyan isolates. Sii prevalence in Côte d'Ivoire displayed seasonal variations in samples from 32.3% (June) to 40.0% (Dec/Jan) and isolates from 20.5% (June) to 27.7% (Dec/Jan) present at titers of 10

  13. HIV incidence in rural South Africa: comparison of estimates from longitudinal surveillance and cross-sectional cBED assay testing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Bärnighausen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The BED IgG-Capture Enzyme Immunoassay (cBED assay, a test of recent HIV infection, has been used to estimate HIV incidence in cross-sectional HIV surveys. However, there has been concern that the assay overestimates HIV incidence to an unknown extent because it falsely classifies some individuals with non-recent HIV infections as recently infected. We used data from a longitudinal HIV surveillance in rural South Africa to measure the fraction of people with non-recent HIV infection who are falsely classified as recently HIV-infected by the cBED assay (the long-term false-positive ratio (FPR and compared cBED assay-based HIV incidence estimates to longitudinally measured HIV incidence. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured the long-term FPR in individuals with two positive HIV tests (in the HIV surveillance, 2003-2006 more than 306 days apart (sample size n = 1,065. We implemented four different formulae to calculate HIV incidence using cBED assay testing (n = 11,755 and obtained confidence intervals (CIs by directly calculating the central 95(th percentile of incidence values. We observed 4,869 individuals over 7,685 person-years for longitudinal HIV incidence estimation. The long-term FPR was 0.0169 (95% CI 0.0100-0.0266. Using this FPR, the cross-sectional cBED-based HIV incidence estimates (per 100 people per year varied between 3.03 (95% CI 2.44-3.63 and 3.19 (95% CI 2.57-3.82, depending on the incidence formula. Using a long-term FPR of 0.0560 based on previous studies, HIV incidence estimates varied between 0.65 (95% CI 0.00-1.32 and 0.71 (95% CI 0.00-1.43. The longitudinally measured HIV incidence was 3.09 per 100 people per year (95% CI 2.69-3.52, after adjustment to the sex-age distribution of the sample used in cBED assay-based estimation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In a rural community in South Africa with high HIV prevalence, the long-term FPR of the cBED assay is substantially lower than previous estimates. The c

  14. ‘Going private’: a qualitative comparison of medical specialists’ job satisfaction in the public and private sectors of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashmore John

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a highly inequitable distribution of health workers between public and private sectors in South Africa, partly due to within-country migration trends. This article elaborates what South African medical specialists find satisfying about working in the public and private sectors, at present, and how to better incentivize retention in the public sector. Methods Seventy-four qualitative interviews were conducted - among specialists and key informants - based in one public and one private urban hospital in South Africa. Interviews were coded to determine common job satisfaction factors, both financial and non-financial in nature. This served as background to a broader study on the impacts of specialist ‘dual practice’, that is, moonlighting. All qualitative specialist respondents were engaged in dual practice, generally working in both public and private sectors. Respondents were thus able to compare what was satisfying about these sectors, having experience of both. Results Results demonstrate that although there are strong financial incentives for specialists to migrate from the public to the private sector, public work can be attractive in some ways. For example, the public hospital sector generally provides more of a team environment, more academic opportunities, and greater opportunities to feel ‘needed’ and ‘relevant’. However, public specialists suffer under poor resource availability, lack of trust for the Department of Health, and poor perceived career opportunities. These non-financial issues of public sector dissatisfaction appeared just as important, if not more important, than wage disparities. Conclusions The results are useful for understanding both what brings specialists to migrate to the private sector, and what keeps some working in the public sector. Policy recommendations center around boosting public sector resources and building trust of the public sector through including health workers

  15. Comparison of 3 tests to detect acaricide resistance in Boophilus decoloratus on dairy farms in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mekonnen

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the larval offspring of engorged female Boophilus decoloratus, and of the engorged females, collected from cattle on the dairy farms Brycedale, Sunny Grove and Welgevind in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, was tested against the acaricides amitraz, chlorfenvinphos and cypermethrin. Resistance was determined by means of the Shaw Larval Immersion Test (SLIT for larvae and the Reproductive Estimate Test (RET and Egg Laying Test (ELT for adults. At Brycedale the tests all indicated resistance to chlorfenvinphos, and RET and ELT indicated resistance to amitraz and emerging resistance to cypermethrin. At Sunny Grove, B. decoloratus was resistant to cypermethrin using SLIT and exhibited emerging resistance to chlorfenvinphos with SLIT and to cypermethrin with both RET and ELT. At Welgevind, resistance was recorded against chlorfenvinphos (SLIT and against cypermethrin (ELT, and emerging resistance against permethrin (RET. The results obtained with RET and ELT were generally comparable, but often differed from those obtained with SLIT. Resistance could be detected within 7 days with ELT compared to 42 days with RET and 60 days with SLIT.

  16. Africa Curriculum. World Neighbors in the Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    World Neighbors, Inc., Oklahoma City, OK.

    This collection of lessons about the geography, languages, and social issues of several African countries is intended for use with students in grades 6-12. The collection contains five lesson plans: (1) "Africa Physically" (Mark Stahl); (2) "Comparisons of Education in Burkina Faso, Kenya, and Oklahoma" (Rita Geiger) (Handout…

  17. A comparison of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging for mapping patterns of herbivore species abundance in Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerry, Ruth; Goovaerts, Pierre; Smit, Izak P J; Ingram, Ben R

    Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, provides protected habitats for the unique animals of the African savannah. For the past 40 years, annual aerial surveys of herbivores have been conducted to aid management decisions based on (1) the spatial distribution of species throughout the park and (2) total species populations in a year. The surveys are extremely time consuming and costly. For many years, the whole park was surveyed, but in 1998 a transect survey approach was adopted. This is cheaper and less time consuming but leaves gaps in the data spatially. Also the distance method currently employed by the park only gives estimates of total species populations but not their spatial distribution. We compare the ability of multiple indicator kriging and area-to-point Poisson kriging to accurately map species distribution in the park. A leave-one-out cross-validation approach indicates that multiple indicator kriging makes poor estimates of the number of animals, particularly the few large counts, as the indicator variograms for such high thresholds are pure nugget. Poisson kriging was applied to the prediction of two types of abundance data: spatial density and proportion of a given species. Both Poisson approaches had standardized mean absolute errors (St. MAEs) of animal counts at least an order of magnitude lower than multiple indicator kriging. The spatial density, Poisson approach (1), gave the lowest St. MAEs for the most abundant species and the proportion, Poisson approach (2), did for the least abundant species. Incorporating environmental data into Poisson approach (2) further reduced St. MAEs.

  18. Comparison between focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error among students in underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aina, A S; Oluleye, T S; Olusanya, B A

    2016-11-01

    PurposeTo compare focometer and autorefractor in the measurement of refractive errors among students in an underserved community of sub-Saharan Africa.MethodsThe study was a descriptive comparative cross-sectional study conducted in October/November 2014 among secondary school students of Ijaiye-Orile, Oyo State, Nigeria. Students were selected using systematic random sampling method. Ocular examination and measurement of refractive error was carried out on each student using a focometer and an autorefractor.ResultsA total of 230 students were studied. Mean age of the students was 15.1±1.9 years with a range of 13-21 years. Refractive error was detected in 95 (41.3%) of the students using autorefractor and in 81 (35.2%) with focometer. Among those found to have refractive error using autorefractor, 75 (78.9%) students had a difference of ≤±0.75 DS between the autorefractor and focometer readings. The sensitivity and specificity of the focometer relative to the autorefractor was 73.7% and 91.9%, respectively.ConclusionThe focometer is comparable to the autorefractor in the measurement of refractive error because of its high sensitivity and specificity. The high positive and negative predictive values makes the focometer an effective tool for both screening and diagnosis of refractive error in rural areas among secondary schools students. Its use would make refractive service available and affordable to individuals living in the resource poor rural communities thereby reducing the burden of refractive error in such areas. The focometer should also be a useful tool in school eye health programs.

  19. Assessing household wealth in health studies in developing countries: a comparison of participatory wealth ranking and survey techniques from rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hargreaves James R

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate tools for assessing household wealth are essential for many health studies in developing countries. Household survey and participatory wealth ranking (PWR are two approaches to generate data for this purpose. Methods A household survey and PWR were conducted among eight villages in rural South Africa. We developed three indicators of household wealth using the data. One indicator used PWR data only, one used principal components analysis to combine data from the survey, while the final indicator used survey data combined in a manner informed by the PWR. We assessed internal consistency of the indices and assessed their level of agreement in ranking household wealth. Results Food security, asset ownership, housing quality and employment were important indicators of household wealth. PWR, consisting of three independent rankings of 9671 households, showed a high level of internal consistency (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.81, 95% CI 0.79–0.82. Data on 1429 households were available from all three techniques. There was moderate agreement in ranking households into wealth tertiles between the two indicators based on survey data (spearman rho = 0.69, kappa = 0.43, but only limited agreement between these techniques and the PWR data (spearman rho = 0.38 and 0.31, kappa = 0.20 and 0.17. Conclusion Both PWR and household survey can provide a rapid assessment of household wealth. Each technique had strengths and weaknesses. Reasons for differences might include data inaccuracies or limitations in the methods by which information was weighted. Alternatively, the techniques may measure different things. More research is needed to increase the validity of measures of socioeconomic position used in health studies in developing countries.

  20. The China-Africa Saga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    China and Africa make good partners in development chinese President Hu Jintao’s recent visit to Africa exemplified three leading features of China’s policy toward Africa:all-round cooperation,unwavering assistance and commitment to

  1. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  2. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  3. Africa, Agriculture, Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyvenhoven, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a world that is developing fast, Africa¿s relative stagnation is a human tragedy that challenges the development profession. Although climate and geography, and their effect on local institutions, are not in Africa¿s favour, inappropriate policies (including neglect of agriculture) and weak insti

  4. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  5. Description and comparison of the pupae of a further two Culicoides (Avaritia species from the dung of large herbivores in South Africa (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilda Nevill

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In 2007 Nevill, Venter, Meiswinkel & Nevill demonstrated that the pupae of five Culicoides species belonging to the Imicola complex of the subgenus Avaritia could readily be differentiated from one another using various morphological characters. Three of the described species, Culicoides bolitinos Meiswinkel 1989; Culicoides loxodontis Meiswinkel 1992 and Culicoides sp. # 107 (= C. kwagga, Meiswinkel, unpublished thesis 1995, were reared from the dung of large herbivores, which included buffaloes, elephants, white and black rhinoceroses and zebras. However, during that study a further two Avaritia species, neither of which belonged to the Imicola complex, were reared from dung and these are the subject of the present study. For the past 20 years the adults of these two new closely related species have been known as Culicoides sp. # 54 pale form (p.f. Meiswinkel and Culicoides sp. # 54 dark form (d.f. Meiswinkel. The taxonomic description and formal naming of the adults of these two species has yet to be done. The present description and comparison of their pupae show that they are two clearly distinct species; that there is no group of morphological characters that can be used to differentiate these two species from the previously described five species of the Imicola complex; and finally that there was no difference between the pupae of C. sp. # 54 d.f. nor C. sp. # 54 p.f. reared from the dung of different host animals.

  6. Sampling host-seeking anthropophilic mosquito vectors in west Africa: comparisons of an active human-baited tent-trap against gold standard methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajacich, Benjamin J; Slade, Jeremiah R; Mulligan, Robert F; LaBrecque, Brendan; Alout, Haoues; Grubaugh, Nathan D; Meyers, Jacob I; Fakoli, Lawrence S; Bolay, Fatorma K; Brackney, Doug E; Burton, Timothy A; Seaman, Jonathan A; Diclaro, Joseph W; Dabiré, Roch K; Foy, Brian D

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we characterize the ability of the previously described Infoscitex tent (IST) to capture mosquitoes in comparison to either the Centers for Disease Control Light Trap hung next to individuals under a bed net (LTC) or to human landing catches (HLC). In Senegal, the IST caught 6.14 times the number of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), and 8.78 times the Culex group V mosquitoes as LTC. In one of two locations in Burkina Faso, the IST caught An. gambiae at a rate not significantly different than HLC. Of importance, 9.1-36.1% of HLC caught An. gambiae were blood fed, mostly with fresh blood, suggesting they fed upon the collector, whereas only 0.5-5.0% from the IST had partial or old blood. The IST also caught outdoor biting species in proportions comparable to HLC. The results show this tent provides a safer and effective alternative to the skill-dependent, risky, and laborious HLC method.

  7. Trophic structure and diversity in rocky intertidal upwelling ecosystems: A comparison of community patterns across California, Chile, South Africa and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchette, C. A.; Wieters, E. A.; Broitman, B. R.; Kinlan, B. P.; Schiel, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Benguela, California, and Humboldt represent three of the major eastern boundary upwelling ecosystems in the world. Upwelling ecosystems are highly productive, and this productivity forms the base of the food chain, potentially leading to ecosystems similar in trophic structure and diversity among upwelling regions. Here we compare the biological and trophic structure of rocky intertidal communities in each of these major upwelling regions. Our comparison includes a fourth region, New Zealand, which spans a similar latitudinal range, and experiences intermittent upwelling. The influence of oceanographic conditions on these communities was evaluated by using the long-term mean and standard deviation of satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST). Large differences emerged in the taxonomic richness in each of these systems, with California as the most and the Humboldt as the least taxonomically rich. Across all regions, richness tended to decrease progressively from lower trophic levels (macrophytes) to higher trophic levels (carnivores), and richness was inversely correlated with the proportion of variance in SST contained in the seasonal cycle, suggesting that strongly seasonal, predictable environments are relatively low in diversity. The functional and trophic structures were remarkably similar across these four regions of the world. Macrophytes were slightly dominant over filter-feeders in terms of space occupancy in all regions except the Benguela. Densities of herbivorous grazers were greatest in California and Benguela and far outnumbered carnivore densities in all regions. Despite some similarities, the overall structure of the communities from these regions differed significantly supporting the hypothesis that the biological and ecological consequences of similar physical forcing mechanisms (e.g. upwelling) are likely to be context-dependent.

  8. Moravia in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Casini

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Though his fiction is deeply linked to Rome and Italy, we cannot understand the cultural figure of Alberto Moravia (1907-1990, if we do not consider his experience as a traveller. In particular, there is no other Italian or European writer of his generation, who had such a tight connection with Africa, which Moravia used to visit almost every year from 1963 until 1987. He wrote three books on this continent. «I would have to go to Africa twenty, thirty years before: instead I went very late in my life, when I was fifty. I do not know why I didn’t. I regret it. For me, Africa is the most beautiful thing in the world». This paper reconstructs the reasons and the stages that brought Moravia to Africa in detail, it also focuses on his travels as a European citizen, who  starts his journey from the coasts to the “heart of the black continent", sometimes following  the footsteps of his favorite Africanist writers, such as Conrad, Rimbaud, Gide, Hemingway and Céline, but always pursuing his own question, looking for his own Africa, which is indeed connected to his deepest self. The movement to Africa has changed the Roman writer, as his last novels clearly show, that whereby include Africa becomes one of their major themes.

  9. Poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Paul

    2007-10-23

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century, while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. This article attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. I argue that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features that globally cause problems but that are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These features interact to create three distinct challenges that are likely to require international interventions beyond the conventional reliance on aid.

  10. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  11. NORTH AFRICA IN FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa has been firmly implanted in global headlines this year-often for all the wrong reasons.The world watches as political unrest,conflict and foreign intervention reap relentless media exposure.Both from a

  12. GREAT TREK INTO AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, to be held between November 2 and 5 in Beijing, Beijing Review reporter Li Li talks with South African Kobus van der Wath, the founder and Managing Director of The Beijing Axis, a consulting firm based in Beijing and Johannesburg that serves foreign organizations with a "China agenda," especially those from Africa. Van der Wath discussed China’s economic boom and its implications for the African continent

  13. EHDI Africa: advocating for infants with hearing loss in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, DeWet; Störbeck, Claudine

    2008-01-01

    Children with hearing loss who happen to reside in Africa deserve the chance to develop according to their potential as much as their peers living in more affluent regions. This leaves a moral obligation to pursue ways of initiating, developing,and growing early hearing detection and intervention services in Africa. For these reasons, the first EHDI Africa international conference was held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2007 (13-14 August). The theme was 'Building bridges in Africa: Early childhood development for children with hearing loss'. This special issue contains several reports from the EHDI Africa conference.

  14. Witchcraft, intimacy and trust: Africa in comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geschiere, P.

    2013-01-01

    In Dante’s Inferno, the lowest circle of Hell is reserved for traitors, those who betrayed their closest companions. In a wide range of literatures and mythologies such intimate aggression is a source of ultimate terror, and in Witchcraft, Intimacy, and Trust, Peter Geschiere masterfully sketches it

  15. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  16. What the U.S. Could Learn from South Africa about Education and Social Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Books, Sue; Ndlalane, Thembi

    2011-01-01

    Educational policy and practice has resided and continues to reside at the vortex of social and political strife in South Africa, as in the United States. Although school poverty and inequities among schools in the U.S. pale in comparison to conditions in South Africa, the two nations have much in common, including histories of state-sanctioned…

  17. Measuring Africa's E-Readiness in the Global Networked Economy: A Nine-Country Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifinedo, Princely

    2005-01-01

    This paper assesses the integration of Africa into the global economy by computing the e-readiness for nine African countries. The measuring tool used is simple and incorporates a variety of indicators used by comparable tools. Overall, the mean e-readiness of Africa is poor in comparison to other economies. Particularly, Sub-Saharan Africa…

  18. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  19. Africa’s Petroleum Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-11-15

    and consumers of oil in Africa; the top 15 oil suppliers to the United States; expected market value of West African crude oil production ; and a forecast of oil production in Africa from 1981 to 2019.

  20. Oral Literature in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, Ruth; Turin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ruth Finnegan’s Oral Literature in Africa was first published in 1970, and since then has been widely praised as one of the most important books in its field. Based on years of fieldwork, the study traces the history of storytelling across the continent of Africa. This revised edition makes Finnegan’s ground-breaking research available to the next generation of scholars. It includes a new introduction, additional images and an updated bibliography, as well as its original chapters on poetry, ...

  1. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    alliance to optimize schistosomiasis control and transmission surveillance in sub-Saharan Africa - was ahead of the game. Indeed, launched in October 2006, this 4-year project funded by the European Commission made important contributions for sustainable schistosomiasis control in the selected African...... and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial...

  2. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  3. Marywood Librarians Teach in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Watson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians Leslie Christianson and Julie Watson from Marywood University have been working to educate Catholic nuns in Africa. Funded by a grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa (HESA project is a partnership between Marywood University and Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA in Nairobi, Kenya.

  4. AIDS and Africa. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopelman, Loretta M; van Niekerk, Anton A

    2002-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and in this issue of the Journal, seven authors discuss the moral, social and medical implications of having 70% of those stricken living in this area. Anton A. van Niekerk considers complexities of plague in this region (poverty, denial, poor leadership, illiteracy, women's vulnerability, and disenchantment of intimacy) and the importance of finding responses that empower its people. Solomon Benatar reinforces these issues, but also discusses the role of global politics in sub-Saharan Africa, especially discrimination, imperialism and its exploitation by first world countries. Given the public health crisis, Udo Schüklenk and Richard E. Ashcroft defend compulsory licensing of essential HIV/AIDS medications on consequentialist grounds. Keymanthri Moodley discusses the importance of conducting research and the need to understand a moderate form of communitarianism, also referred to as "ubuntu" or "communalism", to help some Africans understand research as an altruistic endeavour. Godfrey B. Tangwa also defends traditional African values of empathy and ubuntu, discussing how they should be enlisted to fight this pandemic. Loretta M. Kopelman criticizes the tendency among those outside Africa to dismiss the HIV/AIDS pandemic, attributing one source to the ubiquitous and misguided punishment theory of disease. The authors conclude that good solutions must be cooperative ventures among countries within and outside of sub-Saharan Africa with far more support from wealthy countries.

  5. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  6. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  7. Anglicising Postapartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, P. Eric

    2004-01-01

    The apartheid state deliberately encouraged linguistic diversity and actively built cultural infrastructures which impeded Anglicisation. With the end of apartheid has come "de facto" Anglicisation. So although South Africa has, since 1994, had 11 official languages, in reality, English is swamping the other 10 languages. Afrikaans has,…

  8. Literacy in Francophone Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokora, Pascal D.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in francophone Africa, where literacy is still a privilege, is reviewed in terms of the complex linguistic situation, effects of population change, concepts and definitions of literacy, promotion of literacy in adult nonformal settings (e.g., African language literacy materials, multilingual settings). (23 references) (LB)

  9. Out of Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Continent shows its stars and future potential in Beijing For a continent that hits the headlines most often for wars and famine, the Olympics offered Africa a chance to make the news for more positive reasons, and its athletes obliged with a host of outstanding achievements.

  10. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  11. Africa population dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akinyoade, A.; Damen, J.C.M.; Dietz, A.J.; Kilama, B.; Omme, van G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa's population has grown extremely rapidly over the last fifty years from 289 million inhabitants in 1961 to more than 1 billion today. This is a growth rate of 350% in just half a century and the number of urban residents has increased even more quickly: from 65 million in 1960 to 460 million

  12. West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  13. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city's downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company.In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city.

  14. Recurrence plots from altimetry data of some lakes in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The paper shows recurrence plots obtained from time series of the level variations of four lakes in Africa (Nasser, Tana, Chad and Kainji). The data, coming from remote sensing, are provided by the United States Department of Agriculture. The recurrence plots allow a good visual comparison of the behaviours of local drainage basins.

  15. China's economic embrace of Africa: An international comparative perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broich, T.; Szirmai, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the entry of China into the game of foreign finance in Africa. It analyses the scope, destination and sectoral distribution of Chinese financial flows and trade in comparison with Western patterns and trends of aid, foreign direct investment (FDI) and trade. China's foreign aid

  16. Africa's Perspectives on China-Africa Relations and Forum on China-Africa Cooperation(FOCAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osita; C.Eze

    2009-01-01

    China is in Africa in a vigorous way,and doing business in several countries like Sudan,Congo DRC,Angola,South Africa,and Nigeria.In the short term,the relationship may appear to be mutually beneficial.This paper seeks to address the issue of Africa's perspectives on China-Africa Relations and the FOCAC and examine the concept of strategic partnerships,determine the state of China-Africa relations,examines FOCAC and draw conclusion as well as recommendation on possible ways and issues for future engageme...

  17. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  18. France in Black Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    mediation role between African governments and their private creditors. 123 France in Black Africa To further complicate matters, France herself is...34La coop6ration Franco-Ivoirienne, annde 1986," Mission de Cooperation et d’Action Culturelle , Ambassade de France en C6te D’Ivoire, Abidjan, 1987, p. 8...Ministry in "La France et l’Afrique: Etude des relations Franco-Africaines politiques, finan- cires, economiques, commerciales et culturelles ," Paris, 1984

  19. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  20. Unlocking Africa's Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Freemantle

    2011-01-01

    WHILE there are meaningful objections to the nature and structure of much of the new investment in African agriculture,it is dear that the introduction of new capital,skills and technology is an essential component in unlocking the continent's ultimate allure.Investments of $83 billion annually are said to be needed to elevate the developing world's agricultural sector.At least half of this amount is required in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone.

  1. Assistance Focus: Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-03-29

    The Clean Energy Solutions Center, an initiative of the Clean Energy Ministerial, helps countries throughout the world create policies and programs that advance the deployment of clean energy technologies. Through the Solutions Center's no-cost 'Ask an Expert' service, a team of international experts has delivered assistance to countries in all regions of the world. High-impact examples from Africa are featured here.

  2. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese enterprises generate jobs for Africans while exploring the vast potential of the continent Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city’s downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company. In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city. With a population of 900 million and

  3. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  4. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  5. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  6. Secondary Teaching Strategies on South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1987-01-01

    Offers learning activities on South Africa, which help students gain background information on South Africa's culture, history, and geography; examine United States foreign policy toward South Africa; conduct community research on United States involvement with South Africa; confront different life styles of individuals living in South Africa; and…

  7. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  8. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  9. The historiography of Danish representations of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present.......Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present....

  10. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  11. Nutrition in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-lee, M

    1989-07-01

    Village women have adopted techniques set down by UNICEF in achieving higher food production and, ultimately, self sufficiency. Women's cooperatives integrate kitchen gardening and irrigated agriculture in an effort to combat the complex nutritional problems in Africa. Projects also offered training in a variety of areas including management of plots, labor-saving technology--diesel-driven grinding mills, rice husking, machines, wells with hand pumps, motor pumps for irrigation, all geared towards women benefitting themselves by growing their own food and furthering their children's health and development. Projects such as the one in Senegal were undertaken in other regions of Africa, like the Sahel and the Wadis--low-lying areas. From these projects, aid agencies and governments have suggested a number of recommendations in seeking a solution to Africa's nutritional problems. 1st, a balance between production of cash crops and food for consumption is called for. 2nd, research is necessary to improve the quality of locally grown food as much as livestock. 3rd, governments should extend surface area cultivation, 4th, more research on the advantage of indigenous food plants, 5th, women should be in on all levels of decision making in food production, 6th, governments should increase women farmer's efficiency, and further women's access to land and credit and 7th, women should be provided with increased educational opportunities. Nutrition in developing countries cannot be viewed as an isolated phenomenon--solutions to nutritional development should include all aspects of the problem including health and nutrition education, growth monitoring, water supply, literacy, technological know-how, and agricultural and plant and soil conservation.

  12. Africa. Salvation or Despair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    ”, a change that was also expected and demanded by the international community. As a consequence of this change, South Africa is now trying to lead by example, trying to export particular values and norms to the rest of the continent, while at the same time carrying Africa’s banner on the international stage....... A state wanting to be recognized and perceived as a benign “peacemaker” cannot use military power in the same way as a pariah state. To cultivate a reputation as a benign power, it must use force in a way that is acceptable to its neighbours and the international community at large. The purpose...

  13. Immunology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  14. Initiatives in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goliber, T J; Middleberg, M I

    1986-03-01

    Since the 1st oil crisis in 1973, the economies of sub-Saharan Africa have barely kept pace with their burgeoning populations. Women in Sub-Saharan Africa give birth more often than women in any other region of the world, with an average of more than 6.5 live births each. The region's natural increase average 2.5% a year in the 1960s, 2.7% in the 1970s, and in the mid-1980s, it is 3.1% per annum--a rate that will double the regions population in 22 years. National leaders in Sub-Saharan Africa were slow to consider population policy as a key component of the social and economic development effort. The neglect of population issues is reflected in the limited scope of public or private family planning programs in the sub-continent. Donor countries and institutions play an important role in developing the information base by providing technical training to government staff, supporting research, and disseminating information to a broad spectrum of political actors. Some examples of policy reconsiderations in Nigeria, Zambia, Liberia, and Niger are given. These countries are starting to give active consideration to population policies to reduce fertility and high rates of population growth by expanding family planning services, raising the age of marriage, improving the status of women, providing family-life education, and incorporating economic incentives for smaller families into the provision of social services. The highly centralized nature of African governments dictates that the acquiescence of the governmental elite must be obtained before any policy can take hold. Overall, high population growth rates in combination with a stagnating social and economic development effort throughout the region have provided the catalyst for a new look at Sub-Saharan Africa population policy. The ability of African nations to implement policies that reduce fertility is more open to question; no African nation has as yet done so, and the socioeconomics factors contributing to high

  15. Plant poisonings in livestock in Brazil and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Louise Penrith

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on intoxication of livestock by plants in Brazil, in terms of cause, clinical signs and pathology, is compared with information on livestock poisoning by plants in South Africa. Plant poisoning, including mycotoxicosis, is considered to be one of three major causes of death in livestock in Brazil, which is one of the top beef producing countries in the world, with a cattle population of more than 200 million. Cattle production in South Africa is on a more modest scale, but with some 600 species of plants and fungi known to cause toxicity in livestock, as opposed to some 130 species in Brazil, the risk to livestock in South Africa appears to be much greater. The comparisons discussed in this communication are largely restricted to ruminants.

  16. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  17. Managing organizational performance in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2012-01-01

    Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa......Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa...

  18. Readings in modernity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Geschiere; B. Meyer; P. Pels

    2008-01-01

    This book provides students of Africa with a guide to the bewildering variety of scholarly work on the issue of modernity in Africa, and to offer some tools for dealing with its intellectual paradoxes. Part One contains both analytical and historical examples of the genealogies of modernity in the A

  19. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...

  20. AIDS in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhobo, D

    1989-03-01

    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  1. Knowledge transfer to Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    For the second year running, a team from CERN comprising experts in the design and running of digital libraries has taken part in a workshop in Africa. The aim of the workshop, which was held in Morocco from 22 to 26 November 2010, was to pass on their expertise and help train librarians and IT engineers from five African countries.   Participants of the training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco).  Although digital libraries are rapidly expanding across the Globe, a large proportion of the professionals working in the field have not followed relevant training, which poses a real challenge. To help to remedy the situation and encourage the development of digital libraries in Africa, CERN and UNESCO organised a training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco) in November. "The success of the first CERN-UNESCO digital library school, which took place in Rwanda in 2009, encouraged...

  2. BRICS Regional Policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Deych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the BRICS as a whole and an analysis of each member’s policies in Africa. It exploresthe countries’ political and economic interests in Africa, the various patterns and strategies of each country’s cooperationwith Africa, and estimates the impact of BRICS aid and investment on the African economy and Africa’s development. TheBRICS countries have emerged as the new effective actors in the world arena. Their global economic weight and politicalinfluence continue to grow. Not only is the group focusing its attention on strengthening the internal ties of its members, but itis also focusing on assistance to Africa, as a way to implement the emerging powers efforts to change the existing world order.The BRICS is deepening its engagement with African countries, which gained great success in their development in recentyears. Its focus on Africa is determined by the important role of African resources and by the continent’s growing influencein the world economy and contemporary international relations. BRICS countries are major trade partners of Africa, andAfrica’s trade with BRICS members is growing faster than its trade with the traditional partners. Africa has become themain destination for BRICS development aid and investment. The BRICS is also focusing on African infrastructure. BRICScountries use soft power widely, through developing humanitarian ties with Africa, particularly in health care and education.The BRICS is also an active participant in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa. Members currently tend tocompete in Africa, but they are taking steps toward collaboration. The BRICS contributes much to the African economy. Itspresence has become important for the continent and receives a positive response there.

  3. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature......, this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade by looking...

  4. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Oyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs, open access to higher education (HE was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery, MOOCs place the developing countries at the centre of universal access to HE. This paper provides the strategy for MOOC implementation in the context of limited resources in Africa. The strategy is clustered under five baseline requirements: national accredited MOOC curriculum, electronic content development, development of an online and offline eLearning platform, establishment and funding of MOOC coordination units at public HEIs, and establishment of MOOC access hubs at strategic locations. Emerging from this paper is the insight that a new era of universal access to HE in Africa is achievable through MOOCs only if initial requirements are met by the respective governments.

  5. A renal registry for Africa: first steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, M Razeen; Eastwood, John B; Selwood, Neville H; Arogundade, Fatiu A; Ashuntantang, Gloria; Benghanem Gharbi, Mohammed; Jarraya, Faiçal; MacPhee, Iain A M; McCulloch, Mignon; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Swanepoel, Charles R; Adu, Dwomoa

    2016-02-01

    There is a dearth of data on end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Africa. Several national renal registries have been established but have not been sustainable because of resource limitations. The African Association of Nephrology (AFRAN) and the African Paediatric Nephrology Association (AFPNA) recognize the importance of good registry data and plan to establish an African Renal Registry. This article reviews the elements needed for a successful renal registry and gives an overview of renal registries in developed and developing countries, with the emphasis on Africa. It then discusses the proposed African Renal Registry and the first steps towards its implementation. A registry requires a clear purpose, and agreement on inclusion and exclusion criteria, the dataset and the data dictionary. Ethical issues, data ownership and access, the dissemination of findings and funding must all be considered. Well-documented processes should guide data collection and ensure data quality. The ERA-EDTA Registry is the world's oldest renal registry. In Africa, registry data have been published mainly by North African countries, starting with Egypt and Tunisia in 1975. However, in recent years no African country has regularly reported national registry data. A shared renal registry would provide participating countries with a reliable technology platform and a common data dictionary to facilitate joint analyses and comparisons. In March 2015, AFRAN organized a registry workshop for African nephrologists and then took the decision to establish, for the first time, an African Renal Registry. In conclusion, African nephrologists have decided to establish a continental renal registry. This initiative could make a substantial impact on the practice of nephrology and the provision of services for adults and children with ESRD in many African countries.

  6. Engendering Economic Policy in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); A. Oduro (Amo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDespite Africa's relatively commendable growth performance since 2000, growth has not been accompanied by structural transformations. First, there has been little diversification from agriculture into industry, particularly manufacturing. Second, the poverty headcount and inequality rema

  7. Erythrineae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Franklin Hennessy

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The two genera represented in the flora of southern Africa.  Erythrina L. and  Mucuna Adans. are revised. Keys to the indigenous species and the commonly cultivated exotic species are provided.

  8. Famine Spreads in East Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crisis highlights deep-seated food security problems on the African continent Worsening famine in the Horn of Africa, which threatens the lives of millions in countries including Ethiopia, Djibouti,Kenya and Somalia,

  9. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owiso, Michael; Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk

    South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...... its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding...

  10. The European Union's Africa Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2013-01-01

    -brokers. The paper puts forward the hypothesis that the Nordic countries as small states have had a considerable influence on the EU's policies towards Africa in the current century. The ‘Nordicization' is the result of the fact that the Nordics traditionally have had a high moral profile in international affairs...... including North–South and specifically Africa policies. Five separate analyses are carried out addressing the question of Nordicization and Europeanization. Based on the empirical analyses, it is not possible to confirm the hypothesis that a Nordicization of the European Union's Africa policy has taken...... place. Rather, it appears adequate to talk about convergence of policies between the Nordics and the EU and therefore, the Africa policies of both actors are basically the result of Europeanization....

  11. Non-Interference in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa must be left to solve its own internal problems RECENTLY social unrest has spread widely in Arab countries in North Africa and the Middle East,which led to military actions against the Libyan regime by NATO.In addition,under the support of the UN peacekeepers and French forces,the former president of Cote d’Ivoire was arrested and power transferred to

  12. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    aid, especially in the fields of geology and mines. [Text] [Maputo Domestic Service in Portuguese 0800 GMT 28 Mar 87 MB] 76662 28 POTENTIAL PRC... Bangladesh and follow, for the most part, differing sects and factions. [Question] The Islamic minorities in South Africa, like other Muslims in the...institutions. As you know, most Muslims and those who are called shaykhs immigrated to South Africa from India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh . Most of them

  13. Comparison of the lipid properties of healthy and pansteatitis-affected African sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and the role of diet in pansteatitis outbreaks in the Olifants River in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huchzermeyer, K D A; Osthoff, G; Hugo, A; Govender, D

    2013-11-01

    Pansteatitis has been identified in wild populations of sharptooth catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell), and Nile crocodiles, Crocodylus niloticus Laurenti, inhabiting the same waters in the Olifants River Gorge in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Mesenteric and pectoral fat tissue was investigated microscopically and by fatty acid analysis in healthy and pansteatitis-affected catfish from both captive and wild populations. Variation in fatty acid composition between pectoral and mesenteric fat was noted. Composition of mesenteric fat differed between fish from various localities as a result of differences in diet. Pansteatitis in the captive population, resulting from ingestion of high amounts of dietary oxidized fat, reflected higher levels of unsaturated fatty acids within the mesenteric fat. Mesenteric fat of pansteatitis-affected wild catfish was characterized by an increase in moisture content, a decrease in fat content and a decrease in stearic and linoleic acids. The n-3 to n-6 fatty acid ratio of mesenteric fat was higher in pansteatitis-affected wild catfish than in healthy catfish from the same locality, reflecting higher polyunsaturated fat intake by pansteatitis-affected fish. The possible role of alien, invasive, phytoplankton-feeding silver carp, Hypophthalmichthys molitrix (Valenciennes), in the aetiology of pansteatitis in both catfish and crocodiles in the Olifants Gorge is discussed.

  14. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  15. South Africa in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  16. Developing an ionospheric map for South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Okoh

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The development of a map of the ionosphere over South Africa is presented in this paper. The International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model, South African Bottomside Ionospheric Model (SABIM, and measurements from ionosondes in the South African Ionosonde Network, were combined within their own limitations to develop an accurate representation of the South African ionosphere. The map is essentially in the form of a computer program that shows spatial and temporal representations of the South African ionosphere for a given set of geophysical parameters. A validation of the map is attempted using a comparison of Total Electron Content (TEC values derived from the map, from the IRI model, and from Global Positioning System (GPS measurements. It is foreseen that the final South African ionospheric map will be implemented as a Space Weather product of the African Space Weather Regional Warning Centre.

  17. Cardiomegaly in tropical Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomaszewski, Ryszard

    2012-01-01

    The term "cardiomegaly" is found in 5-7% of chest X-ray film evaluations in tropical Africa. However, "cardiomegaly" is a descriptive term, devoid of any aetiological meaning. Therefore, providing information about the aetiological factors leading to heart enlargement in a group of Africans (Nigerians) was the purpose of this study. In the years 2002-2011, 170 subjects (aged 17-80 years, mean age 42 years) in whom "cardiomegaly" was revealed by chest radiographs were studied at the Madonna University Teaching Hospital, Elele. The patients underwent echocardiography, electrocardiography, and several appropriate laboratory tests. Arterial hypertension was found to be most frequently associated with heart enlargement (39.4%), followed by dilated cardiomyopathy (21.76%), endomyocardial fibrosis (14.1%), valvular defects (9.4%), cardiac enlargement in the course of sickle-cell anaemia (6.47%), and schistosomal cor pulmonale (3.52%). This study is a contribution to a better aetiological elucidation of "cardiomegaly" in the tropics and emphasizes the importance of arterial hypertension as one of its causative factors. The dire need for effective treatment of hypertensive patients becomes evident. A high prevalence of elevated blood pressure seems to reflect an impact of civilization-related factors on the African communities.

  18. Nurturing talent in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The first African School of Physics draws to a close tomorrow, and I’m proud that CERN has been a part of it. From an initiative launched by Fermilab scientist Christine Darve, the African School of Physics has grown to involve institutes and universities from all over Europe and the United States.   It’s being hosted by South Africa’s National Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, at Stellenbosch, and has attracted 150 applicants from all over the continent and beyond for the 65 places available. That alone makes it a success, even before NITheP Director Frederik Scholtz uttered his words of welcome nearly three weeks ago.. When I show people the map of where CERN’s users come from, it’s gratifying to see it spanning the world, and in particular to see southern hemisphere countries starting to join the global particle physics family. Africa, however, remains notable more for the number of countries that are not involved than for those that ...

  19. Optics development in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Buah-Bassuah, P K

    2002-01-01

    The case study of the Office of External Activities in Cape Coast, Ghana has turned out to be a successful story in promoting research and capacity building of young scientists. The total involvement of many organizations show how laudable the idea has been. This centre has come to serve as a place to solve scientific problems as well as problems of national interest. It is foreseen that its activities can be a means to congregate African scientists to solve common problems. I think the bold step taken by OEA and some organs of ICTP, Trieste, Italy, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Firenze, Italy has helped up and coming African scientists to come face to face with the challenges of Laser research. Such projects seem feasible and sustainable since experts in these areas can serve as contact persons in Africa to undertake common research using optical techniques. This project has made it possible to explore various areas in optics that can be used to solve proble...

  20. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for 'One Health' in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn J Allan

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1 the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2 the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa.Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1 acute human leptospirosis and (2 pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions.We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46 or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51 in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11 in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6. Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year. Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a 'One Health' approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human transmission of leptospirosis on the

  1. Cooperation: New Players in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Hugon

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In the context of globalisation and the current global financial crisis, new players are emerging in cooperation in Africa. These partners loosen financial constraints and conditionalities, increase the room for manoeuvre and stimulate commodity markets. On the other hand, they also increase the risks of renewed indebtedness and potentially weaken the coordination of aid policies. Do these partnerships call the new cooperation practices of OECD countries into question? Do they justify the return to a realpolitik or are they repeating the earlier mistakes of industrial powers? Can these mistakes be corrected? The question also arises as to whether the global crisis, which has a profound effect on Africa, will lead to a withdrawal or to a passing of the baton on to new, emerging powers. This article highlights the new geopolitical issues concerning Africa in a multipolar world, then discusses the new players involved in cooperation in Africa, before going on to explore the horizons that are opening up for cooperation in Africa, in particular with regard to the global crisis.

  2. China-Africa Seeking Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the context of today’s globalization,peace and stability will not prevail in the world unless they first materialize in Africa.This is the view of Liu Guijin,Special Representative of the Chinese Government for African Affairs.As long as the African continent is mired in pov- erty,wars and chaos,the world will not be able to embrace common prosperity,said Liu.He is calling for the international community to assist the continent in resolving its problems with concrete actions,an endeavor that requires the collaboration of all countries and regions, including those from Europe,China and Africa.Liu recently made these and other assessments on the China-Africa connection at a joint interview with CHINAFRICA reporter Wang Zhe and Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei.The main points follow:

  3. Counselling Psychology in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bantjes, Jason; Kagee, Ashraf; Young, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The origin and development of counselling psychology in South Africa has been profoundly influenced by the country's socio-political history and the impact of apartheid. As a result of this, counselling psychologists in the country face a number of challenges and opportunities for the future. In this paper we provide a portrait of counselling psychology in South Africa by describing the current character of the specialty and the context in which South African psychologists work. We critically discuss the challenges that the specialty faces to meet the country's mental health care needs, contest the current Scope of Practice; affirm multiculturalism without essentializing or reifying race and ethnicity, and build an evidence base for community interventions in the country. We also consider how, in the future, counselling psychologists in South Africa may make a more meaningful contribution within public health and the country's health care and education systems.

  4. The Exceptional State in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    China's relations with African states have undergone significant changes in recent years. China has projected its relationship with Africa as one of equality and ‘mutual help’. Such perceptions of foreign policy stem from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the shared experience...... of imperialist domination and economic underdevelopment. Moreover, various public statements by China's elites suggest that China is expected to play a much more prominent, even exceptional role in Africa. This purportedly entails moving beyond the hegemonic West's interventionist aid or security policies......, and is also implicitly designed to highlight the West's shortcomings in promoting African economic growth or peace. Yet where does this perception of exceptionalism come from? Why does Beijing feel that it has to play a leading role in Africa's development? How can Beijing distinguish itself from the nations...

  5. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  6. China-South Africa Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 24, the founding ceremony of the China-South Africa Friendship Association (CSAFA) was held in Beijing on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa.

  7. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  8. Poverty and blindness in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidoo, Kovin

    2007-11-01

    Africa carries a disproportionate responsibility in terms of blindness and visual impairment. With approximately 10 per cent of the world's population, Africa has 19 per cent of the world's blindness. It is no surprise that this reality also mirrors the situation in terms of the burden of world poverty. There is an increasing recognition of the need to highlight the link between poverty, development and health care. Blindness, disabling visual impairment and the overall lack of eye-care services are too often the result of social, economic and developmental challenges of the developing world. The state of eye care in Africa stands in alarming contrast to that in the rest of the world. Poor practitioner-to-patient ratios, absence of eye-care personnel, inadequate facilities, poor state funding and a lack of educational programs are the hallmarks of eye care in Africa, with preventable and treatable conditions being the leading cause of blindness. Eye diseases causing preventable blindness are often the result of a combination of factors such as poverty, lack of education and inadequate health-care services. The challenge that Vision 2020 has set itself in Africa is enormous. Africa is not a homogenous entity, the inter- and intra-country differences in economic development, prevalence of disease, delivery infrastructure and human resources amplify the challenges of meeting eye-care needs. The successful implementation of Vision 2020 programs will be hindered without the development of a comprehensive, co-ordinated strategy that is cognisant of the differences that exist and the need for comprehensive solutions that are rooted in the economic and political realities of the continent as well as the individual countries and regions within countries. This strategy should recognise the need for economic growth that results in greater state funded eye-care services that focus on health promotion to ensure the prevention of eye disease, the development of eye clinics in

  9. CPAFFC Delegation Visits South Africa And Namibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang; Ruimin

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of the South Africa-Chin a Friendship Association(SACFA)and the Erongo Region of Namibia,aCPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Feng Zuoku paid a visit last November.South Africa,known as the"Rainbow Nation",is the second largest economy in Africa.China is its largest trade partner,while South Africa is China’s largest regional trading partner.

  10. Russian Interests in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    in the same year, reached ZAR188 billion. Russia’s trade with its most important African partner is, in fact, the smallest of all of the BRIC ...Brazil, Russia, India, and China) coun- tries, the notional grouping of BRIC and South Africa, to be discussed in more detail.76 The growth in trade...AFRICA Russia is attracted by the notion of cooperation in Africa between countries making up the BRICS (Bra- zil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

  11. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  12. Human plague occurrences in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neerinckx, Simon; Bertherat, Eric; Leirs, Herwig

    2010-01-01

    Plague remains a public health concern worldwide, but particularly in Africa. Despite the long-standing history of human plague, it is difficult to get a historical and recent overview of the general situation. We searched and screened available information sources on human plague occurrences...... Africa and Madagascar. We show that public health concerns regarding the current plague situation are justified and that the disease should not be neglected, despite the sometimes questionability of the numbers of cases. We conclude that improving plague surveillance strategies is absolutely necessary...

  13. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  14. Mobile Africa : changing patterns of movement in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The case studies in this book on mobility in sub-Saharan Africa critically discuss dichotomous interpretations of mobility and reject the idea that migration indicates a breakdown in society. They adopt the approach that sedentary and mobile worlds converge and that mobility is part of the livelihoo

  15. Homophobic Africa? Toward a more nuanced view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Awondo, P.; Geschiere, P.; Reid, G.

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of homosexuality as a central issue in public debate in various parts of Africa has encouraged a stereotypical image of one homophobic Africa, often placed in opposition to a tolerant or depraved West. What is striking is that this image of Africa as homophobic is promoted by bo

  16. Defense and Development in Africa: Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-10-01

    Lexington Books, 1981. Arlinghaus, Bruce E., Military Development in Africa, Boulder: Westview Press, 1984. Arrighi , Giovanni, "International Corporations...Labor Aristocracies, and Economic Development in Tropical Africa," in G. Arrighi and J. Saul (eds.), Essays on the Political Economy of Africa, Monthly

  17. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the mos

  18. Language in Education in Eastern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, T. P., Ed.

    This volume contains the papers given at the first Eastern Africa Conference on Language and Linguistics, held in Dar es Salaam in December 1968, under the auspices of the Survey of Language Use and Language Teaching in Eastern Africa. The chief aim of the Conference was to bring together scholars and teachers working in Eastern Africa interested…

  19. Peace Education in Postcolonial Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brock-Utne, Birgit

    1996-01-01

    Examines whether efforts by donor agencies and Third World governments toward achieving basic education for all will lead to further development of peace education in Africa; whether the outcomes of the 1990 Education for All (EFA) conference in Thailand will promote positive peace; and whether the new EFA strategy will lead to a self-reliant…

  20. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  1. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  2. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and…

  3. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We ar

  4. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  5. Reducing postpartum hemorrhage in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Lalonde, A

    2005-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This is being addressed by leading professional organizations, which point to the importance of a skilled attendant at birth. But they also emphasize that the active management of the third stage of labo...

  6. Understanding Africa: A Geographic Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    domination by a non-indigenous colonial elite, and to solidify a condition of dependency…” ( Soja and Weaver 1976, p. 201). The colonial city is an...Macmillan. Soja , Edward. and C. Weaver. 1976. Urbanization and underdevelopment in East Africa. In Urbanization and counter-urbanization, ed. B.J. Berry

  7. TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICA - ANY NEWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, TS

    1994-01-01

    The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has be

  8. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter

    1996-01-01

    1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys...

  9. Sub-Saharan Africa Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Term Growth Advocated (David Rees; BUSINESS DAY, 25 Oct 85) 84 Millions Lost Due to Forex Loophole (Alan Sendzul; BUSINESS DAY, 23 Oct 85...SOUTH AFRICA MILLIONS LOST DUE TO FOREX LOOPHOLE • * Johannesburg BUSINESS DAY in English 23 Oct 85 p 1 [Article by Alan Sendzul] [Text] SOUTH

  10. Toward the "New South Africa."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, Anthony

    1991-01-01

    Examines, in the light of political reforms in South Africa, the prime concerns of geographers. Discusses the future of the Bantustans; questions of land redistribution, tenure systems, production levels, and support systems; spatial economic policies; land and housing; and regional relations. Argues that, to realize its potential, southern Africa…

  11. Atmospheric chemistry over southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2012-03-01

    Changing Chemistry in a Changing Climate: Human and Natural Impacts Over Southern Africa (C4-SAR); Midrand, South Africa, 31 May to 3 June 2011 During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semipermanent atmospheric gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite- derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission on Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from Eskom, the South African power utility; and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa.

  12. Comparison of the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall from four different interpolation methods and impact on the result of GR2M hydrological modeling—case of Bani River in Mali, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louvet, S.; Paturel, J. E.; Mahé, G.; Rouché, N.; Koité, M.

    2016-01-01

    The climatic evolution of the Bani river watershed, the main tributary to the upper Niger River, is approached through the spatiotemporal variability of rainfall grids over the 1950-2006 period. The analyses are conducted, and their results compared, using four different methods of spatial interpolation of rainfall fields: the spline, kriging, weighted inverse distance, and nearest neighbor methods. The largest changes are observed for all of these grids, but differences—and in some cases divergent results—appear in the details. The analysis shows a substantial decline in rainfall, particularly marked in the center of the basin, during the 1970-2000 period with respect to the 1950-1969 period, and a slight upturn in the northern part, mainly since the beginning of the 1990s. The rainfall deficit can be attributed to a combination of factors: an earlier and drier end of the rainy season, less precipitation in the middle of the rainy season, more dry days and lower amounts of precipitation on rainy days. Two drought indices—the Effective Drought Index and Standardized Precipitation Index—revealed that the maximum duration of drought events increased most in the central part of the basin. Lastly, to supplement this comparison of methods of spatial interpolation of rainfall fields, the sensitivity of a hydrological model (GR2M) to rainfall data was tested. Given the distribution and density of rain gauge stations available in the Bani watershed, the kriging method is found to yield the best hydrological modeling performance.

  13. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  14. Golden South Africa,Great Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa in 2008,China is celebrating"South Africa Week"to com memorate.H.E.Dr.Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma,the minister of South Africa,and the delegation attended the series of activities in China."South Africa Week"got great success and more and more Chinese people focus on the beautiful and attractive country-South Africa.Dr.Ayanda Ntsaluba,the Director General in Foreign Affairs of South Africa shared his view on the bilateral relations and cooperation,and the development of South Africa with the iournalist of China's Foreign Trade magazine.

  15. AIDS in South Africa: Therapeutic Interventions to Strengthen Resilience among Orphans and Vulnerable Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Donald, David R.; Theron, Linda C.; Lyon, Rachel Crook

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, approximately 10% of the 34.2 million individuals infected by human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are under the age of 18. Additionally, 17.8 million children have experienced one or both parents dying of HIV/AIDS. In comparison to other countries, South Africa has the highest per capita of…

  16. Poverty and Disability in Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, Mitchell; Eide, Arne H.; Jelsma, Jennifer; Toni, Mzolisi ka; Maart, Soraya

    2008-01-01

    The impact of disability on the living conditions of people living in specifically resource-poor areas in South Africa has not previously been addressed. This paper presents a comparison of people with a disability and their non-disabled peers with respect to some key poverty indicators among a sample of Xhosa speaking individuals in resource-poor…

  17. Constitutional and Judicial Language Protection in Multilingual States: A Brief Overview of South Africa and Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I. Bambust (Isabelle); A. Kruger (Albert); T. Kruger (Thalia)

    2013-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ The purpose of this contribution is to provide a very modest comparison of judicial language protection in South Africa and in Belgium. First of all, the authors sketch briefly the historical context and the constitutional status of languages in both countries. It is di

  18. In a State of Emergency: Libraries and Government Control in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrett, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Describes four categories of censorship supported by the State of Emergency in South Africa: prior censorship and suspension of publication; restraints on information gathering; suppression of anti-apartheid views; and the growth of militarization. A comparison to traditional censorship of books is made and the possible role of librarians in…

  19. The Potential Role of Non-Traditional Donors' Aid in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Peter

     and South Africa. Although the total size of the development assistance from these donors is still small in comparison to the traditional donors’ aid, its role is growing rapidly. So far, the ‘Western’, in particular the American, perception of these donors has been that of rogue donors supporting African...

  20. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children <4 years are at highest risk of burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  1. The Precambrian crustal structure of East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, Fred Alex

    In this thesis, the Precambrian crustal structure of East African is investigated along with the crustal structures of three Cenozoic rift basins located in the western branch of the East African Rift System (EARS). In the first part of the thesis, P-wave receiver functions are modeled using the H-k method to obtain new insights about the bulk composition and thickness of the crust for Precambrian terrains throughout East Africa. The average crustal thickness for all but one of the terrains is between 37 and 39 km. An exception is the Ubendian terrain, which has an average crustal thickness 42 km. In all terrains, the average Poisson's ratio is similar, ranging from 0.25 to 0.26, indicating a bulk crustal composition that is felsic to intermediate. The main finding of this study is that crustal structure is similar across all terrains, which span more than 4.0 Ga of earth history. There is no discernable difference in the crustal thicknesses and Poisson's ratios between the Archean and Proterozoic terrains, or between the Proterozoic terrains, unlike the variability in Precambrian crustal structure found in many other continents. In the second part of the thesis, a joint inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities and receiver functions was used to investigate the shear wave velocity structure of the crust and uppermost mantle beneath the Precambrian terrains of East Africa. In comparison with other areas of similar age in southern and western Africa where the same joint inversion method has been applied, I find that while there is little difference in the mean shear wave velocities for the entire crust across all of the Precambrian terrains, and also few differences in the thickness of the crust, there exists substantial variability in lower crustal structure. This variability is reflected primarily in the thickness of the lower crustal layers with shear wave velocities ≥ 4.0 km/s. This variability is found both within terrains of the same age (i

  2. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-07

    sources said they included: —Mr Johan Rupert, " crown prince" of the Rembrandt empire and son of Dr Anton Rupert. His name has been mentioned ever...South African physicists, engineers and technicians. This impressive scientific and technological achievement crowns 10 years of intense effort by...well as in the coal-fired power stations in South Africa. The mullite- zirconia ceramic material under development at the NIMR has an advantage in

  3. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  4. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  5. Africa and Precambrian biological evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Knoll

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available African sedimentary rocks and their contained fossils have played a fundamental role in the unravelling of Precambrian biological history. Various lines of evidence including stromatolites, filamentous and coccoidal microfossils, stable isotope ratios, organic carbon distribution, and oxide facies iron formation suggest that a complex prokaryotic ecosystem fueled by photosynthesis, and perhaps including aerobic photoautotrophs, existed as early as 3 500 m.y. ago. The primary sources of data on early Archean life are rock sequences in southern Africa and Australia. The diversity of later Archean (ca. 2 700 m.y. communities is attested to by abundant and varied stromatolites found in Zimbabwe. The extensive growth and consolidation of continents that heralded the Proterozoic Eon had profound effects on the earth’s biota. Primary productivity must have increased substantially, resulting in the establishment of an 02-rich atmosphere, and, subsequently, the radiation of aerobic respirers. Southern African sequences provide critical evidence bearing on this crust/atmosphere/biota interaction; however, the best known microfossils of this age come from North America. Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks abound in Africa. Stromatolites from northwestern Africa have been well studied; however, microfossil occurrences remain but sketchily described. Contemporaneous sequences from Scandinavia and Australia document the initial radiation of eukaryotes in the planktonic realm, as well as a terminal Precambrian episode of extinction among plankters. Early heterotrophic protists are known from several continents. The Nama Group of South West Africa/Namibia contains important evidence of early invertebrates. In general, Precambrian evolution can be viewed as a series of increasingly elevated biological plateaus connected by steps marking relatively short periods of evolutionary innovation and radiation. With each step, communities have increased in complexity

  6. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-04

    the interest of the Angolans and the Portuguese that your country can and will play a truly positive role in restoring normality in Angola, which...Others are Mali, Sierra Leone, Camerouh, Mauri- tania , Congo and The Cen- tral Africa Republic. Mr. Azubedy said the conference would aim at...water officer, were also involved in getting the work done. This official said that cleaning off the airstrip was extra work for his office. Under

  7. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Stirling ; THE CITIZEN, 15 Aug 86) .. 53 Rightwing Parties Meet in Pretoria (SAPA, 12 Aug 86) • • • • 54 BLACKS ANC’s Maharaj on Consolidating...Article by Tony Stirling ] [Text] Strong speculation exists in informed government circles in Pretoria that certain urban areas in South Africa which...Angola. Conservative estimates put the expenses Incurred by the Boers in Namibia because of the war at 1 million rand a day. This sky high war budget

  8. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-09-10

    devote their attention to the tasks of national reconstruction; this will benefit all of southern Africa. However, as for UNITA, this will have a...change in the Angolan patriots mentality; they are not interested in fighting their own brothers for the benefit of Russian interests in Angola. MPLA...addition, the sales tax on wines, spirits, cider and perry would be incorporated into excise duty, like other liquor products while the customs duty

  9. South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    Pale green vegetation and red-brown deserts dominate this MODIS image of Namibia (left), Botswana (upper right), and the Republic of South Africa (bottom) acquired on June3, 2002. In central Namibia the mountainous terrain of Namaqualand is sandwiched between the Namib Desert on the Atlantic Coast and the Kalahari Desert to the interior, where white dots mark the location of small, impermanent lakes and ponds. Namaqualand is home to numerous rare succulent plants that can survive on the region.s scant rainfall as well as fog that blows in off the ocean. Namaqualand extends south of the Orange River, which runs along the border of Namibia and South Africa and into that country.s Northern Cape region. The Orange River extends almost all the way back through the country, and where it makes a sharp southward dip in this image (at lower right), it runs through the Asbestos Mountains, names for the naturally-occurring asbestos they contain. In southwestern South Africa, high plateaus, such as the Great Karoo become mountain ridges near the coast, and the city of Cape Town is visible as a grayish area of pixels on the north shores of the horseshoe-shaped False Bay at the Cape of Good Hope. Credit: Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team, NASA/GSFC

  10. Assessing women empowerment in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development Progr...... empowerment measures and indicators should be sensitive to the context and values of those it seeks to assess rather than adopting abstract mappings that tend to reduce and universalise all women in all societies.......This review discusses the religious and cultural challenges to the empowerment of women in some patriarchal societies in Africa. The article takes a critical reflection on some of the contextual deficiencies of the gender empowerment measure (GEM) developed by the United Nations Development...... Programme (UNDP) as a universal benchmark for assessing gender inequality. It has been highlighted that agency is a necessary component in the conceptualisation and realisation of women empowerment particularly in Africa. The article further demonstrates that the GEM has capitalist, elitist and Eurocentric...

  11. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  12. Incorporating vegetation feedbacks in regional climate modeling over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erfanian, A.; Wang, G.; Yu, M.; Ahmed, K. F.; Anyah, R. O.

    2015-12-01

    Despite major advancements in modeling of the climate system, incorporating vegetation dynamics into climate models is still at the initial stages making it an ongoing research topic. Only few of GCMs participating in CMIP5 simulations included the vegetation dynamics component. Consideration for vegetation dynamics is even less common in RCMs. In this study, RegCM4.3.4-CLM4-CN-DV, a regional climate model synchronously coupled with a land surface component that includes both Carbon-Nitrogen (CN) and Dynamic-Vegetation (DV) processes is used to simulate and project regional climate over West Africa. Due to its unique regional features, West Africa climate is known for being susceptible to land-atmosphere interactions, enhancing the importance of including vegetation dynamics in modeling climate over this region. In this study the model is integrated for two scenarios (present-day and future) using outputs from four GCMs participating in CMIP5 (MIROC, CESM, GFDL and CCSM4) as lateral boundary conditions, which form the basis of a multi-model ensemble. Results of model validation indicates that ensemble of all models outperforms each of individual models in simulating present-day temperature and precipitation. Therefore, the ensemble set is used to analyze the impact of including vegetation dynamics in the RCM on future projection of West Africa's climate. Results from the ensemble analysis will be presented, together with comparison among individual models.

  13. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  14. Christianity in Africa: a historical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson A Fatokun

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa, this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christianity elsewhere. Moreover, Christianity in Africa can be found almost everywhere on the continent and indigenous varieties of the tradition developed which allowed it to become as part of Africa as African traditional religions.

  15. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  16. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  17. Coaltrans South Africa. Conference documentation and information

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-07-01

    Papers are presented under the following session headings: South Africa's place in the world market for coal; Asia's coal markets; Europe's coal markets; coal in the new South Africa; growing demand for South African coal?; South Africa's export infrastructure; the role for coal in the future of electricity generation; and producing the goods. Some of the papers consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs only.

  18. Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-22

    Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa A Monograph by MAJOR Timothy M. Bairstow United States Marine Corps School of...SUBTITLE Amnesty, Reconciliation, and Reintegration in South Africa 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...ABSTRACT Amnesty, reconciliation, and reintegration (AR2) are typically regarded as a post-conflict processes. In South Africa AR2 occurred before

  19. Indicators of Terrorism Vulnerability in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-26

    INDICATORS OF TERRORISM VULNERABILITY IN AFRICA THESIS MARCH 2015 Raymond J. Hill, Second Lieutenant, USAF AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-125 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR...actual mission capability or limitations. AFIT-ENS-MS-15-M-125 INDICATORS OF TERRORISM VULNERABILITY IN AFRICA THESIS Presented to the Faculty...IN AFRICA THESIS Raymond J. Hill, BS Second Lieutenant, USAF Committee Membership: Maj Jennifer L. Geffre, Ph.D. (Chairman) Raymond Hill, Ph.D

  20. The New Presence of China in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western development aid model has failed, is looking for new forms of aid and development in Africa. China's economic success can partly be ascribed to the huge availability of cheap labour, which is primarily employed in exp...

  1. New Development in Sino-Africa Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jinfu

    2008-01-01

    Over the past five decades relations between Africa and China have stood the test of time and are currently thriving. Launched in 2000, the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation marked the beginning of a new stage in Sino-African ties. Sino-African relations are deepening and being defined in broader terms. Enhanced Sino-Africa relations will further solidify solidarity between developing countries and promote South-South cooperation.

  2. AFRICOM and Australian Military Engagement in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-30

    The Defence Update issued in 2003 (DU03) made further inroads towards the globalisation of Australia’s security. It acknowledged that some...interests. Since 2001, trade with Africa has grown 10.5% and Australia’s exports to Africa have grown by 54% in the same time frame.55 An area of...Australia’s merchandise exports and imports to Africa also achieved the highest yearly growth over five years.60 This result was also replicated by the

  3. Potential Climate Effects of Dust Aerosols' over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    JI, Z.; Wang, G.; Pal, J. S.; Yu, M.

    2014-12-01

    Climate in West Africa is under the influence of the West African monsoon circulation and mineral dust emitted from the Sahara desert (which is the world's largest source of mineral dust emission). Dust aerosols alter the atmospheric radiative fluxes and act as cloud condensation nuclei in the process of emission, transportation and deposition. However, our understanding regarding how dust aerosols influence the present-day and future climate of West Africa is very limited. In this study, a regional climate model RegCM4.3.4-CLM4.5 is used to investigate the potential climatic effects of dust aerosols both in present (1981-2000) and future (2081-2100) periods over WA. First, the model performance and dust climatic effects are evaluated. The contribution of dust climatic effects under RCP8.5 scenario and their confounding effects with land use change are assessed. Our results indicate that the model can reproduce with reasonable accuracy the spatial and temporal distribution of climatology, aerosol optical depth and surface concentration over WA. The shortwave radiative forcing of dust is negative in the surface and positive in the atmosphere, with greater changes in JJA and MAM compared to those in SON and DJF. Over most of West Africa, cooling is the dominant effect on temperature. Their impact on precipitation features a dipole pattern, with decrease in the north and increase in the south of West Africa. Despite the dust-induced decrease of precipitation amount, dusts cause extreme precipitation to increase. To evaluate the uncertainties surrounding our modeling results, sensitivity experiments driven by ICBC from MIROC-ESM and CESM and their dynamic downscaling results are used for comparisons. Results from these sensitivity experiments indicate that the impact of dust aerosols on present and future climate is robust.

  4. Chemistry for sustainable development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius); Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas (eds.) [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Faculty of Veterinary Science

    2013-07-01

    Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa' gives an insight into current Chemical research in Africa. It is edited and written by distinguished African scientists and includes contributions from Chemists from Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern, Central and Island state African Countries. The core themes embrace the most pressing issues of our time, including Environmental Chemistry, Renewable Energies, Health and Human Well-Being, Food and Nutrition, and Bioprospecting and Commercial Development. This book is invaluable for teaching and research institutes in Africa and worldwide, private sector entities dealing with natural products from Africa, as well as policy and decision-making bodies and non-governmental organizations.

  5. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  6. Aerosol Optical Depth over Africa retrieved from AATSR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogacheva, Larisa; de Leeuw, Gerrit; Kolmonen, Pekka; Sundström, Anu-Maija; Rodriques, Edith

    2010-05-01

    Aerosols produced over the African continent have important consequences for climate. In particular, large amounts of desert dust are produced over the Sahara and transported across the North Atlantic where desert dust deposition influences the eco system by iron fertilization, and further North over Europe with outbreaks as far as Scandinavia. Biomass burning occurs in most of the African continent south of the Sahara and causes a net positive radiating forcing resulting in local warming of the atmosphere layers. These effects have been studied during large field campaigns. Satellites can systematically provide information on aerosols over a large area such as Africa and beyond. To this end, we retrieved the Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) at three wavelengths (555nm, 670nm, and 1600nm) over Africa from the reflectance measured at the top of the atmosphere by the AATSR (Advances Along Track Scanning Radiometer) flying on ENVISAT, for one year (1 May 2008 to 30 April 2009) to obtain information on the seasonal and spatial behaviour of the AOD, episodes of high AOD events and connect the retrieved AOD with the ground-based aerosol measurements. The AOD retrieval algorithm, which is applied to cloud-free pixels over land, is based on the comparison of the measured and modeled reflectance at the top of the atmosphere (TOA). The algorithm uses look-up-tables (LUTs) to compute the modeled TOA reflectance. For AOD retrieval, an aerosol in the atmosphere is assumed to be an external mixture of fine and coarse mode particles. The two aerosol types are mixed such that the spectral behavior of the reflectance due to aerosol best fits the measurements. Comparison with AERONET (Aerosol Roboric NETwork), which is a network of ground-based sun photometers which measure atmospheric aerosol properties, shows good agreement but with some overestimation of the AATSR retrieved AOD. Different aerosol models have been used to improve the comparison. The lack of AERONET stations in Africa

  7. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  8. Is Information Enough? User Responses to Seasonal Climate Forecasts in Southern Africa. Report to the World Bank, AFTE1-ENVGC. Adaptation to Climate Change and Variability in Sub{sub S}aharan Africa, Phase II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Brien, Karen; Sygna, Linda; Naess, Lars Otto; Kingamkono, Robert; Hochobeb, Ben

    2000-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s, long-lead climate forecasts have been developed and used to predict the onset of El Nino events and their impact on climate variability. This report discusses user responses to seasonal climate forecasts in southern Africa, with an emphasis on small-scale farmers in Namibia and Tanzania. The study examines how farmers received and used the forecasts in the agricultural season of 1997/1998. It also summarises a workshop on user responses to seasonal forecasts in southern Africa. Comparison of case studies across south Africa revealed differences in forecast dissemination strategies and in the capacity to respond to extreme events. However, improving these strategies and the capacity to respond to the forecasts would yield net profit to agriculture in southern Africa. In anticipation of potential changes in the frequency or magnitude of extreme events associated with global climate change, there clearly is a need for improved seasonal forecasts and improved information dissemination.

  9. Governance of Fracking in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Corrigan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the environmental and ecological consequences of hydraulic fracturing have accompanied the shale boom in developed countries at the forefront of shale exploration and production. These environmental and ecological consequences may be of even greater concern in developing countries with less governance capacity. We present a conceptual framework that specifies several variables that are expected to contribute to sustainable hydraulic fracturing. We use the framework to characterize prospects for sustainable hydraulic fracturing in South Africa and Botswana. The framework and evidence clarifies the institutional capacity and institutional challenges confronting the sub-Saharan African countries as extraction of natural resources using hydraulic fracturing begins in earnest.

  10. Sub-Saharan Africa Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    34kimbongue," with little or no nutritional value, the population wanders around the mountains in search of a tuber considered to be highly...Africa’s harvest and livestock yields are lower than the rest of the world’s—even lower than Zimbabwe’s—because extra competition for existing...PW he met his Moses." A surfer points out that had Mr Hendricksc been in a yacht or a boat and dipped’ his feet in the water at the same point

  11. International collaboration clusters in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Jonathan; Hook, Daniel; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Recent discussion about the increase in international research collaboration suggests a comprehensive global network centred around a group of core countries and driven by generic socio-economic factors where the global system influences all national and institutional outcomes. In counterpoint, we demonstrate that the collaboration pattern for countries in Africa is far from universal. Instead, it exhibits layers of internal clusters and external links that are explained not by monotypic global influences but by regional geography and, perhaps even more strongly, by history, culture and language. Analysis of these bottom-up, subjective, human factors is required in order to provide the fuller explanation useful for policy and management purposes.

  12. South Africa: defiance campaign continues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-03-01

    The Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) has continued its "defiance campaign against patent abuse and AIDS profiteering." In partnership with Médecins Sans Frontières (Doctors Without Borders), and with the support of Oxfam and the Council of South African Trade Unions (COSATU), on 28 January 2002 three TAC members returned to South Africa from Brazil carrying generic versions of the antiretroviral drugs zidovudine (AZT), lamivudine (3TC), and nevirapine (NVP). Some of the imported capsules contain a combination of AZT and 3TC.

  13. Exon-Enriched Libraries Reveal Large Genic Differences Between Aedes aegypti from Senegal, West Africa, and Populations Outside Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Laura B; Campbell, Corey L; Juneja, Punita; Jiggins, Francis M; Sylla, Massamba; Black, William C

    2017-02-09

    Aedes aegypti is one of the most studied mosquito species, and the principal vector of several arboviruses pathogenic to humans. Recently failure to oviposit, low fecundity, and poor egg-to-adult survival were observed when Ae. aegypti from Senegal (SenAae) West Africa were crossed with Ae. aegypti (Aaa) from outside of Africa, and in SenAae intercrosses. Fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses indicated rearrangements on chromosome 1, and pericentric inversions on chromosomes 2 and 3. Herein, high throughput sequencing (HTS) of exon-enriched libraries was used to compare chromosome-wide genetic diversity among Aaa collections from rural Thailand and Mexico, a sylvatic collection from southeastern Senegal (PK10), and an urban collection from western Senegal (Kaolack). Sex-specific polymorphisms were analyzed in Thailand and PK10 to assess genetic differences between sexes. Expected heterozygosity was greatest in SenAae FST distributions of 15,735 genes among all six pairwise comparisons of the four collections indicated that Mexican and Thailand collections are genetically similar, while FST distributions between PK10 and Kaolack were distinct. All four comparisons of SenAae with Aaa indicated extreme differentiation. FST was uniform between sexes across all chromosomes in Thailand, but were different, especially on the sex autosome 1, in PK10. These patterns correlate with the reproductive isolation noted earlier. We hypothesize that cryptic Ae. aegypti taxa may exist in West Africa, and the large genic differences between Aaa and SenAae detected in the present study have accumulated over a long period following the evolution of chromosome rearrangements in allopatric populations that subsequently cause reproductive isolation when these populations became sympatric.

  14. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mainland region of Africa is Southern Africa because it is considered to be robust with an estimate of around 1700 tree species that are native and a couple 100 more that are alien, but have become accustomed to the natural environment; invading, penetrating and replacing vegetation.

  15. The New Presence of China in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western developm

  16. OER in Africa's Higher Education Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngugi, Catherine N.

    2011-01-01

    Higher education in Africa has had diverse histories and trajectories, and has played different roles over time. This article is concerned with the evolution and future of higher education on the continent, and the role that open educational resources (OER) might play therein. It is generally accepted that "the university in Africa and higher…

  17. Does organized crime exist in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Shaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing international concern about the growth of organized crime in Africa. Important criminal organizations and professional criminals are present in Africa, but we argue that the term "organized crime" is not a very useful description of their activity, since what we are actually witn

  18. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  19. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  20. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  1. Sub Saharan Africa Food Value Chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Butler, Ivan Harry

    2016-01-01

    Study of food value chains in East Africa as a preliminary study. The paper wishes to underline a few under-researched assumptions about esepcially protein deficiencies, allergies etc. to establish what enablers and constraints exist when trying to supply food from e.g. Europe to e.g. East Africa...

  2. Health Promoting Schools: Initiatives in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnab, Andrew J.; Stewart, Donald; Gagnon, Faith A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to describe the rationale for and potential of World Health Organization (WHO) health promoting schools (HPS) in Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Overview of the related literature and presentations at the 2011 Stellenbosch international colloquium on HPS relating to sub-Saharan Africa. Findings: Schools…

  3. China's Investment in Africa's Banking Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The global financial crisis, whose effects have been most severe on the world's largest banks, has created a vacuum in banking sector in Africa by stalling investment from the traditional investor. The world's largest banks, brought to their knees by the crisis, and having had to be bailed out, are in no position to continue investing in the banking sector in Africa.

  4. The Flynn effect in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Nijenhuis, J.; Murphy, R.; van Eeden, R.

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa.

  5. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  6. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  7. Researching Postgraduate Educational Research in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, J.; Balfour, R.; Moletsane, R.; Pillay, G.

    2009-01-01

    This article is about the national project to gather together information about postgraduate education research (PPER) in South Africa conducted over a ten-year period, namely 1995-2004, being the first decade in the democratic era for South Africa. The ideas informing the PPER Project are provided and the complex process of developing the PPER…

  8. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  9. South Africa:the Wonder Lies Waiting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    "South Africa is truly a remarkable country and a wonderful holiday destination.It is a land that is synonymous with a rich historical heritage,magnificent natrural beauty,abundant wildlife and a unique spirit and energy that exudes from a multi-cultural nation of people who pride themselves in calling South Africa 'home'".

  10. Additional Miocene to Pleistocene rhinoceroses of Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooijer, D.A.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to place on record data on fossil Rhinocerotidae from Africa not included in earlier papers. Material has turned up in Africa in great quantities over the last decade, much from beautifully calibrated sequences especially in Ethiopia and the Baringo area of Kenya.

  11. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  12. Dermatology and HIV/AIDS in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Hu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS have greatly complicated dermatologic disease and the required care in most regions of Africa. Opportunistic infections, ectoparasites, Kaposi sarcoma, and skin manifestations of systemic infections are exceedingly common in patients with HIV/AIDS. Dermatologists have contributed significantly to our knowledge base about HIV/AIDS and have played an important educational role regarding the clinical manifestations historically. Because of the increased burden of skin disease in Africa due to the HIV/AIDS epidemic we must redouble our efforts to provide dermatology education to care providers in Africa. We review the burden of skin disease in Africa, how it relates to HIV/AIDS and global infectious disease, current educational strategies in Africa to address this need, and suggest potential solutions to move these efforts forward.

  13. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.

  14. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  15. Human origins: Out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  16. Epidemiology of Leptospirosis in Africa: A Systematic Review of a Neglected Zoonosis and a Paradigm for ‘One Health’ in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Kathryn J.; Biggs, Holly M.; Halliday, Jo E. B.; Kazwala, Rudovick R.; Maro, Venance P.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Crump, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an important but neglected bacterial zoonosis that has been largely overlooked in Africa. In this systematic review, we aimed to summarise and compare current knowledge of: (1) the geographic distribution, prevalence, incidence and diversity of acute human leptospirosis in Africa; and (2) the geographic distribution, host range, prevalence and diversity of Leptospira spp. infection in animal hosts in Africa. Methods Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we searched for studies that described (1) acute human leptospirosis and (2) pathogenic Leptospira spp. infection in animals. We performed a literature search using eight international and regional databases for English and non-English articles published between January 1930 to October 2014 that met out pre-defined inclusion criteria and strict case definitions. Results and Discussion We identified 97 studies that described acute human leptospirosis (n = 46) or animal Leptospira infection (n = 51) in 26 African countries. The prevalence of acute human leptospirosis ranged from 2 3% to 19 8% (n = 11) in hospital patients with febrile illness. Incidence estimates were largely restricted to the Indian Ocean islands (3 to 101 cases per 100,000 per year (n = 6)). Data from Tanzania indicate that human disease incidence is also high in mainland Africa (75 to 102 cases per 100,000 per year). Three major species (Leptospira borgpetersenii, L. interrogans and L. kirschneri) are predominant in reports from Africa and isolates from a diverse range of serogroups have been reported in human and animal infections. Cattle appear to be important hosts of a large number of Leptospira serogroups in Africa, but few data are available to allow comparison of Leptospira infection in linked human and animal populations. We advocate a ‘One Health’ approach to promote multidisciplinary research efforts to improve understanding of the animal to human

  17. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup H structure in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dzimiri Nduna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Strait of Gibraltar separating the Iberian Peninsula from North Africa is thought to be a stronger barrier to gene flow for male than for female lineages. However, the recent subdivision of the haplogroup H at mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA level has revealed greater genetic differentiation among geographic regions than previously detected. The dissection of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa, and its comparison with the Iberian Peninsula and Near-East profiles would help clarify the relative affinities among these regions. Results Like the Iberian Peninsula, the dominant mtDNA haplogroup H subgroups in North Africa are H1 (42% and H3 (13%. The similarity between these regions is stronger in the North-West edge affecting mainly Moroccan Arabs, West Saharans and Mauritanians, and decreases eastwards probably due to gene flow from Near East as attested for the higher frequencies of H4, H5, H7, H8 and H11 subgroups. Moroccan Berbers show stronger affinities with Tunisian and Tunisian Berbers than with Moroccan Arabs. Coalescence ages for H1 (11 ± 2 ky and H3 (11 ± 4 ky in North Africa point to the possibility of a late Palaeolithic settlement for these lineages similar to those found for other mtDNA haplogroups. Total and partial mtDNA genomic sequencing unveiled stronger mtDNA differentiation among regions than previously found using HVSI mtDNA based analysis. Conclusion The subdivision of the mtDNA haplogroup H in North Africa has confirmed that the genetic differentiation found among Western and Eastern populations is mainly due to geographical rather than cultural barriers. It also shows that the historical Arabian role on the region had more a cultural than a demic effect. Whole mtDNA sequencing of identical H haplotypes based on HVSI and RFLP information has unveiled additional mtDNA differences between North African and Iberian Peninsula lineages, pointing to an older mtDNA genetic flow between regions than previously

  18. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  19. Missionary Education in Colonial Africa: The Critique of Mary Kingsley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Discussing missionary education in colonial Africa, Pearce examines the ideas of Mary Kingsley, one of the major influences on British thinking towards Africa from the late 1890's. Focusing attention on her educational views, Pearce states that she had influence on all areas of British policy in Africa, and especially West Africa. (GEA)

  20. Geological remote sensing in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabins, Floyd F., Jr.; Bailey, G. Bryan; Abrams, Michael J.

    1987-01-01

    Programs using remote sensing to obtain geologic information in Africa are reviewed. Studies include the use of Landsat MSS data to evaluate petroleum resources in sedimentary rock terrains in Kenya and Sudan and the use of Landsat TM 30-m resolution data to search for mineral deposits in an ophiolite complex in Oman. Digitally enhanced multispectral SPOT data at a scale of 1:62,000 were used to map folds, faults, diapirs, bedding attitudes, and stratigraphic units in the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. In another study, SIR-A data over a vegetated and faulted area of Sierra Leone were compared with data collected by the Landsat MSS and TM systems. It was found that the lineaments on the SIR-A data were more easily detected.

  1. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  2. Bringing physics training to Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…   Participants in the African School of Physics with CERN's John Ellis. “Attending a school like this is an opportunity no student should miss. This school unlocks one's mind and we are so exposed to many exciting things happening in the world of physics. It's just amazing!” says Suzan Phumudzo Bvumbi from the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Suzan is among the 50 students who have spent over three weeks this summer attending the second edition of the African School of Physics (ASP2012). The school was held in Kumasi, Ghana. "Hosting ASP2012 has given us the opportunity to demonstrate the capacity and resources avai...

  3. Successful Social Enterprises in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Karen Panum; Hansen, Michael W.

    As part of the greater focus on the role of firms and entrepreneurship in development, spotlight has recently fallen upon so-called ‘social enterprises’. Social enterprises are organizations that operate in the borderland between the for-profit and non-for-profit spheres. The inherent purpose...... of the poverty related development challenges endemic to Sub-Saharan Africa. Hence, this paper presents six tales of social enterprises from the Kenyan BOP, who all have managed to pursue a social agenda while at the same time achieving commercial viability. While the cases contribute to the BOP literature...... significant value to the ongoing discussions in the social enterprise literature. Besides constituting important empirical evidence from the inadequately investigated area of social enterprises at the BOP, the cases provide basis for raising important conceptual issues related to the boundaries of social...

  4. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    The potential natural vegetation (PNV) map of eastern and southern Africa covers the countries Burundi, Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. The first version of the map was developed by various partners in East Africa and Europe in 2010 and has now reached version 2. The map...... for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa. To navigate this site, please use the menu on the left. For the latest news and updates, check out our Google+ page. And if you want to contact us for questions, comments or any other reason, please...

  5. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  6. Review of Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling, and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Preben

    2012-01-01

    Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009).......Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009)....

  7. Comparative financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritsch, Remi, E-mail: fritschr@afd.fr [Centre d' Etudes Financieres, Economiques et Bancaires (CEFEB), BP 33401, 13567 Marseille cedex 02 (France)

    2011-10-15

    Access to electricity is a major issue in West Africa. Governments have a difficult equation to solve. They naturally seek to offer their people a cheap kWh. But they are constrained by a production based largely on oil and therefore highly volatile production costs. How to fix an acceptable tariff, taking into account the investment needs required to expand the network and increase production? This analysis should provide some answers. The study presented in this paper provides a financial analysis of electricity utilities in West Africa. It allows a comparison of performances on a number of key financial ratios related to operations (Earning Before Interest Taxes Debt and Amortization/sales, working capital requirement/sales, days of receivables or payables), investment (net fixed assets/gross fixed assets), bank financing (financial structure, debt/EBITDA, interest expense/EBITDA) and economic and financial returns (Return On Capital Employed, Return On Equity). The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country. But this opportunity may only materialize if the EBITDA margins are restored. The available options appear limited and must be assessed taking into account the context of each country: tariff increase, improvement of technical losses or diversification into means of production no longer based primarily on oil or gas. - Highlights: > The study provides a financial analysis of electricity distribution companies in West Africa. > The study highlights generally insufficient EBITDA margins. > The study raises the question of tariffs and contribution to Gross Domestic Product of the electricity sector. > The conclusion focuses on the growth opportunity that the electricity sector could represent for each country.

  8. Downscaling GISS ModelE Boreal Summer Climate over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the perceived added value of downscaling atmosphere-ocean global climate model simulations over Africa and adjacent oceans by a nested regional climate model. NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) coupled ModelE simulations for June- September 1998-2002 are used to form lateral boundary conditions for synchronous simulations by the GISS RM3 regional climate model. The ModelE computational grid spacing is 2deg latitude by 2.5deg longitude and the RM3 grid spacing is 0.44deg. ModelE precipitation climatology for June-September 1998-2002 is shown to be a good proxy for 30-year means so results based on the 5-year sample are presumed to be generally representative. Comparison with observational evidence shows several discrepancies in ModelE configuration of the boreal summer inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). One glaring shortcoming is that ModelE simulations do not advance the West African rain band northward during the summer to represent monsoon precipitation onset over the Sahel. Results for 1998-2002 show that onset simulation is an important added value produced by downscaling with RM3. ModelE Eastern South Atlantic Ocean computed sea-surface temperatures (SST) are some 4 K warmer than reanalysis, contributing to large positive biases in overlying surface air temperatures (Tsfc). ModelE Tsfc are also too warm over most of Africa. RM3 downscaling somewhat mitigates the magnitude of Tsfc biases over the African continent, it eliminates the ModelE double ITCZ over the Atlantic and it produces more realistic orographic precipitation maxima. Parallel ModelE and RM3 simulations with observed SST forcing (in place of the predicted ocean) lower Tsfc errors but have mixed impacts on circulation and precipitation biases. Downscaling improvements of the meridional movement of the rain band over West Africa and the configuration of orographic precipitation maxima are realized irrespective of the SST biases.

  9. Downscaling GISS ModelE boreal summer climate over Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew

    2016-12-01

    The study examines the perceived added value of downscaling atmosphere-ocean global climate model simulations over Africa and adjacent oceans by a nested regional climate model. NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) coupled ModelE simulations for June-September 1998-2002 are used to form lateral boundary conditions for synchronous simulations by the GISS RM3 regional climate model. The ModelE computational grid spacing is 2° latitude by 2.5° longitude and the RM3 grid spacing is 0.44°. ModelE precipitation climatology for June-September 1998-2002 is shown to be a good proxy for 30-year means so results based on the 5-year sample are presumed to be generally representative. Comparison with observational evidence shows several discrepancies in ModelE configuration of the boreal summer inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ). One glaring shortcoming is that ModelE simulations do not advance the West African rain band northward during the summer to represent monsoon precipitation onset over the Sahel. Results for 1998-2002 show that onset simulation is an important added value produced by downscaling with RM3. ModelE Eastern South Atlantic Ocean computed sea-surface temperatures (SST) are some 4 K warmer than reanalysis, contributing to large positive biases in overlying surface air temperatures (Tsfc). ModelE Tsfc are also too warm over most of Africa. RM3 downscaling somewhat mitigates the magnitude of Tsfc biases over the African continent, it eliminates the ModelE double ITCZ over the Atlantic and it produces more realistic orographic precipitation maxima. Parallel ModelE and RM3 simulations with observed SST forcing (in place of the predicted ocean) lower Tsfc errors but have mixed impacts on circulation and precipitation biases. Downscaling improvements of the meridional movement of the rain band over West Africa and the configuration of orographic precipitation maxima are realized irrespective of the SST biases.

  10. New Evidence on Subjective Wellbeing and the Definition of Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Neil Lloyd; Murray Leibbrandt

    2013-01-01

    Access to new nationally-representative, individual-level panel data from South Africa has allowed for the revalidation of Kingdon and Knight's (2006) discussion on the definition of unemployment. This paper investigates subjective wellbeing as a measure of comparison between labour market statuses. It finds that on the grounds of subjective wellbeing the non-searching unemployed (or 'discouraged') are significantly worse-off than the not-economically-active. Moreover, evidence suggests that ...

  11. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cancers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, J O

    2001-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is considered home to more than 60% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases, with an estimated adult prevalence of 8.0%. It is stated that this region has contributed more than 90% of childhood deaths related to HIV infection and about 93% of childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths. Although no country in Africa is spared of the infection, the bulk is seen in East and South Africa, with the highest recorded rates of 20% to 50% in Zimbabwe. On the other hand, West Africa is less affected, while countries in Central Africa have relatively stable infection rates. Although infections, especially tuberculosis, have emerged as the most important HIV/AIDS-associated killers in recent times, AIDS-associated malignancies are increasingly identified in the late stages. As a result of incomplete data from African countries, it is unclear whether the epidemiology and risks of these cancers are the same as observed in the developed countries. Since the advent of AIDS, epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has become more common in both sexes in Africa, with a dramatic lowering of the male to female ratio from 19:1 to 1.7:1, especially in East Africa. Although there has been a rising trend of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) worldwide, there is an apparently lower risk in Africa compared with that in the developing world. At present, there is no strong evidence linking increased incidence of invasive cervical cancer to the HIV epidemic; however, some studies have demonstrated an association between HIV and the increased prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). On the other hand, HIV infection is now established as a risk factor for the development of squamous cell neoplasia of the conjunctiva based on studies from Rwanda, Malawi, and Uganda. Despite the problems and limitations of information from sub-Saharan Africa, interesting trends of HIV/AIDS-related cancers

  12. Epidemiology of HIV in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Brian C. [Harvard Medical School, Baylor International AIDS Initiative, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)

  13. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  14. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  15. South Africa - record exports defy market misery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.

    1999-03-01

    Dry cargo continues to form the backbone of South Africa`s commodities trades, comprising more than 70% of overall import and export activity. Despite economic stagnation in many global markets and poor prospects for any significant recovery in prices, most of South Africa`s dry bulk ports have experienced sustained tonnage levels in 1998, and are focusing on facility improvements to meet future growth expectation. Coal exports in 1998 increased by 2.8 mt to a record 66.7 mt. The main rise in exports was achieved by Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) but Durban`s BMA terminal and Portnet`s Dry Bulk Terminal or Richards Bay, and the upgraded Maputo Terminals at Mozambique also handled more trade. Expansion projects at RBCT are also mentioned. 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 photos.

  16. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  17. Europa e Africa - Anatomia di un incontro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at:  http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy of an enc......Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at:  http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy...

  18. Advancing China's Multilateral Diplomacy in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luo Jianbo

    2006-01-01

    @@ The 21st century offers Africa and China many opportunities. African countries are committed to regional integration in order to achieve peace, stability and development, while China is accelerating its socialist modernization to achieve peaceful development and national rejuvenation.

  19. Inter-provincial mobility features of natural gas input in China%我国省际天然气资源流调入规模分布的分形分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丛殿阁; 林健宸; 陈孝劲; 赵奎涛; 叶张煌

    2015-01-01

    This paper studys the size distribution of nature gas input among provinces from 2002 to 2012 based on Zipf law and difference degree model .The conclusion is :① Size distribution of nature gas input among provinces from 2002 to 2012 basically follow Zipf law ,and the change of Zipf parameter is consistent with the change of difference degree .② Provinces in the non-scaling ranges is generally increasing ,which shows size distribution of nature gas input among provinces in China is being gradually optimized .③Fractal evolution law of size distribution of input of nature gas among provinces is different each year .Except 2011 ,each year has two non-scaling ranges ,complying with double fractal .2011 has a non-scaling range ,complying with single fractal .④ In the first range of 2002~2005 ,the rank-size distribution of the nature gas input in this four years complies with lognormal distribution model;2006 ~ 2008 ,Pareto model;2009~2012 ,lognormal distribution model .In the second range of each year except 2011 ,the rank-size distribution in those years complies with irregular Pareto model .⑤ The change of size distribution of the nature gas input was relative to many factors ,e .g .the production place ,reserves and yield of large gas field , discovery of new gas field and decline of old gas field ,level of economic development among different provinces and years .%本文运用了位次变化、齐夫定律、差异度 ,比较分析了2000~2012年我国省际天然气资源流调入规模分布的变化特征.得出以下结论 :从各省历年天然气调入量位次变化看出近年来我国天然气资源流调入规模分布趋于分散 ,呈良性趋势发展 ;研究时段内我国省际天然气资源流调入规模结构都基本遵循齐夫法则 ,而且与差异度变化趋势也是一致的.这说明齐夫法则可为我国省际天然气资源流调入规模结构变化的研究提供新的定量方法.从省际天然气调入量来看 ,无标度区覆盖的地区范围呈扩大趋势 ,说明我国省际天然气调入资源量规模结构逐步得到优化.研究时段内我国省际天然气资源流调入量规模结构的空间分形演化规律不同 ,除了2011年为局部单分形外 ,其余各年都都具有双分形结构.研究时段内我国省际天然气资源流调入量规模结构的形态发生变化 ,第一无标度区2002~2005年呈对数正态分布模式 ,2006~2008年呈帕雷托分布模式 ,2009~2012年呈对数正态分布模式.第二无标度区中各年(除2011年)均呈不规则帕雷托分布模式.本文主要就我国省际天然气资源流的位序-规模结构的分形意义进行了讨论 ,对于引起我国天然气资源流动特征变化的原因和机理还有待于另行深入研究.

  20. 基于嵌套Logit模型的中国省际人口二次迁移影响因素分析%Determinants of Inter-provincial Migration in China:Nested Logit Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘建波; 王桂新; 魏星

    2004-01-01

    本文主要根据中国第五次人口普查1‰抽样数据,采用嵌套Logit模型,考察和分析1990年代后期中国省际人口二次迁移的主要影响因素.通过对一般迁移、再迁移和回归迁移的考察分析发现,无论是个人因素还是区域经济因素,都对其迁移行为具有重要影响:再迁移者明显受到潜在目的地区域环境因素的吸引;而回归迁移者对出生地的经济状况敏感程度较弱,但个人因素对其迁移选择有较大影响.

  1. 我国旅游资源经济转化率及其省际差异分析%On Analysis of Tourism Resources Economic Conversion Rate and Inter-Provincial Variance in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白洋; 杨晓霞; 樊昊

    2015-01-01

    旅游资源经济转化率是衡量旅游资源开发利用水平的重要指标。在对旅游资源丰裕度、旅游经济综合发展水平量化估值的基础上,尝试建立旅游资源经济转化率模型,以2012年的截面数据对全国各省级行政区的旅游资源经济转化率进行定量测算与分析,结果表明:①我国旅游资源经济转化率总体水平偏低且省际差异明显;②我国省级行政区旅游资源经济转化率可划分为高、中、低3个等级,其中高等级包含2个省级行政区,中等级包含10个省级行政区,低等级包含19个省级行政区;③东北、西北地区只拥有低转化率等级的省级行政区;华北、西南地区拥有中、低转化率等级的省级行政区;华东、中南地区同时拥有高、中、低转化率等级的省级行政区。%Tourism resources economic conversion rate is an important indicator to measure tourism re‐sources development and utilization level .T his study on the basis of the quantitative valuation of tourism resources abundance and tourism economy comprehensive development level attempts to establish the tourism resources of economic conversion model ,quantitatively estimates the 2012 China's provincial ad‐ministrative region tourism resources economic conversion rate and analyzes the difference .Results show that 1) The overall level of tourism resources economic conversion rate of China is low ,and difference to be markedly ;2)T he provincial administrative region tourism resources economic conversion can be divided into high ,medium and low three grades ,high‐grade contains two provincial administrative region ,mid‐range contains 10 provincial administrative region ,lower level contains 19 provincial administrative region , which contains high grade 2 provincial level administrative region ,the intermediate contains 10 provincial‐level administrative region ,lower level contains 19 provincial administrative region ;3) From the perspec‐tive of the decomposition of geographical area ,Northeast ,Northwest have low conversion rate level ;North ,Southwest region have medium and low conversion rate level ;East ,South region have high ,medi‐um and low conversion level .

  2. 基于QAP算法的省际劳动力迁移动因理论再检验%Retesting Dynamical Factor Theories on Inter-Provincial Labor Migration with QAP Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖群鹰; 刘慧君

    2007-01-01

    文章利用"五普"9.5%抽样比例长表数据与《中国统计年鉴》2000年分地区数据,基于二次迭代分配(QAP)算法和修正扩展重力模型,从关系数据视角鉴别中国以往省际劳动力迁移影响因素理论的有效性.研究发现,同以往研究结论一致,迁出和迁入省份间的预期收入、产业结构、教育程度、人口分布、迁移成本差异,以及是否处于同一经济带,对中国省际劳动力迁移有显著影响;但经济规模、对外开放度和固定资产投资对省际劳动力迁移的影响不具有统计意义.

  3. China & South Africa in Full Swing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China and South Africa will soon celebrate the 10th anniversary of their formal diplomatic relations establishment. On this special occasion, China's Foreign Trade conducted an interview with Mr. Alex Khumalo, the General Manager of Asia Pacific South Africa Chamber of Commerce (APSACC) Secretariat. Both countries have witnessed the growing friendship of two sides in the past decade, and more fruits are expected in the coming future.

  4. SOUTH AFRICA AT WAR, 1912-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Second Anglo-Boer War also put an end to the commando system that had been the core of military strength in South Africa. With the formation of the Union in 1910 it was realized that South Africa will have to provide its own defence. It was to be no easy task; seeing that the English and Afrikaans-speaking sections of the population had just concluded a bitter war which had left deep scars.

  5. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  6. Africa Ushering in a New Historical Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Africa, which comprises a significant number of developing countries, is an important force working for world peace and stability and global economic development. The African continent is rich in natural and human resources and potentials for development. For years, however, Africa gave people the impression that it was a poverty-stricken, backward land ravaged by successive wars and epidemic diseases. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there have been some

  7. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  8. FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. De Agrela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a history teacher to Forms 4 and 5 (Standard 9 and 10, John Pampallis found that "a pressing need for a general textbook to cover the South African section of our syllabus" existed. Pampallis set out to document the history of South Africa and the fruits of his labour emerged in the form of his book Foundations of the New South Africa which is written from refreshingly different perspective.

  9. Geography, institutions, and compared development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Luis Vaz

    2007-01-01

    Recent years have seen a significant improvement in the economic performance of some African countries. The resulting increased dispersion in income levels across Africa, combined with the pertinence of detecting regional role models renders an intra-African analysis more attractive. In this paper I estimate the respective contribution of institutions, geography, and policies in determining income levels in sub-Saharan Africa. I find that income per capita in this region can be explained to a...

  10. The carbon balance of Africa: synthesis of recent research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P; Bombelli, A; Williams, M; Piao, S L; Chave, J; Ryan, C M; Henry, M; Brender, P; Valentini, R

    2011-05-28

    The African continent contributes one of the largest uncertainties to the global CO(2) budget, because very few long-term measurements are carried out in this region. The contribution of Africa to the global carbon cycle is characterized by its low fossil fuel emissions, a rapidly increasing population causing cropland expansion, and degradation and deforestation risk to extensive dryland and savannah ecosystems and to tropical forests in Central Africa. A synthesis of the carbon balance of African ecosystems is provided at different scales, including observations of land-atmosphere CO(2) flux and soil carbon and biomass carbon stocks. A review of the most recent estimates of the net long-term carbon balance of African ecosystems is provided, including losses from fire disturbance, based upon observations, giving a sink of the order of 0.2 Pg C yr(-1) with a large uncertainty around this number. By comparison, fossil fuel emissions are only of the order of 0.2 Pg C yr(-1) and land-use emissions are of the order of 0.24 Pg C yr(-1). The sources of year-to-year variations in the ecosystem carbon-balance are also discussed. Recommendations for the deployment of a coordinated carbon-monitoring system for African ecosystems are given.

  11. Multi-scale investigation of shrub encroachment in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Paul; Marston, Christopher; Wilkinson, David; Field, Richard; O'Regan, Hannah

    2016-04-01

    There is growing speculation that savannah environments throughout Africa have been subject to shrub encroachment in recent years, whereby grassland is lost to woody vegetation cover. Changes in the relative proportions of grassland and woodland are important in the context of conservation of savannah systems, with implications for faunal distributions, environmental management and tourism. Here, we focus on southern Kruger National Park, South Africa, and investigate whether or not shrub encroachment has occurred over the last decade and a half. We use a multi-scale approach, examining the complementarity of medium (e.g. Landsat TM and OLI) and fine (e.g. QuickBird and WorldView-2) spatial resolution satellite sensor imagery, supported by intensive field survey in 2002 and 2014. We employ semi-automated land cover classification, involving a hybrid unsupervised clustering approach with manual class grouping and checking, followed by change detection post-classification comparison analysis. The results show that shrub encroachment is indeed occurring, a finding evidenced through three fine resolution replicate images plus medium resolution imagery. The results also demonstrate the complementarity of medium and fine resolution imagery, though some thematic information must be sacrificed to maintain high medium resolution classification accuracy. Finally, the findings have broader implications for issues such as vegetation seasonality, spatial transferability and management practices.

  12. Methyl halide emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Atlas, E.; Harris, G. W.; Helas, G.; de Kock, A.; Koppmann, R.; Maenhaut, W.; Manø, S.; Pollock, W. H.; Rudolph, J.; Scharffe, D.; Schebeske, G.; Welling, M.

    1996-10-01

    The methyl halides, methyl chloride (CH3Cl), methyl bromide (CH3Br), and methyl iodide (CH3I), were measured in regional air samples and smoke from savanna fires in southern Africa during the Southern Africa Fire-Atmosphere Research Initiative-92 (SAFARI-92) experiment (August-October 1992). All three species were significantly enhanced in the smoke plumes relative to the regional background. Good correlations were found between the methyl halides and carbon monoxide, suggesting that emission was predominantly associated with the smoldering phase of the fires. About 90% of the halogen content of the fuel burned was released to the atmosphere, mostly as halide species, but a significant fraction (3-38%) was emitted in methylated form. On the basis of comparison with the composition of the regional background atmosphere, emission ratios to carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide were determined for the methyl halide species. The emission ratios decreased in the sequence CH3Cl > CH3Br > CH3I. Extrapolation of these results in combination with data from other types of biomass burning, e.g. forest fires, suggests that vegetation fires make a significant contribution to the atmospheric budget of CH3Cl and CH3Br. For tropospheric CH3I, on the other hand, fires appear to be a minor source. Our results suggest that pyrogenic emissions of CH3Cl and CH3Br need to be considered as significant contributors to stratospheric ozone destruction.

  13. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  14. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  15. In Brief: New atlas of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2008-07-01

    A newly revised atlas of Africa features more than 300 satellite images that show striking before and after photographs of environmental changes spanning about 35 years. Africa: Atlas of Our Changing Environment, compiled by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), provides visual evidence of how development choices, population growth, climate change, and, in some cases, conflicts affect Africa, often negatively. The book includes photographs of shrinking glaciers on Mount Kilimanjaro as well as on Uganda's Rwenzori Mountains; deforestation along an expanding road system in the Congo; the drying up of Lake Chad; and the expansion of urban areas such as Cape Town, South Africa, and Dakar, Senegal. Satellite images also indicate some positive signs of environmental management, including action to stop overgrazing in a Tunisian national park, the effects of a management plan for a dam in Zambia that has helped restore seasonal flooding, and positive impacts of wetlands expansion around a national park in Mauritania. For more information, visit http://www.unep.org/dewa/africa/AfricaAtlas.

  16. Migration challenges among Zimbabwean refugees before, during and post arrival in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erhabor Sunday Idemudia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Zimbabweans are immigrating to South Africa with a commonly cited reason being economic opportunities. Prospects of finding employment may be a significant reason to leave behind family, friends, and community, sources that buffer and offer social support against life’s challenges. Currently, there is a dearth of research examining the motivators for Zimbabweans immigrating and the experiences encountered along the way and after arrival in South Africa. Such research is essential as large numbers of Zimbabweans may be at risk for emotional and physical trauma during this process. METHODS: Two gender specific focus group discussions, each lasting 90-minutes and consisting of homeless Zimbabwean refugees, were conducted in the Limpopo Province of South Africa. A semi-structured interview assessed for experiences in and reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, as well as experiences en-route and within South Africa. Discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using consensual qualitative research and a constant comparison qualitative method. RESULTS: Three temporal themes were identified and included challenges and trauma experienced in Zimbabwe (pre-migration, during the immigration journey (mid-migration, and upon arrival in South Africa (post-migration. While there were some experiential differences, Zimbabwean men and women shared numerous traumatic commonalities. In addition to the themes, three subthemes contributing to reasons for leaving Zimbabwe, two subthemes of negative and traumatic experiences incurred mid-migration, and two post-migration subthemes of challenges were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the difficulties encountered in their homeland, newly arrived Zimbabweans in South Africa may be exchanging old struggles for a new array of foreign and traumatic challenges. Reasons to immigrate and the psychological and physical toll of migration exacted at the individual and community levels are discussed

  17. Middle to Late Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in subtropical southern East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañeda, Isla S.; Caley, Thibaut; Dupont, Lydie; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Malaizé, Bruno; Schouten, Stefan

    2016-09-01

    In this study we investigate Pleistocene vegetation and climate change in southern East Africa by examining plant leaf waxes in a marine sediment core that receives terrestrial runoff from the Limpopo River. The plant leaf wax records are compared to a multi-proxy sea surface temperature (SST) record and pollen assemblage data from the same site. We find that Indian Ocean SST variability, driven by high-latitude obliquity, exerted a strong control on the vegetation of southern East Africa during the past 800,000 yr. Interglacial periods were characterized by relatively wetter and warmer conditions, increased contributions of C3 vegetation, and higher SST, whereas glacial periods were marked by cooler and arid conditions, increased contributions of C4 vegetation, and lower SST. We find that Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e, 11c, 15e and 7a-7c are strongly expressed in the plant leaf wax records but MIS 7e is absent while MIS 9 is rather weak. Our plant leaf wax records also record the climate transition associated with the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) suggesting that the pre-MBE interval (430-800 ka) was characterized by higher inputs from grasses in comparison to relatively higher inputs from trees in the post-MBE interval (430 to 0 ka). Differences in vegetation and SST of southern East Africa between the pre- and post-MBE intervals appear to be related to shifts in the location of the Subtropical Front. Comparison with vegetation records from tropical East Africa indicates that the vegetation of southern East Africa, while exhibiting glacial-interglacial variability and notable differences between the pre- and post-MBE portions of the record, likely did not experience such dramatic extremes as occurred to the north at Lake Malawi.

  18. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  19. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  20. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  1. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  2. Occurrences and Effects of Drought across Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwangi, M. N.

    2009-12-01

    Drought is a common occurrence in Africa and its effects vary temporally and spatially across the continent. The objective of this paper is to synthesize available information on droughts in Africa in order to discern emerging trends vis-à-vis spatiotemporal occurrences, impacts and adaptation. Drought forcings in the Sahelian region and southern Africa are predominately related to the passage of mid-latitude air masses while in locations near the equator is strongly linked to the position of ITCZ, except perhaps in the deserts where albedo may predominate. The review shows that drought occurrences have increased both temporally and spatially; its effects on the society vary across scales, and are influenced by political, economic, social, cultural, and ecological factors. The drought occurrence and its impacts varied spatially and temporally. The effect of drought also varied with socioeconomic sector; agriculture and pastoralism were the widely reported. The greater horn of Africa, specifically Kenya, has the most continuous record of droughts. The synthesis also reveals that a suite of drought adaptation strategies exists at the local scale; in contrasts, at the aggregate scale, coping strategies are scarce. Drought management tailored for specific livelihood system or societies are non-existent. The study found that occurrence of drought alongside issues related to the multiscale political economy affect the viability of most adaptation strategies used by societies across Africa. Drought management has been silent on the social, political, and economic dimensions that reasonably aggravate the vulnerability of lives and livelihood systems to this climatic hazard. The effect of drought and social pressures is relational and simultaneous to such a degree that differential vulnerability among communities across Africa is to be expected. Although scenarios about rainfall and drought vis-à-vis Africa are largely contested there is a general indication that most

  3. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  4. Simulating malaria transmission in the current and future climate of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamana, T. K.; Bomblies, A.; Eltahir, E. A. B.

    2015-12-01

    Malaria transmission in West Africa is closely tied to climate, as rain fed water pools provide breeding habitat for the anopheles mosquito vector, and temperature affects the mosquito's ability to spread disease. We present results of a highly detailed, spatially explicit mechanistic modelling study exploring the relationships between the environment and malaria in the current and future climate of West Africa. A mechanistic model of human immunity was incorporated into an existing agent-based model of malaria transmission, allowing us to move beyond entomological measures such as mosquito density and vectorial capacity to analyzing the prevalence of the malaria parasite within human populations. The result is a novel modelling tool that mechanistically simulates all of the key processes linking environment to malaria transmission. Simulations were conducted across climate zones in West Africa, linking temperature and rainfall to entomological and epidemiological variables with a focus on nonlinearities due to threshold effects and interannual variability. Comparisons to observations from the region confirmed that the model provides a reasonable representation of the entomological and epidemiological conditions in this region. We used the predictions of future climate from the most credible CMIP5 climate models to predict the change in frequency and severity of malaria epidemics in West Africa as a result of climate change.

  5. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  6. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denning A Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century.

  7. INFORMATION-BASED CONFLICT IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Van Niekerk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the African continent was regarded as the ‘Dark Continent’. The rapid assimilation of information technologies into the African economies has placed Africa firmly on a trajectory that will see it compete and integrate with the developed world. As nations and organisations become more information-centric, it is natural that conflicts and competition amongst the various nations or organisations will become increasingly information-based. In this article, the authors reflect upon information-based conflict in Africa. Areas of information conflict that are discussed include censorship, communications intercepts, the use of information and communications to instigate violence and uprisings, and the possibility of cyberwarfare. The article shows that the use of technology to conduct information conflict in Africa is prevalent, and that it is likely to increase.

  8. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    , with a specific aim at the dissemination of knowledge in field of interaction design both in an academic context, as well as among practitioners. More specifically the paper discusses how interaction design knowledge can be disseminated in West Africa, particularly in Higher Education.......Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...

  9. China's Oil Companies Turn to Africa for Business Expansion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ CNOOC Ltd completes oil acquisition in Africa CNOOC Ltd, China's third largest oil producer, has made a series fruitful achievements in expansion of its overseas business operation in Africa in the second quarter of this year.

  10. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  11. Gene Variant from Africa Linked to Black Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Gene Variant From Africa Linked to Black Obesity Study sees first biological pathway to weight gain ... identified an Africa-specific gene variant associated with obesity. The team found that about 1 percent of ...

  12. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  13. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling.

  14. Anthropogenic CO2 emissions in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Houghton

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An understanding of the regional contributions and trends of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2 emissions is critical to design mitigation strategies aimed at stabilizing atmospheric greenhouse gases. Here we report CO2 emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and land use change in Africa for various time periods. Africa was responsible for an average of 500 TgC y−1 for the period 2000–2005. These emissions resulted from the combustion of fossil fuels (260 TgC y−1 and land use change (240 TgC y−1. Over this period, the African share of global emissions from land use change was 17%. For 2005, the last year reported in this study, African fossil fuel emissions were 285 TgC accounting for 3.7% of the global emissions. The 2000–2005 growth rate in African fossil fuel emissions was 3.2% y−1, very close to the global average. Fossil fuel emissions per capita in Africa are among the lowest in the world, at 0.32 tC y−1 compared to the global average of 1.2 tC y−1. The average amount of carbon (C emitted as CO2 to produce 1 US $ of Gross Domestic Product (GDP in Africa in 2005 was 187 gC/$, close to the world average of 199 gC/$. With the fastest population growth in the world and rising per capita GDP, Africa is likely to increase its share of global emissions over the coming decades although emissions from Africa will remain low compared to other continents.

  15. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  16. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner-Roloff, Madelein; Pepper, Michael S

    2013-12-01

    Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional) of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism - where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem cell therapies that

  17. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rito

    Full Text Available The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve" possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  18. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rito, Teresa; Richards, Martin B; Fernandes, Verónica; Alshamali, Farida; Cerny, Viktor; Pereira, Luísa; Soares, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve") possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka) which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  19. Common epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediannikov, Oleg; Socolovschi, Cristina; Edouard, Sophie; Fenollar, Florence; Mouffok, Nadjet; Bassene, Hubert; Diatta, Georges; Tall, Adama; Niangaly, Hamidou; Doumbo, Ogobara; Lekana-Douki, Jean Bernard; Znazen, Abir; Sarih, M'hammed; Ratmanov, Pavel; Richet, Herve; Ndiath, Mamadou O; Sokhna, Cheikh; Parola, Philippe; Raoult, Didier

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the epidemiology of Rickettsia felis infection and malaria in France, North Africa, and sub-Saharan Africa and to identify a common vector. Blood specimens from 3,122 febrile patients and from 500 nonfebrile persons were analyzed for R. felis and Plasmodium spp. We observed a significant linear trend (pAfrica also protects against rickettsioses; thus, empirical treatment strategies for febrile illness for travelers and residents in sub-Saharan Africa may require reevaluation.

  20. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  1. Modelling burned area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Lehsten

    2010-10-01

    variables which are not available at a global scale and thus not incorporated in this study as well as its coarse resolution. An application of the models using climate hindcasts and projections ranging from 1980 to 2060 resulted in a strong decrease of burned area of ca. 20–25%. Since wildfires are an integral part of land use practices in Africa, their occurrence is an indicator of areas favourable for food production. In absence of other compensating land use changes, their projected decrease can hence be interpreted as a indicator for future loss of such areas.

  2. Tele-education in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice eMars

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Telemedicine includes the use of information and communication technology for education in the health sector, tele-education. Sub-Saharan Africa has extreme shortage of health professionals and as a result, doctors to teach doctors and students. Tele-education has the potential to provide access to education both formal and continuing medical education. While the uptake of telemedicine in Africa is low there are a number of successful and sustained tele-education programmes. The aims of this study were i to review the literature on tele-education in South Africa ii describe tele-education activities at the University of KwaZulu-Natal (UKZ-N in South Africa and iii review the development of these programmes with respect to current thinking on eHealth project implementation.Method: a literature review of tele-education in South Africa was undertaken. The development of the tele-education services at UKZ-N from 2001 to present is described. The approaches taken are compared with current teaching on eHealth implementation and a retrospective design-reality gap analysis is made.Results: Tele-education has been in use in South Africa since the 1970s. Several forms of tele-education are in place at the medical schools and in some Provincial Departments of Health. Despite initial attempts by the National Department of Health there are no national initiatives in tele-education. At UKZ-N a tele-education service has been running since 2001 and appears to be sustainable and reaching maturity, with over 1,400 hours of videoconferenced education offered per year. The service has expanded to offer videoconferenced education into Africa using different ways of delivering tele-education.Conclusions: Tele-education has been used in different forms for many years in the health sector in South Africa. There is little hard evidence of its educational merit or economic worth. What it apparent is that it improves access to education and training in resource

  3. The genus Waltheria in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. C. Verdoorn

    1981-12-01

    Full Text Available Waltheria indica L., the only species of Waltheria represented in southern Africa, is revised. This species, which occurs throughout the tropics and substropics of the world, is found abundantly in the northern Cape, Swaziland, northern Natal, Transvaal and northwards through South West Africa/Namibia and Botswana. Thoughout its wide distribution the species is uniform. A scrutiny o f herbarium specimens revealed that what appeared as a distinct species or subspecies was without doubt an abnormality, probably caused by insect injury.

  4. Elimination of onchocerciasis from Africa: possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, Charles D; Homeida, Mamoun M; Hopkins, Adrian D; Lawrence, Joni C

    2012-01-01

    Human onchocerciasis, a parasitic disease found in 28 African countries, six Latin American countries and Yemen, causes blindness and severe dermatological problems. In 1987, efforts to control this infection shifted from vector approaches to include the mass distribution of ivermectin - a drug donated by Merck & Co. for disease control in Africa and for disease elimination in the Americas. Currently, almost 25 years later, with the Americas being highly successful and now approaching elimination, new evidence points towards the possibility of successful elimination in Africa. We suggest several major changes in the programmatic approach that through focused goal-directed effort could achieve global elimination of onchocerciasis by 2025.

  5. Lassa fever: another threat from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosh-Nissimov, Tal

    2016-01-01

    Lassa fever, a zoonotic viral infection, is endemic in West Africa. The disease causes annual wide spread morbidity and mortality in Africa, and can be imported by travelers. Possible importation of Lassa fever and the potential for the use of Lassa virus as an agent of bioterrorism mandate clinicians in Israel and other countries to be vigilant and familiar with the basic characteristics of this disease. The article reviews the basis of this infection and the clinical management of patients with Lassa fever. Special emphasis is given to antiviral treatment and infection control.

  6. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  7. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  8. MILITARY COUPS AND MILITARY REGIMES IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Growth of Military StatesAs late as 1961 the African image had not been tarnished to any great extent by the incidence of military coups. Indeed, a field study tour conducted in 1960- 1 - the year of independence as it has been called - to investigate the place of the armed forces in societies in Africa did not provide the evidence on which to forecast the eventual spate of coups. Togo was the first country in West Africa to experience a military coup when on 13 January 1963 Togolese soldiers...

  9. 76 FR 14920 - Trade Mission to South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... International Trade Administration Trade Mission to South Africa AGENCY: International Trade Administration... Africa September 19-23, 2011, to help U.S. firms find business partners and help export equipment and services in Johannesburg and Cape Town, South Africa. Targeted sectors are: Sustainable and...

  10. The H3Africa policy framework: negotiating fairness in genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jantina; Tindana, Paulina; Littler, Katherine; Ramsay, Michèle; Rotimi, Charles; Abayomi, Akin; Mulder, Nicola; Mayosi, Bongani M

    2015-03-01

    Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) research seeks to promote fair collaboration between scientists in Africa and those from elsewhere. Here, we outline how concerns over inequality and exploitation led to a policy framework that places a firm focus on African leadership and capacity building as guiding principles for African genomics research.

  11. MNC reporting on CSR and conflict in Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolk, A.; Lenfant, F.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, corporate social responsibility (CSR) of Multinational Corporations (MNCs) in developing countries has received more attention. However, in this literature Africa is much less well represented than other regions, and existing studies about Africa have mainly focused on South Africa

  12. Indicators to Monitor Deeper Regional Trade Integration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2015-01-01

    Stronger regional integration has been a policy priority in Africa for several decades. Countries in Africa have committed to a process of deeper integration, but have made little progress in implementing commitments and removing barriers. This report looks at the monitoring of regional integration in Africa and argues that more effective monitoring processes for existing integration arran...

  13. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of georeferen

  14. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfio Alessandro Chiarenza

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian “Kem Kem Compound Assemblage” (KKCA of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico “Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro” in Palermo (Italy. The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass. This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the “middle Cretaceous,” and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called “Stromer’s riddle” (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the “middle Cretaceous” record from North Africa is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that

  15. A large abelisaurid (Dinosauria, Theropoda) from Morocco and comments on the Cenomanian theropods from North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarenza, Alfio Alessandro; Cau, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    We describe the partially preserved femur of a large-bodied theropod dinosaur from the Cenomanian "Kem Kem Compound Assemblage" (KKCA) of Morocco. The fossil is housed in the Museo Geologico e Paleontologico "Gaetano Giorgio Gemmellaro" in Palermo (Italy). The specimen is compared with the theropod fossil record from the KKCA and coeval assemblages from North Africa. The combination of a distally reclined head, a not prominent trochanteric shelf, distally placed lesser trochanter of stout, alariform shape, a stocky shaft with the fourth trochanter placed proximally, and rugose muscular insertion areas in the specimen distinguishes it from Carcharodontosaurus, Deltadromeus and Spinosaurus and supports referral to an abelisaurid. The estimated body size for the individual from which this femur was derived is comparable to Carnotaurus and Ekrixinatosaurus (up to 9 meters in length and 2 tons in body mass). This find confirms that abelisaurids had reached their largest body size in the "middle Cretaceous," and that large abelisaurids coexisted with other giant theropods in Africa. We review the taxonomic status of the theropods from the Cenomanian of North Africa, and provisionally restrict the Linnean binomina Carcharodontosaurus iguidensis and Spinosaurus aegyptiacus to the type specimens. Based on comparisons among the theropod records from the Aptian-Cenomanian of South America and Africa, a partial explanation for the so-called "Stromer's riddle" (namely, the coexistence of many large predatory dinosaurs in the "middle Cretaceous" record from North Africa) is offered in term of taphonomic artifacts among lineage records that were ecologically and environmentally non-overlapping. Although morphofunctional and stratigraphic evidence supports an ecological segregation between spinosaurids and the other lineages, the co-occurrence of abelisaurids and carcharodontosaurids, two groups showing several craniodental convergences that suggest direct resource competition

  16. Invest in Africa!——2007 Africa Business and Investment Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was held in November last year, Africa, this beautiful and amazing land has attracted more and more attention and interests from the Chinese people and enterprises.That vast and fertile continent does not only boast of breath-holding natural sightseeing, mysterious and historical ventures and legends, but also is a virgin land full of opportunities with investment and cooperation.

  17. Urban agriculture in Africa : a bibliographical survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Obudho, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    1999-01-01

    This bibliography is a listing of all materials that have ever been published or written on the subject of urban agriculture in Africa up to 1998. It records all books, chapters in books, discussion and conference papers, periodical literature and all types of academic theses, dissertations and unpu

  18. Hepatitis e virus: Western Cape, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.G. Madden (Richie); Wallace, S. (Sebastian); M. Sonderup; Korsman, S. (Stephen); Chivese, T. (Tawanda); Gavine, B. (Bronwyn); Edem, A. (Aniefiok); Govender, R. (Roxy); English, N. (Nathan); Kaiyamo, C. (Christy); Lutchman, O. (Odelia); A.A. Eijck (Annemiek); S.D. Pas (Suzan); Webb, G.W. (Glynn W); Palmer, J. (Joanne); Goddard, E. (Elizabeth); Wasserman, S. (Sean); H.R. Dalton (Harry); Spearman, C.W. (C Wendy)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractAIM To conduct a prospective assessment of anti-hepatitis E virus (HEV) IgG seroprevalence in the Western Cape Province of South Africa in conjunction with evaluating risk factors for exposure. METHODS Consenting participants attending clinics and wards of Groote Schuur, Red Cross Childr

  19. Evaluating Health Care Financing Reforms in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Africa is on a steady economic growth path. Over the last decade, most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries outperformed European and North-American countries’ growth rates, as shown in Figure 1. A number of SSA countries are among the fastest growing economies in the wo

  20. South Africa's School Infrastructure Performance Indicator System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibberd, Jeremy

    2007-01-01

    While some South African schools have excellent infrastructure, others lack basic services such as water and sanitation. This article describes the school infrastructure performance indicator system (SIPIS) in South Africa. The project offers an approach that can address both the urgent provision of basic services as well as support the…

  1. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling la

  2. Aging in Africa: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree

    2008-06-01

    My goal in this article is to analyze gerontological discourses in Africa using articles in this collection as a spring board. The broad intention is to explore the possible areas of intersection between research in African aging and other social science disciplines such as history, politics and linguistics as a way of demonstrating how gerontology may contribute to scholarship in other disciplines.

  3. Africa's elephants and rhinos: Flagships in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, D

    1987-11-01

    Despite extensive conservation measures over the last two decades, populations of elephants and rhinos in Africa continue to decline. The plight of the black rhino is especially acute. Poaching for rhino horn and ivory, rather than habitat loss, remains the principal threat to these species. The only long-term hope may lie in the effective protection of small, isolated populations.

  4. China-Africa Friendship Evening Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>The China-Africa Friendship Evening, during which the press release of the TV Series Road of Friendship, jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the Chinese-African People’s Friendship Association and the Beijing Television Station was held in

  5. Food and environmental policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, M R; Biswas, A K

    1986-08-01

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

  6. West Africa's deepwater future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLennan, James; Williams, Stewart

    2005-07-01

    The article surveys the development in the petroleum activities in Africa particularly in the dominating nations Angola ad Nigeria. Economic and social aspects are mentioned as well as the necessity of deepwater exploitation as the resources in more shallow waters become depleted.

  7. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  8. [Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S; Junod, A

    1998-01-01

    We now have a better knowledge of the specific features of depression in sub-Saharan Africa. Anthropologically speaking, the Western model is irrelevant. Depression in sub-Saharan Africa involves the relationship of the subject to himself or others in a mode specific to African cultures. Ignoring this fact can lead to simplistic ethnocentrism. From a clinical standpoint, depressive illness characterized by somatic manifestations, delusions of persecution, and anxiety are increasingly uncommon. As African societies modernize, these traditional forms are being gradually supplanted by states with symptoms and prognoses more like those observed in industrialized countries. Hybrid depressive syndromes are now the most widespread. Epidemiologically the notion widely held only a few decades ago that depression is a rare occurrence in Africa has now been dispelled. Many studies have been conducted to determine the exact incidence, age distribution, and sex ratio but more precise data is still needed. This investigation will require improvement in screening and diagnostic methods which must be not only suitable for clinical use but also adaptable to local conditions. This is also true with regard to management which has the same goals as anywhere else in the world. Treatment facilities are different in urban and rural areas but care is often dispensed in unconventional settings and may be combined with traditional methods. Drug availability is limited by problems involving supply and cost. This explains why electro-convulsive therapy which was introduced into sub-Saharan Africa long ago still plays a major role in the treatment of depression.

  9. Education in Colonial Africa: The German Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    vanderPloeg, Arie J.

    1977-01-01

    Examines the introduction and growth of state-supported schools in two German colonies in Africa, Kamerun and Deutsch Ostafrika, describes African reaction to and utilization of them, assesses, from the colonial perspective, why such schools were introduced and what they were intended to accomplish, and examines the reasons for their differential…

  10. Obstacles to Private Sector Activities in Africa,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Tropical Africa. New York: Arno Press. Harris, Peter and Anthony Somerset . 1972. The African Entrepreneur: A Study of Entrepreneurship in Kenya. Somerset , NY...Constraints. Washington, DC: World Bank. Vernon , R. "US Enterprise in Less Developed Countries: Evaluation of the Costs and Benefits." 1972. In G. Ranis

  11. Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materu, Peter; Righetti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on degree-granting tertiary institutions. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints.…

  12. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  13. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    with the predictions of the unified growth theory and sheds important insights in explaining the sustained income growth Africa has experienced since 1995. The paper also shows that the effects of income per capita and child mortality on fertility rates are non-robust and inconsistent with the predictions...... of the unified growth theory....

  14. Elections and Social Conflict in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    democratic process will be allowed to take its course. In countries that lack these traits , elections have often led to violence. In the Democratic...participation. While elections are COUNTRY ELECTION DATE DEATHS Kenya December, 2007 1502 South Africa April, 1994 239 Nigeria April, 2007 226 Cote

  15. Malarone-donation programme in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloland, P B; Kazembe, P N; Watkins, W M; Doumbo, O K; Nwanyanwu, O C; Ruebush, T K

    1997-11-29

    Glaxo Wellcome announced in November 1996 its intent to donate up to 1 million treatment courses per year of its new antimalarial drug, Malarone, to countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, where malaria is endemic. Because the effectiveness of the small number of available antimalarial drugs is threatened by the emergence of drug resistance, the advantages of introduction of this new drug to a given area should be given careful consideration. Chloroquine, for example, is nearing the end of its effectiveness as a first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in many areas of East and Central Africa. The lifespan of its replacement, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, is likely to be even shorter given its long half-life and the ease with which resistance-conferring mutations occur. In Southeast Asia and the Amazon basin of South America, where multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious problem, the advantages of Malarone introduction clearly outweigh any disadvantages. In sub-Saharan Africa, the premature distribution and increasing use of artemisinins may jeopardize their long-term effectiveness, however. Another factor complicating decisions to introduce Malarone is its required 3-day course of treatment, necessitating hospitalization if compliance is to be ensured. The donation project gives patients in developing countries access to an expensive drug that would otherwise be unavailable. Time must be taken, however, to fully debate the project's pros and cons, resolve inherent logistic problems, and establish guidelines for Malarone use in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Eastern Africa: mapping the politics of AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, G; Lanegran, K

    1991-01-01

    The political constraints slowing the battle against AIDS in Africa are getting AIDS on the public agenda, integrating the international community into the AIDS policy-making agenda and cultural barriers in national AIDS strategies. Policy making in most Africa is bureaucratic rather than democratic, so whether AIDS is a government priority depends largely on perception of AIDS risk by the leaders. In Zambia and Uganda, AIDS is a concern because it affects the ethnic group or family in power, while in Tanzania and Kenya, AIDS is associated with minority or "high risk" groups. The domination of AIDS agenda setting within nations in Africa by international donors and non-governmental organizations is a problem, made more severely severed by sensitivity of Africans who perceive research as a foreign effort to prove that AIDS originated there. Foreign domination is also detrimental because it prevents localities from becoming committed to AIDS interventions. Cultural barriers against effective interventions are similar to those in Western countries: AIDS is seen as a disease of shame affecting immoral people. In addition, the prevalent concept of fatalism defeats the Western insistence on intervention and strategies. Furthermore, women who are largely dependent on men cannot insist on preventive behavior, not do they have organizations in place to protect their rights. Finally, the concepts of behavioralism, and learning new behaviors for person-centered reasons, are foreign to much of Africa.

  17. British Engineers and Africa 1875-1914

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Casper

    Britain's race for Africa continues to draw significant scholarly interest. Traditionally, studies have focused on well-documented figures such as explorers, missionaries and capitalists. Working against the trend, this is the first book to concentrate solely on the role of engineers. It analyses...

  18. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  19. Africa's wars of liberation : some historiographical reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Konings, de P.; Binsbergen, van W.; Hesseling, G.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which scholars have considered African wars of liberation. Firstly, the author considers some of the general assumptions which have been commonly applied to African history since the middle of the twentieth century when academic historical writing on Africa began, a

  20. Soft Power and Smart Power in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Robert Kagan asserts, France, Germany, and the rest of Europe have been gravitating to the United States of late not simply due to soft power, but in...Africa and the World World public opinion numbers for the United States have suffered over the past several years, and even a political neophyte would

  1. Developmental Regimes in Africa synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, D.; Dietz, A.J.; Golooba-Mutebi, F.; Fuady, A.H.; Henley, D.; Kelsall, T.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Donge, van J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Many African countries have experienced sustained economic growth, but few have achieved the type of structural change, driven by rising productivity, that has transformed mass living standards in parts of Asia. In the Developmental Regimes in Africa Synthesis Report, editor David Booth examines how

  2. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  3. Slavery, migration and contemporary bondage in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quirk, J.; Vigneswaran, D.

    2013-01-01

    Slavery in Africa is commonly associated with the distant past: images of maritime slavery in the Gold Coast, Biafra, Angola and Zanzibar together with the horrors of the 'Middle Passage' to the Americas. However, widespread evidence of human trafficking, wartime enslavement and other forms of bonda

  4. Skin diseases among schoolchildren in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, Adriaan Anne

    2012-01-01

    Many skin diseases among schoolchildren in sub-Sahara Africa cause disturbing complaints like itch and pain and several of them are contagious.This high prevalence causes a major public health problem.Although in several countries and also in our studies skin diseases present in large numbers, they

  5. South Africa, 2004: Power, Passion, Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although the education system in post-apartheid South Africa has its share of serious challenges, the accompanying reforms carried out are inspiring as the ASCD Board of Directors and staff discovered when they visited the country in October 2004. The visit was organized around the theme of the 2005 ASCD Annual Conference: "Voices of Education:…

  6. Population mobility in Africa : an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van J.W.M.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Til, van K.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Foeken, D.W.J.; Dijk, van R.A.

    2001-01-01

    Although there is an abundant literature on migration in sub-Saharan Africa and mobility on the continent seems to be increasing, it is difficult to fully understand the complex processes underlying the phenomenon. This is partly related to problems with definitions and partly to a lack of reliable

  7. Land reform in Africa : lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Naerssen, A.L.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' pa

  8. Trade unions and democratisation in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In writings about the role of trade unions in the democratization process in Africa one can distinguish a pessimistic and an optimistic school. However, recent research presents a more complex picture. In this chapter the author has selected three case studies for an in-depth comparative analysis: Z

  9. Seismotectonics and crustal deformation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2016-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events, and harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures, seismic anisotropy tomography and gravity anomaly, into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies obtained from the analysis of late Quaternary faulting and geodetic data will serve as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map will be useful for the seismic hazard assessment and earthquake risk mitigation for significant infrastructures and their socio-economic implications in Africa. The constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of this map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014, now extended to 2016).

  10. South Africa. Weather and Climate. Section 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Althoiiugh tli htIi ghest iiea t dIally inns htint toiitpe rtt im rs tittititotiirigi ittin Illt i the ptolakr reginits. Vor exsam ple. tilt oer Ili sti m tr...Sicuth Africa Is Icnfluenicced Icy grademits which (ofteni accoccpaccy muigraitory low-pressure day- tcc -day chianiges li the dist ribuiti cci surface

  11. Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    Africa directly affect the global economy. In this context, the United States’ foreign strategy directly corresponds to the protection of American...TRANSLATING WEST AFRICAN STRATEGY WITH AIRPOWER MEANS: A QUALITATIVE COMPARISON OF TACTICAL AIRLIFT SHAPING OPERATIONS A thesis...Translating West African Strategy with Airpower Means: A Qualitative Comparison of Tactical Airlift Shaping Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  12. Costs involved in using a cochlear implant in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gillian Robyn Kerr

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Cochlear implantation is an expensive but effective lifelong intervention for individuals with a severe-to-profound hearing loss. The primary aim of this study was to survey the short- and long-term costs of cochlear implantation. Individuals (N=154 using cochlear implants obtained from the University of Stellenbosch-Tygerberg Hospital Cochlear Implant Unit in Cape Town, South Africa were surveyed using a questionnaire and patient record review. The questionnaire used a combination of closed and open-ended questions to gather both quantitative and qualitative information. Costs were categorised as short- and long-term costs. All costs were converted to constant rands (June 2010 using the Consumer Price Index to allow for comparison in real terms over time. In the first 10 years of implantation the average estimated costs incurred by adults totalled R379 626, and by children R455 225. The initial purchase of the implant system was the most substantial cost, followed by upgrading of the processor. Travel and accommodation costs peaked in the first 2 years. On average the participants spent R2 550 per year on batteries and spares. Rehabilitation for children cost an average of R7 200. Insurance costs averaged R4 040 per year, and processor repairs R3 000 each. In addition to the upfront expense of obtaining the cochlear implant system, individuals using a cochlear implant in South Africa should be prepared for the long-term costs of maintenance, accessing the unit, support services and additional costs associated with use. Knowledge of these costs is important to ensure that individuals are successful users of their cochlear implants in the long term.

  13. West Africa land use and land cover time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotillon, Suzanne E.

    2017-02-16

    Started in 1999, the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project represents an effort to map land use and land cover, characterize the trends in time and space, and understand their effects on the environment across West Africa. The outcome of the West Africa Land Use Dynamics project is the production of a three-time period (1975, 2000, and 2013) land use and land cover dataset for the Sub-Saharan region of West Africa, including the Cabo Verde archipelago. The West Africa Land Use Land Cover Time Series dataset offers a unique basis for characterizing and analyzing land changes across the region, systematically and at an unprecedented level of detail.

  14. China-Africa Trade Enjoys Solid Foundation and Promising Prospect

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ China-Africa Trade Corridor was formed in the 1950s, but trade between the two sides wasn't prosperous until the year 2000.Economic cooperation between China and Africa has a long history.Trade between China and Africa registered only USS12.1 million in 1950, and just over USS1 billion in the 1980s.The China-Africa Cooperation Forum was established in 2000, opening a new chapter in the history of China-Africa economic and trade relations.

  15. [Inequalities in access to care in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society.

  16. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  17. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  18. Cardiomyopathy in Africa: heredity versus environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Somers, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Unlike other parts of the world in which cardiomyopathy is rare, heart muscle disease is endemic in Africa. The major forms of cardiomyopathy in Africa are dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF). Whereas DCM is a major cause of heart failure throughout the continent, EMF is restricted to the tropical regions of East, Central, and West Africa. Although epidemiological studies are lacking, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy seem to have characteristics similar to those of other populations elsewhere in the world. Recent advances in the genetic analysis of DCM in other parts of the world indicate that it is a genetically heterogeneous disorder in which some cases have a Mendelian cause and others have a non-genetic or multifactorial cause. This heterogeneous pattern of inheritance has been confirmed in small studies that have been conducted so far in Africa. The advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection and its association with cardiomyopathy has emphasised the role of inflammatory agents in the pathogenesis of DCM. By contrast with DCM in which some cases have major genetic contributions, there is scanty evidence for the role of genetic factors in the aetiology of EMF. Although the pathogenesis of EMF is not fully understood, it appears that the conditioning factor may be geography (in its widest sense, to include climate and socio-economic status), the triggering factor may be an as yet unidentified infective agent, and the perpetuating factor may be eosinophilia. There is a need for renewed effort to identify genetic and non-genetic factors in EMF and other forms of heart muscle disease that are prevalent on the continent of Africa.

  19. [The role of female veterinarians in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, K K

    2000-01-01

    While the number of female veterinary students has reached figures as over 80% in the Netherlands and other European countries, the number of female veterinary students in Africa is also changing but still at a slower pace. Still nowadays, according to UNICEF, two-thirds of primary school age children, denied their right to basic education, are girls. In addition, especially in rural areas in Africa, there are only few secondary schools, so that children, either have to travel over large distances on a daily basis or have to live away from their families. As girls, already from an early age play an important role in the daily household routine, they are often not allowed to leave for schooling. There used to be less than 10 veterinary faculties in Africa during the first half of the 20th century. These faculties were located in South Africa, Sudan, Egypt and Nigeria. For many years, African veterinarians were also trained in western countries (UK, France, USA) or in former communist countries (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary Eastern Germany, Cuba) depending on the existence of historic or political links. A long stay abroad made it more difficult for female students, especially for those with children. Still nowadays, female veterinarians in Africa are mostly working for the veterinary departments mainly in the urban areas. Another area where many female veterinarians can be found are governmental diagnostic and research laboratories as well as training institutions such as veterinary faculties or agricultural colleges. Generally the salaries at these institutions are very low and therefore their male colleagues have gradually shifted to work in the private sector with more competitive salaries (private clinics, sector pharmaceutical companies, development projects, (agricultural) banks, etc). As still in most societies, women tend to follow their husbands, most female veterinarians are bound to find employment where their husbands are based. In addition, as most

  20. Discrepancies in data reporting for rabies, Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nel, Louis H

    2013-04-01

    Human rabies is an ancient disease but in modern times has primarily been associated with dog rabies-endemic countries of Asia and Africa. From an African perspective, the inevitable and tragic consequences of rabies require serious reflection of the factors that continue to drive its neglect. Established as a major disease only after multiple introductions during the colonial era, rabies continues to spread into new reservoirs and territories in Africa. However, analysis of reported data identified major discrepancies that are indicators of poor surveillance, reporting, and cooperation among national, international, and global authorities. Ultimately, the absence of reliable and sustained data compromises the priority given to the control of rabies. Appropriate actions and changes, in accordance to the One Health philosophy and including aspects such as synchronized, shared, and unified global rabies data reporting, will not only be necessary, but also should be feasible.

  1. The foreign debt problem of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Decoodt

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign debt problem of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, although an important obstacle against economic growth, is not the region's major economic problem. The creditors are less concerned about the relative small debt figures of SSA because of the lower risks for the equilibrium of the financial system. But from the debtors' viewpoint, the debt situation is possibly even more critical in low-income Africa than in the richer major debtor countries. SSA has a predominance of official creditors with the best obtainable credit terms. Notwithstanding these good terms, SSA is so poor that it has difficulties with fulfilling its debt service. There is no single solution for the African debt crisis. Anyway the official creditors have to adopt a more flexible attitude. The debtor countries have also to accept their own responsibility in the solutions of the problem.

  2. Biosedimentology of Quaternary stromatolites in intertropical Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, J.

    Mineralizations of microbial origin constitute a non-negligeable part of Quaternary limestones in intertropical Africa. Stromatolites have colonized a wide range of environments corresponding to different hydroclimatic situations: travertines in fluviatile environments, oncolites in flood plains, encrustations in sebkha areas and shorelines of deep, fresh water lakes. The developed morphologies represent a complete catalogue of the microbial carbonated mineralizations: oncolites, chemneys, pool-rim dams, biocherms, planar or cylindrical encrustations. The building organisms may be either pure bacterial colonies (hydrothermal and lacustrine environments), cyanophyte associations (fluviatile and lacustrine environments) or complex microbial biocoenoses. Stromatolites have recorded the hydrologic, climatic and sedimentologic evolution of the continental environment in intertropical Africa for the past 240 000 years.

  3. The metabolic syndrome in Africa: Current trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Christian I

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to earlier thoughts, metabolic syndrome is no longer rare in Africa. The prevalence is increasing, and it tends to increase with age. This increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the continent is thought to be due to departure from traditional African to western lifestyles. In Africa, it is not limited to adults but is also becoming common among the young ones. Obesity and dyslipidemia seem to be the most common occurring components. While obesity appears more common in females, hypertension tends to be more predominant in males. Insulin resistance has remained the key underlying pathophysiology. Though pharmacologic agents are available to treat the different components of the syndrome, prevention is still possible by reverting back to the traditional African way of life.

  4. Pfizer donates drug to South Africa's poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article reports on Pfizer's AIDS drug donation to South Africa. The donated drug, Diflucan, treats cryptococcal meningitis, a lethal brain infection that occurs in one out of 10 HIV patients. Its daily dose in South Africa costs about US$15, far more than poor people can afford. The HIV and AIDS Treatment Action Campaign, an advocacy group, had lobbied New York-based Pfizer for a year to reduce the drug's price. The donation offered hope among activists that other pharmaceutical companies would follow suit and offer HIV- and AIDS-related drugs at a discount or for free. After the announcement of the donation, the group is now lobbying Glaxo Wellcome, maker of Zidovudine. The group is asking to make the drug available for free to reduce the risk of vertical transmission. Glaxo Wellcome, however, has no plans of offering Zidovudine for free, although the drug was offered 75% cheaper in developing nations.

  5. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  6. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVEDFOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Ssekyewa, Charles; Halberg, Niels

    . This was concluded in an UNEP-UNCTAD CBTF report from 2008 exploring the potentials of organic farming in Africa. In this report, it was furthermore concluded that organic and near-organic agricultural methods and technologies are ideally suited for many poor, marginalized smallholder farmers in Africa, that organic...... farming builds on and stimulates the formation of human, social, financial, natural and physical capital, and that the recent rise in food and fuel prices highlight the importance of making agricultural production less energy and external input dependent. Since organic farming is not directly...... and specifically supported by agricultural policy in most African countries, and sometimes actively hindered, an effort to establish and support an enabling policy environment must be done. At a one-day workshop on the 22nd May 2009 in Kampala in relation to the First African organic conference, the findings...

  7. The Military of the New South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in the South African government’s foreign policy drive in Africa. However, the new foreign policy role prerequisite that the state uses it military tool, the SANDF, in accordance with internal law and dominant norms. The role of the defence force stand in stark contrast to the role played by the old South......Preface Today, you, South Africans, are for the world, for Africa, for France, a model. A model for harmony between communities with such different roots. A model for good governance. A model for cultural diversity…. (Dominique De Villepin, 2003) This book attempts to demonstrate that the South...... African National Defence Force (SANDF) has played a critical and until now relatively unnoticed role in South Africa’s transition from international isolation as a “pariah” state and a source of instability to “peacemaker”. This will be explored by means of a comparative qualitative case-based analysis...

  8. Asia in the New Distribution of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Mora

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have developed at a considerable rate over the recent decades. The economic figures and political interests are testimony to a new distribution of influences on the Dark Continent, insomuch as the powerful nations along the Asiatic shore are now competing with both the former colonial mother counties and the United States. Indeed, if the economic weight of Africa’s market is weak world-wide, this does not make it unattractive from a strategic point of view for those Asiatic countries looking for international prestige or resources for their growing economies. This rapprochement, motivated by political reasons also, seems exemplified by the growing presence of major economies like Japan and China - as well as those aspirations of the middle-sized powers like South Korea and Malaysia - in the international issues concerning sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Climate Warming: Is There Evidence in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Carcel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the temperature time series across several locations in Africa. In particular, we focus on three countries, South Africa, Kenya, and Côte d’Ivoire, examining the monthly averaged temperatures from three weather stations at different locations in each country. We examine the presence of deterministic trends in the series in order to check if the hypothesis of warming trends for these countries holds; however, instead of using conventional approaches based on stationary I(0 errors, we allow for fractional integration, which seems to be a more plausible approach in this context. Our results indicate that temperatures have only significantly increased during the last 30 years for the case of Kenya.

  10. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  11. AIDS in Africa: misinformation and disinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konotey-Ahulu, F I

    1987-07-25

    Relying on his tour of 16 sub-Saharan countries, the author judges the extent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa on a scale from grade I (not much of a problem) to grade V (a catastrophe). In his assessment, AIDS is a problem (grade II) in only 5, possibly 6, countries where it has occurred. In no country is the AIDS problem consistently grade III (a great problem), nor ever grade IV (an extremely great problem), and in none can it be called a catastrophe (grade V). In Kenya, for instance, contrary to widespread rumors, the author rates AIDS in 1987 as grade I. Journalistic hyperbole has proved very expensive in that Africans overseas have experienced racial abuse and tourism has unjustly suffered. Tension seems to have developed between white doctors working in Africa, with externally funded research in danger of being halted in several countries.

  12. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  13. Greenhouse effect and its impact on Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suliman, M. (ed.)

    1990-01-01

    Changes that may occur in Africa as a result of global warming are outlined. They include changes to agriculture, water resources, and in sea level and as a result of CO{sub 2} fertilization. The global problem is outlined, and solutions are considered such as the use of non-carbon fuels and increasing carbon sinks. The economic implications for third world countries, of global warming are discussed, together with policy responses. Agro-forestry is suggested as a way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The problem of food insecurity is mentioned and the Sudan is taken as an example. The report ends with recommendations to limit the greenhouse effect and reduce the impact it could have on Africa. 17 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost.

  15. The Dilemma of Food in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    The need therefore is most urgent for African governments to reexamine their food and agricultural policies to tumble them provide more food for their growing population. Encouragement of large and Medium scale commercial farming, land reform, environmental management, reduction of population growth, improvement in storage and transport facilities as well as pursue political stability and a cessation of the violent conflicts that have characterized the continent, will reduce the food problem in Africa.

  16. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  17. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  18. International Conference on Sustainable Energy for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences will organize an International Conference on Sustainable Energy for Africa. This three-day conference will take place from 23 until 25 October 2017 at the Palais des Académies in Brussels. Papers and posters dealing with various themes related to the issue will be presented by academics and representatives of the industrial world. More information will soon be available on the website of the Academy: www.kaowarsom.be.

  19. Africa: Irregular Warfare on the Dark Continent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-05-01

    only to the mighty Amazon for 13 Alexander, Africa: Irregular Warfare on the Dark Continent tropical forests. The demand for hardwood lumber is...were decades in the making. Prolonged drought , desertification, and overpopulation are among the primary reasons for the fighting, which breaks down...go to lengths to differentiate themselves from other indigenous people.120 General repression of the Tuaregs was exacerbated by repeated droughts

  20. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  1. Precolonial institutions and deforestation in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This is the author accepted manuscript. The final version is available from Elsevier via http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.landusepol.2015.10.030 We find that local institutions inherited from the precolonial era continue to play an important role in natural resource governance in Africa. Using satellite image data, we find a significant and robust relationship between deforestation and precolonial succession rules of local leaders (local chiefs). In particular, we find that those precolonial ar...

  2. SOGRA - Supporting Optimized GNSS Research in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-08

    AFRL-AFOSR-UK-TR-2015-0022 SOGRA – Supporting Optimized GNSS Research in Africa Rui M. Fernandes Universidade da Beira...PROJECT NUMBER 5d. TASK NUMBER 5e. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Universidade da Beira Interior Convento de...processing of the observational files for the SCINDA network using the GIPSY-OASIS software package. Scintillation events can cause sudden changes

  3. Discarded Victory - North Africa, 1940-1941

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    service regulars who were exceedingly well-trained. The 7t’ Armored Division had been led by MG Percy Hobart, a premier armor officer, prior to the...Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1960), 21. 4 W.G.F. Jackson , The Battle for North Africa, 1940-43 (New York: Mason/Charter, 1975), 104-105. 5...Warfare in the Eastern Mediterranean, 1940-1945 (Westport, Connecticut: Praeger Publishers, 1993), 5. 11 Jackson , 10. 12 Macksey, 23. 13 Alistair Home

  4. Remote Control Research in Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Trefon, Theodore; Cogels, Serge

    2009-01-01

    This article explains how a project being implemented in peri-urban central Africa is coordinated from an office in Brussels. After an overview that addresses the conceptual challenges of defining ‘peri-urban’ and the question of why these social spaces are important from a development perspective, the article outlines ‘remote control research’ step-by-step: (i) conceptualisation, (ii) identification and recruitment of local experts, (iii) selection of research sites, (iv) the process of form...

  5. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) may soon sign an agreement with the Colombian government to build a plant in Colombia for the mass production of the malaria vaccine SPf66. SPf66 consists of a combination of synthetic peptides. It will eventually be available in Africa, where 90% of all recorded malaria cases occur each year. 1 million of the 1.5-3 million malaria-related deaths each year also occur in Africa. Many of these deaths take place in children. The indirect costs of malaria in Africa is expected to increase from $800 million to $1.8 billion between 1987 and the end of 1995. Based on findings from the various clinical trials in Colombia, Thailand, The Gambia, and Tanzania, WHO's director of Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) claims that, if SPf66 can reduce the malaria incidence rate by 50% and thereby also the malaria-related death rate, the lives of 500,000 children in Africa would be spared. TDR will meet in mid-1996 to sort through all the SPf66 findings and then develop a policy for further development or production and use of SPf66. The price of each SPf66 vaccination should be around $5, comparable with the higher range of costs of other vaccines provided by WHO's Expanded Program of Immunization and UNICEF. At the 1992 WHO summit in Amsterdam, the president of the Congo called for the international community to join forces to eliminate malaria. When it was first tested on humans, in Colombia, the protection rate of SPf66 ranged from 22% to 77%, with the best results among the young and the very old. It has not caused any harmful side effects.

  6. A Chinese Kungfu Master in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    For over 20 years,Di Guoyong has taught daily martial arts classes in Beijing’s Zizhuyuan (Purple Bamboo) Park.This wellknown figure in the city’s martial arts circles also introduced wushu (literally meaning martial arts) to Cameroon in the late 1980s. Recently,Di sat down with ChinAfrica reporter to talk about his experiences teaching Chinese martial arts in Cameroon.

  7. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  8. Biogeography and molar morphology of Pleistocene African elephants: new evidence from Elandsfontein, Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Stynder, Deano D.

    2015-05-01

    Elandsfontein (EFT) is a Middle Pleistocene archaeological/paleontological site located in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. The largest herbivore in the assemblage is Loxodonta atlantica zulu, an extinct member of the genus that includes modern African elephants. No Elephas recki specimens were recovered at EFT, despite their common occurrence in other regions of Africa at the same time. Because E. recki and L. atlantica molars are similar in appearance, but the two species are traditionally viewed as dominating different regions of Africa during the Pleistocene, isolated molars may on occasions have been assessed to species level on the basis of geography rather than morphology. The last morphologic evaluation of EFT elephants was conducted in the 1970s, and revisiting this issue with new specimens provides added insight into the evolution of elephants in Africa. Reevaluating morphological characteristics of EFT elephant molars, through qualitative and quantitative description and comparison with Middle Pleistocene E. recki recki, L. atlantica atlantica, and L. atlantica zulu molar morphology, corroborates assessment of EFT elephants as L. a. zulu. Two recently discovered, previously undescribed molars from EFT show that molars of L. a. zulu exhibit greater variation in enamel thickness, lamellar frequency, and occlusal surface morphology than previously reported. An update of the Pleistocene biogeography of Loxodonta and Elephas indicates that fossil remains of both are often found at the same localities in eastern Africa. Their rare co-occurrences in the north and south, however, suggest geographic separation of the two genera in at least some regions of Africa, which may have been based on habitat preference.

  9. Culture and genetic screening in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegede, Ayodele S

    2009-12-01

    Africa is a continent in transition amidst a revival of cultural practices. Over previous years the continent was robbed of the benefits of medical advances by unfounded cultural practices surrounding its cultural heritage. In a fast moving field like genetic screening, discussions of social and policy aspects frequently need to take place at an early stage to avoid the dilemma encountered by Western medicine. This paper, examines the potential challenges to genetic screening in Africa. It discusses how cultural practices may affect genetic screening. It views genomics science as a culture which is trying to diffuse into another one. It argues that understanding the existing culture will help the diffusion process. The paper emphasizes the importance of genetic screening for Africa, by assessing the current level of burden of diseases in the continent and shows its role in reducing disease prevalence. The paper identifies and discusses the cultural challenges that are likely to confront genetic screening on the continent, such as the worldview, rituals and taboos, polygyny, culture of son preference and so on. It also discusses cultural practices that may promote the science such as inheritance practices, spouse selection practices and naming patterns. Factors driving the cultural challenges are identified and discussed, such as socialization process, patriarchy, gender, belief system and so on. Finally, the paper discusses the way forward and highlights the ethical considerations of doing genetic screening on the continent. However, the paper also recognizes that African culture is not monolithic and therefore makes a case for exceptions.

  10. Democracy and Elections in Africa: Critical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wondwosen Teshome

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to assess the democratization process in Africa in general and the multi-party elections in particular. The decolonization process in Africa (1960s and 1970s, which was known as the “first liberation” completed by the emergence of many, new independent African countries. In most of the newly liberated countries the political parties that led the anti-colonial struggle established one-party domination after independence. The rapid democratization process (“second liberation” in Africa began in the first half of the 1990s, particularly with Benin’s multiparty election in 1991. In this period, multi-party elections had taken place in most of African countries. These transitions led to “limited” democracies, characterized by a lack of liberal freedoms, low levels of popular involvement (except at election times, narrow range of civil liberties and the concentration of political power in the hands of small elite groups. Holding an election is a milestone, but it is not the key to Africa’s democratic legitimacy. Many elections in the African region have failed to meet the internationally accepted standards for free and fair elections. Though Africa’s record on free and fair elections is mixed, at present, most of Africans have embraced elections as indispensable mechanism for determining their future course.

  11. Governance and poverty reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyden, Goran

    2007-10-23

    A careful review of the literature in political science and neighboring social science disciplines shows that prevailing assumptions in the international development policy community about improved governance as a principal mechanism to reduce poverty in Africa rests more on faith than science. Conventional policy models for tackling poverty fail to take into account the peculiar socioeconomic and political conditions in Africa, where the vast majority of those living on one dollar a day or less are only marginally captured by market and state institutions and instead rely on solving their problems "outside the system." Poverty reduction through formal institutions therefore becomes ineffective. Although political science and other neighboring social science disciplines offer insights into these peculiarities, these contributions have been largely ignored to date. One reason is that economists continue to dominate the international development policy agenda. Another is that political scientists have typically looked at how economic variables shape political ones, rather than the other way around, as implied in the current governance agenda. Governance remains an undertheorized area of research held back by two chasms, one between economists and other social scientists and another between the scientific and the policy communities, to the detriment of gaining a better understanding of how it may help reduce poverty in Africa.

  12. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meierding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

  13. Conservation strategies for Africa's large mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, J

    2001-01-01

    Africa's large mammals are conserved for their aesthetic, scientific and economic values. Many of these species face a gloomy future precipitated by a combination of factors directly and indirectly influenced by the activities of man, including habitat loss, overexploitation, poor management of designated protected areas, and the vulnerability of small isolated populations. Africa's designated protected areas and biodiversity hotspots are also under threat, highlighting the importance of embracing community participation to address accelerating poverty and malnutrition. Innovative strategies are required for the conservation of Africa's mammals, such as the integration of a wide range of species in the production landscape, including the farming community. Transfrontier conservation areas (TFCAs) have been established with the combined objectives of conserving biodiversity, creating new jobs in the tourism and wildlife industry, and promoting a culture of peace. These areas extend far beyond traditional national parks, providing opportunities for integrating large mammals into sustainable land-use practices, at the same time as addressing some of the continent's more pressing socioeconomic needs. Research on African mammals will inevitably have to change direction to accommodate the growing threats and changed circumstances. Priorities will include the identification of corridors associated with TFCA establishment, the determination of the economic value of certain species in consumptive use programmes, research on contraception as a management option in restricted areas, and further work on the indirect use value of species. There will also be worthwhile opportunities to be pursued with ex situ conservation programmes, but these need to be focussed more efficiently.

  14. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology.

  15. The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. H. Eshbaugh

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Capsicum (Solanaceae includes approximately 20 wild species and 4-5 domesticated taxa commonly referred to as ‘chilies’ or ‘peppers’. The pre-Colombian distribution of the genus was New World. The evolutionary history of the genus is now envisaged as including three distinct lines leading to the domesticated taxa. The route of Capsicum to the Old World is thought to have followed three different courses. First, explorers introduced it to Europe with secondary introduction into Africa via further exploratory expeditions; second, botanical gardens played a major role in introduction; and third, introduction followed the slave trade routes. Today, pepper production in Africa is of two types, vegetable and spice. Statistical profiles on production are difficult to interpret, but the data available indicate that Nigeria, Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana are the leading producers. Production is mainly a local phenomenon and large acreage is seldom devoted to the growing of peppers. The primary peppers in Africa are C.  annuum and C.  frutescens.

  16. The Truth About the Chinese in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie Pistorius

    2011-01-01

    I work in the socio-political and economic space in dealing with BRICS and other frontier and emerging markets' engagement in Africa.My focus is on large commercial and industrial.deals,especially high-level dialogue,as well as small-and-medium trading initiatives … in all,capturing the opportunity and growth story that is Africa today.I find I have to constantly defend the fundamentals that underpin the Chinese deals,their trade and political interactions.Yet as I am by no means an apologist,I do however want to briefly untangle just a modicum of the blatantly false and baseless arguments against the Chinese in Africa.This debate would require a book in itself,and there is no better one than the acclaimed Professor Brautigam's The Dragon's Gift in which expertly and stoically debunks the many myths so liberally and limply salted with hot-blooded ire by the masses against the emerging giant.

  17. Geography, demography, and economic growth in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, D E; Sachs, J D

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the effects of climate, topography, and natural ecology on public health, nutrition, demographics, technological diffusion, international trade and other determinants of economic development in Africa. The goal of this paper is to emphasize the need for intensified research on the issues at the intersection of ecology and human society. Geography was given emphasis because of three reasons: the minimal gain from another recitation of the damage caused by statism, protectionism and corruption to African economic performance; negligence of the role of natural forces in shaping economic performance; and tailoring of policies to geographical realities. The paper also discusses the general problems of tropical development and the focus of Africa's problems in worldwide tropical perspectives; demographic trends in Africa; use of standard cross-country growth equations with demographic and geographic variables, to account for the relative roles of geography; and the future growth strategies and the need for urban-based export growth in manufacturing and services. Lastly, the authors provide a summary of conclusions and discuss the agenda for future research.

  18. A new harmonised soil map of Africa at the continental scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, Olivier; Jones, Arwyn; Spaargaren, Otto; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Brossard, Michel; Dampha, Almami; Deckers, Jozef; Gallali, Tahar; Hallett, Stephen; Jones, Robert; Kilasara, Method; Le Roux, Pieter; Michéli, Erika; Montanarella, Luca; Thiombiano, Lamourdia; Van Ranst, Eric; Yemefack, Martin; Zougmore, Robert

    2014-05-01

    Problem and statement: In the context of major global environmental challenges such as food security, climate change, fresh water scarcity and biodiversity loss, the protection and the sustainable management of soil resources in Africa are of paramount importance. To raise the awareness of the general public, stakeholders, policy makers and the science community to the importance of soil in Africa, the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has produced the Soil Atlas of Africa. Aim: To that end, a new harmonised soil map at the continental scale has been produced. Method: The steps of the construction of the new area-class map are presented, the basic information being derived from the Harmonized World Soil Database (HWSD). We show how the original data were updated and modified according to the World Reference Base for Soil Resources classification system. The corrections concerned boundary issues, areas with no information, soil patterns, river and drainage networks, and dynamic features such as sand dunes, water bodies and coastlines. Results and discussion: In comparison to the initial map derived from HWSD, the new map represents a correction of 13% of the soil data for the continent. The soil map and associated database also have the potential to enhance global studies on climate change, food production and land degradation for example. The explanation of the decisions that were made to produce the map will be useful to others who are attempting to harmonise legacy soil data sources to provide a usable information base. The map is available for downloading.

  19. Update of the BIPM comparison BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-134 of activity measurements of the radionuclide 134Cs to include the 2008 results of the BEV (Austria), the 2009 result of the IRA (Switzerland) and the 2010 results of the NMISA (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michotte, C.; Ratel, G.; Courte, S.; Maringer, F. J.; Caffari, Y.; van Wyngaardt, W. M.

    2013-01-01

    Since 2008, three national metrology institutes have submitted ampoules for the measurement of 134Cs in the International Reference System (SIR). The values of the activity submitted were between about 0.17 MBq and 2.3 MBq. The primary standardization result for the IRA, Switzerland, replaces their earlier result of 1978 but no change is proposed for the key comparison reference value at the present time. There are now 14 results in the BIPM.RI(II)-K1.Cs-134 comparison. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  20. Kinematics of the Ethiopian Rift and Absolute motion of Africa and Somalia Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, A. A.; Cuffaro, M.; Doglioni, C.

    2013-12-01

    The Ethiopian Rift (ER), in the northern part of East African Rift System (EARS), forms a boundary zone accommodating differential motion between Africa and Somalia Plates. Its orientation was influenced by the inherited Pan-African collisional system and related lithospheric fabric. We present the kinematics of ER derived from compilation of geodetic velocities, focal mechanism inversions, structural data analysis, and construction of geological profiles. GPS velocity field shows a systematic eastward magnitude increase in NE direction in the central ER. In the same region, incremental extensional strain axes recorded by earthquake focal mechanism and fault slip inversion show ≈N1000E orientation. This deviation between GPS velocity trajectories and orientation of incremental extensional strain is developed due to left lateral transtensional deformation. This interpretation is consistent with the en-échelon pattern of tensional and transtensional faults, the distribution of the volcanic centers, and the asymmetry of the rift itself. Small amount of vertical axis blocks rotation, sinistral strike slip faults and dyke intrusions in the rift accommodate the transtensional deformation. We analyzed the kinematics of ER relative to Deep and Shallow Hot Spot Reference Frames (HSRF). Comparison between the two reference frames shows different kinematics in ER and also Africa and Somalia plate motion both in magnitude and direction. Plate spreading direction in shallow HSRF (i.e. the source of the plumes locates in the asthenosphere) and the trend of ER deviate by about 27°. Shearing and extension across the plate boundary zone contribute both to the style of deformation and overall kinematics in the rift. We conclude that the observed long wavelength kinematics and tectonics are consequences of faster SW ward motion of Africa than Somalia in the shallow HSRF. This reference frame seems more consistent with the geophysical and geological constraints in the Rift. The

  1. The chemical composition and fluxes of atmospheric wet deposition at four sites in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradie, E. H.; Van Zyl, P. G.; Pienaar, J. J.; Beukes, J. P.; Galy-Lacaux, C.; Venter, A. D.; Mkhatshwa, G. V.

    2016-12-01

    South Africa is the economic hub of southern Africa and is regarded as an important source region of atmospheric pollutants. A nitrogen dioxide (NO2) hotspot is clearly visible from space over the South African Mpumalanga Highveld, while South Africa is also regarded as the 9th largest anthropogenic sulphur (S) emitting country. Notwithstanding the importance of South Africa with regard to nitrogen (N) and S emissions, very limited data has been published on the chemical composition of wet deposition for this region. This paper presents the concentrations of sodium (Na+), ammonium (NH4+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), magnesium (Mg2+), nitrate (NO3-), chloride (Cl-), sulphate (SO42-) and water-soluble organic acids (OA) in the wet deposition samples collected between 2009 and 2014 at four South African IDAF (IGAC DEBITS Africa) sites, which are regarded as regional representatives of the north-eastern interior. Also, wet deposition fluxes of the ten ions are calculated and presented in this paper. The results show that the total ionic concentrations and fluxes of wet deposition were much higher at the two sites closer to anthropogenic emissions, while the pH of wet deposition at these two sites were lower compared to that of the two sites that were less impacted by anthropogenic emissions. . The major sources of the ten ions included marine, terrigenous (crust), fossil fuel combustion, agriculture and biomass burning. Significant contributions from fossil fuel combustion were determined for the two sites in close proximity to anthropogenic source regions. The results of back trajectory analysis, however, did indicate that the two remote sites are also affected by air masses passing over the source region through anti-cyclonic recirculation. The largest contributions at the two sites distant from the anthropogenic source regions were marine sources, while the impact of biomass burning was also more significant at the remote sites. Comparison to previous wet

  2. Education and Indigenous Knowledge in Africa: Traditional Bonesetting and Orthopaedic Medicine in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanya, Chika A.

    The underlying philosophy of education in contemporary Africa has been established to be alien, and detached from the indigenous knowledge of the people. Modern day formal education in sub-Saharan Africa came about, for the most part, as a result of missionary activities and colonial efforts of Europe. The education bequeathed to Africa was, therefore, fundamentally European in paradigm and lacking in authenticity. The end of colonialism across sub-Saharan Africa did not herald any tangible transformation in the curriculum of study. Education in Africa is still dependent on foreign input for sustainability, thereby stifling research, creativity and innovation. Sustainable development is founded on indigenous knowledge. When such grassroots knowledge assumes the foundation of learning, home-grown development is easily fostered in all sectors of a national economy. In the field of medicine, indigenous knowledge of healing has been considered unscientific by western biomedical practitioners. Since the days of the missionaries, many Africans have considered indigenous medicine to be fetish; the Christian converts would not be associated with its practice and patronage. However, traditional bonesetting has been proven to be highly efficacious with little supernatural content, it continues to attract huge patronage from Africans, cutting across social and religious boundaries. This study attempts an exploration of the disconnect between indigenous knowledge, practices and learning, on the one hand, and formal education in Africa, on the other. With a focus on traditional bonesetting, the study seeks to determine why that branch of indigenous medicine attracts huge patronage, but is granted very little recognition by modern orthopaedic medical education.

  3. Vanguard or vandals: youth, politics and conflict in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abbink, J.; Kessel,, D

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains a range of original studies on the controversial role of youth in politics, conflicts and rebellious movements in Africa. A common aim of the studies is to try and explain why patterns of generational conflict and violent response among younger age groups in Africa are showing such a remarkably uneven spread across the continent. An introduction by Jon Abbink (Being young in Africa: the politics of despair and renewal) is follwed by three parts: 1. Historical perspectives...

  4. Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-04

    1~7JJ!i 5a. DATE: 6a. DATE: 7a. DATE: 8. TITLE: Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 9. CONTRACT NUMBER: 10...00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...600 Raleigh, NC 27605 Contract Number: HDTRA2-11-D-0001 Motivation for a High Explosive Testing Program in South Africa 4

  5. Intra-Africa agricultural trade: A South African perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Daya

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to assess and provide an overview of the magnitude of current agricultural trade patterns between South Africa and the five leading regional economic communities (REC's in Africa. This paper also seeks to examine some of the constraints limiting greater intra-African agricultural trade. This is done in order to better understand the role South Africa currently plays and could potentially play in promoting intra-Africa trade. Design/Methodology/Approach: Trade flows between South Africa and the leading REC's are outlined and explained. Trade data and tariff data is sourced from available databases. Non-tariff barriers and other impediments to greater intra-African trade are examined with reference to available literature and discussions the authors have had with trade experts and policy makers.Findings: South Africa is the most active country in intra-Africa agricultural trade. However, it is a relationship defined predominantly on exports to Africa with a low level of imports. South Africa exports a diverse range of value added products whilst imports remain concentrated in commodities. Significant imbalances in agricultural trade between South Africa and the respective REC's continue to persist. Regional trade arrangements have fostered greater trade but significant obstacles to greater trade remain.Implications: African countries that do not invest in infrastructure and create a trade-enabling environment and diversify their production, limit their potential to the supply of one or two commodities thereby perpetuating the trend of huge trade imbalances in favour of South Africa.Originality/Value: This work provides a platform for assessing trade relationships and examining impediments to greater trade. It is also relevant in guiding future research on priority markets in Africa as export destinations and import suppliers in light of increasing regional integration initiatives and governments commitment to

  6. Contemporary ethical challenges in industrial psychological testing in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Phil. (Industrial Psychology) Psychometric testing in South Africa faces many challenges at present. Among these challenges is the fact that many individuals utilising psychometric tests are not professionally registered with the Health Professions Council of South Africa. The key objective of this qualitative study was to gain a better understanding of the contemporary ethical challenges in psychometric testing in South Africa. A total of ten industrial psychologists participated in the...

  7. Mapping the zoonotic niche of Lassa fever in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mylne, AQ; Pigott, DM; Longbottom, J; Shearer, F; Duda, KA; Messina, JP; Weiss, DJ; Moyes, CL; Golding, N; Hay, SI

    2015-01-01

    Background Lassa fever is a viral haemorrhagic illness responsible for disease outbreaks across West Africa. It is a zoonosis, with the primary reservoir species identified as the Natal multimammate mouse, Mastomys natalensis. The host is distributed across sub-Saharan Africa while the virus' range appears to be restricted to West Africa. The majority of infections result from interactions between the animal reservoir and human populations, although secondary transmission between humans can o...

  8. Globalization, Regionalization and Information-Communication Convergence of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Vlatka Bilas; Sanja Franc

    2010-01-01

    Globalization is characterized by many accomplishments of the world economy: from regional trade agreements proliferation to the acceptance of international standards. One way of integrating Africa into globalization trends is through regional integrations. However, Africa's dependence upon its colonial leaders has not reflected well on the process of regional integration. Regionalism in Africa was led by public sector organizations and it was done without the public support and the support o...

  9. Boko Haram: Africa’s New JV Team?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    April 9, 2015, http://goldinvestingnews.com/28894/top-10-gold-producing-countries-of-2011-australia-us-ghana- indonesia -china-peru-canada-russi.html...severely polluted air, soil, and water resources leading to losses in arable land and fish stocks.111 Lacks of oversight from the government coupled with...free markets ,115 while Trade Africa incentivizes trade within Africa and expands economic ties between Africa, the United States, and other global

  10. Evaluating ESA CCI soil moisture in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amy; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Arsenault, Kristi R.; Wang, Shugong; Peters-Lidard, Christa D.; Verdin, James P.

    2016-06-01

    To assess growing season conditions where ground based observations are limited or unavailable, food security and agricultural drought monitoring analysts rely on publicly available remotely sensed rainfall and vegetation greenness. There are also remotely sensed soil moisture observations from missions like the European Space Agency (ESA), Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) and NASA's Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP); however, these time series are still too short to conduct studies that demonstrate the utility of these data for operational applications, or to provide historical context for extreme wet or dry events. To promote the use of remotely sensed soil moisture in agricultural drought and food security monitoring, we evaluate the quality of a 30+ year time series of merged active-passive microwave soil moisture from the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI-SM) over East Africa. Compared to the Normalized Difference Vegetation index (NDVI) and modeled soil moisture products, we find substantial spatial and temporal gaps in the early part of the CCI-SM record, with adequate data coverage beginning in 1992. From this point forward, growing season CCI-SM anomalies are well correlated (R > 0.5) with modeled soil moisture, and in some regions, NDVI. We use pixel-wise correlation analysis and qualitative comparisons of seasonal maps and time series to show that remotely sensed soil moisture can inform remote drought monitoring that has traditionally relied on rainfall and NDVI in moderately vegetated regions.

  11. Energy sector reform, energy transitions and the poor in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prasad, Gisela [Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town, Private Bag, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2008-08-15

    There is little systematic information about the impact of energy sector reform on all sources and methods of energy utilised or potentially utilised by the poor. It is not sufficiently known what fuels the poor use, if a larger range of fuels becomes available and affordable and if barriers to access and consumption are reduced. A detailed assessment is presented for four countries, three in Africa (Botswana, Ghana and Senegal) and for comparison one in Latin America (Honduras), of steps taken to reform the energy sector and their effect on various groups of poor households. The paper analyses the pattern of energy supply to, and use by, poor households and explores the link - or its absence - to energy policy. We investigate what works for the poor and which type of reforms and implementation are effective and lead to a transition to more efficient and clean fuels from which the poor benefit. Energy sector reforms when adjusted to the specific conditions of the poor have a positive impact on access and use of clean, safe and efficient fuels. The poor are using gradually less wood as cooking fuel. Gas and kerosene are made more widely available through market liberalisation and subsidy in the particular case of Senegal. Electricity access and use is generally promoted or subsidised through changes in payment conditions and lifeline tariffs. (author)

  12. Human foot bones from Klasies River main site, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rightmire, G Philip; Deacon, H J; Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Tattersall, Ian

    2006-01-01

    The caves at Klasies River contain abundant archaeological evidence relating to human evolution in the late Pleistocene of southern Africa. Along with Middle Stone Age artifacts, animal bones, and other food waste, there are hominin cranial fragments, mandibles with teeth, and a few postcranial remains. Three foot bones can now be added to this inventory. An adult first metatarsal is similar in size and discrete anatomical features to those from Holocene burials in the Cape Province. A complete and well-preserved second metatarsal is especially long and heavy at midshaft in comparison to all Holocene and more recent South African homologues. A large fifth metatarsal is highly distinctive in its morphology. In overall size, these pedal elements resemble specimens from late Pleistocene sites in western Asia, but there are some differences in proportions. The fossils support earlier suggestions concerning a relatively high level of sexual dimorphism in the African Middle Stone Age population. Squatting facets on the two lateral metatarsals appear to indicate a high frequency of kneeling among members of this group. The new postcranial material also underlines the fact that the morphology of particular skeletal elements of some of the 100,000-year-old Klasies River individuals falls outside the range of modern variation.

  13. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014: the present global threaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  14. New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014:the present global threaten

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2014-01-01

    New emerging West Africa Ebola 2014 is the present global threaten. It is a new emerging viral infection that primarily occurred in West Africa and poses the possible trend of worldwide pandemic. The 2014 West Africa Ebola outbreak is the most severe in recorded history in regards to both the number of human cases and fatalities. World Health Organization calls for global concern and attempts to stop the spread of this emerging viral infection. In this brief review, the author presents and discusses on the clinical feature of the new emerging West Africa Ebola 2014.

  15. Validation of Global Evapotranspiration Product (MOD16 using Flux Tower Data in the African Savanna, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abel Ramoelo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Globally, water is an important resource required for the survival of human beings. Water is a scarce resource in the semi-arid environments, including South Africa. In South Africa, several studies have quantified evapotranspiration (ET in different ecosystems at a local scale. Accurate spatially explicit information on ET is rare in the country mainly due to lack of appropriate tools. In recent years, a remote sensing ET product from the MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MOD16 has been developed. However, its accuracy is not known in South African ecosystems. The objective of this study was to validate the MOD16 ET product using data from two eddy covariance flux towers, namely; Skukuza and Malopeni installed in a savanna and woodland ecosystem within the Kruger National Park, South Africa. Eight day cumulative ET data from the flux towers was calculated to coincide with the eight day MOD16 products over a period of 10 years from 2000 to 2010. The Skukuza flux tower results showed inconsistent comparisons with MOD16 ET. The Malopeni site achieved a poorer comparison with MOD16 ET compared to the Skukuza, and due to a shorter measurement period, data validation was performed for 2009 only. The inconsistent comparison of MOD16 and flux tower-based ET can be attributed to, among other things, the parameterization of the Penman-Monteith model, flux tower measurement errors, and flux tower footprint vs. MODIS pixel. MOD16 is important for global inference of ET, but for use in South Africa's integrated water management, a locally parameterized and improved product should be developed.

  16. West Nile virus lineage 2 as a cause of zoonotic neurological disease in humans and horses in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venter, Marietjie; Swanepoel, Robert

    2010-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is widely distributed in South Africa, but since a few cases of neurological disease have been reported from this region, endemic lineage 2 strains were postulated to be of low virulence. Several cases of nonfatal encephalitis in humans as well as fatal cases in a foal, dog, and ostrich chicks have, however, been associated with lineage 2 WNV in South Africa. The pathogenesis of lineage 2 WNV strains was investigated using mouse neuroinvasive experiments, gene expression experiments, and genome sequence comparisons which indicated that lineage 2 strains that are highly pathogenic exist. To determine whether cases of WNV were being missed in South Africa, horses with fever and neurological disease were investigated. Several cases of WNV were identified, all associated with severe neurological disease, 85% of which had to be euthanized or died. All cases positive by RT-PCR were shown to belong to lineage 2 WNV by DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Two cases of occupational infection were investigated, including a case of zoonotic transmission to a veterinarian who performed an autopsy on one of the horses as well as a laboratory infection after a needle stick injury with a neuroinvasive lineage 2 strain. Both resulted in neurological disease. Cytokine expression was investigated in the second case to assess the immunopathogenesis of WNV. Collectively, these studies suggest that lineage 2 WNV may be significantly under estimated as a cause of neurological disease in South Africa.

  17. Ubuntu, koinonia and diakonia, a way to reconciliation in South Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gert Breed

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to contribute to the process of reconciliation in South Africa. This is achieved by firstly exploring the meaning of ubuntu as a common culture or religion under a large percentage of South Africa’s people over the borders of language and other cultural values. In the second part of the article two concepts that play a major role in Christianity are explored, namely koinonia and diakonia. Again a large percentage of South Africans believe that the Bible is the Word of God in which the right way of living is described. A comparison is made between the core values of ubuntu and the way of living that emerges from the use of the two concepts of koinonia and diakonia in the New Testament. A way that can contribute to reconciliation is suggested from this comparison.

  18. Subseasonal teleconnections South America - South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Alice; Reason, Chris

    2016-04-01

    There is marked subseasonal variability over South America and southern Africa. Based on previous work showing that a teleconnection exists between the South American monsoon system and interannual summer rainfall variability over southern Africa, this study shows teleconnections between subseasonal variability over these landmasses. Observed daily gauge precipitation data for 1970-1999 are gridded to 1° resolution for South America and 2.5° for South Africa. At each grid point, anomalies of daily precipitation are calculated and submitted to a bandpass Lanczos filter to isolate subseasonal oscillations in the 20-90 day band. For each season, the filtered precipitation anomalies for the South African grid boxes are correlated with filtered precipitation anomalies in the grid boxes over South America. Lags from 0 up to 12 days are applied to the South African data, in order to investigate convection anomalies over South America that could produce atmospheric perturbations associated with South African precipitation anomalies. The significance of correlation between the filtered data takes autocorrelation into account and uses effective sample sizes. The results shown represent the best correlations for different climatic regimes such as the winter-rainfall dominated southwestern Cape, the all season rainfall South Coast and the summer-rainfall dominated Limpopo region. NCEP re-analyses are used to composite subseasonal anomalies in OLR, 200 hPa streamfunction, and vertically integrated moisture flux associated with precipitation anomaly above one standard deviation in the filtered series (positive phases) of the South African selected regions. The possible origin of the atmospheric circulation anomalies associated with those positive phases is determined using influence functions (IFs) of a vorticity equation model with a divergence source. The model is linearized about a realistic basic state and includes the divergence of the basic state and the advection of

  19. Raising Crop Productivity in Africa through Intensification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tadele

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The population of Africa will double in the next 33 years to reach 2.5 billion by 2050. Although roughly 60% of the continent’s population is engaged in agriculture, the produce from this sector cannot feed its citizens. Hence, in 2013 alone, Africa imported 56.5 million tons of wheat, maize, and soybean at the cost of 18.8 billion USD. Although crops cultivated in Africa play a vital role in their contribution to Food Security, they produce inferior yields compared to those in other parts of the world. For instance, the average cereal yield in Africa is only 1.6 t·ha−1 compared to the global 3.9 t·ha−1. Low productivity in Africa is also related to poor soil fertility and scarce moisture, as well as a variety of insect pests, diseases, and weeds. While moisture scarcity is responsible for up to 60% of yield losses in some African staple cereals, insect pests inflict annually substantial crop losses. In order to devise a strategy towards boosting crop productivity on the continent where food insecurity is most prevalent, these production constraints should be investigated and properly addressed. This review focuses on conventional (also known as genetic intensification in which crop productivity is raised through breeding for cultivars with high yield-potential and those that thrive well under diverse and extreme environmental conditions. Improved crop varieties alone do not boost crop productivity unless supplemented with optimum soil, water, and plant management practices as well as the promotion of policies pertaining to inputs, credit, extension, and marketing. Studies in Kenya and Uganda have shown that the yield of cassava can be increased by 140% in farmers’ fields using improved varieties and management practices. In addition to traditional organic and inorganic fertilizers, biochar and African Dark Earths have been found to improve soil properties and to enhance productivity, although their availability and affordability to

  20. Growth, Distribution, and Poverty in Africa: Messages from the 1990s. Poverty Dynamics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiaensen, Luc; Demery, Lionel; Paternostro, Stefano

    This book reviews trends in household well-being in Africa during the 1990s. Using the better data sets now available, the main factors behind observed poverty changes are examined in eight countries: Ethiopia, Ghana, Madagascar, Mauritania, Nigeria, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. A broad view of poverty is taken, which includes income poverty and…

  1. Africa and International Corruption : the Strange Case of South Africa and Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    1996-01-01

    This article traces the development of corruption in one part of Africa - Seychelles - in a global context. It demonstrates how the ease with which capital can be transferred and commodities bought and sold and the speed of modern communication in general have been given considerable impetus to the

  2. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun

    actors involved in the implementation of the Ramsar Convention of Wetlands in Africa with EO methods and tools to better assess the conditions of wetlands under their areas of jurisdiction/study, and to better monitor their trends over time. To this end, an open source wetland observing system, referred...

  3. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  4. A Holocene speleothem record from Morocco, NW Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenburg, Jasper; Fietzke, Jan; Richter, Detlev; Immenhauser, Adrian

    2010-05-01

    A well dated Holocene speleothem (stalagmite) from the Middle Atlas Mountains in Morocco has been investigated for its continental climate record. The aim is to compile an improved understanding of the climatically complex triple point of the North Atlantic, Mediterranean and Saharan / Monsoonal climate realms in NW Africa. At present, only few studies concerning continental climate reconstructions from NW Africa have been published (Lamb et al. 1995, Cheddadi et al. 1998, Genty et al. 2006). Given the significance of this region, this lack of data forms a strong motivation for additional, well dated climate records. The speleothem (GP2) was sampled in the 'Grotte de Piste' (ca 800 m above sea level), mean annual precipitation is about 930 mm (mainly falling in the winter season) and the mean annual temperature is about 13° C. GP2 is 60 cm tall and grew - based on U/Th MC-ICP-MS data - continuously between 11.5 kyr BP (early Holocene) and 2.9 kyr BP (late Holocene). X-Ray Diffraction data indicate a mainly aragonitic mineralogy. 'Hendy tests' suggest that CaCO3 precipitation was close to isotopic equilibrium with respect to oxygen isotopes, however kinetic effects might have influenced carbon isotopes. Carbon and oxygen isotope data have been measured along a transect with increments of approximately 1 mm representing a resolution of about 15 yrs. Highly covariant oscillations in δ13C and δ18O with an average cyclicity of about 410 yrs. are observed. These oscillations coincide with macroscopically visible high density and low density layers, possibly reflecting a higher or lower amount of inclusions and perhaps higher and lower growth rates. Geochemical analysis of speloan aragonite is accompanied by cave monitoring that has started in November 2009. Parameters quantified include: drip water parameters, cave air humidity, pCO2 and cave air temperature. Precipitation experiments using watch glasses will also be performed. References Cheddadi, R., Lamb, H. F

  5. China renewable energy in Africa and Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This study assesses the potential for Norwegian engagement in Sino-African renewable energy development. The study analyzes Norwegian competitiveness and complementarities towards Chinese energy actors in the African market, and identifies respective strengths and weaknesses against the backdrop of the African market. The report identifies barriers and opportunities for Norwegian commercial and developmental engagement towards upscaling renewable energy in Africa that may also apply to other OECD countries. Finally, the report points to possibilities for Norway to support sustainable Sino-African renewable energy development.(auth)

  6. Aids-Related Cancers in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbulaiteye, Sam M.

    2014-07-01

    Thank you Professor Zichichi for inviting me to give a talk about AIDS-related cancers in Africa. Let me begin by congratulating the team that organized the 46th Session of the Erice International Seminar Series, whose theme is THE ROLE OF SCIENCE IN THE THIRD MILLENIUM. I also congratulate the scientists from 38 countries who are attending these seminars. They are perpetuating the principle of SCIENCE WITHOUT SECRETS in the true spirit espoused by Archimedes, Galileo, and Fermi. It is a wonderful honor for me to be here to shed some light on the health impacts of the HIV epidemic in the area of cancer...

  7. Atlantic and indian oceans pollution in africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakar, Babagana

    Africa is the second largest and most populated continent after Asia. Geographically it is located between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans. Most of the Africa's most populated and industrialized cities are located along the coast of the continent facing the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, example of such cities include Casablanca, Dakar, Accra, Lagos, Luanda and Cape town all facing the Atlantic Ocean and cities like East London, Durban, Maputo, Dar-es-salaam and Mogadishu are all facing the Indian Ocean. As a result of the geographical locations of African Coastal Cities plus increase in their population, industries, sea port operations, petroleum exploration activities, trafficking of toxic wastes and improper waste management culture lead to the incessant increase in the pollution of the two oceans. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE ATLANTIC OCEAN i. The petroleum exploration activities going on along the coast of "Gulf of Guinea" region and Angola continuously causes oil spillages in the process of drilling, bunkering and discharging of petroleum products in the Atlantic Ocean. ii. The incessant degreasing of the Sea Ports "Quay Aprons" along the Coastal cities of Lagos, Luanda, Cape Town etc are continuously polluting the Atlantic Ocean with chemicals. iii. Local wastes generated from the houses located in the coastal cities are always finding their ways into the Atlantic Ocean. NATURE OF POLLUTION OF THE INDIAN OCEAN i. Unlike the Atlantic ocean where petroleum is the major pollutant, the Indian Ocean is polluted by Toxic / Radioactive waste suspected to have been coming from the developed nations as reported by the United Nations Environmental Programme after the Tsunami disaster in December 2004 especially along the coast of Somalia. ii. The degreasing of the Quay Aprons at Port Elizabeth, Maputo, Dar-es-Salaam and Mongolism Sea Ports are also another major source polluting the Indian Ocean. PROBLEMS GENERATED AS A RESULT OF THE OCEANS POLLUTION i. Recent report

  8. Emigration dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adepoju, A

    1995-01-01

    The introduction to this description of emigration dynamics in sub-Saharan Africa notes that the region is characterized by intensive migration caused by such factors as population growth, negative economic growth, ethnic conflict, and human rights abuses. The second section of the report discusses the fragmentary and incomplete nature of data on international migration in the region, especially data on conventional migration. Section 3 looks at demographic factors such as high population growth, illiteracy levels, HIV seroprevalence, and urbanization which lead to high unemployment and emigration. The fourth section considers the effects of the rapid expansion of education which is outstripping the absorptive capacity of the economies of many countries. Unemployment is a serious problem which is projected to become worse as increases in employment opportunities continue to lag behind increases in output. Sections five, six, and seven of the report describe relevant economic factors such as per capita income, income distribution, the economic resource base, and economic development; poverty; and the effects of economic adjustment programs, especially on employment opportunities and wages in the public and private sectors. The next section is devoted to sociocultural factors influencing migration both on the micro- and the macro-levels, including the influence of ethnicity and ethnic conflicts as well as the domination of leadership positions by members of minority groups. The political factors discussed in section 9 include women's status, repressive regimes, political instability which leads to underdevelopment, and the policies of the Organization of African Unity which broadened the definition of refugees and set inviolable borders of member states identical to those inherited upon independence. Section 10 outlines ecological factors contributing to migration, including the decline in acreage of arable land, soil deterioration, poor land management, and the

  9. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  10. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  11. Policy Dilemmas in Brazil-Africa Relations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-22

    dirloiratic planner and spokesman is founc In Pona:Jc Sardenberz, "A politica externa do Brasil nas duas ultimas decadas," Re’.ista d Servicc 1u0ico 0 1...the cunntrv. Even though political interests may eventua!!1Y accrue with the development of comercial involvement in Africa, Brazil resists engagement...34Brazil’s Arms find Willing Buyers in the Third World," New York Times (August ?, 1?81), p. E-3; "Armas: Brasil invade o mercado mundial," Senhor (February

  12. Expeditionary medicine in Africa: the French experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Eric; Kenane, Maj Nadia; Montcriol, Ambroise; Palmier, Bruno

    2007-07-01

    The French army is often engaged in stability and support operations in Africa, and its military health service has gained much experience. The goal of this article is to present our military medical management strategies during the two main phases of military action. These situations most often begin with an initial combat phase, with combat casualty care. This consists of first aid, i.e., treatment of bleeding points, followed by battlefield forward medical care, damage control surgery, and resuscitation in forward surgical units. The quieter second phase of peacekeeping operations is dominated by the management of tropical diseases and their prevention, essential for the preservation of the military strength.

  13. Adding South Africa to The BRICS Mix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    South Africa’s membership in the BRICS club may bring more opportunities to the whole of Africa At their third summit,leaders from Brazil,Russia,India and China,known as the BRIC group of major emerging economies,welcomed a new member,South African President Jacob Zuma.Zuma led a high-level delegation,including South Africa’s international relations and cooperation minister,economic development minister and trade and industry minister,to attend the summit on April14in Sanya,south China’s Hainan Province

  14. Global warming threatens agricultural productivity in Africa and South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, Benjamin

    2012-12-01

    Africa and South Asia can be surprising in regards to the diverging projections in a warmer climate of summer monsoon rainfall, the primary driver for rainfed crop productivity in the region, especially in West Africa where some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts (Druyan 2011). This is because of the adverse role of higher temperatures in shortening the crop cycle duration and increasing evapotranspiration demand and thus reducing crop yields, irrespective of rainfall changes (Berg et al 2012, Roudier et al 2011, Schlenker and Lobell 2010). Potential wetter conditions or elevated CO2 concentrations hardly counteract the adverse effect of higher temperatures. Although such systematic reviews and meta-analyses conducted by Knox et al (2012), Müller et al (2011) or Roudier et al (2011) can provide important insights about sign, magnitude and uncertainty of climate change impacts, direct comparison among studies suffers from inevitable limitations. In particular the diversity of the studies selected for the meta-analysis, encompassing a range of different countries, scales, crops and methods (climate models and scenarios, crop models, downscaling technique), makes it difficult to aggregate crop yield projections to provide a consistent and precise impact assessment. A rigorous multi-ensembles approach, with varying climate models, emissions scenarios, crop models, and downscaling techniques, as recommended by Challinor et al (2007), would enable a move towards a more complete sampling of uncertainty in crop yield projections. In that sense, coordinated modeling experiments such as the ones conducted throughout the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project (AgMIP; www.agmip.org/) are likely to improve substantially the characterization of the threat of crop yield losses and food insecurity due to climate change. In spite of the threat of crop yield losses in a warmer climate, it is important to keep in mind

  15. Out of Africa: High aerosol concentrations in the upper troposphere over Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Heintzenberg

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In the year 2000, six flights (three southbound and three northbound of the CARIBIC project were conducted between Germany and two destinations in the southern hemisphere (Windhoek, Namibia and Cape Town, South Africa. In the present report, results on particle number concentrations are discussed in three size ranges (>4 nm, >12 nm, and >18 nm particle diameter during the unique transequatorial Africa flights. The flights covered a total of about 80 h in May, July, and December. Thus, no claim can be made for long-term representativeness of the aerosol data. Nevertheless, they are the first upper systematic tropospheric transequatorial aerosol profiles over Africa. The average aerosol results show a broad maximum, roughly symmetrical to the equator, which compares well in latitudinal extent to a maximum of CO concentrations measured on the same flights. This export of continental surface aerosol to the upper troposphere will be dispersed on a global scale both with the easterly flow near the equator and with the westerlies in the adjacent subtropical regions. There was strong evidence of recent new particle formation before aerosol arrival at flight level, in particular during the time periods between 9:00 and 13:00 local time over Africa. Direct and indirect climate effects of the respective particulate matter remain to be investigated by future flights with the ongoing extension of the CARIBIC payload towards size-resolved measurements above 100 nm particle diameter. At the same time global chemical transport models and aerosol dynamics models need to be extended to be able to reproduce the CARIBIC findings over Africa.

  16. NADAC Comparison

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NADAC Weekly Comparison identifies the drug products with current NADAC rates that are replaced with new NADAC rates. Other changes (e.g. NDC additions and...

  17. Adult Literacy in Africa: The Push and Pull Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omolewa, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the question of why Africa has made such slow progress towards the goal of eradicating illiteracy, and why it remains an exceptionally disadvantaged region in this respect. The article surveys the history of the development of literacy in Africa from colonial times to the present day, focusing on the role of adult education in…

  18. The historiography of Islam in West Africa : an anthropologist's view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soares, B.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I focus on the historiography of Islam in West Africa while also reflecting upon and assessing existing scholarship in the broader field of the study of Islam in Africa. My position as an anthropologist who conducts historical research informs my perspective in evaluating the curren

  19. Television in South Africa: The Research Paradox, Problem and Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Randall; Ekman, Paul

    South Africa, the last urban, industrial, Western-culture society without television, called for television introduction on January 1, 1976. Thus, South Africa represented the last chance to explore certain research questions about the impact of television in modern societies. A study was made of: (1) factors in the South African context which…

  20. Tribalism as a Foiled Factor of Africa Nation-Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okogu, J. O.; Umudjere, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    This paper tends to examine tribalism as a foiled factor on Africa nation-building and proffers useful tips to salvaging the Africa land from this deadly social problem. Africans in times past had suffered enormous attacks, injuries, losses, deaths, destruction of properties and human skills and ideas due to the presence of tribalistic views in…

  1. Taxonomic-linguistic study of plantain in Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossel, G.

    1998-01-01

    Plantain is a cooking banana (Musa spp. AAB group (Musaceae)) that is grown as a major food crop in many parts of Africa, especially in the Central-African and West-African rain forest areas. The crop originated in Asia, but its greatest diversity is to be found in Africa.We are dealing here with an

  2. Worker Education in South Africa: Lessons and Contradictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vally, Salim; Bofelo, Mphutlane Wa; Treat, John

    2013-01-01

    Worker education played a crucial role in the development of the trade union movement in South Africa and in the broader struggle for social transformation. This article reviews key moments and dynamics in the trajectory of worker education in South Africa. We argue that international developments, the rise of neoliberalism, and the negotiated…

  3. Developing Democratic Citizens for Emerging Democracies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukpokodu, Nelly

    1997-01-01

    Places the current problems concerning citizenship education in Africa in the context of African countries' emergence from colonial rule to democratic government. Maintains that social studies education in Africa must become transformative and interdisciplinary to overcome ethnocentric isolation. Advocates upgrading teacher education and…

  4. Progress towards eliminating iodine deficiency in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jooste, P.; Zimmermann, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Before the introduction of salt iodisation in 1954, South Africa was one of the many countries of the world with a lack of iodine in most of its territory and hence there was a need for a salt iodisation programme. The understanding of the iodine situation in South Africa, the basics of iodine nutri

  5. Vanguard or vandals : youth, politics and conflict in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains a range of original studies on the controversial role of youth in politics, conflicts and rebellious movements in Africa. A common aim of the studies is to try and explain why patterns of generational conflict and violent response among younger age groups in Africa are showing s

  6. Avian Influenza Viruses in Water Birds, Africa 1

    OpenAIRE

    Gaidet, Nicolas; Dodman, Tim; Caron, Alexandre; Balança, Gilles; Desvaux, Stephanie; Goutard, Flavie; Cattoli, Giovanni; Lamarque, François; Hagemeijer, Ward; Monicat, François

    2007-01-01

    We report the first large-scale surveillance of avian influenza viruses in water birds conducted in Africa. This study shows evidence of avian influenza viruses in wild birds, both Eurasian and Afro-tropical species, in several major wetlands of Africa.

  7. Private Enterprise-led Economic Development in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2014-01-01

    As a continent, Africa occupies nearly a quarter of the World’s land area and home for one-seventh of its population. But a large proportion of the people, especially those living in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) are mired in abject poverty. Recent years have witnessed some positive developments. Six...

  8. Being young in Africa : the politics of despair and renewal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, J.; Abbink, J.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2005-01-01

    This volume contains a range of original studies on the controversial role of youth in politics, conflicts and rebellious movements in Africa. A common aim of the studies is to try and explain why patterns of generational conflict and violent response among younger age groups in Africa are showing s

  9. Implications of Competition for Strategic Minerals in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Aug 2010 Rothberg, Robert ed. China Into Africa, Brookings, 2008 Stiglitz , Joseph . Globalization and its Discontents, Norton, 2003 TBS International...Congo (Kinshasa), Feb 2010, p11.2 8 United States Geological Survey (USGS). 2005 Minerals Yearbook – Africa, Aug 2007, p1.7 9 Stiglitz , Joseph

  10. Endemism in the Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Van Damme

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We review the current state of knowledge and patterns of distribution in the endemic Cladocera (Crustacea: Branchiopoda of Southern Africa and describe two species of the Western Cape, of which one is new to science. Frey (1993, Korovchinsky (2006 and Smirnov (2008 previously suggested that South Africa harbours few endemics in the Cladocera. In the current study, we show that so-called low endemism in this region is mainly attributed to our limited state of knowledge of the local cladoceran fauna. Many of the South African taxa are ignored and revisions are lacking, as we briefly discuss for the genus Daphnia. We list known Southern African endemic Cladocera with notes on their status, map the distributions of well-studied taxa, and discuss the importance of temporary freshwater rockpools. We confirm that Southern Africa is a region of endemism for the group. We recognise three categories of endemics: i Montane endemics in the East (e.g. Drakensberg mountains; ii endemics of the Western Cape (lowlands; iii South African endemics, widely distributed in the region, both in the mountains and the lowlands. South African endemics have previously been regarded as relicts (Korovchinsky 2006, yet for the two taxa explored in detail in this study, there are no specific primitive morphological characters in comparison to congeners (within their respective genus/species group and the morphology mainly suggests strong isolation. The two species belong to the Chydoridae and the Eurycercidae, respectively, and are used here as case studies for the investigation of Western Cape endemics. The first, Alona capensis Rühe, 1914 (Anomopoda: Chydoridae: Aloninae, is redescribed based on the type material. We discuss the affinities of this enigmatic species for the first time. Morphology of the habitus and the postabdomen parallel that of members of the Alona affinis-complex. The disconnected head pores and limb characters, on the other hand, place A. capensis in

  11. Africa's Quest for Developmental States: 'renaissance' for whom?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaw, Timothy Milton

    2012-01-01

    After a generally disappointing half-century since recapturing formal independence, at the turn of the second decade of the 21st century, Africa(s) may now be able to seize unanticipated emerging opportunities to move from `fragile' or `failed' towards `developmental' political economies. The con......After a generally disappointing half-century since recapturing formal independence, at the turn of the second decade of the 21st century, Africa(s) may now be able to seize unanticipated emerging opportunities to move from `fragile' or `failed' towards `developmental' political economies....... The continent displays innovations in terms of sources of finance, new regionalisms & transnational governance leading to distinctive insights for analysis & policy, both state & non-state. Its potential for renaissance is reinforced by South Africa's accession as the fifth of the BRICS at the dawn...

  12. On the added value and sensitivity of WRF to driving conditions over CORDEX-Africa domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorente-Plazas, Raquel; García-Díez, Markel; Jimenez-Guerrero, Pedro; Fernández, Jesús; Montavez, Juan Pedro

    2014-05-01

    Research Unit of the University of East Anglia are used. The precipitation is compared against the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Project (TRMM) monthly data (0.25deg). The results depict that none of the reanalyses used outperforms the other in representing the African climate, since their performance depends on the variable, season and region assessed. The simulations show a noticeable disagreement for 2-m temperature in north-western Africa, where WRF-JRA tends to underestimate this variable mostly in winter and spring. For the monthly mean daily maximum temperature, WRF-JRA tends to overestimate the temperature in the Sahel in summer and in the border between Angola and Namibia in Winter. When comparing with CRU observations, there is a remarkably better spatial representation for the WRF-EI simulation in the North of Africa. However, the behaviour of WRF-EI and WRF-JRA is similar in the South of Africa. Intra-annual variability is well represented except in Atlas mountains where WRF-JRA underestimates temperature. Regarding precipitation, the main differences appear over the Sahel region in JAS and in the Congo area during JFM. The comparison with the TRMM data shows a better agreement with the WRF-JRA simulation except during summer in the Sahel region. The monthly annual cycle is well captured, except in Ethiopian highlands and Northern West Africa where WRF-JRA (WRF-EI) underestimate (overestimate) the annual cycle.

  13. Harnessing the sun. The economics of solar photovoltaic electricity in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ondraczek, Janosch

    2014-08-29

    In this thesis, I address four distinct - yet closely linked - research questions related to the adoption of solar energy technologies in East Africa, which will be summarized in the following section. Chapter 2 starts with an analysis of the history, status and prospects of solar energy markets in Kenya and Tanzania, and a comparison of both countries. Chapter 3 investigates the main determinants of solar home system (SHS) adoption in Kenya, and lighting fuel choices among Kenyan households. Chapter 4 examines the cost of (and potential for) large-scale, grid-connected solar PV adoption in Kenya, and Chapter 5 looks at the influence of financing costs on the economics of solar PV on a global level. With my research I therefore contribute to the policy debate surrounding the African energy challenge by looking at two countries in particular, namely Kenya and Tanzania. I have chosen this geographic focus deliberately, as both countries - while well-endowed with sunshine - at present use only very little solar energy. Thus, while the practical focus on East Africa in three of the four chapters implies that the wider African energy challenge is not tackled head on, many of the findings and conclusions from the study of Kenya and Tanzania are in my view transferable to other countries in Africa, and probably even beyond that continent. In conducting research on the solar energy markets of East Africa over the past five years (2009-2014) I have certainly learnt that this continent does not offer the easiest research environment, and a clear focus on a small set of countries and only one renewable energy technology has been very important. Rigorous, high-quality research requires good information, such as data and statistics, as well as appropriate methods; and while the latter are in good supply, the former are painfully lacking for many aspects of life in East Africa. This poses a major challenge for (quantitative) research and has greatly impacted what I could and

  14. Energy and greenhouse emissions from South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surridge, A.D.; Grobbelaar, C.J.; Asamoah, J.K. [Dept. Mineral and Energy Affairs, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    The Republic of South Africa (RSA) is home to approximately 37 million people, were the highest population density is in the central industrial area. The RSA is rich in minerals, which are the main source of national prosperity. However, the country lacks a plentiful supply of water and is subject to periodic droughts. The RSA can be classified as a water stressed country, and this is the factor which has a major influence on development. The limited and variable supply of water sensitises the RSA to changes in climate, especially rainfall. Hence the RSA has a vested interest in climate change, particularly as the outputs of some current theoretical models predict a lowering of rainfall over an already drought prone central southern Africa. The population can be broadly apportioned into two groups; a first world component with a standard of living approaching that of Europe/USA, and a third world component whose living standard need to be increased. The development of this latter group, many of whom live below the poverty line, is of high priority and will require an expansion of the economy, and consequently may result in increased greenhouse gas emissions in the medium term. (author)

  15. Defining 'plain language' in contemporary South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleanor Cornelius

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Defining the concept ‘plain language’ has been hugely problematic since the origins of the so-called Plain Language Movement in the 1970s in the United States and elsewhere in the world. Definitions of ‘plain language’ abound, yet James (2008: 6 warns, in relation to plain language practitioners, that “we can’t yet call ourselves a coherent field, let alone a profession, while we offer such varying definitions of what we do”. Contemporary international definitions of ‘plain language’ are of three types: numerical (or formula-based, elements-focused, or outcomes-focused (Cheek 2010. In South Africa, protective legislation gave rise to a local definition of ‘plain language’ which was widely acclaimed for its comprehensiveness and practicality. From a textlinguistic angle, this article ruminates on the nature of the definition of ‘plain language’ in the National Credit Act (2005 and the Consumer Protection Act (2008, and critically appraises the value of the definition as a sharp and reliable conceptual tool for use by plain language practitioners – as applied linguists – in the absence of norms, standards or guidelines for the use of plain language in the consumer industry in contemporary South Africa.

  16. Emigration flows from North Africa to Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassar, Hassène; Marzouk, Diaa; Anwar, Wagida A; Lakhoua, Chérifa; Hemminki, Kari; Khyatti, Meriem

    2014-08-01

    The region of North Africa (NA) represents a striking locality regarding migration with several migration patterns, namely emigration in the form of labour export to Europe and North America and, to a lesser extent, to the Arab Gulf area. The latter has increased enormously in the last decade because of the political instability in most of the NA countries. The aim of the present chapter was to explore the patterns of migration stocks and flows in NA countries, based on several websites, systematic review of journals, comparable data available by the United Nations and by the International Organization of Migration. The NA region has become an area of transit migration and labour migration. Emigrant flows from NA countries towards Europe and North America are increasing this decade more than towards the Arab Gulf countries after being replaced by Asian labour. The recent increase in the proportion of women among the migrant population is remarkable. Remittances sent by African migrants have become an important source of external finance for countries of origin. Transient and irregular migration to Egypt originates at the borders with Sudan, Palestine and Libya with destination to the Euro Mediterranean countries. In Tunisia and Morocco, irregular migrants originate from Sub-Saharan Africa to the northern borders. The NA countries serve as departure rather than destination countries, and migration flows to the Euro-Mediterranean countries through legal or illegal routes.

  17. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  18. Open Biomedical Engineering education in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Arti; Atwine, Daniel; De Maria, Carmelo; Ibingira, Charles; Kipkorir, Emmauel; Kiros, Fasil; Madete, June; Mazzei, Daniele; Molyneux, Elisabeth; Moonga, Kando; Moshi, Mainen; Nzomo, Martin; Oduol, Vitalice; Okuonzi, John

    2015-08-01

    Despite the virtual revolution, the mainstream academic community in most countries remains largely ignorant of the potential of web-based teaching resources and of the expansion of open source software, hardware and rapid prototyping. In the context of Biomedical Engineering (BME), where human safety and wellbeing is paramount, a high level of supervision and quality control is required before open source concepts can be embraced by universities and integrated into the curriculum. In the meantime, students, more than their teachers, have become attuned to continuous streams of digital information, and teaching methods need to adapt rapidly by giving them the skills to filter meaningful information and by supporting collaboration and co-construction of knowledge using open, cloud and crowd based technology. In this paper we present our experience in bringing these concepts to university education in Africa, as a way of enabling rapid development and self-sufficiency in health care. We describe the three summer schools held in sub-Saharan Africa where both students and teachers embraced the philosophy of open BME education with enthusiasm, and discuss the advantages and disadvantages of opening education in this way in the developing and developed world.

  19. Drivers for animal welfare policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molomo, M; Mumba, T

    2014-04-01

    Livestock in Africa represent on average 30% of the agricultural gross domestic product (GDP) and about 10% of the national GDP. Up to 300 million people depend on livestock for their income and livelihood. Accordingly, livestock are considered to be important for the African continent. Despite this, little or no provision for animal welfare is made in the laws and regulations of most African countries. However, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) Performance of Veterinary Services (PVS) Tool includes animal welfare as a critical competency in Veterinary Services, and most African countries have now conducted PVS appraisals. The development of a Regional Animal Welfare Strategy in Africa is also important because it will provide opportunities for full engagement by all relevant parties. Key elements in this process should include collaboration and coordination in information dissemination to all stakeholders, who should include all those in the value chain. The roles played by the OIE Member Delegates and Focal Points, and non-governmental organisations (NGOs), in driving animal welfare policy in most African countries are notable. Without a level of understanding of animal welfare that is sufficient to support clear animal welfare policy development and implementation, problems may appear in the near future which could jeopardise the attainment of increased animal productivity and product quality. This may have negative implications for economic growth and for national and international trade.

  20. Islamic marriages in South Africa: Quo vadimus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rautenbach

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to their potentially polygamous nature, Islamic marriages are not recognised in terms of South African law. The consequences of this non-recognition have been particularly unfair to Muslim women. Until 2000 a Muslim woman had no claim for loss of support if her husband was unlawfully killed. Even today she cannot claim maintenance from her husband after a divorce; she is not an intestate beneficiary after the death of her husband; can be compelled to give evidence against her husband in criminal proceedings and can not claim financial support during the course of her marriage. Since early times there have been calls for the recognition of Islamic marriages. The 1996 Constitution of South Africa protects, among other rights, cultural and religious rights and makes provision for the recognition of cultural and religious marriages by means of legislation. This article gives a brief historical overview regarding the position of Islamic marriages in South Africa. Thereafter the current position of Islamic marriages will be discussed, and finally a few comments regarding the future of Islamic marriages will be given.

  1. Plants Africa gave to the World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kunkel

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the flora of Africa is rather poor in plant species when compared to the floras of Tropical America or South-east Asia, this vast continent is the home of a wide range of plants useful to Man. Many of these have become famous in cultivation around the world. Coffee now provides an important source of income for certain countries, and the Yams yield one of the world’s staple foods. The Oil Palm and Cola trees are widely cultivated in Africa itself and elsewhere. African Mahoganies and Ironwoods are much sought after timber trees of excellent quality. Numerous grasses and pulses are well-known for their food value, and some of the native Cucurbitaceae are appreciated additions to our vegetable diet. African plants have also made their contribution to horticulture, ranging from world-famous trees such as the African or Gabon Tulip tree and many of the South African species of Proteaceae to the multitude of East and South African succulents. The present paper provides a survey of the most important of these useful plants and will emphasize the need of further research for forestry and agricultural as well as horticultural purposes, especially as far as some still little-known but potentially important plants species are concerned.

  2. Biofuels and biodiversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick J. O’Farrell

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The South African government, as part of its efforts to mitigate the effects of the ongoing energy crisis, has proposed that biofuels should form an important part of the country’s energy supply. The contribution of liquid biofuels to the national fuel supply is expected to be at least 2% by 2013. The Biofuels Industrial Strategy of the Republic of South Africa of 2007 outlines key incentives for reaching this target and promoting the development of a sustainable biofuels industry. This paper discusses issues relating to this strategy as well as key drivers in biofuel processing with reference to potential impacts on South Africa’s rich biological heritage.

    Our understanding of many of the broader aspects of biofuels needs to be enhanced. We identify key areas where challenges exist, such as the link between technology, conversion processes and feedstock selection. The available and proposed processing technologies have important implications for land use and the use of different non-native plant species as desired feedstocks. South Africa has a long history of planting non-native plant species for commercial purposes, notably for commercial forestry. Valuable lessons can be drawn from this experience on mitigation against potential impacts by considering plausible scenarios and the appropriate management framework and policies. We conceptualise key issues embodied in the biofuels strategy, adapting a framework developed for assessing and quantifying impacts of invasive alien species. In so doing, we provide guidelines for minimising the potential impacts of biofuel projects on biodiversity.

  3. Do remittances promote financial development in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karikari, Nana Kwasi; Mensah, Sam; Harvey, Simon K

    2016-01-01

    The paper seeks to establish whether or not remittances promoted financial developments and explore the traceable causality between remittances and financial developments in some countries in Africa. We examine the association between remittances received and how they affect the availability of credit to private sector, bank deposits intermediated by financial institutions and money supply. We also question whether the development in the financial sector causes higher levels or otherwise of remittances received. This paper uses data on remittance flows to 50 developing countries in Africa from 1990 to 2011 to explore the nexus. The study uses fixed effects and random effect estimations as well as Vector Error Correction Model method on the panel data. The study shows that remittances promote certain aspects of financial development to some extent and better financial system foster receipts of remittances. The effect of causality is seen in the short run and not in the long-run. The study alludes to literature that remittances could promote financial development in the short run and the development of the financial sector helps increase the propensity to remit via formal channels.

  4. Conservation management of large carnivores in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.G.L. Mills

    1991-09-01

    Full Text Available The conservation management of large carnivores in Africa is reviewed. In large protected areas the complexity of the relations between predators and prey, and between competing predators, indicate that these relationships should not be disturbed, even though, superficially, there may seem to be sound reasons to do so. Management action, however, may have to be taken against carnivores that break out of reserves. The related questions of translocation and re-introduction are also complex. Guidelines for considering whether to and how to implement these strategies are presented. It is stressed that adequate follow-up observations should be made after translocating or re- introducing carnivores, so that more information on the success of these strategies can be obtained. Much of Africa comprises rural areas inhabited by pastoralists. It may be possible to manage some large carnivore species in these areas to the mutual benefit of man and beast, but for this type of program to be successful, a well planned public relations campaign is essential.

  5. Stronger links between CERN and South Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2011-01-01

    iThemba LABS in South Africa is a research facility that, about twenty years ago, started to treat oncological patients with particle beams. Its collaboration with CERN has steadily grown over the years. After becoming a member of the ALICE and ATLAS Collaborations, today iThemba LABS is planning to buy a new medical-use cyclotron proton facility, and is seeking to strengthen its links with CERN and Europe also in this field by collaborating with ENLIGHT. The cyclotron will be dedicated to proton therapy – the only one of its kind in the southern hemisphere.   iThemba LABS (Laboratory for Accelerator Based Sciences) was established near Cape Town, South Africa almost 50 years ago as the continent's base for the Southern Universities Nuclear Institute that is now used mainly for material science research. In the 1980s, iThemba built a 200MeV cyclotron and, following its construction, in the early 1990s branched into a new scientific field: radiation and nuclear medicine. ...

  6. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Konar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they diminish human welfare. We establish a new index of virtual water trade openness and show that levels of undernourishment tend to fall with increased values of virtual water trade openness. Countries with small dam storage capacity obtain a higher fraction of their agricultural water requirements from external sources, which may indicate implicit "infrastructure sharing" across nations. Globally, increased crop exports tend to correlate with increased crop water use efficiency, though this relationship does not hold for Africa. However, internal African trade is much more efficient in terms of embodied water resources than any other region in the world. Thus, internal African trade patterns may be compensating for poor internal production systems.

  7. United Nations Africa Human Development Report 2016 : Accelerating Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carrasco Miro, G.

    2016-01-01

    Gender inequality is costing sub-Saharan Africa on average $US95 billion a year, peaking at US$105 billion in 2014– or six percent of the region’s GDP – jeopardising the continent’s efforts for inclusive human development and economic growth, according to the Africa Human Development Report 2016. Th

  8. Cocaine and Instability in Africa: Lessons from Latin America and the Caribbean (Africa Security Brief, Number 5, July 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    originated from South Amer- ica . Its cargo added to the mounting cocaine traffic from Latin America that transships West Africa on AFRICA SECURITY...security. Cocaine traffic has provided a vital financial re- source to insurgency groups as well. Recent reports from Peru indicate that the military

  9. Images of Africa: A Report on What American Secondary School Students Know and Believe about Africa South of the Sahara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Barry K.; Hicks, E. Perry

    "Project Africa" surveyed selected seventh- and 12th-grade students in 24 states to determine (1) the specific nature of their images of Africa south of the Sahara, both before and after any formal study of this region, and (2) the types and accuracy of the students' knowledge about the region and its peoples. In one survey, students…

  10. Efficacy of SISTA South Africa on sexual behavior, HIV stigma and relationship control among isiXhosa women in the Western Cape Province, South Africa: Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingood, Gina M.; Reddy, Priscilla; Lang, Delia L.; Saleh-Onoya, Dorina; Braxton, Nikia; Sifunda, Sibusiso; DiClemente, Ralph J

    2013-01-01

    Background The HIV epidemic has a devastating impact among South-African women. The current study evaluated the efficacy of SISTA South Africa, a culturally congruent HIV intervention for isiXhosa women in South Africa that was adapted from SISTA, an HIV intervention for African American women. Methods A randomized controlled trial recruited 342 isiXhosa women 18 – 35 years of age. Participants were randomized to the general health comparison or the SISTA South Africa intervention. Xhosa speaking peer health educators tailored the SISTA South Africa curriculum, while maintaining the core elements of the original SiSTA intervention. Participants completed assessments at baseline and 6 months follow-up. Results Relative to participants in the comparison, participants in the HIV intervention reduced the frequency of unprotected vaginal intercourse acts (adjusted mean difference = 1.06; p = .02), were more likely to report not desiring dry sex (AOR = .229; 95% CI = .10, .47; p = .0001) and, were more likely to perceive that their main sexual partner did not desire dry sex (AOR = .24; 95% CI = .11, .52; p = .0001). Additionally, women randomized to the intervention also reported an increase in HIV knowledge, greater relationship control and had more accepting attitudes towards HIV stigma. The HIV intervention did not reduce STI incidence. Conclusions This trial demonstrates that an HIV intervention which is adapted to enhance its gender and cultural relevance for rural isiXhosa women can reduce self-reported sexual risk behaviors and enhance mediators of HIV among this vulnerable population. PMID:23673889

  11. Outcomes 'out of africa': the selection and implementation of outcome measures for palliative care in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Julia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background End-of-life care research across Africa is under-resourced and under-developed. A central issue in research in end-of-life care is the measurement of effects and outcomes of care on patients and families. Little is known about the experiences of health professionals' selection and implementation of outcome measures (OM in clinical care, research, audit, or teaching in Africa. Methods An online survey was undertaken of those using outcome measures across the region, as part of the PRISMA project. A questionnaire addressing the use of OMs was developed for a similar survey in Europe and adapted for Africa. Participants were sampled through the contacts database of APCA. Invitation emails were sent out in January 2010 and reminders in February 2010. Results 168/301 invited contacts (56% from 24 countries responded, with 78 respondents having previously used OM (65% in clinical practice, 12% in research and 23% for both. Main reasons for not using OM were a lack of guidance/training on using and analysing OM, with 49% saying that they would use the tools if this was provided. 40% of those using OM in clinical practice used POS, and 80% used them to assess, evaluate and monitor change. The POS was also the main tool used in research, with the principle criteria for use being validation in Africa, access to the tool and time needed to complete it. Challenges to the use of tools were shortage of time and resources, lack of guidance and training for the professionals, poor health status of patients and complexity of OM. Researchers also have problems analysing OM data. The APCA African POS was the most common version of the POS used, and was reported as a valuable tool for measuring outcomes. Respondents indicated the ideal outcome tool should be short, multi-dimensional and easy to use. Conclusion This was the first survey on professionals' views on OM in Africa. It showed that the APCA African POS was the most frequently OM used

  12. Height and Biomass of Mangroves in Africa from ICEsat/GLAS and SRTM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatoyinbo, Temilola E.; Simard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    The accurate quantification of forest 3-D structure is of great importance for studies of the global carbon cycle and biodiversity. These studies are especially relevant in Africa, where deforestation rates are high and the lack of background data is great. Mangrove forests are ecologically significant and it is important to measure mangrove canopy heights and biomass. The objectives of this study are to estimate: 1. The total area, 2. Canopy height distributions and 3. Aboveground biomass of mangrove forests in Africa. To derive mangrove 3-D structure and biomass maps, we used a combination of mangrove maps derived from Landsat ETM+, LiDAR canopy height estimates from ICEsat/GLAS (Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite/Geoscience Laser Altimeter System) and elevation data from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) for the African continent. More specifically, we extracted mangrove forest areas on the SRTM DEM using Landsat based landcover maps. The LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) measurements from the large footprint GLAS sensor were used to derive local estimates of canopy height and calibrate the Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) data from SRTM. We then applied allometric equations relating canopy height to biomass in order to estimate above ground biomass (AGB) from the canopy height product. The total mangrove area of Africa was estimated to be 25 960 square kilometers with 83% accuracy. The largest mangrove areas and greatest total biomass was 29 found in Nigeria covering 8 573 km2 with 132 x10(exp 6) Mg AGB. Canopy height across Africa was estimated with an overall root mean square error of 3.55 m. This error also includes the impact of using sensors with different resolutions and geolocation error which make comparison between measurements sensitive to canopy heterogeneities. This study provides the first systematic estimates of mangrove area, height and biomass in Africa. Our results showed that the combination of ICEsat/GLAS and

  13. New research on glass beads confirms trade and contact between Southern Africa and Southeast Asia ca. AD 950-1250

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saitowitz-Fenton, S.J. [University of Capetown, (South Africa). Dept of Archaeology

    1997-12-31

    Luxury goods, used in Muslim and medieval long distance trade between ca. AD 900-1250, found an important market among the Iron Age peoples of southern Africa. Indirect evidence of this trade can be seen in the form of archaeological collections of glass beads at sites throughout Africa and Southeast Asia. Texts, chronicles, glass weights, scribal notes and receipts confirm that it was already a successful industrial centre with a history of glass-making when the Fatimids gained control of Egypt. In this study the author addressed three aspects of research to investigate the trade networks associated with internal and foreign contact: (1) the manufacturing origins of the beads, (2) who brought them to southern Africa, and (3) their dispersal in the region. Glass material from Egypt, Palestine, Syria and Southeast Asia was used for comparison, and as possible source material. Scientific techniques were used to confirm these operations. The beads were described, classified, and sampled selectively for physical and chemical analysis. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) used to determine the rare earth element (REE) shows that a particular glass, used to make beads in Egypt, is the same as that used to make some of the beads found at sites in the northern and eastern Transvaal. They document the existence of a trade link with the Mediterranean via the Red Sea 1000 years ago. Until now, both the origin of this contact and the extent of indigenous responses were largely unknown. These findings cast a different light on maritime trade along the east coast of Africa a millennium ago, and on external influences which helped to launch significant political developments in southern Africa.

  14. Concurrent sexual partnerships do not explain the HIV epidemics in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawers Larry

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The notion that concurrent sexual partnerships are especially common in sub-Saharan Africa and explain the region's high HIV prevalence is accepted by many as conventional wisdom. In this paper, we evaluate the quantitative and qualitative evidence offered by the principal proponents of the concurrency hypothesis and analyze the mathematical model they use to establish the plausibility of the hypothesis. We find that research seeking to establish a statistical correlation between concurrency and HIV prevalence either finds no correlation or has important limitations. Furthermore, in order to simulate rapid spread of HIV, mathematical models require unrealistic assumptions about frequency of sexual contact, gender symmetry, levels of concurrency, and per-act transmission rates. Moreover, quantitative evidence cited by proponents of the concurrency hypothesis is unconvincing since they exclude Demographic and Health Surveys and other data showing that concurrency in Africa is low, make broad statements about non-African concurrency based on very few surveys, report data incorrectly, report data from studies that have no information about concurrency as though they supported the hypothesis, report incomparable data and cite unpublished or unavailable studies. Qualitative evidence offered by proponents of the hypothesis is irrelevant since, among other reasons, there is no comparison of Africa with other regions. Promoters of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to establish that concurrency is unusually prevalent in Africa or that the kinds of concurrent partnerships found in Africa produce more rapid spread of HIV than other forms of sexual behaviour. Policy makers should turn attention to drivers of African HIV epidemics that are policy sensitive and for which there is substantial epidemiological evidence.

  15. Concurrent sexual partnerships do not explain the HIV epidemics in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry; Stillwaggon, Eileen

    2010-09-13

    The notion that concurrent sexual partnerships are especially common in sub-Saharan Africa and explain the region's high HIV prevalence is accepted by many as conventional wisdom. In this paper, we evaluate the quantitative and qualitative evidence offered by the principal proponents of the concurrency hypothesis and analyze the mathematical model they use to establish the plausibility of the hypothesis.We find that research seeking to establish a statistical correlation between concurrency and HIV prevalence either finds no correlation or has important limitations. Furthermore, in order to simulate rapid spread of HIV, mathematical models require unrealistic assumptions about frequency of sexual contact, gender symmetry, levels of concurrency, and per-act transmission rates. Moreover, quantitative evidence cited by proponents of the concurrency hypothesis is unconvincing since they exclude Demographic and Health Surveys and other data showing that concurrency in Africa is low, make broad statements about non-African concurrency based on very few surveys, report data incorrectly, report data from studies that have no information about concurrency as though they supported the hypothesis, report incomparable data and cite unpublished or unavailable studies. Qualitative evidence offered by proponents of the hypothesis is irrelevant since, among other reasons, there is no comparison of Africa with other regions.Promoters of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to establish that concurrency is unusually prevalent in Africa or that the kinds of concurrent partnerships found in Africa produce more rapid spread of HIV than other forms of sexual behaviour. Policy makers should turn attention to drivers of African HIV epidemics that are policy sensitive and for which there is substantial epidemiological evidence.

  16. Urban Languages in Africa Stadtsprachen in Afrika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Marie Beck

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Against the backdrop of current research on the city, urbanity is understood to be a distinct way of life in which (in the spatial, factual and historical dimensions processes of densification and heterogenization are perceived as acts of sociation. Urbanization is thus understood to include and produce structuration processes autonomously; this also includes autonomous linguistic practices, which are reflected as sediments of everyday knowledge in language and thus create the instruments needed for facilitating and generalizing such urbanization: urban languages. In this conceptual context, which looks at cities in Africa from the point of view of language sociology, two large phases of urbanization can be distinguished in Africa. The first phase is related to trade networks and cultural métissage of small groups of middlemen. The second phase, characterized by efforts to deal with Africa’s colonial history and to catch up with “the world”, presses ahead with the development of an autonomous, authentic modernity. The reconstruction of the development undergone especially by the more recent urban languages raises questions about the connotations of urbanization and modernization in contemporary Africa: on the one hand, dissociation from colonial legacies as well as from the postcolonial political elites, impotent administrations, and tribalist instrumentalizations of language and language policies; on the other, quite the reverse – the creation of autonomous African modernities that include the city (and the state, brought about by the interplay of both local dynamics and global flows. Vor dem Hintergrund aktueller Stadtforschung sowie der Konzeption von Sprache/Sprechen als Wissenssediment und Praxis wird davon ausgegangen, dass Stadtsprachen als Ressourcen und Resultate der Vergesellschaftung des urbanen Raumes anzusehen sind. In diesem konzeptuellen Rahmen können für Afrika zwei große Phasen der Urbanisierung unterschieden werden

  17. Did Adria rotate relative to Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. J. van Hinsbergen

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The first and foremost boundary condition for kinematic reconstructions of the Mediterranean region is the relative motion between Africa and Eurasia, constrained through reconstructions of the Atlantic Ocean. The Adria continental block is in a downgoing plate position relative to the strongly curved Central Mediterranean subduction-related orogens, and forms the foreland of the Apennines, Alps, Dinarides, and Albanides-Hellenides. It is connected to the African plate through the Ionian Basin, likely with lower Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere. If the relative motion of Adria vs. Africa is known, its position relative to Eurasia can be constrained through the plate circuit, and hard boundary conditions for the reconstruction of the complex kinematic history of the Mediterranean are obtained. Kinematic reconstructions for the Neogene motion of Adria vs. Africa interpreted from the Alps, and from Ionian Basin and its surroundings, however, lead to scenarios involving vertical axis rotation predictions ranging from ∼0 to 20° counterclockwise. Here, we provide six new paleomagnetic poles from Adria, derived from the Lower Cretaceous to Upper Miocene carbonatic units of the Apulian peninsula (southern Italy. These, in combination with published poles from the Po Plain (Italy, the Istria peninsula (Croatia, and the Gargano promontory (Italy, document a post-Eocene 9.5 ± 8.7° counterclockwise vertical axis rotation of Adria. This result provides no support for models invoking significant Africa–Adria rotation differences between the Early Cretaceous and Eocene. The Alpine and Ionian Basin end-member kinematic models are both permitted within the documented rotation range, yet are mutually exclusive. This apparent enigma can be solved only if one or more of the following conditions (requiring future research are satisfied: (i Neogene shortening in the western Alps has been significantly underestimated (by as much as 150 km; (ii Neogene extension in

  18. Misinterpreting Ethnic Conflicts in Africa (Africa Security Brief, Number 4, April 2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE Misinterpreting Ethnic Conflicts in Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...for breaking intergenerational attitudes regarding eth- nicity. Youth is the population group most easily mo- bilized to violence. A comprehensive...prohibitions against programming that incites ethnically based animosity. Again, independent monitoring bodies, possibly in collaboration with national media

  19. Acquiring unpublished population documents in Africa: a personal experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwafo-akoto, K O

    1988-04-01

    Acquiring both published and unpublished documents produced in Africa is, generally, a difficult task due to the existing poor state of bibliographic control and the publishing industry. It is even more difficult to obtain unpublished documents in a specialized area of study such as demography--a diffuse area which cuts across several disciplines. This paper discusses the problems encountered on acquisition trips to some African countries to acquire unpublished population material. To help solve the problems, the Population Association of Africa must persuade its members to send copies of their publications to population libraries and documentation centers in their individual countries for dissemination to the other users in Africa. The various organizations and institutions in Africa engaged in the teaching and research of population studies should have an agreement to exchange copies of their theses. The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) and the Organization of African Unity (OAU) should make representations to the various African member countries on the need to disseminate the results of vital censuses and surveys conducted. Finally, the Population Information Network for Africa (POPIN-AFRICA) with its coordinating unit at the population division of ECA should ensure that all the nodes of the network have the financial and other resources to be able to acquire the relevant documents needed for their operations.

  20. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed.