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  1. Referral outcomes of individuals identified at high risk of cardiovascular disease by community health workers in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa

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    Naomi S. Levitt

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: We have found that community health workers (CHWs with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design: Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results: Thirty-seven percent (96/263 of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69% were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4% were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions: The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment.

  2. Referral outcomes of individuals identified at high risk of cardiovascular disease by community health workers in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitt, Naomi S.; Puoane, Thandi; Denman, Catalina A.; Abrahams-Gessel, Shafika; Surka, Sam; Mendoza, Carlos; Khanam, Masuma; Alam, Sartaj; Gaziano, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Background We have found that community health workers (CHWs) with appropriate training are able to accurately identify people at high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in the community who would benefit from the introduction of preventative management, in Bangladesh, Guatemala, Mexico, and South Africa. This paper examines the attendance pattern for those individuals who were so identified and referred to a health care facility for further assessment and management. Design Patient records from the health centres in each site were reviewed for data on diagnoses made and treatment commenced. Reasons for non-attendance were sought from participants who had not attended after being referred. Qualitative data were collected from study coordinators regarding their experiences in obtaining the records and conducting the record reviews. The perspectives of CHWs and community members, who were screened, were also obtained. Results Thirty-seven percent (96/263) of those referred attended follow-up: 36 of 52 (69%) were urgent and 60 of 211 (28.4%) were non-urgent referrals. A diagnosis of hypertension (HTN) was made in 69% of urgent referrals and 37% of non-urgent referrals with treatment instituted in all cases. Reasons for non-attendance included limited self-perception of risk, associated costs, health system obstacles, and lack of trust in CHWs to conduct CVD risk assessments and to refer community members into the health system. Conclusions The existing barriers to referral in the health care systems negatively impact the gains to be had through screening by training CHWs in the use of a simple risk assessment tool. The new diagnoses of HTN and commencement on treatment in those that attended referrals underscores the value of having persons at the highest risk identified in the community setting and referred to a clinic for further evaluation and treatment. PMID:25854780

  3. Rehabilitation Program for the Quality of Life for Individuals on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: A Short Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Sonill S.; Chetty, Verusia

    2011-01-01

    Patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) spend less time on vigorous activities due to lower aerobic capacity with functional limitations that can be attributed to a detraining effect, resulting in a poor quality of life (QoL). The overall aims of rehabilitation are to restore, to maintain, and to enhance the QoL and this…

  4. Culture and self in South Africa: individualism-collectivism predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L; Louw, J

    2000-04-01

    People from collectivist cultures may have more concrete and interdependent self-concepts than do people from individualist cultures (G. Hofstede, 1980). African cultures are considered collectivist (H. C. Triandis, 1989), but research on self-concept and culture has neglected this continent. The authors attempted a partial replication in an African context of cross-cultural findings on the abstract-concrete and independent-interdependent dimensions of self-construal (referred to as the abstract-specific and the autonomous-social dimensions, respectively, by E. Rhee, J. S. Uleman, H. K. Lee, & R. J. Roman, 1995). University students in South Africa took the 20 Statements Test (M. Kuhn & T. S. McPartland, 1954; Rhee et al.); home languages were rough indicators of cultural identity. The authors used 3 coding schemes to analyze the content of 78 protocols from African-language speakers and 77 protocols from English speakers. In accord with predictions from individualism-collectivism theory, the African-language speakers produced more interdependent and concrete self-descriptions than did the English speakers. Additional findings concerned the orthogonality of the 2 dimensions and the nature and assessment of the social self-concept.

  5. Culture and self in South Africa: individualism-collectivism predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L; Louw, J

    2000-04-01

    People from collectivist cultures may have more concrete and interdependent self-concepts than do people from individualist cultures (G. Hofstede, 1980). African cultures are considered collectivist (H. C. Triandis, 1989), but research on self-concept and culture has neglected this continent. The authors attempted a partial replication in an African context of cross-cultural findings on the abstract-concrete and independent-interdependent dimensions of self-construal (referred to as the abstract-specific and the autonomous-social dimensions, respectively, by E. Rhee, J. S. Uleman, H. K. Lee, & R. J. Roman, 1995). University students in South Africa took the 20 Statements Test (M. Kuhn & T. S. McPartland, 1954; Rhee et al.); home languages were rough indicators of cultural identity. The authors used 3 coding schemes to analyze the content of 78 protocols from African-language speakers and 77 protocols from English speakers. In accord with predictions from individualism-collectivism theory, the African-language speakers produced more interdependent and concrete self-descriptions than did the English speakers. Additional findings concerned the orthogonality of the 2 dimensions and the nature and assessment of the social self-concept. PMID:10808644

  6. Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff;

    2016-01-01

    on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Methods: Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. Results: High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly...

  7. Undertaking Individual Transdisciplinary PhD Research for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, John; Musango, Josephine; Brent, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to improve the understanding of individual transdisciplinary PhD research in a developing country context, focusing on three individual PhD case studies in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple-case method was used, and three completed transdisciplinary PhD research efforts undertaken at the Stellenbosch…

  8. Clinical Profile and Psychiatric Comorbidity of Treatment-Seeking Individuals with Pathological Gambling in South-Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Heidi; Pasche, Sonja; Pretorius, Adele; Stein, Dan J

    2015-12-01

    Pathological gambling is a prevalent and disabling mental illness, which is frequently associated with mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders. However, there is relatively little data on comorbidity in individuals with pathological gambling from low and middle income countries such as South-Africa. The Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview was used to assess the frequency of DSM-IV-TR disorders among 100 male and 100 female treatment-seeking individuals with pathological gambling in South-Africa. The Sheehan Disability Scale was used to assess functional impairment. In a South-African sample of individuals with pathological gambling, the most frequent current comorbid psychiatric disorders were major depressive disorder (28%), anxiety disorders (25.5%) and substance use disorders (10.5 %). Almost half of the individuals had a lifetime diagnosis of major depressive disorder (46%). Female pathological gamblers were significantly more likely to be diagnosed with a comorbid major depressive disorder or generalised anxiety disorder than their male counterparts. Data from South-Africa are consistent with previously published data from high income countries. Psychiatric comorbidity is common among individuals with pathological gambling.

  9. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

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    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  10. Individual Grassroots Multilingualism in Africa Town in Guangzhou: The Role of States in Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huamei

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the first phase of a larger sociolinguistic ethnography, this article explores how individual migrants of African and Chinese backgrounds expand their multilingual repertoires in Africa Town in Guangzhou, China. Focusing on two cases, I demonstrate how they maintain and develop transnational and translocal connections simultaneously…

  11. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa

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    Tiago Castro Lopes Azevedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although hepatitis C virus (HCV screening is recommended for all HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, data on epidemiologic characteristics of HCV infection in resource-limited settings are scarce. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies assessing the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected individuals in Africa and extracted data on laboratory methods used. Prevalence estimates from individual studies were combined for each country using random-effects meta-analysis. The importance of study design, population and setting as well as type of test (anti-HCV antibody tests and polymerase chain reactions was examined with meta-regression. Results: Three randomized controlled trials, 28 cohort studies and 121 cross-sectional analyses with 108,180 HIV-infected individuals from 35 countries were included. The majority of data came from outpatient populations (55%, followed by blood donors (15% and pregnant women (14%. Based on estimates from 159 study populations, anti-HCV positivity prevalence ranged between 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI 1.8–4.7 in Southern Africa and 42.3% (95% CI 4.1–80.5 in North Africa. Study design, type of setting and age distribution did not influence this prevalence significantly. The prevalence of replicating HCV infection, estimated from data of 29 cohorts, was 2.0% (95% CI 1.5–2.6. Ten studies from nine countries reported the HCV genotype of 74 samples, 53% were genotype 1, 24% genotype 2, 14% genotype 4 and 9% genotypes 3, 5 or 6. Conclusions: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is high in HIV-infected patients in Africa, but replicating HCV infection is rare and varies widely across countries.

  12. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  13. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

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    Tandi E. Matsha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA. Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97% and 124 (43.20%, respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  14. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    through to continental scales). Our ability to reconstruct narratives of landscape dynamics of encompassing - mega-geomorphic - patterns can only be as good as the details of individual events we can discern in Earth history. Obviously, recognizing the centrality of "Conquering the Mesoscale" as the intrinsic prerequisite to test competing hypotheses of landscape dynamics, in the earth system context, calls for innovative research approaches. This is where Africa holds vast potential. The continent is the most remarkable natural laboratory to explore and tackle these challenges where we seek to build the composite mega-geomorphic chronicle informed in the detail of mesoscale process and form. But how does geomorphology, embedded in an earth system framework, advance beyond the established approaches in process and mega-geomorphology? The latter's limitations to reconstruct the tempo and mode of African landforms and palaeoenviroments reveal the stark limits for researchers. This is where a geobiological approach brings interesting opportunities, especially for Africa. Consider, for one, the interlinking patterns of high endemism and geographical heterogeneity of extant biodiversity across the continent, and moreover the interplay in biotic turnovers since the Mesozoic that shaped these regional and more local patterns. These individuated biotic assemblages making up the continent's biomes and ecoregions reveal strident congruence with physiographic controls: especially relief, drainage and edaphic variables. Calibrated by molecular clocks, resolved with DNA evidence, timetrees of this phylogenetic diversity reveal a richness of evolutionary signals; the spectrum of these spectacular biotic radiations of African biodiversity range from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The temporal spread of this phylogenetic diversity is exemplified, for example, in the extant mammal fauna: witness the Afrotheria compared to the Bovidae (Kingdon J et al. 2013. Mammals of Africa. Bloomsbury

  15. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

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    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  16. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  17. Is investment in Africa low despite high profits?

    OpenAIRE

    Warnholz, Jean‐Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    To my knowledge this study undertakes the first comprehensive and systematic empirical test of the hypothesis that while returns to invested capital in Sub‐Saharan Africa are high compared to select Asian and South American markets, investment rates are low. I investigate three sources: detailed World Bank surveys of 6,500 manufacturing firms, a new panel constructed from financial statements of 6,900 quoted industrials and performance indicators of emerging stock markets. I find returns to b...

  18. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes

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    Andre Pascal Kengne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Andre Pascal Kengne1, Anastase Dzudie2, Eugene Sobngwi31The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Heart failure and transplantation Unit, Louis Pradel’s Cardiovascular Hospital, Lyon, France; 3National Obesity Centre, Yaounde Central Hospital, CameroonPurpose: Heart failure is the ultimate complication of cardiac involvements in diabetes. The purpose of this review was to summarize current literature on heart failure among people with diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Method: Bibliographic search of published data on heart failure and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 26 years.Results: Heart failure remains largely unexplored in general population and among people with diabetes in Africa. Heart failure accounts for over 30% of hospital admission in specialized cardiovascular units and 3%–7% in general internal medicine. Over 11% of adults with heart failure have diabetes. Risk factors for heart failure among those with diabetes include classical cardiovascular risk factors, without evidence of diabetes distinctiveness for other predictors common in Africa. Prevention, management, and outcomes of heart failure are less well known; recent data suggest improvement in the management of risk factors in clinical settings.Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is growing in SSA. Related cardiovascular diseases are emerging as potential health problem. Heart failure as cardiovascular complication remains largely unexplored. Efforts are needed through research to improve our knowledge of heart failure at large in Africa. Multilevel preventive measures, building on evidences from other parts of the world must go along side.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, sub-Saharan Africa

  19. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pascal Kengne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Andre Pascal Kengne1, Anastase Dzudie2, Eugene Sobngwi31The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Heart failure and transplantation Unit, Louis Pradel’s Cardiovascular Hospital, Lyon, France; 3National Obesity Centre, Yaounde Central Hospital, CameroonPurpose: Heart failure is the ultimate complication of cardiac involvements in diabetes. The purpose of this review was to summarize current literature on heart failure among people with diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Method: Bibliographic search of published data on heart failure and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 26 years.Results: Heart failure remains largely unexplored in general population and among people with diabetes in Africa. Heart failure accounts for over 30% of hospital admission in specialized cardiovascular units and 3%–7% in general internal medicine. Over 11% of adults with heart failure have diabetes. Risk factors for heart failure among those with diabetes include classical cardiovascular risk factors, without evidence of diabetes distinctiveness for other predictors common in Africa. Prevention, management, and outcomes of heart failure are less well known; recent data suggest improvement in the management of risk factors in clinical settings.Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is growing in SSA. Related cardiovascular diseases are emerging as potential health problem. Heart failure as cardiovascular complication remains largely unexplored. Efforts are needed through research to improve our knowledge of heart failure at large in Africa. Multilevel preventive measures, building on evidences from other parts of the world must go along side.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, sub-Saharan Africa

  20. Required Actions to Place NCDs in Africa and the Global South High on the World Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Matshidiso R.; Munodawafa, Davison

    2016-01-01

    Africa and most of the global south continue to experience a striking burden of communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases, and high rates of maternal and child mortality, as well as disastrous internecine conflicts and floods. While Africa has been making steady progress in addressing communicable diseases, it now faces new threats from…

  1. The Challenge of South Africa to Reduce Its High Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Mellet

    2011-01-01

    The unemployment rate in South Africa has been in excess of 20% for many years. Various questions can be asked about policies and probable solutions to reduce unemployment. What is wrong with South African macroeconomic policies or is it rather what is wrong with economic and political coordination of policies? What is the probability of millions of South African inhabitants to rise out of poverty? Certain policies for example ASGISA have good foundations, but the main problem in South Africa...

  2. University wins highly competitive planning grant to develop partnership with universities in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Miriam Sommers

    2009-01-01

    The Office of International Research, Education, and Development at Virginia Tech has won a highly competitive federal planning grant to develop a strategic capacity-building partnership with universities in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  3. The high frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, M R; Macgregor, J M; Saffer, D S; Beighton, P H

    1982-01-01

    During a national investigation concerning all patients with Huntington's chorea in South Africa, 17 affected children, comprising 7·7% of the patients in the survey, were identified. Although the frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in the white community was equal to that reported from around the world, the frequency was much higher in the population of mixed ancestry. It is possible that this unique situation is related to the genetic constitution of this latter group.

  4. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age: individual participant level meta-analysis.

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    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1 birth weight, (2 gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3 neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999-2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (< 2,500 g babies were either preterm (< 37 weeks gestation or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age. 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born < 34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4-121.4], with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34-36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0-10.7], but the likelihood for babies born 34-36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3-47.4]. Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  5. Policy maker and health care provider perspectives on reproductive decision-making amongst HIV-infected individuals in South Africa

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    Zweigenthal Virginia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is growing attention paid to the reproductive decisions faced by HIV-infected individuals. Studies in both developed and developing countries have suggested that many HIV-infected women continue to desire children despite knowledge of their HIV status. Despite the increasing attention to the health care needs of HIV-infected individuals in low resource settings, little attention has been given to reproductive choice and intentions. Health care providers play a crucial role in determining access to reproductive health services and their influence is likely to be heightened in delivering services to HIV-infected women. We examined the attitudes of health care policy makers and providers towards reproductive decision-making among HIV-infected individuals. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 health care providers at two public sector health care facilities located in Cape Town, South Africa. In addition, 12 in-depth interviews with public sector policy makers and managers, and managers within HIV/AIDS and reproductive health NGOs were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Providers and policy makers approached the issues related to being HIV-infected and child bearing differently. Biomedical considerations were paramount in providers' approaches to HIV infection and reproductive decision-making, whereas, policy makers approached the issues more broadly recognizing the structural constraints that inform the provision of reproductive health care services and the possibility of "choice" for HIV-infected individuals. Conclusion The findings highlight the diversity of perspectives among policy makers and providers regarding the reproductive decisions taken by HIV-infected people. There is a clear need for more explicit policies recognizing the reproductive rights and choices of HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Individual attitudes toward anti-corruption policies in Sub-Saharan Africa: Microeconometric evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gbewopo Attila

    2009-01-01

    This study examines African populations` attitudes toward anti-corruption policies. Previous studies only look at individuals` experiences or attitudes with respect to corruption itself or its prevalence. Relying on micro data from six Sub-Saharan African countries and using ordered probit models, we show that social factors (education, employment, living conditions, etc.) significantly affect the citizens` attitudes toward anti-corruption strategies. We also highlight the importance of polit...

  7. Quality of life in South Africa - with a focus on the black individual

    OpenAIRE

    Kræmer, Amalie; Larsen, Katrine Hejslet; Winther, Vibeke Amber; Rutkovska, Elina; Arnadóttir, Ingibjörg Bryndís; Zymberi, Fitore

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how quality of the black individual is affected by racial identity. The project takes its point of departure in the theories of quality of life by Søren Ventegodt, Neil T. Higgs and Valerie Møller. According to these scholars quality of life is understood as a person’s own evaluation of the person’s life, taking into consideration both subjective and objective measures and furthermore both external and internal factors. In addition, Maykel Verkuyten’s un- ders...

  8. The highly neglected burden of resistant hypertension in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N; Mengnjo, Michel K; Aminde, Leopold Ndemnge; Essouma, Mickael; Jingi, Ahmadou M; Bigna, Jean Joel R

    2016-01-01

    Objective The hypertension epidemic in Africa collectively with very low rates of blood pressure control may predict an incremented prevalence of resistant hypertension (RH) across the continent. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of RH and associated risk factors in Africa. Data sources We conducted a comprehensive search of electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Africa Wide Information and Africa Index Medicus) completed by manual search of articles, regardless of language or publication date. Methods We included studies which have reported the prevalence and/or risk factors for RH in Africa from inception to 19 May 2016. Forest plots were drawn to visualise the combined prevalence of RH and extent of statistical heterogeneity between studies. Results Out of 259 retrieved studies, only 5 from Cameroon, Nigeria, Burkina Faso, Lesotho and Algeria with a total population of 4 068 patients were finally included in this review. There was no study from the Eastern part of Africa. Though the definition of RH was not similar across studies, its prevalence was respectively 11.7%, 4.9%, 14.6%, 14.3% and 19.0%, with an overall pooled prevalence of 12.1% (95% CI 8.0% to 17.7%). Potential risk factors were: non-compliance to treatment, ageing, male sex, dyslipidaemia, metabolic syndrome, previous cardiovascular events, physical inactivity and stress, but not excessive salt intake, alcohol and coffee ingestions. Moreover, diabetes, smoking, obesity and renal insufficiency yielded discrepant results. Conclusions There is a huge dearth of research on the epidemiology of RH in Africa. Thereby, an extensive study of RH prevalence and risk factors is still largely warranted to curtail the high and continuously increasing burden of hypertension across Africa. PMID:27650760

  9. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  10. Identification of highly susceptible individuals in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Sen; Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Identifying highly susceptible individuals in spreading processes is of great significance in controlling outbreaks. In this paper, we explore the susceptibility of people in susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) and rumor spreading dynamics. We first study the impact of community structure on people's susceptibility. Despite that the community structure can reduce the infected population given same infection rates, it will not deterministically affect nodes' susceptibility. We find the susceptibility of individuals is sensitive to the choice of spreading dynamics. For SIR spreading, since the susceptibility is highly correlated to nodes' influence, the topological indicator k-shell can better identify highly susceptible individuals, outperforming degree, betweenness centrality and PageRank. In contrast, in rumor spreading model, where nodes' susceptibility and influence have no clear correlation, degree performs the best among considered topological measures. Our finding highlights the significance of both ...

  11. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J. Gazendam; J.H. Kamphuis; M. Kindt

    2012-01-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current stud

  12. Equitable rationing of highly specialised health care services for children: a perspective from South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1999-01-01

    The principles of equality and equity, respectively in the Bill of Rights and the white paper on health, provide the moral and legal foundations for future health care for children in South Africa. However, given extreme health care need and scarce resources, the government faces formidable obstacles if it hopes to achieve a just allocation of public health care resources, especially among children in need of highly specialised health care. In this regard, there is a dearth of moral analysis ...

  13. Metaphor processing in high and low schizotypal individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Megan K; Bryson, Frances M; Grimshaw, Gina M

    2010-07-30

    Two hypotheses were considered regarding the relationship between positive schizotypy and metaphor processing. On the basis of continuity between schizophrenia and schizotypy, high schizotypal individuals would be expected to be impaired at metaphor processing. However, given the right hemisphere processing bias that has been associated with positive schizotypy, they would be expected to be superior at metaphor processing. A story completion task in which participants judged the appropriateness of literal and metaphoric statements was administered to 30 high and 29 low schizotypal individuals. Contrary to both hypotheses, groups did not differ in their ability to discriminate between appropriate and inappropriate statements, whether literal or metaphoric. However, the high schizotypal group demonstrated a less conservative response bias; they were more likely than the low schizotypal group to identify a statement as appropriate, whether it was or was not. Implications of these results for our understanding of language processing in schizophrenia and schizotypy are discussed.

  14. OT promotes closer interpersonal distance among highly empathic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Mankuta, David; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-01-01

    The space between people, or 'interpersonal distance', creates and defines the dynamics of social interactions and is a salient cue signaling responsiveness and feeling comfortable. This distance is implicit yet clearly felt, especially if someone stands closer or farther away than expected. Increasing evidence suggests that Oxytocin (OT) serves as a social hormone in humans, and that one of its roles may be to alter the perceptual salience of social cues. Considering that empathic ability may shape the way individuals process social stimuli, we predicted that OT will differentially affect preferred interpersonal distance depending on individual differences in empathy. Participants took part in two interpersonal distance experiments: In the first, they had to stop a (computer visualized) protagonist when feeling most comfortable; in the second, they were asked to choose the room in which they would later discuss intimate topics with another. Both experiments revealed an interaction between the effect of OT and empathy level. Among highly empathic individuals, OT promoted the choice of closer interpersonal distances. Yet, OT had an opposite effect on individuals with low empathic traits. We conclude that the enhancement of social cues following OT administration may have opposite effects on individuals with different empathic abilities. PMID:24509491

  15. Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Göritz, Anja S; Van Quaquebeke, Niels; Andreou, Christina; Jungclaussen, David; Peters, Maarten J V

    2014-03-30

    Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks. Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process. Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task. For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement.

  16. Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the variability of CD4 counts in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa countries affected by the HIV epidemic. We investigated factors associated with CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage. METHODS: CD4 counts, health status, body mass index (BMI, demographic characteristics and HIV status were assessed in 4990 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; antiretroviral treatment duration was obtained from a linked clinical database. Multivariable regression analysis, overall and stratified by HIV status, was performed with CD4 count levels as outcome. RESULTS: Median CD4 counts were significantly higher in women than in men overall (714 vs. 630 cells/µl, p<0.0001, both in HIV-uninfected (833 vs. 683 cells/µl, p<0.0001 and HIV-infected adults (384.5 vs. 333 cells/µl, p<0.0001. In multivariable regression analysis, women had 19.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 16.1-22.9 higher CD4 counts than men, controlling for age, HIV status, urban/rural residence, household wealth, education, BMI, self-reported tuberculosis, high blood pressure, other chronic illnesses and sample processing delay. At ART initiation, HIV-infected adults had 21.7% (95% CI 14.6-28.2 lower CD4 counts than treatment-naive individuals; CD4 counts were estimated to increase by 9.2% (95% CI 6.2-12.4 per year of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CD4 counts are primarily determined by sex in HIV-uninfected adults, and by sex, age and duration of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected adults. Lower CD4 counts at ART initiation in men could be a consequence of lower CD4 cell counts before HIV acquisition.

  17. Executive deficits in Individuals at High Genetic Risk of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, R

    2012-01-01

    Background. Studies of individuals at high genetic risk (HR) of schizophrenia have shown subtle deficits in the domains of executive functions. However, executive abilities also depend on working memory, which is one of the most prominent impairments associated with vulnerability to schizophrenia. The present study examines whether working memory deficits could account for impairments usually attributed to executive dysfunctions. Methods. A total of 100 HR and 27 control participants were ...

  18. EEG biofeedback improves attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Sijuan; Lin, Guiping; Sun, Peng; Wang, Tinghuai

    2013-01-01

    Background Emotion-related attentional bias is implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback can obviously improve the anxiety disorders and reduce stress level, and can also enhance attention performance in healthy subjects. The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of EEG biofeedback training on the attentional bias of high trait anxiety (HTA) individuals toward negative stimuli. Results Event-related potentials were rec...

  19. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Patihis, L; Frenda, SJ; LePort, AKR; Petersen, N.; Nichols, RM; Stark, CEL; McGaugh, JL; Loftus, EF

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...

  20. Review of screening for pancreatic cancer in high risk individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alina Stoita; Ian D Penman; David B Williams

    2011-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is difficult to diagnose at an early stage and is associated with a very poor survival. Ten percent of pancreatic cancers result from genetic susceptibility and/or familial aggregation. Individuals from families with multiple affected first-degree relatives and those with a known cancer-causing genetic mutation have been shown to be at much higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer. Recent efforts have focused on detecting disease at an earlier stage to improve survival in these high-risk groups. This article reviews high-risk groups, screening methods, and current screening programs and their results.

  1. AFRICA2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.

  2. High-Resolution Reconstructions of Temperature and Precipitation During the Last Millennium from Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M.; Tierney, J.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J.

    2008-12-01

    Though numerous syntheses of high-resolution paleoclimate data have documented temperature changes associated with the Medieval Period, the Little Ice Age, and the Industrial era in north temperate regions, few records of temperature variability exist for the Southern Hemisphere (Mann and Jones, 2003, GRL doi: 10.1029/2003GL017814). Here, we present a new, high-resolution record of terrestrial temperature and rainfall from southeast tropical Africa, based upon organic geochemical analyses of annually laminated sediment cores from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, providing the first millennium-long, high-resolution record of temperature from the East African tropics. Extending to 700CE with decadal resolution, the record uses the TEX86 paleothermometer and hydrogen stable isotope ratios (dD) of leaf waxes, which have been shown to reflect temperature and hydrologic conditions in Tanganyika, respectively (Tierney 2008, Science). The TEX86-based temperature reconstruction shows that Tanganyika temperatures were relatively warm at 700CE, cooler from 800-1000CE, and then warmer again between approximately 1050-1300CE. The latter warm interval is coincident with periods of warmer temperatures documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Yet temperatures are highly variable within the Little Ice Age (~1450-1800CE) and do not cool substantially relative to older time periods, in contrast to north temperate regions. Pronounced warming from approximately 1850 to the present is unprecedented in comparison to patterns of temperature variability during the previous centuries. The temperature variability documented here does not seem to correspond strongly to lake level fluctuations in Tanganyika over the past millennium (Cohen et al., 2005, JoPL, doi 10.1007/s10933-005- 2422-4), suggesting that Southeast African climate variability is more complex than alternating cycles of warm/wet and cool/dry conditions. dD analyses document considerable hydrologic variability over the past

  3. Deficient safety learning characterizes high trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazendam, Femke J; Kamphuis, Jan H; Kindt, Merel

    2013-02-01

    Trait anxiety is a well-established risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, but evidence for abnormal associative fear learning in high trait anxious (HTA) individuals is inconclusive. In part, this may due to limitations in the scope and measures used to assess fear learning. The current study therefore assessed fear learning across multiple response domains and multiple test phases in a two-day discriminative fear-conditioning paradigm. We tested whether trait anxiety is associated with deficient safety learning, by comparing HTA individuals (N=20) and healthy Controls (N=22). HTA participants showed stronger fear on the startle response and distress ratings to the safety (CS(-)) but not to the threat stimulus (CS(+)) during acquisition, along with impaired extinction and re-extinction. Trait anxiety did not affect skin conductance responses and effects on UCS-expectancy were limited. We conclude that high trait anxiety may be characterized by deficient safety learning which in turn may promote persistent and generalized fear responses.

  4. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Mulaudzi, Lindiwe

    2016-01-01

    Background Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives. Aim To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province. Setting Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa. Methodology A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview). Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed. Results Two major themes were revealed: (1) Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school) and (2) teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth). Conclusion Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP. PMID:27380849

  5. MIGRATION OF WOMEN FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TO EUROPE: THE ROLE OF HIGHLY SKILLED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Spadavecchia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to analyze Sub-Saharan women’s migration with a special focus on highly skilled women in order to create a framework to better understand the different factors shaping migration patterns, such as the push and pull factors, the increase of flows and the complexity associated with them. In recent years the number of female Sub-Saharan migrants has grown at a rate much higher than the global average. In fact, in 2010 alone the number of female African migrants was 47.2% (World Bank, 2012, showing an increase of 5.2% since the 1960’s when women constituted 42% of the total migration from Sub-Saharan Africa. The feminization of migration flows from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA in recent years has also witnessed a diversification of the flows. One specific segment on the rise is labor migration, specifically, highly skilled migration, especially for tertiary students and physicians and nurses. The study explores social geography and the geography of migration. The author considers two dimensions of analysis: women’s migration patterns from SSA (with a special focus on the impacts of the flows and highly skilled migration from SSA.

  6. Factors affecting compliance with clinical practice guidelines for pap smear screening among healthcare providers in africa: systematic review and meta-summary of 2045 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne Asonganyi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the importance of the Pap smear in reducing cancer incidence and mortality is known, many countries in Africa have not initiated yet widespread national cervical cancer screening programs. The World Health Organization (WHO has published Clinical Practice Guidelines (CPGs on cervical cancer screening in developing countries; however, there is a gap between expectations and clinical performance. Thus, the aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-summary to identify factors affecting compliance with CPGs for Pap screening among healthcare providers in Africa. METHODS: And Findings: MEDLINE, Scirus, Opengate and EMBASE databases were searched in January 2012. Studies involving medical personnel practicing in Africa, whose outcome measured any factors that affect medical personnel from using a Pap smear to screen for cervical cancer, were included. Two reviewers independently evaluated titles and abstracts, then full-texts, extracted data and assessed quality of the included studies. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was conducted. We calculated Frequency effect sizes (FES for each finding and Intensity effect sizes (IES for each article to represent their magnitudes in the analyses. Of 1011 studies retrieved, 11 studies were included (2045 individuals. Six different themes related to the factors affecting compliance with CPGs were identified: Insufficient Knowledge/Lack of awareness (FES = 82%, Negligence/Misbeliefs (FES = 82%, Psychological Reasons (FES = 73%, Time/Cost Constraint (FES = 36%, Insufficient infrastructure/training (FES = 45% and also no reason given (FES = 36%. IES for articles ranged between 33 and 83%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that prevention initiatives should be comprehensive to include education and resources needs assessments and improvement, Pap smear test training, strategies on costing, and practitioner time studies.

  7. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed. PMID:26314991

  8. Geographical Patterns of HIV Sero-Discordancy in High HIV Prevalence Countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego F. Cuadros

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Variation in the proportion of individuals living in a stable HIV sero-discordant partnership (SDP, and the potential drivers of such variability across sub Saharan Africa (SSA, are still not well-understood. This study aimed to examine the spatial clustering of HIV sero-discordancy, and the impact of local variation in HIV prevalence on patterns of sero-discordancy in high HIV prevalence countries in SSA. Methods: We described the spatial patterns of sero-discordancy among stable couples by analyzing Demographic and Health Survey data from Cameroon, Kenya, Lesotho, Tanzania, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. We identified spatial clusters of SDPs in each country through a Kulldorff spatial scan statistics analysis. After a geographical cluster was identified, epidemiologic measures of sero-discordancy were calculated and analyzed. Results: Spatial clusters with significantly high numbers of SDPs were identified and characterized in Kenya, Malawi, and Tanzania, and they largely overlapped with the clusters with high HIV prevalence. There was a positive correlation between HIV prevalence and the proportion of SDPs among all stable couples across within and outside clusters. Conversely, there was a negative, but weak and not significant, correlation between HIV prevalence and the proportion of SDPs among all stable couples with at least one HIV-infected individual in the partnership. Discussion: There does not appear to be distinct spatial patterns for HIV sero-discordancy that are independent of HIV prevalence patterns. The variation of the sero-discordancy measures with HIV prevalence across clusters and outside clusters demonstrated similar patterns to those observed at the national level. The spatial variable does not appear to be a fundamental nor independent determinant of the observed patterns of sero-discordancy in high HIV prevalence countries in SSA.

  9. Phylogeographic Patterns in Africa and High Resolution Delineation of Genetic Clades in the Lion (Panthera leo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertola, L D; Jongbloed, H; van der Gaag, K J; de Knijff, P; Yamaguchi, N; Hooghiemstra, H; Bauer, H; Henschel, P; White, P A; Driscoll, C A; Tende, T; Ottosson, U; Saidu, Y; Vrieling, K; de Iongh, H H

    2016-01-01

    Comparative phylogeography of African savannah mammals shows a congruent pattern in which populations in West/Central Africa are distinct from populations in East/Southern Africa. However, for the lion, all African populations are currently classified as a single subspecies (Panthera leo leo), while the only remaining population in Asia is considered to be distinct (Panthera leo persica). This distinction is disputed both by morphological and genetic data. In this study we introduce the lion as a model for African phylogeography. Analyses of mtDNA sequences reveal six supported clades and a strongly supported ancestral dichotomy with northern populations (West Africa, Central Africa, North Africa/Asia) on one branch, and southern populations (North East Africa, East/Southern Africa and South West Africa) on the other. We review taxonomies and phylogenies of other large savannah mammals, illustrating that similar clades are found in other species. The described phylogeographic pattern is considered in relation to large scale environmental changes in Africa over the past 300,000 years, attributable to climate. Refugial areas, predicted by climate envelope models, further confirm the observed pattern. We support the revision of current lion taxonomy, as recognition of a northern and a southern subspecies is more parsimonious with the evolutionary history of the lion.

  10. Individual tree detection based on densities of high points of high resolution airborne lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The retrieval of individual tree location from Airborne LiDAR has focused largely on utilizing canopy height. However, high resolution Airborne LiDAR offers another source of information for tree detection. This paper presents a new method for tree detection based on high points’ densities from a hi

  11. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  12. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed.Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth.Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  13. Predictive factors for latent tuberculosis infection among adolescents in a high-burden area in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mahomed; T. Hawkridge; S. Verver; L. Geiter; M. Hatherill; D.A. Abrahams; R. Ehrlich; W.A. Hanekom; G.D. Hussey

    2011-01-01

    SETTING: A high tuberculosis (TB) burden area in South Africa (notification rate for all TB cases 1400 per 100 000 population). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and predictive factors associated with latent TB infection in adolescents. DESIGN: Adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited fro

  14. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and cervical dysplasia in HIV-positive women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Faesen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The risk of squamous intra-epithelial lesions (SIL is higher in HIV-positive women. As these women begin to live longer due to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART, their risk of cervical cancer may increase. Few data exist regarding the effect of HAART on the incidence and progression of SIL in HIV-positive African women. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of HAART on the incidence and progression of SIL in HIV-positive women in South Africa. Methods: A prospective observational study of HIV-seropositive women was conducted over 5 years in an HIV treatment clinic in Johannesburg, South Africa. The participants consisted of 601 women on and off HAART who had repeat Pap smears greater than 6 months apart. The effect of HAART use on incidence and progression rates of SIL was determined using multivariate Poisson regression to obtain incidence rate ratios (IRRs, adjusted for age, CD4 count and other potential confounders. Results: Median follow-up time was 445 days (inter-quartile range 383, 671. The crude rate of incidence of any SIL was 15.9 episodes (95% confidence limit (CL 12.7, 19.9 per 100 person-years; the crude rate of all progression of cervical dysplasia among women was 13.5 episodes (95% CL 11.3, 16.1 per 100 person-years. HAART use was associated with a robust reduction in the rate of incidence and progression of cervical lesions, adjusted IRR=0.55 (95% CL 0.37, 0.80. Sensitivity analyses confirmed this main association held for incidence and progression when they were considered separately, and that the result was not dependent on the length of HAART exposure. Conclusion: HAART use was associated with a reduction in the rate of both incidence and progression of cervical lesions among HIV-positive women.

  15. High Resolution Simulations of Future Climate in West Africa Using a Variable-Resolution Atmospheric Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adegoke, J. O.; Engelbrecht, F.; Vezhapparambu, S.

    2013-12-01

    In previous work demonstrated the application of a var¬iable-resolution global atmospheric model, the conformal-cubic atmospheric model (CCAM), across a wide range of spatial and time scales to investigate the ability of the model to provide realistic simulations of present-day climate and plausible projections of future climate change over sub-Saharan Africa. By applying the model in stretched-grid mode the versatility of the model dynamics, numerical formulation and physical parameterizations to function across a range of length scales over the region of interest, was also explored. We primarily used CCAM to illustrate the capability of the model to function as a flexible downscaling tool at the climate-change time scale. Here we report on additional long term climate projection studies performed by downscaling at much higher resolutions (8 Km) over an area that stretches from just south of Sahara desert to the southern coast of the Niger Delta and into the Gulf of Guinea. To perform these simulations, CCAM was provided with synoptic-scale forcing of atmospheric circulation from 2.5 deg resolution NCEP reanalysis at 6-hourly interval and SSTs from NCEP reanalysis data uses as lower boundary forcing. CCAM 60 Km resolution downscaled to 8 Km (Schmidt factor 24.75) then 8 Km resolution simulation downscaled to 1 Km (Schmidt factor 200) over an area approximately 50 Km x 50 Km in the southern Lake Chad Basin (LCB). Our intent in conducting these high resolution model runs was to obtain a deeper understanding of linkages between the projected future climate and the hydrological processes that control the surface water regime in this part of sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela; Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Lindiwe Mulaudzi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A ...

  17. High-pressure phases in shock-induced melt of the unique highly shocked LL6 chondrite Northwest Africa 757

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinping; Sharp, Thomas G.

    2016-07-01

    Northwest Africa 757 is unique in the LL chondrite group because of its abundant shock-induced melt and high-pressure minerals. Olivine fragments entrained in the melt transform partially and completely into ringwoodite. Plagioclase and Ca-phosphate transform to maskelynite, lingunite, and tuite. Two distinct shock-melt crystallization assemblages were studied by FIB-TEM analysis. The first melt assemblage, which includes majoritic garnet, ringwoodite plus magnetite-magnesiowüstite, crystallized at pressures of 20-25 GPa. The other melt assemblage, which consists of clinopyroxene and wadsleyite, solidified at ~15 GPa, suggesting a second veining event under lower pressure conditions. These shock features are similar to those in S6 L chondrites and indicate that NWA 757 experienced an intense impact event, comparable to the impact event that disrupted the L chondrite parent body at 470 Ma.

  18. Intercultural partnering for the benefit of South Africa township high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Janis; Dodge, Emily; Welderufael, Martha

    2014-12-01

    An intercultural partnership was formed to meet South African township high schools' need to provide career education and identify barriers and hope in relation to career choice. The objective of this study was to collect data on the students' perceptions of career choice, barriers prohibiting students from engaging in a career of choice and their general hopefulness. A non-experimental, descriptive study was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data collection and analysis strategies was used. A significant difference was found based on gender in relation to having career options and with regard to how knowledge about careers is gained. Despite barriers to career choice, students are hopeful about the future. Occupational deprivation is a risk factor for South African youth living in disadvantaged communities. Results are from two township high schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. English as a second language may have influenced data analysis. Future research must explore the role of occupational therapy in South African township high schools and the issue of career choice among South African youth. PMID:25327400

  19. Attributes common to programs that successfully treat high-need, high-cost individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gerard F; Ballreich, Jeromie; Bleich, Sara; Boyd, Cynthia; DuGoff, Eva; Leff, Bruce; Salzburg, Claudia; Wolff, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Using literature review and interviews, we have identified 8 attributes of programs, such as accountable care organizations, readmission initiatives, special needs plans, care transition programs, and patient-centered medical homes, that successfully treat high-need, high-cost patients. These 8 attributes--illustrated here with specific examples--are specific ways to target these types of individuals, promote leadership at various levels, emphasize interaction with the care coordinator, use data strategically to refine the program, update the program periodically, allow physicians to spend more time with patients, and promote interaction among clinicians and high-need, high cost patients and their families. PMID:26735292

  20. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  1. Who Should We Target? The Impact of Individual and Family Characteristics on the Expressed Need for Community-Based Treatment Support in HIV Patients in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, Edwin; Booysen, Frederik le Roux; Masquillier, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Reviews of impact evaluations of community-based health workers and peer support groups highlight the considerable variability in the effectiveness of such support in improving antiretroviral treatment (ART) outcomes. Evidence indicates that community-based support interventions targeting patients known to be at risk will probably display better results than generic interventions aimed at the entire population of people living with HIV. It is however difficult to identify these at-risk populations, rendering knowledge on the characteristics of patients groups who are in need of community-based support a clear research priority. The current study aims to address the knowledge gap by exploring the predictors of the willingness to (1) receive the support from a community-based health worker or (2) to participate in a support group in public sector ART programme of the Free State Province of South Africa. Based on the Individual-Family-Community framework for HIV research, the study employs a comprehensive approach by not only testing classical individual-level but also family-level predictors of the willingness to receive community-based support. In addition to individual-level predictors—such as age, health status and coping styles—our analysis demonstrated the importance of family characteristics. The results indicated that discrepancies in the family’s changeability level were an important predictor of the demand for community-based support services. Conversely, the findings indicated that patients living in a family more flexible than deemed ideal are more likely to require the support of a community health worker. The current study expands theory by indicating the need to acknowledge all social ecological levels in the study of chronic HIV care. The detection of both individual level and family level determinants of the expressed need for community-based support can inform health policy to devise strategies to target scarce resources to those vulnerable

  2. New Approaches to Capture High Frequency Agricultural Dynamics in Africa through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; Attari, S.; Plale, B. A.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Crop failure early warning systems relying on remote sensing constitute a new critical resource to assess areas where food shortages may arise, but there is a disconnect between the patterns of crop production on the ground and the environmental and decision-making dynamics that led to a particular crop production outcome. In Africa many governments use mid-growing season household surveys to get an on-the-ground assessment of current agricultural conditions. But these efforts are cost prohibitive over large scales and only offer a one-time snapshot at a particular time point. They also rely on farmers to recall past decisions and farmer recall may be imperfect when answering retrospectively on a decision made several months back (e.g. quantity of seed planted). We introduce a novel mobile-phone based approach to acquire information from farmers over large spatial extents, at high frequency at relatively low-cost compared to household survey approaches. This system makes compromises in number of questions which can feasibly be asked of a respondent (compared to household interviews), but the benefit of capturing weekly data from farmers is very exciting. We present data gathered from farmers in Kenya and Zambia to understand key dimensions of agricultural decision making such as choice of seed variety/planting date, frequency and timing of weeding/fertilizing and coping strategies such as pursuing off-farm labor. A particularly novel aspect of this work is reporting from farmers of what their expectation of end-season harvest will be on a week-by-week basis. Farmer's themselves can serve as sentinels of crop failure in this system. And farmers responses to drought are as much driven by their expectations of looming crop failure that may be different from that gleaned from remote sensing based assessment. This work is one piece of a larger design to link farmers to high-density meteorological data in Africa as an additional tool to improve crop failure early warning

  3. Electrowinning of high purity individual rare earth metals - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth metals are finding applications in various fields. The demand for purer individual metals is increasing. The two important methods of preparation of the pure metals are Metallothermic Reduction and Electrowinning. In Electrowinning, the rare earth fluoride, chloride or oxide is elctrolysed using direct current. Fused salt electrolysis is the commonly used method. The important developments in the area of electrometallurgy is summarised in this paper. In general, the paper deals with the important findings and developments in the process development of electrowinning of rare earth elements. (author) 49 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  4. Coral bleaching on high-latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, Louis; Schleyer, Michael H

    2002-12-01

    Coral bleaching, involving the expulsion of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the host cells, poses a major threat to coral reefs throughout their distributional range. The role of temperature in coral bleaching has been extensively investigated and is widely accepted. A bleaching event was observed on the marginal high-latitude reefs of South Africa located at Sodwana Bay during the summer months of 2000. This was associated with increased sea temperatures with high seasonal peaks in summer and increased radiation in exceptionally clear water. The bleaching was limited to Two-mile Reef and Nine-mile Reef at Sodwana Bay and affected <12% of the total living cover on Two-mile Reef. Montipora spp., Alveopora spongiosa and Acropora spp. were bleached, as well as some Alcyoniidae (Sinularia dura, Lobophytum depressum, L. patulum). A cyclical increase in sea temperature (with a period of 5-6 years) was recorded during 1998-2000 in addition to the regional temperature increase caused by the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The mean sea temperature increased at a rate of 0.27 deg. C year{sup -1} from May 1994 to April 2000. High maximum temperatures were measured (>29 deg. C). The lowest mean monthly and the mean maximum monthly temperatures at which coral bleaching occurred were 27.5 and 28.8 deg. C, respectively, while the duration for which high temperatures occurred in 2000 was 67 days at {>=}27.5 deg. C (4 days at {>=}28.8 deg. C). Increased water clarity and radiation appeared to be a synergistic cause in the coral bleaching encountered at Sodwana Bay.

  5. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  6. Multiple risky behaviours among High School Adolescents in Ngaka Modiri Molema District, South Africa / Yah Johnson Arkaah

    OpenAIRE

    Arkaah, Yah Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Aclolescence, the transitional phase between childhood and adulthood, is a unique stretch of time of discovery and experimentation of many risky practices. The present study sought to fill a research void on adolescent risky behaviours in the North West Province of South Africa by examining the socio-demographic and environmental correlates of seven sexual behaviours and patterns in th ree substance use behaviours of 1,067 Grade 9 and Grade 11 adolescents from eight high schools i...

  7. Psychological Skills, Education, and Longevity of High-Ability Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Savelyev

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 1922–1991 Terman data of children with high ability, I investigate the effects of childhood psychological skills and post-compulsory education on longevity. I identify causal effects and account for measurement error using factor-analytic methodology (Heckman et al., 2006). Latent class analysis supports the causal interpretation of results. For males, I find strong effects of psychological skills and education on longevity and an interaction between personality and education. ...

  8. Utilization of preventive maternal and child public health interventions in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis of individual and small-area socioeconomic disadvantage

    OpenAIRE

    Aremu, Olatunde

    2011-01-01

    Background: Uptake of programmatic maternal and childhood preventive interventions continue to be sub-optimal in sub-Saharan Africa with wide variations within and across the countries. There is evidence suggestive of socioeconomic inequities in access to and coverage of preventive health intervention. In the context of maternal and child health (MCH) in sub-Saharan Africa, women and children among the poor are more disadvantaged in terms of access to life saving preven...

  9. Is Investment in Africa Too Low or Too High? Macro and Micro Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shantayanan; Easterley, William R.; Pack, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between weak growth performance and low investment rates in Africa. The cross-country evidence suggests no direct relationship. The positive and significant coefficient on private investment appears to be driven by Botswana's presence in the sample. Allowing for the endogeneity of private investment, controlling for policy, and positing a nonlinear ...

  10. High temporal Resolution Fire History in Eastern Africa: the Last 16 kyr cal. BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanniere, B.; Carcaillet, C.; Garcin, Y.; Vullien, A.; Williamson, D.

    2004-12-01

    Charcoal series, based on a high temporal resolution analysis, at Lake Massoko (9°20' S, 33° 45' E, 770 a.s.l., SW Tanzania) reveals numerous changes of fire regime over the last 16 kyr cal BP. Data are based on the tallying of charcoal from 700 continuous 1 cm thick samples along a 7m long sequence. The structure of charcoal particles is well preserved with an length:width ratio superior to 5; this appears to testify to the local provenance of the material studied and to the rapid transport of particles to the lake. The majority of particles belongs to herbaceous cuticles produced by savanna or bush fires. Time control is supported by 14 radiocarbon dates. Mean time resolution per sample of 17 yr provides the first long detailed biomass burning record in Africa. This record evidences frequent fires events during the last 16 kyr, indicating that fire is a key component of east African ecosystems since, at least, the last glacial stage up to present. From 16 to 12 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx into the lake is low except during two specific sequences, between 13.5-12.5 kyr cal BP and 14.5-14 kyr cal BP. These may correspond to more arid or more biomass-available phases. Around 10 kyr cal BP, at the early Holocene a greater influx of charcoal is recorded in the lake, probably as a result of a high fire regime likely triggered by severe droughts. Between 8.3 and 1.7 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx displays a cyclic fire history of ca. 500 yr. Low fire regime, between 3.5-2.5, 5.5-5 and 7.5-7 kyr cal BP, correspond to wetter periods. About 12 sequences of fire increase and decrease are highlighted, which appears to support a high climatic variability during the middle-Holocene. After 1.7 kyr BP, there is a long lasting increase of charcoal influx into the lake, as observed by black carbon analysis (Thevenon et al., 2003). This particular period, without analog since 16 kyr cal BP, is consistent with the development of Iron Age settlements in the region, slash

  11. A multilevel analysis of the determinants of high-risk sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchudi, Joseph; Magadi, Monica; Mostazir, Mohammod

    2012-05-01

    A number of authors have identified multiple concurrent sexual partnerships by both men and women to lie at the root of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applies multilevel models to Demographic and Health Survey data collected during 2003-2008 in 20 sub-Saharan African countries to examine the influence of social and cultural context on involvement with multiple sexual partnerships in the region, above and beyond the effects of individual characteristics. The findings provide support for the ecological argument that health behaviours are shaped and determined by societal conditions, in addition to the effects of individual and household characteristics. Involvement with multiple sex partners is most prevalent in societies in which sexual norms are widely permissive and where polygyny is common. Individual autonomy is substantial and attitudes towards sexuality are more liberal among men and women who live in communities in which sexual norms are widely permissive. Men and women who are most likely to have multiple sex partners in the sub-Saharan region are those who initiated sexual activity earlier and those who have the individual attributes (e.g. young age, urban residence, education, media exposure and working for cash and away from home) that bring to them more rights and/or decision-making autonomy, but not necessarily more financial resources and economic security (mostly among women). On the other hand, involvement with multiple partners is determined by cultural norms (i.e. permissive sexual norms) and social change (i.e. mass education, expansion of cash employment). The findings suggest a number of opportunities for more effective policy and programmatic responses to curb the prevalence of multiple partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22067066

  12. Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment initiation amongst HIV-positive individuals linked to care within a universal test and treat programme: early findings of the ANRS 12249 TasP trial in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Sylvie; Iwuji, Collins; Gosset, Andréa; Protopopescu, Camelia; Okesola, Nonhlanhla; Plazy, Mélanie; Spire, Bruno; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; McGrath, Nuala; Pillay, Deenan; Dabis, François; Larmarange, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Prompt uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) is essential to ensure the success of universal test and treat (UTT) strategies to prevent HIV transmission in high-prevalence settings. We describe ART initiation rates and associated factors within an ongoing UTT cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. HIV-positive individuals were offered immediate ART in the intervention arm vs. national guidelines recommended initiation (CD4≤350 cells/mm(3)) in the control arm. We used data collected up to July 2015 among the ART-eligible individuals linked to TasP clinics before January 2015. ART initiation rates at one (M1), three (M3) and six months (M6) from baseline visit were described by cluster and CD4 count strata (cells/mm(3)) and other eligibility criteria: ≤100; 100-200; 200-350; CD4>350 with WHO stage 3/4 or pregnancy; CD4>350 without WHO stage 3/4 or pregnancy. A Cox model accounting for covariate effect changes over time was used to assess factors associated with ART initiation. The 514 participants had a median [interquartile range] follow-up duration of 1.08 [0.69; 2.07] months until ART initiation or last visit. ART initiation rates at M1 varied substantially (36.9% in the group CD4>350 without WHO stage 3/4 or pregnancy, and 55.2-71.8% in the three groups with CD4≤350) but less at M6 (from 85.3% in the first group to 96.1-98.3% in the three other groups). Factors associated with lower ART initiation at M1 were a higher CD4 count and attending clinics with both high patient load and higher cluster HIV prevalence. After M1, having a regular partner was the only factor associated with higher likelihood of ART initiation. These findings suggest good ART uptake within a UTT setting, even among individuals with high CD4 count. However, inadequate staffing and healthcare professional practices could result in prioritizing ART initiation in patients with the lowest CD4 counts. PMID:27421051

  13. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martie van der Walt; Joey Lancaster; Karen Shean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB. Aim The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death among...

  14. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...

  15. A Locus at 5q33.3 Confers Resistance to Tuberculosis in Highly Susceptible Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobota, Rafal S.; Stein, Catherine M.; Kodaman, Nuri; Scheinfeldt, Laura B.; Maro, Isaac; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Igo, Robert P.; Magohe, Albert; Malone, LaShaunda L.; Chervenak, Keith; Hall, Noemi B.; Modongo, Chawangwa; Zetola, Nicola; Matee, Mecky; Joloba, Moses; Froment, Alain; Nyambo, Thomas B.; Moore, Jason H.; Scott, William K.; Lahey, Timothy; Boom, W. Henry; von Reyn, C. Fordham; Tishkoff, Sarah A.; Sirugo, Giorgio; Williams, Scott M.

    2016-01-01

    Immunosuppression resulting from HIV infection increases the risk of progression to active tuberculosis (TB) both in individuals newly exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and in those with latent infections. We hypothesized that HIV-positive individuals who do not develop TB, despite living in areas where it is hyperendemic, provide a model of natural resistance. We performed a genome-wide association study of TB resistance by using 581 HIV-positive Ugandans and Tanzanians enrolled in prospective cohort studies of TB; 267 of these individuals developed active TB, and 314 did not. A common variant, rs4921437 at 5q33.3, was significantly associated with TB (odds ratio = 0.37, p = 2.11 × 10−8). This variant lies within a genomic region that includes IL12B and is embedded in an H3K27Ac histone mark. The locus also displays consistent patterns of linkage disequilibrium across African populations and has signals of strong selection in populations from equatorial Africa. Along with prior studies demonstrating that therapy with IL-12 (the cytokine encoded in part by IL12B, associated with longer survival following MTB infection in mice deficient in CD4 T cells), our results suggest that this pathway might be an excellent target for the development of new modalities for treating TB, especially for HIV-positive individuals. Our results also indicate that studying extreme disease resistance in the face of extensive exposure can increase the power to detect associations in complex infectious disease. PMID:26942285

  16. A gloss of Chronic Hypoxia in normal and diseased individuals at high altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zubieta-Castillo,G.; Zubieta-Calleja,G.R.; Zubieta-Calleja L.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Millenary populations that live at high altitude in different continents like Asia (1) and South America (8), have endured biological adaptation in very adverse environmental conditions, of which to our understanding, paradoxically, chronic hypoxia is the most tolerable. Patients with pulmonary diseases at high altitude tolerate tissue hypoxia with an arterial tension (PaO2) even as low as 30 mmHg. Current scientific knowledge has made progress in many areas, clarifying many doubts, however due to preconception and lack of broad social studies chronic hypoxia is still not fully understood. Beings that inhabit different areas of the planet earth have lived under a variety of different hostile conditions: intense cold in the polar regions,intense heat in Africa and in the Middle East desserts,great pressure in the depth of the oceans, intense darkness of the caves and naturally the hypoxia of extreme altitudes.

  17. High Burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV Infection among Young Women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumayyah Ebrahim

    Full Text Available HPV infection causes cervical cancer, yet information on prevalence and risk factors for HPV in Africa remain sparse. This study describes the prevalence of HPV genotypes and risk factors associated with HPV among young women ≤ 30 years of age in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN, South Africa.Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV genotypes in 224 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical, behavioural and demographic data were collected. We measured prevalence of HPV genotypes and using logistic regression, examined for factors associated with HPV.Median age of participants was 21 years [interquartile range (IQR:18-23]. The overall prevalence of HPV was 76.3% (171/224 with multiple and single genotypes prevalent in 56.3% and 20.1% of women respectively. Proportion of women with high-risk genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56 and 58 was 54.5%. Women not living with their partner [adjusted odds ratio (aOR] = 3.42 95% CI1.22-9.60; p = 0.019, was significantly associated with HPV infection and high-risk HPV genotype infection.The high burden of HPV and associated risk behaviours highlight the need to intensify behavioural interventions to prevent HPV acquisition in young women. The large scale delivery of HPV vaccine should be prioritised to prevent HPV acquisition and reduce HPV-related morbidity.

  18. High Burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Young Women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B. M.; Mbulawa, Zizipho Z. A.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Frohlich, Janet; Werner, Lise; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HPV infection causes cervical cancer, yet information on prevalence and risk factors for HPV in Africa remain sparse. This study describes the prevalence of HPV genotypes and risk factors associated with HPV among young women ≤ 30 years of age in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Methods Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV genotypes in 224 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical, behavioural and demographic data were collected. We measured prevalence of HPV genotypes and using logistic regression, examined for factors associated with HPV. Results Median age of participants was 21 years [interquartile range (IQR):18–23]. The overall prevalence of HPV was 76.3% (171/224) with multiple and single genotypes prevalent in 56.3% and 20.1% of women respectively. Proportion of women with high-risk genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56 and 58) was 54.5%. Women not living with their partner [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)] = 3.42 95% CI1.22–9.60; p = 0.019), was significantly associated with HPV infection and high-risk HPV genotype infection. Conclusion The high burden of HPV and associated risk behaviours highlight the need to intensify behavioural interventions to prevent HPV acquisition in young women. The large scale delivery of HPV vaccine should be prioritised to prevent HPV acquisition and reduce HPV-related morbidity. PMID:26785408

  19. The Contribution of Highly Productive but Leaky Wetlands to the Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics of sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Matthew; Kansiime, Frank; Jones, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The tropical wetlands of East Africa represent hotspots of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange the dynamics of which vary across the site, landscape and regional scale. The wetlands of the Nile headwaters including Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake, are dominated by the emergent macrophyte sedge Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus), which under favourable environmental conditions has been shown to exhibit high rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation (≥40 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1); high rates of net primary productivity (≥50 g DM m-2 d-1); and the accumulation of significant peat deposits resulting in carbon stocks (≥640 t C ha-1) that exceed similar estimates from tropical rainforests, often considered to be the primary land based reserve of carbon. However, while these wetlands represent significant carbon pools, they are inherently "leaky" systems due to the lateral loss of particulate and dissolved carbon and this has implications for riverine carbon and GHG emissions which have been shown to increase with wetland extent and upland biomass. This paper utilises a range of empirical and published information to report on the eco-physiological controls on carbon, water and GHG exchange in papyrus dominated wetlands and considers the contribution of these highly productive wetlands to the GHG dynamics of the inland waters of East Africa, and in particular the Lake Victoria basin and the headwaters of the river Nile.

  20. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  1. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  2. The Characteristics of Separation-Individuation in Turkish High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamar, Muge; Bildik, Tezan; Kosem, Figen Sen; Kesikci, Hande; Tatar, Arkun; Yaman, Bora; Erermis, Serpil; Ozbaran, Burcu

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the characteristics of separation-individuation in Turkish high school students and to investigate the contribution of sociodemographic variables on this second individuation process of adolescence. The sample consisted of 618 adolescents between the ages of 14 and 18 in three urban and two rural high…

  3. Premorbid adjustment in individuals at ultra-high risk for developing psychosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dannevang, Anders; Randers, Lasse; Gondan, Matthias;

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Deterioration in premorbid adjustment is related to ultra-high risk (UHR) individuals developing psychosis, but it has not been examined how UHR individuals’ development differs compared to healthy controls. This study investigates differences in premorbid adjustment between UHR...

  4. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  5. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  6. Alcohol use amongst learners in rural high school in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thembisile M. Chauke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking behaviour by adolescents is a significant public health challenge nationally and internationally. Alcohol use has serious challenges that continue to deprive adolescents of their normal child growth and development. Drinking is associated with dangers that include fighting, crime, unintentional accidents, unprotected sex, violence and others.Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate drinking patterns, and factors contributing to drinking, amongst secondary school learners in South Africa.Method: The sample included 177 male (46.6% and 206 female (53.4% respondents in the age range from 15–23 years, selected by stratified random sampling.Results: The results indicated that 35.5% of male and 29.7% of female respondents used alcohol. Both male and female respondents consumed six or more alcohol units (binge drinking within 30 days; on one occasion the consumption was 17.5% and 15.9% respectively. It was found that alcohol consumption increases with age, 32.2% of 15–17 year-olds and 53.2% of 18–20 year-olds consumed different types of alcohol. It was deduced that 28.9% respondents reported that one of the adults at home drank alcohol regularly, and 9.3% reported that both their parents drank alcohol daily. It was found that 27.6% of the respondents agreed that friends made them conform to drinking. The tenth and eleventh grade reported 15.2% of male and 13.9% of female respondents were aware that alcohol can be addictive.Conclusion: This study found that age, gender, parental alcohol use and peer pressure were found to be the major contributing factors to alcohol use amongst learners Prevention campaigns such as introducing the harmful effects of alcohol use amongst learners are of utmost importance in reducing alcohol use amongst learners in South Africa.

  7. High prevalence of pulmonary tuberculosis but low sensitivity of symptom screening among HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher J Hoffmann

    Full Text Available Symptom screening is a recommended component of intensified case-finding (ICF for pulmonary tuberculosis (TB among HIV-infected individuals. Symptomatic individuals are further investigated to either exclude or diagnose pulmonary TB, thus reducing the number of individuals requiring costly laboratory investigation. Those with laboratory evaluations negative for pulmonary TB or who lack symptoms may be eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART and/or TB isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT. A four-part symptom screen has been recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO for identifying TB suspects and those unlikely to have TB. A meta-analysis of studies among HIV-infected individuals calculated a sensitivity of 90.1% for the four-part symptoms screen--of any of cough, fever, night sweats, or weight loss--among patients in clinical care, making it an effective tool for identifying most patients with TB. An important population for intensified case-finding not included in that meta-analysis was HIV-infected pregnant women. We undertook a cross-sectional survey among HIV-infected pregnant women receiving prenatal care at community clinics in South Africa. We obtained a four-symptom review and sputum smear microscopy and mycobacterial culture on all participants. Among 1415 women, 226 (16% had a positive symptom screen, and 35 (2.5% were newly diagnosed with culture-positive TB. Twelve were on TB treatment at the time of screening, yielding 47 (3.3% women with prevalent TB. Symptom screening among women without known TB had a sensitivity of 28% and specificity of 84%. The poor performance of symptom screening to identify women with TB suggests that other approaches may be needed for intensified case-finding to be effective for this population.

  8. Laboratory assessment of the hypertensive individual. Value of the main guidelines for high blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Rafael S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine if abnormal laboratory findings are more common in individuals with hypertension and in those with other risk factors, such as obesity, smoking and alcohol ingestion. METHODS: A study was carried out in the general outpatient clinics of a university hospital (145 individuals without previous diagnosis of hypertension and the following variables were assessed: high blood pressure (as defined by the VI Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection and Treatment of High Blood Pressure - VI JNC, obesity [calculated using body mass index (BMI], tobacco use, and alcoholic ingestion. The laboratory examinations consisted of the following tests: hemogram, glycemia, uric acid, potassium, total/HDL-fraction cholesterol, triglycerides, calcium and creatinine. RESULTS: High blood pressure was not associated with a higher number of abnormal laboratory tests. Hypertensive individuals with a BMI > or = 25kg/m² or normotensive obese individuals, however, had a higher frequency of diabetes (12X, hypertriglyceridemia (3X, and hypercholesterolemia (2X, as compared with hypertensive individuals with BMI <25kg/m² and preobese/normal weight normotensive individuals. CONCLUSION: High blood pressure is not associated with a higher frequency of abnormal laboratory tests. The association of high blood pressure and obesity, however, increases the detection of diabetes and dyslipidemias.

  9. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Celebrity Interventions g. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies – Conclusions and a Research Agenda...

  10. High individual variation in pheromone production by tree-killing bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pureswaran, Deepa S.; Sullivan, Brian T.; Ayres, Matthew P.

    2008-01-01

    Aggregation via pheromone signalling is essential for tree-killing bark beetles to overcome tree defenses and reproduce within hosts. Pheromone production is a trait that is linked to fitness, so high individual variation is paradoxical. One explanation is that the technique of measuring static pheromone pools overestimates true variation among individuals. An alternative hypothesis is that aggregation behaviour dilutes the contribution of individuals to the trait under selection and reduces the efficacy of natural selection on pheromone production by individuals. We compared pheromone measurements from traditional hindgut extractions of female southern pine beetles with those obtained by aerating individuals till they died. Aerations showed greater total pheromone production than hindgut extractions, but coefficients of variation (CV) remained high (60-182%) regardless of collection technique. This leaves the puzzle of high variation unresolved. A novel but simple explanation emerges from considering bark beetle aggregation behaviour. The phenotype visible to natural selection is the collective pheromone plume from hundreds of colonisers. The influence of a single beetle on this plume is enhanced by high variation among individuals but constrained by large group sizes. We estimated the average contribution of an individual to the pheromone plume across a range of aggregation sizes and showed that large aggregation sizes typical in mass attacks limit the potential of natural selection because each individual has so little effect on the overall plume. Genetic variation in pheromone production could accumulate via mutation and recombination, despite strong effects of the pheromone plume on the fitness of individuals within the aggregation. Thus, aggregation behaviour, by limiting the efficacy of natural selection, can allow the persistence of extreme phenotypes in nature.

  11. Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Novel, Structured, Community-Based Support and Education Intervention for Individuals with HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Christopher; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Dube, Lungile; Andrasik, Michele; Rao, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    People living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa face significant challenges accessing care. Community-based peer support groups can increase linkage to treatment, though the effectiveness of structured, scalable groups has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to measure the impact of the structured Integrated Access to Care and Treatment intervention on clients' knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding HIV/AIDS, including their experiences of stigma, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data collection involved pre-/post-tests and client interviews. Pre-/post-test data from 66 clients were collected. 17 participants were interviewed. Paired t-tests did not detect significant changes in the main outcomes. Qualitative results suggested a psychosocial benefit as participants connected with their peers, expressed themselves openly, and re-engaged with their communities. Unfortunately, this study did not quantitatively measure psychosocial changes, and the results have limited generalizability to men. I ACT may be an effective complement to clinic-based support services, though further study should quantify the psychosocial benefit. PMID:27553008

  12. South Africa and the High Commission Territories during the Second World War: Politics and Policies Affecting War Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shackleton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The political, economic, social and military developments in the High Commissioned Territories (HCT throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries were highly influenced by their southern neighbor. During the Second World War, these developments have a rather direct impact on British decision-makers in London and in southern Africa especially with regards to war mobilization, African military recruitment and labor issues. Much of what will be discussed in this paper must be understood in the context of British imperial organization and demands as formulated and dictated by the Colonial Office in London with coordination with the Office of the High Commissioner in South Africa who was responsible for the overall care and protection of the HCT. However, historical precedent, economic necessity, military exigencies, paternalism, and racial ideology also drove policy decisions regarding mobilization during WW II. Without going into great detail about the position of the British Empire in 1939 to defend itself against German aggressions, it is still important to accept in principle that Great Britain did not have the resources and manpower to fight the fight alone. As an island nation that hated to be dragged into the messy affairs of the continent, England wanted to confine herself to her own interests. By 1938 the British Army was designed primarily for home defense and was unprepared for rearmament and mobilization. I Many in positions of power questioned the role of imperialism and its subsequent militarism. Predatory imperialism violated the new ideas of liberalism, pacifism, and a growing sense that colonies should move towards self-government.2  Despite the lack of preparation and will to fight another brutal war, Britain would call upon its global dominions to answer the call of collective security against Hitler's transgressions.

  13. INDIVIDUAL TREE OF URBAN FOREST EXTRACTION FROM VERY HIGH DENSITY LIDAR DATA

    OpenAIRE

    A Moradi; Satari, M.; M. Momeni

    2016-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data have a high potential to provide 3D information from trees. Most proposed methods to extract individual trees detect points of tree top or bottom firstly and then using them as starting points in a segmentation algorithm. Hence, in these methods, the number and the locations of detected peak points heavily effect on the process of detecting individual trees. In this study, a new method is presented to extract individual tree segments using LiD...

  14. Electrophysiological correlates of implicit valenced self-processing in high vs. low self-esteem individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, John G; Benarroch, Miriam F F; Lebarr, A Nicole; Shedden, Judith M

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first high-temporal resolution account of the self-esteem implicit association test (IAT; Greenwald & Farnham, 2000) to highlight important similarities and differences between the cognitive processes corresponding to implicit valenced self-processing in high vs. low self-esteem individuals. We divided individuals into high and low self-esteem groups based on the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (Rosenberg, 1965) and administered the self-esteem IAT while recording electroencephalographic data. We show that the P2 captured group (high vs. low self-esteem) differences, the N250 and the late parietal positivity (LPP) captured differences corresponding to category pairing (self/positive vs. self/negative pairing), and the N1, P2, and P300-400 components captured interactions between self-esteem groups and whether the self was paired with positive or negative categories in the IAT. Overall, both high and low self-esteem groups were sensitive to the distinction between positive and negative information in relation to the self (me/negative generally displayed larger event-related potential amplitudes than me/positive), but for high self-esteem individuals, this difference was generally larger, earlier, and most pronounced over left-hemisphere electrodes. These electrophysiological differences may reflect differences in attentional resources devoted to teasing apart these two oppositely valenced associations. High self-esteem individuals appear to devote more automatic (early) attentional resources to strengthen the distinction between positively or negatively valenced information in relation to the self.

  15. Sensitivity of tropical rainbelt over Africa and Middle East to dust shortwave absorption: Experiments using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kunhu Bangalth, Hamza

    2015-04-01

    Response of the rainbelt over Africa to dust direct radiative forcing has been an area of lively debate and is a subject of ongoing research. Previous modeling studies have contrasting results producing different amplitudes or even signs of responses. Uncertainties in the dust radiative forcing are thought to be the major cause of discrepancies in the simulated responses among various studies. The imaginary part of mineral dust shortwave refractive index, which defines the dust absorptivity, has a wide range of values estimated from various observational and modeling studies, as it depends on dust chemical composition and mineralogy. Balkanski et al. (2007) estimated dust shortwave refractive indices by assuming 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume, which corresponds to inefficient, standard, and very efficient dust shortwave absorption, respectively. To investigate the sensitivity of the position and intensity of the tropical rainbelt over Africa and its extension to the Arabian Peninsula to dust shortwave absorption, we have conducted ensembles of numerical simulations for each of the three dust absorptivity scenarios using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), at a spatial resolution of 25 km. We found that the strength and the latitudinal extent of the rainbelt are very sensitive to dust shortwave absorption, as well as circulations at various spatiotemporal scales that drive the climate of the region. Reference: Balkanski, Y., M. Schulz, T. Claquin, and S. Guibert (2007), Reevaluation of mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 81 - 95.

  16. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of individuals with very high rapid plasma reagin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jose G; Alcaide, Maria L; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to identify clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with infectious syphilis who presented with a high rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre (≥1: 512) during the year of 2009 at the Miami Dade County Health Department (MDCHD) STD clinic. Potential cases were identified by a search in the electronic database. Among 519 individuals identified with reactive RPR, 190 individuals met criteria for infectious syphilis and 32 of them had at least one RPR titre of ≥1: 512. We found that the majority of individuals with high RPR were men who have sex with men (82%), from ethnic minorities (91%), and HIV infected (75%) but only 3 of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Overall, 50% of these patients with very high RPR titres were symptomatic, and the most common symptom was skin rash (93%). PMID:24352133

  17. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  18. Biofeedback to facilitate unassisted ventilation in individuals with high-level quadriplegia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, S A

    1988-09-01

    The purpose of this case report is to discuss the effectiveness of electromyographic biofeedback in reeducating and strengthening the accessory breathing muscles in an individual with high-level (C1) complete quadriplegia. Six unassisted breathing sessions were performed with EMG biofeedback intervention. Six unassisted breathing sessions without EMG biofeedback intervention were also performed. In both conditions, the subject's vital capacity and the amount of time of unassisted ventilation were recorded. The study results indicated that EMG biofeedback may be a helpful modality in training accessory breathing muscles to enable an individual with high-level quadriplegia to become independent of mechanical ventilation for varying amounts of time.

  19. Motor and Tactile-Perceptual Skill Differences between Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Typically Developing Individuals Ages 5-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Dahab, Sana M. N.; Skidmore, Elizabeth R.; Holm, Margo B.; Rogers, Joan C.; Minshew, Nancy J.

    2013-01-01

    We examined motor and tactile-perceptual skills in individuals with high-functioning autism (IHFA) and matched typically developing individuals (TDI) ages 5-21 years. Grip strength, motor speed and coordination were impaired in IHFA compared to matched TDI, and the differences between groups varied with age. Although tactile-perceptual skills of…

  20. Role of delinquent young "orphan" male elephants in high mortality of white rhinoceros in Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Slotow

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available We describe white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum mortality at Pilanesberg National Park, South Africa, focussing on mortality caused by African elephant (Loxodonta africana. We reconstructed records from a range of historical sources, and estimated that up to 49 rhino were killed by elephant. There was confirmed mortality in 1994 and 1996, and based on patterns, we suggest a set of rhino mortality from elephant in 1992. Both sexes and all age classes were victims. There was no significant bias to older animals, but given the rhino population structure, there was a significant bias towards males in adult deaths. The culprits were identified as young male elephants that entered musth about 10 years younger than expected, and maintained musth for a full term at first occurrence. We attributed this to the lack of a mature bull hierarchy in the park, because these elephants were the product of translocation of young animals (<10 years old remaining from culls in Kruger National Park. We emphasise the need for accurate monitoring and record keeping, and a focus on individual identification of key species in small reserves.

  1. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  2. Monitoring Cloud-prone Complex Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales Using Medium And High Resolution Optical Data: A Case Study In Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bikash

    Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud-prone areas with complex mountainous terrain and a landscape that is heterogeneous at a scale of approximately 10 m, is an important challenge in the remote sensing of tropical regions in developing nations, due to the small plot sizes. Persistent monitoring of natural resources in these regions at multiple spatial scales requires development of tools to identify emerging land cover transformation due to anthropogenic causes, such as agricultural expansion and climate change. Along with the cloud cover and obstructions by topographic distortions due to steep terrain, there are limitations to the accuracy of monitoring change using available historical satellite imagery, largely due to sparse data access and the lack of high quality ground truth for classifier training. One such complex region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. This work addressed these problems to create an effective process for monitoring the Lake Kivu region located in Central Africa. The Lake Kivu region is a biodiversity hotspot with a complex and heterogeneous landscape and intensive agricultural development, where individual plot sizes are often at the scale of 10m. Procedures were developed that use optical data from satellite and aerial observations at multiple scales to tackle the monitoring challenges. First, a novel processing chain was developed to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification, using the state-of-the-art machine learning classifier Random Forest, was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps

  3. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parry Charles D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36 when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates.

  4. Cultivation of Empathy in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Pier

    2013-01-01

    High-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) typically lack cognitive empathy, compromising their moral agency from both a Kantian and a Humean perspective. Nevertheless, they are capable of exhibiting moral behavior, and sometimes, they exhibit what may be deemed "super-moral" behavior. The empathy deficit poses,…

  5. Jane Austen's Novels as a Guide to Social and Individual Responsibility for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzer, Penelope

    1998-01-01

    Jane Austen's novels are particularly appropriate for adolescents. These classics deal with topics of high interest to young people. Austen grapples with the question of what the individual owes to society and what he or she is obliged to tolerate in the way of strictures on behavior. Article proposes that Austen's novels should be more widely…

  6. Negative emotional primes and attentional bias towards alcohol in high anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Samelink; R.W. Wiers

    2011-01-01

    Both anxiety and alcohol use disorders are among the leading causes of the burden of disease in high-income countries. They co-occur much more often than one would expect based on chance as many anxious individuals drink alcohol to reduce anxiety (Stewart & Conrod, 2008). But in the longer term, pro

  7. Brief Report: Imitation of Meaningless Gestures in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz Ham, Heidi; Corley, Martin; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Carletta, Jean; Swanson, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen people with Asperger syndrome (AS)/High-Functioning Autism (HFA) (ages 7-15) were tested on imitation of two types of meaningless gesture: hand postures and finger positions. The individuals with AS/HFA achieved lower scores in the imitation of both hand and finger positions relative to a matched neurotypical group. The between-group…

  8. Linguistic Characteristics of Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hye Kyeung

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic characteristics of high functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Each group consisted of 10 participants who were matched on sex, chronological age, and intelligence scores. Participants generated a narrative after watching a brief video segment of the Social Attribution Task video. Each…

  9. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  10. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  11. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality.

  12. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  13. PROCESSING OF MULTI-DIGIT ADDITIONS IN HIGH MATH-ANXIOUS INDIVIDUALS: PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGICAL EVIDENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARIA ISABEL eNÚÑEZ-PEÑA

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the time course of neural processing of multi-digit additions in high- (HMA and low-math anxious (LMA individuals. Seventeen HMA and 17 LMA individuals were presented with two-digit additions and were asked to perform a verification task. Behavioral data showed that HMA were slower and more error prone than their LMA peers, and that incorrect solutions were solved more slowly and less accurately than correct ones. Moreover, HMA individuals tended to need more time and commit more errors when having to verify incorrect solutions than correct ones. They also took longer and made more errors than their LMA peers. ERPs time-locked to the presentation of the addends (calculation phase and to the presentation of the proposed solution (verification phase were also analyzed. In both phases, a P2 component of larger amplitude was found for HMA individuals than for their LMA peers. Moreover, in the verification phase, LMA individuals showed a larger late positive component (LPC for incorrect solutions at parietal electrodes than their HMA counterparts. Because the P2 component is considered to be a biomarker of the mobilization of attentional resources towards emotionally negative stimuli, these results suggest that HMA individuals may invest more attentional resources during the arithmetical

  14. Health financing in Africa: overview of a dialogue among high level policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though Africa has the highest disease burden compared with other regions, it has the lowest per capita spending on health. In 2007, 27 (51% out the 53 countries spent less than US$50 per person on health. Almost 30% of the total health expenditure came from governments, 50% from private sources (of which 71% was from out-of-pocket payments by households and 20% from donors. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the African Union Side Event on Health Financing in the African continent. Methods Methods employed in the session included presentations, panel discussion and open public discussion with ministers of health and finance from the African continent. Discussion The current unsatisfactory state of health financing was attributed to lack of clear vision and plan for health financing; lack of national health accounts and other evidence to guide development and implementation of national health financing policies and strategies; low investments in sectors that address social determinants of health; predominance of out-of-pocket spending; underdeveloped prepaid health financing mechanisms; large informal sectors vis-à-vis small formal sectors; and unpredictability and non-alignment of majority of donor funds with national health priorities. Countries need to develop and adopt a comprehensive national health policy and a costed strategic plan; a comprehensive evidence-based health financing strategy; allocate at least 15% of the national budget to health development; use GFATM and PEPFAR funds for health systems strengthening; strengthen intersectoral collaboration to address health determinants; advocate among donors to implement the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and its Accra Agenda for Action; ensure universal access to health services for pregnant women, lactating mothers and children aged under five years; strengthen financial management capacities; and develop prepaid health

  15. Resolving individuals contributing trace amounts of DNA to highly complex mixtures using high-density SNP genotyping microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Homer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We use high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping microarrays to demonstrate the ability to accurately and robustly determine whether individuals are in a complex genomic DNA mixture. We first develop a theoretical framework for detecting an individual's presence within a mixture, then show, through simulations, the limits associated with our method, and finally demonstrate experimentally the identification of the presence of genomic DNA of specific individuals within a series of highly complex genomic mixtures, including mixtures where an individual contributes less than 0.1% of the total genomic DNA. These findings shift the perceived utility of SNPs for identifying individual trace contributors within a forensics mixture, and suggest future research efforts into assessing the viability of previously sub-optimal DNA sources due to sample contamination. These findings also suggest that composite statistics across cohorts, such as allele frequency or genotype counts, do not mask identity within genome-wide association studies. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Tax Policies and Informality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane El Badaoui; Riccardo Magnani

    2015-01-01

    We use a micro-macro simulation model to evaluate the effects of labor income tax policies in South Africa. The country is characterized by a high unemployment rate while employment in the informal sector is relatively low. Our approach is based on the aggregation of the preferences of individuals who choose among (i) working in the formal sector,(ii) working in the informal sector, and (iii) not working. We quantify the effects of different tax policies on the individual's labor supply choic...

  17. Reporting Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baffour Ankomah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available When opening this conference, Professor Lizette Rabe quoted a statistic that struck a chord with me.
    In a six-month period between March and August 2000, the TransAfrica Forum in the USA had counted 89 stories on Africa published by The New York Times and Washington Post. Of the 89, 75 were negative, and 63 of the 89 were about conflict in Africa.
    What this statistic does is to portray in a small way the massive problem of how Africa is reported by the Western media, and which we, the African media, sometimes reflect and amplify in our reporting of the continent, by mimicking the Western media.
    No right-thinking African will ever deny that conflict does happen in Africa. However, the problem with the negative reporting is that it does not put the raw facts in context.
    Africa is a continent of 53 countries. It is the most variegated continent on Earth. Conflict is part and parcel of human nature, of life. In that context, Africans would not be human if conflict did not happen on this huge, variegated continent.

  18. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C;

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found...... among the 31 seronegative high-risk subjects, either by virus isolation of by PCR (97.5% confidence limits, 0-11). Our results indicate that ongoing HIV infection in seronegative persons at high risk of infection is a rare event....

  19. Assessment of future agricultural conditions in southwestern Africa using fuzzy logic and high-resolution climate model scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinzierl, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have a major impact on the arid savanna regions of southwestern Africa, such as the Okavango Basin. Precipitation is a major constraint for agriculture in countries like Namibia and Botswana and assessments of future crop growth conditions are in high demand. This GIS-based approach uses reanalysis data and climate model output for two scenarios and compares them to the precipitation requirements of the five most important crops grown in the region: maize, pearl millet, sorghum, cassava and cow pea. It also takes into account the dominant soil types, as plant growth is also limited by nutrient-poor soils with unfavorable physical and chemical properties. The two factors are then combined using a fuzzy logic algorithm. The assessment visualizes the expected shifts in suitable zones and identifies areas where farming without irrigation may experience a decline in yields or may even no longer be possible at the end of the 21st century. The results show that pearl millet is the most suitable crop in all scenarios while especially the cultivation of maize, sorghum and cow pea may be affected by a possible reduction of precipitation under the high-emission scenario.

  20. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  1. Individual Tree of Urban Forest Extraction from Very High Density LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A.; Satari, M.; Momeni, M.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data have a high potential to provide 3D information from trees. Most proposed methods to extract individual trees detect points of tree top or bottom firstly and then using them as starting points in a segmentation algorithm. Hence, in these methods, the number and the locations of detected peak points heavily effect on the process of detecting individual trees. In this study, a new method is presented to extract individual tree segments using LiDAR points with 10cm point density. In this method, a two-step strategy is performed for the extraction of individual tree LiDAR points: finding deterministic segments of individual trees points and allocation of other LiDAR points based on these segments. This research is performed on two study areas in Zeebrugge, Bruges, Belgium (51.33° N, 3.20° E). The accuracy assessment of this method showed that it could correctly classified 74.51% of trees with 21.57% and 3.92% under- and over-segmentation errors respectively.

  2. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cherel, Yves; Knox, Travis C; Baylis, Alastair M M; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus), which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats), the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values, suggesting they all followed the same general dispersion pattern throughout the year. PMID:26244371

  3. THE DETERMINANTS OF MINIMUM WAGE VIOLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Bhorat, Haroon; Kanbur, Ravi; Mayet, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of non-compliance or violation of minimum wage legislation in South Africa, a country where violation is high, at just under 50 percent. The number of labour inspectors per capita is used as a proxy for enforcement, whilst non-compliance is measured using an index of violation that measures both the proportion of individuals violated, as well as the depth of violation of an individual. Due to the potential simultaneity between enforcement and complianc...

  4. High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beylis Natalie C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and hospital records of children diagnosed with drug-resistant TB were reviewed, including clinical and radiological outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB was performed using the automated liquid broth MGIT™ 960 method. Drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed using the MGIT™ 960 method for both first and second-line anti-TB drugs. Results 1317 children were treated for tuberculosis in 2008 between the two hospitals where the study was conducted. Drug susceptibility testing was undertaken in 148 (72.5% of the 204 children who had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. The prevalence of isoniazid-resistance was 14.2% (n = 21 (95%CI, 9.0-20.9% and the prevalence of MDR-TB 8.8% (n = 13 (95%CI, 4.8-14.6%. The prevalence of HIV co-infection was 52.1% in children with drug susceptible-TB and 53.9% in children with MDR-TB. Ten (76.9% of the 13 children with MDR-TB received appropriate treatment and four (30.8% died at a median of 2.8 months (range 0.1-4.0 months after the date of tuberculosis investigation. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children in Johannesburg in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV co-infection, although no association between HIV infection and MDR-TB was found in this study. Routine HIV and drug-susceptibility testing is warranted to optimize the management of childhood tuberculosis in settings such as ours.

  5. High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beylis Natalie C; Fairlie Lee; Reubenson Gary; Moore David P; Madhi Shabir A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and h...

  6. Which markers of subclinical organ damage to measure in individuals with high normal blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W;

    2009-01-01

    CEPs) of the European Society of Hypertension risk classification chart significantly from 47 to 88% (P = 0.001) and the proportion of individuals in whom antihypertensive drug treatment was indicated from 22 to 57% (P < 0.001). Using two of pulse wave velocities of more than 12 m/s, atherosclerotic......, atherosclerotic plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio was sufficient to significantly improve risk prediction........ RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.8 years, the composite endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke occurred in 153 individuals, of whom 32 had high normal BP. Presence of high normal BP was associated with increased risk of CEP [hazard ratio, 1.8 (95...

  7. High prevalence of Rickettsia africae variants in Amblyomma variegatum ticks from domestic mammals in rural western Kenya: implications for human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maina, Alice N; Jiang, Ju; Omulo, Sylvia A; Cutler, Sally J; Ade, Fredrick; Ogola, Eric; Feikin, Daniel R; Njenga, M Kariuki; Cleaveland, Sarah; Mpoke, Solomon; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Breiman, Robert F; Knobel, Darryn L; Richards, Allen L

    2014-10-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging human diseases caused by obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacteria of the genus Rickettsia. Despite being important causes of systemic febrile illnesses in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the reservoir hosts of these pathogens. We conducted surveys for rickettsiae in domestic animals and ticks in a rural setting in western Kenya. Of the 100 serum specimens tested from each species of domestic ruminant 43% of goats, 23% of sheep, and 1% of cattle had immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies to the SFG rickettsiae. None of these sera were positive for IgG against typhus group rickettsiae. We detected Rickettsia africae-genotype DNA in 92.6% of adult Amblyomma variegatum ticks collected from domestic ruminants, but found no evidence of the pathogen in blood specimens from cattle, goats, or sheep. Sequencing of a subset of 21 rickettsia-positive ticks revealed R. africae variants in 95.2% (20/21) of ticks tested. Our findings show a high prevalence of R. africae variants in A. variegatum ticks in western Kenya, which may represent a low disease risk for humans. This may provide a possible explanation for the lack of African tick-bite fever cases among febrile patients in Kenya.

  8. Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lake, Johanna K.; Andrea Perry; Yona Lunsky

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to da...

  9. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Laëtitia Kernaléguen; Yves Cherel; Knox, Travis C.; Baylis, Alastair M M; John P Y Arnould

    2015-01-01

    While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus), which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined...

  10. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Kernaléguen

    Full Text Available While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (< 220 km to the breeding colony. Accordingly, both genders exhibited similar plasma and red cell δ13C values. However, males exhibited greater δ13C intra-individual variation along the length of their whisker than females. This suggests that males exploited a greater diversity of foraging habitats throughout the year than their female counterparts, which are restricted in their foraging grounds by the need to regularly return to the breeding colony to suckle their pup. The degree of dietary sexual segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats, the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values

  11. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cherel, Yves; Knox, Travis C.; Baylis, Alastair M. M.; Arnould, John P. Y.

    2015-01-01

    While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus), which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (< 220 km) to the breeding colony. Accordingly, both genders exhibited similar plasma and red cell δ13C values. However, males exhibited greater δ13C intra-individual variation along the length of their whisker than females. This suggests that males exploited a greater diversity of foraging habitats throughout the year than their female counterparts, which are restricted in their foraging grounds by the need to regularly return to the breeding colony to suckle their pup. The degree of dietary sexual segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats), the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values, suggesting they

  12. South Africa : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in South Africa, within the broader context of institutional capacity available for ensuring high-quality financial reporting. National accounting and auditing standards in South Africa are developed on the basis of international standards; but lack of legal backing for accounting standards give rise to problems. South...

  13. Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holst Helga L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies address the use of paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Africa. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate preliminary outcomes of all children eligible for HAART at Sinikithemba HIV/AIDS clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Immunologic, virologic, clinical, mortality, primary caregiver, and psychosocial variables were collected and analyzed. Results From August 31, 2003 until October 31, 2005, 151 children initiated HAART. The median age at HAART initiation was 5.7 years (range 0.3–15.4. Median follow-up time of the cohort after HAART initiation was 8 months (IQR 3.5–13.5. The median change in CD4% from baseline (p 95%adherence. Seventeen patients (11.3% had a regimen change; two (1.3% were due to antiretroviral toxicity. The Kaplan-Meier one year survival estimate was 90.9% (95%confidence interval (CI 84.8–94.6. Thirteen children died during follow-up (8.6%, one changed service provider, and no children were lost to follow-up. All 13 deaths occurred in children with advanced HIV disease within 5 months of treatment initiation. In multivariate analysis of baseline variables against mortality using Cox proportional-hazards model, chronic gastroenteritis was associated with death [hazard ratio (HR, 12.34; 95%CI, 1.27–119.71 and an HIV-positive primary caregiver was found to be protective against mortality [HR, 0.12; 95%CI, 0.02–0.88. Age, orphanhood, baseline CD4%, and hemoglobin were not predicators of mortality in our cohort. Fifty-two percent of the cohort had at least one HIV-positive primary caregiver, and 38.4% had at least one primary caregiver also on HAART at Sinikithemba clinic. Conclusion This report suggests that paediatric HAART can be effective despite the challenges of a resource-limited setting.

  14. Normalizing for individual cell population context in the analysis of high-content cellular screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knapp Bettina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-content, high-throughput RNA interference (RNAi offers unprecedented possibilities to elucidate gene function and involvement in biological processes. Microscopy based screening allows phenotypic observations at the level of individual cells. It was recently shown that a cell's population context significantly influences results. However, standard analysis methods for cellular screens do not currently take individual cell data into account unless this is important for the phenotype of interest, i.e. when studying cell morphology. Results We present a method that normalizes and statistically scores microscopy based RNAi screens, exploiting individual cell information of hundreds of cells per knockdown. Each cell's individual population context is employed in normalization. We present results on two infection screens for hepatitis C and dengue virus, both showing considerable effects on observed phenotypes due to population context. In addition, we show on a non-virus screen that these effects can be found also in RNAi data in the absence of any virus. Using our approach to normalize against these effects we achieve improved performance in comparison to an analysis without this normalization and hit scoring strategy. Furthermore, our approach results in the identification of considerably more significantly enriched pathways in hepatitis C virus replication than using a standard analysis approach. Conclusions Using a cell-based analysis and normalization for population context, we achieve improved sensitivity and specificity not only on a individual protein level, but especially also on a pathway level. This leads to the identification of new host dependency factors of the hepatitis C and dengue viruses and higher reproducibility of results.

  15. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcision programs for HIV prevention is unclear. Methods Two mathematical models were examined to explore this issue: a random mixing model and a compartmental model that distinguishes risk groups associated with sex work. In the compartmental model, two scenarios were developed, one calculating HIV transmission and prevalence in a context similar to the country of Botswana, and one similar to Nyanza Province, in western Kenya. Results In both models, male circumcision programs resulted in large and sustained declines in HIV prevalence over time among both men and women. Men benefited somewhat more than women, but prevalence among women was also reduced substantially. With 80% male circumcision uptake, the reductions in prevalence ranged from 45% to 67% in the two "countries", and with 50% uptake, from 25% to 41%. It would take over a decade for the intervention to reach its full effect. Conclusion Large-scale uptake of male circumcision services in African countries with high HIV prevalence, and where male circumcision is not now routinely practised, could lead to substantial reductions in HIV transmission and prevalence over time among both men and women.

  16. Microsporidiosis in South Africa: PCR detection in stool samples of HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and school children in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province

    OpenAIRE

    Samie, A.; Obi, C.L.; Tzipori, S; Weiss, L M; Guerrant, R L

    2007-01-01

    Microsporidia were initially recognized as pathogens of insects and fish but have recently emerged as an important group of human pathogens, especially in immune-compromised individuals, such as those with HIV infection. In this study, we used a PCR-RFLP assay confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and trichrome staining to determine the prevalence of microsporidian infections among hospital patients and school children in Vhembe region. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was the only microsporidian sp...

  17. Population and antenatal-based HIV prevalence estimates in a high contracepting female population in rural South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnighausen Till

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To present and compare population-based and antenatal-care (ANC sentinel surveillance HIV prevalence estimates among women in a rural South African population where both provision of ANC services and family planning is prevalent and fertility is declining. With a need, in such settings, to understand how to appropriately adjust ANC sentinel surveillance estimates to represent HIV prevalence in general populations, and with evidence of possible biases inherent to both surveillance systems, we explore differences between the two systems. There is particular emphasis on unrepresentative selection of ANC clinics and unrepresentative testing in the population. Methods HIV sero-prevalence amongst blood samples collected from women consenting to test during the 2005 annual longitudinal population-based serological survey was compared to anonymous unlinked HIV sero-prevalence amongst women attending antenatal care (ANC first visits in six clinics (January to May 2005. Both surveillance systems were conducted as part of the Africa Centre Demographic Information System. Results Population-based HIV prevalence estimates for all women (25.2% and pregnant women (23.7% were significantly lower than that for ANC attendees (37.7%. A large proportion of women attending urban or peri-urban clinics would be predicted to be resident within rural areas. Although overall estimates remained significantly different, presenting and standardising estimates by age and location (clinic for ANC-based estimates and individual-residence for population-based estimates made some group-specific estimates from the two surveillance systems more predictive of one another. Conclusion It is likely that where ANC coverage and contraceptive use is widespread and fertility is low, population-based surveillance under-estimates HIV prevalence due to unrepresentative testing by age, residence and also probably by HIV status, and that ANC sentinel surveillance over

  18. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  19. Individual differences in highly skilled visual perceptual-motor striking skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sean; Brenton, John; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Harbaugh, Allen G; Reid, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Expertise studies into visual perceptual-motor skills have mainly focused their investigation upon group comparisons rather than individual comparisons. This study investigated the pick-up of visual information to time weight transfer and bat kinematics within an exemplar group of striking sport experts using an in situ temporal occlusion paradigm. Highly skilled cricket batsmen faced bowlers and attempted to strike delivered balls, whilst their vision was either temporally occluded through occlusion glasses prior to ball bounce or not occluded (control condition). A chronometric analysis was conducted on trials in the occlusion condition to quantify the pick-up of visual information to time biomechanical variables. Results indicated that initiation of weight transfer and bat downswing, as well as bat downswing completion, was significantly different between some individual batsmen. No significant difference was found between individual batsmen for time of weight transfer completion. Unexpectedly, it was found that achievement of the goal to strike delivered balls, that is, the frequency of bat-ball contacts was not significantly different between batsmen. Collectively, the findings indicate that individual differences exist in the coordination pattern of a complex whole body visual perceptual-motor skill, but these different patterns are used to achieve a similar outcome, which is known as motor equivalence.

  20. Pneumococcal Vaccination in High-Risk Individuals: Are We Doing It Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou, Ioanna; Spoulou, Vana

    2016-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal use of the 23-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the protection of high-risk individuals, such as children and adults with immunocompromising conditions and the elderly. The effectiveness and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are limited in such high-risk populations compared to the healthy, with meta-analyses failing to provide robust evidence on vaccine efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or pneumonia. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a PPV23-induced state of immune tolerance or hyporesponsiveness to subsequent vaccination, where the response to revaccination does not reach the levels achieved with primary vaccination. The clinical significance of hyporesponsiveness is not yet clarified, but attenuated humoral and cellular response could lead to reduced levels of protection and increased susceptibility to pneumococcal disease. As disease epidemiology among high-risk groups shows that we are still in need of maximum serotype coverage, the optimal use of PPV23 in the context of combined conjugate/polysaccharide vaccine schedules is an important priority. In this minireview, we discuss PPV23-induced hyporesponsiveness and its implications in designing highly effective vaccination schedules for the optimal protection for high-risk individuals. PMID:27009210

  1. Shock Effects and High Pressure Polymorphs in Polymict Eucrite Northwest Africa 10658

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fudge, C.; Wittmann, A.; Garvie, L. A. J.; Sharp, T. G.

    2016-08-01

    We report the presence of coesite in polymict eucrite NWA 10658. High pressure silica phases have previously been described to coexist with silica glass in the Béréba eucrite. We will present data from transmission electron microscope investigations.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus and viral hepatitis among high-risk groups: Understanding the knowledge gap in the Middle East and North Africa Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melhem, Nada M; Rahhal, Nour; Charide, Rana; Kreidieh, Khalil; El-Khatib, Rolla

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To identify gaps in the existing knowledge on single, dual and triple infections of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region among men who have sex with men (MSMs), female sex workers (FSWs), injecting drug users (IDUs) and prisoners. METHODS: We performed an extensive literature search on articles published on the topic in the 25 countries of the MENA region. PubMed database was used as the main search engine. Case reports, case series, qualitative studies, editorials, commentaries, authors’ replies and animal studies were excluded. Original articles and reviews dealing with the prevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infection were included. Data on population type, sample size, age and markers of infections were extracted from the relevant studies. RESULTS: HIV, HBV and HCV are blood-borne viruses with similar modes of transmission. The categories of people at high risk of acquiring HIV-1, HBV and HCV commonly include: MSMs, FSW and IDUs. It is well established that HIV-positive individuals co-infected with HBV or HCV suffer from liver pathology associated with morbidity and mortality. Moreover, HIV-infected individuals do not respond well to treatment for HBV or HCV and hence are at increased risk of hepatic toxicity. Consequently, co-infection of HIV-positive individuals with HBV and/or HCV is a global health problem of significant magnitude. Our review reveals the paucity of epidemiological data for key populations in many countries of the region. Limited number of studies exists in the MENA region on the status of HIV, HBV and HCV and their co-infections among prisoners, MSMs and FSWs. Evidence support the continued increase of the HIV epidemic among MSMs. In addition to the lack of studies on MSMs and FSWs in the MENA region, our review highlights the lack of data on the practices, characteristics, or the status of HIV infection and viral hepatitis

  3. 'Sink or swim': an evaluation of the clinical characteristics of individuals with high bone mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gregson, C L

    2011-04-01

    High bone mineral density on routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may indicate an underlying skeletal dysplasia. Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), 236 relatives (41% with HBM) and 58 spouses were studied. Cases could not float, had mandible enlargement, extra bone, broad frames, larger shoe sizes and increased body mass index (BMI). HBM cases may harbour an underlying genetic disorder. INTRODUCTION: High bone mineral density is a sporadic incidental finding on routine DXA scanning of apparently asymptomatic individuals. Such individuals may have an underlying skeletal dysplasia, as seen in LRP5 mutations. We aimed to characterize unexplained HBM and determine the potential for an underlying skeletal dysplasia. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained HBM (defined as L1 Z-score ≥ +3.2 plus total hip Z-score ≥ +1.2, or total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2) were recruited from 15 UK centres, by screening 335,115 DXA scans. Unexplained HBM affected 0.181% of DXA scans. Next 236 relatives were recruited of whom 94 (41%) had HBM (defined as L1 Z-score + total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2). Fifty-eight spouses were also recruited together with the unaffected relatives as controls. Phenotypes of cases and controls, obtained from clinical assessment, were compared using random-effects linear and logistic regression models, clustered by family, adjusted for confounders, including age and sex. RESULTS: Individuals with unexplained HBM had an excess of sinking when swimming (7.11 [3.65, 13.84], p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval shown), mandible enlargement (4.16 [2.34, 7.39], p < 0.001), extra bone at tendon\\/ligament insertions (2.07 [1.13, 3.78], p = 0.018) and broad frame (3.55 [2.12, 5.95], p < 0.001). HBM cases also had a larger shoe size (mean difference 0.4 [0.1, 0.7] UK sizes, p = 0.009) and increased BMI (mean difference 2.2 [1.3, 3.1] kg\\/m(2

  4. Effect of religious context on the content of visual hallucinations in individuals high in religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Clarke, Natasha

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the interaction between the current environment and personality factors associated with religiosity in determining the content of false perceptions (used as a model for hallucinations). A primed word-detection task was used to investigate the effect of a 'religious' context on false perceptions in individuals scoring highly on religiosity. After a subliminal prime, participants viewed letter strings, and stated any words that they saw. The prime and the actual words could have a religious connotation or not. Participants measuring high on religiosity were more likely to report false perceptions of a religious type than participants low on religiosity. It is suggested that context affects the content of false perceptions through the activation of stored beliefs and values, which vary between individuals, offering a mechanism for the effect of context on idiosyncratic content of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The effect of context and individual differences on false-perception content in the current study provides possibilities for future work regarding the underlying nature of hallucinations and their treatment.

  5. High throughput generation and trapping of individual agarose microgel using microfluidic approach

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yang

    2013-02-28

    Microgel is a kind of biocompatible polymeric material, which has been widely used as micro-carriers in materials synthesis, drug delivery and cell biology applications. However, high-throughput generation of individual microgel for on-site analysis in a microdevice still remains a challenge. Here, we presented a simple and stable droplet microfluidic system to realize high-throughput generation and trapping of individual agarose microgels based on the synergetic effect of surface tension and hydrodynamic forces in microchannels and used it for 3-D cell culture in real-time. The established system was mainly composed of droplet generators with flow focusing T-junction and a series of array individual trap structures. The whole process including the independent agarose microgel formation, immobilization in trapping array and gelation in situ via temperature cooling could be realized on the integrated microdevice completely. The performance of this system was demonstrated by successfully encapsulating and culturing adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACCM) cells in the gelated agarose microgels. This established approach is simple, easy to operate, which can not only generate the micro-carriers with different components in parallel, but also monitor the cell behavior in 3D matrix in real-time. It can also be extended for applications in the area of material synthesis and tissue engineering. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  6. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  7. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. CONCLUSIONS: We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  8. Aid, employment, and poverty reduction in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Page, John; Shimeles, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Growth and poverty reduction in Africa are weakly linked. This paper argues that the reason is that Africa has failed to create enough good jobs. Structural transformation - the relative growth of employment in high productivity sectors - has not featured in Africa's post-1995 growth story. As a result, the region's fastest growing economies have the least responsiveness of employment to growth. The role of development aid in this context is problematic. Across Africa more aid went to countri...

  9. Screening tomato genotypes for adaptation to high temperature in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugblenu, Yvonne O.; Danso, Eric Oppong; Ofori, Kwadjo;

    2013-01-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable widely grown in the tropics due to its nutritional value and financial benefits for farmers. In Ghana, there is an undersupply caused by production ceasing entirely from October to May due to high temperatures. Heat stress has been reported to cause excessive flower...... drop leading to drastic reduction in yield; however, genotypic differences in heat tolerance exist in tomato. A greenhouse experiment was conducted to screen 19 different tomato genotypes for their tolerance to heat stress. The genotypes were selected because they were the commercial varieties widely...... conferring adaptation to heat stress....

  10. NUNOA: a computer simulator of individuals, families, and extended families of the high-altitude Quechua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.C.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.; Simmons, B.

    1980-10-01

    The Quechua Indians of the Peruvian Andes are an example of a human population which has developed special cultural adaptations to deal with hypocaloric stress imposed by a harsh environment. A highly detailed human ecosystem model, NUNOA, which simulates the yearly energy balance of individuals, families, and extended families in a hypothetical farming and herding Quechua community of the high Andes was developed. Unlike most population models which use sets of differential equations in which individuals are aggregated into groups, this model considers the response of each individual to a stochastic environment. The model calculates the yearly energy demand for each family based on caloric requirements of its members. For each family, the model simulates the cultivation of seven different crops and the impact of precipitation, temperature, and disease on yield. Herding, slaughter, and market sales of three different animal species are also simulated. Any energy production in excess of the family's energy demand is placed into extended family storage for possible redistribution. A family failing to meet their annual energy demand may slaughter additional herd animals, temporarily migrate from the community, or borrow food from the extended family storage. The energy balance is used in determining births, deaths, marriages, and resource sharing in the Indian community. In addition, the model maintains a record of each individual's ancestry as well as seven genetic traits for use in tracing lineage and gene flow. The model user has the opportunity to investigate the effect of changes in marriage patterns, resource sharing patterns, or subsistence activities on the ability of the human population to survive in the harsh Andean environment. In addition, the user may investigate the impact of external technology on the Indian culture.

  11. Prevalence of child psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among high school students in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, S N

    2001-10-01

    Based on self-reports the prevalence during childhood of psychological, physical, emotional, and ritualistic abuse among 559 high school students in Standards 7, 8, 9, and 10 of three high schools in the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa was examined. The questionnaire asked for the demographic information and experiences of psychological, physical, and emotional abuse by their parents or adult caretakers as well as ritualistic abusive experiences before they were 17 years of age plus an estimate of self-perceived abuse during childhood and an overall rating of their own childhood. Analysis showed the self-reported prevalence rates to be as follows: 70.7% psychologically abused (but 14.4% for extreme cases), 27.0% physically abused, 35.3% emotionally abused, and 10.0% ritualistically abused. 13.4% of those who reported themselves as psychologically abused, 20.7% of the physically abused, 19.3% of the emotionally abused, and 35.8% of the ritualistically abused perceive themselves as not abused in any form during childhood. Yet, of the psychologically abused 23.4%, of the physically abused 18.2%, of the emotionally abused 22.0%, and of the ritualistically abused 28.3% rated their childhood as 'very unhappy'. It appears these various forms of abuse are experienced by the participants as widespread, suggesting that a much more serious problem may exist than has been recognised. More research into those forms of child abuse in this Province and elsewhere is needed for a clear appreciation of the problems and the effects of such abuse in children's behavior.

  12. High growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets: the case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem, Omaima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the phenomena of the high growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets. It explores the applicability of international entrepreneurship theory to the context of the emerging market enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It integrates the literature of strategic entrepreneurship and that of portfolio entrepreneurship with the literature of international entrepreneurship to provide a closer fi...

  13. The ears of the African elephant: unexpected high seroprevalence of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae in healthy populations in Western Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Doderer-Lang, Cécile; Atchade, Pascal S; Meckert, Lydia; Haar, Elodie; Perrotey, Sylvie; Filisetti, Denis; Aboubacar, Ahmed; Alexander W Pfaff; Brunet, Julie; Chabi, Nicodème W; Akpovi, Casimir D; Anani, Ludovic; Bigot, André; Sanni, Ambaliou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria Is A Life-Threatening Pathology In Africa. Plasmodium Falciparum And Plasmodium Vivax Attract The Most Focus Because Of Their High Prevalence And Mortality. Knowledge About The Prevalence Of The Cryptic Pathogens Plasmodium Ovale And Plasmodium Malariae Is Limited. Thanks To Recombinant Tools, Their Seroprevalence Was Measured For The First Time, As Well As The Prevalence Of Mixed Infections In A Malaria-Asymptomatic Population In Benin, A Malaria-Endemic Country. Methods A...

  14. A new method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth removal from high resolution airborne LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Bucksch, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    High density airborne LiDAR, for example FLI-MAP 400 data, has opened an opportunity for individual tree measurement. This paper presents a method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth vegetation removal in forest area. The delineation of individual trees involves two steps namely 1) tree

  15. Clinical tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine versus comparator treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an individual-patient analysis of eight randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwang Julien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ for treating uncomplicated malaria makes it important to gather and analyse information on its tolerability. Methods An individual-patient tolerability analysis was conducted using data from eight randomized controlled clinical trials conducted at 17 sites in nine sub-Saharan countries comparing ASAQ to other anti-malarial treatments. All patients who received at least one dose of the study drug were included in the analysis. Differences in adverse event (AE and treatment emergent adverse event (TEAE were analysed by Day 28. Results Of the 6,179 patients enrolled (74% Conclusion ASAQ was comparatively well-tolerated. Safety information is important, and must be collected and analysed in a standardized way. TEAEs are a more objective measure of treatment-induced toxicity.

  16. Portuguese-language high school teacher programme extends its reach to South America and Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    From 5 to 10 September, a record 75 teachers from Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, São Tomé and Cape Verde will take part in the Portuguese-language high school teacher programme at CERN.   The group of Portuguese-sepaking teachers who visited CERN in 2009. CERN usually focuses on the Member States when organizing its national teacher programmes, providing them with additional return on their investment in the Laboratory by helping to train and inspire the next generation of scientists. However, Portugal’s Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP), through the Agency Ciência Viva, has taken the initiative to go beyond the borders of Portugal and include other countries that speak Portuguese. Last year there were 60 participants in the programme, including 11 teachers from Brazil and 5 from Mozambique. This year brings even more teachers from more African co...

  17. Export Diversification in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The ...

  18. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Climate regimes of East Africa and Arabia are complex and are poorly understood. East Africa has large-scale tropical controls like major convergence zones and air streams. The region is in the proximity of two monsoons, north-east and south-west, and the humid and thermally unstable Congo air stream. The domain comprises regions with one, two, and three rainfall maxima, and the rainfall pattern over this region has high spatial variability. To explore the synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena that drive the climate of the region we conducted climate simulations using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Historic simulations (1975-2004) and future projections (2007-2050), with both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 pathways, were performed according to CORDEX standard. The sea surface temperature (SST) was prescribed from the 2°x2.5° latitude-longitude resolution GFDL Earth System Model runs of IPCC AR5, as bottom boundary condition over the ocean. Our simulations were conducted at a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km, which is an ample resolution for regional climate simulation. In comparison with the regional models, global HiRAM has the advantage of accounting for two-way interaction between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our future projections indicate warming and increased precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and the Greater Horn of Africa. We found significant regional differences between RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections, e.g., west coast of the Arabian Peninsula, show anomalies of opposite signs in these two simulations.

  19. AFRICA 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    A year highlighted by a new nation,regime change,famine and hopes for climate change solutions THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.

  20. IDENTIFYING A HIGH STROKE RISK SUBGROUP IN INDIVIDUALS WITH HEART FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Pullicino, Patrick M.; McClure, Leslie A.; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Safford, Monika M.; Meschia, James F.; Anderson, Aaron; Howard, George; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with an overall stroke rate that is too low to justify anticoagulation in all patients. This study was conducted to determine if vascular risk factors can identify a subgroup of individuals with heart failure with a stroke rate high enough to warrant anticoagulation. The REGARDS study is a population-based cohort of US adults aged ≥45 years. Participants are contacted every six months by telephone for self- or proxy-reported stroke and medical records are retr...

  1. Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-10-01

    The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10-5. If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local.

  2. Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-01-01

    The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10(-5). If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local. PMID:25297709

  3. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MACARENA eSUÁREZ PELLICIONI

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Attentional bias towards threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias towards math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA and 20 low math-anxious (LMA individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related – neutral difference score than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias towards math-related words in HMA individuals.

  4. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related - neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals.

  5. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat.

  6. The perception amongst a population of high school students in South Africa about ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Melwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV and AIDS can result in visual impairment, therefore it is important that those who have or atrisk of contracting the disease have a basic knowledge of its ocular manifestations, so that they may seek eye care early. This study assessed the per-ceptions of a sample of senior high school students at the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa about the ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and its management. Questionnaires were distributed to the students in their classrooms after school hours and upon completion were collected the same day. Data analysis revealed that 27.8% of the participants agreed that HIV/AIDS can affect the eyes. Another 27.8% responded that HIV/AIDS could cause dry eyes. Less than a third (31.4% indicated that the disease could cause red eyes, 31.5% and 38.1% respectively indicated that HIV/AIDS could cause cancer of the eyelids and the eyeball.  About half of the respondents (52% agreed that the disease could cause swollen eyelids; while about 46% agreed that vision loss or blindness could occur in HIV/AIDS.  Many (65.6% indicated that an ophthalmologist or an optometrist should be consulted for HIV/AIDS-related eye problems and only 16.5% reported that traditional healers could be consulted. Perception about the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS is poor among the participants, suggesting a need for awareness campaigns and education.  (S Afr Optom 2012 71(3 117-122

  7. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. PMID:26409147

  8. Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search terms 'schistosomiasis', 'dosing' and 'praziquantel' and hand searches of personal collections and bibliographies of recovered articles. In 10 reports meeting study criteria, improvements in parasitological treatment outcomes after two doses of praziquantel were greater for S. mansoni infection than for S. haematobium infection. Observed cure rates (positive to negative conversion in egg detection assays were, for S. mansoni, 69-91% cure after two doses vs. 42-79% after one dose and, for S. haematobium, 46-99% cure after two doses vs. 37-93% after a single dose. Treatment benefits in terms of reduction in intensity (mean egg count were also different for the two species-for S. mansoni, the 2-dose regimen yielded an weighted average 89% reduction in standardized egg counts compared to a 83% reduction after one dose; for S. haematobium, two doses gave a 93% reduction compared to a 94% reduction with a single dose. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on Markov life path modeling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, there are incremental benefits to this approach at an estimated cost of $153 (S. mansoni-$211 (S. haematobium per additional lifetime QALY gained by double treatment in school-based programs. More rapid reduction of infection-related disease may improve program adherence, and if, as an externality of the program, transmission can be

  9. Going High with Heart Disease: The Effect of High Altitude Exposure in Older Individuals and Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-06-01

    Levine, Benjamin D. Going high with heart disease: The effect of high altitude exposure in older individuals and patients with coronary artery disease. High Alt Med Biol 16:89-96, 2015.--Ischemic heart disease is the largest cause of death in older men and women in the western world (Lozano et al., 2012 ; Roth et al., 2015). Atherosclerosis progresses with age, and thus age is the dominant risk factor for coronary heart disease in any algorithm used to assess risk for cardiovascular events. Subclinical atherosclerosis also increases with age, providing the substrate for precipitation of acute coronary syndromes. Thus the risk of high altitude exposure in older individuals is linked closely with both subclinical and manifest coronary heart disease (CHD). There are several considerations associated with taking patients with CHD to high altitude: a) The reduced oxygen availability may cause or exacerbate symptoms; b) The hypoxia and other associated environmental conditions (exercise, dehydration, change in diet, thermal stress, emotional stress from personal danger or conflict) may precipitate acute coronary events; c) If an event occurs and the patient is far from advanced medical care, then the outcome of an acute coronary event may be poor; and d) Sudden death may occur. Physicians caring for older patients who want to sojourn to high altitude should keep in mind the following four key points: 1). Altitude may exacerbate ischemic heart disease because of both reduced O2 delivery and paradoxical vasoconstriction; 2). Adverse events, including acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death, are most common in older unfit men, within the first few days of altitude exposure; 3). Ensuring optimal fitness, allowing for sufficient acclimatization (at least 5 days), and optimizing medical therapy (especially statins and aspirin) are prudent recommendations that may reduce the risk of adverse events; 4). A graded exercise test at sea level is probably sufficient for

  10. Going High with Heart Disease: The Effect of High Altitude Exposure in Older Individuals and Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-06-01

    Levine, Benjamin D. Going high with heart disease: The effect of high altitude exposure in older individuals and patients with coronary artery disease. High Alt Med Biol 16:89-96, 2015.--Ischemic heart disease is the largest cause of death in older men and women in the western world (Lozano et al., 2012 ; Roth et al., 2015). Atherosclerosis progresses with age, and thus age is the dominant risk factor for coronary heart disease in any algorithm used to assess risk for cardiovascular events. Subclinical atherosclerosis also increases with age, providing the substrate for precipitation of acute coronary syndromes. Thus the risk of high altitude exposure in older individuals is linked closely with both subclinical and manifest coronary heart disease (CHD). There are several considerations associated with taking patients with CHD to high altitude: a) The reduced oxygen availability may cause or exacerbate symptoms; b) The hypoxia and other associated environmental conditions (exercise, dehydration, change in diet, thermal stress, emotional stress from personal danger or conflict) may precipitate acute coronary events; c) If an event occurs and the patient is far from advanced medical care, then the outcome of an acute coronary event may be poor; and d) Sudden death may occur. Physicians caring for older patients who want to sojourn to high altitude should keep in mind the following four key points: 1). Altitude may exacerbate ischemic heart disease because of both reduced O2 delivery and paradoxical vasoconstriction; 2). Adverse events, including acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death, are most common in older unfit men, within the first few days of altitude exposure; 3). Ensuring optimal fitness, allowing for sufficient acclimatization (at least 5 days), and optimizing medical therapy (especially statins and aspirin) are prudent recommendations that may reduce the risk of adverse events; 4). A graded exercise test at sea level is probably sufficient for

  11. Compendium of Neutron Beam Facilities for High Precision Nuclear Data Measurements. Annex: Individual Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent advances in the development of nuclear science and technology, demonstrating the globally growing economy, require highly accurate, powerful simulations and precise analysis of the experimental results. Confidence in these results is still determined by the accuracy of the atomic and nuclear input data. For studying material response, neutron beams produced from accelerators and research reactors in broad energy spectra are reliable and indispensable tools to obtain high accuracy experimental results for neutron induced reactions. The IAEA supports the accomplishment of high precision nuclear data using nuclear facilities in particular, based on particle accelerators and research reactors around the world. Such data are essential for numerous applications in various industries and research institutions, including the safety and economical operation of nuclear power plants, future fusion reactors, nuclear medicine and non-destructive testing technologies. The IAEA organized and coordinated the technical meeting Use of Neutron Beams for High Precision Nuclear Data Measurements, in Budapest, Hungary, 10–14 December 2012. The meeting was attended by participants from 25 Member States and three international organizations — the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA). The objectives of the meeting were to provide a forum to exchange existing know-how and to share the practical experiences of neutron beam facilities and associated instrumentation, with regard to the measurement of high precision nuclear data using both accelerators and research reactors. Furthermore, the present status and future developments of worldwide accelerator and research reactor based neutron beam facilities were discussed. This publication is a summary of the technical meeting and additional materials supplied by the international

  12. Things happen: Individuals with high obsessive-compulsive tendencies omit agency in their spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Ela; Friedmann, Naama; Dar, Reuven

    2016-05-01

    The study examined the prediction that obsessive-compulsive tendencies are related to an attenuated sense of agency (SoA). As most explicit agency judgments are likely to reflect also motivation for and expectation of control, we examined agency in sentence production. Reduced agency can be expressed linguistically by omitting the agent or by using grammatical framings that detach the event from the entity that caused it. We examined the use of agentic language of participants with high vs. low scores on a measure of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, using structured linguistic tasks in which sentences are elicited in a conversation-like setting. As predicted, high OC individuals produced significantly more non-agentic sentences than low OC individuals, using various linguistic strategies. The results suggest that OC tendencies are related to attenuated SoA. We discuss the implications of these findings for explicating the SoA in OCD and the potential contribution of language analysis for understanding psychopathology. PMID:27003263

  13. Methods and outcomes of screening for pancreaticadenocarcinoma in high-risk individuals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethalneoplasia, for which secondary prevention (i.e .,screening) is advisable for high-risk individuals with"familiar pancreatic cancer" and with other specificgenetic syndromes (Peutz-Jeghers, p16, BRCA2, PALBand mismatch repair gene mutation carriers). There islimited evidence regarding the accuracy of screeningtests, their acceptability, costs and availability, andagreement on whom to treat. Successful target ofscreening are small resectable PDAC, intraductalpapillary mucinous neoplasms with high-grade dysplasiaand advanced pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia. Bothmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopicultrasound (EUS) are employed for screening, and theoverall yield for pre-malignant or malignant pancreaticlesions is of about 20% with EUS and 14% with MRI/magnetic resonance colangiopancreatography. EUSperforms better for solid and MRI for cystic lesions.However, only 2% of these detected lesions can beconsidered a successful target, and there are insufficientdata demonstrating that resection of benign or lowgrade lesions improves survival. Many patients in thepublished studies therefore seemed to have receivedan overtreatment by undergoing surgery. It is crucial tobetter stratify the risk of malignancy individually, and tobetter define optimal screening intervals and methodseither with computerized tools or molecular biomarkers,possibly in large multicentre studies. At the moment,screening should be carefully performed within researchprotocols at experienced centres, offering involvedindividuals medical and psychological advice.

  14. High-resolution 14C dating of a 25,000-year lake-sediment record from equatorial East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Blaauw; B. van Geel; I. Kristen; B. Plessen; A. Lyaruu; D.R. Engstrom; J. van der Plicht; D. Verschuren

    2011-01-01

    We dated a continuous, ∼22-m long sediment sequence from Lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro area, Kenya/Tanzania) to produce a solid chronological framework for multi-proxy reconstructions of climate and environmental change in equatorial East Africa over the past 25,000 years. The age model is based on a

  15. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  16. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.J.D. Nagelkerke (Nico); S. Moses (Stephen); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); R.C. Bailey (Robert)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcisio

  17. Reprivatizing pharmaceutical supplies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turshen, M

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps no part of the health system is as imperiled by neoliberal economic reforms as the public drug sector. The national bill for pharmaceuticals can claim one-third of a developing country's annual health budget. This article describes the essential drugs program created by WHO in the 1980s to protect financially reduced ministries of health from the high prices charged by multinational pharmaceutical companies. It describes the backlash from the World Bank and UNICEF, which launched the Bamako Initiative and other community financing schemes and revolving drug plans in which individuals, families or community groups buy drugs above the wholesale purchase price; clinics use the proceeds to maintain drug supplies and subsidize other health services. When this plan failed, the Bank proposed outright privatization of drug purchase and supply, returning power to the multinational suppliers. The article ends with a consideration of patents and the new intellectual property rights as they pertain to pharmaceutical production in Africa. PMID:11469153

  18. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterisation of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project (AGVP) provides a resource to help design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and worldwide. The AGVP represents dense genotypes from 1,481 and whole genome sequences (WGS) from 320 individuals across SSA. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across SSA. We identify new loci under selection, including for malaria and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in SSA. Using WGS, we show further improvement in imputation accuracy supporting efforts for large-scale sequencing of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa, showing for the first time that such designs are feasible. PMID:25470054

  19. Morbidity and mortality according to latest CD4+ cell count among HIV positive individuals in South Africa who enrolled in project Phidisa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick H Maduna

    Full Text Available Short-term morbidity and mortality rates for HIV positive soldiers in the South African National Defence Force (SANDF would inform decisions about deployment and HIV disease management. Risks were determined according to the latest CD4+ cell count and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART for HIV positive individuals in the SANDF and their dependents.A total of 7,114 participants were enrolled and followed for mortality over a median of 4.7 years (IQR: 1.9, 7.1 years. For a planned subset (5,976, progression of disease (POD and grade 4, potentially life-threatening events were also ascertained. CD4+ count and viral load were measured every 3 to 6 months. Poisson regression was used to compare event rates by latest CD4+ count (<50, 50-99, 100-199, 200-349, 350-499, 500+ with a focus on upper three strata, and to estimate relative risks (RRs (ART/no ART. Median entry CD4+ was 207 cells/mm3. During follow-up over 70% were prescribed ART. Over follow-up 1,226 participants died; rates ranged from 57.6 (< 50 cells to 0.8 (500+ cells per 100 person years (py. Compared to those with latest CD4+ 200-349 (2.2/100 py, death rates were significantly lower (p<0.001, as expected, for those with 350-499 (0.9/100 py and with 500+ cells (0.8/100 py. The composite outcome of death, POD or grade 4 events occurred in 2,302 participants (4,045 events; rates were similar in higher CD4+ count strata (9.4 for 350-499 and 7.9 for 500+ cells and lower than those with counts 200-349 cells (13.5 (p<0.001. For those with latest CD4+ 350+ cells, 63% of the composite outcomes (680 of 1,074 were grade 4 events.Rates of morbidity and mortality are lowest among those with CD4+ count of 350 or higher and rates do not differ for those with counts of 350-499 versus 500+ cells. Grade 4 events are the predominant morbidity for participants with CD4+ counts of 350+ cells.

  20. Intraocular correction of high-degree ametropia using individual multifocal LentisMPlus IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Fedorova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background. For surgical correction of high-degree ametropia aggravated with astigmatism the following options are available: excimer laser correction; phakic lens implantation; bioptika – a combination of ablating the transparent crystalline lens (ATL with implantation of multifocal toric diopter IOL of standard series and LASIK for the correction of a residual refractive error, ATL using 2 IOLs according to the Technology «Piggy Back»; additional meniscus IOL implantation «Add-On»; ATL with implantation of an individual multifocal toric IOL. Purpose. To show a possibility of intraocular correction of high ametropia aggravated with astigmatism using toric multifocal custom IOLs. Material and methods. We observed two patients: the first female patient, 39 years old with a diagnosis of OU: high myopia, compound myopic astigmatism, initial complicated cataract, moderate amblyopia, peripheral chorioretinal degeneration (PCRD. On admission the distance visual acuity was vis OD=0.01 sph (- 15.5 D cyl (- 2.5 D ax 0°=0.6; vis OS=0.01 sph (- 18.0 D cyl (- 2.5 D ax 0°=0.5. The second patient was a 35-year woman with a diagnosis of OU: high hyperopia, compound hyperopic astigmatism, moderate amblyopia. Distance visual acuity on admission was OD=0.03 sph (+ 8.0 D cyl (+ 1.5 D ax 95°=0.5; OS=0.03 sph (+ 8.0 D cyl (+ 0.75 D ax 75°=0.6. Individual multifocal toric IOLs were implanted in both patents after the removal of the lens phacoemulsification. All standard ophthalmic examinations were used as well as the ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Results. In the follow-up: 6 months after the surgery in the first patient the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was far vis OD=0.6, vis OS=0.5, near vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.5, middle distance vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.4. The second patient 3 months after surgery had the UCVA far vis OD=0.5, vis OS=0.6, near vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.5, middle distance vis OD=0.2, vis OS=0.3. The maximum possible distance visual acuity

  1. High incidence of unplanned pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy initiation: findings from a prospective cohort study in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheree R Schwartz

    Full Text Available Increased fertility rates in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART have been attributed to improved immunological function; it is unknown to what extent the rise in pregnancy rates is due to unintended pregnancies.Non-pregnant women ages 18-35 from four public-sector ART clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa, were enrolled into a prospective cohort and followed from August 2009-March 2011. Fertility intentions, contraception and pregnancy status were measured longitudinally at participants' routine ART clinic visits.Of the 850 women enrolled, 822 (97% had at least one follow-up visit and contributed 745.2 person-years (PY at-risk for incident pregnancy. Overall, 170 pregnancies were detected in 161 women (incidence rate [IR]: 21.6/100 PY [95% confidence interval (CI: 18.5-25.2]. Of the 170 pregnancies, 105 (62% were unplanned. Unmet need for contraception was 50% higher in women initiating ART in the past year as compared to women on ART>1 year (prevalence ratio 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-2.0]; by two years post-ART initiation, nearly one quarter of women had at least one unplanned pregnancy. Cumulative incidence of pregnancy was equally high among recent ART initiators and ART experienced participants: 23.9% [95% CI: 16.4-34.1], 15.9% [12.0-20.8], and 21.0% [16.8-26.1] for women on ART 0-1 yr, >1 yr-2 yrs, and >2 yrs respectively (log-rank, p = 0.54. Eight hormonal contraceptive failures were detected [IR: 4.4 [95% CI: 2.2-8.9], 7/8 among women using injectable methods. Overall 47% (80/170 of pregnancies were not carried to term.Rates of unintended pregnancies among women on ART are high, including women recently initiating ART with lower CD4 counts and higher viral loads. A substantial burden of pregnancy loss was observed. Integration of contraceptive services and counselling into ART care is necessary to reduce maternal and child health risks related to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Further research into injectable

  2. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine mortality among assumed TB negative (aTBneg) individuals in Guinea-Bissau and to investigate whether plasma levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) can be used to determine post-consultation mortality risk. METHODS: This prospective West-African cohort study included......PAR levels negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed...... a high mortality rate among aTBneg individuals and demonstrated that suPAR measurements can provide prognostic information on mortality among individuals without disease diagnosis. Measuring suPAR is a technically simple method for determining mortality risk in individuals that are assumed to be TB-negative....

  3. Perceived ethnic discrimination and persecutory paranoia in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Madiha; Ellett, Lyn; Dutt, Anirban; Day, Fern; Laing, Jennifer; Kroll, Jasmine; Petrella, Sabrina; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R

    2016-07-30

    Despite a consensus that psychosocial adversity plays a role in the onset of psychosis, the nature of this role in relation to persecutory paranoia remains unclear. This study examined the complex relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoid ideation in individuals at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis using a virtual reality paradigm to objectively measure paranoia. Data from 64 UHR participants and 43 healthy volunteers were analysed to investigate the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and persecutory ideation in a virtual reality environment. Perceived ethnic discrimination was higher in young adults at UHR in comparison to healthy controls. A positive correlation was observed between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoid persecutory ideation in the whole sample. Perceived ethnic discrimination was not a significant predictor of paranoid persecutory ideation in the VR environment. Elevated levels of perceived ethnic discrimination are present in individuals at UHR and are consistent with current biopsychosocial models in which psychosocial adversity plays a key role in the development of psychosis and attenuated symptomatology. PMID:27232552

  4. Individual-based models for adaptive diversification in high-dimensional phenotype spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispolatov, Iaroslav; Madhok, Vaibhav; Doebeli, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Most theories of evolutionary diversification are based on equilibrium assumptions: they are either based on optimality arguments involving static fitness landscapes, or they assume that populations first evolve to an equilibrium state before diversification occurs, as exemplified by the concept of evolutionary branching points in adaptive dynamics theory. Recent results indicate that adaptive dynamics may often not converge to equilibrium points and instead generate complicated trajectories if evolution takes place in high-dimensional phenotype spaces. Even though some analytical results on diversification in complex phenotype spaces are available, to study this problem in general we need to reconstruct individual-based models from the adaptive dynamics generating the non-equilibrium dynamics. Here we first provide a method to construct individual-based models such that they faithfully reproduce the given adaptive dynamics attractor without diversification. We then show that a propensity to diversify can be introduced by adding Gaussian competition terms that generate frequency dependence while still preserving the same adaptive dynamics. For sufficiently strong competition, the disruptive selection generated by frequency-dependence overcomes the directional evolution along the selection gradient and leads to diversification in phenotypic directions that are orthogonal to the selection gradient.

  5. High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Asymptomatic Individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Bobanga, Thierry Lengu; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Kayembe, Jean-Marie Ntumba; Situakibanza, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Nsibu, Célestin Ndosimao; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method. Six provinces were randomly selected for blood collection in which 80 to 100 individuals were included in the study. Five hundred and eighty blood samples were collected and molecular diagnosis was performed. Globally, almost half of the samples collected from asymptomatic individuals (280/580; 48.2%) had Plasmodium infections and the most species identified was P. falciparum alone in combination with P. malariae. The high prevalence reported here should interpellate the bodies involved in malaria control in DR Congo to take into account asymptomatic carriers in actions taken and consider asymptomatic malaria as a major hurdle for malaria elimination. PMID:26942036

  6. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  7. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  8. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: The effect of acute exercise, and exercise intensity, on appetite control in obese individuals requires further study. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of acute isocaloric bouts (250 kcal) of high-intensity intermittent cycling (HIIC) and moderate-intensity continuous....../obese volunteers. Participants were assigned to the control, MICC, HIIC, and S-HIIC conditions, 1 wk apart, in a counterbalanced order. Exercise was performed 1 h after a standard breakfast. An ad libitum test lunch was served 3 h after breakfast. Fasting/postprandial plasma samples of insulin, acylated ghrelin......, and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels significantly increased during all exercise bouts compared with those during rest. Acylated ghrelin plasma levels were lower in the MICC and HIIC, but not in S-HIIC, compared with those in control. There were no significant differences for polypeptide YY3-36 plasma levels...

  9. The Attentional Blink Paradigm in Individuals with High and Low Levels of Depression and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Kathleen Skinner

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The attentional biases of individuals with high and low levels of depression and anxiety were tested using the Attentional Blink paradigm. A rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP task was used to detect biases in identification of emotionally valenced target images. The independent variables were depression, anxiety, lag of target stimulus, and emotional valence of target images. The dependent variables were accuracy, reaction times, and pupil dilation. As predicted, attentional biases were found for symptoms of both depression and anxiety, independently and co-morbidly, for dependent variables. The data suggest that there are both differences and similarities in the effects of symptoms of anxiety and depression on attentional biases around emotional stimuli.

  10. The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosegood, Victoria; Floyd, Sian; Marston, Milly; Hill, Caterina; McGrath, Nuala; Isingo, Raphael; Crampin, Amelia; Zaba, Basia

    2007-11-01

    Using longitudinal data from three demographic surveillance systems (DSS) and a retrospective cohort study, we estimate levels and trends in the prevalence and incidence of orphanhood in South Africa, Tanzania, and Malawi in the period 1988-2004. The prevalence of maternal, paternal, and double orphans rose in all three populations. In South Africa - where the HIV epidemic started later, has been very severe, and has not yet stabilized - the incidence of orphanhood among children is double that of the other populations. The living arrangements of children vary considerably between the populations, particularly in relation to fathers. Patterns of marriage, migration, and adult mortality influence the living and care arrangements of orphans and non-orphans. DSS data provide new insights into the impact of adult mortality on children, challenging several widely held assumptions. For example, we find no evidence that the prevalence of child-headed households is significant or has increased in the three study areas.

  11. Energy issues in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy

  12. Differing effects of high-fat or high-carbohydrate meals on food hedonics in overweight and obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Mark; Gibbons, Catherine; Caudwell, Phillipa; Blundell, John E; Finlayson, Graham

    2016-05-28

    Although the effects of dietary fat and carbohydrate on satiety are well documented, little is known about the impact of these macronutrients on food hedonics. We examined the effects of ad libitum and isoenergetic meals varying in fat and carbohydrate on satiety, energy intake and food hedonics. In all, sixty-five overweight and obese individuals (BMI=30·9 (sd 3·8) kg/m2) completed two separate test meal days in a randomised order in which they consumed high-fat/low-carbohydrate (HFLC) or low-fat/high-carbohydrate (LFHC) foods. Satiety was measured using subjective appetite ratings to calculate the satiety quotient. Satiation was assessed by intake at ad libitum meals. Hedonic measures of explicit liking (subjective ratings) and implicit wanting (speed of forced choice) for an array of HFLC and LFHC foods were also tested before and after isoenergetic HFLC and LFHC meals. The satiety quotient was greater after ad libitum and isoenergetic meals during the LFHC condition compared with the HFLC condition (P=0·006 and P=0·001, respectively), whereas ad libitum energy intake was lower in the LFHC condition (Pfoods compared with the isoenergetic HFLC meal, which failed to suppress the hedonic appeal of subsequent HFLC foods. Therefore, when coupled with increased satiety and lower energy intake, the greater suppression of hedonic appeal for high-fat food seen with LFHC foods provides a further mechanism for why these foods promote better short-term appetite control than HFLC foods.

  13. Northwest Africa 8535 and Northwest Africa 10463: New Insights into the Angrite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The angrite meteorites are valuable samples of igneous rocks formed early in Solar System history (approx.4.56 Ga, summarized in [1]). This small meteorite group (approx.24 individually named specimens) consists of rocks with somewhat exotic mineral compositions (e.g., high Ca olivine, Al-Ti-bearing diopside-hedenbergite, calcium silico-phosphates), resulting in exotic bulk rock compositions. These mineral assemblages remain fairly consistent among angrite samples, which suggests they formed due to similar processes from a single mantle source. There is still debate over the formation process for these rocks (see summary in [1]), and analysis of additional angrite samples may help to address this debate. Toward this end, we have begun to study two new angrites, Northwest Africa 8535, a dunite, and Northwest Africa 10463, a basaltic angrite.

  14. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates expressing low- and high-level mupirocin resistance in Nigeria and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Edet E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mupirocin is a topical antimicrobial agent which is used for the treatment of skin and postoperative wound infections, and the prevention of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. However, the prevalence of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus, particularly in MRSA, has increased with the extensive and widespread use of this agent in hospital settings. This study characterized low- and high-level mupirocin-resistant S. aureus isolates obtained from Nigeria and South Africa. Methods A total of 17 mupirocin-resistant S. aureus isolates obtained from two previous studies in Nigeria and South Africa, were characterized by antibiogram, PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene and PFGE. High-level mupirocin resistant isolates were confirmed by PCR detection of the mupA gene. The genetic location of the resistance determinants was established by curing and transfer experiments. Results All the low-level mupirocin resistant isolates were MRSA and resistant to gentamicin, tetracycline and trimethoprim. PFGE identified a major clone in two health care institutions located in Durban and a health care facility in Pietermaritzburg, Greytown and Empangeni. Curing and transfer experiments indicated that high-level mupirocin resistance was located on a 41.1 kb plasmid in the South African strain (A15. Furthermore, the transfer of high-level mupirocin resistance was demonstrated by the conjugative transfer of the 41.1 kb plasmid alone or with the co-transfer of a plasmid encoding resistance to cadmium. The size of the mupirocin-resistance encoding plasmid in the Nigerian strain (35 IBA was approximately 35 kb. Conclusion The emergence of mupirocin-resistant S. aureus isolates in Nigeria and South Africa should be of great concern to medical personnel in these countries. It is recommended that methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA should be routinely tested for mupirocin resistance even in facilities where the agent

  15. Faces in a crowd: high socially anxious individuals estimate that more people are looking at them than low socially anxious individuals.

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    Olivia C Bolt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention. METHOD: Forty-eight high and 48 low socially anxious participants performed a "faces in a crowd" computer task during which they briefly saw matrices of faces, which varied in terms of the proportion of people who were looking at them. Participants estimated the proportion of people who were looking at them. The task was performed once with mirrors present (to induce an enhanced self-focused state and once without mirrors present (neutral state. RESULTS: Participants' subjective estimates and the objective proportion of faces looking towards them were strongly correlated in both the high and low socially anxious groups. However, high socially anxious participants estimated that more people were looking at them than low socially anxious participants. In the first phase of the experiment, but not in the later phases, this effect was magnified in the mirror condition. DISCUSSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of a social anxiety related perceptual difference that may be amplified by self-focused attention. Clinical implications are discussed.

  16. Adaptive Behavior Ratings Correlate with Symptomatology and IQ among Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenworthy, Lauren; Case, Laura; Harms, Madeline B.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    Caregiver report on the Adaptive Behavior Assessment System-II (ABAS) for 40 high-functioning individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) and 30 typically developing (TD) individuals matched for age, IQ, and sex ratio revealed global adaptive behavior deficits in ASD, with social skills impairments particularly prominent. Within the ASD…

  17. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  18. ICTs for Agriculture in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...

  19. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  20. Geography of Africa biomedical publications: An analysis of 1996–2005 PubMed papers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uthman Mubashir B

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scientific publications play an important role in scientific process providing a key linkage between knowledge production and use. Scientific publishing activity worldwide over the past decades shows that most countries in Africa have low levels of publication. We sought to examine trends and contribution of different Africa subregions and individual countries as represented by the articles indexed by PubMed between 1996 and 2005. Results Research production in Africa is highly skewed; South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria make up a striking 60% of the total number of articles indexed by PubMed between 1996 and 2005. When adjusted for population size smaller countries, such as The Gambia, Gabon and Botswana, were more productive than Nigeria and Kenya. The Gambia and Eritrea had better records when total production was adjusted for gross domestic product. The contribution of Africa to global research production was persistently low through the period studied. Conclusion In this study, we found that most populous and rich countries (such as South Africa, Egypt, and Nigeria have correspondingly higher research production; but smaller countries can be productive. We noted continuous increases and reassuring trends in the production of research articles from all African subregions during the period 1996 – 2005. However, contribution of Africa to global research production was limited.

  1. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  2. Financing Water in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated policy initiatives from donors and governments, the human and economic cost of continued lack of access to safe water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Progress is in large part constrained by a persistent ‘financing gap’. This paper shows that a radical reorientation of policy is needed to achieve a significant increase in investment finance in order to raise access levels. Rather than continuing to pursue policies that have failed for the past two decades, ...

  3. Marine communities on oil platforms in Gabon, West Africa: high biodiversity oases in a low biodiversity environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Alan M; Ballesteros, Enric; Fay, Michael; Sala, Enric

    2014-01-01

    The marine biodiversity of Gabon, West Africa has not been well studied and is largely unknown. Our examination of marine communities associated with oil platforms in Gabon is the first scientific investigation of these structures and highlights the unique ecosystems associated with them. A number of species previously unknown to Gabonese waters were recorded during our surveys on these platforms. Clear distinctions in benthic communities were observed between older, larger platforms in the north and newer platforms to the south or closer to shore. The former were dominated by a solitary cup coral, Tubastraea sp., whereas the latter were dominated by the barnacle Megabalanus tintinnabulum, but with more diverse benthic assemblages compared to the northerly platforms. Previous work documented the presence of limited zooxanthellated scleractinian corals on natural rocky substrate in Gabon but none were recorded on platforms. Total estimated fish biomass on these platforms exceeded one ton at some locations and was dominated by barracuda (Sphyraena spp.), jacks (Carangids), and rainbow runner (Elagatis bipinnulata). Thirty-four percent of fish species observed on these platforms are new records for Gabon and 6% are new to tropical West Africa. Fish assemblages closely associated with platforms had distinct amphi-Atlantic affinities and platforms likely extend the distribution of these species into coastal West Africa. At least one potential invasive species, the snowflake coral (Carijoa riisei), was observed on the platforms. Oil platforms may act as stepping stones, increasing regional biodiversity and production but they may also be vectors for invasive species. Gabon is a world leader in terrestrial conservation with a network of protected areas covering >10% of the country. Oil exploration and biodiversity conservation currently co-exist in terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems in Gabon. Efforts to increase marine protection in Gabon may benefit by including oil

  4. Social Cognition in Individuals at Ultra-High Risk for Psychosis: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R J M van Donkersgoed

    Full Text Available Treatment in the ultra-high risk stage for a psychotic episode is critical to the course of symptoms. Markers for the development of psychosis have been studied, to optimize the detection of people at risk of psychosis. One possible marker for the transition to psychosis is social cognition. To estimate effect sizes for social cognition based on a quantitative integration of the published evidence, we conducted a meta-analysis of social cognitive performance in people at ultra high risk (UHR.A literature search (1970-July 2015 was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, Medline, Embase, and ISI Web of Science, using the search terms 'social cognition', 'theory of mind', 'emotion recognition', 'attributional style', 'social knowledge', 'social perception', 'empathy', 'at risk mental state', 'clinical high risk', 'psychosis prodrome', and 'ultra high risk'. The pooled effect size (Cohen's D and the effect sizes for each domain of social cognition were calculated. A random effects model with 95% confidence intervals was used.Seventeen studies were included in the analysis. The overall significant effect was of medium magnitude (d = 0.52, 95% Cl = 0.38-0.65. No moderator effects were found for age, gender and sample size. Sub-analyses demonstrated that individuals in the UHR phase show significant moderate deficits in affect recognition and affect discrimination in faces as well as in voices and in verbal Theory of Mind (TOM. Due to an insufficient amount of studies, we did not calculate an effect size for attributional bias and social perception/ knowledge. A majority of studies did not find a correlation between social cognition deficits and transition to psychosis, which may suggest that social cognition in general is not a useful marker for the development of psychosis. However some studies suggest the possible predictive value of verbal TOM and the recognition of specific emotions in faces for the transition into psychosis. More research is needed on

  5. South Atlantic continental margins of Africa: a comparison of the tectonic vs climate interplay on the evolution of equatorial west Africa and SW Africa margins

    CERN Document Server

    Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie

    2005-01-01

    The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...

  6. Markers of human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk individuals seronegative by first generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Lauritzen, E;

    1989-01-01

    are common in high risk individuals seronegative by first generation ELISA. However, HIV infection do occur in subjects negative by first generation ELISA, which emphasises the need for more sensitive screening assays and/or the use of antigen detection as part of screening in high risk individuals......A total of 228 stored serum samples from 140 high risk individuals was examined for serological markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by second generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, and HIV antigen assay. All the samples were negative in first generation enzyme......-linked immunoassay (ELISA). Seventy-four of the serum samples had been obtained from 40 sexual partners of HIV antibody positive individuals. Two of the samples were reactive for p24 in immunoblot, but no other markers of HIV infection were found. From 80 sexually active male homosexuals, 117 serum samples were...

  7. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  8. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Africa: a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization of isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cattoli

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in early 2006. Since the first outbreak in Nigeria, this virus spread rapidly to other African countries. From its emergence to early 2008, 11 African countries experienced A/H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and human cases were also reported in three of these countries. At present, little is known of the epidemiology and molecular evolution of A/H5N1 viruses in Africa. We have generated 494 full gene sequences from 67 African isolates and applied molecular analysis tools to a total of 1,152 A/H5N1 sequences obtained from viruses isolated in Africa, Europe and the Middle East between 2006 and early 2008. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the 8 gene viral segments confirmed that 3 distinct sublineages were introduced, which have persisted and spread across the continent over this 2-year period. Additionally, our molecular epidemiological studies highlighted the association between genetic clustering and area of origin in a majority of cases. Molecular signatures unique to strains isolated in selected areas also gave us a clearer picture of the spread of A/H5N1 viruses across the continent. Mutations described as typical of human influenza viruses in the genes coding for internal proteins or associated with host adaptation and increased resistance to antiviral drugs have also been detected in the genes coding for transmembrane proteins. These findings raise concern for the possible human health risk presented by viruses with these genetic properties and highlight the need for increased efforts to monitor the evolution of A/H5N1 viruses across the African continent. They further stress how imperative it is to implement sustainable control strategies to improve animal and public health at a global level.

  9. High detection rate of Rickettsia africae in Amblyomma variegatum but low prevalence of anti-rickettsial antibodies in healthy pregnant women in Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Christian; Krüger, Andreas; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Rakotozandrindrainy, Raphael; Rakotondrainiarivelo, Jean Philibert; Razafindrabe, Tsiry; Derschum, Henri; Silaghi, Cornelia; Pothmann, Daniela; Veit, Alexandra; Hogan, Benedikt; May, Jürgen; Girmann, Mirko; Kramme, Stefanie; Fleischer, Bernhard; Poppert, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Tick-borne spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses are emerging infectious diseases in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Madagascar, the endemicity of tick-borne rickettsiae and their vectors has been incompletely studied. The first part of the present study was conducted in 2011 and 2012 to identify potential anthropophilic tick vectors for SFG rickettsiae on cattle from seven Malagasy regions, and to detect and characterize rickettsiae in these ticks. Amblyomma variegatum was the only anthropophilic tick species found on 262 cattle. Using a novel ompB-specific qPCR, screening for rickettsial DNA was performed on 111 A. variegatum ticks. Rickettsial DNA was detected in 96 of 111 ticks studied (86.5%). Rickettsia africae was identified as the only infecting rickettsia using phylogenetic analysis of ompA and ompB gene sequences and three variable intergenic spacers from 11 ticks. The second part of the study was a cross-sectional survey for antibodies against SFG rickettsiae in plasma samples taken from healthy, pregnant women at six locations in Madagascar, two at sea level and four between 450 and 1300m altitude. An indirect fluorescent antibody test with Rickettsia conorii as surrogate SFG rickettsial antigen was used. We found R. conorii-seropositives at all altitudes with prevalences between 0.5% and 3.1%. Our results suggest that A. variegatum ticks highly infected with R. africae are the most prevalent cattle-associated tick vectors for SFG rickettsiosis in Madagascar. Transmission of SFG rickettsiosis to humans occurs at different altitudes in Madagascar and should be considered as a relevant cause of febrile diseases.

  10. p21(WAF1/CIP1 RNA expression in highly HIV-1 exposed, uninfected individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Herbeck

    Full Text Available Some individuals remain HIV-1 antibody and PCR negative after repeated exposures to the virus, and are referred to as HIV-exposed seronegatives (HESN. However, the causes of resistance to HIV-1 infection in cases other than those with a homozygous CCR5Δ32 deletion are unclear. We hypothesized that human p21WAF1/CIP1 (a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor could play a role in resistance to HIV-1 infection in HESN, as p21 expression has been associated with suppression of HIV-1 in elite controllers and reported to block HIV-1 integration in cell culture. We measured p21 RNA expression in PBMC from 40 HESN and 40 low exposure HIV-1 seroconverters (LESC prior to their infection using a real-time PCR assay. Comparing the 20 HESN with the highest exposure risk (median = 111 partners/2.5 years prior to the 20 LESC with the lowest exposure risk (median = 1 partner/2.5 years prior, p21 expression trended higher in HESN in only one of two experiments (P = 0.11 vs. P = 0.80. Additionally, comparison of p21 expression in the top 40 HESN (median = 73 partners/year and lowest 40 LESC (median = 2 partners/year showed no difference between the groups (P = 0.84. There was a weak linear trend between risk of infection after exposure and increasing p21 gene expression (R2 = 0.02, P = 0.12, but again only in one experiment. Hence, if p21 expression contributes to the resistance to viral infection in HESN, it likely plays a minor role evident only in those with extremely high levels of exposure to HIV-1.

  11. Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa: Is there an externality effect of high fertility?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Kravdal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A positive relationship between the number of siblings and a child's chance of being stunted has been seen in several studies. It is possible that individual stunting risks are also raised by high fertility in the community, partly because of the impact of aggregate fertility on the local economy, but this issue has not been addressed in earlier investigations. In this study we estimate the independent effect of the child dependency ratio in the province (or governorate, region, or larger geopolitical zone within a country, using DHS data on up to 145,000 children in 152 provinces in 23 countries with at least two such surveys. The data design allows inclusion of lagged province variables and province fixed effects (to control for constant unobserved province characteristics. Three types of regression models for a child's chance of being stunted are estimated. Some estimates suggest an adverse effect of the current child dependency ratio, net of the child's number of siblings, while others do not point in this direction. When the child dependency ratio measured in an earlier survey is included instead, no significant effects appear. Thus, we conclude that there is only weak support for the idea that a child's stunting risk may be raised by high fertility in the community.

  12. Identifying individuals at high risk of psychosis: predictive utility of Support Vector Machine using structural and functional MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eValli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is therefore increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analysed using a standard univariate analysis, and with Support Vector Machine (SVM, a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p<0.001. Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p<0.05 corrected while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis.

  13. Identifying Individuals at High Risk of Psychosis: Predictive Utility of Support Vector Machine using Structural and Functional MRI Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valli, Isabel; Marquand, Andre F.; Mechelli, Andrea; Raffin, Marie; Allen, Paul; Seal, Marc L.; McGuire, Philip

    2016-01-01

    The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is, therefore, increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an at-risk mental state for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analyzed using a standard univariate analysis, and with support vector machine (SVM), a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p < 0.001). Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. By contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p < 0.05 corrected), while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis. PMID:27092086

  14. Intraocular lens design for treating high myopia based on individual eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhaoqi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2007-02-01

    In this research, we firstly design the phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) based on individual eye model with optical design software ZEMAX. The individual PIOL is designed to correct the defocus and astigmatism, and then we compare the PIOL power calculated from the individual eye model with that from the experiential formula. Close values of PIOL power are obtained between the individual eye model and the formula, but the suggested method has more accuracy with more functions. The impact of PIOL decentration on human eye is evaluated, including rotation decentration, flat axis decentration, steep axis decentration and axial movement of PIOL, which is impossible with traditional method. To control the PIOL decentration errors, we give the limit values of PIOL decentration for the specific eye in this study.

  15. Technology of individualization of training future teacher of pre-school education in high school

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Abashina; Svetlana Yakob

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the modern educational technology training individualization of the future teacher of pre-school education, describes the conditions of their use in the educational process with students, reveals the osobennsti introduction this modular technology training.

  16. A meta-analysis of differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-07-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did individuals with HFA; (b) individuals with AspD had significantly higher VIQ than PIQ; and (c) VIQ was similar to PIQ in individuals with HFA. These findings seem to suggest that AspD and HFA are two different subtypes of Autism. The implications of the present findings to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed. PMID:24362849

  17. South Africa; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for South Africa. South Africa’s financial sector operates in a challenging economic environment. Despite remarkable progress since the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africa still has one of the world’s highest unemployment and income inequality rates. Slow economic growth since 2008 has further aggravated unemployment, real disposable income is stagnant, and households are heavily indebted. Relatively high capita...

  18. Measurements of Oleic Acid among Individual kernels Harvested from Test Plots of Purified Runner and Spanish High Oleic Seed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal oleic peanuts are often found within commercial lots of high oleic peanuts when sampling among individual kernels. Kernels not meeting high oleic threshold could be true contamination with normal oleic peanuts introduced via poor handling, or they could be immature and not fully expressing th...

  19. Africa Development Indicators 2006

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    Africa Development Indicators 2006 is the latest annual report from the World Bank on social and economic conditions across the continent. It was revamped this year to better report and monitor the challenges and transformations in Africa. Africa Development Indicators has evolved from a single data book, and this year consists of three independent but complementary products: this book, which brings together an essay and key outcome indicators for Africa, the Little Data Book on Africa 2006, ...

  20. Individual tree segmentation over large areas using airborne LiDAR point cloud and very high resolution optical imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Y.; Ferraz, A.; C. Mallet; Iovan, Corina

    2015-01-01

    Timely and accurate measuremen ts of forest parameters are critical for ecosystem studies, sustainable forest resources management, monitoring and planning. This paper presents a processing chain for individual tree segmentation over large areas with airborne LiDAR 3D point cloud and very high resolution (VHR) optical imagery. The proposed processing chain consists of fo rest stand level delineation with optical imagery, individual tree segmentation with Canopy ...

  1. Individualized lung recruitment during high-frequency ventilation in preterm infants is not associated with lung hyperinflation and air leaks

    OpenAIRE

    De Jaegere, Anne P; Deurloo, Eline E.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Offringa, Martin; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2016-01-01

    Lung recruitment during high-frequency ventilation (HFV) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been associated with an increased risk of lung hyperinflation and air leaks. Individualizing the lung recruitment procedure to the severity of lung disease of each patient might reduce these risks. In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated chest X-ray (CXR) characteristics during individualized oxygenation-guided lung recruitment with HFV in preterm infants with RDS, b...

  2. Rediscovering Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which China and Africa began a friendship that was built around Beijing’s political backing and developmental aid to a crop of emerging indepen- dent African nations.In the 1980s and 1990s,China shifted its focus by devoting more efforts to establishing a rapport with big powers and neighboring countries to create a sound environment for self-development.Since the turn of the cen- tury,however,the African continent has been rediscovered by China as a strategic partner in many areas.As the Chinese market has flourished,so too has the African economy,which maintained a growth momentum in recent years and has achieved a modest prosperity rarely seen in its history. He Fan,Deputy Director of the Research Center on International Finance affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shared his comments about this partnership on blog on the eve of the New Year.

  3. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa.Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme.Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms.A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49.There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  4. Environmental change at the southern Cape coast of South Africa as inferred from a high-resolution Holocene sediment record from Eilandvlei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Meadows, Michael E.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Meschner, Stephanie; Frenzel, Peter; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland; Kasper, Thomas; Quick, Lynne J.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Zabel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    reservoir effects for the older deposits. This indicates a temporal variability on the degree of old marine carbon affecting Eilandvlei during the Holocene, which was possibly caused by changes in the connectivity between the lake system and the ocean as well as changes in the extent of upwelling along the coast. To solve this problem, variable past reservoir effects were determined based on the dating of sample pairs which were assumingly deposited contemporaneously and are composed of different source material (marine/terrestrial). This approach provides the most reliable chronology revealing a median basal age of 8880 +145/220 cal BP. Thus, the Eilandvlei core represents an ultra-high-resolution record of environmental change during the Holocene, which is a unique discovery for entire southern Africa. Palaeoenvironmental interpretations of the this record strongly suggest that sedimentation conditions at Eilandvlei were closely coupled to global sea level changes. Moreover, the multi-proxy approach provides great potential for palaeoclimatic interpretations of this record. For example, geochemical proxies reflecting the varying input of terrestrial material suggest changes in the discharge of inflowing rivers which, in turn, may be linked to variations in rainfall and hence climate within the year-round rainfall zone of South Africa.

  5. Individual and Societal Wisdom: Explaining the Paradox of Human Aging and High Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeste, Dilip V; Oswald, Andrew J

    2014-03-26

    Objective: Although human aging is characterized by loss of fertility and progressive decline in physical abilities, later life is associated with better psychological health and well-being. Furthermore, there has been an unprecedented increase in average lifespan over the past century without corresponding extensions of fertile and healthy age spans. We propose a possible explanation for these paradoxical phenomena. Method: We reviewed the relevant literature on aging, well-being, and wisdom. Results: An increase in specific components of individual wisdom in later life may make up for the loss of fertility as well as declining physical health. However, current data on the relationship between aging and individual wisdom are not consistent and do not explain increased longevity in the general population during the past century. We propose that greater societal wisdom (including compassion) may account for the notable increase in average lifespan over the last century. Data in older adults with serious mental illnesses are limited, but suggest that many of them too experience improved psychosocial functioning, although their longevity has not yet increased, suggesting persistent stigma against mental illness and inadequate societal compassion. Conclusions: The proposed construct of societal wisdom needs more investigation. Research should also focus on the reasons for discrepant findings related to age-associated changes in different components of individual wisdom. Studies of wisdom and well-being are warranted in older people with serious mental illnesses, along with campaigns to enhance societal compassion for these disenfranchised individuals. Finally, effective interventions to enhance wisdom need to be developed and tested.

  6. Predicting Bullying Among High School Students Using Individual and School Factors: Analysis of a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Chad M.

    2011-01-01

    Being bullied has been recognized as a problem within the U.S. school systems. Individuals who have been bullied physically, verbally, relationally, or electronically typically suffer from mental health problems as a result. As it has been shown that males are more at risk for being bullied, it is important to understand what variables can predict males being bullied in order to design appropriate preventions and interventions to curb bullying in the schools. Four forms of school bullying beh...

  7. Perception of emotional facial expressions in individuals with high Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Poljac, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, restrictive and repetitive behaviours and specific impairments in emotional processing. The present study employed The Autism Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al. 2006) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 260 healthy individuals and to investigate whether this measure is related to the perception of facial emotional expressions. The emotional processing of twelve participants that scored significantly higher ...

  8. Do Natural Disasters Stimulate Individual Saving? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in a Highly Developed Country

    OpenAIRE

    Berlemann, Michael; Steinhardt, Max; Tutt, Jascha

    2015-01-01

    While various empirical studies have found negative growth-effects of natural disasters, little is yet known about the microeconomic channels through which disasters might affect short- and especially long-term growth. This paper contributes to filling this gap in the literature by studying how natural disasters affect individual saving decisions. This study makes use of a natural experiment created by the European Flood of August 2002. Using micro data from the German Socio-Economic Panel th...

  9. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  10. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  11. The 2011 United Nations high-level meeting on non-communicable diseases: the Africa agenda calls for a 5-by-5 approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, G A; Mayosi, B M

    2012-11-08

    The High Level Meeting of the 66th Session of the United Nations General Assembly was held in September 2011. The Political Declaration issued at the meeting focused the attention of world leaders and the global health community on the prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). The four major NCDs (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, diabetes and chronic respiratory diseases) and their four risk factors (tobacco use, unhealthy diet, physical inactivity and harmful use of alcohol) constitute the target of the '4-by-4' approach, which is also supported by national and international health organisations. We argue that while preventing these eight NCDs and risk factors is also important in Africa, it will not be enough. A '5-by-5' strategy is needed, addressing neuropsychiatric disorders as the fifth NCD; and transmissible agents that underlie the neglected tropical diseases and other NCDs as the fifth risk factor. These phenomena cause substantial preventable death and disability, and must therefore be prioritised.

  12. 76 FR 57924 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities at Intercity, Commuter, and High Speed Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... station-based lifts. On commuter, intercity, or high-speed rail lines or systems in which track passing... serves new or altered stations on the line or system. For example, if a new commuter or high-speed rail..., Commuter, and High Speed Passenger Railroad Station Platforms; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office...

  13. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  14. Selected Annotated Bibliography: "Schools as Learning Communities." The Creation of High-Performance Schools through Organizational and Individual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, James; Nakayama, Michelle

    This annotated bibliography is part of a three-part report on creating high performing schools through organizational and individual learning. It includes such topics as: teachers supporting teachers; educational improvement via total quality management; overcoming barriers to organizational change; the institutionalization of public schools;…

  15. Are there differences in oral health and oral health behavior between individuals with high and low dental fear?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuller, Annemarie A; Willumsen, Tiril; Holst, Dorthe

    2003-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of the relationship between dental fear, use of dental services, and oral health in different age groups in a common population are scarce. Dental fear and its relationships are usually described in individuals with high dental fear only. The purposes of this study were to de

  16. Individualism and Collectivism in Two Conflicted Societies: Comparing Israeli-Jewish and Palestinian-Arab High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagy, Shifra; Orr, Emda; Bar-On, Dan; Awwad, Elia

    2001-01-01

    Examined a theoretical framework concerning cultural patterns labeled individualism and collectivism in regard to Israeli-Jewish and Palestinian-Arab high school students. Student surveys based on values, historical interests, and attitudes toward conflict resolution indicated that both groups were more collectivist than individualistic, though…

  17. A stable, reusable, and highly active photosynthetic bioreactor by bio-interfacing an individual cyanobacterium with a mesoporous bilayer nanoshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Deng, Zhao; Wang, Li; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Tian, Ge; Ying, Guo-Liang; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Ming-Xi; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-05-01

    An individual cyanobacterium cell is interfaced with a nanoporous biohybrid layer within a mesoporous silica layer. The bio-interface acts as an egg membrane for cell protection and growth of outer shell. The resulting bilayer shell provides efficient functions to create a single cell photosynthetic bioreactor with high stability, reusability, and activity. PMID:25641812

  18. Quality Management in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kwanten, Tine

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This dissertation addresses something which is extremely important for both individual enterprises as well as entire nations i.e. the ability to deliver quality goods and services. Notwithstanding its geographical distant location, South Africa is increasingly becoming a more important participant in the global economy and increasingly relying on export. Local businesses therefore need to meet international quality standards. For this matter this dissertation investigated the sta...

  19. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    possibilities for individual voice, autonomy and self-determination in the local delivery of activation policy? What barriers do specific organisational models and practices imply for clients to choose, determine and access tailor-made programmes and services? What policy technologies are at work in governing......The paper focuses on the unemployed individual and her position in local activation practice. The overall aim is to analyse the role of individualisation of local activation policy in the construction of social citizenship in Sweden. More specifically, we ask: To what extent do clients have......-oriented, and the normative demands placed on individuals appear increasingly totalizing, concerning the whole individual rather than the job-related aspects only. The paper is based on 23 in-depth interviews with individual clients as well as individual caseworkers and other professionals engaged in client-related work...

  20. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin T Lübke

    Full Text Available Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14 or a low (n = 12 level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  1. Ceramic water filters impregnated with silver nanoparticles as a point-of-use water-treatment intervention for HIV-positive individuals in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a pilot study of technological performance and human health benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abebe, Lydia Shawel; Smith, James A; Narkiewicz, Sophia; Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka; Conaway, Mark; Singo, Alukhethi; Amidou, Samie; Mojapelo, Paul; Brant, Julia; Dillingham, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Waterborne pathogens present a significant threat to people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). This study presents a randomized, controlled trial that evaluates whether a household-level ceramic water filter (CWF) intervention can improve drinking water quality and decrease days of diarrhea in PLWH in rural South Africa. Seventy-four participants were randomized in an intervention group with CWFs and a control group without filters. Participants in the CWF arm received CWFs impregnated with silver nanoparticles and associated safe-storage containers. Water and stool samples were collected at baseline and 12 months. Diarrhea incidence was self-reported weekly for 12 months. The average diarrhea rate in the control group was 0.064 days/week compared to 0.015 days/week in the intervention group (p water and decrease days of diarrhea for PLWH in rural South Africa.

  2. Cretaceous paleogeography of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.

    1986-05-01

    Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.

  3. Do not forget the boys - gender differences in children living in high HIV-affected communities in South Africa and Malawi in a longitudinal, community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensels, I S; Sherr, L; Skeen, S; Macedo, A; Roberts, K J; Tomlinson, M

    2016-03-01

    Gender is an important factor in child development. Especially in sub-Saharan Africa, girls have often been shown to be less likely to access education compared to boys. The consequence of this has been that that programmes addressing child development are often aimed at girls in order to redress gender imbalances. This study examines the effect of gender on the development of children attending community-based organisations in high HIV-affected areas, and explores whether community-based organisation attendance was associated with any changes in gender differences over time. Baseline data from 989 children and 12-15 month follow from 854 (86% response rate) were used to examine gender differences in children from Malawi and South Africa. At baseline, where there were differences by gender, these tended to disadvantage boys. It was found that boys were significantly more often found to be subjected to violence. Boys showed worse performance at school and more behavioural problems than girls. These gender differences persisted from baseline to follow-up. At follow-up, boys self-reported significantly worse average quality of life than girls. Only harsh discipline differed by gender in progression over time: boys experienced a stronger reduction in harsh physical discipline than girls from baseline to follow-up. Since harsh discipline was associated with boys' worse educational outcomes and behavioural problems, our data cautiously suggests that gender differences could be reduced over time. In conclusion, our data suggests that, perhaps due to the narrow equity approach focusing on provision for girls, boys may be overlooked. As a result, there are some specific experiences where boys are generally worse off. These differences have distinct ramifications for the educational and emotional development of boys. A broader equity approach to child development might be warranted to ensure that the needs of both girls and boys are considered, and that boys are not

  4. Decreased latent inhibition is associated with increased creative achievement in high-functioning individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Shelley H; Peterson, Jordan B; Higgins, Daniel M

    2003-09-01

    Reductions in latent inhibition (LI), the capacity to screen from conscious awareness stimuli previously experienced as irrelevant, have been generally associated with the tendency towards psychosis. However, "failure" to screen out previously irrelevant stimuli might also hypothetically contribute to original thinking, particularly in combination with high IQ. Meta-analysis of two studies, conducted on youthful high-IQ samples. demonstrated that high lifetime creative achievers had significantly lower LI scores than low creative achievers (r(effect size) = .31, p = .0003, one-tailed). Eminent creative achievers (participants under 21 years who reported unusually high scores in a single domain of creative achievement) were 7 times more likely to have low rather than high LI scores, chi2 (1, N = 25) = 10.69, phi = .47. p = .003.

  5. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in collecti

  6. Adventure in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelProsser

    2004-01-01

    In 1990 to 1991, my wife and I taught at the University of Swaziland in southeast Africa. Swaziland is one of the only three country kingdoms in Africa, with Morocco and Leaotho as the others. Swaziland is surrouded by South Africa on three sides and on one side by Mozambique. it has ling been called the peaceful kingdom and is 97% black.

  7. Contribution from individual nearby sources to the spectrum of high-energy cosmic-ray electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedrati, R., E-mail: rafik.sedrati@univ-annaba.org; Attallah, R.

    2014-04-01

    In the last few years, very important data on high-energy cosmic-ray electrons and positrons from high-precision space-born and ground-based experiments have attracted a great deal of interest. These particles represent a unique probe for studying local comic-ray accelerators because they lose energy very rapidly. These energy losses reduce the lifetime so drastically that high-energy cosmic-ray electrons can attain the Earth only from rather local astrophysical sources. This work aims at calculating, by means of Monte Carlo simulation, the contribution from some known nearby astrophysical sources to the cosmic-ray electron/positron spectra at high energy (≥10GeV). The background to the electron energy spectrum from distant sources is determined with the help of the GALPROP code. The obtained numerical results are compared with a set of experimental data.

  8. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We ar

  9. Extended Lyman alpha haloes around individual high-redshift galaxies revealed by MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Wisotzki, L; Blaizot, J; Brinchmann, J; Herenz, E C; Schaye, J; Bouché, N; Cantalupo, S; Contini, T; Carollo, C M; Caruana, J; Courbot, J -B; Emsellem, E; Kamann, S; Kerutt, J; Leclercq, F; Lilly, S J; Patrício, V; Sandin, C; Steinmetz, M; Straka, L A; Urrutia, T; Verhamme, A; Weilbacher, P M; Wendt, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of extended Ly alpha emission around individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts z = 3-6 in an ultradeep exposure of the Hubble Deep Field South obtained with MUSE on the ESO-VLT. The data reach a limiting surface brightness (1sigma) of ~1 x 10^-19 erg s^-1 cm^-2 arcsec^-2 in azimuthally averaged radial profiles, an order of magnitude improvement over previous narrowband imaging. Our sample consists of 26 spectroscopically confirmed Ly alpha-emitting, but mostly continuum-faint (m_AB >~ 27) galaxies. In most objects the Ly alpha emission is considerably more extended than the UV continuum light. While 5 of the faintest galaxies in the sample show no significantly detected Ly alpha haloes, the derived upper limits suggest that this is just due to insufficient S/N. Ly alpha haloes therefore appear to be (nearly) ubiquitous even for low-mass (~10^8-10^9 M_sun) star-forming galaxies at z>3. We decompose the Ly alpha emission of each object into a compact `continuum-like' and an extended ...

  10. Regional responses: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author presents the theory that for Africa to work towards reduction of global warming, it must first address its environmental problems; i.e. land use, deforestation, desertification, poverty and hunger. He argues that Africa should aim for growth in the productivity and quantity of energy use. The following suggestions were made: Africa must shift from low-quantity biomass to secondary sources in the short term; developed countries must avoid pushing experimental and frontier technologies on Africa; with financial and technical help, Africa could develop its largely untapped reserves of hydropower. Nuclear power should not be an option because reliable production is not possible at present

  11. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environm...

  12. Lexical Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Samantha; Yelland, Greg; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The presence or absence of clinically delayed language development prior to 3 years of age is a key, but contentious, clinical feature distinguishing autism from Asperger's disorder. The aim of this study was to examine language processing in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD) using a task which taps lexical…

  13. Do Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Who Speak a Tone Language Show Intonation Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kary K. L.; To, Carol K. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether intonation deficits were observed in 19 Cantonese-speaking adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) when compared to 19 matched neurotypical (NT) controls. This study also investigated the use of sentence-final particles (SFPs) and their relationship with intonation in both groups. Standard deviations…

  14. High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    High-definition OCT (HD-OCT) is an innovative technique based on the principle of conventional OCT. Our objective was to test the resolution and image quality of HD-OCT in comparison with reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) of healthy skin. Firstly, images have been made of a ultra...

  15. Efficiency analysis of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Sushko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential. Material and Methods: in order to identify the factors that have supported the performance of Ukraine's male national team in the European Championship, data analysis and generalization of scientific and technical literature and online data, analysis of official protocols of competitive activities, analysis and generalization of best pedagogical practices, pedagogical supervision, methods of mathematical statistics were used. Results: the efficiency of competitive activity of basketball players was analyzed using such indicators as team roles, won and lost matches, scored and missed points, technical, tactical and age indicators. Conclusions: the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential were identified with regard to age indicators

  16. Coaching individuals with perfectionistic tendencies When high standards help and hinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Corrie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Perfectionism has been widely recognised in the clinical field but has received less attention in the coaching psychology literature. Referring to overly high and unforgiving personal standards of performance that are accompanied by harsh self-evaluation when self-imposed standards are not met, perfectionism has the potential to undermine the coachee’s ability to achieve their goals as well as the coaching process itself. In consequence, it is important for practitioners to be able to identify and work effectively with those coachees whose perfectionistic tendencies represent an obstacle to progress. This paper discusses the current literature on perfectionism and provides recommendations on how to work effectively with coachees for whom unremittingly high personal standards are an impediment to personal growth and development.

  17. Assessing individual risk for high-risk colorectal adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yin; Rosner, Bernard A; Ma, Jing; Tamimi, Rulla M; Chan, Andrew T; Fuchs, Charles S; Wu, Kana; Giovannucci, Edward L

    2015-10-01

    Assessing risk of colorectal adenoma at first-time colonoscopy that are of higher likelihood of developing advanced neoplasia during surveillance could help tailor first-line colorectal cancer screening. We developed prediction models for high-risk colorectal adenoma (at least one adenoma ≥1 cm, or with advanced histology, or ≥3 adenomas) among 4,881 asymptomatic white men and 17,970 women who underwent colonoscopy as their first-time screening for colorectal cancer in two prospective US studies using logistic regressions. C-statistics and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were used to evaluate discrimination and calibration. Ten-fold cross-validation was used for internal validation. A total of 330 (6.7%) men and 678 (3.8%) women were diagnosed with high-risk adenoma at first-time screening colonoscopy. The model for men included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, sitting watching TV/VCR, regular aspirin/NSAID use, physical activity, and a joint term of multivitamin and alcohol. For women, the model included age, family history of colorectal cancer, BMI, smoking, alcohol, beef/pork/lamb as main dish, regular aspirin/NSAID, calcium, and oral contraceptive use. The C-statistic of the model for men was 0.67 and 0.60 for women (0.64 and 0.57 in cross-validation). Both models calibrated well. The predicted risk of high-risk adenoma for men in the top decile was 15.4% vs. 1.8% for men in the bottom decile (Odds Ratio [OR] = 9.41), and 6.6% vs. 2.1% for women (OR = 3.48). In summary, we developed and internally validated an absolute risk assessment tool for high-risk colorectal adenoma among the US population that may provide guidance for first-time colorectal cancer screening. PMID:25820865

  18. Intraocular correction of high-degree ametropia using individual multifocal LentisMPlus IOL

    OpenAIRE

    Fedorova, I. S.; S.Y. Kopayev; T.S. Kuznetsova,; D.G. Uzunyan

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background. For surgical correction of high-degree ametropia aggravated with astigmatism the following options are available: excimer laser correction; phakic lens implantation; bioptika – a combination of ablating the transparent crystalline lens (ATL) with implantation of multifocal toric diopter IOL of standard series and LASIK for the correction of a residual refractive error, ATL using 2 IOLs according to the Technology «Piggy Back»; additional meniscus IOL implantation «Ad...

  19. Enhanced discrimination between threatening and safe contexts in high-anxious individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Tadda, Regina; Andreatta, Marta; Tröger, Christian; Ewald, Heike; Grillon, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Trait anxiety, a stable personality trait associated with increased fear responses to threat, is regarded as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Although the effect of trait anxiety has been examined with regard to explicit threat cues, little is known about the effect of trait anxiety on contextual threat learning. To assess this issue, extreme groups of low and high trait anxiety underwent a contextual fear conditioning protocol using virtual reality. Two...

  20. Emotion processing and regulation: an electrophysiological investigation among high borderline personality trait individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sramko, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Emotion processing and regulation are fundamental for stable mental functioning and healthy interpersonal relationships. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder where emotional dysregulation is a core feature, yet the neural processes underlying this dysfunction remain poorly understood. We examined bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion processing among females selected for high and low levels of BPD traits (HBT and LBT groups). Study 1 (30 participan...

  1. Neither perceived job stress nor individual cardiovascular reactivity predict high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Jean Pierre; M'Pio, Ignasse; Quelin, Pierre; Rigaud, Jean-Pierre; Laville, Maurice; Ducher, Michel

    2003-12-01

    We have reported that high job strain was associated with a significantly higher diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 4.5 mm Hg during the working hours, irrespective of BP reactivity to a stress test. We report the final results of the first 5-year follow-up study, which aimed to assess the respective influences of perception of professional strain and cardiovascular reactivity to a mental stress test on BP. A cohort of 292 healthy subjects (mean+/-SEM age, 38+/-1 years) was followed up for progression to hypertension outcome, which was defined as an increase in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or DBP >7 mm Hg or a DBP >95 mm Hg during follow-up. None of the subjects was lost to follow-up, and 209 subjects completed the study. The high-strain (HS) group, representing 20.9% of the subjects, was compared with the remaining subjects (non-high-strain [NHS]). Similarly, the subjects with the highest BP stress reactivity (HR; 20.9% of subjects) were compared with the remaining subjects (NHR). Progression to hypertension was reached by 93 subjects (31.8%). Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed that neither HS nor HR increased the incidence of progression to hypertension. End-of-follow-up 24-hour ambulatory BPs that were similar in HS and NHS (120+/-2 vs 120+/-1 mm Hg, respectively) and in HR and NHR (122+/-2 vs 120+/-1 mm Hg, respectively) confirmed our findings. Age, alcohol, salt diet, body mass index, and occupation did not interfere with our results. In conclusion, cardiovascular HR and HS do not appear to be major risk markers for future high BP in healthy, young adults.

  2. Does entrepreneurial confidence influence the nature of entrepreneurial projects chosen by individuals with high ability?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayon, Manoj; Lafuente González, Esteban Miguel; Vaillant, Yancy

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study of 247 nascent entrepreneurs examines the joint effect of high ability and entrepreneurial confidence is influencing the choice of innovative entrepreneurship. We suggest that in their decision to pursue entrepreneurship aspiring nascent entrepreneurs seek to gain strategic advantages that allow their new ventures to enter and compete in a given marketplace. We argue that aspiring nascent entrepreneurs create such advantages by choosing innovative entrepreneurial projects...

  3. Short-Term Effects of a High Nitrate Diet on Nitrate Metabolism in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine P. Bondonno

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dietary nitrate, through the enterosalivary nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, can improve blood pressure and arterial stiffness. How long systemic nitrate and nitrite remain elevated following cessation of high nitrate intake is unknown. In 19 healthy men and women, the time for salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite to return to baseline after 7 days increased nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables was determined. Salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite was measured at baseline [D0], end of high nitrate diet [D7], day 9 [+2D], day 14 [+7D] and day 21 [+14D]. Urinary nitrite and nitrate was assessed at D7 and +14D. Increased dietary nitrate for 7 days resulted in a more than fourfold increase in saliva and plasma nitrate and nitrite (p < 0.001 measured at [D7]. At [+2D] plasma nitrite and nitrate had returned to baseline while saliva nitrate and nitrite were more than 1.5 times higher than at baseline levels. By [+7D] all metabolites had returned to baseline levels. The pattern of response was similar between men and women. Urinary nitrate and nitrate was sevenfold higher at D7 compared to +14D. These results suggest that daily ingestion of nitrate may be required to maintain the physiological changes associated with high nitrate intake.

  4. Understanding South Africa's Economic Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2006-01-01

    South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...

  5. Extended Lyman α haloes around individual high-redshift galaxies revealed by MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzki, L.; Bacon, R.; Blaizot, J.; Brinchmann, J.; Herenz, E. C.; Schaye, J.; Bouché, N.; Cantalupo, S.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Caruana, J.; Courbot, J.-B.; Emsellem, E.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Leclercq, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Patrício, V.; Sandin, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Straka, L. A.; Urrutia, T.; Verhamme, A.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wendt, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission around individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts z = 3-6 in an ultradeep exposure of the Hubble Deep Field South obtained with MUSE on the ESO-VLT. The data reach a limiting surface brightness (1σ) of ~1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in azimuthally averaged radial profiles, an order of magnitude improvement over previous narrowband imaging. Our sample consists of 26 spectroscopically confirmed Lyα-emitting, but mostly continuum-faint (mAB ≳ 27) galaxies. In most objects the Lyα emission is considerably more extended than the UV continuum light. While five of the faintest galaxies in the sample show no significantly detected Lyα haloes, the derived upper limits suggest that this is due to insufficient S/N. Lyα haloes therefore appear to be ubiquitous even for low-mass (~ 108-109 M⊙) star-forming galaxies at z > 3. We decompose the Lyα emission of each object into a compact component tracing the UV continuum and an extended halo component, and infer sizes and luminosities of the haloes. The extended Lyα emission approximately follows an exponential surface brightness distribution with a scale length of a few kpc. While these haloes are thus quite modest in terms of their absolute sizes, they are larger by a factor of 5-15 than the corresponding rest-frame UV continuum sources as seen by HST. They are also much more extended, by a factor ~5, than Lyα haloes around low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Between ~40% and ≳90% of the observed Lyα flux comes from the extended halo component, with no obvious correlation of this fraction with either the absolute or the relative size of the Lyα halo. Our observations provide direct insights into the spatial distribution of at least partly neutral gas residing in the circumgalactic medium of low to intermediate mass galaxies at z > 3.

  6. Conceptualizing Biopolitics: Citizen-State Interactions in the Securing of Water Services in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulled, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Despite constitutional obligations to provide clean water to all citizens in South Africa, access to water and related services remains highly contested. The discord between constitutional promises and lived realities of water access, particularly through national infrastructure, provides a platform on which to examine Foucauldian notions of biopolitics, the control of populations through technologies of governing. Drawing on the situations of residents in the rural Vhembe district in the north eastern corner of the country, I examine how individuals conceptualize the relationship that exists between citizen and state and the responsibilities of each in post-Apartheid South Africa as it relates to water access. In addition, I describe strategies employed throughout South Africa to voice rights to water and how these approaches are perceived. Finally, I consider how the three primary forms of 'water citizenship'-citizen, agent, and subject-influence the current and future health of vulnerable residents.

  7. Individual reactions to high involvement work processes: investigating the role of empowerment and perceived organizational support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butts, Marcus M; Vandenberg, Robert J; DeJoy, David M; Schaffer, Bryan S; Wilson, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    This study sought to understand how high involvement work processes (HIWP) are processed at the employee level. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the authors tested and supported a model in which psychological empowerment mediated the effects of HIWP on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job stress. Furthermore, perceived organizational support (POS) was hypothesized to moderate the relationships between empowerment and these outcomes. With exception for the empowerment-job satisfaction association, support was found for our predictions. Future directions for research and the practical implications of our findings for both employees and organizations are discussed. PMID:19331475

  8. Affective and neural reactivity to criticism in individuals high and low on perceived criticism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill M Hooley

    Full Text Available People who have remitted from depression are at increased risk for relapse if they rate their relatives as being critical of them on a simple self-report measure of Perceived Criticism (PC. To explore neural mechanisms associated with this we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI to examine how people with different levels of PC responded to hearing criticism from their own mothers. To maximize variability in affective reactivity, depressed, recovered depressed, and healthy control participants (n = 33 were classified as high or low in PC based on a median split. They were then exposed to personally-relevant critical and praising comments from their mothers. Perceived Criticism levels were unrelated to depression status and to negative mood change after hearing criticism. However, compared to low PC participants, those who scored high on PC showed differential activation in a network of regions associated with emotion reactivity and regulation, including increased amygdala activity and decreased reactions in prefrontal regulatory regions when they heard criticism. This was not the case for praise. Criticism may be a risk factor for relapse because it helps to "train" pathways characteristic of depressive information processing. The Perceived Criticism measure may help identify people who are more susceptible to this vulnerability.

  9. Individualized radiotherapy by combining high-end irradiation and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Wilkens, Jan J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Nuesslin, Fridtjof [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has been integrated into daily clinical routine and can today be considered the standard especially with high-dose radiotherapy. Currently imaging is based on MV- or kV-CT, which has clear limitations especially in soft-tissue contrast. Thus, combination of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and high-end radiotherapy opens a new horizon. The intricate technical properties of MR imagers pose a challenge to technology when combined with radiation technology. Several solutions that are almost ready for routine clinical application have been developed. The clinical questions include dose-escalation strategies, monitoring of changes during treatment as well as imaging without additional radiation exposure during treatment. (orig.) [German] Die bildgestuetzte Radiotherapie (''image guided radiotherapy'', IGRT) ist in die taegliche klinische Routine integriert und kann heute als Therapiestandard angesehen werden, insbesondere bei dosiseskalierten Strahlentherapiekonzepten. Die derzeitige Bildgebung basiert auf der MV- oder kV-CT, welche beide besonders in Bezug auf die Darstellung von Weichteilen Limitationen aufweisen. Aus diesem Grund ist die Kombination von Magnetresonanz-(MR-)Bildgebung und moderner Strahlentherapietechnik eine zukunftsweisende Entwicklung. Die speziellen technischen Eigenschaften von MR-Scannern bringen eine grosse Herausforderung mit sich, wenn sie mit hochmodernen Strahlentherapiegeraeten kombiniert werden sollen. Eine Reihe technischer Loesungen sind entwickelt worden, die kurz vor dem klinischen Einsatz stehen. Die klinischen Fragestellungen umfassen unter anderem Strategien zur Dosiseskalation, Ueberwachung von Gewebeveraenderungen waehrend einer Strahlentherapie sowie Bildgebung unter Therapie ohne zusaetzliche Dosisapplikation. (orig.)

  10. Rifampicin mono-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a significant phenomenon in a high prevalence TB-HIV region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoob Mahomed Coovadia

    Full Text Available SETTING: The dual epidemics of HIV-TB including MDR-TB are major contributors to high morbidity and mortality rates in South Africa. Rifampicin (RIF resistance is regarded as a proxy for MDR-TB. Currently available molecular assays have the advantage of rapidly detecting resistant strains of MTB, but the GeneXpert does not detect isoniazid (INH resistance and the GenoTypeMTBDRplus(LPA assay may underestimate resistance to INH. Increasing proportions of rifampicin mono-resistance resistance (RMR have recently been reported from South Africa and other countries. OBJECTIVE: This laboratory based study was conducted at NHLS TB Laboratory, Durban, which is the reference laboratory for culture and susceptibility testing in KwaZulu-Natal. We retrospectively determined, for the period 2007 to 2009, the proportion of RMR amongst Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB isolates, that were tested for both RIF and INH, using the gold standard of culture based phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST. Gender and age were also analysed to identify possible risk factors for RMR. DESIGN: MTB culture positive sputum samples from 16,748 patients were analysed for susceptibility to RIF and INH during the period 2007 to 2009. RMR was defined as MTB resistant to RIF and susceptible to INH. For the purposes of this study, only the first specimen from each patient was included in the analysis. RESULTS: RMR was observed throughout the study period. The proportion of RMR varied from a low of 7.3% to a high of 10.0% [overall 8.8%]. Overall, males had a 42% increased odds of being RMR as compared to females. In comparison to the 50 plus age group, RMR was 37% more likely to occur in the 25-29 year age category. CONCLUSION: We report higher proportions of RMR ranging from 7.3% to 10% [overall 8.8%] than previously reported in the literature. To avoid misclassification of RMR, detected by the GeneXpert, as MDR-TB, culture based phenotypic DST must be performed on a second

  11. Africa's Pulse, October 2013 : An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa's Economic Future

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Africa's pulse newsletter includes the following headings: economic prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa remain strong, but growth is vulnerable to a sharp decline in commodity prices; the region's progress on reducing poverty has been slow, hindered by high inequality; and faster reduction in poverty will require growth with equity.

  12. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity...... and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality...

  13. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  14. 'Testing Together Challenges the Relationship': Consequences of HIV Testing as a Couple in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanani Tabana

    Full Text Available We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention.This study was conducted in October 2011 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 2 years after couples tested and received results together. Fourteen couples were purposively sampled: discordant, concordant negative and concordant positive couples.Learning about each other's status together challenged relationships of the couples in different ways depending on HIV status and gender. The mutual information confirmed suspected infidelity that had not been discussed before. Negative women in discordant partnerships remained with their positive partner due to social pressure and struggled to maintain their HIV negative status. Most of the couple relationships were characterized by silence and mistrust. Knowledge of sero-status also led to loss of sexual intimacy in some couples especially the discordant. For most men in concordant negative couples, knowledge of status was an awakening of the importance of fidelity and an opportunity for behaviour change, while for concordant positive and discordant couples, it was seen as proof of infidelity. Although positive HIV status was perceived as confirmation of infidelity, couples continued their relationship and offered some support for each other, living and managing life together. Sexual life in these couples was characterized by conflict and sometimes violence. In the concordant negative couples, trust was enhanced and behaviour change was promised.Findings suggest that testing together as couples challenged relationships in both negative and positive ways. Further, knowledge of HIV status indicated potential to influence behaviour change especially among concordant negatives. In the discordant and concordant positive couples, traditional gender roles exposed

  15. An inexpensive workplace initiative to motivate high-risk individual health improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Aimee T; Ladd, D Alan; Elshaw, John J; Schlub, James F

    2013-08-01

    Unhealthy lifestyles cost businesses, governmental organizations, and the U.S. military billions of dollars every year, not to mention intangible costs associated with increased mortality. This study implemented a low-cost cognitive-behavioral motivational intervention to effect behavioral change in high-risk civilian employees working for a U.S. military organization, with accompanying improvement in certain health indicators after 120 days compared with a control group. Our analysis of these results led to two conclusions: first, low-cost cognitive-behavioral motivational treatments can improve both behavior and health, and second, tentative results indicate a fully mediated relationship may exist among the cognitive variables of locus of control and self-efficacy, vice the predicted parallel relationship. Overall, we assert that effective implementation of an intervention like the one used in this study might lower the U.S. Air Force's health care bill by as much as $40 million, improve employee efficiency and mission capability, enable healthier lives, and prevent premature death. PMID:23929061

  16. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentero, G.; Mangler, C.; Kotakoski, J.; Eder, F.R.; Meyer, J.C., E-mail: Jannik.Meyer@univie.ac.at

    2015-04-15

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate that the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number. - Highlights: • We explore how energy loss spectroscopy could be used to obtain information about the mass, rather than the charge, of atoms. • The dose and precision that would be needed to distinguish between the two isotopes of carbon, C12 and C13, is estimated. • Signal broadening due to phonons is included in the calculation. • Initial experiments show the separation between gold and carbon based on their mass rather than charge.

  17. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. PMID:21905039

  18. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed.

  19. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Source Memory in High-Trait-Anxiety Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P S; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for

  20. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Source Memory in High-Trait-Anxiety Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P. S.; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for

  1. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Source Memory in High-Trait-Anxiety Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P S; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for

  2. Comanagement at the Fringes: Examining Stakeholder Perspectives at Macassar Dunes, Cape Town, South Africa--at the Intersection of High Biodiversity, Urban Poverty, and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, co-management provides a fruitful way to engage local residents in efforts to conserve and manage particular spaces of ecological value. However, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation in particular, are faced with novel sets of complexities in the rapidly urbanizing areas of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the nexus between an apartheid past, informal settlements, remnant biodiversity patches, and urban poverty. Departing from such a dynamic social and ecological context, this article first provides an historical account of the decade-long comanagement process at Macassar Dunes, and then considers, through stakeholder perceptions, what are the successes and failures of the contested process. We find that comanagement at Macassar Dunes faces serious legitimacy, trust, and commitment issues, but also that stakeholders find common ground on education and awareness-raising activities. In conclusion we argue that the knowledge generated from case studies like this is useful in challenging and rethinking natural resource management theory generally, but specifically it is useful for the growing cities of the Global South. More case studies and a deeper engagement are needed with geographical theories on the “urban fringe” as “possibility space”, to help build a firm empirical base for theorizing comanagement “at the fringes”, i.e., at the intersection of poverty, socioeconomic inequality, and high biodiversity and ecological values.

  3. Very high weight ratios of S/K in individual haze particles over Kalimantan during the 1997 Indonesian forest fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Miwako; Okada, Kikuo; Zaizen, Yuji; Makino, Yukio; Jensen, Jorgen B.; Gras, John L.; Harjanto, Hery

    The elemental composition of individual aerosol particles of 0.15-3 μm radius, collected over Kalimantan during the 1997 Indonesian forest fire event, was analyzed using a transmission electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDX). Although 60-90% of the particles collected at altitudes of 1-5 km contained K, they exhibited high weight ratios of S/K with median values of 9-18 independent of particle size. These were much larger than those (median values of 2-4) obtained from the forest fires in northern Australia. The high weight ratios over Kalimantan are considered to be due to the heterogeneous growth of particles through the oxidation of SO 2. In addition to SO 2 from the combustion of forest biomass, SO 2 originating from the combustion of peat below the ground is believed to have been important in producing the high S/K ratios.

  4. Molecular monitoring of the Leu-164 mutation of dihydrofolate reductase in a highly sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine-resistant area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutabingwa Theonest

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The selection of point mutation at codon 164 (from isoleucine to leucine of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR enzyme in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with high sulfadoxine /pyrimethamine (SP resistance. Using the yeast expression system that allows the detection of dhfr allele present at low level, the presence of this mutation had previously been reported between 1998–1999 in Muheza, Tanzania, an area of high SP resistance. Eighty five P. falciparum isolates, obtained from the same area between 2002 and 2003, were analysed for the presence of Leu-164 mutation, using standard protocol based on PCR-RFLP. None of the isolates had the Leu-164 mutation.

  5. Disarming not defending Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Moorcraft

    2012-01-01

    Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no menti...

  6. Poverty reduction in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. The paper attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. It argues that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features which globally cause problems but which are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These f...

  7. Prognostic Utility of Anti-EBV Antibody Testing for Defining NPC Risk among Individuals from High-Risk NPC Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Kelly J.; Hsu, Wan-Lun; Pfeiffer, Ruth M.; Chiang, Chun-Ju; Wang, Cheng-Ping; Lou, Pei-Jen; Cheng, Yu-Juen; Gravitt, Patti; Diehl, Scott R.; Goldstein, Alisa M.; Chen, Chien-Jen; Hildesheim, Allan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) infection and a family history of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are associated with NPC risk. We examined the risk associated with EBV markers and their clinical utility to identify NPC susceptibles within high-risk NPC families. Experimental Design We evaluated antibody titers against viral capsid antigen (VCA) IgA, EBV nuclear antigen-1 (EBNA1) IgA, and DNase among unaffected relatives of NPC cases from 358 multiplex families in Taiwan. Incident NPC cases were identified via linkage to the National Cancer Registry. Clinical examinations of 924 individuals were also done to identify occult, asymptomatic NPC. Baseline EBV serology was used to estimate NPC risk using rate ratios with 95% CI. Associated sensitivity/specificity and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were calculated. Results A total of 2,444 unaffected individuals with 15,519 person-years (6.5 years median follow-up) yielded 14 incident NPC cases (nearly 11 times the general population rate). The absolute rate of NPC among anti-EBV EBNA1 IgA seropositives using a standard positivity cutoff versus an optimized cutoff point defined by ROC analyses was 265/100,000 person-years with a 4.7-fold increased risk of NPC (95% CI: 1.4–16) and 166/100,000 person-years with a 6.6-fold increase (95% CI: 1.5–61), respectively. Sensitivity and specificity using the optimized positivity cutoff points were 85.7% and 51.2%, respectively. It is estimated that active evaluation of 49% of individuals from high-risk NPC families seropositive for this marker could lead to earlier detection of up to 86% of NPC cases. Risks associated with the other three EBV markers were weaker. Conclusions Future efforts are needed to identify susceptibility markers among high-risk NPC families that maximize both sensitivity and specificity. PMID:21447725

  8. pRB expression in esophageal mucosa of individuals at high risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone S Contu; Paulo C Contu; Daniel C Damin; Renato B Fagundes; Fabiano Bevilacqua; Aline S Rosa; Jo(a)o C Prolla; Luis F Moreira

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pRb expression in a large group of patients with history of chronic exposure to the main risk factors for development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.METHODS: One hundred and seventy asympto matic individuals at high risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (consumption of more than 80 g of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/d for at least 10 years) underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsies of the esophageal mucosa. As a control group, specimens of esophageal mucosa obtained from 20 healthy subjects were also studied. Immunohistochemical assessment of the tissues was performed using a monoclonal antibody anti-pRB protein.RESULTS: Absence of the pRB staining, indicating loss of RB function, was observed in 33 (19.4%) of the individuals at risk for esophageal cancer, but in none of the healthy controls (P < 0.02). Loss of pRb expression increased in a stepwise fashion according to the severity of the histological findings (P < 0.005): normal mucosa (11/97 or 11.3%), chronic esophagitis (17/60 or 28.3%), low-grade dysplasia (3/10 or 30%), high-grade dysplasia 1/2 or 50%) and squamous cell carcinoma (1/1 or 100%).CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that abnormal expression of the pRB protein may be implicated in the process of esophageal carcinogenesis. Additional studies are warranted to define the role of the pRBprotein as a biomarker for development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in individuals at high risk for this malignancy.

  9. Highly ordered large-scale neuronal networks of individual cells - toward single cell to 3D nanowire intracellular interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiat, Moria; Elnathan, Roey; Pevzner, Alexander; Peretz, Asher; Barak, Boaz; Peretz, Hagit; Ducobni, Tamir; Stein, Daniel; Mittelman, Leonid; Ashery, Uri; Patolsky, Fernando

    2012-07-25

    The use of artificial, prepatterned neuronal networks in vitro is a promising approach for studying the development and dynamics of small neural systems in order to understand the basic functionality of neurons and later on of the brain. The present work presents a high fidelity and robust procedure for controlling neuronal growth on substrates such as silicon wafers and glass, enabling us to obtain mature and durable neural networks of individual cells at designed geometries. It offers several advantages compared to other related techniques that have been reported in recent years mainly because of its high yield and reproducibility. The procedure is based on surface chemistry that allows the formation of functional, tailormade neural architectures with a micrometer high-resolution partition, that has the ability to promote or repel cells attachment. The main achievements of this work are deemed to be the creation of a large scale neuronal network at low density down to individual cells, that develop intact typical neurites and synapses without any glia-supportive cells straight from the plating stage and with a relatively long term survival rate, up to 4 weeks. An important application of this method is its use on 3D nanopillars and 3D nanowire-device arrays, enabling not only the cell bodies, but also their neurites to be positioned directly on electrical devices and grow with registration to the recording elements underneath.

  10. Pit formation on poly(methyl methacrylate) due to ablation induced by individual slow highly charged ion impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, R.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Ginzel, R.; Kowarik, G.; Heller, R.; El-Said, A. S.; Papaléo, R. M.; Rupp, W.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Ullrich, J.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report the formation of nano-sized pits on poly(methyl methacrylate) after exposure to slow highly charged ion beams. The pits are formed on the polymer surface as a direct result of individual ion impacts. Intermittent contact mode atomic-force microscopy was employed to study the size evolution of the pits in dependence of potential and kinetic energies of the incident ions. A potential energy threshold value of approximately 7 keV was found for pit formation. Above this value an increase in potential energy results in an increasing pit volume, while the pit shape can be tuned by varying the kinetic energy.

  11. Is psychodynamic psychotherapy an effective intervention for individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR of psychosis?: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report a case and to discuss the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PD-P to treat individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR of psychosis. METHODS: An individual at UHR was followed up for 24 months. The baseline evaluation included a psychiatric interview, the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS, the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS, and neuropsychological assessment. He underwent weekly sessions of PD-P for 12 months and was followed up for 12 months after the end of PD-P. The evaluations were at baseline, after 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. No medication was prescribed during the 24-month follow-up. RESULTS: The prodromal symptoms remitted. The initial total score on the SIPS/SOPS was 37 points. After the first 12 months of PD-P, there was a reduction to 12 points on the SIPS/SOPS score, which stabilized in the 24-month follow-up. There was also a slight improvement in his performance on the neuropsychological evaluations. CONCLUSION: This case report suggests that PD-P can reduce prodromal symptoms; nevertheless, a better understanding of the specificity and efficacy of PD-P as an option of treatment for UHR individuals is needed.

  12. South Asian individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes have lower plasma vitamin C levels than white Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Patrice; Gray, Laura J; Morris, Danielle H; Davies, Melanie J; Khunti, Kamlesh

    2013-01-01

    Individuals of South Asian origin are at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes; the relationship between this risk and diet remains to be investigated fully. Furthermore, fruit and vegetable intake remains low throughout the world and previous data suggest that intake is associated with risk of diabetes. The aim of this research study was to compare plasma vitamin C concentrations, measured as a biomarker for fruit and vegetable intake, in South Asian and white European individuals. Participants recruited as part of the Let's Prevent Diabetes Study provided samples for the quantification of plasma vitamin C. We compared vitamin C levels by ethnicity using multiple regression, both unadjusted and adjusted for confounders, including glycaemic status. Mean plasma vitamin C was significantly lower in the South Asian participants compared with white European participants (34.5 (sd 19·8) v. 39·9 (sd 22·1) µmol/l, respectively; P ≤ 0·0001). Significantly fewer South Asian individuals consumed five portions of fruit and vegetables per d, as determined by a plasma vitamin C concentration of ≥ 50 µmol/l (23·2 % (n 58) v. 31·4 % (n 558); P = 0·01). Vitamin C reflects habitual fruit and vegetable consumption; thus results suggest that South Asians have lower fruit and vegetable intake. However, it cannot be excluded that vitamin C is utilised differently. Dietary advice specifically targeting the South Asian population should be developed.

  13. High body mass index and risk of exacerbations and pneumonias in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    descent, aged 20-100 years, from the Copenhagen General Population Study, for FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and TMEM18 (rs6548238), and created an allele score. A total of 10 883 individuals had spirometric COPD with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) < lower limit......BACKGROUND: In the clinic, the combination of obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been increasing. However, whether high body mass index (BMI) affects the risk of exacerbations and pneumonias in individuals with COPD is presently unknown. Genetics can be used to assess the...... of normal (LLN). In these individuals, we observed 1453 exacerbations and 3390 pneumonias during 4.7 years of follow-up. RESULTS: For each increase in allele score, BMI was 0.28 kg/m(2) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.30) higher. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic hazard ratios (HRs) per one allele...

  14. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  15. Development of the roadmap and guidelines for the prevention and management of high blood pressure in Africa: Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting: Nairobi, Kenya, 27 October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzudie, A; Ojji, D; Anisiuba, B C; Abdou, B A; Cornick, R; Damasceno, A; Kane, A L; Mocumbi, A O; Mohamed, A; Nel, G; Ogola, E; Onwubere, B; Otieno, H; Rainer, B; Schutte, A; Ali, I T; Twagirumukiza, M; Poulter, N; Mayosi, B

    2015-01-01

    Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economic changes are associated with a health transition characterised by a rise in cardiovascular risk factors and complications, which tend to affect the African population at their age of maximum productivity. Recent data from Africa have highlighted the increasing importance of high blood pressure in this region of the world. This condition is largely underdiagnosed and poorly treated, and therefore leads to stroke, renal and heart failure, and death. Henceforth, African countries are taking steps to develop relevant policies and programmes to address the issue of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in response to a call by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by the year 2025 (25 × 25). The World Heart Federation (WHF) has developed a roadmap for global implementation of the prevention and management of raised blood pressure using a health system approach to help realise the 25 × 25 goal set by the WHO. As the leading continental organisation of cardiovascular professionals, the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) aims to contextualise the roadmap framework of the WHF to the African continent through the PASCAR Taskforce on Hypertension. The Taskforce held a workshop in Kenya on 27 October 2014 to discuss a process by which effective prevention and control of hypertension in Africa may be achieved. It was agreed that a set of clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension are needed in Africa. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a roadmap for implementation of the prevention and management of hypertension in Africa under the auspices of the WHF. PMID:25940121

  16. Aeromagnetics, Geology and the Geoscience Database for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Colin

    2010-05-01

    The process of systematic geological mapping of Africa, as established in the first half of the twentieth century, involved heroic periods of field mapping by individuals on single map sheets, supported eventually by interpretation of aerial photography, with the publication of colour maps and reports on paper as the ultimate aim. Despite the advent of satellite imagery in the 1970s, this activity trailed off in the final decades of the century. This was partly due to political changes in Africa but also due to the growing realization that the amount of outcrop available for examination is little to none over great swathes of the continent. Estimates indicate that less than half the sheets that cover the continent had been mapped by about the year 2000, and only half of those mapped had actually reached publication stage. Even then, ‘publication' often meant only that paper copies could be purchased from the sales office of a national geological survey, of which there are more than 50. The second half of the century saw the growing realization that aeromagnetic surveys (that effectively ‘saw through' weathering and widespread sedimentary veneers) could accelerate the geological mapping process and provide useful geological reconnaissance of large areas - typically whole African countries - in years rather than decades. With, in some cases, the support of international aid agencies, airborne geophysical programmes have been launched across Africa and, in some countries, re-launched with greater detail as airborne survey technology continuously improved with time. The advent of gamma-ray spectrometry of high resolution delivered a powerful additional tool after about 1990. It is certain that several hundred million dollars have now been invested in programmes of this type across Africa. It is argued that much of the value of this work has still to be realized. The extraction of geological information from airborne geophysical surveys involves the application of

  17. Individual variability in cardiac biomarker release after 30 min of high-intensity rowing in elite and amateur athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; López-Laval, Isaac; George, Keith; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan José; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ayala-Tajuelo, Vicente Javier; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Reverter-Masià, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    This study had two objectives: (i) to examine individual variation in the pattern of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in response to high-intensity rowing exercise, and (ii) to establish whether individual heterogeneity in biomarker appearance was influenced by athletic status (elite vs. amateur). We examined cTnI and NT-proBNP in 18 elite and 14 amateur rowers before and 5 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a 30-min maximal rowing test. Compared with pre-exercise levels, peak postexercise cTnI (pre: 0.014 ± 0.030 μg·L(-1); peak post: 0.058 ± 0.091 μg·L(-1); p = 0.000) and NT-proBNP (pre: 15 ± 11 ng·L(-1); peak post: 31 ± 19 ng·L(-1); p = 0.000) were elevated. Substantial individual heterogeneity in peak and time-course data was noted for cTnI. Peak cTnI exceeded the upper reference limit (URL) in 9 elite and 3 amateur rowers. No rower exceeded the URL for NT-proBNP. Elite rowers had higher baseline (0.019 ± 0.038 vs. 0.008 ± 0.015 μg·L(-1); p = 0.003) and peak postexercise cTnI (0.080 ± 0.115 vs. 0.030 ± 0.029 μg·L(-1); p = 0.022) than amateur rowers, but the change with exercise was similar between groups. There were no significant differences in baseline and peak postexercise NT-proBNP between groups. In summary, marked individuality in the cTnI response to a short but high-intensity rowing bout was observed. Athletic status did not seem to affect the change in cardiac biomarkers in response to high-intensity exercise. PMID:26307519

  18. Individual finger control of a modular prosthetic limb using high-density electrocorticography in a human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Guy; McMullen, David P.; Fifer, Matthew S.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Katyal, Kapil D.; Para, Matthew P.; Armiger, Robert; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Wester, Brock A.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. We used native sensorimotor representations of fingers in a brain-machine interface (BMI) to achieve immediate online control of individual prosthetic fingers. Approach. Using high gamma responses recorded with a high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) array, we rapidly mapped the functional anatomy of cued finger movements. We used these cortical maps to select ECoG electrodes for a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis classification scheme to predict: (1) if any finger was moving, and, if so, (2) which digit was moving. To account for sensory feedback, we also mapped the spatiotemporal activation elicited by vibrotactile stimulation. Finally, we used this prediction framework to provide immediate online control over individual fingers of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory modular prosthetic limb. Main results. The balanced classification accuracy for detection of movements during the online control session was 92% (chance: 50%). At the onset of movement, finger classification was 76% (chance: 20%), and 88% (chance: 25%) if the pinky and ring finger movements were coupled. Balanced accuracy of fully flexing the cued finger was 64%, and 77% had we combined pinky and ring commands. Offline decoding yielded a peak finger decoding accuracy of 96.5% (chance: 20%) when using an optimized selection of electrodes. Offline analysis demonstrated significant finger-specific activations throughout sensorimotor cortex. Activations either prior to movement onset or during sensory feedback led to discriminable finger control. Significance. Our results demonstrate the ability of ECoG-based BMIs to leverage the native functional anatomy of sensorimotor cortical populations to immediately control individual finger movements in real time.

  19. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten;

    2014-01-01

    -climatological inputs to the wind resource mapping are wind atlas data sets derived from mesoscale modelling using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM). The topographical inputs to the microscale modelling are 20-m digital height contours from 1:50,000 South African topographical maps and vector-format land...... sur-face roughness maps based on the USGS Global Land Cover Characteristics database (GLCC). A transformation table was used to relate land cover to roughness length. The detailed resource map has been verified at ten mast locations where high-quality wind measurements are available. Overall...

  20. Large-scale, high-resolution wind resource mapping for wind farm planning and development in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Badger, Jake; Hansen, Jens Carsten;

    -climatological inputs to the wind resource mapping are wind atlas data sets derived from mesoscale modelling using the Karlsruhe Atmospheric Mesoscale Model (KAMM). The topographical inputs to the microscale modelling are 20-m digital height contours from 1:50,000 South African topographical maps and vector-format land...... sur-face roughness maps based on the USGS Global Land Cover Characteristics database (GLCC). A transformation table was used to relate land cover to roughness length. The detailed resource map has been verified at ten mast locations where high-quality wind measurements are available. Overall...

  1. Employment creation through public works programmes and projects in South Africa: Experiences and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Thwala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this article is to look at the experiences, problems and the potential contribution of employment creation programmes in alleviating the unemployment problem in other African countries through the construction of public infrastructure through the use of labour-intensive methods. The article then describes the problems and experiences that have been encountered in South Africa in relation to employment creation through the construction of public infrastructure.Problem investigated: In South Africa the levels of unemployment and poverty are extremely high and unemployment is one of South Africa's most pressing problems. At the same time there is a lack of capacity and skills at institutional, community and individual levels. Labour-intensive programmes generate more direct and indirect local employment opportunities and income by using locally available inputs (materials, simple tools and local labour and thus creating a greater demand for local products and services than do high-technology programmes reliant on imported technology and equipment. Design/Methodology/Approach: Drawing on research on labour-intensive, public works programmes and projects, the paper is mainly a literature review. From a theoretical perspective supported by experience elsewhere in Africa, there are reasons for considering that properly formulated employment creation programmes based on the use of labour-intensive methods could be established to construct and maintain the required physical infrastructure, thus creating employment, skills and institutional capacities. The article closes with some recommendations for the future programmes success.Findings/Implications: The article attributes the failure of projects and programmes in South Africa to different factors which must be avoided in future in order for projects and programmes to be successful in South Africa. Investment in infrastructure has a huge potential to redress the high

  2. Long-term community changes on a high-latitude coral reef in the Greater St Lucia Wetland Park, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleyer, Michael H; Kruger, Alke; Celliers, Louis

    2008-03-01

    South African coral reefs are limited in size but, being marginal, provide a model for the study of many of the stresses to which these valuable systems are being subjected globally. Soft coral cover, comprising relatively few species, exceeds that of scleractinians over much of the reefs. The coral communities nevertheless attain a high biodiversity at this latitude on the East African coast. A long-term monitoring programme was initiated in 1993, entailing temperature logging and image analysis of high resolution photographs of fixed quadrats on representative reef. Sea temperatures rose by 0.15 degrees C p.a. at the site up to 2000 but have subsequently been decreasing by 0.07 degrees C p.a. Insignificant bleaching was encountered in the region during the 1998 El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event, unlike elsewhere in East Africa, but quantifiable bleaching occurred during an extended period of warming in 2000. Peak temperatures on the South African reefs thus appear to have attained the coral bleaching threshold. While this has resulted in relatively little bleaching thus far, the increased temperatures appear to have had a deleterious effect on coral recruitment success as other anthropogenic influences on the reefs are minimal. Recruitment success diminished remarkably up to 2004 but appears again to be improving. Throughout, the corals have also manifested changes in community structure, involving an increase in hard coral cover and reduction in that of soft corals, resulting in a 5.5% drop in overall coral cover. These "silent" effects of temperature increase do not appear to have been reported elsewhere in the literature.

  3. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rainbelt over Middle East and North Africa: A high resolution AGCM study

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-04-25

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rainbelt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM),the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP)-style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rainbelt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust induced responses in global and regional scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rainbelt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and West African Monsoon (WAM) circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rainbelt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semi-arid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the “Sahel drought" , the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide-range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region\\'s climate.

  4. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A.; Donnavan J.D. Kruger; Du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracell...

  5. Public service delivery and private firms in South Africa : perceptions and possible impacts / Juanita Loots

    OpenAIRE

    Loots, Juanita

    2010-01-01

    Since the advent of democracy in 1994, the South African Government has accomplished greater economic growth, a reduction in the fiscal deficit, lower inflation as well as tax relief for corporates and individuals. Regardless of these accomplishments, South Africa as a country is still struggling with a number of difficulties, including high unemployment, unequal income distributions as well as extreme poverty and crime. To overcome these problems, the majority of studies show ...

  6. A Qualitative Study of Patient Motivation to Adhere to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Loggerenberg, F; Gray, D.; Gengiah, S; Kunene, P; Gengiah, TN; Naidoo, K.; Grant, AD

    2015-01-01

    Taken as prescribed, that is, with high adherence, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed HIV infection and disease from being a sure predictor of death to a manageable chronic illness. Adherence, however, is difficult to achieve and maintain. The CAPRISA 058 study was conducted between 2007 and 2009 to test the efficacy of individualized motivational counselling to enhance ART adherence in South Africa. As part of the overall trial, a qualitative sub-study was conducted, includ...

  7. The health costs of ethnic distance: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joseph Flavian

    2014-01-01

    We show that ethnic distances can explain the ethnic inequalities in child mortality rates in Africa. Using individual level micro data from DHS surveys for fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries combined with a novel high resolution dataset on the spatial distribution of ethnic groups we show that children whose mothers have a higher linguistic distance from their neighbours have a higher probability of dying. Fractionalization reduces the probability of child death. We argue that fractional...

  8. Africa : Irrigation investment Needs in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    You, Liang Zhi

    2008-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rainfall is highly variable and, in many places, plainly in sufficient. Although irrigation has the potential to boost agricultural yields by at least 50 percent, food production in the region is almost entirely rain-fed. The irrigated area, extending over 6 million hectares, makes up just 5 percent of the total cultivated area, compared to 37 percent in Asia and 14 ...

  9. Energy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre; Fattouh, Bassam; Khadduri, Walid; Copinschi, Philippe; Doucet, Gerald; Fall, Latsoucabé

    2008-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Favennec on the importance of oil in Africa; Bassam Fattouh considers the history of foreign oil companies in Libya; Walid Khadduri looks at Algerian petroleum development and its imperfections; Philippe Copinschi assesses frustrated contested oil ambitions in Nigeria; Gerald Doucet and Latsoucabé Fall stress the importance of the Inga hydropower projects for Africa;

  10. CPIA Africa, June 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa report describes the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of their policies and institutions. Some of the results from this report include: The overall quality of policies and institutions in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa was unchanged in 2014, but there was much variation in performance across co...

  11. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  12. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  13. Computerized and virtual reality cognitive training for individuals at high risk of cognitive decline: systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, Hannah; Traynor, Victoria; Solowij, Nadia

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of cognitive training, specifically computerized cognitive training (CCT) and virtual reality cognitive training (VRCT), programs for individuals living with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia and therefore at high risk of cognitive decline. After searching a range of academic databases (CINHAL, PSYCinfo, and Web of Science), the studies evaluated (N = 16) were categorized as CCT (N = 10), VRCT (N = 3), and multimodal interventions (N = 3). Effect sizes were calculated, but a meta-analysis was not possible because of the large variability of study design and outcome measures adopted. The cognitive domains of attention, executive function, and memory (visual and verbal) showed the most consistent improvements. The positive effects on psychological outcomes (N = 6) were significant reductions on depressive symptoms (N = 3) and anxiety (N = 2) and improved perceived use of memory strategy (N = 1). Assessments of activities of daily living demonstrated no significant improvements (N = 8). Follow-up studies (N = 5) demonstrated long-term improvements in cognitive and psychological outcomes (N = 3), and the intervention groups showed a plateau effect of cognitive functioning compared with the cognitive decline experienced by control groups (N = 2). CCT and VRCT were moderately effective in long-term improvement of cognition for those at high risk of cognitive decline. Total intervention time did not mediate efficacy. Future research needs to improve study design by including larger samples, longitudinal designs, and a greater range of outcome measures, including functional and quality of life measures, to assess the wider effect of cognitive training on individuals at high risk of cognitive decline.

  14. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Sophia; Keeser, Daniel; Samson, Andrea C; Kirsch, Valerie; Blautzik, Janusch; Grothe, Michel; Erat, Okan; Hegenloh, Michael; Coates, Ute; Reiser, Maximilian F; Hennig-Fast, Kristina; Meindl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA). We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male) and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male). Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA) values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  15. Convergent Findings of Altered Functional and Structural Brain Connectivity in Individuals with High Functioning Autism: A Multimodal MRI Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophia Mueller

    Full Text Available Brain tissue changes in autism spectrum disorders seem to be rather subtle and widespread than anatomically distinct. Therefore a multimodal, whole brain imaging technique appears to be an appropriate approach to investigate whether alterations in white and gray matter integrity relate to consistent changes in functional resting state connectivity in individuals with high functioning autism (HFA. We applied diffusion tensor imaging (DTI, voxel-based morphometry (VBM and resting state functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI to assess differences in brain structure and function between 12 individuals with HFA (mean age 35.5, SD 11.4, 9 male and 12 healthy controls (mean age 33.3, SD 9.0, 8 male. Psychological measures of empathy and emotionality were obtained and correlated with the most significant DTI, VBM and fcMRI findings. We found three regions of convergent structural and functional differences between HFA participants and controls. The right temporo-parietal junction area and the left frontal lobe showed decreased fractional anisotropy (FA values along with decreased functional connectivity and a trend towards decreased gray matter volume. The bilateral superior temporal gyrus displayed significantly decreased functional connectivity that was accompanied by the strongest trend of gray matter volume decrease in the temporal lobe of HFA individuals. FA decrease in the right temporo-parietal region was correlated with psychological measurements of decreased emotionality. In conclusion, our results indicate common sites of structural and functional alterations in higher order association cortex areas and may therefore provide multimodal imaging support to the long-standing hypothesis of autism as a disorder of impaired higher-order multisensory integration.

  16. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödder Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (recolonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i Morocco, (ii Tunisia, (iii Sicily, (iv Italy and southern France, (v eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source

  17. The relationship between default mode network connectivity and social functioning in individuals at familial high-risk for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodell-Feder, David; Delisi, Lynn E; Hooker, Christine I

    2014-06-01

    Unaffected first-degree relatives of individuals with schizophrenia (i.e., those at familial high-risk [FHR]), demonstrate social dysfunction qualitatively similar though less severe than that of their affected relatives. These social difficulties may be the consequence of genetically conferred disruption to aspects of the default mode network (DMN), such as the dMPFC subsystem, which overlaps with the network of brain regions recruited during social cognitive processes. In the present study, we investigate this possibility, testing DMN connectivity and its relationship to social functioning in FHR using resting-state fMRI. Twenty FHR individuals and 17 controls underwent fMRI during a resting-state scan. Hypothesis-driven functional connectivity analyses examined ROI-to-ROI correlations between the DMN's hubs, and regions of the dMPFC subsystem and MTL subsystem. Connectivity values were examined in relationship to a measure of social functioning and empathy/perspective-taking. Results demonstrate that FHR exhibit reduced connectivity specifically within the dMPFC subsystem of the DMN. Certain ROI-to-ROI correlations predicted aspects of social functioning and empathy/perspective-taking across all participants. Together, the data indicate that disruption to the dMPFC subsystem of the DMN may be associated with familial risk for schizophrenia, and that these intrinsic connections may carry measurable consequences for social functioning.

  18. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.

  19. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  20. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with intrinsic fluorescence detection to analyse melittin in individual honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangtao; Ying, Bihua; Huang, Shaokang; Ma, Shuangqin; Long, Peng; Tu, Xijuan; Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Chen, Wenbin; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    Melittin is the major toxin peptide in bee venom, which has diverse biological effects. In the present study, melittin was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and was then detected using intrinsic fluorescence signal of tryptophan residue. The accuracy, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were carefully validated in this study. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence signal of melittin has linear range from 0.04μg/mL to 20μg/mL with LOQ of 0.04μg/mL. The recovery range of spiked samples is between 81.93% and 105.25%. The precision results are expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), which is in the range of 2.1-7.4% for intra-day precision and 6.2-10.8% for inter-day precision. Because of the large linear dynamic range and the high sensitivity, intrinsic fluorescence detection (IFD) can be used for analyzing melittin contents in individual venom sac of honeybee (Apis mellifera). The detected contents of melittin in individual bee venom sac are 0.18±0.25μg for one-day old honeybees (n=30), and 114.98±43.51μg for 25-day old (n=30) honeybees, respectively. Results indicate that there is large bee-to-bee difference in melittin contents. The developed method can be useful for discovering the melittin related honeybee biology information, which might be covered in the complex samples. PMID:26319802

  1. Screening the expression of ABCB6 in erythrocytes reveals an unexpectedly high frequency of Lan mutations in healthy individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Koszarska

    Full Text Available Lan is a high-incidence blood group antigen expressed in more than 99.9% of the population. Identification of the human ABC transporter ABCB6 as the molecular basis of Lan has opened the way for studies assessing the relation of ABCB6 function and expression to health and disease. To date, 34 ABCB6 sequence variants have been described in association with reduced ABCB6 expression based on the genotyping of stored blood showing weak or no reactivity with anti-Lan antibodies. In the present study we examined the red blood cell (RBC surface expression of ABCB6 by quantitative flow cytometry in a cohort of 47 healthy individuals. Sequencing of the entire coding region of the ABCB6 gene in low RBC ABCB6 expressors identified a new allele (IVS9+1G>A, affecting a putative splice site at the boundary of exon 9 and two nonsynonymous SNPs listed in the SNP database (R192Q (rs150221689 and G588 S (rs145526996. The R192Q mutation showed co-segregation with reduced RBC ABCB6 expression in a family, and we found the G588 S mutation in a compound heterozygous individual with undetectable ABCB6 expression, suggesting that both mutations result in weak or no expression of ABCB6 on RBCs. Analysis of the intracellular expression pattern in HeLa cells by confocal microscopy indicated that these mutations do not compromise overall expression or the endolysosomal localization of ABCB6. Genotyping of two large cohorts, containing 235 and 1039 unrelated volunteers, confirmed the high allele frequency of Lan-mutations. Our results suggest that genetic variants linked to lower or absent cell surface expression of ABCB6/Langereis may be more common than previously thought.

  2. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of high-K "sanukitoids" from the Bulai pluton, Central Limpopo Belt, South Africa: Implications for geodynamic changes at the Archaean-Proterozoic boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Martin, Hervé; Doucelance, Régis; Moyen, Jean-François; Paquette, Jean-Louis

    2011-04-01

    The Neoarchaean Bulai pluton is a magmatic complex intrusive in the Central Zone of the Limpopo Belt (Limpopo Province, South Africa). It is made up of large volumes of porphyritic granodiorites with subordinate enclaves and dykes of monzodioritic, enderbitic and granitic compositions. New U-Pb LA-ICP-MS dating on zircon yield pluton-emplacement ages ranging between 2.58 and 2.61 Ga. The whole pluton underwent a high-grade thermal overprint at ~ 2.0 Ga, which did not affect the whole-rock compositions for most of the major and trace-elements, as suggested by a Sm-Nd isochron built up with 16 samples and yielding an age consistent with U-Pb dating. The whole-rock major- and trace-element compositions evidence that the Bulai pluton belongs to a high-K, calc-alkaline to shoshonitic suite, as well as unequivocal affinities with "high-Ti" sanukitoids. Monzodioritic enclaves and enderbites have both "juvenile" affinities and a strongly enriched signature in terms of incompatible trace elements (LREE, HFSE and LILE), pointing to an enriched mantle source. Based on trace-element compositions, we propose the metasomatic agent at their origin to be a melt deriving from terrigenous sediments. We therefore suggest a two-step petrogenetic model for the Bulai pluton: (1) a liquid produced by melting of subducted terrigenous sediments is consumed by reactions with mantle peridotite, producing a metasomatic assemblage; (2) low-degree melting of this metasomatized mantle gives rise to Bulai mafic magmas. Such a model is supported by geochemical modelling and is consistent with previous studies concluding that sanukitoids result from interactions between slab melts and the overlying mantle wedge. Before 2.5 Ga, melting of hydrous subducted metabasalts produced large volumes of TTG (Tonalite-Trondhjemite-Granodiorite) forming most of the volume of Archaean continental crust. By constrast, our geochemical study failed in demonstrating any significant role played by melting of

  3. High Prevalence of inhA Promoter Mutations among Patients with Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Abraham J.; Mlisana, Koleka; Gandhi, Neel R.; Mathema, Barun; Brust, James C. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) remains extremely difficult to treat because there are often few remaining active medications and limited diagnostic options to detect resistance. Resistance to isoniazid is typically caused by mutations in either katG or the inhA promoter. inhA mutations confer low-level resistance to isoniazid and cross-resistance to ethionamide while katG mutations confer high-level isoniazid resistance and no cross-resistance. Line Probe Assays (LPAs) that detect mutations in katG and inhA are currently performed on all positive TB cultures in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa, but the frequency of inhA mutations in drug-resistant TB patients has not been examined. Methods We sought to determine the proportion of patients who could potentially benefit from high-dose isoniazid and who may be resistant to ethionamide. We reviewed 994 LPA (Hain MTBDRplus) results at the TB reference laboratory in KwaZulu-Natal to determine the frequency of mutations in either katG or the inhA promoter. We stratified these results by drug-resistance category (i.e., MDR-TB, pre-XDR-TB, and XDR-TB) as determined by phenotypic drug-susceptibility testing. Results Among MDR- and XDR-TB isolates, the prevalence of inhA mutations without a concurrent katG mutation was 14.8% and 10.3% respectively. The prevalence of inhA mutations with OR without a katG mutation was 30.3% and 82.8%, respectively. Conclusion More than 10% of patients with MDR- and XDR-TB may benefit from high-dose isoniazid. Although ethionamide is empirically included in all MDR- and XDR-TB regimens, nearly a third of MDR-TB patients and a majority of XDR-TB patients likely have resistance to ethionamide. Laboratories performing line probe assays should report specific band patterns so that clinicians may adjust treatment regimens accordingly. PMID:26332235

  4. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Africa competitiveness report 2011 comes out as the world emerges from the most significant financial and economic crisis in generations. While many advanced economies are still struggling to get their economies back on a solid footing, Africa has, for the most part, weathered the storm remarkably well. The Africa competitiveness report focuses on harnessing Africa's underutilized reso...

  5. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a

  6. Regional integration, FDI and competitiveness in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa, with its vast natural resources and relatively skilled workforce, should be a magnet for foreign direct investment (FDI). This, however, is not the case. Indeed, even domestic investment is low, though intra-regional investment, mainly from South Africa and Mauritius is notable. This book analyses investment flows within the region and examines the role ofFDI in key industries. It concludes that Southern Africa still has to shake off a reputation for instability and high risk...

  7. Determinats and Impacts of Foreign Direct Investment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Leila Hashim

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants and impacts of foreign direct investment in South Africa for the period 1970-2006. Recognising that FDI can contribute to economic growth and development of most countries, South Africa is constantly working to attract FDI and hence its demand has become highly competitive. South Africa has made considerable efforts over the past decade to improve their investment climate. They have liberalized their investment regulations and have offered incentives to fo...

  8. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based a...

  9. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical. Results. Twenty participants (10 men completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1 there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2 the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P=0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  10. Improving the efficiency and accuracy of individual tree crown delineation from high-density LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoxin; Li, Jili; Jing, Linhai; Judah, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Canopy height model (CHM) derived from LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data has been commonly used to generate segments of individual tree crowns for forest inventory and sustainable management. However, branches, tree crowns, and tree clusters usually have similar shapes and overlapping sizes, which cause current individual tree crown delineation methods to work less effectively on closed canopy, deciduous or mixedwood forests. In addition, the potential of 3-dimentional (3-D) LiDAR data is not fully realized by CHM-oriented methods. In this study, a framework was proposed to take advantage of the simplicity of a CHM-oriented method, detailed vertical structures of tree crowns represented in high-density LiDAR data, and any prior knowledge of tree crowns. The efficiency and accuracy of ITC delineation can be improved. This framework consists of five steps: (1) determination of dominant crown sizes; (2) generation of initial tree segments using a multi-scale segmentation method; (3) identification of “problematic” segments; (4) determination of the number of trees based on the 3-D LiDAR points in each of the identified segments; and (5) refinement of the “problematic” segments by splitting and merging operations. The proposed framework was efficient, since the detailed examination of 3-D LiDAR points was not applied to all initial segments, but only to those needed further evaluations based on prior knowledge. It was also demonstrated to be effective based on an experiment on natural forests in Ontario, Canada. The proposed framework and specific methods yielded crown maps having a good consistency with manual and visual interpretation. The automated method correctly delineated about 74% and 72% of the tree crowns in two plots with mixedwood and deciduous trees, respectively.

  11. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  12. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  13. NORTH AFRICA IN FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa has been firmly implanted in global headlines this year-often for all the wrong reasons.The world watches as political unrest,conflict and foreign intervention reap relentless media exposure.Both from a

  14. Climate strategy for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn

    1995-01-01

    1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...

  15. Physics in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the role of basic sciences in the development of technology. This is then tied up with the broader issue of the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in the socio-economic development of a country. Physics forms the basis for most of the natural and applied sciences and technology. The state of physics in Africa is reviewed. The need for regional and international cooperation in physics education and research in Africa is stressed. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  16. GREAT TREK INTO AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, to be held between November 2 and 5 in Beijing, Beijing Review reporter Li Li talks with South African Kobus van der Wath, the founder and Managing Director of The Beijing Axis, a consulting firm based in Beijing and Johannesburg that serves foreign organizations with a "China agenda," especially those from Africa. Van der Wath discussed China’s economic boom and its implications for the African continent

  17. Near-Field High-Resolution Seismic, Strain and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Source Studies in Deep Mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J.; Reches, Z.; van Aswegan, G.; McGarr, A.; Lockner, D.; Sellers, E.; Ben Zion, Y.; Williams, C.

    2004-12-01

    Unique access to information on the physics of the earthquake source (earthquake nucleation, fault rupture, heat generation, stress state, seismic wave propagation, fault displacement, material properties and particularly changes in some of these parameters prior to rupture) exists in the near-field of mining-induced earthquakes in deep gold mines in South Africa. The new NSF funded Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) will provide seismic velocity/acceleration, ground strain, temperature, fault displacement, acoustic emission (AE), and perhaps self-potential (SP) data in small 3-D arrays across and within active faults in two different mines. 3-component accelerometers to be installed in or near the faults have a range from micro g to 0.5 g in the band 0.05 - 500 Hz. Fault displacement meters (creepmeters) to be installed at low angles across faults within boreholes have a range of microns to 0.2 m and cover the frequency range from DC to 100 Hz. Successful measurement of total displacement will depend on the creepmeter reference length surviving the fault rupture. Temperature will be measured to millidegrees C at points within, and at increasing distances from fault zones, to capture the heat generated by future and past earthquakes. Strain transients will be measured with 3-component near-fault borehole strainmeters with capacitance displacement transducers providing a resolution transducers will be installed together with each accelerometer and supplement the current mine seismic network. AE and SP will be measured within boreholes crossing faults if recording capability is sufficient. All data will be digitally sampled and transmitted to the surface in real-time for analysis to focus on unraveling the physics of the nucleation process, non-linear deformation prior to rupture, propagating aseismic slip, and variation in the material properties of near-fault materials (e.g. state/rate dependent friction). Similar high-resolution borehole

  18. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium: A Key to Developing the Future Geoscience Workforce in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhonjera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Africa is facing serious challenges in geoscience education. This has been as a result of absence of or very young/small Earth Science Departments in some universities (e.g., Mauritius, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi): Limited capacity (staff and equipment needed for practicals) to cope with the growing number of students, compounded by brain drain of academic staffs and the fact that current tertiary programmes do not seem to produce graduates suitable for the industry are some of the contributing factors to the challenges, (UNESCO-AEON Report, 2009). As such Earth Science studies in Africa have been one of the career paths that has not been promoted or highly preferred by many students. In January 2011, the YES Network African chapter was launched through the YES Africa 2011 Symposium that took place at the University of Johannesburg South Africa in Conjunction with the 23rd Colloquium of Africa Geology from the 08-14th January 2011. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium was organized by five YES African National networks from Southern, Central, Eastern and Northern Africa to bring young geoscientists from all regions of Africa together to present their research about African geoscience topics. The symposium also included roundtable discussions about increasing the involvement of youth's participation in geoscience issues in Africa, about how to increase the number of youths in African geosciences education university programs, and about how to promote geoscience careers to university students in Africa c. Roundtable discussions revealed that many African colleges and universities do not provide adequate infrastructure and resources to support the students studying in the department. As such, most students graduate with poor preparation for geoscience careers, having gained a theoretical understanding of geology, but not the practical application of the discipline. The recommendations from the YES Africa 2011 Symposium also highlighted on the best ways of

  19. Application of High Resolution Satellite Imagery to Characterize Individual-Based Environmental Heterogeneity in a Wild Blue Tit Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szulkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental heterogeneity in space and time plays a key role in influencing trait variability in animals, and can be particularly relevant to animal phenology. Until recently, the use of remotely sensed imagery in understanding animal variation was limited to analyses at the population level, largely because of a lack of high-resolution data that would allow inference at the individual level. We evaluated the potential of SPOT 4 (Take 5 satellite imagery data (with observations every fifth day at 20 m resolution and equivalent to acquisition parameters of Sentinel-2 in animal ecology research. We focused on blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus reproduction in a study site containing 227 nestboxes scattered in a Mediterranean forest dominated by deciduous downy oaks Quercus pubescens with a secondary cover of evergreen holm oaks Quercus ilex. We observed high congruence between ground data collected in a 50 m radius around each nestbox and NDVI values averaged across a 5 by 5 pixel grid centered around each nestbox of the study site. The number of deciduous and evergreen oaks around nestboxes explained up to 66% of variance in nestbox-centered, SPOT-derived NDVI values. We also found highly equivalent patterns of spatial autocorrelation for both ground- and satellite-derived indexes of environmental heterogeneity. For deciduous and evergreen oaks, the derived NDVI signal was highly distinctive in winter and early spring. June NDVI values for deciduous and evergreen oaks were higher by 58% and 8% relative to February values, respectively. The number of evergreen oaks was positively associated with later timing of breeding in blue tits. SPOT-derived, Sentinel-2 like imagery thus provided highly reliable, ground-validated information on habitat heterogeneity of direct relevance to a long-term field study of a free-living passerine bird. Given that the logistical demands of gathering ground data often limit our understanding of variation in animal

  20. Disarming not defending Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Moorcraft

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no mention of the current debate on how Africa's 'ethnic' wars are interpreted by the international media, and its assumed impact on humanitarian and military intervention. If they have not done so already, the editors should read Tim Allen and Jean Seaton's new book, The Media of Conflict. Here the implications of the so-called second scramble for Africa, including the role of aid agencies and the International Monetary Fund, are scrutinised. Seaton and Allen reject the notion of mindless, primordial violence in Africa, and instead examine the repercussions of foreign intervention (most egregiously French meddling in Rwanda as well as the rational economic motivations of the assorted warlords.

  1. Growth and Poverty in Africa: Shifting Fortunes and New Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Shimeles, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Growth has been high and widespread in the last decade in Africa. Whether this shift in Africa's fortune has impacted poverty has been a subject of controversy. This paper brings into focus recent evidence on the pace of poverty reduction in Africa and addresses whether or not previously held belief that Africa is too poor to grow is relevant today. The findings suggest that there is credible evidence for poverty to have declined significantly since the 1990s but at a lesser speed than growth...

  2. Altered depth of the olfactory sulcus in ultra high-risk individuals and patients with psychotic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R; Nelson, Barnaby; Lin, Ashleigh; Yücel, Murat; Phillips, Lisa J; Nakamura, Yumiko; Suzuki, Michio; Brewer, Warrick J; Proffitt, Tina M; McGorry, Patrick D; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos

    2014-03-01

    A shallow olfactory sulcus has been reported in schizophrenia, possibly reflecting abnormal forebrain development during early gestation. However, it remains unclear whether this anomaly exists prior to the onset of psychosis and/or differs according to illness stage. In the current study, magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate the length and depth of the olfactory sulcus in 135 ultra high-risk (UHR) individuals [of whom 52 later developed psychosis (UHR-P) and 83 did not (UHR-NP)], 162 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), 89 patients with chronic schizophrenia, and 87 healthy controls. While there was no group difference in the length of the sulcus, UHR-P subjects had significantly shallower olfactory sulcus at baseline as compared with UHR-NP and control subjects. The depth of this sulcus became increasingly more superficial as one moved from UHR-P subjects to FEP patients to chronic schizophrenia patients. Finally, the depth of the olfactory sulcus in the UHR-P subjects was negatively correlated with the severity of negative symptoms. These findings suggest that the altered depth of the olfactory sulcus, which exists before psychosis onset, could be predictive of transition to psychosis, but also suggest ongoing changes of the sulcus morphology during the course of the illness.

  3. Synchronised electrical monitoring and high speed video of bubble growth associated with individual discharges during plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troughton, S. C.; Nominé, A.; Nominé, A. V.; Henrion, G.; Clyne, T. W.

    2015-12-01

    Synchronised electrical current and high speed video information are presented from individual discharges on Al substrates during PEO processing. Exposure time was 8 μs and linear spatial resolution 9 μm. Image sequences were captured for periods of 2 s, during which the sample surface was illuminated with short duration flashes (revealing bubbles formed where the discharge reached the surface of the coating). Correlations were thus established between discharge current, light emission from the discharge channel and (externally-illuminated) dimensions of the bubble as it expanded and contracted. Bubbles reached radii of 500 μm, within periods of 100 μs, with peak growth velocity about 10 m/s. It is deduced that bubble growth occurs as a consequence of the progressive volatilisation of water (electrolyte), without substantial increases in either pressure or temperature within the bubble. Current continues to flow through the discharge as the bubble expands, and this growth (and the related increase in electrical resistance) is thought to be responsible for the current being cut off (soon after the point of maximum radius). A semi-quantitative audit is presented of the transformations between different forms of energy that take place during the lifetime of a discharge.

  4. What High-Achieving Latino Students Need to Apply to College: Environmental Factors, Individual Resiliency, or Both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Gwendelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    This quantitative study investigated how well environmental and individual factors predicted college-going behavior for college eligible Latino/as. Three questions were addressed: (a) Is there a relationship between individual agency and college-going behavior after controlling for environmental factors? (b) What is the relationship between the…

  5. Africa: signs of hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa’s most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa – for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.

  6. Africa's Infrastructure Gathering: A Report Card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-12-15

    This conference's high turnout and buoyant mood was a tribute to the progress that the Corporate Council on Africa, and the constituencies represented at the conference, have made in focusing on Africa's real development challenges and in persuading U.S. corporations and institutions to do so. (author)

  7. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists…

  8. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.

  9. Human-induced changes in landscape configuration influence individual movement routines: lessons from a versatile, highly mobile species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Camacho

    Full Text Available Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species-the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis-in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively, landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m. It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately

  10. Highly variable individual donor cell fates characterize robust horizontal gene transfer of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Mitri, Sara; Pelet, Serge; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-06-14

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important evolutionary mechanism for bacterial adaptation. However, given the typical low transfer frequencies in a bacterial population, little is known about the fate and interplay of donor cells and the mobilized DNA during transfer. Here we study transfer of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) among individual live bacterial cells. ICEs are widely distributed mobile DNA elements that are different than plasmids because they reside silent in the host chromosome and are maintained through vertical descent. Occasionally, ICEs become active, excise, and transmit their DNA to a new recipient, where it is reintegrated. We develop a fluorescent tool to differentiate excision, transfer, and reintegration of a model ICE named ICEclc (for carrying the clc genes for chlorocatechol metabolism) among single Pseudomonas cells by using time-lapse microscopy. We find that ICEclc activation is initiated in stationary phase cells, but excision and transfer predominantly occur only when such cells have been presented with new nutrients. Donors with activated ICE develop a number of different states, characterized by reduced cell division rates or growth arrest, persistence, or lysis, concomitant with ICE excision, and likely, ICE loss or replication. The donor cell state transitions can be described by using a stochastic model, which predicts that ICE fitness is optimal at low initiation rates in stationary phase. Despite highly variable donor cell fates, ICE transfer is remarkably robust overall, with 75% success after excision. Our results help to better understand ICE behavior and shed a new light on bacterial cellular differentiation during horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27247406

  11. Organization and training in radiotherapy for developing countries in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Seminar was arranged to help identify and solve problems likely to be encountered by developing countries, especially in Africa, interested in developing radiotherapy facilities. The Proceedings contain status reports of medical facilities in a number of African countries as well as several more general papers dealing with the epidemiology of cancer in Africa, the attitudes of patients and the importance of different radiotherapeutical techniques in cancer treatment. The individual papers are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  12. The sero-monitoring of rinderpest throughout Africa. Phase one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The co-ordinated research program ''The sero-monitoring of Rinderpest in Africa'' is concerned with supporting national laboratories in their involvement in the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign, which aims at the eradication of rinderpest from Africa. Phase one of the program focussed on the introduction and routine use of an ELISA-based system for rinderpest sero-monitoring. The individual documents in this publication have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  13. Primary health care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, E

    1989-01-01

    Even though most countries have committed to primary health care (PHC), South Africa, a middle-income country, has an inadequate PHC system. The poor system has roots in the colonial period and apartheid reinforces this system. Race, class, and place of residence determine the type of health care individuals receive. South Africa falls far short of all 5 principles of PHC. Just 12% of the health budget goes to 40% of the population who live in the homelands which shows the inequitable distribution of health care resources and inadequate quality health care for all. Similarly, South Africa has not altered its communication and education techniques to improve preventive and promotive health services. It has not implemented any successful national campaigns such as a campaign against diarrhea deaths. South Africa does not make good use of available appropriate technology such as breast feeding, oral rehydration, refrigeration, and the ventilated improved pit latrine which lead to health for all. People in South Africa discuss community participation but it is not likely to occur without general political democracy. Some people have made local attempts at community participation but they tend to use inflexible means and request either cash or contributions in kind from people who have little. The elite in South Africa has not recognized the need to correct socioeconomic inequalities. The Population Development Plan Programme among white farmer-owners has showed some support for a multisectoral approach to improve health care, however. For example, it acknowledges that non-health-care interventions such as better salaries, literacy, and living conditions, lead to better health. The Department of National Health has discussed improved coordination of the budget to allow priority determination of national PHD and manpower plans. Nongovernmental organizations are beginning to use the PHC approach instead of the charitable approach.

  14. Impact of altering proximity on snack food intake in individuals with high and low executive function: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jennifer A.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite attempts to improve diet at population level, people living in material and social deprivation continue to consume unhealthy diets. Executive function - the ability to regulate behaviour and resist impulses – is weaker in individuals living in deprivation. Dietary interventions that educate and persuade people to reflect on and actively change behaviour may therefore disproportionately benefit individuals who are socioeconomically advantaged and have stronger executive func...

  15. HIV-1 A1 Subtype Epidemic in Italy Originated from Africa and Eastern Europe and Shows a High Frequency of Transmission Chains Involving Intravenous Drug Users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessia Lai

    Full Text Available Subtype A accounts for only 12% of HIV-1 infections worldwide but predominates in Russia and Former Soviet Union countries of Eastern Europe. After an early propagation via heterosexual contacts, this variant spread explosively among intravenous drug users. A distinct A1 variant predominates in Greece and Albania, which penetrated directly from Africa. Clade A1 accounts for 12.5% of non-B subtypes in Italy, being the most frequent after F1 subtype.Aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of A1 subtype in Italy and trace its origin and diffusion through phylogenetic and phylodynamic approaches.The phylogenetic analysis of 113 A1 pol sequences included in the Italian ARCA database, indicated that 71 patients (62.8% clustered within 5 clades. A higher probability to be detected in clusters was found for patients from Eastern Europe and Italy (88.9% and 60.4%, respectively compared to those from Africa (20% (p < .001. Higher proportions of clustering sequences were found in intravenous drug users with respect to heterosexuals (85.7% vs. 59.3%, p = .056 and in women with respect to men (81.4% vs. 53.2%, p < .006. Subtype A1 dated phylogeny indicated an East African origin around 1961. Phylogeographical reconstruction highlighted 3 significant groups. One involved East European and some Italian variants, the second encompassed some Italian and African strains, the latter included the majority of viruses carried by African and Italian subjects and all viral sequences from Albania and Greece.Subtype A1 originated in Central Africa and spread among East European countries in 1982. It entered Italy through three introduction events: directly from East Africa, from Albania and Greece, and from the area encompassing Moldavia and Ukraine. As in previously documented A1 epidemics of East European countries, HIV-1 A1 subtype spread in Italy in part through intravenous drug users. However, Eastern European women contributed to the penetration of

  16. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  17. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Jose; Peacock, Corey A; Ellerbroek, Anya; Fromhoff, Brandon; Silver, Tobin

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary protein is important for resistance-trained individuals. It has been posited that intakes of 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/day are needed for physically active individuals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a very high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained men and women. Methods Thirty healthy resistance-trained individuals participated in this study (mean ± SD; age: 24.1 ± 5.6 yr; height: 171.4 ± 8.8 ...

  18. Modeling impacts of climate change on freshwater availability in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Monireh; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Ashraf Vaghefi, Saeid; Farzaneh, Mohammad Reza; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Yang, Hong

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThis study analyzes the impact of climate change on freshwater availability in Africa at the subbasin level for the period of 2020-2040. Future climate projections from five global circulation models (GCMs) under the four IPCC emission scenarios were fed into an existing SWAT hydrological model to project the impact on different components of water resources across the African continent. The GCMs have been downscaled based on observed data of Climate Research Unit to represent local climate conditions at 0.5° grid spatial resolution. The results show that for Africa as a whole, the mean total quantity of water resources is likely to increase. For individual subbasins and countries, variations are substantial. Although uncertainties are high in the simulated results, we found that in many regions/countries, most of the climate scenarios projected the same direction of changes in water resources, suggesting a relatively high confidence in the projections. The assessment of the number of dry days and the frequency of their occurrences suggests an increase in the drought events and their duration in the future. Overall, the dry regions have higher uncertainties than the wet regions in the projected impacts on water resources. This poses additional challenge to the agriculture in dry regions where water shortage is already severe while irrigation is expected to become more important to stabilize and increase food production.

  19. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  20. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research.

  1. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  2. Tobacco in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco has been a common commodity in Africa for over three centuries. By 1993, some 500 000 tons of tobacco were being grown in 33 African countries, with only two countries exporting more than they import. Attempts to measure the current and potential impact of the tobacco business on health, society and the environment are still in their early stages, but the need for preventive action is already inescapably clear. Comprehensive control strategies are urgently required to prevent a major epidemic of tobacco-related disease in Africa. PMID:8820139

  3. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denning A Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century.

  4. The approach to individual and collective risk in regard to radiation and its application to disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In international and national criteria on disposal of HLW there are at present a number of requirements to the protection of individuals now and in the future. The protection of society (or environment) is directly or indirectly addressed in some criteria, but the number of people exposed, potentially exposed or at risk is not considered as a specific issue or quantity with constraints and implications. The report describes the various attitudes of society and its individuals towards the protection of the individual and the public. In particular, it treats how the number of people concerned by an irradiation situation influences the involvement of society in social and economic terms. Some conclusions can be drawn that are applicable to the situation of disposal of HLW. The discussion may illuminate the problems of disposal of HLW from some new angles and further the ambition of the society to present the disposal problems as broadly as possible. 23 refs

  5. Marywood Librarians Teach in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Watson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians Leslie Christianson and Julie Watson from Marywood University have been working to educate Catholic nuns in Africa. Funded by a grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa (HESA project is a partnership between Marywood University and Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA in Nairobi, Kenya.

  6. Youth in Africa's Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Marito; Fares, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Youth and Africa have received increased attention in recent policy discussions and World Bank work, as articulated in the Africa action plan and the World Development Report 2007: development and the next generation. The Africa action plan offers a framework to support critical policy and public action led by African countries to achieve well-defined goals, such as the Millennium Developm...

  7. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  8. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  9. A Comparison of the Effects of Individualized Science Instruction with Traditional Science Instruction in Junior High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heffernan, Daniel F.

    The Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS), operationally defined to be an individualized program, and the New York State Science Syllabus, defined to be the traditional program, were used as methods of instruction with 104 eighth-grade pupils. The students were randomly organized into groups according to the Solomon Four-Group Design.…

  10. Fission Product Release Behavior of Individual Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postirradiation heating tests of TRISO-coated UO2 particles at 1700 and 1800degC were performed to understand fission product release behavior at accident temperatures. The inventory measurements of the individual particles were carried out before and after the heating tests with gamma-ray spectrometry to study the behavior of the individual particles. The time-dependent release behavior of 85Kr, 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 154Eu were obtained with on-line measurements of fission gas release and intermittent measurements of metallic fission product release during the heating tests. The inventory measurements of the individual particles revealed that fission product release behavior of the individual particles was not uniform, and large particle-to-particle variations in the release behavior of 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 154Eu were found. X-ray microradiography and ceramography showed that the variations could not be explained by only the presence or absence of cracks in the SiC coating layer. The SiC degradation may have been related to the variations

  11. Individual, Family, School, and Community Predictors of High School Male Suicidal Behaviors: An Analysis of 2010 Iowa Youth Survey Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck-Cross, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Youth suicide is a public health issue and the second leading cause of death for young Iowans ages 15 to 24 years, with young males six times more likely to die than their female peers (Iowa Department of Public Health, 2009). Suicide among adolescents is a complex issue, but there are patterns of individual, family, school, and community…

  12. Skin diseases among schoolchildren in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, Adriaan Anne

    2012-01-01

    Many skin diseases among schoolchildren in sub-Sahara Africa cause disturbing complaints like itch and pain and several of them are contagious.This high prevalence causes a major public health problem.Although in several countries and also in our studies skin diseases present in large numbers, they

  13. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  14. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  15. Literacy in Francophone Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokora, Pascal D.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in francophone Africa, where literacy is still a privilege, is reviewed in terms of the complex linguistic situation, effects of population change, concepts and definitions of literacy, promotion of literacy in adult nonformal settings (e.g., African language literacy materials, multilingual settings). (23 references) (LB)

  16. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  17. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  18. Investment Climate in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, David; Adamali, Aref

    2015-01-01

    The World Bank Group has been working on investment climate reform in Sub-Saharan Africa for nearly a decade, a period characterized by dramatic economic growth on the continent. Establishing links between such reform interventions and economic growth, however, is a complex problem. Although this note finds some connection between investment climate reform and economic growth, establishing ...

  19. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  20. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  1. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city's downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company.In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city.

  2. Out of Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Continent shows its stars and future potential in Beijing For a continent that hits the headlines most often for wars and famine, the Olympics offered Africa a chance to make the news for more positive reasons, and its athletes obliged with a host of outstanding achievements.

  3. Pregnancy and virologic response to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Westreich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although women of reproductive age are the largest group of HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in that setting. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on virologic response to HAART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women who initiated HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 2004 and 30 September 2009, and followed up until an event, death, transfer, drop-out, or administrative end of follow-up on 31 March 2010. Women over age 45 and women who were pregnant at HAART initiation were excluded from the study; final sample size for analysis was 5,494 women. Main exposure was incident pregnancy, experienced by 541 women; main outcome was virologic failure, defined as a failure to suppress virus to ≤ 400 copies/ml by six months or virologic rebound >400 copies/ml thereafter. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios using marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models and weighted lifetable analysis to calculate adjusted five-year risk differences. The weighted hazard ratio for the effect of pregnancy on time to virologic failure was 1.34 (95% confidence limit [CL] 1.02, 1.78. Sensitivity analyses generally confirmed these main results. CONCLUSIONS: Incident pregnancy after HAART initiation was associated with modest increases in both relative and absolute risks of virologic failure, although uncontrolled confounding cannot be ruled out. Nonetheless, these results reinforce that family planning is an essential part of care for HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. More work is needed to confirm these findings and to explore specific etiologic pathways by which such effects may operate.

  4. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  5. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  6. Aid Effectiveness Revisited: Comparative Studies of Modalities of Aid to Asia and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Hino; Atsushi Iimi

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a variety of evidence that shows that in Asia, aid leveraged private investment in the long run, while in Africa the correlation between aid and domestic investment was at best ambiguous. Aid in Africa was diametrically opposite to that of Asia in terms of the amounts the countries received, the sector compositions, the size of individual projects, and the intensity of donor involvement. The sharp contrast in aid effectiveness between Asia and Africa could be attributed at...

  7. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO: a longitudinal cohort study of the cardiovascular experience of individuals at high risk for diabetes recruited from Danish primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Nanna B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies for individuals found at high risk following screening. In order to make better use of the opportunities for primary prevention of diabetes and its complications among this high risk group, it is important to quantify diabetes progression rates and to examine the development of early markers of cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from Danish primary care. Methods/Design ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006. All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009–2011 (n = 4,188, of whom 2,082 (50% attended. The health assessment included detailed measurement of anthropometry, body composition, biochemistry, physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors including aortic stiffness and central blood pressure. All ADDITION-PRO participants are being followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death. Discussion The ADDITION-PRO study is designed to increase understanding of cardiovascular risk and its underlying mechanisms among individuals at high risk of diabetes

  8. Discrimination of individuals in a general population at high-risk for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on liver stiffness: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasai Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with liver stiffness (LS are unknown and normal reference values for LS have not been established. Individuals at high risk for alcoholic (ALD and non-alcoholic fatty (NAFLD liver disease need to be non-invasively discriminated during routine health checks. Factors related to LS measured using a FibroScan and normal reference values for LS are presented in this report. Methods We measured LS using a FibroScan in 416 consecutive individuals who presented for routine medical checks. We also investigated the relationship between LS and age, body mass index (BMI, liver function (LF, alcohol consumption, and fatty liver determined by ultrasonography. We identified individuals at high-risk for ALD and NAFLD as having a higher LS value than the normal upper limit detected in 171 healthy controls. Results The LS value for all individuals was 4.7 +/- 1.5 kPa (mean +/- SD and LS significantly and positively correlated with BMI and LF test results. The LS was significantly higher among individuals with, than without fatty liver. Liver stiffness in the 171 healthy controls was 4.3 +/- 0.81 kPa and the upper limit of LS in the normal controls was 5.9 kPa. We found that 60 (14.3% of 416 study participants had abnormal LS. The proportion of individuals whose LS values exceeded the normal upper limit was over five-fold higher among those with, than without fatty liver accompanied by abnormal LF test results. Conclusions Liver stiffness could be used to non-invasively monitor the progression of chronic liver diseases and to discriminate individuals at high risk for ALD and NAFLD during routine health assessments.

  9. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients. PMID:21859410

  10. Household-based malaria control in a highly endemic area of Africa (Tanzania: determinants of transmission and disease and indicators for monitoring - Kilombero Malaria Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Teuscher

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kilombero Malaria Project (KMP attemps to define opperationally useful indicators of levels of transmission and disease and health system relevant monitoring indicators to evaluate the impact of disease control at the community or health facility level. The KMP is longitudinal community based study (N = 1024 in rural Southern Tanzania, investigating risk factors for malarial morbidity and developing household based malaria control strategies. Biweekly morbidity and bimonthly serological, parasitological and drug consumption surveys are carried out in all study households. Mosquito densities are measured biweekly in 50 sentinel houses by timed light traps. Determinants of transmission and indicators of exposure were not strongly aggregated within households. Subjective morbidity (recalled fever, objective morbidity (elevated body temperature and high parasitaemia and chloroquine consumption were strongly aggregated within a few households. Nested analysis of anti-NANP40 antibody suggest that only approximately 30% of the titer variance can explained by household clustering and that the largest proportion of antibody titer variability must be explained by non-measured behavioral determinants relating to an individual's level of exposure within a household. Indicators for evaluation and monitoring and outcome measures are described within the context of health service management to describe control measure output in terms of community effectiveness.

  11. Individual Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsini, Raymond

    1981-01-01

    Paper presented at the 66th Convention of the International Association of Pupil Personnel Workers, October 20, 1980, Baltimore, Maryland, describes individual education based on the principles of Alfred Adler. Defines six advantages of individual education, emphasizing student responsibility, mutual respect, and allowing students to progress at…

  12. Africa's Perspectives on China-Africa Relations and Forum on China-Africa Cooperation(FOCAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osita; C.Eze

    2009-01-01

    China is in Africa in a vigorous way,and doing business in several countries like Sudan,Congo DRC,Angola,South Africa,and Nigeria.In the short term,the relationship may appear to be mutually beneficial.This paper seeks to address the issue of Africa's perspectives on China-Africa Relations and the FOCAC and examine the concept of strategic partnerships,determine the state of China-Africa relations,examines FOCAC and draw conclusion as well as recommendation on possible ways and issues for future engageme...

  13. Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Taylor, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Despite this, there is little quantitative information on groundwater resources in Africa, and groundwater storage is consequently omitted from assessments of freshwater availability. Here we present the first quantitative continent-wide maps of aquifer storage and potential borehole yields in Africa based on an extensive review of available maps, publications and data. We estimate total groundwater storage in Africa to be 0.66 million km3 (0.36-1.75 million km3). Not all of this groundwater storage is available for abstraction, but the estimated volume is more than 100 times estimates of annual renewable freshwater resources on Africa. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed: the largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan. Nevertheless, for many African countries appropriately sited and constructed boreholes can support handpump abstraction (yields of 0.1-0.3 l s-1), and contain sufficient storage to sustain abstraction through inter-annual variations in recharge. The maps show further that the potential for higher yielding boreholes ( > 5 l s-1) is much more limited. Therefore, strategies for increasing irrigation or supplying water to rapidly urbanizing cities that are predicated on the widespread drilling of high yielding boreholes are likely to be unsuccessful. As groundwater is the largest and most widely distributed store of freshwater in Africa, the quantitative maps are intended to lead to more realistic assessments of water security and water stress, and to promote a more quantitative approach to mapping of groundwater resources at national and regional level.

  14. A highly restricted T-cell receptor dominates the CD8+ T-cell response to parvovirus B19 infection in HLA-A*2402-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprowicz, V; Jeffery, K; Broliden, K;

    2006-01-01

    Six of seven HLA-A*2402-positive individuals with acute parvovirus B19 infections made vigorous CD8-positive cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses to the viral epitope FYTPLADQF. All responders showed highly focused T-cell receptor (TCR) usage, using almost exclusively BV5.1. The BV5.1 TCR dominated...

  15. Individualized toxicity-titrated 6-mercaptopurine increments during high-dose methotrexate consolidation treatment of lower risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Lausen, Birgitte Frederiksen;

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and toxicity of individualized toxicity-titrated 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) dose increments during post-remission treatment with High-dose methotrexate (HDM) (5000 mg/m2, ×3) in 38 patients with Childhood (ALL). Patients were increased in steps of 25 mg 6MP/m2 per...

  16. The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

  17. An Analysis of Success Factors in the Utilization of Learning Activity Packages Employed as Vehicles for Individualizing Science Instruction at Nova High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Roy Franklin

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…

  18. EXAMINING THE MODEL OF THE USE OF FACEBOOK EFFECTS ON INDIVIDUAL BEHAVIOR (A Study to the Students of High Schools in Surakarta City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irwan Christanto Edy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is aimed to examine how the use of facebook affects students’ behavior. The objects of the research were SMK/SMU (high school students in Surakarta City. Data were taken from a random sample comprising of 132 respondents. We used analysis tools such as: 1 Instrument Validity & Reliability test, 2 Descriptive Statistics analysis, and 3 Structural Equation Modeling (SEM analysis. The instrument tests proved that all items in the questionnaire were valid and reliable. The descriptive analysis described our respondents characteristics such as: gender, internet apps used, their school internet facility. By using SEM analysis, we conclude that the use of facebook has significant effect on individual behavior which comprises of 4 indicators: attitude, personality, learning, and perception. T-test results shows that: 1 The use of Facebook has significant effect on individual attitude, 2 The use of Facebook has significant effect on individual personality, 3 The use of Facebook has significant effect on individual learning, 4 The use of Facebook has significant effect on individual perception. Thus, the use of Facebook has significant effects on individual behavior.

  19. Dose-effect relationship in production of dicentrics and rings in blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the dose-effect relationship in the production of chromosome aberrations by high background radiation by using statistically appropriate individual measurements. Methods: Chromosome analysis was performed in separated blood lymphocytes of 39 family members of different ages from either high background radiation area (HBRA) or control area (CA). Individual cumulative doses ranged from 23.9-261.3 and 5.2-29.8 mGy for HBRA and CA, respectively. A total of about 100,000 cells were scored and dicentric and ring chromosome (dic + Rc) aberrations recorded. Results: In the case of HBRA, individual chromosome aberration frequencies increased with age within each family. The increasing trend was in general not significantly different among families. The increase in individual aberration was closely correlated with age and cumulative dose. Age-and dose-effect relationship fit well the linear equation: Y = 0.0448X + 0.4913 (R2 = 0.7814) for age and Y 0.0156X + 0.5715 (R2 = 0.7061) for cumulative dose, respectively. In the case of CA, there was no significant difference in aberration yields among individuals of different ages, and the group mean aberration frequency was 1.24 +- 0.69 x 10-3. Conclusions: Dic and Rc can continuously accumulate over a lifetime chronic low dose exposures, and can serve as a reliable biological indicator. However, the ultimate sensitivity is about 50 mGy

  20. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  1. Human origins: Out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  2. Efficient suppression of radiation damping in individual plasmonic resonators: towards high-Q nano-volume sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Valle, G.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results on radiation damping suppression in individual plasmonic resonators using conformal bending of the structure, which suppresses the electric-dipole response in favor of magnetic dipole one, are overviewed. It is demonstrated that bending of linear plasmonic nano-antennas increases......-SPPs) bound to ultra-narrow metallic structures, turned out to be quite general, and its experimental demonstration has been attained with circularly curved nano-rod antennas. Furthermore, this approach suggested novel configurations of plasmonic single particle nanosensing with enhanced features, allowing...

  3. Strength beyond structure : social and historical trajectories of agency in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2007-01-01

    This book explores the notion of agency in a range of empirical situations in Africa. It emphasizes the possibilities individuals and social groups perceive when faced with the constraints that tend to mark African social life. Contributions: Social and historical trajectories of agency in Africa: a

  4. Private Enterprise-Led Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Private Enterprise-Led Development in Sub-Saharan Africa provides a novel theoretical and conceptual model to guide research into Africa's economic development. It endorses the view that private enterprise-led growth will help reduce poverty since it strengthens individuals' capacity to care...

  5. High frequency of the CCR5delta32 variant among individuals from an admixed Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.B. Chies

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In Brazil, the main cause of death of individuals with SCD is recurrent infection. The CCR5delta32 allele, which confers relative resistance to macrophage-tropic HIV virus infection, probably has reached its frequency and world distribution due to other pathogens that target macrophage in European populations. In the present investigation a relatively higher prevalence (5.1% of the CCR5delta32 allele was identified, by PCR amplification using specific primers, in 79 SCD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.3% with the same ethnic background (Afro-Brazilians. Based on a hypothesis that considers SCD as a chronic inflammatory condition, and since the CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in directing a Th1-type immune response, we suggest that a Th1/Th2 balance can influence the morbidity of SCD. If the presence of the null CCR5delta32 allele results in a reduction of the chronic inflammation state present in SCD patients, this could lead to differential survival of SCD individuals who are carriers of the CCR5delta32 allele. This differential survival could be due to the development of less severe infections and consequently reduced or less severe vaso-occlusive crises.

  6. Product Quality Assurance for Off-Grid Lighting in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    World Bank; Mills, Evan; Mills, Evan

    2008-07-13

    Although the emergence of markets for high efficiency off-grid lighting technologies holds promise, realizing the potential of this opportunity on a long-term, sustainable basis requires careful attention to issues of product quality, consumer protection, and the potential for significant 'market spoiling', in anticipation of increases of sales of low cost, low performance off-grid lighting products. The goal of the Lighting Africa quality assurance workshop was to articulate strategies to mitigate the dangers of market spoiling and to explore ways to protect consumers from misleading advertising for sales of inferior, off-grid lighting products in the context of Lighting Africa's overarching objective to support the industry in developing a robust off-grid lighting market in Africa. The workshop resulted in the identification of two strategic approaches for meeting Lighting Africa quality assurance programmatic needs. The first strategy is intended to meet a short-term programmatic need for quality associated with requests for lighting products by bulk procurement agents, such as in a World Bank-financed project. The development of procurement specifications and test procedures that could be used in a quality/usability screening method in order to provide guidance for forthcoming large volume purchases emerged as the best solution to meet this need. Such approaches are used in World Bank-financed solar home systems (SHSs) projects in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China, among others. However, unlike the SHSs which have multiple balance-of-system (BOS) components warranting the need for an array of specifications for individual components, stand alone lighting systems require specifications that are amenable to individual light points. To test this approach, Lighting Africa elected to use the technical specifications issued by the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program for solar lanterns that use CFL bulbs (PVRS11A) as the basis of qualifying such

  7. The Risk Factors for Criminal Behaviour in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASDs): A Comparison of Childhood Adversities between Individuals with HFASDs Who Exhibit Criminal Behaviour and Those with HFASD and No Criminal Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Someki, Fumio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    Most reports of the criminal behaviour of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) have been case studies, and few have empirically examined the risk factors of criminal behaviour among these individuals. This study examined 175 individuals with HFASD, including 36 individuals who had a prior history of criminal…

  8. Post Apartheid South Africa; Evaluating South Africa's Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hopper

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I aim to evaluate whether increasing or decreasing the level of consociationalism in South Africa would be beneficial for the country's stability. Analysing South Africa's political structure since the implementation of free and fair elections, I review the effects of its current degree of consociationalism and debate the arguments of those who contest South Africa's current institutional framework and its capacity to govern.

  9. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  10. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...

  11. Entrepreneurship Development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik; Jeppesen, Søren; Langevang, Thilde

    2010-01-01

    This working paper is a report from the workshop on Entrepreneurship Development arranged by the Centre for Business and Development Studies at CBS and the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in September 2010. The objective of the workshop was to use the participants’ joint knowledge and experiences to discuss and provide conclusions on what role entrepreneurship development has played and can play to stimulate growth and employment in Africa. Entrepreneurship development is understood as the...

  12. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese enterprises generate jobs for Africans while exploring the vast potential of the continent Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city’s downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company. In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city. With a population of 900 million and

  13. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  14. Africa is on time

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkovskiy, Maxim; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that the recent African growth renaissance has reached Africa's poor. Using survey data on African income distributions and national accounts GDP, we estimate income distributions, poverty rates, and inequality indices for African countries for the period 1990-2011. Our findings are as follows. First, African poverty is falling rapidly. Second, the African countries for which good inequality data exist are set to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) poverty reductio...

  15. Unlocking Africa's Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Freemantle

    2011-01-01

    WHILE there are meaningful objections to the nature and structure of much of the new investment in African agriculture,it is dear that the introduction of new capital,skills and technology is an essential component in unlocking the continent's ultimate allure.Investments of $83 billion annually are said to be needed to elevate the developing world's agricultural sector.At least half of this amount is required in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone.

  16. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  17. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...

  18. High saturated fatty acid intake induces insulin secretion by elevating gastric inhibitory polypeptide levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itoh, Kazue; Moriguchi, Ririko; Yamada, Yuichiro;

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance is central to the etiology of the metabolic syndrome cluster of diseases. Evidence suggests that a high-fat diet is associated with insulin resistance, which may be modulated by dietary fatty acid composition. We hypothesized that high saturated fatty acid intake increases...

  19. Entrepreneurial Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Halbinger, Maria

    2014-01-01

    New ventures are central to an economy’s welfare and substantial promoters of technological change and innovation. Extant research has identified individuals and their role in entrepreneurial processes as the core pillars of entrepreneurship. This PhD dissertation aims to refine our understanding of the fundamental relationship between individuals and their entrepreneurial activities. In order to empirically test the hypotheses built, the analyses are based on a unique dataset ...

  20. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  1. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  2. Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [{sup 11}C] DASB positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Rullmann, Michael [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M. [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Winter, Karsten [University of Leipzig, Centre for Translational Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, Leipzig (Germany); Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Drabe, Mandy [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Regenthal, Ralf [University of Leipzig, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schinke, Christian [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Arelin, Katrin [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Lobsien, Donald [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Fasshauer, Mathias; Fenske, Wiebke K.; Stumvoll, Michael [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Collaborative Research Centre 1052 Obesity Mechanisms, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls. We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [{sup 11}C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m{sup 2}) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m{sup 2}) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was used as the outcome parameter. On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BP{sub ND} in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BP{sub ND}. The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity. (orig.)

  3. Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [11C] DASB positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls. We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [11C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m2) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m2) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BPND) was used as the outcome parameter. On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BPND in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BPND. The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity. (orig.)

  4. Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors. PMID:22506789

  5. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  6. Social network based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high risk individuals in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ann M.; Murillo, Wendy; de Maria Hernandez, Flor; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Eron, Joseph J.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV in Central America is concentrated among certain groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared social recruitment chains and HIV transmission clusters from 699 MSM and 757 FSW to better understand factors contributing to ongoing HIV transmission in El Salvador. Methods Phylogenies were reconstructed using pol sequences from 119 HIV-positive individuals recruited by respondent driven sampling (RDS) and compared to RDS chains in three cities in El Salvador. Transmission clusters with a mean pairwise genetic distance ≤0.015 and Bayesian posterior probabilities=1 were identified. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated among MSM. Results Sequences from 34 (43%) MSM and 4 (10%) FSW grouped in 14 transmission clusters. Clusters were defined by risk group (12 MSM clusters) and geographic residence (only one spanned separate cities). In 4 MSM clusters (all n=2), individuals were also members of the same RDS chain but only 2 had members directly linked through recruitment. All large clusters (n≥3) spanned more than one RDS chain. Among MSM, factors independently associated with cluster membership included recent infection by BED assay (P=0.02), sex with stable male partners (P=0.02), and sex with ≥3 male partners in past year (P=0.04). Conclusions We found few HIV transmissions corresponding directly with the social recruitment. However, we identified clustering in nearly one half of MSM suggesting RDS recruitment was indirectly but successfully uncovering transmission networks, particularly among recent infections. Interrogating RDS chains with phylogenetic analyses may help refine methods for identifying transmission clusters. PMID:23364512

  7. ENVIRONMENT, INCOME, AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Duane

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that rural forest and agricultural resources in Southern Africa are overused, in the sense that both biomass and harvest levels are significantly below levels of maximum sustainable yield. However, economic theory suggests that high interest and time preference rates cause the economic optimum to coincide with generally-observed patterns. In addition, low income may be the driving factor behind high interest and time preference rates. In macro-economic terms, Southern Af...

  8. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup produce similar metabolic effects in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however, controversy exits over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Objective: To compare effects of chronic consumption of three nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructo...

  9. Talking Science in Multilingual Contexts in South Africa: Possibilities and challenges for engagement in learners home languages in high school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msimanga, Audrey; Lelliott, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    This paper discusses the nature of learner engagement with science content during small group discussions in which learners use their home languages. We observed that learners reverted to their home languages in small group discussions, yet very little is known about the dynamics of learner engagement when they use their home languages in classroom discussions in South Africa and elsewhere. We analysed transcripts of discussions by three small groups in a Grade 10 Chemistry class. Contrary to teachers' fears that learners may not engage meaningfully with science content when talking in their home languages, all three groups spent over 90% of discussion time on task. Learners made and supported claims, challenged each others' ideas and questioned each others' thinking. Although the levels of critique varied between the groups, there was evidence of negotiation of understandings of the concepts. We argue that use of learners' home languages for engagement with difficult concepts may be a legitimate resource for science teachers to create opportunities for learner conceptual understanding. Further research is needed to understand the dynamics of teacher and learner use of their languages in science lessons, the best teaching strategies to achieve this, how teacher educators may model these strategies without undermining the need by both parents and learners' for English language proficiency to access social goods.

  10. Sequential Cross-Sectional Surveys in Orange Farm, a Township of South Africa, Revealed a Constant Low Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision Uptake among Adults despite Demand Creation Campaigns and High Acceptability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Esaie; Rain-Taljaard, Reathe; Tsepe, Motlalepule; Monkwe, Cornelius; Hlatswayo, Florence; Tshabalala, Simphiwe; Khela, Simphiwe; Xulu, Lindo; Xaba, Dumazile; Molomo, Tebogo; Malinga, Thobile; Puren, Adrian; Auvert, Bertran

    2016-01-01

    Background WHO recommends a male circumcision (MC) prevalence rate higher than 80% to have a substantial impact on the HIV-AIDS epidemic in Eastern and Southern Africa. Orange Farm, a township in South Africa, has a free-for-service voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) clinic in operation since 2008. Following an intense campaign from 2008 to 2010, MC prevalence rate increased to 55.4% (ANRS-12126). Ongoing and past VMMC campaigns focused on youths, through school talks, and adults at a community level. The main objective of the study was to assess the change in MC prevalence rate among adults aged 18–19 and 18–49 years in the past 5 years. Methods A cross-sectional survey (ANRS-12285) was conducted among a random sample of 522 adult men in 2015. MC status and characteristics of participants were collected through a genital examination and a face-to-face questionnaire. Results MC prevalence rate among young adult men aged 18–19 years increased markedly from 61.2% (95%CI: 57.4% to 65.0%) in 2010 to 87.5% (76.0% to 94.6%) in 2015 (pcircumcised. However, we estimated that only 4.6% (11/237; 2.5% to 7.9%) of the uncircumcised men underwent circumcision in 2015, despite 117/185 (63.2%; 95%CI: 56.1% to 69.9%) who reported that they were definitely willing to become circumcised. Conclusions In Orange Farm, VMMC campaigns were successful among the youth and led to a sufficiently high MC prevalence rate to have a substantial impact in the future on the HIV-AIDS epidemic. However, despite high acceptability and a free VMMC service, VMMC campaigns since 2010 have failed to increase MC prevalence rate among adults to above 80%. These campaigns should be revisited. PMID:27427957

  11. Atlas of isotope hydrology - Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are abundant water resources in Africa - about 17 large rivers and 160 lakes greater than 27 km2 - most of these resources are located in the humid and sub-humid regions around the equator. The surface runoff in Africa, on average, is much lower than average precipitation as a result of high evaporation and evapotranspiration, resulting in endemic drought in parts of the continent. Consequently, groundwater is a very important resource for Africa, providing nearly two-thirds of drinking water on the continent, and an even greater proportion in northern Africa. Despite the importance of groundwater for many societies, there is a lack of corresponding public concern about its protection, perhaps because the extent and availability of groundwater are not easily measured. The impact of increasing degrees of temporal and spatial climatic variability on water resources is also an important consideration, and groundwater to some extent provides an opportunity to mitigate the impacts of climate change. Applications of isotopes in hydrology are based on the general concept of 'tracing', in which naturally occurring or environmental isotopes (either radioactive or stable) are used to study hydrological processes on large temporal and spatial scales through their natural distribution in a hydrological system. Thus, environmental isotope methodologies are unique in regional studies of water resources to obtain integrated characteristics of groundwater systems. The most frequently used environmental isotopes include those of the water molecule, hydrogen (2H or D, also called deuterium, and 3H, also called tritium) and oxygen (18O), as well as of carbon (13C and 14C, also called radiocarbon or carbon-14) occurring in water as constituents of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon compounds. 2H, 13C and 18O are stable isotopes of the respective elements, whereas 3H and 14C are radioactive isotopes. Among the most important areas where isotopes are useful in

  12. Precision Irrigation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...

  13. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  14. Food and environmental policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, M R; Biswas, A K

    1986-08-01

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

  15. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  16. Oculocutaneous albinism in sub-Saharan Africa: adverse sun-associated health effects and photoprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caradee Y; Norval, Mary; Hertle, Richard W

    2015-01-01

    Oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) is a genetically inherited autosomal recessive condition. Individuals with OCA lack melanin and therefore are susceptible to the harmful effects of solar ultraviolet radiation, including extreme sun sensitivity, photophobia and skin cancer. OCA is a grave public health issue in sub-Saharan Africa with a prevalence as high as 1 in 1000 in some tribes. This article considers the characteristics and prevalence of OCA in sub-Saharan African countries. Sun-induced adverse health effects in the skin and eyes of OCA individuals are reviewed. Sun exposure behavior and the use of photoprotection for the skin and eyes are discussed to highlight the major challenges experienced by these at-risk individuals and how these might be best resolved.

  17. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  18. Paléocontraintes et déformations syn- et post-collision Afrique Europe identifiées dans la couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du Haut Atlas occidental (Maroc)Syn- and post-collision Africa Europe palaeostresses and deformations identified in the West High-Atlas Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhar, Mostafa

    Palaeostresses and deformation axis reconstruction related to the intracontinental High-Atlas uplift evidences two shortening phases from Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary. The first compression is oriented N20-30°E and is Maastrichtian to Oligocene age; the second one, oriented N120-160°E, is syn-Mio-Pliocene. Tectonic inversion of the lateral to compressive Jurassic regime is contemporaneous with the beginning of Africa and Europe collision. Rotation of the Mio-Pliocene shortening orientation could be linked to the change of the convergence direction between the Africa and Europe plates. To cite this article: M. Amrhar, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 279-285.

  19. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  20. Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety : differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of negative self-image in social phobia. Participants were 19 high and 19 low socially anxious women. Because self-report measures of self-esteem are sensitive to self-presentation and impression management strategies, an implicit association test (IAT

  1. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries. PMID:26613195

  2. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus -- the "D-shuttle" project --

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, N; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernandini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Guérin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molęda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2015-01-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter "D-shuttle" for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  3. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level.

  4. Soluble CD163, adiponectin, C-reactive protein and progression of dysglycaemia in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deichgræber, Pia; Witte, Daniel R; Møller, Holger J;

    2016-01-01

    AIM/HYPOTHESIS: Our aim was to investigate the association between the macrophage-activation marker soluble CD163 (sCD163), adiponectin, C-reactive protein (CRP) and changes in glycaemia, insulin resistance and insulin secretion in individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS......: This prospective study included 1014 individuals at high risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in the Danish arm of the Anglo-Danish-Dutch study of Intensive Treatment In PeOple with ScreeN-detected Diabetes in Primary Care (ADDITION-Europe trial) baseline examination in 2001-2006 and follow......-up examination (ADDITION-Progression [ADDITION-PRO]) in 2009-2011. Baseline serum samples were analysed for sCD163, adiponectin and CRP. The associations between sCD163, adiponectin and CRP per doubling of concentration, and changes per year in HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose, 2 h glucose, fasting insulin, HOMA...

  5. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  6. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level. PMID:26265340

  7. Ammonia Levels and Urine-Spot Characteristics as Cage-Change Indicators for High-Density Individually Ventilated Mouse Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Ida M; Payton, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mouse cage and bedding changes are potentially stressful to mice and are also labor- and resource-intensive. These changes are often performed on a calendar-based schedule to maintain a clean microenvironment and limit the concentrations of ammonia to which mice and workers are exposed. The current study sought to establish a performance-based approach to mouse cage-changing that uses urine spot characteristics as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels. Colorimetric ammonia indicators were used to measure ammonia levels in individually-ventilated cages (IVC) housing male or female mice (n =5 per cage) of various strains at 1 to 16 d after cage change. Urine spot characteristics were correlated with ammonia levels to create a visual indicator of the cage-change criterion of 25 ppm ammonia. Results demonstrated a consistent increase in ammonia levels with days since cage change, with cages reaching the cage-change criterion at approximately 10 d for IVC containing male mice and 16 d for those with female mice. Ammonia levels were higher for male than female mice but were not correlated with mouse age. However, urine spot diameter, color, and edge characteristics were strongly correlated with ammonia levels. Husbandry practices based on using urine spot characteristics as indicators of ammonia levels led to fewer weekly cage changes and concomitant savings in labor and resources. Therefore, urine spot characteristics can be used as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels for use of a performance (urine spot)-based approach to cage-changing frequency that maintains animal health and wellbeing. PMID:27177558

  8. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  9. Annual risk of tuberculous infection using different methods in communities with a high prevalence of TB and HIV in Zambia and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Shanaube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.

  10. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  11. Korea-South Africa nuclear energy focal point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of the project is to hold Korea-S. Africa joint nuclear or workshop and establish a network of nuclear experts between the two countries. In addition, identification of the collaboration items is another objective of this project. the outcome of this program would be a cornerstone for the nuclear collaboration between Korea and S. Africa. African countries is usually very abundant in the natural resources and developed countries are trying to improve relationships with African countries to secure the natural resources, S. Africa is also very rich with some resources including uranium. Therefore, Korea depending on foreign resources needs to improve the relationship with S. Africa form the viewpoint of securing natural resources. S. Africa has two PWR-type nuclear power plants and is planning to deploy more PWRs to increase the nuclear capacity. In addition, S. Africa is a leading country in developing the PBMR, which is a type of Generation-IV VHTR (very high temperature reactor). In Korea, the VHTR technologies are also under development for the nuclear hydrogen. Although Korea has its own PWR brand, it is not well known to S. Africa. The focal point program would lay a cornerstone for mutually beneficial nuclear collaborations between two countries

  12. Do not forget the boys – gender differences in children living in high HIV-affected communities in South Africa and Malawi in a longitudinal, community-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hensels, I. S.; Sherr, L.; Skeen, S.; Macedo, A.; Roberts, K. J.; Tomlinson, M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gender is an important factor in child development. Especially in sub-Saharan Africa, girls have often been shown to be less likely to access education compared to boys. The consequence of this has been that that programmes addressing child development are often aimed at girls in order to redress gender imbalances. This study examines the effect of gender on the development of children attending community-based organisations in high HIV-affected areas, and explores whether community-based organisation attendance was associated with any changes in gender differences over time. Baseline data from 989 children and 12–15 month follow from 854 (86% response rate) were used to examine gender differences in children from Malawi and South Africa. At baseline, where there were differences by gender, these tended to disadvantage boys. It was found that boys were significantly more often found to be subjected to violence. Boys showed worse performance at school and more behavioural problems than girls. These gender differences persisted from baseline to follow-up. At follow-up, boys self-reported significantly worse average quality of life than girls. Only harsh discipline differed by gender in progression over time: boys experienced a stronger reduction in harsh physical discipline than girls from baseline to follow-up. Since harsh discipline was associated with boys’ worse educational outcomes and behavioural problems, our data cautiously suggests that gender differences could be reduced over time. In conclusion, our data suggests that, perhaps due to the narrow equity approach focusing on provision for girls, boys may be overlooked. As a result, there are some specific experiences where boys are generally worse off. These differences have distinct ramifications for the educational and emotional development of boys. A broader equity approach to child development might be warranted to ensure that the needs of both girls and boys are considered, and that boys are

  13. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira; Marcela Paranhos Knibel; Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres; José Firmino Nogueira Neto; Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stag...

  14. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and liver enzymes in individuals with Metabolic Syndrome in Talca, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, E.; V. Mujica; PALOMO, I.; ORREGO, R.; Guzmán, L.; S. Núñez; MOORE-CARRASCO, R.; Icaza, G.; Díaz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a core set of disorders, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia that together predict the development of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the relationship between liver enzyme levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in subjects with and without MS. Alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and hs-CRP were measured in 510...

  15. Survivability of bare, individual Bacillus subtilis spores to high-velocity surface impact: Implications for microbial transfer through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Brandon L.; Pratt, Sara N.; Austin, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    Laboratory experiments show that endospores of Bacillus subtilis survive impact against a solid surface at velocities as high as 299 ±28 m/s. During impact, spores experience and survive accelerations of at least 1010 m/s2. The spores were introduced into a vacuum chamber using an electrospray source and accelerated to a narrow velocity distribution by entrainment in a differentially pumped gas flow. Different velocity ranges were studied by modifying the gas flow parameters. The spores were electrically charged, allowing direct measurement of the velocity of each spore as it passed through an image charge detector prior to surface impact. Spores impacted a glass surface and were collected for subsequent analysis by culturing. Most spores survived impact at all measured velocities. These experiments differ fundamentally from other studies that show either shock or impact survivability of bacteria embedded within or on the surface of a projectile. Bacteria in the present experiments undergo a single interaction with a solid surface at the full impact velocity, in the absence of any other effects such as cushioning due to microbe agglomerations, deceleration due to air or vapor, or transfer of impact shock through solid or liquid media. During these full-velocity impact events, the spores experience extremely high decelerations. This study is the first reported instance of accelerations of this magnitude experienced during a bacteria impact event. These results are discussed in the context of potential transfer of viable microbes in space and other scenarios involving surface impacts at high velocities.

  16. Country of origin and employment prospects among immigrants: An analysis of south-south and north-south migrants to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amos C Peters; Asha Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between country of origin and employment prospects for immigrants to South Africa, an emerging host country characterized by high levels of unemployment, labour market imperfections and a scarcity of skills. Using the 2001 South African census, we estimate the probability of being employed for working-age immigrant men and South African internal migrants. We find that, conditional on individual characteristics and education levels, the probability of being employed v...

  17. Segmentation and classification of high resolution imagery for mapping individual species in a closed canopy, deciduous forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy; A.; Warner; James; B.; McGraw; Rick; Landenberger

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of a shadow-based delineation program for identifying segments in imagery of a closed canopy, deciduous forest, in West Virginia, USA, as a way to reduce the noise associated with per-pixel classification in forested environments. Shadows typically cluster along the boundaries of trees and therefore can be used to provide a network of nodes for the delineation of segments. A minimum cost path algorithm, where cost is defined as the cumulative sum of brightness values traversed along the connecting route, was used to connect shadow clumps. To test this approach, a series of classifications was undertaken using a multispectral digital aerial image of a six hectare test site and a minimum cost path segmentation. Three species were mapped: oaks, red maple and yellow poplar. The accuracy of an aspatial maximum likelihood classification (termed PERPIXEL classification) was 68.5%, compared to 74.0% for classification using the mean vector of the segments identified with the minimum cost path algorithm (MEAN_SEG), and 78% when the most common class present in the segment is assigned to the entire segment (POSTCLASS_SEG). By comparison, multispectral classification of the multispectral data using the field-mapped polygons of individual trees as segments, produced an accuracy of 82.3% when the mean vector of the polygon was used for classification (MEAN_TREE), and 85.7% when the most common class was assigned to the entire polygon (POSTCLASS_TREE). A moving window-based post-classification majority filter (POSTCLASS_MAJ5BY5) produced an intermediate accuracy value, 73.8%. The minimum cost path segmentation algorithm was found to correctly delineate approximately 28% of the trees. The remaining trees were either segmented, aggregated, or a combination of both segmented and aggregated. Varying the threshold that was used to discriminate shadows appeared to have little effect on the number of correctly delineated trees, or on the overall

  18. No Easy Walk: Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSouth Africa only began accepting individual applications for political asylum in 1994. A policy designed to recognize former Mozambican refugees for the purposes of a repatriation program became the (awkward) basis of the asylum procedure up until April 2000. Criticized by some, a livel

  19. Africa. Salvation or Despair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    ”, a change that was also expected and demanded by the international community. As a consequence of this change, South Africa is now trying to lead by example, trying to export particular values and norms to the rest of the continent, while at the same time carrying Africa’s banner on the international stage....... A state wanting to be recognized and perceived as a benign “peacemaker” cannot use military power in the same way as a pariah state. To cultivate a reputation as a benign power, it must use force in a way that is acceptable to its neighbours and the international community at large. The purpose...

  20. Immunology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  1. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial......, social and cross-cutting issues pertaining to the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis. We summarize key achievements made by CONTRAST, many of which are featured in this special issue of Acta Tropica. Together with an independent view put forth by an eminent schistosomiasis researcher...

  2. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  3. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  4. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  5. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anneke Van der Spoel van Dijk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM (18 isolates, T (14 isolates, Beijing (five isolates, S (six isolates, Haarlem (one isolate, and X (five isolates, while 37 (43.0% orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster. MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates and T (27 isolates cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted.

  6. Evolving land rights, policy and tenure in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Toulmin, Camilla; Quan, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Evolving land rights, policy and tenure in Africa presents and discusses several key aspects of Africa's ongoing land policy debate including legislative reform, the management of land rights, issues of implementation, and policy-making processes. It provides readers with examples of how different countries have approached the highly political and sensitive subject of rights to land and other natural resources. Recent innovative land reform programmes are described, and the authors assess the...

  7. Unemployment and wages in South Africa: A spatial approach

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    1999-01-01

    A large amount of recent evidence finds a negative relationship between local unemployment and wages in OECD countries, a relationship christened a ‘wage curve’. This contradicts the conventional model of the labour market in which high unemployment regions have higher wages to compensate for search and other costs. This paper discovers a wage curve in South Africa, a country with several times the typical unemployment rate of OECD countries. The wage curve elasticity in South Africa is simil...

  8. Robust Estimates of Okun's Coefficient for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    J. Geldenhuys; M. Marinkov

    2007-01-01

    Persistently high unemployment in South Africa, especially in the face of improved economic conditions since 1994, begs the question: Does unemployment in South Africa respond to changes in output? When considering the linkages between output and unemployment, it is useful to decompose unemployment into its three components: structural, frictional and cyclical unemployment. Deficient aggregate demand gives rise to cyclical unemployment. Okun's law (1962) refers to the inverse relationship tha...

  9. Implementation of a Basic Income Grant in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers, Julie Lundberg; Pallesen, Josefine Eva Lilly; Jesting, Kathrine; Tewolde, Eden

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyse why the Basic Income Grant (BIG) was not implemented in South Africa. During the 1990’s the BIG was discussed within academic circles and civil society organisations argued in favour of its implementation. Despite pressure, the governing party, the African National Congress (ANC) never decided to pass the proposal and introduce a universal grant. Present day South Africa is characterised as a highly uneven country facing severe numbers of unemployment and povert...

  10. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10–90% VI and 40–90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions

  11. High IFN-gamma production of individual CD8 T lymphocytes is controlled by CD152 (CTLA-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandiyan, Pushpa; Hegel, J Kolja E; Krueger, Manuela; Quandt, Dagmar; Brunner-Weinzierl, Monika C

    2007-02-15

    CD8 T cell expansion and cytokine production is needed to generate an effective defense against viral invasion of the host. These features of CD8 T lymphocytes are regulated, especially during primary responses, by positive and negative costimulation. We show in this study that surface expression of CD152 is highly up-regulated on activated CD8 T lymphocytes during primary immune responses, suggesting a prominent regulatory role. Indeed, production of the proinflammatory cytokine IFN-gamma, but not TNF-alpha, by CD8 T cells was inhibited by CD152 engagement. The inhibition was regulated independent of proliferation and IL-2 production, but dependent on the quality of the TCR signaling. We show that signals induced by CD152 on activated CD8 T lymphocytes reduce the frequency of IFN-gamma(high)-expressing cells. Our data also show that in activated CD8 T cells, the CD152-mediated inhibition of cytokine production is more pronounced than inhibition of their proliferation.

  12. 精神分裂症患者一级亲属人格特征的研究%Personality traits in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 李涛; 郭兰婷; 孙锦华; 王强; 马小红; 刘协和; 孙学礼

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨精神分裂症患者一级亲属的人格特征.方法 采用分裂型人格问卷(SPQ)及三维人格问卷(TPQ)评定181例精神分裂症患者一级亲属(高危组)、321名正常对照个体(对照组)的人格特征.结果 高危组sPQ阴性分裂型人格维度评分[(9.80±7.05)分]高于对照组[(8.42±5.87)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).高危组在TPQ寻求新奇维度评分[(15.60±5.62)分]、奖赏依赖维度评分[(17.41 ±1.13)分]与对照组[(14.20±2.83)分,(18.22±3.26)分]的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01).高危组的阴性分裂型人格维度分数与寻求新奇维度、奖赏依赖维度分数显著相关(r=0.17和-0.23).结论 精神分裂症患者一级亲属具有阴性分裂型维度、寻求新奇维度、奖赏依赖维度的人格特征.%Objective To explore the personality traits in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia.Methods All 181 individuals at high risk for schizophrenia whose parents or siblings were affected with schizophrenia, and 321 normal controls were assessed with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)and ridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Results The score of negative sehizotypal dimension of SPQ was higher in the individuals at high risk than controls ( P < 0.05 ). The novelty-seeking dimension and reward-dependence dimension of TPQ were ignificant lower in the individuals at high risk for schizophrenia than controls ( P < 0.01 ). The score of negative schizotypal dimension was related to the scores of novelty-seeking dimension and reward-dependence dimension of TPQ ( r=0.17 and-0.23 ).Conclusion The individuals at high risk for schizophrenia have some personality traits such as negative schizotypal dimension in SPQ, novelty- seeking dimension and reward-dependence dimension in TPQ.

  13. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  14. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost. PMID:20637906

  15. Readings in modernity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Geschiere; B. Meyer; P. Pels

    2008-01-01

    This book provides students of Africa with a guide to the bewildering variety of scholarly work on the issue of modernity in Africa, and to offer some tools for dealing with its intellectual paradoxes. Part One contains both analytical and historical examples of the genealogies of modernity in the A

  16. Managing organizational performance in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2012-01-01

    Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa......Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa...

  17. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...

  18. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  19. MAXDOSE-EPA: a computerized method for estimating individual doses from a high-level radioactive waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MAXDOSE-EPA computer code is a methodology developed by the Office of Radiation Programs to estimate the potential radiation doses from accidental releases of radionuclides from a repository for high-level radioactive wastes sited in deep geologic media. The code is intended to be applicable to a generic repository. The model parameters describing the characteristics of the repository and its environment can be varied to show the effects of different characteristics. This report describes the equations used to obtain the radionuclide concentrations in the environment and to calculate radiation doses to man via inhalation of air and ingestion of water, milk, crops, beef, and fish. A listing of the code, an input guide, and a sample problem are included. The code is written in Fortran, requires less than 200 K storage, and runs in less than 30 seconds. The code calculates the maximum dose and makes many conservative assumptions that shorten the run time to under 30 seconds

  20. Transmission of HIV in sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Ramasco, José J.

    2013-09-01

    We are reviewing the literature regarding sexual networks and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. On Likoma Island in Malawi, a sexual network was reconstructed using a sociometric survey in which individuals named their sexual partners. The sexual network identified one giant component including half of all sexually active individuals. More than 25% of respondents were linked through independent chains of sexual relations. HIV was more common in the sparser regions of the network due to over-representation of groups with higher HIV prevalence. A study from KwaZulu-Natal in South-Africa collected egocentric data about sexual partners and found that new infections in women in a particular area was associated with the number of life-time partners in men. Data about sexual networks and HIV transmission are not reported in Europe. It is, however, found that the annual number of sexual partners follows a scale-free network. Phylogenetic studies that determine genetic relatedness between HIV isolates obtained from infected individuals, found that patients in the early stages of infections explain a high number of new infections. In conclusion, the limited information that is available suggest that sexual networks play a role in spread of HIV. Obtaining more information about sexual networks can be of benefit for modeling studies on HIV transmission and prevention.

  1. Lead exposure in adult males in urban Transvaal Province, South Africa during the apartheid era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Catherine A; Cooper, Matthew J; Smith, Martin J; Trueman, Clive N; Schutkowski, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure to lead is a substantial public health hazard worldwide and is particularly problematic in the Republic of South Africa given the country's late cessation of leaded petrol. Lead exposure is associated with a number of serious health issues and diseases including developmental and cognitive deficiency, hypertension and heart disease. Understanding the distribution of lifetime lead burden within a given population is critical for reducing exposure rates. Femoral bone from 101 deceased adult males living in urban Transvaal Province (now Gauteng Province), South Africa between 1960 and 1998 were analyzed for lead concentration by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Of the 72 black and 29 white individuals sampled, chronic lead exposure was apparent in nearly all individuals. White males showed significantly higher median bone lead concentration (ME = 10.04 µg·g(-1)), than black males (ME = 3.80 µg·g(-1)) despite higher socioeconomic status. Bone lead concentration covaries significantly, though weakly, with individual age. There was no significant temporal trend in bone lead concentration. These results indicate that long-term low to moderate lead exposure is the historical norm among South African males. Unexpectedly, this research indicates that white males in the sample population were more highly exposed to lead.

  2. Genomic analysis reveals Nairobi sheep disease virus to be highly diverse and present in both Africa, and in India in the form of the Ganjam virus variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Pragya D; Vincent, Martin J; Khristova, Marina; Kale, Charuta; Nichol, Stuart T; Mishra, Akhilesh C; Mourya, Devendra T

    2011-07-01

    Nairobi sheep disease (NSD) virus, the prototype tick-borne virus of the genus Nairovirus, family Bunyaviridae is associated with acute hemorrhagic gastroenteritis in sheep and goats in East and Central Africa. The closely related Ganjam virus found in India is associated with febrile illness in humans and disease in livestock. The complete S, M and L segment sequences of Ganjam and NSD virus and partial sequence analysis of Ganjam viral RNA genome S, M and L segments encoding regions (396 bp, 701 bp and 425 bp) of the viral nucleocapsid (N), glycoprotein precursor (GPC) and L polymerase (L) proteins, respectively, was carried out for multiple Ganjam virus isolates obtained from 1954 to 2002 and from various regions of India. M segments of NSD and Ganjam virus encode a large ORF for the glycoprotein precursor (GPC), (1627 and 1624 amino acids in length, respectively) and their L segments encode a very large L polymerase (3991 amino acids). The complete S, M and L segments of NSD and Ganjam viruses were more closely related to one another than to other characterized nairoviruses, and no evidence of reassortment was found. However, the NSD and Ganjam virus complete M segment differed by 22.90% and 14.70%, for nucleotide and amino acid respectively, and the complete L segment nucleotide and protein differing by 9.90% and 2.70%, respectively among themselves. Ganjam and NSD virus, complete S segment differed by 9.40-10.40% and 3.2-4.10 for nucleotide and proteins while among Ganjam viruses 0.0-6.20% and 0.0-1.4%, variation was found for nucleotide and amino acids. Ganjam virus isolates differed by up to 17% and 11% at the nucleotide level for the partial S and L gene fragments, respectively, with less variation observed at the deduced amino acid level (10.5 and 2%, S and L, respectively). However, the virus partial M gene fragment (which encodes the hypervariable mucin-like domain) of these viruses differed by as much as 56% at the nucleotide level. Phylogenetic

  3. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Levine

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data from Africa for 1970-2003 in an ecological niche modeling framework to construct predictive models of the ecological requirements and geographic distribution of monkeypox virus across West and Central Africa. Tests of internal predictive ability using different subsets of input data show the model to be highly robust and suggest that the distinct phylogenetic lineages of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa occupy similar ecological niches. High mean annual precipitation and low elevations were shown to be highly correlated with human monkeypox disease occurrence. The synthetic picture of the potential geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa resulting from this study should support ongoing epidemiologic and ecological studies, as well as help to guide public health intervention strategies to areas at highest risk for human monkeypox.

  4. On the transferability of RegCM4: Europe, Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Simulations driven by ERA-interim reanalysis for CORDEX domains covering Europe, Africa and Asia have been performed using RegCM4 at 50 km resolution. The same settings are used in basic simulations and preliminary evaluation of model performance for individual regions will be presented. Several settings of different options is tested and sensitivity of selected ones will be shown in individual regions. Secant Mercator projection is introduced for Africa providing more efficient model geometry setting, the impact of proper emissivity inclusion is compared especially for Africa and Asia desserts. CRU data are used for the validation.

  5. Emotion recognition through static faces and moving bodies: a comparison between typically-developed adults and individuals with high level of autistic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana eActis-Grosso

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We investigated whether the type of stimulus (pictures of static faces vs. body motion contributes differently to the recognition of emotions. The performance (accuracy and response times of 25 Low Autistic Traits (LAT group young adults (21 males and 20 young adults (16 males with either High Autistic Traits (HAT group or with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder was compared in the recognition of four emotions (Happiness, Anger, Fear and Sadness either shown in static faces or conveyed by moving bodies (patch-light displays, PLDs. Overall, HAT individuals were as accurate as LAT ones in perceiving emotions both with faces and with PLDs. Moreover, they correctly described non-emotional actions depicted by PLDs, indicating that they perceived the motion conveyed by the PLDs per se. For LAT participants, happiness proved to be the easiest emotion to be recognized: in line with previous studies we found a happy face advantage for faces, which for the first time was also found for bodies (happy body advantage. Furthermore, LAT participants recognized sadness better by static faces and fear by PLDs. This advantage for motion kinematics in the recognition of fear was not present in HAT participants, suggesting that i emotion recognition is not generally impaired in HAT individuals, ii the cues exploited for emotion recognition by LAT and HAT groups are not always the same. These findings are discussed against the background of emotional processing in typically and atypically developed individuals.

  6. Energy in Africa by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the authors propose an overview of the main perceivable orientations of the energy sector in African until 2050, and suggest some other perspectives and state some recommendations for new guidelines. In its first part, the report proposes an analysis of the present situation and identifies possible directions. Several issues are addressed: major challenges, African as a continent of energy divide, energy efficiency in Africa, situation of energy per sectors, per energies and per regions. The second part addresses the prospective dimension (by 2050): world context in 2050, Africa within this context, tomorrow's energy and economy for Africa. Appendices address the following topics: the Energizing Africa initiative, promotion of substitutes for wood, alternative fuels and energies for transport, energy in Africa per region and per source

  7. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  8. Knowledge transfer to Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    For the second year running, a team from CERN comprising experts in the design and running of digital libraries has taken part in a workshop in Africa. The aim of the workshop, which was held in Morocco from 22 to 26 November 2010, was to pass on their expertise and help train librarians and IT engineers from five African countries.   Participants of the training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco).  Although digital libraries are rapidly expanding across the Globe, a large proportion of the professionals working in the field have not followed relevant training, which poses a real challenge. To help to remedy the situation and encourage the development of digital libraries in Africa, CERN and UNESCO organised a training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco) in November. "The success of the first CERN-UNESCO digital library school, which took place in Rwanda in 2009, encouraged...

  9. Paediatric challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hilliard

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) project is coming to an end in 2015 and is being replaced by ambitious and aspirational Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although the MDGs have been nearly achieved, this is not true in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is still unnecessarily high infant and childhood mortality and where there are many challenges to providing modern child health care. To achieve the SDGs in the next fifteen years, in low-income countries, national minis...

  10. China, South Africa and the Lewis Model

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Knight

    2007-01-01

    The paper uses the Lewis model as a framework for examining the labour market progress of two labour-abundant countries, China and South Africa, towards labour shortage and generally rising labour real incomes. In the acuteness of their rural-urban divides, forms of migrant labour, rapid rural-urban migration, and high and rising real wages in the formal sector, the two economies are surprisingly similar. They differ, however, in the dynamism of their formal sector growth of output and employ...

  11. Growth, Employment and Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Hodge

    2009-01-01

    The high rate of unemployment in South Africa stands out in an otherwise vastly improved set of macroeconomic fundamentals compared to the situation in the early 1990s. One might be tempted to argue that by this single indicator alone, government policies such as GEAR have been a failure. This paper explains why jumping to such a conclusion would be a mistake and focuses on the relationship between economic growth and employment and shows how estimates of the employment coefficient have chang...

  12. Migration, Refugees, and Racism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Handmaker, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe paper looks at South Africa’s complex history and policies of racism, social separation and control and the impact that this has had on the nature of migration and refugee policy. The paper argues that this legacy has resulted in policy and implementation that is highly racialized, coupled with a society expressing growing levels of xenophobia. Some causes and manifestations of xenophobia in South Africa are explored. It further examines how actions of police and civil servant...

  13. Evaluation of a wireless wearable tongue-computer interface by individuals with high-level spinal cord injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Xueliang; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2010-04-01

    The tongue drive system (TDS) is an unobtrusive, minimally invasive, wearable and wireless tongue-computer interface (TCI), which can infer its users' intentions, represented in their volitional tongue movements, by detecting the position of a small permanent magnetic tracer attached to the users' tongues. Any specific tongue movements can be translated into user-defined commands and used to access and control various devices in the users' environments. The latest external TDS (eTDS) prototype is built on a wireless headphone and interfaced to a laptop PC and a powered wheelchair. Using customized sensor signal processing algorithms and graphical user interface, the eTDS performance was evaluated by 13 naive subjects with high-level spinal cord injuries (C2-C5) at the Shepherd Center in Atlanta, GA. Results of the human trial show that an average information transfer rate of 95 bits/min was achieved for computer access with 82% accuracy. This information transfer rate is about two times higher than the EEG-based BCIs that are tested on human subjects. It was also demonstrated that the subjects had immediate and full control over the powered wheelchair to the extent that they were able to perform complex wheelchair navigation tasks, such as driving through an obstacle course.

  14. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and liver enzymes in individuals with Metabolic Syndrome in Talca, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leiva, E; Mujica, V; Palomo, I; Orrego, R; Guzmán, L; Núñez, S; Moore-Carrasco, R; Icaza, G; Díaz, N

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a core set of disorders, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia that together predict the development of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the relationship between liver enzyme levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in subjects with and without MS. Alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and hs-CRP were measured in 510 subjects, aged 40 to 65 years old. Patients were selected from 1007 subjects from the Research Program for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Talca, Chile. Results showed that women with MS presented higher liver enzyme levels than those who did not have MS. This was not observed in male patients for the enzymes ALAT and ASAT. However, GGT and hs-PCR levels were higher in male and female patients with MS than in those without MS. In conclusion, it is important to search for the presence of MS when diagnosing fatty liver. Moreover, the presence of liver disease in patients with MS should be further investigated. PMID:23136611

  15. Education and Indigenous Knowledge in Africa: Traditional Bonesetting and Orthopaedic Medicine in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezeanya, Chika A.

    The underlying philosophy of education in contemporary Africa has been established to be alien, and detached from the indigenous knowledge of the people. Modern day formal education in sub-Saharan Africa came about, for the most part, as a result of missionary activities and colonial efforts of Europe. The education bequeathed to Africa was, therefore, fundamentally European in paradigm and lacking in authenticity. The end of colonialism across sub-Saharan Africa did not herald any tangible transformation in the curriculum of study. Education in Africa is still dependent on foreign input for sustainability, thereby stifling research, creativity and innovation. Sustainable development is founded on indigenous knowledge. When such grassroots knowledge assumes the foundation of learning, home-grown development is easily fostered in all sectors of a national economy. In the field of medicine, indigenous knowledge of healing has been considered unscientific by western biomedical practitioners. Since the days of the missionaries, many Africans have considered indigenous medicine to be fetish; the Christian converts would not be associated with its practice and patronage. However, traditional bonesetting has been proven to be highly efficacious with little supernatural content, it continues to attract huge patronage from Africans, cutting across social and religious boundaries. This study attempts an exploration of the disconnect between indigenous knowledge, practices and learning, on the one hand, and formal education in Africa, on the other. With a focus on traditional bonesetting, the study seeks to determine why that branch of indigenous medicine attracts huge patronage, but is granted very little recognition by modern orthopaedic medical education.

  16. Parents Support Implementation of HIV Testing and Counseling at School: Cross-Sectional Study with Parents of Adolescent Attending High School in Gauteng and North West Provinces, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokgatle, Mathildah

    2016-01-01

    Background. A formative assessment of the implementation of HIV testing and counseling (HTC) at school showed high acceptability and willingness to test among learners. However, the success of the proposed HTC depends on the support and acceptability of key stakeholders, including the parents. The aim of the study was to assess the opinions and acceptability of the implementation of HTC at school among parents of adolescents in high school. Methods. This was a cross-sectional household survey conducted with parents of adolescents attending high schools in educational districts in North West and Gauteng provinces, South Africa. Results. A total of 804 parents participated, and 548 (68.3%) were biological mothers, 85 (10.6%) were fathers, and the remaining were other relatives including grandmothers. Almost all (n = 742, 92.9%) parents were in support of implementation and provision of HTC at school, 701 (87.7%) would allow their children to be tested at school, 365 (46%) felt that parental consent was not needed to test at school, and 39.4% preferred to receive the HIV test results with their children. Conclusion. Parents accept the roll-out of an HTC program at school and have a role to play in supporting children who test positive for HIV.

  17. BRICS Regional Policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Deych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the BRICS as a whole and an analysis of each member’s policies in Africa. It exploresthe countries’ political and economic interests in Africa, the various patterns and strategies of each country’s cooperationwith Africa, and estimates the impact of BRICS aid and investment on the African economy and Africa’s development. TheBRICS countries have emerged as the new effective actors in the world arena. Their global economic weight and politicalinfluence continue to grow. Not only is the group focusing its attention on strengthening the internal ties of its members, but itis also focusing on assistance to Africa, as a way to implement the emerging powers efforts to change the existing world order.The BRICS is deepening its engagement with African countries, which gained great success in their development in recentyears. Its focus on Africa is determined by the important role of African resources and by the continent’s growing influencein the world economy and contemporary international relations. BRICS countries are major trade partners of Africa, andAfrica’s trade with BRICS members is growing faster than its trade with the traditional partners. Africa has become themain destination for BRICS development aid and investment. The BRICS is also focusing on African infrastructure. BRICScountries use soft power widely, through developing humanitarian ties with Africa, particularly in health care and education.The BRICS is also an active participant in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa. Members currently tend tocompete in Africa, but they are taking steps toward collaboration. The BRICS contributes much to the African economy. Itspresence has become important for the continent and receives a positive response there.

  18. Less precise representation of numerical magnitude in high math-anxious individuals: an ERP study of the size and distance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez-Peña, M Isabel; Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena

    2014-12-01

    Numerical comparison tasks are widely used to study the mental representation of numerical magnitude. In study, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded while 26 high math-anxious (HMA) and 27 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with pairs of single-digit Arabic numbers and were asked to decide which one had the larger numerical magnitude. The size of the numbers and the distance between them were manipulated in order to study the size and the distance effects. The results showed that both distance and size effects were larger for the HMA group. As for ERPs, results showed that the ERP distance effect had larger amplitude for both the size and distance effects in the HMA group than among their LMA counterparts. Since this component has been taken as a marker of the processing of numerical magnitude, this result suggests that HMA individuals have a less precise representation of numerical magnitude.

  19. A versatile and highly sensitive probe for Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) detection individually and totally in water samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Tian, Xiang-Li; Li, Yan-Song; Zhang, Yuan-Yuan; Yang, Li; Zhang, Jun-Hui; Wang, Xin-Rui; Lu, Shi-Ying; Ren, Hong-Lin; Liu, Zeng-Shan

    2011-12-15

    The detection of heavy metal ions using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) has been reported by several research groups. However, highly sensitive and selective detection of total heavy metal ions using ELISA is a major technical limitation. Here we describe the development of a versatile and highly sensitive probe combining goat anti-mice IgG, colloidal gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). We demonstrate the utility of this probe using three kinds of heavy metal complete antigens and three monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) in one ELISA system to establish a high-throughput screening protocol. The procedure was successfully applied to analysis of Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) individually and totally from different water samples. The sensitivities for the detection of Hg(II), Pb(II) and Cd(II) individually and totally are 27.4, 3.9, 15.8 and 18.2 nM, respectively. And all limit of detection (LODs) are lower than 1.2 nM. The recovery results obtained from the developed technique showed a good correlation (R(2)=0.983) with those from ICP-MS. The major advantage of the probe is the versatility and high sensibility. The probe could be potentially used, upon demand, as a sensitive and versatile detector for a broad range of applications. PMID:21975341

  20. Longitudinal microarray analysis of cell surface antigens on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from HIV+ individuals on highly active antiretroviral therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The efficacy of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART determined by simultaneous monitoring over 100 cell-surface antigens overtime has not been attempted. We used an antibody microarray to analyze changes in the expression of 135 different cell-surface antigens overtime on PBMC from HIV+ patients on HAART. Two groups were chosen, one (n = 6 achieved sustainable response by maintaining below detectable plasma viremia and the other (n = 6 responded intermittently. Blood samples were collected over an average of 3 years and 5–8 time points were selected for microarray assay and statistical analysis. Results Significant trends over time were observed for the expression of 7 cell surface antigens (CD2, CD3epsilon, CD5, CD95, CD36, CD27 and CD28 for combined patient groups. Between groups, expression levels of 10 cell surface antigens (CD11a, CD29, CD38, CD45RO, CD52, CD56, CD57, CD62E, CD64 and CD33 were found to be differential. Expression levels of CD9, CD11a, CD27, CD28 and CD52, CD44, CD49d, CD49e, CD11c strongly correlated with CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts, respectively. Conclusion Our findings not only detected markers that may have potential prognostic/diagnostic values in evaluating HAART efficacy, but also showed how density of cell surface antigens could be efficiently exploited in an array-like manner in relation to HAART and HIV-infection. The antigens identified in this study should be further investigated by other methods such as flow cytometry for confirmation as biological analysis of these antigens may help further clarify their role during HAART and HIV infection.