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Sample records for africa highly individual

  1. Culture and self in South Africa: individualism-collectivism predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, L; Louw, J

    2000-04-01

    People from collectivist cultures may have more concrete and interdependent self-concepts than do people from individualist cultures (G. Hofstede, 1980). African cultures are considered collectivist (H. C. Triandis, 1989), but research on self-concept and culture has neglected this continent. The authors attempted a partial replication in an African context of cross-cultural findings on the abstract-concrete and independent-interdependent dimensions of self-construal (referred to as the abstract-specific and the autonomous-social dimensions, respectively, by E. Rhee, J. S. Uleman, H. K. Lee, & R. J. Roman, 1995). University students in South Africa took the 20 Statements Test (M. Kuhn & T. S. McPartland, 1954; Rhee et al.); home languages were rough indicators of cultural identity. The authors used 3 coding schemes to analyze the content of 78 protocols from African-language speakers and 77 protocols from English speakers. In accord with predictions from individualism-collectivism theory, the African-language speakers produced more interdependent and concrete self-descriptions than did the English speakers. Additional findings concerned the orthogonality of the 2 dimensions and the nature and assessment of the social self-concept. PMID:10808644

  2. High fertility in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, J C; Caldwell, P

    1990-05-01

    The persistence of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa, while all other world regions have been able to control population growth, represents a grave threat. Tradtional explanations for this phenomenon--e.g., lower levels of income, education, health, and urbanization--are not adequate, given the fact that many Asian countries have been able to reduce fertility in the face of the same obstacles. It is suggested, instead, that the primary cause of sub-Saharan Africa's high fertility can be found in its social and family patterns. Central cultural precepts include the notions that many descendents must be produced to ensure the survival of lineage, the equation of female virtue with the production of a large number of children, the stronger influence of the lineage than the nuclear family, and a belief in the power of ancestral spirits. Given the overriding importance of lineage and the relative weakness of emotional and economic conjugal links, the factors believed to be producing lowered birth rates in other developed countries (e.g., the high costs of child raising and the negative impact of large family size on the standard of living in that family) are not operable in sub-Saharan Africa. Most African fathers receive far more from their children, in terms of loyalty and support, than they expend on them, giving them little motivation to restrict fertility. Women's growing determination to extend their current economic independence into the domain of reproduction represents the most likely source of change in sub-Saharan Africa's fertility patterns. Also essential is reduced infant and child mortality through integrated health services-family planning programs. Progress can be expected to be slow, however, given the persistence of the African traditional social structure and belief system. PMID:2333491

  3. Undertaking Individual Transdisciplinary PhD Research for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, John; Musango, Josephine; Brent, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to improve the understanding of individual transdisciplinary PhD research in a developing country context, focusing on three individual PhD case studies in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple-case method was used, and three completed transdisciplinary PhD research efforts undertaken at the Stellenbosch…

  4. Accuracy of individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis of gambiense sleeping sickness in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Jamonneau

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Individual rapid tests for serodiagnosis (RDT of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT are particularly suited for passive screening and surveillance. However, so far, no large scale evaluation of RDTs has been performed for diagnosis of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense HAT in West Africa. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of 2 commercial HAT-RDTs on stored plasma samples from West Africa.SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set were performed on 722 plasma samples originating from Guinea and Côte d'Ivoire, including 231 parasitologically confirmed HAT patients, 257 healthy controls, and 234 unconfirmed individuals whose blood tested antibody positive in the card agglutination test but negative by parasitological tests. Immune trypanolysis was performed as a reference test for trypanosome specific antibody presence. Sensitivities in HAT patients were respectively 99.6% for SD Bioline HAT, and 99.1% for HAT Sero-K-Set, specificities in healthy controls were respectively 87.9% and 88.3%. Considering combined positivity in both RDTs, increased the specificity significantly (p ≤ 0.0003 to 93.4%, while 98.7% sensitivity was maintained. Specificities in controls were 98.7-99.6% for the combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis, maintaining a sensitivity of at least 98.1%.The observed specificity of the single RDTs was relatively low. Serial application of SD Bioline HAT and HAT Sero-K-Set might offer superior specificity compared to a single RDT, maintaining high sensitivity. The combination of one or two RDTs with trypanolysis seems promising for HAT surveillance.

  5. Individual Grassroots Multilingualism in Africa Town in Guangzhou: The Role of States in Globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Huamei

    2013-01-01

    Drawing on the first phase of a larger sociolinguistic ethnography, this article explores how individual migrants of African and Chinese backgrounds expand their multilingual repertoires in Africa Town in Guangzhou, China. Focusing on two cases, I demonstrate how they maintain and develop transnational and translocal connections simultaneously…

  6. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Castro Lopes Azevedo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although hepatitis C virus (HCV screening is recommended for all HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy, data on epidemiologic characteristics of HCV infection in resource-limited settings are scarce. Methods: We searched PubMed and EMBASE for studies assessing the prevalence of HCV infection among HIV-infected individuals in Africa and extracted data on laboratory methods used. Prevalence estimates from individual studies were combined for each country using random-effects meta-analysis. The importance of study design, population and setting as well as type of test (anti-HCV antibody tests and polymerase chain reactions was examined with meta-regression. Results: Three randomized controlled trials, 28 cohort studies and 121 cross-sectional analyses with 108,180 HIV-infected individuals from 35 countries were included. The majority of data came from outpatient populations (55%, followed by blood donors (15% and pregnant women (14%. Based on estimates from 159 study populations, anti-HCV positivity prevalence ranged between 3.3% (95% confidence interval (CI 1.8–4.7 in Southern Africa and 42.3% (95% CI 4.1–80.5 in North Africa. Study design, type of setting and age distribution did not influence this prevalence significantly. The prevalence of replicating HCV infection, estimated from data of 29 cohorts, was 2.0% (95% CI 1.5–2.6. Ten studies from nine countries reported the HCV genotype of 74 samples, 53% were genotype 1, 24% genotype 2, 14% genotype 4 and 9% genotypes 3, 5 or 6. Conclusions: The prevalence of anti-HCV antibodies is high in HIV-infected patients in Africa, but replicating HCV infection is rare and varies widely across countries.

  7. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  8. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    through to continental scales). Our ability to reconstruct narratives of landscape dynamics of encompassing - mega-geomorphic - patterns can only be as good as the details of individual events we can discern in Earth history. Obviously, recognizing the centrality of "Conquering the Mesoscale" as the intrinsic prerequisite to test competing hypotheses of landscape dynamics, in the earth system context, calls for innovative research approaches. This is where Africa holds vast potential. The continent is the most remarkable natural laboratory to explore and tackle these challenges where we seek to build the composite mega-geomorphic chronicle informed in the detail of mesoscale process and form. But how does geomorphology, embedded in an earth system framework, advance beyond the established approaches in process and mega-geomorphology? The latter's limitations to reconstruct the tempo and mode of African landforms and palaeoenviroments reveal the stark limits for researchers. This is where a geobiological approach brings interesting opportunities, especially for Africa. Consider, for one, the interlinking patterns of high endemism and geographical heterogeneity of extant biodiversity across the continent, and moreover the interplay in biotic turnovers since the Mesozoic that shaped these regional and more local patterns. These individuated biotic assemblages making up the continent's biomes and ecoregions reveal strident congruence with physiographic controls: especially relief, drainage and edaphic variables. Calibrated by molecular clocks, resolved with DNA evidence, timetrees of this phylogenetic diversity reveal a richness of evolutionary signals; the spectrum of these spectacular biotic radiations of African biodiversity range from the Late Mesozoic to Recent. The temporal spread of this phylogenetic diversity is exemplified, for example, in the extant mammal fauna: witness the Afrotheria compared to the Bovidae (Kingdon J et al. 2013. Mammals of Africa. Bloomsbury

  9. Exchange Rate Pass-through in South Africa: Panel Evidence from Individual Goods and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Parsley, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies exchange rate pass-through in South Africa at the most disaggregated level possible. To accomplish this, two distinct panels of disaggregated data are employed. The first data set contains annual prices of 158 individual goods and services at the consumer level from 1990 to 2009. The second panel contains quarterly average import unit-values for twenty-six 8-digit import categories from ten of South Africa’s top trading partners from 1998 Q1 to 2009 Q2. The study finds low ...

  10. Exchange Rate Pass-through in South Africa: Panel Evidence from Individual Goods and Services

    OpenAIRE

    Parsley, David

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies exchange rate pass-through in South Africa at the most disaggregated level possible. To accomplish this, two distinct panels of disaggregated data are employed. The first data set contains annual prices of 158 individual goods and services at the consumer level from 1990 to 2009. The second panel contains quarterly average import unit-values for twenty-six 8-digit import categories from ten of South Africa’s top trading partners from 1998 Q1 to 2009 Q2. The study find...

  11. Geostatistical model-based estimates of Schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schur

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. METHODOLOGY: We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤ 20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia and 37.1% (Liberia for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia and 51.6% (Sierra Leone for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3% than reported before (30.0%. Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. CONCLUSION

  12. Individual and Population Level Impact of Key HIV Risk Factors on HIV Incidence Rates in Durban, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramjee, Gita; Moonsamy, Suri; Abbai, Nathlee Samantha; Wand, Handan

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to estimate the individual and joint impact of age, marital status and diagnosis with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) on HIV acquisition among young women at a population level in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. A total of 3,978 HIV seronegative women were recruited for four biomedical intervention trials from 2002–2009. Point and interval estimates of partial population attributable risk (PAR) were used to quantify the proportion of HIV seroconversions which can be prevented if a combination of risk factors is eliminated from a target population. More than 70% of the observed HIV acquisitions were collectively attributed to the three risk factors: younger age (<25 years old), unmarried and not cohabiting with a stable/regular partner and diagnosis with STIs. Addressing these risks requires targeted structural, behavioural, biomedical and cultural interventions in order to impact on unacceptably high HIV incidence rates among young women and the population as a whole. PMID:27104835

  13. High temperature solar thermal technology: The North Africa Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    High temperature solar thermal (HTST) technology offers an attractive option for both industrialized and non-industrialized countries to generate electricity and industrial process steam. The purpose of this report is to assess the potential market for solar thermal applications in the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. North Africa was selected because of its outstanding solar resource base and the variety of applications to be found there. Diminishing oil and gas resources, coupled with expanding energy needs, opens a large potential market for the US industry. The US high temperature solar trough industry has little competition globally and could build a large market in these areas. The US is already familiar with certain solar markets in North Africa due to the supplying of substantial quantities of US-manufactured flat plate collectors to this region.

  14. Conquering the Mesoscale of Africa's Landscapes: deciphering the Genomic Record of Individuating Landforms with Geoecodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotterill, Fenton P. D.

    2016-04-01

    geomorphology characterize Africa's older surfaces, many of which qualify as palimpsests: overwritten and reshaped repeatedly over timescales of 10 000-100 000 000 yr. Inheritance, equifinality, and exhumation are commonly invoked to explain such landscape patterns, but are difficult to measure and thus test; here Africa's vast, deep regoliths epitomize the starkness of these challenges facing researchers across much of the continent. These deficiencies and problems are magnified when we consider the knowledge we seek of African landscape evolution toward resolving the complex history of the African plate since its individuation. The credentials of this knowledge are prescribed by the evidence needed to test competing hypotheses, especially invoking first order determinants of landscape dynamics e.g. membrane tectonics (Oxburgh ER & Turcotte DL 1974. Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 22:133-140) versus plumes (Foulger G 2013. Plates vs Plumes: A Geological Controversy. Wiley Blackwell). The evidence needed to test such competing hypotheses demands robust reconstructions of the individuated histories of landforms; in the African context, robustness pertains to the representativeness of events reconstructed in form and space (up to continental scales) and back through time from the Neogene into the Late Mesozoic. The ideal map of quantitative evidence must aim to integrate salient details in the trajectories of individuated landforms representing the principal landscapes of all Africa's margins, basins and watersheds. This in turn demands measurements - in mesoscale detail - of relief, drainage and regolith back though time, wherever keystone packages of evidence have survived Gondwana break up and its aftermath. Such a strategy is indeed ambitious, and it may well be dismissed as impractical. Nevertheless, the alternatives fall short. If it is to be representative of the history it purports to explain, we need the mesoscale facts to inform any narrative of a larger landscape (regional

  15. Is investment in Africa low despite high profits?

    OpenAIRE

    Warnholz, Jean‐Louis J.

    2008-01-01

    To my knowledge this study undertakes the first comprehensive and systematic empirical test of the hypothesis that while returns to invested capital in Sub‐Saharan Africa are high compared to select Asian and South American markets, investment rates are low. I investigate three sources: detailed World Bank surveys of 6,500 manufacturing firms, a new panel constructed from financial statements of 6,900 quoted industrials and performance indicators of emerging stock markets. I find returns to b...

  16. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pascal Kengne

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Andre Pascal Kengne1, Anastase Dzudie2, Eugene Sobngwi31The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Heart failure and transplantation Unit, Louis Pradel’s Cardiovascular Hospital, Lyon, France; 3National Obesity Centre, Yaounde Central Hospital, CameroonPurpose: Heart failure is the ultimate complication of cardiac involvements in diabetes. The purpose of this review was to summarize current literature on heart failure among people with diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Method: Bibliographic search of published data on heart failure and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 26 years.Results: Heart failure remains largely unexplored in general population and among people with diabetes in Africa. Heart failure accounts for over 30% of hospital admission in specialized cardiovascular units and 3%–7% in general internal medicine. Over 11% of adults with heart failure have diabetes. Risk factors for heart failure among those with diabetes include classical cardiovascular risk factors, without evidence of diabetes distinctiveness for other predictors common in Africa. Prevention, management, and outcomes of heart failure are less well known; recent data suggest improvement in the management of risk factors in clinical settings.Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is growing in SSA. Related cardiovascular diseases are emerging as potential health problem. Heart failure as cardiovascular complication remains largely unexplored. Efforts are needed through research to improve our knowledge of heart failure at large in Africa. Multilevel preventive measures, building on evidences from other parts of the world must go along side.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, sub-Saharan Africa

  17. Heart failure in sub-Saharan Africa: A literature review with emphasis on individuals with diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Pascal Kengne

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Andre Pascal Kengne1, Anastase Dzudie2, Eugene Sobngwi31The George Institute for International Health, University of Sydney, Australia; 2Heart failure and transplantation Unit, Louis Pradel’s Cardiovascular Hospital, Lyon, France; 3National Obesity Centre, Yaounde Central Hospital, CameroonPurpose: Heart failure is the ultimate complication of cardiac involvements in diabetes. The purpose of this review was to summarize current literature on heart failure among people with diabetes mellitus in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA.Method: Bibliographic search of published data on heart failure and diabetes in sub-Saharan Africa over the past 26 years.Results: Heart failure remains largely unexplored in general population and among people with diabetes in Africa. Heart failure accounts for over 30% of hospital admission in specialized cardiovascular units and 3%–7% in general internal medicine. Over 11% of adults with heart failure have diabetes. Risk factors for heart failure among those with diabetes include classical cardiovascular risk factors, without evidence of diabetes distinctiveness for other predictors common in Africa. Prevention, management, and outcomes of heart failure are less well known; recent data suggest improvement in the management of risk factors in clinical settings.Conclusions: Diabetes mellitus is growing in SSA. Related cardiovascular diseases are emerging as potential health problem. Heart failure as cardiovascular complication remains largely unexplored. Efforts are needed through research to improve our knowledge of heart failure at large in Africa. Multilevel preventive measures, building on evidences from other parts of the world must go along side.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, heart failure, sub-Saharan Africa

  18. Academic achievement in high functioning autistic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, N J; Goldstein, G; Taylor, H G; Siegel, D J

    1994-04-01

    Academic achievement levels in 54 high functioning (IQ > 70) autistic subjects were compared with those of 41 normal controls, who did not differ significantly in age, IQ, gender, race, or SES from the autistic subjects. The measures of academic achievement used included portions of the Detroit Tests of Learning Aptitude-2, the Woodcock Reading Mastery Test, and the Kaufman Test of Educational Achievement. Based on prior neuropsychological findings, it was hypothesized that autistic subjects would not differ from controls on subtests assessing mechanical and procedural skills, but would differ on subtests measuring comprehension and interpretive skills. As predicted, the autistic subjects performed significantly less well than controls on comprehension tasks, but not on mechanical reading, spelling, and computational tasks. This pattern is at variance with the typical academic profile of individuals with disabilities in reading or spelling, but shares some features with the nonverbal learning disabilities. PMID:8021313

  19. Brucellosis in high risk group individuals

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    Agasthya A

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of brucellosis among high-risk group individuals, consisting of veterinarians and para-veterinarians, shepherds, butchers and animal owners. Methods: The present work was carried out at Project Directorate on Animal Disease Monitoring and Surveillance, Bangalore, by using the recently developed indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA for antibodies to Brucella abortus. Results: The results were compared with the conventional serological tests, Rose Bengal plate test and standard tube agglutination test. The result showed that the indirect ELISA was more sensitive than the conventional tests. Of 618 tested, the disease of prevalence was at 41.23% in veterinary inspectors, 30.92% in veterinary assistants, 12.37% in veterinary officers, 6.18% in veterinary supervisors, 6.18% in Group D workers, 2.06% in shepherds and 1.03% in butchers. Conclusions: This study results highlight the immediate necessity to institute control measures to control Brucellosis.

  20. Geostatistical model-based estimates of schistosomiasis prevalence among individuals aged = 20 years in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou;

    2011-01-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years...... ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis...

  1. Required Actions to Place NCDs in Africa and the Global South High on the World Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeti, Matshidiso R.; Munodawafa, Davison

    2016-01-01

    Africa and most of the global south continue to experience a striking burden of communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases, and high rates of maternal and child mortality, as well as disastrous internecine conflicts and floods. While Africa has been making steady progress in addressing communicable diseases, it now faces new threats from…

  2. The Challenge of South Africa to Reduce Its High Unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    Andre Mellet

    2011-01-01

    The unemployment rate in South Africa has been in excess of 20% for many years. Various questions can be asked about policies and probable solutions to reduce unemployment. What is wrong with South African macroeconomic policies or is it rather what is wrong with economic and political coordination of policies? What is the probability of millions of South African inhabitants to rise out of poverty? Certain policies for example ASGISA have good foundations, but the main problem in South Africa...

  3. University wins highly competitive planning grant to develop partnership with universities in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rich, Miriam Sommers

    2009-01-01

    The Office of International Research, Education, and Development at Virginia Tech has won a highly competitive federal planning grant to develop a strategic capacity-building partnership with universities in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  4. Neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth in East Africa, adjusted by weight for gestational age: individual participant level meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Marchant

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low birth weight and prematurity are amongst the strongest predictors of neonatal death. However, the extent to which they act independently is poorly understood. Our objective was to estimate the neonatal mortality risk associated with preterm birth when stratified by weight for gestational age in the high mortality setting of East Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Members and collaborators of the Malaria and the MARCH Centers, at the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, were contacted and protocols reviewed for East African studies that measured (1 birth weight, (2 gestational age at birth using antenatal ultrasound or neonatal assessment, and (3 neonatal mortality. Ten datasets were identified and four met the inclusion criteria. The four datasets (from Uganda, Kenya, and two from Tanzania contained 5,727 births recorded between 1999-2010. 4,843 births had complete outcome data and were included in an individual participant level meta-analysis. 99% of 445 low birth weight (< 2,500 g babies were either preterm (< 37 weeks gestation or small for gestational age (below tenth percentile of weight for gestational age. 52% of 87 neonatal deaths occurred in preterm or small for gestational age babies. Babies born < 34 weeks gestation had the highest odds of death compared to term babies (odds ratio [OR] 58.7 [95% CI 28.4-121.4], with little difference when stratified by weight for gestational age. Babies born 34-36 weeks gestation with appropriate weight for gestational age had just three times the likelihood of neonatal death compared to babies born term, (OR 3.2 [95% CI 1.0-10.7], but the likelihood for babies born 34-36 weeks who were also small for gestational age was 20 times higher (OR 19.8 [95% CI 8.3-47.4]. Only 1% of babies were born moderately premature and small for gestational age, but this group suffered 8% of deaths. Individual level data on newborns are scarce in East Africa; potential biases arising due to the non

  5. Policy maker and health care provider perspectives on reproductive decision-making amongst HIV-infected individuals in South Africa

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    Zweigenthal Virginia

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Worldwide there is growing attention paid to the reproductive decisions faced by HIV-infected individuals. Studies in both developed and developing countries have suggested that many HIV-infected women continue to desire children despite knowledge of their HIV status. Despite the increasing attention to the health care needs of HIV-infected individuals in low resource settings, little attention has been given to reproductive choice and intentions. Health care providers play a crucial role in determining access to reproductive health services and their influence is likely to be heightened in delivering services to HIV-infected women. We examined the attitudes of health care policy makers and providers towards reproductive decision-making among HIV-infected individuals. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with 14 health care providers at two public sector health care facilities located in Cape Town, South Africa. In addition, 12 in-depth interviews with public sector policy makers and managers, and managers within HIV/AIDS and reproductive health NGOs were conducted. Data were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Results Providers and policy makers approached the issues related to being HIV-infected and child bearing differently. Biomedical considerations were paramount in providers' approaches to HIV infection and reproductive decision-making, whereas, policy makers approached the issues more broadly recognizing the structural constraints that inform the provision of reproductive health care services and the possibility of "choice" for HIV-infected individuals. Conclusion The findings highlight the diversity of perspectives among policy makers and providers regarding the reproductive decisions taken by HIV-infected people. There is a clear need for more explicit policies recognizing the reproductive rights and choices of HIV-infected individuals.

  6. Individual attitudes toward anti-corruption policies in Sub-Saharan Africa: Microeconometric evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Gbewopo Attila

    2009-01-01

    This study examines African populations` attitudes toward anti-corruption policies. Previous studies only look at individuals` experiences or attitudes with respect to corruption itself or its prevalence. Relying on micro data from six Sub-Saharan African countries and using ordered probit models, we show that social factors (education, employment, living conditions, etc.) significantly affect the citizens` attitudes toward anti-corruption strategies. We also highlight the importance of polit...

  7. The high frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayden, M R; Macgregor, J M; Saffer, D S; Beighton, P H

    1982-01-01

    During a national investigation concerning all patients with Huntington's chorea in South Africa, 17 affected children, comprising 7·7% of the patients in the survey, were identified. Although the frequency of juvenile Huntington's chorea in the white community was equal to that reported from around the world, the frequency was much higher in the population of mixed ancestry. It is possible that this unique situation is related to the genetic constitution of this latter group.

  8. Quality of life in South Africa - with a focus on the black individual

    OpenAIRE

    Kræmer, Amalie; Larsen, Katrine Hejslet; Winther, Vibeke Amber; Rutkovska, Elina; Arnadóttir, Ingibjörg Bryndís; Zymberi, Fitore

    2015-01-01

    This project aims to investigate how quality of the black individual is affected by racial identity. The project takes its point of departure in the theories of quality of life by Søren Ventegodt, Neil T. Higgs and Valerie Møller. According to these scholars quality of life is understood as a person’s own evaluation of the person’s life, taking into consideration both subjective and objective measures and furthermore both external and internal factors. In addition, Maykel Verkuyten’s un- ders...

  9. Key Pathways to High-Speed Internet in the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gelvanovska, Natalija; Rogy, Michel; Rossotto, Carlo Maria

    2015-01-01

    Most countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are falling behind in their quest to develop high-speed Internet for rapid socioeconomic development. Despite young adults’ rising use of social networking tools and solid progress in a few countries, most of the region’s Internet remains hobbled by monopolized, inadequate infrastructure; weak investment incentives; and high ...

  10. Individual monitoring in high-energy stray radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the lack of passive or active devices that could be considered as personal dosemeters in high-energy stray fields one can at present only perform individual monitoring around high energy accelerators. Of all detectors currently available it is shown that the NTA film is the most suitable method for individually monitoring the neutron exposure of more than 3000 persons regularly, reliably, and cost effectively like at CERN. (author)

  11. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E.L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-01-01

    In a unique memory-distortion study with people with extraordinary memory ability, individuals with highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) were as susceptible as controls to false memory. The findings suggest that HSAM individuals reconstruct their memories using associative grouping, as demonstrated by a word-list task, and by incorporating postevent information, as shown in misinformation tasks. The findings also suggest that the reconstructive memory mechanisms that produce memory ...

  12. Identification of highly susceptible individuals in complex networks

    CERN Document Server

    Pei, Sen; Yan, Shu; Tang, Shaoting; Zheng, Zhiming

    2015-01-01

    Identifying highly susceptible individuals in spreading processes is of great significance in controlling outbreaks. In this paper, we explore the susceptibility of people in susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) and rumor spreading dynamics. We first study the impact of community structure on people's susceptibility. Despite that the community structure can reduce the infected population given same infection rates, it will not deterministically affect nodes' susceptibility. We find the susceptibility of individuals is sensitive to the choice of spreading dynamics. For SIR spreading, since the susceptibility is highly correlated to nodes' influence, the topological indicator k-shell can better identify highly susceptible individuals, outperforming degree, betweenness centrality and PageRank. In contrast, in rumor spreading model, where nodes' susceptibility and influence have no clear correlation, degree performs the best among considered topological measures. Our finding highlights the significance of both ...

  13. Developing High-resolution Soil Database for Regional Crop Modeling in East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, E.; Ines, A. V. M.

    2014-12-01

    The most readily available soil data for regional crop modeling in Africa is the World Inventory of Soil Emission potentials (WISE) dataset, which has 1125 soil profiles for the world, but does not extensively cover countries Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania in East Africa. Another dataset available is the HC27 (Harvest Choice by IFPRI) in a gridded format (10km) but composed of generic soil profiles based on only three criteria (texture, rooting depth, and organic carbon content). In this paper, we present a development and application of a high-resolution (1km), gridded soil database for regional crop modeling in East Africa. Basic soil information is extracted from Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS), which provides essential soil properties (bulk density, soil organic carbon, soil PH and percentages of sand, silt and clay) for 6 different standardized soil layers (5, 15, 30, 60, 100 and 200 cm) in 1km resolution. Soil hydraulic properties (e.g., field capacity and wilting point) are derived from the AfSIS soil dataset using well-proven pedo-transfer functions and are customized for DSSAT-CSM soil data requirements. The crop model is used to evaluate crop yield forecasts using the new high resolution soil database and compared with WISE and HC27. In this paper we will present also the results of DSSAT loosely coupled with a hydrologic model (VIC) to assimilate root-zone soil moisture. Creating a grid-based soil database, which provides a consistent soil input for two different models (DSSAT and VIC) is a critical part of this work. The created soil database is expected to contribute to future applications of DSSAT crop simulation in East Africa where food security is highly vulnerable.

  14. OT promotes closer interpersonal distance among highly empathic individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anat; Mankuta, David; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-01-01

    The space between people, or 'interpersonal distance', creates and defines the dynamics of social interactions and is a salient cue signaling responsiveness and feeling comfortable. This distance is implicit yet clearly felt, especially if someone stands closer or farther away than expected. Increasing evidence suggests that Oxytocin (OT) serves as a social hormone in humans, and that one of its roles may be to alter the perceptual salience of social cues. Considering that empathic ability may shape the way individuals process social stimuli, we predicted that OT will differentially affect preferred interpersonal distance depending on individual differences in empathy. Participants took part in two interpersonal distance experiments: In the first, they had to stop a (computer visualized) protagonist when feeling most comfortable; in the second, they were asked to choose the room in which they would later discuss intimate topics with another. Both experiments revealed an interaction between the effect of OT and empathy level. Among highly empathic individuals, OT promoted the choice of closer interpersonal distances. Yet, OT had an opposite effect on individuals with low empathic traits. We conclude that the enhancement of social cues following OT administration may have opposite effects on individuals with different empathic abilities. PMID:24509491

  15. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sam O. Wajuihian; Rekha Hansraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive p...

  16. Equitable rationing of highly specialised health care services for children: a perspective from South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, W A; Henley, L D

    1999-01-01

    The principles of equality and equity, respectively in the Bill of Rights and the white paper on health, provide the moral and legal foundations for future health care for children in South Africa. However, given extreme health care need and scarce resources, the government faces formidable obstacles if it hopes to achieve a just allocation of public health care resources, especially among children in need of highly specialised health care. In this regard, there is a dearth of moral analysis ...

  17. Knowledge corruption for visual perception in individuals high on paranoia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Steffen; Göritz, Anja S; Van Quaquebeke, Niels; Andreou, Christina; Jungclaussen, David; Peters, Maarten J V

    2014-03-30

    Studies revealed that patients with paranoid schizophrenia display overconfidence in errors for memory and social cognition tasks. The present investigation examined whether this pattern holds true for visual perception tasks. Nonclinical participants were recruited via an online panel. Individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire that included the Paranoia Checklist and were then presented with 24 blurry pictures; half contained a hidden object while the other half showed snowy (visual) noise. Participants were asked to state whether the visual items contained an object and how confident they were in their judgment. Data from 1966 individuals were included following a conservative selection process. Participants high on core paranoid symptoms showed a poor calibration of confidence for correct versus incorrect responses. In particular, participants high on paranoia displayed overconfidence in incorrect responses and demonstrated a 20% error rate for responses made with high confidence compared to a 12% error rate in participants with low paranoia scores. Interestingly, paranoia scores declined after performance of the task. For the first time, overconfidence in errors was demonstrated among individuals with high levels of paranoia using a visual perception task, tentatively suggesting it is a ubiquitous phenomenon. In view of the significant decline in paranoia across time, bias modification programs may incorporate items such as the one employed here to teach patients with clinical paranoia the fallibility of human cognition, which may foster subsequent symptom improvement. PMID:24461685

  18. Insights from an individual-level model of HIV programmes in southern Africa: HIV testing, ART and resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Cambiano, V.

    2014-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has transformed HIV infection from a death sentence into a chronic condition. In sub-Saharan Africa, the area most affected by this disease, availability of ART has increased dramatically over the last few years. Nevertheless, many people are still not receiving ART either because they are not aware of being HIV-positive or because they struggle to access ART or to engage in HIV care. It is fundamental to take decisions which maximise the health benefits with the ...

  19. Executive deficits in Individuals at High Genetic Risk of Schizophrenia

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrova, R

    2012-01-01

    Background. Studies of individuals at high genetic risk (HR) of schizophrenia have shown subtle deficits in the domains of executive functions. However, executive abilities also depend on working memory, which is one of the most prominent impairments associated with vulnerability to schizophrenia. The present study examines whether working memory deficits could account for impairments usually attributed to executive dysfunctions. Methods. A total of 100 HR and 27 control participants were ...

  20. EEG biofeedback improves attentional bias in high trait anxiety individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yan; Chen, Sijuan; Lin, Guiping; Sun, Peng; Wang, Tinghuai

    2013-01-01

    Background Emotion-related attentional bias is implicated in the aetiology and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Electroencephalogram (EEG) biofeedback can obviously improve the anxiety disorders and reduce stress level, and can also enhance attention performance in healthy subjects. The present study examined the effects and mechanisms of EEG biofeedback training on the attentional bias of high trait anxiety (HTA) individuals toward negative stimuli. Results Event-related potentials were rec...

  1. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Patihis, L; Frenda, SJ; LePort, AKR; Petersen, N.; Nichols, RM; Stark, CEL; McGaugh, JL; Loftus, EF

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed hi...

  2. Population-based CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the variability of CD4 counts in the general population of sub-Saharan Africa countries affected by the HIV epidemic. We investigated factors associated with CD4 counts in a rural area in South Africa with high HIV prevalence and high antiretroviral treatment (ART coverage. METHODS: CD4 counts, health status, body mass index (BMI, demographic characteristics and HIV status were assessed in 4990 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance in rural KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa; antiretroviral treatment duration was obtained from a linked clinical database. Multivariable regression analysis, overall and stratified by HIV status, was performed with CD4 count levels as outcome. RESULTS: Median CD4 counts were significantly higher in women than in men overall (714 vs. 630 cells/µl, p<0.0001, both in HIV-uninfected (833 vs. 683 cells/µl, p<0.0001 and HIV-infected adults (384.5 vs. 333 cells/µl, p<0.0001. In multivariable regression analysis, women had 19.4% (95% confidence interval (CI 16.1-22.9 higher CD4 counts than men, controlling for age, HIV status, urban/rural residence, household wealth, education, BMI, self-reported tuberculosis, high blood pressure, other chronic illnesses and sample processing delay. At ART initiation, HIV-infected adults had 21.7% (95% CI 14.6-28.2 lower CD4 counts than treatment-naive individuals; CD4 counts were estimated to increase by 9.2% (95% CI 6.2-12.4 per year of treatment. CONCLUSIONS: CD4 counts are primarily determined by sex in HIV-uninfected adults, and by sex, age and duration of antiretroviral treatment in HIV-infected adults. Lower CD4 counts at ART initiation in men could be a consequence of lower CD4 cell counts before HIV acquisition.

  3. AFRICA2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.

  4. Identification of Germinal Center B Cells in Blood from HIV-infected Drug-naive Individuals in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelyne Bégaud

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the pathophysiology of B cell populations—the precursors of antibody secreting cells—during chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection, we examined the phenotype of circulating B cells in newly diagnosed Africans. We found that all African individuals displayed low levels of naive B cells and of memory-type CD27+ B cells, and high levels of differentiated B cells. On the other hand, HIV-infected African patients had a population of germinal center B cells (i.e. CD20+, sIgM-, sIgD+, CD77+, CD138±, which are generally restricted to lymph nodes and do not circulate unless the lymph node architecture is altered. The first observations could be linked to the tropical environment whereas the presence of germinal center B cells may be attributable to chronic exposure to HIV as it is not observed in HIV-negative African controls and HAART treated HIV-infected Europeans. It may impact the management of HIV infection in countries with limited access to HIV drugs and urges consideration for implementation of therapeutic vaccines.

  5. High-Resolution Reconstructions of Temperature and Precipitation During the Last Millennium from Lake Tanganyika, Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayes, M.; Tierney, J.; Huang, Y.; Russell, J.

    2008-12-01

    Though numerous syntheses of high-resolution paleoclimate data have documented temperature changes associated with the Medieval Period, the Little Ice Age, and the Industrial era in north temperate regions, few records of temperature variability exist for the Southern Hemisphere (Mann and Jones, 2003, GRL doi: 10.1029/2003GL017814). Here, we present a new, high-resolution record of terrestrial temperature and rainfall from southeast tropical Africa, based upon organic geochemical analyses of annually laminated sediment cores from Lake Tanganyika, East Africa, providing the first millennium-long, high-resolution record of temperature from the East African tropics. Extending to 700CE with decadal resolution, the record uses the TEX86 paleothermometer and hydrogen stable isotope ratios (dD) of leaf waxes, which have been shown to reflect temperature and hydrologic conditions in Tanganyika, respectively (Tierney 2008, Science). The TEX86-based temperature reconstruction shows that Tanganyika temperatures were relatively warm at 700CE, cooler from 800-1000CE, and then warmer again between approximately 1050-1300CE. The latter warm interval is coincident with periods of warmer temperatures documented in the Northern Hemisphere. Yet temperatures are highly variable within the Little Ice Age (~1450-1800CE) and do not cool substantially relative to older time periods, in contrast to north temperate regions. Pronounced warming from approximately 1850 to the present is unprecedented in comparison to patterns of temperature variability during the previous centuries. The temperature variability documented here does not seem to correspond strongly to lake level fluctuations in Tanganyika over the past millennium (Cohen et al., 2005, JoPL, doi 10.1007/s10933-005- 2422-4), suggesting that Southeast African climate variability is more complex than alternating cycles of warm/wet and cool/dry conditions. dD analyses document considerable hydrologic variability over the past

  6. MIGRATION OF WOMEN FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TO EUROPE: THE ROLE OF HIGHLY SKILLED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Spadavecchia

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims to analyze Sub-Saharan women’s migration with a special focus on highly skilled women in order to create a framework to better understand the different factors shaping migration patterns, such as the push and pull factors, the increase of flows and the complexity associated with them. In recent years the number of female Sub-Saharan migrants has grown at a rate much higher than the global average. In fact, in 2010 alone the number of female African migrants was 47.2% (World Bank, 2012, showing an increase of 5.2% since the 1960’s when women constituted 42% of the total migration from Sub-Saharan Africa. The feminization of migration flows from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA in recent years has also witnessed a diversification of the flows. One specific segment on the rise is labor migration, specifically, highly skilled migration, especially for tertiary students and physicians and nurses. The study explores social geography and the geography of migration. The author considers two dimensions of analysis: women’s migration patterns from SSA (with a special focus on the impacts of the flows and highly skilled migration from SSA.

  7. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed. PMID:26314991

  8. Comparison of frequency of obesity in high risk non diabetic young individuals with low risk non diabetic young individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To assess the body mass index and waist circumferences of high risk non diabetic young individuals and compare them with low risk non diabetic young individuals. Method: A cross sectional, case control comparative study was conducted in the department of medicine, LUMHS from January 2008 to March 2009. Five hundred individuals 20-40 years of age were selected and divided into two groups i.e. Group A: high risk (250 individuals) and Group B: low risk (250 individuals) on the basis of same age and gender. Group A included those who had positive family history of type 2 DM in first degree relatives while group B had no family history of type 2 DM in first degree relatives. The blood pressure, BMI and Waist Circumference was measured and Fasting Blood Sugar was estimated in each individual. In each group 125 (50%) were males and 125 (50%) were females. Results: In group A 58% and in group B 28.8% individuals represented raised BMI whereas 42% in group A and 36% in group B individuals showed an increased waist circumference. Mean fasting blood glucose was significantly higher in Group A than in Group B (P=0.001). Conclusion: Impaired Fasting Glucose is strongly associated with family history of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Presence of obesity specially in high risk non-diabetic young individuals emphasize the need for routine health screening for early institution of preventive measures. (author)

  9. Individual tree detection based on densities of high points of high resolution airborne lidar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    The retrieval of individual tree location from Airborne LiDAR has focused largely on utilizing canopy height. However, high resolution Airborne LiDAR offers another source of information for tree detection. This paper presents a new method for tree detection based on high points’ densities from a hi

  10. Estimating Individual Mahalanobis Distance in High-Dimensional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Deliang; Holgersson, Thomas; Karlsson, Peter

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats the problem of estimating individual Mahalanobis distances (MD) in cases when the dimension of the variable p is proportional to the sample size n. Asymptotic expected values are derived under the assumption p/n->c, 0

  11. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP, adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A qualitative method using explorative and descriptive designs was used to find in-depth description and understanding of teenagers’ views on TOP. The target population was girls aged 15–19 years at Muyexe high school in Mopani District. Non-probability, convenient sampling was used to select high school teenage girls who had undergone TOP for the study. Data were collected using individual self-report technique (interview. Tesch’s eight steps of qualitative data analysis were used. Measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were observed.Results: Two major themes were revealed: (1 Views of teenagers regarding TOP (poverty, relationship problems and single parenthood, negative impact on the teen’s life while attending school and (2 teenager’s fears regarding pregnancy (stigma, fear of parents and friends, rape and incest and fear of giving birth.Conclusion: Majority of participants had knowledge about TOP; some had experiences about TOP while others held inadequate knowledge. Recommendations were based on the findings by teaching dangers of TOP and various contraceptive methods to prevent unwanted pregnancies and TOP.Keywords: Views, teenagers and termination of pregnancy

  12. Predictive factors for latent tuberculosis infection among adolescents in a high-burden area in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Mahomed; T. Hawkridge; S. Verver; L. Geiter; M. Hatherill; D.A. Abrahams; R. Ehrlich; W.A. Hanekom; G.D. Hussey

    2011-01-01

    SETTING: A high tuberculosis (TB) burden area in South Africa (notification rate for all TB cases 1400 per 100 000 population). OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and predictive factors associated with latent TB infection in adolescents. DESIGN: Adolescents aged 12-18 years were recruited fro

  13. Coral bleaching on high-latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coral bleaching, involving the expulsion of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the host cells, poses a major threat to coral reefs throughout their distributional range. The role of temperature in coral bleaching has been extensively investigated and is widely accepted. A bleaching event was observed on the marginal high-latitude reefs of South Africa located at Sodwana Bay during the summer months of 2000. This was associated with increased sea temperatures with high seasonal peaks in summer and increased radiation in exceptionally clear water. The bleaching was limited to Two-mile Reef and Nine-mile Reef at Sodwana Bay and affected -1 from May 1994 to April 2000. High maximum temperatures were measured (>29 deg. C). The lowest mean monthly and the mean maximum monthly temperatures at which coral bleaching occurred were 27.5 and 28.8 deg. C, respectively, while the duration for which high temperatures occurred in 2000 was 67 days at ≥27.5 deg. C (4 days at ≥28.8 deg. C). Increased water clarity and radiation appeared to be a synergistic cause in the coral bleaching encountered at Sodwana Bay

  14. Attributes common to programs that successfully treat high-need, high-cost individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gerard F; Ballreich, Jeromie; Bleich, Sara; Boyd, Cynthia; DuGoff, Eva; Leff, Bruce; Salzburg, Claudia; Wolff, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Using literature review and interviews, we have identified 8 attributes of programs, such as accountable care organizations, readmission initiatives, special needs plans, care transition programs, and patient-centered medical homes, that successfully treat high-need, high-cost patients. These 8 attributes--illustrated here with specific examples--are specific ways to target these types of individuals, promote leadership at various levels, emphasize interaction with the care coordinator, use data strategically to refine the program, update the program periodically, allow physicians to spend more time with patients, and promote interaction among clinicians and high-need, high cost patients and their families. PMID:26735292

  15. Views of teenagers on termination of pregnancy at Muyexe high school in Mopani District, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nditsheni J. Ramakuela; Lebese, Tsakani R.; Maputle, Sonto M.; Lindiwe Mulaudzi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Teenage pregnancy is a global social health concern especially because of the HIV and AIDS pandemic, sexually transmitted infections, high rate of termination of pregnancy (TOP), adolescents’ parenthood and decreased level of contraceptives.Aim: To explore the views of teenagers on the TOP at Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province.Setting: Muyexe high school in a rural village of Mopani District, Limpopo Province, in South Africa.Methodology: A ...

  16. High-pressure phases in shock-induced melt of the unique highly shocked LL6 chondrite Northwest Africa 757

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jinping; Sharp, Thomas G.

    2016-07-01

    Northwest Africa 757 is unique in the LL chondrite group because of its abundant shock-induced melt and high-pressure minerals. Olivine fragments entrained in the melt transform partially and completely into ringwoodite. Plagioclase and Ca-phosphate transform to maskelynite, lingunite, and tuite. Two distinct shock-melt crystallization assemblages were studied by FIB-TEM analysis. The first melt assemblage, which includes majoritic garnet, ringwoodite plus magnetite-magnesiowüstite, crystallized at pressures of 20-25 GPa. The other melt assemblage, which consists of clinopyroxene and wadsleyite, solidified at ~15 GPa, suggesting a second veining event under lower pressure conditions. These shock features are similar to those in S6 L chondrites and indicate that NWA 757 experienced an intense impact event, comparable to the impact event that disrupted the L chondrite parent body at 470 Ma.

  17. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  18. Electrowinning of high purity individual rare earth metals - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare earth metals are finding applications in various fields. The demand for purer individual metals is increasing. The two important methods of preparation of the pure metals are Metallothermic Reduction and Electrowinning. In Electrowinning, the rare earth fluoride, chloride or oxide is elctrolysed using direct current. Fused salt electrolysis is the commonly used method. The important developments in the area of electrometallurgy is summarised in this paper. In general, the paper deals with the important findings and developments in the process development of electrowinning of rare earth elements. (author) 49 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  19. Understanding Specific Contexts of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Rural South Africa: A Thematic Analysis of Digital Stories from a Community with High HIV Prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffry-Goatley, Astrid; Lessells, Richard; Sykes, Pam; Bärnighausen, Till; de Oliveira, Tulio; Moletsane, Relebohile; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Near-perfect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve the best possible prevention and treatment outcomes. Yet, there have been particular concerns about the challenges of adherence among patients living in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of this study was to explore adherence in a low-resourced, rural community of high HIV prevalence in South Africa and to identify specific individual and structural factors that can either challenge or support adherence in this context. We applied digital stories as a qualitative research tool to gain insights into personal contexts of HIV and ART adherence. Through an inductive thematic analysis of twenty story texts, soundtracks and drawings, we explored experiences, understandings, and contexts of the participants and identified potential barriers and facilitators for those on lifelong treatment. We found that many of the stories reflected a growing confidence in the effectiveness of ART, which should be viewed as a key facilitator to successful adherence since this attitude can promote disclosure and boost access to social support. Nevertheless, stories also highlighted the complexity of the issues that individuals and households face as they deal with HIV and ART in this setting and it is clear that an overburdened local healthcare system has often struggled to meet the demands of a rapidly expanding epidemic and to provide the necessary medical and emotional support. Our analysis suggests several opportunities for further research and the design of novel health interventions to support optimal adherence. Firstly, future health promotion campaigns should encourage individuals to test together, or at least accompany each other for testing, to encourage social support from the outset. Additionally, home-based testing and ART club interventions might be recommended to make it easier for individuals to adhere to their treatment regimens and to provide a sense of

  20. Understanding Specific Contexts of Antiretroviral Therapy Adherence in Rural South Africa: A Thematic Analysis of Digital Stories from a Community with High HIV Prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treffry-Goatley, Astrid; Lessells, Richard; Sykes, Pam; Bärnighausen, Till; de Oliveira, Tulio; Moletsane, Relebohile; Seeley, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Near-perfect adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is required to achieve the best possible prevention and treatment outcomes. Yet, there have been particular concerns about the challenges of adherence among patients living in resource-limited settings in sub-Saharan Africa. The primary objective of this study was to explore adherence in a low-resourced, rural community of high HIV prevalence in South Africa and to identify specific individual and structural factors that can either challenge or support adherence in this context. We applied digital stories as a qualitative research tool to gain insights into personal contexts of HIV and ART adherence. Through an inductive thematic analysis of twenty story texts, soundtracks and drawings, we explored experiences, understandings, and contexts of the participants and identified potential barriers and facilitators for those on lifelong treatment. We found that many of the stories reflected a growing confidence in the effectiveness of ART, which should be viewed as a key facilitator to successful adherence since this attitude can promote disclosure and boost access to social support. Nevertheless, stories also highlighted the complexity of the issues that individuals and households face as they deal with HIV and ART in this setting and it is clear that an overburdened local healthcare system has often struggled to meet the demands of a rapidly expanding epidemic and to provide the necessary medical and emotional support. Our analysis suggests several opportunities for further research and the design of novel health interventions to support optimal adherence. Firstly, future health promotion campaigns should encourage individuals to test together, or at least accompany each other for testing, to encourage social support from the outset. Additionally, home-based testing and ART club interventions might be recommended to make it easier for individuals to adhere to their treatment regimens and to provide a sense of

  1. New Approaches to Capture High Frequency Agricultural Dynamics in Africa through Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; Attari, S.; Plale, B. A.; Caylor, K. K.; Estes, L. D.; Sheffield, J.

    2015-12-01

    Crop failure early warning systems relying on remote sensing constitute a new critical resource to assess areas where food shortages may arise, but there is a disconnect between the patterns of crop production on the ground and the environmental and decision-making dynamics that led to a particular crop production outcome. In Africa many governments use mid-growing season household surveys to get an on-the-ground assessment of current agricultural conditions. But these efforts are cost prohibitive over large scales and only offer a one-time snapshot at a particular time point. They also rely on farmers to recall past decisions and farmer recall may be imperfect when answering retrospectively on a decision made several months back (e.g. quantity of seed planted). We introduce a novel mobile-phone based approach to acquire information from farmers over large spatial extents, at high frequency at relatively low-cost compared to household survey approaches. This system makes compromises in number of questions which can feasibly be asked of a respondent (compared to household interviews), but the benefit of capturing weekly data from farmers is very exciting. We present data gathered from farmers in Kenya and Zambia to understand key dimensions of agricultural decision making such as choice of seed variety/planting date, frequency and timing of weeding/fertilizing and coping strategies such as pursuing off-farm labor. A particularly novel aspect of this work is reporting from farmers of what their expectation of end-season harvest will be on a week-by-week basis. Farmer's themselves can serve as sentinels of crop failure in this system. And farmers responses to drought are as much driven by their expectations of looming crop failure that may be different from that gleaned from remote sensing based assessment. This work is one piece of a larger design to link farmers to high-density meteorological data in Africa as an additional tool to improve crop failure early warning

  2. Petrogenesis of the Northwest Africa 4898 high-Al mare basalt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shaolin; Hsu, Weibiao; Guan, Yunbin; Wang, Linyan; Wang, Ying

    2016-05-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 4898 is the only low-Ti, high-Al basaltic lunar meteorite yet recognized. It predominantly consists of pyroxene (53.8 vol%) and plagioclase (38.6 vol%). Pyroxene has a wide range of compositions (En12-62Fs25-62Wo11-36), which display a continuous trend from Mg-rich cores toward Ca-rich mantles and then to Fe-rich rims. Plagioclase has relatively restricted compositions (An87-96Or0-1Ab4-13), and was transformed to maskelynite. The REE zoning of all silicate minerals was not significantly modified by shock metamorphism and weathering. Relatively large (up to 1 mm) olivine phenocrysts have homogenous inner parts with Fo ~74 and sharply decrease to 64 within the thin out rims (~30 μm in width). Four types of inclusions with a variety of textures and modal mineralogy were identified in olivine phenocrysts. The contrasting morphologies of these inclusions and the chemical zoning of olivine phenocrysts suggest NWA 4898 underwent at least two stages of crystallization. The aluminous chromite in NWA 4898 reveals that its high alumina character was inherited from the parental magma, rather than by fractional crystallization. The mineral chemistry and major element compositions of NWA 4898 are different from those of 12038 and Luna 16 basalts, but resemble those of Apollo 14 high-Al basalts. However, the trace element compositions demonstrate that NWA 4898 and Apollo 14 high-Al basalts could not have been derived from the same mantle source. REE compositions of its parental magma indicate that NWA 4898 probably originated from a unique depleted mantle source that has not been sampled yet. Unlike Apollo 14 high-Al basalts, which assimilated KREEPy materials during their formation, NWA 4898 could have formed by closed-system fractional crystallization.

  3. Timbali Technology Incubator : South Africa Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Timbali technology incubator in the Mpumalanga region of South Africa seeks to help rural farmers whose livelihood has been undercut by high-volume large farms. Supported by government financing and fee-based services, Timbali is largely based on a franchise model. Its clients supply cut flowers to Amablom, Timbali's commercial arm. Individual clients can begin generating revenue almost im...

  4. Coral bleaching on high-latitude marginal reefs at Sodwana Bay, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celliers, Louis; Schleyer, Michael H

    2002-12-01

    Coral bleaching, involving the expulsion of symbiotic zooxanthellae from the host cells, poses a major threat to coral reefs throughout their distributional range. The role of temperature in coral bleaching has been extensively investigated and is widely accepted. A bleaching event was observed on the marginal high-latitude reefs of South Africa located at Sodwana Bay during the summer months of 2000. This was associated with increased sea temperatures with high seasonal peaks in summer and increased radiation in exceptionally clear water. The bleaching was limited to Two-mile Reef and Nine-mile Reef at Sodwana Bay and affected <12% of the total living cover on Two-mile Reef. Montipora spp., Alveopora spongiosa and Acropora spp. were bleached, as well as some Alcyoniidae (Sinularia dura, Lobophytum depressum, L. patulum). A cyclical increase in sea temperature (with a period of 5-6 years) was recorded during 1998-2000 in addition to the regional temperature increase caused by the El Nino Southern Oscillation phenomenon. The mean sea temperature increased at a rate of 0.27 deg. C year{sup -1} from May 1994 to April 2000. High maximum temperatures were measured (>29 deg. C). The lowest mean monthly and the mean maximum monthly temperatures at which coral bleaching occurred were 27.5 and 28.8 deg. C, respectively, while the duration for which high temperatures occurred in 2000 was 67 days at {>=}27.5 deg. C (4 days at {>=}28.8 deg. C). Increased water clarity and radiation appeared to be a synergistic cause in the coral bleaching encountered at Sodwana Bay.

  5. Hypertension and obesity in adults living in a high HIV prevalence rural area in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Malaza

    Full Text Available Hypertension and excess body weight are major risk factors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in developing countries. In countries with a high HIV prevalence, it is unknown how increased antiretroviral treatment and care (ART coverage has affected the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and hypertension. We conducted a health survey in 2010 based on the WHO STEPwise approach in 14,198 adult resident participants of a demographic surveillance area in rural South Africa to investigate factors associated with hypertension and excess weight including HIV infection and ART status. Women had a significantly higher median body mass index (BMI than men (26.4 vs. 21.2 kg/m(2, p<0.001. The prevalence of obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2 in women (31.3%, 95% confidence interval (CI 30.2-32.4 was 6.5 times higher than in men (4.9%, 95% CI 4.1-5.7, whereas prevalence of hypertension (systolic or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140 or 90 mm Hg, respectively was 1.4 times higher in women than in men (28.5% vs 20.8%, p<0.001. In multivariable regression analysis, both hypertension and obesity were significantly associated with sex, age, HIV and ART status. The BMI of women and men on ART was on average 3.8 (95% CI 3.2-3.8 and 1.7 (95% CI 0.9-2.5 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. The BMI of HIV-infected women and men not on ART was on average 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6 and 0.4 (95% CI -0.1-0.9 kg/m(2 lower than of HIV-negative women and men, respectively. Obesity was a bigger risk factor for hypertension in men (adjusted odds ratio (aOR 2.99, 95% CI 2.00-4.48 than in women (aOR 1.64, 95% CI 1.39-1.92 and overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 was a significant risk factor for men only (aOR 1.53 95% CI 1.14-2.06. Our study suggests that, cardiovascular risk factors of hypertension and obesity differ substantially between women and men in rural South Africa.

  6. Selective enhancement of individual cantilever high resonance modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penedo, Marcos; Hormeño, Silvia; Prieto, Patricia; Alvaro, Raquel; Anguita, José; Briones, Fernando; Luna, Mónica

    2015-12-01

    Multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM) in liquid media where several eigenmodes or harmonics are simultaneously excited is improving the performance of the scanning probe techniques in biological studies. As a consequence, an important effort is being made to search for a reliable, efficient and strong cantilever high mode excitation method that operates in liquids. In this work we present (theoretical and experimentally) a technique for improving the efficiency of the most common excitation methods currently used in AFM operated in liquids: photothermal, torque (MAC Mode™) and magnetostriction. By etching specific areas of the cantilever coating, the oscillation amplitude (both flexural and torsional) of each specific eigenmode increases, leading to an improvement in signal to noise ratio of the multifrequency techniques. As an alternative, increment in high mode oscillation amplitude is also obtained by Ga+ ion implantation in the specific areas of the magnetic material.

  7. Psychological Skills, Education, and Longevity of High-Ability Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Savelyev

    2014-01-01

    Based on the 1922–1991 Terman data of children with high ability, I investigate the effects of childhood psychological skills and post-compulsory education on longevity. I identify causal effects and account for measurement error using factor-analytic methodology (Heckman et al., 2006). Latent class analysis supports the causal interpretation of results. For males, I find strong effects of psychological skills and education on longevity and an interaction between personality and education. ...

  8. High-dimensional CLTs for individual Mahalanobis distances

    OpenAIRE

    Holgersson, Thomas; Dai, Deliang

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we derive central limit theorems for two different types of Mahalanobis distances in situations where the dimension of the parent variable increases proportionally with the sample size. It is shown that although the two estimators are closely related and behave similarly in nite dimensions, they have different convergence rates and are also centred at two different points in high-dimensional settings. The limiting distributions are shown to be valid under some general moment con...

  9. Assessment of future agricultural conditions in southwestern Africa using fuzzy logic and high-resolution climate model scenarios

    OpenAIRE

    Weinzierl, Thomas; Heider, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to have a major impact on the arid savanna regions of southwestern Africa, such as the Okavango Basin. Precipitation is a major constraint for agriculture in countries like Namibia and Botswana and assessments of future crop growth conditions are in high demand. This GIS-based approach uses reanalysis data and climate model output for two scenarios and compares them to the precipitation requirements of the five most important crops grown in the region: maize, pearl ...

  10. Multiple risky behaviours among High School Adolescents in Ngaka Modiri Molema District, South Africa / Yah Johnson Arkaah

    OpenAIRE

    Arkaah, Yah Johnson

    2014-01-01

    Aclolescence, the transitional phase between childhood and adulthood, is a unique stretch of time of discovery and experimentation of many risky practices. The present study sought to fill a research void on adolescent risky behaviours in the North West Province of South Africa by examining the socio-demographic and environmental correlates of seven sexual behaviours and patterns in th ree substance use behaviours of 1,067 Grade 9 and Grade 11 adolescents from eight high schools i...

  11. Long-Term Adherence to Antiretroviral Treatment and Program Drop-Out in a High-Risk Urban Setting in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Prospective Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Unge, Christian; Södergård, Björn; Marrone, Gaetano; Thorson, Anna; Lukhwaro, Abigael; Carter, Jane; Ilako, Festus; Ekström, Anna Mia

    2010-01-01

    Background Seventy percent of urban populations in sub-Saharan Africa live in slums. Sustaining HIV patients in these high-risk and highly mobile settings is a major future challenge. This study seeks to assess program retention and to find determinants for low adherence to antiretroviral treatment (ART) and drop-out from an established HIV/ART program in Kibera, Nairobi, one of Africa's largest informal urban settlements. Methods and Findings A prospective open cohort study of 800 patients w...

  12. A multilevel analysis of the determinants of high-risk sexual behaviour in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchudi, Joseph; Magadi, Monica; Mostazir, Mohammod

    2012-05-01

    A number of authors have identified multiple concurrent sexual partnerships by both men and women to lie at the root of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in sub-Saharan Africa. This study applies multilevel models to Demographic and Health Survey data collected during 2003-2008 in 20 sub-Saharan African countries to examine the influence of social and cultural context on involvement with multiple sexual partnerships in the region, above and beyond the effects of individual characteristics. The findings provide support for the ecological argument that health behaviours are shaped and determined by societal conditions, in addition to the effects of individual and household characteristics. Involvement with multiple sex partners is most prevalent in societies in which sexual norms are widely permissive and where polygyny is common. Individual autonomy is substantial and attitudes towards sexuality are more liberal among men and women who live in communities in which sexual norms are widely permissive. Men and women who are most likely to have multiple sex partners in the sub-Saharan region are those who initiated sexual activity earlier and those who have the individual attributes (e.g. young age, urban residence, education, media exposure and working for cash and away from home) that bring to them more rights and/or decision-making autonomy, but not necessarily more financial resources and economic security (mostly among women). On the other hand, involvement with multiple partners is determined by cultural norms (i.e. permissive sexual norms) and social change (i.e. mass education, expansion of cash employment). The findings suggest a number of opportunities for more effective policy and programmatic responses to curb the prevalence of multiple partnerships in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:22067066

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little information exists on the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART on health-care provision in South Africa despite increasing scale-up of access to HAART and gradual reduction in HAART prices. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Use and cost of services for 265 HIV-infected adults without AIDS (World Health Organization [WHO] stage 1, 2, or 3 and 27 with AIDS (WHO stage 4 receiving HAART between 1995 and 2000 in Cape Town were compared with HIV-infected controls matched for baseline WHO stage, CD4 count, age, and socioeconomic status, who did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ART; No-ART group. Costs of service provision (January 2004 prices, US$1 = 7.6 Rand included local unit costs, and two scenarios for HAART prices for WHO recommended first-line regimens: scenario 1 used current South African public-sector ART drug prices of $730 per patient-year (PPY, whereas scenario 2 was based on the anticipated public-sector price for locally manufactured drug of $181 PPY. All analyses are presented in terms of patients without AIDS and patients with AIDS. For patients without AIDS, the mean number of inpatient days PPY was 1.08 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97-1.19 for the HAART group versus 3.73 (95% CI: 3.55-3.97 for the No-ART group, and 8.71 (95% CI: 8.40-9.03 versus 4.35 (95% CI: 4.12-5.61, respectively, for mean number of outpatient visits PPY. Average service provision PPY was $950 for the No-ART group versus $1,342 and $793 PPY for the HAART group for scenario 1 and 2, respectively, whereas the incremental cost per life-year gained (LYG was $1,622 for scenario 1 and $675 for scenario 2. For patients with AIDS, mean inpatients days PPY was 2.04 (95% CI: 1.63-2.52 for the HAART versus 15.36 (95% CI: 13.97-16.85 for the No-ART group. Mean outpatient visits PPY was 7.62 (95% CI: 6.81-8.49 compared with 6.60 (95% CI: 5.69-7.62 respectively. Average service provision PPY was $3,520 for the No-ART group versus $1,513 and $964

  14. Is Investment in Africa Too Low or Too High? Macro and Micro Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Devarajan, Shantayanan; Easterley, William R.; Pack, Howard

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigate the relationship between weak growth performance and low investment rates in Africa. The cross-country evidence suggests no direct relationship. The positive and significant coefficient on private investment appears to be driven by Botswana's presence in the sample. Allowing for the endogeneity of private investment, controlling for policy, and positing a nonlinear ...

  15. Impact of HealthWise South Africa on Polydrug Use and High-Risk Sexual Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbits, Melissa K.; Smith, Edward A.; Caldwell, Linda L.; Flisher, Alan J.

    2011-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of the HealthWise South Africa HIV and substance abuse prevention program at impacting adolescents' polydrug use and sexual risk behaviors. HealthWise is a school-based intervention designed to promote social-emotional skills, increase knowledge and refusal skills relevant to substance use and…

  16. High temporal Resolution Fire History in Eastern Africa: the Last 16 kyr cal. BP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanniere, B.; Carcaillet, C.; Garcin, Y.; Vullien, A.; Williamson, D.

    2004-12-01

    Charcoal series, based on a high temporal resolution analysis, at Lake Massoko (9°20' S, 33° 45' E, 770 a.s.l., SW Tanzania) reveals numerous changes of fire regime over the last 16 kyr cal BP. Data are based on the tallying of charcoal from 700 continuous 1 cm thick samples along a 7m long sequence. The structure of charcoal particles is well preserved with an length:width ratio superior to 5; this appears to testify to the local provenance of the material studied and to the rapid transport of particles to the lake. The majority of particles belongs to herbaceous cuticles produced by savanna or bush fires. Time control is supported by 14 radiocarbon dates. Mean time resolution per sample of 17 yr provides the first long detailed biomass burning record in Africa. This record evidences frequent fires events during the last 16 kyr, indicating that fire is a key component of east African ecosystems since, at least, the last glacial stage up to present. From 16 to 12 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx into the lake is low except during two specific sequences, between 13.5-12.5 kyr cal BP and 14.5-14 kyr cal BP. These may correspond to more arid or more biomass-available phases. Around 10 kyr cal BP, at the early Holocene a greater influx of charcoal is recorded in the lake, probably as a result of a high fire regime likely triggered by severe droughts. Between 8.3 and 1.7 kyr cal BP, the charcoal influx displays a cyclic fire history of ca. 500 yr. Low fire regime, between 3.5-2.5, 5.5-5 and 7.5-7 kyr cal BP, correspond to wetter periods. About 12 sequences of fire increase and decrease are highlighted, which appears to support a high climatic variability during the middle-Holocene. After 1.7 kyr BP, there is a long lasting increase of charcoal influx into the lake, as observed by black carbon analysis (Thevenon et al., 2003). This particular period, without analog since 16 kyr cal BP, is consistent with the development of Iron Age settlements in the region, slash

  17. Factors associated with antiretroviral treatment initiation amongst HIV-positive individuals linked to care within a universal test and treat programme: early findings of the ANRS 12249 TasP trial in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Sylvie; Iwuji, Collins; Gosset, Andréa; Protopopescu, Camelia; Okesola, Nonhlanhla; Plazy, Mélanie; Spire, Bruno; Orne-Gliemann, Joanna; McGrath, Nuala; Pillay, Deenan; Dabis, François; Larmarange, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Prompt uptake of antiretroviral treatment (ART) is essential to ensure the success of universal test and treat (UTT) strategies to prevent HIV transmission in high-prevalence settings. We describe ART initiation rates and associated factors within an ongoing UTT cluster-randomized trial in rural South Africa. HIV-positive individuals were offered immediate ART in the intervention arm vs. national guidelines recommended initiation (CD4≤350 cells/mm(3)) in the control arm. We used data collected up to July 2015 among the ART-eligible individuals linked to TasP clinics before January 2015. ART initiation rates at one (M1), three (M3) and six months (M6) from baseline visit were described by cluster and CD4 count strata (cells/mm(3)) and other eligibility criteria: ≤100; 100-200; 200-350; CD4>350 with WHO stage 3/4 or pregnancy; CD4>350 without WHO stage 3/4 or pregnancy. A Cox model accounting for covariate effect changes over time was used to assess factors associated with ART initiation. The 514 participants had a median [interquartile range] follow-up duration of 1.08 [0.69; 2.07] months until ART initiation or last visit. ART initiation rates at M1 varied substantially (36.9% in the group CD4>350 without WHO stage 3/4 or pregnancy, and 55.2-71.8% in the three groups with CD4≤350) but less at M6 (from 85.3% in the first group to 96.1-98.3% in the three other groups). Factors associated with lower ART initiation at M1 were a higher CD4 count and attending clinics with both high patient load and higher cluster HIV prevalence. After M1, having a regular partner was the only factor associated with higher likelihood of ART initiation. These findings suggest good ART uptake within a UTT setting, even among individuals with high CD4 count. However, inadequate staffing and healthcare professional practices could result in prioritizing ART initiation in patients with the lowest CD4 counts. PMID:27421051

  18. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...

  19. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martie van der Walt; Joey Lancaster; Karen Shean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB. Aim The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death among...

  20. Bringing high-throughput techniques to orphan crop of Africa: Highlights from the Tef TILLING Project

    OpenAIRE

    Esfeld, Korinna; Plaza, Sonia; Tadele, Zerihun

    2009-01-01

    Orphan- or understudied-crops are mostly staple food crops in developing world. They are broadly classified under cereals, legumes, root crops, fruits and vegetables. These under-researched crops contribute to the diet of a large portion of resource-poor consumers and at the same time generate income for small-holder farmers in developing countries, particularly in Africa. In addition, they perform better than major crops of the world under extreme soil and climatic conditions. However, orpha...

  1. High school suicide in South Africa: teachers’ knowledge, views and training needs

    OpenAIRE

    Shilubane, Hilda N; Bos, Arjan ER; Ruiter, Robert AC; Van Den Borne, Bart; Reddy, Priscilla S

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicidal ideation and attempted suicide are a huge problem in South Africa, especially in the rural areas. Previous research has emphasized the importance of the ability of school professionals to identify young people who are at risk of committing suicide. The objectives of this study were to assess the knowledge of teachers with regard to identifying the warning signs of suicidal behaviour, assessing the type of information they give to students in the class after a suicide of on...

  2. Including women in the policy responses to high oil prices: a case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Ismaël

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge in oil prices has created concern about its impacts on poor people in South Africa. The strong economic performance recorded over the period 1995-05 has not contributed to a substantial reduction in poverty in this country, particularly among women that tend to be overrepresented among poor households. Government management of an oil shock is important in reducing its adverse impacts in oil-importing countries. Thus, this study examines alternative policy responses to the rec...

  3. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...

  4. A gloss of Chronic Hypoxia in normal and diseased individuals at high altitude

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zubieta-Castillo,G.; Zubieta-Calleja,G.R.; Zubieta-Calleja L.

    2004-01-01

    @@ Introduction Millenary populations that live at high altitude in different continents like Asia (1) and South America (8), have endured biological adaptation in very adverse environmental conditions, of which to our understanding, paradoxically, chronic hypoxia is the most tolerable. Patients with pulmonary diseases at high altitude tolerate tissue hypoxia with an arterial tension (PaO2) even as low as 30 mmHg. Current scientific knowledge has made progress in many areas, clarifying many doubts, however due to preconception and lack of broad social studies chronic hypoxia is still not fully understood. Beings that inhabit different areas of the planet earth have lived under a variety of different hostile conditions: intense cold in the polar regions,intense heat in Africa and in the Middle East desserts,great pressure in the depth of the oceans, intense darkness of the caves and naturally the hypoxia of extreme altitudes.

  5. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  6. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  7. High Burden of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) Infection among Young Women in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharsany, Ayesha B. M.; Mbulawa, Zizipho Z. A.; Naranbhai, Vivek; Frohlich, Janet; Werner, Lise; Samsunder, Natasha; Karim, Quarraisha Abdool; Williamson, Anna-Lise

    2016-01-01

    Objectives HPV infection causes cervical cancer, yet information on prevalence and risk factors for HPV in Africa remain sparse. This study describes the prevalence of HPV genotypes and risk factors associated with HPV among young women ≤ 30 years of age in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), South Africa. Methods Cervicovaginal lavage samples were tested for HPV genotypes in 224 women enrolled in a prospective cohort study. Clinical, behavioural and demographic data were collected. We measured prevalence of HPV genotypes and using logistic regression, examined for factors associated with HPV. Results Median age of participants was 21 years [interquartile range (IQR):18–23]. The overall prevalence of HPV was 76.3% (171/224) with multiple and single genotypes prevalent in 56.3% and 20.1% of women respectively. Proportion of women with high-risk genotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52, 56 and 58) was 54.5%. Women not living with their partner [adjusted odds ratio (aOR)] = 3.42 95% CI1.22–9.60; p = 0.019), was significantly associated with HPV infection and high-risk HPV genotype infection. Conclusion The high burden of HPV and associated risk behaviours highlight the need to intensify behavioural interventions to prevent HPV acquisition in young women. The large scale delivery of HPV vaccine should be prioritised to prevent HPV acquisition and reduce HPV-related morbidity. PMID:26785408

  8. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  9. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  10. Investigating systematic individual differences in sleep-deprived performance on a high-fidelity flight simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A; Caldwell, John A; Caldwell, J Lynn

    2006-05-01

    Laboratory research has revealed considerable systematic variability in the degree to which individuals' alertness and performance are affected by sleep deprivation. However, little is known about whether or not different populations exhibit similar levels of individual variability. In the present study, we examined individual variability in performance impairment due to sleep loss in a highly select population of militaryjet pilots. Ten active-duty F-117 pilots were deprived of sleep for 38 h and studied repeatedly in a high-fidelity flight simulator. Data were analyzed with a mixed-model ANOVA to quantify individual variability. Statistically significant, systematic individual differences in the effects of sleep deprivation were observed, even when baseline differences were accounted for. The findings suggest that highly select populations may exhibit individual differences in vulnerability to performance impairment from sleep loss just as the general population does. Thus, the scientific and operational communities' reliance on group data as opposed to individual data may entail substantial misestimation of the impact of job-related stressors on safety and performance. PMID:16956110

  11. Alcohol Expectancies and Inhibition Conflict as Moderators of the Alcohol-Unprotected Sex Relationship: Event-Level Findings from a Daily Diary Study Among Individuals Living with HIV in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiene, Susan M; Simbayi, Leickness C; Abrams, Amber; Cloete, Allanise

    2016-01-01

    Literature from sub-Saharan Africa and elsewhere supports a global association between alcohol and HIV risk. However, more rigorous studies using multiple event-level methods find mixed support for this association, suggesting the importance of examining potential moderators of this relationship. The present study explores the assumptions of alcohol expectancy theory and alcohol myopia theory as possible moderators that help elucidate the circumstances under which alcohol may affect individuals' ability to use a condom. Participants were 82 individuals (58 women, 24 men) living with HIV who completed daily phone interviews for 42 days which assessed daily sexual behavior and alcohol consumption. Logistic generalized estimating equation models were used to examine the potential moderating effects of inhibition conflict and sex-related alcohol outcome expectancies. The data provided some support for both theories and in some cases the moderation effects were stronger when both partners consumed alcohol. PMID:26280530

  12. Description of an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza in domestic ostriches (Struthio camelus) in South Africa in 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Helden, L S; Sinclair, M; Koen, P; Grewar, J D

    2016-06-01

    In 2011, the commercial ostrich production industry of South Africa experienced an outbreak of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI), subtype H5N2. Surveillance using antibody and antigen detection revealed 42 infected farms with a between-farm prevalence in the affected area of 16%. The outbreak was controlled using depopulation of infected farms, resulting in the direct loss of 10% of the country's domestic ostrich population. Various factors in the ostrich production system were observed that could have contributed to the spread of the virus between farms, including the large number of legal movements of ostriches between farms, access of wild birds to ostrich camps and delays in depopulation of infected farms. Negative effects on the ostrich industry and the local economy of the ostrich-producing area were observed as a result of the outbreak and the disease control measures applied. Prevention and control measures applied as a result of avian influenza in South Africa were informed by this large outbreak and the insights into epidemiology of avian influenza in ostriches that it provided, resulting in stricter biosecurity measures required on every registered ostrich farm in the country. PMID:27237385

  13. Mixed-Methods Evaluation of a Novel, Structured, Community-Based Support and Education Intervention for Individuals with HIV/AIDS in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Christopher; Gerth-Guyette, Emily; Dube, Lungile; Andrasik, Michele; Rao, Deepa

    2016-09-01

    People living with HIV in Sub-Saharan Africa face significant challenges accessing care. Community-based peer support groups can increase linkage to treatment, though the effectiveness of structured, scalable groups has not been demonstrated. This study aimed to measure the impact of the structured Integrated Access to Care and Treatment intervention on clients' knowledge, attitudes, and practice regarding HIV/AIDS, including their experiences of stigma, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Data collection involved pre-/post-tests and client interviews. Pre-/post-test data from 66 clients were collected. 17 participants were interviewed. Paired t-tests did not detect significant changes in the main outcomes. Qualitative results suggested a psychosocial benefit as participants connected with their peers, expressed themselves openly, and re-engaged with their communities. Unfortunately, this study did not quantitatively measure psychosocial changes, and the results have limited generalizability to men. I ACT may be an effective complement to clinic-based support services, though further study should quantify the psychosocial benefit. PMID:27553008

  14. Alcohol use amongst learners in rural high school in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thembisile M. Chauke

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Drinking behaviour by adolescents is a significant public health challenge nationally and internationally. Alcohol use has serious challenges that continue to deprive adolescents of their normal child growth and development. Drinking is associated with dangers that include fighting, crime, unintentional accidents, unprotected sex, violence and others.Aim: The aim of the study is to investigate drinking patterns, and factors contributing to drinking, amongst secondary school learners in South Africa.Method: The sample included 177 male (46.6% and 206 female (53.4% respondents in the age range from 15–23 years, selected by stratified random sampling.Results: The results indicated that 35.5% of male and 29.7% of female respondents used alcohol. Both male and female respondents consumed six or more alcohol units (binge drinking within 30 days; on one occasion the consumption was 17.5% and 15.9% respectively. It was found that alcohol consumption increases with age, 32.2% of 15–17 year-olds and 53.2% of 18–20 year-olds consumed different types of alcohol. It was deduced that 28.9% respondents reported that one of the adults at home drank alcohol regularly, and 9.3% reported that both their parents drank alcohol daily. It was found that 27.6% of the respondents agreed that friends made them conform to drinking. The tenth and eleventh grade reported 15.2% of male and 13.9% of female respondents were aware that alcohol can be addictive.Conclusion: This study found that age, gender, parental alcohol use and peer pressure were found to be the major contributing factors to alcohol use amongst learners Prevention campaigns such as introducing the harmful effects of alcohol use amongst learners are of utmost importance in reducing alcohol use amongst learners in South Africa.

  15. INDIVIDUAL TREE OF URBAN FOREST EXTRACTION FROM VERY HIGH DENSITY LIDAR DATA

    OpenAIRE

    A Moradi; Satari, M.; M. Momeni

    2016-01-01

    Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data have a high potential to provide 3D information from trees. Most proposed methods to extract individual trees detect points of tree top or bottom firstly and then using them as starting points in a segmentation algorithm. Hence, in these methods, the number and the locations of detected peak points heavily effect on the process of detecting individual trees. In this study, a new method is presented to extract individual tree segments using LiD...

  16. South Africa and the High Commission Territories during the Second World War: Politics and Policies Affecting War Mobilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Shackleton

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The political, economic, social and military developments in the High Commissioned Territories (HCT throughout much of the 19th and 20th centuries were highly influenced by their southern neighbor. During the Second World War, these developments have a rather direct impact on British decision-makers in London and in southern Africa especially with regards to war mobilization, African military recruitment and labor issues. Much of what will be discussed in this paper must be understood in the context of British imperial organization and demands as formulated and dictated by the Colonial Office in London with coordination with the Office of the High Commissioner in South Africa who was responsible for the overall care and protection of the HCT. However, historical precedent, economic necessity, military exigencies, paternalism, and racial ideology also drove policy decisions regarding mobilization during WW II. Without going into great detail about the position of the British Empire in 1939 to defend itself against German aggressions, it is still important to accept in principle that Great Britain did not have the resources and manpower to fight the fight alone. As an island nation that hated to be dragged into the messy affairs of the continent, England wanted to confine herself to her own interests. By 1938 the British Army was designed primarily for home defense and was unprepared for rearmament and mobilization. I Many in positions of power questioned the role of imperialism and its subsequent militarism. Predatory imperialism violated the new ideas of liberalism, pacifism, and a growing sense that colonies should move towards self-government.2  Despite the lack of preparation and will to fight another brutal war, Britain would call upon its global dominions to answer the call of collective security against Hitler's transgressions.

  17. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of individuals with very high rapid plasma reagin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Jose G; Alcaide, Maria L; Rosa-Cunha, Isabella

    2014-07-01

    The objective of the study was to identify clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with infectious syphilis who presented with a high rapid plasma reagin (RPR) titre (≥1: 512) during the year of 2009 at the Miami Dade County Health Department (MDCHD) STD clinic. Potential cases were identified by a search in the electronic database. Among 519 individuals identified with reactive RPR, 190 individuals met criteria for infectious syphilis and 32 of them had at least one RPR titre of ≥1: 512. We found that the majority of individuals with high RPR were men who have sex with men (82%), from ethnic minorities (91%), and HIV infected (75%) but only 3 of them were on antiretroviral therapy. Overall, 50% of these patients with very high RPR titres were symptomatic, and the most common symptom was skin rash (93%). PMID:24352133

  18. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2015-01-01

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  19. Sensitivity of tropical rainbelt over Africa and Middle East to dust shortwave absorption: Experiments using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Kunhu Bangalth, Hamza

    2015-04-01

    Response of the rainbelt over Africa to dust direct radiative forcing has been an area of lively debate and is a subject of ongoing research. Previous modeling studies have contrasting results producing different amplitudes or even signs of responses. Uncertainties in the dust radiative forcing are thought to be the major cause of discrepancies in the simulated responses among various studies. The imaginary part of mineral dust shortwave refractive index, which defines the dust absorptivity, has a wide range of values estimated from various observational and modeling studies, as it depends on dust chemical composition and mineralogy. Balkanski et al. (2007) estimated dust shortwave refractive indices by assuming 3 different hematite contents, 0.9%, 1.5% and 2.7% by volume, which corresponds to inefficient, standard, and very efficient dust shortwave absorption, respectively. To investigate the sensitivity of the position and intensity of the tropical rainbelt over Africa and its extension to the Arabian Peninsula to dust shortwave absorption, we have conducted ensembles of numerical simulations for each of the three dust absorptivity scenarios using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM), at a spatial resolution of 25 km. We found that the strength and the latitudinal extent of the rainbelt are very sensitive to dust shortwave absorption, as well as circulations at various spatiotemporal scales that drive the climate of the region. Reference: Balkanski, Y., M. Schulz, T. Claquin, and S. Guibert (2007), Reevaluation of mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and AERONET data, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 81 - 95.

  20. High-elevation amplification of warming since the Last Glacial Maximum in East Africa: New perspectives from biomarker paleotemperature reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loomis, S. E.; Russell, J. M.; Kelly, M. A.; Eggermont, H.; Verschuren, D.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical lapse rate variability on glacial/interglacial time scales has been hotly debated since the publication of CLIMAP in 1976. Low-elevation paleotemperature reconstructions from the tropics have repeatedly shown less warming from the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to present than reconstructions from high elevations, leading to widespread difficulty in estimating the true LGM-present temperature change in the tropics. This debate is further complicated by the fact that most paleotemperature estimates from high elevations in the tropics are derived from pollen- and moraine-based reconstructions of altitudinal shifts in vegetation belts and glacial equilibrium line altitudes (ELAs). These traditional approaches rely on the assumption that lapse rates have remained constant through time. However, this assumption is problematic in the case of the LGM, when pervasive tropical aridity most likely led to substantial changes in lapse rates. Glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) can be used to reconstruct paleotemperatures independent of hydrological changes, making them the ideal proxy to reconstruct high elevation temperature change and assess lapse rate variability through time. Here we present two new equatorial paleotemperature records from high elevations in East Africa (Lake Rutundu, Mt. Kenya and Lake Mahoma, Rwenzori Mountains, Uganda) based on branched GDGTs. Our record from Lake Rutundu shows deglacial warming starting near 17 ka and a mid-Holocene thermal maximum near 5 ka. The overall amplitude of warming in the Lake Rutundu record is 6.8×1.0°C from the LGM to the present, with mid-Holocene temperatures 1.6×0.9°C warmer than modern. Our record from Lake Mahoma extends back to 7 ka and shows similar temperature trends to our record from Lake Rutundu, indicating similar temporal resolution of high-elevation temperature change throughout the region. Combining these new records with three previously published GDGT temperature records from different

  1. Faces in a Crowd: High Socially Anxious Individuals Estimate that More People Are Looking at Them than Low Socially Anxious Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Bolt, Olivia C.; Ehlers, Anke; Clark, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Background People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention. Method Forty-eight high and 48 low soci...

  2. Brief Report: Imitation of Meaningless Gestures in Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High-Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stieglitz Ham, Heidi; Corley, Martin; Rajendran, Gnanathusharan; Carletta, Jean; Swanson, Sara

    2008-01-01

    Nineteen people with Asperger syndrome (AS)/High-Functioning Autism (HFA) (ages 7-15) were tested on imitation of two types of meaningless gesture: hand postures and finger positions. The individuals with AS/HFA achieved lower scores in the imitation of both hand and finger positions relative to a matched neurotypical group. The between-group…

  3. Heart Rates of High School Physical Education Students during Team Sports, Individual Sports, and Fitness Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurson, Kelly R.; Brown, Dale D.; Cullen, Robert W.; Dennis, Karen K.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined how activity type influenced heart rates and time spent in target heart rate zones of high school students participating in physical education classes. Significantly higher average heart rates existed for fitness (142 plus or minus 24 beats per minute [bpm]) compared to team (118 plus or minus 24 bpm) or individual (114 plus or…

  4. Cultivation of Empathy in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaarsma, Pier

    2013-01-01

    High-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (HF-ASD) typically lack cognitive empathy, compromising their moral agency from both a Kantian and a Humean perspective. Nevertheless, they are capable of exhibiting moral behavior, and sometimes, they exhibit what may be deemed "super-moral" behavior. The empathy deficit poses,…

  5. Prevalence of HIV infection in seronegative high-risk individuals examined by virus isolation and PCR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C; Teglbjærg, Lars Stubbe; Pedersen, C;

    1991-01-01

    HIV seronegative individuals with high-risk behavior were tested for HIV infection by sensitive virus isolation techniques using T4 lymphocytes and monocyte/macrophages, and by detection of proviral DNA using PCR with three different sets of nested primers. No evidence of HIV infection was found ...

  6. Jane Austen's Novels as a Guide to Social and Individual Responsibility for High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzer, Penelope

    1998-01-01

    Jane Austen's novels are particularly appropriate for adolescents. These classics deal with topics of high interest to young people. Austen grapples with the question of what the individual owes to society and what he or she is obliged to tolerate in the way of strictures on behavior. Article proposes that Austen's novels should be more widely…

  7. Sensory Sensitivities and Performance on Sensory Perceptual Tasks in High-Functioning Individuals with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minshew, Nancy J.; Hobson, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Most reports of sensory symptoms in autism are second hand or observational, and there is little evidence of a neurological basis. Sixty individuals with high-functioning autism and 61 matched typical participants were administered a sensory questionnaire and neuropsychological tests of elementary and higher cortical sensory perception. Thirty-two…

  8. Linguistic Characteristics of Individuals with High Functioning Autism and Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seung, Hye Kyeung

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the linguistic characteristics of high functioning individuals with autism and Asperger syndrome. Each group consisted of 10 participants who were matched on sex, chronological age, and intelligence scores. Participants generated a narrative after watching a brief video segment of the Social Attribution Task video. Each…

  9. Individual variation in reproductive costs of reproduction: high-quality females always do better.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Sandra; Côté, Steeve D; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco

    2009-01-01

    1. Although life-history theory predicts substantial costs of reproduction, individuals often show positive correlations among life-history traits, rather than trade-offs. The apparent absence of reproductive costs may result from heterogeneity in individual quality. 2. Using detailed longitudinal data from three contrasted ungulate populations (mountain goats, Oreamnos americanus; bighorn sheep, Ovis canadensis; and roe deer, Capreolus capreolus), we assessed how individual quality affects the probability of detecting a cost of current reproduction on future reproduction for females. We used a composite measure of individual quality based on variations in longevity (all species), success in the last breeding opportunity before death (goats and sheep), adult mass (all species), and social rank (goats only). 3. In all species, high-quality females consistently had a higher probability of reproduction, irrespective of previous reproductive status. In mountain goats, we detected a cost of reproduction only after accounting for differences in individual quality. Only low-quality female goats were less likely to reproduce following years of breeding than of nonbreeding. Offspring survival was lower in bighorn ewes following years of successful breeding than after years when no lamb was produced, but only for low-quality females, suggesting that a cost of reproduction only occurred for low-quality females. 4. Because costs of reproduction differ among females, studies of life-history evolution must account for heterogeneity in individual quality. PMID:18700872

  10. Illicit Drug Use, Cigarette Smoking and Alcohol Drinking Behaviour among a Sample of High School Adolescents in the Pietersburg Area of the Northern Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madu, Sylvester Ntomchukwu; Matla, Ma-Queen Patience

    2003-01-01

    Investigates the prevalence of illicit drug use, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking behavior among a sample of high-school adolescents in the Pietersburg area of South Africa. Findings indicate the prevalence rate of 19.8% for illicit drug use, 10.6% for cigarette smoking and 39.1% for alcohol consumption among the participants. Implications…

  11. A prospective study of methamphetamine use as a predictor of high school non-attendance in Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parry Charles D

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This prospective study investigated the association between life-long methamphetamine and other drug use and high school non-attendance, in a sample of high school students in Cape Town, South Africa. Methods A random sample of 1535 high school students completed a baseline questionnaire in 2006, and were asked to complete a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. The questionnaire included questions on substance use, including tobacco, alcohol, methamphetamine and cannabis use, demographic factors, and questions relating to school attendance and performance. Results Forty-three percent of the students surveyed at baseline did not complete a follow-up questionnaire after 12 months. Compared with students who were not using selected substances, an adjusted logistic regression model showed that life-time methamphetamine use in addition to other substances was significantly associated with non-attendance (OR = 2.58, 95% CI: 1.24 - 5.36 when other non-substance use factors (repeating a year at school and being older than the norm for current grade were taken into account. Conclusions Early identification of students with methamphetamine and other substance use problems, and a supportive rather than punitive school policy, may be valuable in improving high school completion and student retention rates.

  12. Deterministic Loading of Individual Atoms to a High-Finesse Optical Cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Individual laser-cooled atoms are delivered on demand from a single atom magneto-optic trap to a high-finesse optical cavity using an atom conveyor. Strong coupling of the atom with the cavity field allows simultaneous cooling and detection of individual atoms for time scales exceeding 15 s. The single atom scatter rate is studied as a function of probe-cavity detuning and probe Rabi frequency, and the experimental results are in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. We demonstrate the ability to manipulate the position of a single atom relative to the cavity mode with excellent control and reproducibility

  13. Tax Policies and Informality in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eliane El Badaoui; Riccardo Magnani

    2015-01-01

    We use a micro-macro simulation model to evaluate the effects of labor income tax policies in South Africa. The country is characterized by a high unemployment rate while employment in the informal sector is relatively low. Our approach is based on the aggregation of the preferences of individuals who choose among (i) working in the formal sector,(ii) working in the informal sector, and (iii) not working. We quantify the effects of different tax policies on the individual's labor supply choic...

  14. Resolving individuals contributing trace amounts of DNA to highly complex mixtures using high-density SNP genotyping microarrays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Homer

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available We use high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotyping microarrays to demonstrate the ability to accurately and robustly determine whether individuals are in a complex genomic DNA mixture. We first develop a theoretical framework for detecting an individual's presence within a mixture, then show, through simulations, the limits associated with our method, and finally demonstrate experimentally the identification of the presence of genomic DNA of specific individuals within a series of highly complex genomic mixtures, including mixtures where an individual contributes less than 0.1% of the total genomic DNA. These findings shift the perceived utility of SNPs for identifying individual trace contributors within a forensics mixture, and suggest future research efforts into assessing the viability of previously sub-optimal DNA sources due to sample contamination. These findings also suggest that composite statistics across cohorts, such as allele frequency or genotype counts, do not mask identity within genome-wide association studies. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Africa: "Yonondio."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bendetson, Jane

    1996-01-01

    Recounts a teacher's experiences on a trip to Africa. Describes her pleasant moments with her fellow travelers; her appreciation of the natural setting; her visit to an impoverished native school; and her confrontation with a Maasai warrior. (TB)

  16. THE DETERMINANTS OF MINIMUM WAGE VIOLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Bhorat, Haroon; Kanbur, Ravi; Mayet, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the determinants of non-compliance or violation of minimum wage legislation in South Africa, a country where violation is high, at just under 50 percent. The number of labour inspectors per capita is used as a proxy for enforcement, whilst non-compliance is measured using an index of violation that measures both the proportion of individuals violated, as well as the depth of violation of an individual. Due to the potential simultaneity between enforcement and complianc...

  17. Health financing in Africa: overview of a dialogue among high level policy makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambo Luis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Even though Africa has the highest disease burden compared with other regions, it has the lowest per capita spending on health. In 2007, 27 (51% out the 53 countries spent less than US$50 per person on health. Almost 30% of the total health expenditure came from governments, 50% from private sources (of which 71% was from out-of-pocket payments by households and 20% from donors. The purpose of this article is to reflect on the proceedings of the African Union Side Event on Health Financing in the African continent. Methods Methods employed in the session included presentations, panel discussion and open public discussion with ministers of health and finance from the African continent. Discussion The current unsatisfactory state of health financing was attributed to lack of clear vision and plan for health financing; lack of national health accounts and other evidence to guide development and implementation of national health financing policies and strategies; low investments in sectors that address social determinants of health; predominance of out-of-pocket spending; underdeveloped prepaid health financing mechanisms; large informal sectors vis-à-vis small formal sectors; and unpredictability and non-alignment of majority of donor funds with national health priorities. Countries need to develop and adopt a comprehensive national health policy and a costed strategic plan; a comprehensive evidence-based health financing strategy; allocate at least 15% of the national budget to health development; use GFATM and PEPFAR funds for health systems strengthening; strengthen intersectoral collaboration to address health determinants; advocate among donors to implement the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness and its Accra Agenda for Action; ensure universal access to health services for pregnant women, lactating mothers and children aged under five years; strengthen financial management capacities; and develop prepaid health

  18. Individual Tree of Urban Forest Extraction from Very High Density LIDAR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, A.; Satari, M.; Momeni, M.

    2016-06-01

    Airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) data have a high potential to provide 3D information from trees. Most proposed methods to extract individual trees detect points of tree top or bottom firstly and then using them as starting points in a segmentation algorithm. Hence, in these methods, the number and the locations of detected peak points heavily effect on the process of detecting individual trees. In this study, a new method is presented to extract individual tree segments using LiDAR points with 10cm point density. In this method, a two-step strategy is performed for the extraction of individual tree LiDAR points: finding deterministic segments of individual trees points and allocation of other LiDAR points based on these segments. This research is performed on two study areas in Zeebrugge, Bruges, Belgium (51.33° N, 3.20° E). The accuracy assessment of this method showed that it could correctly classified 74.51% of trees with 21.57% and 3.92% under- and over-segmentation errors respectively.

  19. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernaléguen, Laëtitia; Cherel, Yves; Knox, Travis C; Baylis, Alastair M M; Arnould, John P Y

    2015-01-01

    While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus), which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats), the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values, suggesting they all followed the same general dispersion pattern throughout the year. PMID:26244371

  20. Reporting Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baffour Ankomah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available When opening this conference, Professor Lizette Rabe quoted a statistic that struck a chord with me.
    In a six-month period between March and August 2000, the TransAfrica Forum in the USA had counted 89 stories on Africa published by The New York Times and Washington Post. Of the 89, 75 were negative, and 63 of the 89 were about conflict in Africa.
    What this statistic does is to portray in a small way the massive problem of how Africa is reported by the Western media, and which we, the African media, sometimes reflect and amplify in our reporting of the continent, by mimicking the Western media.
    No right-thinking African will ever deny that conflict does happen in Africa. However, the problem with the negative reporting is that it does not put the raw facts in context.
    Africa is a continent of 53 countries. It is the most variegated continent on Earth. Conflict is part and parcel of human nature, of life. In that context, Africans would not be human if conflict did not happen on this huge, variegated continent.

  1. Monitoring Cloud-prone Complex Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales Using Medium And High Resolution Optical Data: A Case Study In Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bikash

    Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud-prone areas with complex mountainous terrain and a landscape that is heterogeneous at a scale of approximately 10 m, is an important challenge in the remote sensing of tropical regions in developing nations, due to the small plot sizes. Persistent monitoring of natural resources in these regions at multiple spatial scales requires development of tools to identify emerging land cover transformation due to anthropogenic causes, such as agricultural expansion and climate change. Along with the cloud cover and obstructions by topographic distortions due to steep terrain, there are limitations to the accuracy of monitoring change using available historical satellite imagery, largely due to sparse data access and the lack of high quality ground truth for classifier training. One such complex region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. This work addressed these problems to create an effective process for monitoring the Lake Kivu region located in Central Africa. The Lake Kivu region is a biodiversity hotspot with a complex and heterogeneous landscape and intensive agricultural development, where individual plot sizes are often at the scale of 10m. Procedures were developed that use optical data from satellite and aerial observations at multiple scales to tackle the monitoring challenges. First, a novel processing chain was developed to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification, using the state-of-the-art machine learning classifier Random Forest, was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps

  2. Which markers of subclinical organ damage to measure in individuals with high normal blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W;

    2009-01-01

    CEPs) of the European Society of Hypertension risk classification chart significantly from 47 to 88% (P = 0.001) and the proportion of individuals in whom antihypertensive drug treatment was indicated from 22 to 57% (P < 0.001). Using two of pulse wave velocities of more than 12 m/s, atherosclerotic......, atherosclerotic plaques or urine albumin/creatinine ratio was sufficient to significantly improve risk prediction........ RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.8 years, the composite endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke occurred in 153 individuals, of whom 32 had high normal BP. Presence of high normal BP was associated with increased risk of CEP [hazard ratio, 1.8 (95...

  3. Assessment of future agricultural conditions in southwestern Africa using fuzzy logic and high-resolution climate model scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weinzierl, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is expected to have a major impact on the arid savanna regions of southwestern Africa, such as the Okavango Basin. Precipitation is a major constraint for agriculture in countries like Namibia and Botswana and assessments of future crop growth conditions are in high demand. This GIS-based approach uses reanalysis data and climate model output for two scenarios and compares them to the precipitation requirements of the five most important crops grown in the region: maize, pearl millet, sorghum, cassava and cow pea. It also takes into account the dominant soil types, as plant growth is also limited by nutrient-poor soils with unfavorable physical and chemical properties. The two factors are then combined using a fuzzy logic algorithm. The assessment visualizes the expected shifts in suitable zones and identifies areas where farming without irrigation may experience a decline in yields or may even no longer be possible at the end of the 21st century. The results show that pearl millet is the most suitable crop in all scenarios while especially the cultivation of maize, sorghum and cow pea may be affected by a possible reduction of precipitation under the high-emission scenario.

  4. Study of Regional Volcanic Impact on the Middle East and North Africa using high-resolution global and regional models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osipov, Sergey; Dogar, Mohammad; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude winter warming after strong equatorial volcanic eruptions caused by circulation changes associated with the anomalously positive phase of Arctic Oscillation is a subject of active research during recent decade. But severe winter cooling in the Middle East observed after the Mt. Pinatubo eruption of 1991, although recognized, was not thoroughly investigated. These severe regional climate perturbations in the Middle East cannot be explained by solely radiative volcanic cooling, which suggests that a contribution of forced circulation changes could be important and significant. To better understand the mechanisms of the Middle East climate response and evaluate the contributions of dynamic and radiative effects we conducted a comparative study using Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory global High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM) with the effectively "regional-model-resolution" of 25-km and the regional Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model focusing on the eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 15, 1991 followed by a pronounced positive phase of the Arctic Oscillation. The WRF model has been configured over the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. The WRF code has been modified to interactively account for the radiative effect of volcanic aerosols. Both HiRAM and WRF capture the main features of the MENA climate response and show that in winter the dynamic effects in the Middle East prevail the direct radiative cooling from volcanic aerosols.

  5. Mental Health Services for Individuals with High Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Lake, Johanna K.; Andrea Perry; Yona Lunsky

    2014-01-01

    Adolescents and adults with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who do not have an intellectual impairment or disability (ID), described here as individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD), represent a complex and underserved psychiatric population. While there is an emerging literature on the mental health needs of children with ASD with normal intelligence, we know less about these issues in adults. Of the few studies of adolescents and adults with HFASD completed to da...

  6. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal

    OpenAIRE

    Laëtitia Kernaléguen; Yves Cherel; Knox, Travis C.; Baylis, Alastair M M; John P Y Arnould

    2015-01-01

    While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus), which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined...

  7. Sexual Niche Segregation and Gender-Specific Individual Specialisation in a Highly Dimorphic Marine Mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laëtitia Kernaléguen

    Full Text Available While sexual segregation is expected in highly dimorphic species, the local environment is a major factor driving the degree of resource partitioning within a population. Sexual and individual niche segregation was investigated in the Australian fur seal (Arctocephalus pusillus doriferus, which is a benthic foraging species restricted to the shallow continental shelf region of south-eastern Australia. Tracking data and the isotopic values of plasma, red blood cells and whiskers were combined to document spatial and dietary niche segregation throughout the year. Tracking data indicated that, in winter, males and females overlapped in their foraging habitat. All individuals stayed within central Bass Strait, relatively close (< 220 km to the breeding colony. Accordingly, both genders exhibited similar plasma and red cell δ13C values. However, males exhibited greater δ13C intra-individual variation along the length of their whisker than females. This suggests that males exploited a greater diversity of foraging habitats throughout the year than their female counterparts, which are restricted in their foraging grounds by the need to regularly return to the breeding colony to suckle their pup. The degree of dietary sexual segregation was also surprisingly low, both sexes exhibiting a great overlap in their δ15N values. Yet, males displayed higher δ15N values than females, suggesting they fed upon a higher proportion of higher trophic level prey. Given that males and females exploit different resources (mainly foraging habitats, the degree of individual specialisation might differ between the sexes. Higher degrees of individual specialisation would be expected in males which exploit a greater range of resources. However, comparable levels of inter-individual variation in δ15N whisker values were found in the sampled males and females, and, surprisingly, all males exhibited similar seasonal and inter-annual variation in their δ13C whisker values

  8. High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beylis Natalie C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and hospital records of children diagnosed with drug-resistant TB were reviewed, including clinical and radiological outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB was performed using the automated liquid broth MGIT™ 960 method. Drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed using the MGIT™ 960 method for both first and second-line anti-TB drugs. Results 1317 children were treated for tuberculosis in 2008 between the two hospitals where the study was conducted. Drug susceptibility testing was undertaken in 148 (72.5% of the 204 children who had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. The prevalence of isoniazid-resistance was 14.2% (n = 21 (95%CI, 9.0-20.9% and the prevalence of MDR-TB 8.8% (n = 13 (95%CI, 4.8-14.6%. The prevalence of HIV co-infection was 52.1% in children with drug susceptible-TB and 53.9% in children with MDR-TB. Ten (76.9% of the 13 children with MDR-TB received appropriate treatment and four (30.8% died at a median of 2.8 months (range 0.1-4.0 months after the date of tuberculosis investigation. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children in Johannesburg in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV co-infection, although no association between HIV infection and MDR-TB was found in this study. Routine HIV and drug-susceptibility testing is warranted to optimize the management of childhood tuberculosis in settings such as ours.

  9. Microsporidiosis in South Africa: PCR detection in stool samples of HIV-positive and HIV-negative individuals and school children in Vhembe district, Limpopo Province

    OpenAIRE

    Samie, A.; Obi, C.L.; Tzipori, S; Weiss, L M; Guerrant, R L

    2007-01-01

    Microsporidia were initially recognized as pathogens of insects and fish but have recently emerged as an important group of human pathogens, especially in immune-compromised individuals, such as those with HIV infection. In this study, we used a PCR-RFLP assay confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR and trichrome staining to determine the prevalence of microsporidian infections among hospital patients and school children in Vhembe region. Enterocytozoon bieneusi was the only microsporidian sp...

  10. South Africa : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in South Africa, within the broader context of institutional capacity available for ensuring high-quality financial reporting. National accounting and auditing standards in South Africa are developed on the basis of international standards; but lack of legal backing for accounting standards give rise to problems. South...

  11. High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beylis Natalie C; Fairlie Lee; Reubenson Gary; Moore David P; Madhi Shabir A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and h...

  12. Unsupervised individual tree crown detection in high-resolution satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurikhin, Alexei N.; McDowell, Nate G.; Middleton, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly and accurately detecting individual tree crowns in satellite imagery is a critical need for monitoring and characterizing forest resources. We present a two-stage semiautomated approach for detecting individual tree crowns using high spatial resolution (0.6 m) satellite imagery. First, active contours are used to recognize tree canopy areas in a normalized difference vegetation index image. Given the image areas corresponding to tree canopies, we then identify individual tree crowns as local extrema points in the Laplacian of Gaussian scale-space pyramid. The approach simultaneously detects tree crown centers and estimates tree crown sizes, parameters critical to multiple ecosystem models. As a demonstration, we used a ground validated, 0.6 m resolution QuickBird image of a sparse forest site. The two-stage approach produced a tree count estimate with an accuracy of 78% for a naturally regenerating forest with irregularly spaced trees, a success rate equivalent to or better than existing approaches. In addition, our approach detects tree canopy areas and individual tree crowns in an unsupervised manner and helps identify overlapping crowns. The method also demonstrates significant potential for further improvement.

  13. Individual differences in highly skilled visual perceptual-motor striking skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Sean; Brenton, John; Dempsey, Alasdair R; Harbaugh, Allen G; Reid, Corinne

    2015-07-01

    Expertise studies into visual perceptual-motor skills have mainly focused their investigation upon group comparisons rather than individual comparisons. This study investigated the pick-up of visual information to time weight transfer and bat kinematics within an exemplar group of striking sport experts using an in situ temporal occlusion paradigm. Highly skilled cricket batsmen faced bowlers and attempted to strike delivered balls, whilst their vision was either temporally occluded through occlusion glasses prior to ball bounce or not occluded (control condition). A chronometric analysis was conducted on trials in the occlusion condition to quantify the pick-up of visual information to time biomechanical variables. Results indicated that initiation of weight transfer and bat downswing, as well as bat downswing completion, was significantly different between some individual batsmen. No significant difference was found between individual batsmen for time of weight transfer completion. Unexpectedly, it was found that achievement of the goal to strike delivered balls, that is, the frequency of bat-ball contacts was not significantly different between batsmen. Collectively, the findings indicate that individual differences exist in the coordination pattern of a complex whole body visual perceptual-motor skill, but these different patterns are used to achieve a similar outcome, which is known as motor equivalence. PMID:25813740

  14. Individual and Community Perspectives, Attitudes, and Practices to Mother-to-Child-Transmission and Infant Feeding among HIV-Positive Mothers in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Systematic Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Suuk Laar, MPH

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: International guidelines on infant feeding for HIV-positive mothers promote Exclusive Replacement Feeding (ERF (infant formula or animal milk or exclusive breastfeeding (with no supplements of any kind. A mixed feeding pattern, where breastfeeding is combined with other milks, liquid foods or solids, has been shown to increase the risk of transmission of HIV and is strongly discouraged. However, little is known about the ability of women to adhere to recommended feeding strategies to prevent mother-to-child transmission (MTCT of HIV from breast milk. The objective of this study was to assess the individual and community-level factors that affect perspectives, attitudes and practices of HIV-positive mothers on MTCT and infant feeding in sub-Saharan Africa as documented in peer-reviewed and grey literature. Methods: This work is based on an extensive review of peer-reviewed articles and grey literature from the period 2000-2012. The literature search was carried out using electronic databases like, Medline Ovid, Google scholar, Pubmed and EBSCOhost. Both quantitative and qualitative studies written in English language on HIV and infant feeding with particular emphasis on sub-Saharan Africa were included. Results: The review found low adherence to the chosen infant feeding method by HIV-positive mothers. The following factors emerged as influencing infant feeding decisions: cultural and social norms; economic conditions; inadequate counselling; and mother’s level of education. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: Unless local beliefs and customs surrounding infant feeding is understood by policy makers and program implementers, Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission (PMTCT programs will only be partially successful in influencing feeding practices of HIV-positive women. Hence programs should provide affordable, acceptable, feasible, safe and sustainable feeding recommendations that do not erode strong cultural practices

  15. Waist-to-height ratio and cardiovascular risk factors in elderly individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Guasch-Ferré

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Several anthropometric measurements have been associated with cardiovascular disease, type-2 diabetes mellitus and other cardiovascular risk conditions, such as hypertension or metabolic syndrome. Waist-to-height-ratio has been proposed as a useful tool for assessing abdominal obesity, correcting other measurements for the height of the individual. We compared the ability of several anthropometric measurements to predict the presence of type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, hypertension, atherogenic dyslipidemia or metabolic syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our cross-sectional analyses we included 7447 Spanish individuals at high cardiovascular risk, men aged 55-80 years and women aged 60-80 years, from the PREDIMED study. Logistic regression models were fitted to evaluate the odds ratio of presenting each cardiovascular risk factor according to various anthropometric measures. The areas under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC were used to compare the predictive ability of these measurements. RESULTS: In this relatively homogeneous cohort with 48.6% of type-2 diabetic individuals, the great majority of the studied anthropometric parameters were significantly and positively associated with the cardiovascular risk factors. No association was found between BMI and body weight and diabetes mellitus. The AUCs for the waist-to-height ratio and waist circumference were significantly higher than the AUCs for BMI or weight for type-2 diabetes, hyperglycemia, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome. Conversely, BMI was the strongest predictor of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that measures of abdominal obesity showed higher discriminative ability for diabetes mellitus, high fasting plasma glucose, atherogenic dyslipidemia and metabolic syndrome than BMI or weight in a large cohort of elderly Mediterranean individuals at high cardiovascular risk. No significant differences were found between the predictive

  16. Pneumococcal Vaccination in High-Risk Individuals: Are We Doing It Right?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadatou, Ioanna; Spoulou, Vana

    2016-05-01

    Controversy exists regarding the optimal use of the 23-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine for the protection of high-risk individuals, such as children and adults with immunocompromising conditions and the elderly. The effectiveness and immunogenicity of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) are limited in such high-risk populations compared to the healthy, with meta-analyses failing to provide robust evidence on vaccine efficacy against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) or pneumonia. Moreover, several studies have demonstrated a PPV23-induced state of immune tolerance or hyporesponsiveness to subsequent vaccination, where the response to revaccination does not reach the levels achieved with primary vaccination. The clinical significance of hyporesponsiveness is not yet clarified, but attenuated humoral and cellular response could lead to reduced levels of protection and increased susceptibility to pneumococcal disease. As disease epidemiology among high-risk groups shows that we are still in need of maximum serotype coverage, the optimal use of PPV23 in the context of combined conjugate/polysaccharide vaccine schedules is an important priority. In this minireview, we discuss PPV23-induced hyporesponsiveness and its implications in designing highly effective vaccination schedules for the optimal protection for high-risk individuals. PMID:27009210

  17. 'Sink or swim': an evaluation of the clinical characteristics of individuals with high bone mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gregson, C L

    2011-04-01

    High bone mineral density on routine dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) may indicate an underlying skeletal dysplasia. Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained high bone mass (HBM), 236 relatives (41% with HBM) and 58 spouses were studied. Cases could not float, had mandible enlargement, extra bone, broad frames, larger shoe sizes and increased body mass index (BMI). HBM cases may harbour an underlying genetic disorder. INTRODUCTION: High bone mineral density is a sporadic incidental finding on routine DXA scanning of apparently asymptomatic individuals. Such individuals may have an underlying skeletal dysplasia, as seen in LRP5 mutations. We aimed to characterize unexplained HBM and determine the potential for an underlying skeletal dysplasia. METHODS: Two hundred fifty-eight individuals with unexplained HBM (defined as L1 Z-score ≥ +3.2 plus total hip Z-score ≥ +1.2, or total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2) were recruited from 15 UK centres, by screening 335,115 DXA scans. Unexplained HBM affected 0.181% of DXA scans. Next 236 relatives were recruited of whom 94 (41%) had HBM (defined as L1 Z-score + total hip Z-score ≥ +3.2). Fifty-eight spouses were also recruited together with the unaffected relatives as controls. Phenotypes of cases and controls, obtained from clinical assessment, were compared using random-effects linear and logistic regression models, clustered by family, adjusted for confounders, including age and sex. RESULTS: Individuals with unexplained HBM had an excess of sinking when swimming (7.11 [3.65, 13.84], p < 0.001; adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval shown), mandible enlargement (4.16 [2.34, 7.39], p < 0.001), extra bone at tendon\\/ligament insertions (2.07 [1.13, 3.78], p = 0.018) and broad frame (3.55 [2.12, 5.95], p < 0.001). HBM cases also had a larger shoe size (mean difference 0.4 [0.1, 0.7] UK sizes, p = 0.009) and increased BMI (mean difference 2.2 [1.3, 3.1] kg\\/m(2

  18. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  19. Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holst Helga L

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies address the use of paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in Africa. Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study to investigate preliminary outcomes of all children eligible for HAART at Sinikithemba HIV/AIDS clinic in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Immunologic, virologic, clinical, mortality, primary caregiver, and psychosocial variables were collected and analyzed. Results From August 31, 2003 until October 31, 2005, 151 children initiated HAART. The median age at HAART initiation was 5.7 years (range 0.3–15.4. Median follow-up time of the cohort after HAART initiation was 8 months (IQR 3.5–13.5. The median change in CD4% from baseline (p 95%adherence. Seventeen patients (11.3% had a regimen change; two (1.3% were due to antiretroviral toxicity. The Kaplan-Meier one year survival estimate was 90.9% (95%confidence interval (CI 84.8–94.6. Thirteen children died during follow-up (8.6%, one changed service provider, and no children were lost to follow-up. All 13 deaths occurred in children with advanced HIV disease within 5 months of treatment initiation. In multivariate analysis of baseline variables against mortality using Cox proportional-hazards model, chronic gastroenteritis was associated with death [hazard ratio (HR, 12.34; 95%CI, 1.27–119.71 and an HIV-positive primary caregiver was found to be protective against mortality [HR, 0.12; 95%CI, 0.02–0.88. Age, orphanhood, baseline CD4%, and hemoglobin were not predicators of mortality in our cohort. Fifty-two percent of the cohort had at least one HIV-positive primary caregiver, and 38.4% had at least one primary caregiver also on HAART at Sinikithemba clinic. Conclusion This report suggests that paediatric HAART can be effective despite the challenges of a resource-limited setting.

  20. Effect of religious context on the content of visual hallucinations in individuals high in religiosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Phil; Clarke, Natasha

    2014-03-30

    This study investigated the interaction between the current environment and personality factors associated with religiosity in determining the content of false perceptions (used as a model for hallucinations). A primed word-detection task was used to investigate the effect of a 'religious' context on false perceptions in individuals scoring highly on religiosity. After a subliminal prime, participants viewed letter strings, and stated any words that they saw. The prime and the actual words could have a religious connotation or not. Participants measuring high on religiosity were more likely to report false perceptions of a religious type than participants low on religiosity. It is suggested that context affects the content of false perceptions through the activation of stored beliefs and values, which vary between individuals, offering a mechanism for the effect of context on idiosyncratic content of hallucinations in schizophrenia. The effect of context and individual differences on false-perception content in the current study provides possibilities for future work regarding the underlying nature of hallucinations and their treatment. PMID:24491685

  1. High-Impact Actions for Individuals to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, K. A.; Wynes, S. C.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change is the result of greenhouse gas accumulation in the atmosphere, which records the aggregation of billions of individual decisions. While systemic and structural changes receive great attention for addressing climate change, the contribution that individual citizens can make is often overlooked, especially in developed countries where per-capita emissions are highest. Here we consider a broad range of individual lifestyle choices and calculate their potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. We find that four widely applicable high-impact actions have the potential to reduce personal emissions by more than 1 tonne CO2-equivalent per year: having one fewer child (59.2 tonnes of reductions), living car-free (2.3 tonnes), avoiding airplane travel (1.5 tonnes per flight) and eating a plant-based diet (0.82 tonnes). These actions have much greater potential to reduce emissions than commonly promoted strategies like recycling (4 times less effective than a plant-based diet) or changing lightbulbs (8 times). However, high school textbooks from Canada and government resources from the EU, USA, Canada, and Australia largely fail to mention these actions, instead focusing on incremental changes with much smaller potential impact. We conclude that climate policy should focus not only on national and international targets, but also on encouraging responsible behaviour, especially for adolescents who will grow up in the era of climate change and are poised to establish a lifelong pattern of sustainable lifestyle choices.

  2. High throughput generation and trapping of individual agarose microgel using microfluidic approach

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Yang

    2013-02-28

    Microgel is a kind of biocompatible polymeric material, which has been widely used as micro-carriers in materials synthesis, drug delivery and cell biology applications. However, high-throughput generation of individual microgel for on-site analysis in a microdevice still remains a challenge. Here, we presented a simple and stable droplet microfluidic system to realize high-throughput generation and trapping of individual agarose microgels based on the synergetic effect of surface tension and hydrodynamic forces in microchannels and used it for 3-D cell culture in real-time. The established system was mainly composed of droplet generators with flow focusing T-junction and a series of array individual trap structures. The whole process including the independent agarose microgel formation, immobilization in trapping array and gelation in situ via temperature cooling could be realized on the integrated microdevice completely. The performance of this system was demonstrated by successfully encapsulating and culturing adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACCM) cells in the gelated agarose microgels. This established approach is simple, easy to operate, which can not only generate the micro-carriers with different components in parallel, but also monitor the cell behavior in 3D matrix in real-time. It can also be extended for applications in the area of material synthesis and tissue engineering. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  3. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Stephen

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcision programs for HIV prevention is unclear. Methods Two mathematical models were examined to explore this issue: a random mixing model and a compartmental model that distinguishes risk groups associated with sex work. In the compartmental model, two scenarios were developed, one calculating HIV transmission and prevalence in a context similar to the country of Botswana, and one similar to Nyanza Province, in western Kenya. Results In both models, male circumcision programs resulted in large and sustained declines in HIV prevalence over time among both men and women. Men benefited somewhat more than women, but prevalence among women was also reduced substantially. With 80% male circumcision uptake, the reductions in prevalence ranged from 45% to 67% in the two "countries", and with 50% uptake, from 25% to 41%. It would take over a decade for the intervention to reach its full effect. Conclusion Large-scale uptake of male circumcision services in African countries with high HIV prevalence, and where male circumcision is not now routinely practised, could lead to substantial reductions in HIV transmission and prevalence over time among both men and women.

  4. Aid, employment, and poverty reduction in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Page, John; Shimeles, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Growth and poverty reduction in Africa are weakly linked. This paper argues that the reason is that Africa has failed to create enough good jobs. Structural transformation - the relative growth of employment in high productivity sectors - has not featured in Africa's post-1995 growth story. As a result, the region's fastest growing economies have the least responsiveness of employment to growth. The role of development aid in this context is problematic. Across Africa more aid went to countri...

  5. NUNOA: a computer simulator of individuals, families, and extended families of the high-altitude Quechua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, C.C.; Weinstein, D.A.; Shugart, H.H.; Simmons, B.

    1980-10-01

    The Quechua Indians of the Peruvian Andes are an example of a human population which has developed special cultural adaptations to deal with hypocaloric stress imposed by a harsh environment. A highly detailed human ecosystem model, NUNOA, which simulates the yearly energy balance of individuals, families, and extended families in a hypothetical farming and herding Quechua community of the high Andes was developed. Unlike most population models which use sets of differential equations in which individuals are aggregated into groups, this model considers the response of each individual to a stochastic environment. The model calculates the yearly energy demand for each family based on caloric requirements of its members. For each family, the model simulates the cultivation of seven different crops and the impact of precipitation, temperature, and disease on yield. Herding, slaughter, and market sales of three different animal species are also simulated. Any energy production in excess of the family's energy demand is placed into extended family storage for possible redistribution. A family failing to meet their annual energy demand may slaughter additional herd animals, temporarily migrate from the community, or borrow food from the extended family storage. The energy balance is used in determining births, deaths, marriages, and resource sharing in the Indian community. In addition, the model maintains a record of each individual's ancestry as well as seven genetic traits for use in tracing lineage and gene flow. The model user has the opportunity to investigate the effect of changes in marriage patterns, resource sharing patterns, or subsistence activities on the ability of the human population to survive in the harsh Andean environment. In addition, the user may investigate the impact of external technology on the Indian culture.

  6. A new method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth removal from high resolution airborne LiDAR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abd Rahman, M.Z.; Gorte, B.G.H.; Bucksch, A.K.

    2009-01-01

    High density airborne LiDAR, for example FLI-MAP 400 data, has opened an opportunity for individual tree measurement. This paper presents a method for individual tree delineation and undergrowth vegetation removal in forest area. The delineation of individual trees involves two steps namely 1) tree

  7. Leisure Boredom and High School Dropout in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegner, Lisa; Flisher, Alan J.; Chikobvu, Perpetual; Lombard, Carl; King, Gary

    2008-01-01

    This prospective cohort study investigated whether leisure boredom predicts high school dropout. Leisure boredom is the perception that leisure experiences do not satisfy the need for optimal arousal. Participants completed a self-report questionnaire which included the Leisure Boredom Scale. The original cohort of grade 8 students (n=303) was…

  8. Clinical tolerability of artesunate-amodiaquine versus comparator treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria: an individual-patient analysis of eight randomized controlled trials in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zwang Julien

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The widespread use of artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ for treating uncomplicated malaria makes it important to gather and analyse information on its tolerability. Methods An individual-patient tolerability analysis was conducted using data from eight randomized controlled clinical trials conducted at 17 sites in nine sub-Saharan countries comparing ASAQ to other anti-malarial treatments. All patients who received at least one dose of the study drug were included in the analysis. Differences in adverse event (AE and treatment emergent adverse event (TEAE were analysed by Day 28. Results Of the 6,179 patients enrolled (74% Conclusion ASAQ was comparatively well-tolerated. Safety information is important, and must be collected and analysed in a standardized way. TEAEs are a more objective measure of treatment-induced toxicity.

  9. High resolution population maps for low income nations: combining land cover and census in East Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Tatem

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Between 2005 and 2050, the human population is forecast to grow by 2.7 billion, with the vast majority of this growth occurring in low income countries. This growth is likely to have significant social, economic and environmental impacts, and make the achievement of international development goals more difficult. The measurement, monitoring and potential mitigation of these impacts require high resolution, contemporary data on human population distributions. In low income countries, however, where the changes will be concentrated, the least information on the distribution of population exists. In this paper we investigate whether satellite imagery in combination with land cover information and census data can be used to create inexpensive, high resolution and easily-updatable settlement and population distribution maps over large areas. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We examine various approaches for the production of maps of the East African region (Kenya, Uganda, Burundi, Rwanda and Tanzania and where fine resolution census data exists, test the accuracies of map production approaches and existing population distribution products. The results show that combining high resolution census, settlement and land cover information is important in producing accurate population distribution maps. CONCLUSIONS: We find that this semi-automated population distribution mapping at unprecedented spatial resolution produces more accurate results than existing products and can be undertaken for as little as $0.01 per km(2. The resulting population maps are a product of the Malaria Atlas Project (MAP: http://www.map.ox.ac.uk and are freely available.

  10. Effects of auditory training in individuals with high-frequency hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Beatriz Fernandes Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of a formal auditory training program on the behavioral, electrophysiological and subjective aspects of auditory function in individuals with bilateral high-frequency hearing loss. METHOD: A prospective study of seven individuals aged 46 to 57 years with symmetric, moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging from 3 to 8 kHz was conducted. Evaluations of auditory processing (sound location, verbal and non-verbal sequential memory tests, the speech-in-noise test, the staggered spondaic word test, synthetic sentence identification with competitive ipsilateral and contralateral competitive messages, random gap detection and the standard duration test, auditory brainstem response and long-latency potentials and the administration of the Abbreviated Profile of Hearing Aid Benefit questionnaire were performed in a sound booth before and immediately after formal auditory training. RESULTS: All of the participants demonstrated abnormal pre-training long-latency characteristics (abnormal latency or absence of the P3 component and these abnormal characteristics were maintained in six of the seven individuals at the post-training evaluation. No significant differences were found between ears in the quantitative analysis of auditory brainstem responses or long-latency potentials. However, the subjects demonstrated improvements on all behavioral tests. For the questionnaire, the difference on the background noise subscale achieved statistical significance. CONCLUSION: Auditory training in adults with high-frequency hearing loss led to improvements in figure-background hearing skills for verbal sounds, temporal ordination and resolution, and communication in noisy environments. Electrophysiological changes were also observed because, after the training, some long latency components that were absent pre-training were observed during the re-evaluation.

  11. High growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets: the case of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) Region

    OpenAIRE

    Hatem, Omaima

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to understand the phenomena of the high growth and rapid internationalisation of firms from emerging markets. It explores the applicability of international entrepreneurship theory to the context of the emerging market enterprises in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. It integrates the literature of strategic entrepreneurship and that of portfolio entrepreneurship with the literature of international entrepreneurship to provide a closer fi...

  12. The ears of the African elephant: unexpected high seroprevalence of Plasmodium ovale and Plasmodium malariae in healthy populations in Western Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Doderer-Lang, Cécile; Atchade, Pascal S; Meckert, Lydia; Haar, Elodie; Perrotey, Sylvie; Filisetti, Denis; Aboubacar, Ahmed; Alexander W Pfaff; Brunet, Julie; Chabi, Nicodème W; Akpovi, Casimir D; Anani, Ludovic; Bigot, André; Sanni, Ambaliou; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2014-01-01

    Background Malaria Is A Life-Threatening Pathology In Africa. Plasmodium Falciparum And Plasmodium Vivax Attract The Most Focus Because Of Their High Prevalence And Mortality. Knowledge About The Prevalence Of The Cryptic Pathogens Plasmodium Ovale And Plasmodium Malariae Is Limited. Thanks To Recombinant Tools, Their Seroprevalence Was Measured For The First Time, As Well As The Prevalence Of Mixed Infections In A Malaria-Asymptomatic Population In Benin, A Malaria-Endemic Country. Methods A...

  13. Global lung cancer risk from PAH exposure highly depends on emission sources and individual susceptibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Huizhong; Tao, Shu; Liu, Junfeng; Huang, Ye; Chen, Han; Li, Wei; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Xu, Yinyin; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin

    2014-10-01

    The health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), the most concerning organic pollutants, depend not only on the locations and strengths of emission sources, but also on individual susceptibility. Moreover, trans-boundary transport makes them a global concern. In this study, a comprehensive analysis of the global health impacts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air is presented. Model resolution is critical in exposure modelling. Globally, incremental lifetime lung cancer risk (ILCR) induced by ambient PAH exposure is 3.1 × 10-5. If the individual susceptibility was not taken into consideration, the overall risk would be underestimated by 55% and the proportion of highly vulnerable population would be underestimated by more than 90%. Emphasizing on individual susceptibility, our study provides an instrumental revision of current risk assessment methodology. In terms of lung cancer risk, the most important sources are combustion of biomass fuels (40%) and fossil fuels (14%) in the residential/commercial sector, coke (13%) and aluminium (12%) production, and motor vehicles (9%). PAHs can travel long distance globally especially within the Eurasian continent. Still, the risk is dominantly contributed by local.

  14. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present study seeks to avoid. Twenty high math-anxious (HMA) and 20 low math-anxious (LMA) individuals were presented with an emotional Stroop task including math-related and neutral words. Participants in the two groups did not differ in trait anxiety or depression. We found that the HMA group showed slower response times to math-related words than to neutral words, as well as a greater attentional bias (math-related - neutral difference score) than the LMA one, which constitutes the first demonstration of an attentional bias toward math-related words in HMA individuals. PMID:26539137

  15. IDENTIFYING A HIGH STROKE RISK SUBGROUP IN INDIVIDUALS WITH HEART FAILURE

    OpenAIRE

    Pullicino, Patrick M.; McClure, Leslie A.; Howard, Virginia J.; Wadley, Virginia G.; Safford, Monika M.; Meschia, James F.; Anderson, Aaron; Howard, George; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2011-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with an overall stroke rate that is too low to justify anticoagulation in all patients. This study was conducted to determine if vascular risk factors can identify a subgroup of individuals with heart failure with a stroke rate high enough to warrant anticoagulation. The REGARDS study is a population-based cohort of US adults aged ≥45 years. Participants are contacted every six months by telephone for self- or proxy-reported stroke and medical records are retr...

  16. Vegetation of high-altitude fens and restio marshlands of the Hottentots Holland Mountains, Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. J. J. Sieben

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Seepages occurring at high altitudes in the Hottentots Holland Mountains (HHM (Western Cape Province. South Africa were subject to a phytosociological survey. Relevé sampling method and classification procedures of the floristic-sociological (Braun-Blanquet approach as well as numerical data analyses (numerical classification and ordination were used to reveal syn- taxonomic patterns and characterize the position of the syntaxa along major environmental gradients. Nine plant communities were recognized, three of which were classified as associations, following formal syntaxonomic and nomenclatural rules of the floristic-sociological approach Most of the studied mire communities were dominated by low-growing clonal restios (Restionaceae. whereas some consisted of other types of graminoids. The most important species determining the structure (and function of the mire communities on sandstones of the HHM include restios Anthochortus crinalis, Chondropetalum deustum.C. mucronatum, Elegia intermedia. E. thyrsifera. Restio subtilis. R. purpurascens. cyperoids Epischoenus villosus. Ficinia argy-ropa, grasses Ehrharta setacea subsp. setacea. Pentameris hirtiglumis as well as shrubs Berzelia squarrosa. Cliffortia tricuspi- data. Erica intenallaris and Grubbia rosmarinifolia. Protea lacticolor and Restio perplexus dominate a rare shale band seep­age community. There are two major groups of communities—the fens (dominated by carpets of Anthochortus crinalis and other low-growing species and the restio marshlands (mosaics of low tussocks of Restio subtilis and tall Chondropetalum mucrona­tum. The degree of soil (and water minerotrophy was found to be the most important differentiating feature between the mire (fen and restio marshland communities studied. The soils in the centre of mires were found to have high contents of peat and showed very little influence from the underlying sandstone. The soils along the mire margins had a greater admixture of

  17. MIGRATION OF WOMEN FROM SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA TO EUROPE: THE ROLE OF HIGHLY SKILLED WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Spadavecchia

    2013-01-01

    This contribution aims to analyze Sub-Saharan women’s migration with a special focus on highly skilled women in order to create a framework to better understand the different factors shaping migration patterns, such as the push and pull factors, the increase of flows and the complexity associated with them. In recent years the number of female Sub-Saharan migrants has grown at a rate much higher than the global average. In fact, in 2010 alone the number of female African migrants was 47.2%...

  18. Screening tomato genotypes for adaptation to high temperature in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kugblenu, Y O; Oppong Danso, E; Ofori, K;

    2013-01-01

    Tomato is an important vegetable widely grown in the tropics due to its nutritional value and financial benefits for farmers. In Ghana, there is an undersupply caused by production ceasing entirely from October to May due to high temperatures. Heat stress has been reported to cause excessive flower......’ with a combined average of 85.7 g. The first two principal components (PCs) accounted for 79.7% of total variation. The first PC had positive weights for number of flowers per truss, number of fruits per plant, total number of flowers, yield per plant and number of trusses. PC2 explained 11% of the...

  19. Export Diversification in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The ...

  20. AFRICA 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    A year highlighted by a new nation,regime change,famine and hopes for climate change solutions THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.

  1. Simulation of synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena over East Africa and Arabian Peninsula for current and future climate using a high resolution AGCM

    KAUST Repository

    Raj, Jerry

    2015-04-01

    Climate regimes of East Africa and Arabia are complex and are poorly understood. East Africa has large-scale tropical controls like major convergence zones and air streams. The region is in the proximity of two monsoons, north-east and south-west, and the humid and thermally unstable Congo air stream. The domain comprises regions with one, two, and three rainfall maxima, and the rainfall pattern over this region has high spatial variability. To explore the synoptic and sub-synoptic phenomena that drive the climate of the region we conducted climate simulations using a high resolution Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM), GFDL\\'s High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Historic simulations (1975-2004) and future projections (2007-2050), with both RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 pathways, were performed according to CORDEX standard. The sea surface temperature (SST) was prescribed from the 2°x2.5° latitude-longitude resolution GFDL Earth System Model runs of IPCC AR5, as bottom boundary condition over the ocean. Our simulations were conducted at a horizontal grid spacing of 25 km, which is an ample resolution for regional climate simulation. In comparison with the regional models, global HiRAM has the advantage of accounting for two-way interaction between regional and global scale processes. Our initial results show that HiRAM simulations for historic period well reproduce the regional climate in East Africa and the Arabian Peninsula with their complex interplay of regional and global processes. Our future projections indicate warming and increased precipitation over the Ethiopian highlands and the Greater Horn of Africa. We found significant regional differences between RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 projections, e.g., west coast of the Arabian Peninsula, show anomalies of opposite signs in these two simulations.

  2. Going High with Heart Disease: The Effect of High Altitude Exposure in Older Individuals and Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Benjamin D

    2015-06-01

    Levine, Benjamin D. Going high with heart disease: The effect of high altitude exposure in older individuals and patients with coronary artery disease. High Alt Med Biol 16:89-96, 2015.--Ischemic heart disease is the largest cause of death in older men and women in the western world (Lozano et al., 2012 ; Roth et al., 2015). Atherosclerosis progresses with age, and thus age is the dominant risk factor for coronary heart disease in any algorithm used to assess risk for cardiovascular events. Subclinical atherosclerosis also increases with age, providing the substrate for precipitation of acute coronary syndromes. Thus the risk of high altitude exposure in older individuals is linked closely with both subclinical and manifest coronary heart disease (CHD). There are several considerations associated with taking patients with CHD to high altitude: a) The reduced oxygen availability may cause or exacerbate symptoms; b) The hypoxia and other associated environmental conditions (exercise, dehydration, change in diet, thermal stress, emotional stress from personal danger or conflict) may precipitate acute coronary events; c) If an event occurs and the patient is far from advanced medical care, then the outcome of an acute coronary event may be poor; and d) Sudden death may occur. Physicians caring for older patients who want to sojourn to high altitude should keep in mind the following four key points: 1). Altitude may exacerbate ischemic heart disease because of both reduced O2 delivery and paradoxical vasoconstriction; 2). Adverse events, including acute coronary syndromes and sudden cardiac death, are most common in older unfit men, within the first few days of altitude exposure; 3). Ensuring optimal fitness, allowing for sufficient acclimatization (at least 5 days), and optimizing medical therapy (especially statins and aspirin) are prudent recommendations that may reduce the risk of adverse events; 4). A graded exercise test at sea level is probably sufficient for

  3. Compendium of Neutron Beam Facilities for High Precision Nuclear Data Measurements. Annex: Individual Reports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent advances in the development of nuclear science and technology, demonstrating the globally growing economy, require highly accurate, powerful simulations and precise analysis of the experimental results. Confidence in these results is still determined by the accuracy of the atomic and nuclear input data. For studying material response, neutron beams produced from accelerators and research reactors in broad energy spectra are reliable and indispensable tools to obtain high accuracy experimental results for neutron induced reactions. The IAEA supports the accomplishment of high precision nuclear data using nuclear facilities in particular, based on particle accelerators and research reactors around the world. Such data are essential for numerous applications in various industries and research institutions, including the safety and economical operation of nuclear power plants, future fusion reactors, nuclear medicine and non-destructive testing technologies. The IAEA organized and coordinated the technical meeting Use of Neutron Beams for High Precision Nuclear Data Measurements, in Budapest, Hungary, 10–14 December 2012. The meeting was attended by participants from 25 Member States and three international organizations — the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), the Joint Research Centre (JRC) and the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Nuclear Energy Agency (OECD/NEA). The objectives of the meeting were to provide a forum to exchange existing know-how and to share the practical experiences of neutron beam facilities and associated instrumentation, with regard to the measurement of high precision nuclear data using both accelerators and research reactors. Furthermore, the present status and future developments of worldwide accelerator and research reactor based neutron beam facilities were discussed. This publication is a summary of the technical meeting and additional materials supplied by the international

  4. Things happen: Individuals with high obsessive-compulsive tendencies omit agency in their spoken language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oren, Ela; Friedmann, Naama; Dar, Reuven

    2016-05-01

    The study examined the prediction that obsessive-compulsive tendencies are related to an attenuated sense of agency (SoA). As most explicit agency judgments are likely to reflect also motivation for and expectation of control, we examined agency in sentence production. Reduced agency can be expressed linguistically by omitting the agent or by using grammatical framings that detach the event from the entity that caused it. We examined the use of agentic language of participants with high vs. low scores on a measure of obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms, using structured linguistic tasks in which sentences are elicited in a conversation-like setting. As predicted, high OC individuals produced significantly more non-agentic sentences than low OC individuals, using various linguistic strategies. The results suggest that OC tendencies are related to attenuated SoA. We discuss the implications of these findings for explicating the SoA in OCD and the potential contribution of language analysis for understanding psychopathology. PMID:27003263

  5. Remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy for advanced maxillary cancer. Treatment with individual appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven advanced maxillary cancers, 5 squamous cell carcinomas, and 2 adenoid cystic carcinomas were treated with remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy. For treatment, we fabricated individual dental acrylic appliances for the postoperative area of the oral cavity. Because the appliance was specially matched to the remaining maxillary structures, radiation doses to the treated area were easily reproduced without distress to the patient. However, minor or major complications (moderate or severe mucositis and osteoradionecrosis) were observed in all patients. In this study, the number of patients was too small to assess the significance of this treatment. Nevertheless, with improvements, we think that remote afterloading high dose-rate intracavity radiotherapy with a dental acrylic appliance will soon be used to treat advanced maxillary carcinoma. (author)

  6. Portuguese-language high school teacher programme extends its reach to South America and Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Carolyn Lee

    2010-01-01

    From 5 to 10 September, a record 75 teachers from Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, São Tomé and Cape Verde will take part in the Portuguese-language high school teacher programme at CERN.   The group of Portuguese-sepaking teachers who visited CERN in 2009. CERN usually focuses on the Member States when organizing its national teacher programmes, providing them with additional return on their investment in the Laboratory by helping to train and inspire the next generation of scientists. However, Portugal’s Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas (LIP), through the Agency Ciência Viva, has taken the initiative to go beyond the borders of Portugal and include other countries that speak Portuguese. Last year there were 60 participants in the programme, including 11 teachers from Brazil and 5 from Mozambique. This year brings even more teachers from more African co...

  7. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O.; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R. S.; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N.; Young, Elizabeth H.; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P.; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A.; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S.

    2014-01-01

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterisation of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project (AGVP) provides a resource to help design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and worldwide. The AGVP represents dense genotypes from 1,481 and whole genome sequences (WGS) from 320 individuals across SSA. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across SSA. We identify new loci under selection, including for malaria and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in SSA. Using WGS, we show further improvement in imputation accuracy supporting efforts for large-scale sequencing of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa, showing for the first time that such designs are feasible. PMID:25470054

  8. Reprivatizing pharmaceutical supplies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turshen, M

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps no part of the health system is as imperiled by neoliberal economic reforms as the public drug sector. The national bill for pharmaceuticals can claim one-third of a developing country's annual health budget. This article describes the essential drugs program created by WHO in the 1980s to protect financially reduced ministries of health from the high prices charged by multinational pharmaceutical companies. It describes the backlash from the World Bank and UNICEF, which launched the Bamako Initiative and other community financing schemes and revolving drug plans in which individuals, families or community groups buy drugs above the wholesale purchase price; clinics use the proceeds to maintain drug supplies and subsidize other health services. When this plan failed, the Bank proposed outright privatization of drug purchase and supply, returning power to the multinational suppliers. The article ends with a consideration of patents and the new intellectual property rights as they pertain to pharmaceutical production in Africa. PMID:11469153

  9. Global versus local causes and health implications of high mercury concentrations in sharks from the east coast of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Melissa A; Dean, Kylie; Hussey, Nigel E; Cliff, Geremy; Wintner, Sabine P; Dudley, Sheldon F J; Zungu, M Philip; Fisk, Aaron T

    2016-01-15

    Conservation concern regarding the overharvest of global shark populations for meat and fin consumption largely surrounds documented deleterious ecosystem effects, but may be further supported by improved knowledge of possibly high levels in their edible tissues (particularly meat) of the neurotoxin, methylmercury (CH3Hg). For many regions, however, little data exist on shark tissue Hg concentrations, and reasons for Hg variation within and among species or across regions are poorly understood. We quantified total Hg (THg) in 17 shark species (total n=283) from the east coast of South Africa, a top Hg emitter globally. Concentrations varied from means of around 0.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (dw) THg in hardnose smoothhound (Mustelus mosis) and whale (Rhincodon typus) sharks to means of over 10 mg kg(-1) dw in shortfin mako (Isurus oxyrinchus), scalloped hammerhead (Sphyrna lewini), white (Carcharodon carcharias) and ragged-tooth (Carcharias taurus) sharks. These sharks had higher THg levels than conspecifics sampled from coastal waters of the North Atlantic and North, mid-, and South Pacific, and although sampling year and shark size may play a confounding role, this result suggests the potential importance of elevated local emissions. Values of THg showed strong, species-specific correlations with length, and nearly half the remaining variation was explained by trophic position (using nitrogen stable isotopes, δ(15)N), whereas measures of foraging habitat (using carbon stable isotopes, δ(13)C) were not significant. Mercury concentrations were above the regulatory guidelines for fish health effects and safe human consumption for 88% and 70% of species, respectively, suggesting on-going cause for concern for shark health, and human consumers of shark meat. PMID:26409147

  10. The perception amongst a population of high school students in South Africa about ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Melwa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available HIV and AIDS can result in visual impairment, therefore it is important that those who have or atrisk of contracting the disease have a basic knowledge of its ocular manifestations, so that they may seek eye care early. This study assessed the per-ceptions of a sample of senior high school students at the Capricorn district, Limpopo Province, South Africa about the ocular manifestations of HIV/AIDS and its management. Questionnaires were distributed to the students in their classrooms after school hours and upon completion were collected the same day. Data analysis revealed that 27.8% of the participants agreed that HIV/AIDS can affect the eyes. Another 27.8% responded that HIV/AIDS could cause dry eyes. Less than a third (31.4% indicated that the disease could cause red eyes, 31.5% and 38.1% respectively indicated that HIV/AIDS could cause cancer of the eyelids and the eyeball.  About half of the respondents (52% agreed that the disease could cause swollen eyelids; while about 46% agreed that vision loss or blindness could occur in HIV/AIDS.  Many (65.6% indicated that an ophthalmologist or an optometrist should be consulted for HIV/AIDS-related eye problems and only 16.5% reported that traditional healers could be consulted. Perception about the ocular manifestations of HIV and AIDS is poor among the participants, suggesting a need for awareness campaigns and education.  (S Afr Optom 2012 71(3 117-122

  11. Utility of repeated praziquantel dosing in the treatment of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities in Africa: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles H King

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Controversy persists about the optimal approach to drug-based control of schistosomiasis in high-risk communities. In a systematic review of published studies, we examined evidence for incremental benefits from repeated praziquantel dosing, given 2 to 8 weeks after an initial dose, in Schistosoma-endemic areas of Africa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed systematic searches of electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE for relevant data using search terms 'schistosomiasis', 'dosing' and 'praziquantel' and hand searches of personal collections and bibliographies of recovered articles. In 10 reports meeting study criteria, improvements in parasitological treatment outcomes after two doses of praziquantel were greater for S. mansoni infection than for S. haematobium infection. Observed cure rates (positive to negative conversion in egg detection assays were, for S. mansoni, 69-91% cure after two doses vs. 42-79% after one dose and, for S. haematobium, 46-99% cure after two doses vs. 37-93% after a single dose. Treatment benefits in terms of reduction in intensity (mean egg count were also different for the two species-for S. mansoni, the 2-dose regimen yielded an weighted average 89% reduction in standardized egg counts compared to a 83% reduction after one dose; for S. haematobium, two doses gave a 93% reduction compared to a 94% reduction with a single dose. Cost-effectiveness analysis was performed based on Markov life path modeling. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Although schedules for repeated treatment with praziquantel require greater inputs in terms of direct costs and community participation, there are incremental benefits to this approach at an estimated cost of $153 (S. mansoni-$211 (S. haematobium per additional lifetime QALY gained by double treatment in school-based programs. More rapid reduction of infection-related disease may improve program adherence, and if, as an externality of the program, transmission can be

  12. Intraocular correction of high-degree ametropia using individual multifocal LentisMPlus IOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.S. Fedorova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background. For surgical correction of high-degree ametropia aggravated with astigmatism the following options are available: excimer laser correction; phakic lens implantation; bioptika – a combination of ablating the transparent crystalline lens (ATL with implantation of multifocal toric diopter IOL of standard series and LASIK for the correction of a residual refractive error, ATL using 2 IOLs according to the Technology «Piggy Back»; additional meniscus IOL implantation «Add-On»; ATL with implantation of an individual multifocal toric IOL. Purpose. To show a possibility of intraocular correction of high ametropia aggravated with astigmatism using toric multifocal custom IOLs. Material and methods. We observed two patients: the first female patient, 39 years old with a diagnosis of OU: high myopia, compound myopic astigmatism, initial complicated cataract, moderate amblyopia, peripheral chorioretinal degeneration (PCRD. On admission the distance visual acuity was vis OD=0.01 sph (- 15.5 D cyl (- 2.5 D ax 0°=0.6; vis OS=0.01 sph (- 18.0 D cyl (- 2.5 D ax 0°=0.5. The second patient was a 35-year woman with a diagnosis of OU: high hyperopia, compound hyperopic astigmatism, moderate amblyopia. Distance visual acuity on admission was OD=0.03 sph (+ 8.0 D cyl (+ 1.5 D ax 95°=0.5; OS=0.03 sph (+ 8.0 D cyl (+ 0.75 D ax 75°=0.6. Individual multifocal toric IOLs were implanted in both patents after the removal of the lens phacoemulsification. All standard ophthalmic examinations were used as well as the ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM. Results. In the follow-up: 6 months after the surgery in the first patient the uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was far vis OD=0.6, vis OS=0.5, near vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.5, middle distance vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.4. The second patient 3 months after surgery had the UCVA far vis OD=0.5, vis OS=0.6, near vis OD=0.4, vis OS=0.5, middle distance vis OD=0.2, vis OS=0.3. The maximum possible distance visual acuity

  13. Rinderpest Eradication in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After its introduction into Africa in the 1880s, rinderpest became the most feared and most devastating disease to afflict the continent's cattle and wildlife herds. Outbreaks of the classical disease in cattle caused mortality rates of 10 to 90 percent. So devastating was this 'cattle plague' that many countries worldwide made concerted efforts to stamp it out and, having once eliminated it, prevent its re-emergence. The disease was a serious threat to the livelihoods of millions of people in Africa. The presence or suspected presence in a country served as a major barrier to livestock trade, and many countries of the world, particularly in Africa, were denied access to valuable external livestock markets. This devastating blow to trade impoverished the pastoral peoples of Africa and dealt considerable blows to the economies of their countries. The present-day African Union3 Inter-African Bureau for Animal Resources (AUIBAR) 4 was established in 1951 with responsibility for eliminating rinderpest from Egypt and sub-Saharan Africa, where continual east-west cattle movements prevented effective control by individual countries. Since then, with the European Union (EU) as the main donor, AU-IBAR has coordinated the eradication of rinderpest from Africa through five main projects: Joint Project 15 (JP15), 1962 to 1976; the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign (PARC), 1986 to 1998; the Pan African Programme for the Control of Epizootics (PACE), 1999 to 2007; the African Wildlife Veterinary Project (AWVP), 2002 to 2003; and the Somali Ecosystem Rinderpest Eradication Coordination Unit (SERECU) project, 2006 to 2010. In tandem with rinderpest eradication, the need to strengthen veterinary services was addressed. From JP15 to SERECU, the main objective was the eradication of rinderpest from Africa. Alongside this main objective were other complementary and synergistic objectives. Under PARC, these were controlling contagious bovine pleuropneumonia (CBPP) through mass

  14. Water resources for Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water scarcity is a matter of urgent, national, regional and international concern. For those people, usually women, who are responsible for the daily task of obtaining sufficient water for household use, water shortages are a perpetual worry. It is a situation which affects many individual families and communities throughout the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa. The isotope studies conducted thus far have proved that the majority of regional groundwater systems in northern Africa and the Sahel zone are paleowaters, replenished thousands of years ago, without the possibility of significant replenishment under present climatic conditions. Therefore, removal from such underground reservoirs will eventually deplete the resource. Mapping these paleowaters, and estimating their reservoir sizes, is a priority. (IAEA)

  15. Instrumented functional reach test differentiates individuals at high risk for Parkinson’s disease from controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Elisabeth Hasmann

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The functional reach test (FR as a complex measure of balance including limits of stability has been proven to differentiate between patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD and controls. Recently it has been shown that the instrumentation of the FR (iFR with a wearable sensor may increase this diagnostic accuracy. This cross-sectional study aimed at investigating whether the iFR has the potential to differentiate individuals with high risk for PD (HRPD from controls, as the delineation of such individuals would allow for e.g. early neuromodulation. Thirteen PD patients, 13 controls and 31 HRPD were investigated. HRPD was defined by presence of an enlarged area of hyperechogenicity in the mesencephalon on transcranial sonography and either one motor sign or two risk and prodromal markers of PD. All participants were asked to reach with their right arm forward as far as possible and hold this position for 10 seconds. During this period, sway parameters were assessed with an accelerometer worn at the lower back. Extracted parameters which differed significantly between PD patients and controls in our cohort [FR distance (shorter in PD, anterior-posterior (AP and mediolateral (ML acceleration (both lower in PD] as well as JERK which has been shown to differentiate HRPD from controls and PD in a previous study, were included in a model which was then used to differentiate HRPD from controls. The model yielded an area under the curve of 0.77, with a specificity of 85%, and a sensitivity of 74%. These results suggest that the iFR can contribute to an assessment panel focusing on the definition of HRPD individuals.

  16. Acceleration Data Reveal Highly Individually Structured Energetic Landscapes in Free-Ranging Fishers (Pekania pennanti).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Anne K; LaPoint, Scott; Wikelski, Martin; Safi, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Investigating animal energy expenditure across space and time may provide more detailed insight into how animals interact with their environment. This insight should improve our understanding of how changes in the environment affect animal energy budgets and is particularly relevant for animals living near or within human altered environments where habitat change can occur rapidly. We modeled fisher (Pekania pennanti) energy expenditure within their home ranges and investigated the potential environmental and spatial drivers of the predicted spatial patterns. As a proxy for energy expenditure we used overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) that we quantified from tri-axial accelerometer data during the active phases of 12 individuals. We used a generalized additive model (GAM) to investigate the spatial distribution of ODBA by associating the acceleration data to the animals' GPS-recorded locations. We related the spatial patterns of ODBA to the utilization distributions and habitat suitability estimates across individuals. The ODBA of fishers appears highly structured in space and was related to individual utilization distribution and habitat suitability estimates. However, we were not able to predict ODBA using the environmental data we selected. Our results suggest an unexpected complexity in the space use of animals that was only captured partially by re-location data-based concepts of home range and habitat suitability. We suggest future studies recognize the limits of ODBA that arise from the fact that acceleration is often collected at much finer spatio-temporal scales than the environmental data and that ODBA lacks a behavioral correspondence. Overcoming these limits would improve the interpretation of energy expenditure in relation to the environment. PMID:26840399

  17. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  18. High-resolution 14C dating of a 25,000-year lake-sediment record from equatorial East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Blaauw; B. van Geel; I. Kristen; B. Plessen; A. Lyaruu; D.R. Engstrom; J. van der Plicht; D. Verschuren

    2011-01-01

    We dated a continuous, ∼22-m long sediment sequence from Lake Challa (Mt. Kilimanjaro area, Kenya/Tanzania) to produce a solid chronological framework for multi-proxy reconstructions of climate and environmental change in equatorial East Africa over the past 25,000 years. The age model is based on a

  19. High sexual signalling rates of young individuals predict extended life span in male Mediterranean fruit flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Nikos T; Katsoyannos, Byron I; Kouloussis, Nikos A; Carey, James R; Müller, Hans-Georg; Zhang, Ying

    2004-01-01

    In a laboratory study, we monitored the lifetime sexual signalling (advertisement) of wild male Mediterranean fruit flies, and we tested the hypothesis that high lifetime intensity of sexual signalling indicates high survival probabilities. Almost all males exhibited signalling and individual signalling rates were highly variable from the beginning of the adults' maturity and throughout their life span (average life span 62.3 days). Sexual signalling rates after day 10 (peak maturity) were consistently high until about 1 week before death. There was a positive relationship between daily signalling rates and life span, and an increase in signalling level by one unit over all times was associated with an approximately 50% decrease in mortality rate. Signalling rates early in adult life (day 6-20) were higher in the longest-lived than in the shortest-lived flies. These results support the hypothesis that intense sexual signalling indicates longer life span. We discuss the importance of age-specific behavioural studies for understanding the evolution of male life histories. PMID:14576929

  20. Perceived ethnic discrimination and persecutory paranoia in individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Madiha; Ellett, Lyn; Dutt, Anirban; Day, Fern; Laing, Jennifer; Kroll, Jasmine; Petrella, Sabrina; McGuire, Philip; Valmaggia, Lucia R

    2016-07-30

    Despite a consensus that psychosocial adversity plays a role in the onset of psychosis, the nature of this role in relation to persecutory paranoia remains unclear. This study examined the complex relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoid ideation in individuals at Ultra High Risk (UHR) for psychosis using a virtual reality paradigm to objectively measure paranoia. Data from 64 UHR participants and 43 healthy volunteers were analysed to investigate the relationship between perceived ethnic discrimination and persecutory ideation in a virtual reality environment. Perceived ethnic discrimination was higher in young adults at UHR in comparison to healthy controls. A positive correlation was observed between perceived ethnic discrimination and paranoid persecutory ideation in the whole sample. Perceived ethnic discrimination was not a significant predictor of paranoid persecutory ideation in the VR environment. Elevated levels of perceived ethnic discrimination are present in individuals at UHR and are consistent with current biopsychosocial models in which psychosocial adversity plays a key role in the development of psychosis and attenuated symptomatology. PMID:27232552

  1. High Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum Infection in Asymptomatic Individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mvumbi, Dieudonné Makaba; Bobanga, Thierry Lengu; Melin, Pierrette; De Mol, Patrick; Kayembe, Jean-Marie Ntumba; Situakibanza, Hippolyte Nani-Tuma; Mvumbi, Georges Lelo; Nsibu, Célestin Ndosimao; Umesumbu, Solange Efundu; Hayette, Marie-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Malaria remains a major public health problem in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) with 14 million cases reported by the WHO Malaria Report in 2014. Asymptomatic malaria cases are known to be prevalent in endemic areas and are generally untreated, resulting in a significant source of gametocytes that may serve as reservoir of disease transmission. Considering that microscopy certainly underestimates the prevalence of Plasmodium infections within asymptomatic carriers and that PCR assays are currently recognized as the most sensitive methods for Plasmodium identification, this study was conducted to weigh the asymptomatic carriage in DRC by a molecular method. Six provinces were randomly selected for blood collection in which 80 to 100 individuals were included in the study. Five hundred and eighty blood samples were collected and molecular diagnosis was performed. Globally, almost half of the samples collected from asymptomatic individuals (280/580; 48.2%) had Plasmodium infections and the most species identified was P. falciparum alone in combination with P. malariae. The high prevalence reported here should interpellate the bodies involved in malaria control in DR Congo to take into account asymptomatic carriers in actions taken and consider asymptomatic malaria as a major hurdle for malaria elimination. PMID:26942036

  2. Individual-based models for adaptive diversification in high-dimensional phenotype spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ispolatov, Iaroslav; Madhok, Vaibhav; Doebeli, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Most theories of evolutionary diversification are based on equilibrium assumptions: they are either based on optimality arguments involving static fitness landscapes, or they assume that populations first evolve to an equilibrium state before diversification occurs, as exemplified by the concept of evolutionary branching points in adaptive dynamics theory. Recent results indicate that adaptive dynamics may often not converge to equilibrium points and instead generate complicated trajectories if evolution takes place in high-dimensional phenotype spaces. Even though some analytical results on diversification in complex phenotype spaces are available, to study this problem in general we need to reconstruct individual-based models from the adaptive dynamics generating the non-equilibrium dynamics. Here we first provide a method to construct individual-based models such that they faithfully reproduce the given adaptive dynamics attractor without diversification. We then show that a propensity to diversify can be introduced by adding Gaussian competition terms that generate frequency dependence while still preserving the same adaptive dynamics. For sufficiently strong competition, the disruptive selection generated by frequency-dependence overcomes the directional evolution along the selection gradient and leads to diversification in phenotypic directions that are orthogonal to the selection gradient. PMID:26598329

  3. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Ann eLeow

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Slowed gait in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the beat, which might be difficult for PD patients who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties which may improve motivation to move. As a first step in understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low groove music, high groove music, and metronome cues. High groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1 preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2 faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high groove music, and worst with low groove music. In addition, high groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation.

  4. Individual differences in beat perception affect gait responses to low- and high-groove music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leow, Li-Ann; Parrott, Taylor; Grahn, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    Slowed gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can be improved when patients synchronize footsteps to isochronous metronome cues, but limited retention of such improvements suggest that permanent cueing regimes are needed for long-term improvements. If so, music might make permanent cueing regimes more pleasant, improving adherence; however, music cueing requires patients to synchronize movements to the "beat," which might be difficult for patients with PD who tend to show weak beat perception. One solution may be to use high-groove music, which has high beat salience that may facilitate synchronization, and affective properties, which may improve motivation to move. As a first step to understanding how beat perception affects gait in complex neurological disorders, we examined how beat perception ability affected gait in neurotypical adults. Synchronization performance and gait parameters were assessed as healthy young adults with strong or weak beat perception synchronized to low-groove music, high-groove music, and metronome cues. High-groove music was predicted to elicit better synchronization than low-groove music, due to its higher beat salience. Two musical tempi, or rates, were used: (1) preferred tempo: beat rate matched to preferred step rate and (2) faster tempo: beat rate adjusted to 22.5% faster than preferred step rate. For both strong and weak beat-perceivers, synchronization performance was best with metronome cues, followed by high-groove music, and worst with low-groove music. In addition, high-groove music elicited longer and faster steps than low-groove music, both at preferred tempo and at faster tempo. Low-groove music was particularly detrimental to gait in weak beat-perceivers, who showed slower and shorter steps compared to uncued walking. The findings show that individual differences in beat perception affect gait when synchronizing footsteps to music, and have implications for using music in gait rehabilitation. PMID:25374521

  5. Performance evaluation of high-pressure MWPC with individual line readout under Cf-252 neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multiwire proportional chamber (MWPC) neutron detector system was developed for the Materials and Life Science Experimental Facility at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex. Its basic performance was evaluated by an irradiation experiment using a Cf-252 neutron source. A short response time and high spatial resolution can be obtained using an individual line readout method. The detector system exhibited a one-dimensional uniformity of response of 4.8% and 3.8% in the x- and y-directions, respectively. The uniformity of all pixels in the two-dimensional image was 7.9%. The average intrinsic spatial resolution was 1.55 mm full width at half maximum in the sensitive region calculated by taking into account the track lengths of secondary particles. The signal intensity of the system remained constant during the operation for 500 min under Cf-252 neutron irradiation.

  6. Instrumental neutron activation analysis of 23 individual food articles from a high altitude region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis has been used to evaluate potentially toxic trace element concentrations in twenty-three individual food items commonly consumed in a high altitude region (Kashmir) as a continuation of our previous study. Elemental intake levels of As, Br, Hg, Sb, and Se per person per day in meat, poultry, food grains, vegetables, fruits and milk have been calculated to assess the safety of dietary intake of these items. The dietary intake values have also been compared to the RDA levels. The data will provide the base-line levels of toxic elements in food items of this region. It will also help the dieticians to formulate safe and adequate diets for the residents of this region. (author)

  7. High incidence of unplanned pregnancy after antiretroviral therapy initiation: findings from a prospective cohort study in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheree R Schwartz

    Full Text Available Increased fertility rates in HIV-infected women receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART have been attributed to improved immunological function; it is unknown to what extent the rise in pregnancy rates is due to unintended pregnancies.Non-pregnant women ages 18-35 from four public-sector ART clinics in Johannesburg, South Africa, were enrolled into a prospective cohort and followed from August 2009-March 2011. Fertility intentions, contraception and pregnancy status were measured longitudinally at participants' routine ART clinic visits.Of the 850 women enrolled, 822 (97% had at least one follow-up visit and contributed 745.2 person-years (PY at-risk for incident pregnancy. Overall, 170 pregnancies were detected in 161 women (incidence rate [IR]: 21.6/100 PY [95% confidence interval (CI: 18.5-25.2]. Of the 170 pregnancies, 105 (62% were unplanned. Unmet need for contraception was 50% higher in women initiating ART in the past year as compared to women on ART>1 year (prevalence ratio 1.5 [95% CI: 1.1-2.0]; by two years post-ART initiation, nearly one quarter of women had at least one unplanned pregnancy. Cumulative incidence of pregnancy was equally high among recent ART initiators and ART experienced participants: 23.9% [95% CI: 16.4-34.1], 15.9% [12.0-20.8], and 21.0% [16.8-26.1] for women on ART 0-1 yr, >1 yr-2 yrs, and >2 yrs respectively (log-rank, p = 0.54. Eight hormonal contraceptive failures were detected [IR: 4.4 [95% CI: 2.2-8.9], 7/8 among women using injectable methods. Overall 47% (80/170 of pregnancies were not carried to term.Rates of unintended pregnancies among women on ART are high, including women recently initiating ART with lower CD4 counts and higher viral loads. A substantial burden of pregnancy loss was observed. Integration of contraceptive services and counselling into ART care is necessary to reduce maternal and child health risks related to mistimed and unwanted pregnancies. Further research into injectable

  8. Optical Emission of Individual GaN Nanocolumns Analyzed with High Spatial Resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, A; Müller, M; Karbaum, C; Schmidt, G; Veit, P; Malindretos, J; Bertram, F; Christen, J; Rizzi, A

    2015-08-12

    Selective area growth has been applied to fabricate a homogeneous array of GaN nanocolumns (NC) with high crystal quality. The structural and optical properties of single NCs have been investigated at the nanometer-scale by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and highly spatially resolved cathodoluminescence (CL) spectroscopy performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) at liquid helium temperatures. TEM cross-section analysis reveals excellent structural properties of the GaN NCs. Sporadically, isolated basal plane stacking faults (BSF) can be found resulting in a remarkably low BSF density in the almost entire NC ensemble. Both, defect-free NCs and NCs with few BSFs have been investigated. The low defect density within the NCs allows the characterization of individual BSFs, which is of high interest for studying their optical properties. Direct nanometer-scale correlation of the CL and STEM data clearly exhibits a spatial correlation of the emission at 360.6 nm (3.438 eV) with the location of basal plane stacking faults of type I1. PMID:26225541

  9. Energy issues in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy

  10. Northwest Africa 8535 and Northwest Africa 10463: New Insights into the Angrite Parent Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. R.; Agee, C. B.; Shearer, C. K.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2016-01-01

    The angrite meteorites are valuable samples of igneous rocks formed early in Solar System history (approx.4.56 Ga, summarized in [1]). This small meteorite group (approx.24 individually named specimens) consists of rocks with somewhat exotic mineral compositions (e.g., high Ca olivine, Al-Ti-bearing diopside-hedenbergite, calcium silico-phosphates), resulting in exotic bulk rock compositions. These mineral assemblages remain fairly consistent among angrite samples, which suggests they formed due to similar processes from a single mantle source. There is still debate over the formation process for these rocks (see summary in [1]), and analysis of additional angrite samples may help to address this debate. Toward this end, we have begun to study two new angrites, Northwest Africa 8535, a dunite, and Northwest Africa 10463, a basaltic angrite.

  11. Faces in a crowd: high socially anxious individuals estimate that more people are looking at them than low socially anxious individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia C Bolt

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: People with social anxiety disorder are afraid of being scrutinized by others and often feel that they are the excessive focus of other people's attention. This study investigated whether, when compared to low socially anxious individuals, high socially anxious individuals overestimate the proportion of people in a crowd who are observing them. It was hypothesized that any potential overestimation would be modulated by self-focused attention. METHOD: Forty-eight high and 48 low socially anxious participants performed a "faces in a crowd" computer task during which they briefly saw matrices of faces, which varied in terms of the proportion of people who were looking at them. Participants estimated the proportion of people who were looking at them. The task was performed once with mirrors present (to induce an enhanced self-focused state and once without mirrors present (neutral state. RESULTS: Participants' subjective estimates and the objective proportion of faces looking towards them were strongly correlated in both the high and low socially anxious groups. However, high socially anxious participants estimated that more people were looking at them than low socially anxious participants. In the first phase of the experiment, but not in the later phases, this effect was magnified in the mirror condition. DISCUSSION: This study provides preliminary evidence of a social anxiety related perceptual difference that may be amplified by self-focused attention. Clinical implications are discussed.

  12. Socialization of Physical and Social Aggression in Early Adolescents' Peer Groups: High-Status Peers, Individual Status, and Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Bing; Xie, Hongling

    2012-01-01

    The influence of high-status peers on a target individual's physical and manipulative social aggression in peer groups was examined in a diverse sample of seventh-grade students. A total of 245 individual members belonging to 65 groups were included in analyses. Aggression was assessed by peer and victim nominations in the fall and spring…

  13. ICTs for Agriculture in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...

  14. High level of molecular and phenotypic biodiversity in Jatropha curcas from Central America compared to Africa, Asia and South America

    OpenAIRE

    Montes Osorio, Luis; Torres Salvador, Andres; Jongschaap, Raymond Elmar; Azurdia Perez, Cesar; Berduo Sandoval, Julio; Trindade, Luisa; Visser, Richard Gerardus; van Loo, Eibertus

    2014-01-01

    Background The main bottleneck to elevate jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) from a wild species to a profitable biodiesel crop is the low genetic and phenotypic variation found in different regions of the world, hampering efficient plant breeding for productivity traits. In this study, 182 accessions from Asia (91), Africa (35), South America (9) and Central America (47) were evaluated at genetic and phenotypic level to find genetic variation and important traits for oilseed production. Results G...

  15. Modelling the public health impact of male circumcision for HIV prevention in high prevalence areas in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Moses Stephen; Nagelkerke Nico JD; de Vlas Sake J; Bailey Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent clinical trials in Africa, in combination with several observational epidemiological studies, have provided evidence that male circumcision can reduce HIV female-to-male transmission risk by 60% or more. However, the public health impact of large-scale male circumcision programs for HIV prevention is unclear. Methods Two mathematical models were examined to explore this issue: a random mixing model and a compartmental model that distinguishes risk groups associated ...

  16. Evaluation of high volume extracapsular cataract extraction with posterior chamber lens implantation in Sierra Leone, west Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, N J

    1996-01-01

    AIMS: Intraocular lens (IOP) implantation in sub-Saharan Africa is not the routine procedure of choice in the treatment of cataract. Previous series consist of small numbers of selected patients. The purpose of this study was to evaluate routine posterior chamber lens implantation in large numbers of consecutive patients. METHODS: 1059 cataract extractions with planned IOL (744 patients) were performed over a 1 year period from August 1993 to July 1994. RESULTS: 94.6% (1002) of eyes showed an...

  17. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolates expressing low- and high-level mupirocin resistance in Nigeria and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udo Edet E

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mupirocin is a topical antimicrobial agent which is used for the treatment of skin and postoperative wound infections, and the prevention of nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. However, the prevalence of mupirocin resistance in S. aureus, particularly in MRSA, has increased with the extensive and widespread use of this agent in hospital settings. This study characterized low- and high-level mupirocin-resistant S. aureus isolates obtained from Nigeria and South Africa. Methods A total of 17 mupirocin-resistant S. aureus isolates obtained from two previous studies in Nigeria and South Africa, were characterized by antibiogram, PCR-RFLP of the coagulase gene and PFGE. High-level mupirocin resistant isolates were confirmed by PCR detection of the mupA gene. The genetic location of the resistance determinants was established by curing and transfer experiments. Results All the low-level mupirocin resistant isolates were MRSA and resistant to gentamicin, tetracycline and trimethoprim. PFGE identified a major clone in two health care institutions located in Durban and a health care facility in Pietermaritzburg, Greytown and Empangeni. Curing and transfer experiments indicated that high-level mupirocin resistance was located on a 41.1 kb plasmid in the South African strain (A15. Furthermore, the transfer of high-level mupirocin resistance was demonstrated by the conjugative transfer of the 41.1 kb plasmid alone or with the co-transfer of a plasmid encoding resistance to cadmium. The size of the mupirocin-resistance encoding plasmid in the Nigerian strain (35 IBA was approximately 35 kb. Conclusion The emergence of mupirocin-resistant S. aureus isolates in Nigeria and South Africa should be of great concern to medical personnel in these countries. It is recommended that methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA and MRSA should be routinely tested for mupirocin resistance even in facilities where the agent

  18. High individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of rural and urban burrowing owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrete, Martina; Tella, José L.

    2013-12-01

    Human-induced rapid environmental changes challenge individuals by creating evolutionarily novel scenarios, where species encounter novel enemies, the new species sometimes being humans themselves. However, little is known about how individuals react to human presence, specifically whether they are able to habituate to human presence, as frequently assumed, or are selected based on their fear of humans. We tested whether fear of humans (measured as flight initiation distance in a diurnal owl) is reduced through habituation to human presence (plasticity) or whether it remains unchanged throughout the individuals' life. Results show an unusually high level of individual consistency in fear of humans throughout the adult lifespan of both rural (r = 0.96) and urban (r = 0.90) birds, lending no support to habituation. Further research should assess the role of inter-individual variability in fear of humans in shaping the distribution of individuals and species in an increasingly humanized world.

  19. SEROPREVALENCE OF HEPATITIS-C VIRUS IN BLOOD DONORS AND HIGH RISK INDIVIDUALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirmala

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV continues to be a major dis ease burden affecting about 200 million people in world. Using blood donors as a preva lence source may underestimate the real prevalence of the virus because the donors are highl y selected population. Presently more evidences support intravenous drug use as leading ris k factor for the spread of virus. OBJECTIVES: The study aims at finding out the seroprevelance of Hepatitis C virus in high risk individuals as well as healthy blood donors. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The study group comprise of 350 subjects which included 150 healthy voluntary donors as control group and 200 subjects taken from different high risk popu lation like intravenous drug abuser (50, patients on long term haemodialysis (40, patients with chronic liver disease (50, HIV positive cases (30, health care workers (30. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: Percentage. RESULTS: Seropositivity for anti HCV antibody was found to b e 12% (24/200 among high risk population and 0.66 % (1/150 in healthy voluntary blood don ors. Among different high risk groups, maximum prevalence rate 28% (14/50 was found in I.V drug abusers. Fifty percent (7/14 of the seropositive parenteral drug abusers were male i n the age group of 21-30 years followed by 35.7% (5/14 in 31-40 years of age group. Only one f emale (7.14% between 21-30 years was found to be sero-reactive for antiHCV antibody. In HIV co-infected cases 13.33 % (4/30 were seropositive for antiHCV antibody. In chronic liver disease (two hepatocellular carcinoma, one cirrhosis and one chronic hepatitis and long standi ng haemodialysis, the prevalence rate for anti HCV was found to be 8% (4/50 and 5% (2/40 re spectively. None of the health workers (0/30 found to be sero-reactive for antiHCV antibo dy. CONCLUSIONS: HCV poses a serious worldwide health problem affecting people from all wal ks of life in every country. In the present study 12% and 0.66% HCV prevalence was noticed in hi gh risk

  20. Becoming a high-fidelity - super - imitator: what are the contributions of social and individual learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiaul, Francys; Patterson, Eric M; Schilder, Brian; Renner, Elizabeth; Barr, Rachel

    2015-11-01

    In contrast to other primates, human children's imitation performance goes from low to high fidelity soon after infancy. Are such changes associated with the development of other forms of learning? We addressed this question by testing 215 children (26-59 months) on two social conditions (imitation, emulation) - involving a demonstration - and two asocial conditions (trial-and-error, recall) - involving individual learning - using two touchscreen tasks. The tasks required responding to either three different pictures in a specific picture order (Cognitive: Airplane→Ball→Cow) or three identical pictures in a specific spatial order (Motor-Spatial: Up→Down→Right). There were age-related improvements across all conditions and imitation, emulation and recall performance were significantly better than trial-and-error learning. Generalized linear models demonstrated that motor-spatial imitation fidelity was associated with age and motor-spatial emulation performance, but cognitive imitation fidelity was only associated with age. While this study provides evidence for multiple imitation mechanisms, the development of one of those mechanisms - motor-spatial imitation - may be bootstrapped by the development of another social learning skill - motor-spatial emulation. Together, these findings provide important clues about the development of imitation, which is arguably a distinctive feature of the human species. PMID:25545051

  1. Financing Water in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated policy initiatives from donors and governments, the human and economic cost of continued lack of access to safe water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Progress is in large part constrained by a persistent ‘financing gap’. This paper shows that a radical reorientation of policy is needed to achieve a significant increase in investment finance in order to raise access levels. Rather than continuing to pursue policies that have failed for the past two decades, ...

  2. Label-free high-throughput detection and content sensing of individual droplets in microfluidic systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesiloz, Gurkan; Boybay, Muhammed Said; Ren, Carolyn L

    2015-10-21

    This study reports a microwave-microfluidics integrated approach capable of performing droplet detection at high-throughput as well as content sensing of individual droplets without chemical or physical intrusion. The sensing system consists of a custom microwave circuitry and a spiral-shaped microwave resonator that is integrated with microfluidic chips where droplets are generated. The microwave circuitry is very cost effective by using off-the-shelf components only. It eliminates the need for bulky benchtop equipment, and provides a compact, rapid and sensitive tool compatible for Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) platforms. To evaluate the resonator's sensing capability, it was first applied to differentiate between single-phase fluids which are aqueous solutions with different concentrations of glucose and potassium chloride respectively by measuring its reflection coefficient as a function of frequency. The minimum concentration assessed was 0.001 g ml(-1) for potassium chloride and 0.01 g ml(-1) for glucose. In the droplet detection experiments, it is demonstrated that the microwave sensor is able to detect droplets generated at as high throughput as 3.33 kHz. Around two million droplets were counted over a period of ten minutes without any missing. For droplet sensing experiments, pairs of droplets that were encapsulated with biological materials were generated alternatively in a double T-junction configuration and clearly identified by the microwave sensor. The sensed biological materials include fetal bovine serum, penicillin antibiotic mixture, milk (2% mf) and d-(+)-glucose. This system has significant advantages over optical detection methods in terms of its cost, size and compatibility with LOC settings and also presents significant improvements over other electrical-based detection techniques in terms of its sensitivity and throughput. PMID:26351007

  3. Stress redistribution in individual ultrathin strained silicon nanowires: a high-resolution polarized Raman study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain nano-engineering provides valuable opportunities to create high-performance nanodevices by a precise tailoring of semiconductor band structure. Achieving these enhanced capabilities has sparked a surge of interest in controlling strain on the nanoscale. In this work, the stress behavior in ultrathin strained silicon nanowires directly on oxide is elucidated using background-free, high-resolution polarized Raman spectroscopy. We established a theoretical framework to quantify the stress from Raman shifts taking into account the anisotropy associated with the nanowire quasi-one-dimensional morphology. The investigated nanowires have lateral dimensions of 30, 50 and 80 nm and a length of 1 μm top-down fabricated by patterning and etching 15 nm thick biaxially tensile strained silicon nanomembranes generated using heteroepitaxy and ultrathin layer transfer. The concern over the contribution of Raman scattering at the nanowire 〈110〉 oriented sidewalls is circumvented by precisely selecting the incident polarization relative to the sidewalls of the nanowire, thus enabling an accurate and rigorous analysis of stress profiles in individual nanowires. Unlike suspended nanowires, which become uniaxially strained as a result of free surface-induced relaxation, we demonstrated that stress profiles in single nanowires are rather complex and non-uniform along different directions due to the oxide–nanowire interface. As a general trend, higher stresses are observed at the center of the nanowire and found to decrease linearly as a function of the nanowire width. Using multi-wavelength high-resolution Raman spectroscopy, we also extracted the stress profiles at different depths in the nanowire. The residual stress in the top ∼10 nm of the nanowire was found to be nearly uniaxial and increase from the edge toward the center, which remains highly strained. In contrast, the average stress profiles measured over the whole nanowire thickness exhibit different behavior

  4. South Atlantic continental margins of Africa: a comparison of the tectonic vs climate interplay on the evolution of equatorial west Africa and SW Africa margins

    CERN Document Server

    Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie

    2005-01-01

    The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...

  5. The association between polyunsaturated fatty acid consumption and the transition to psychosis in ultra-high risk individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawełczyk, T; Trafalska, E; Kotlicka-Antczak, M; Pawełczyk, A

    2016-05-01

    PUFA deficiencies in cellular membranes have been observed in ultra-high risk (HR) individuals and in early schizophrenia. It is uncertain whether dietary PUFA consumption can be associated with the risk of transition to psychosis in HR individuals. The aim of the study was to assess PUFA consumption and confirm whether dietary habits are related to the risk of transition to full-threshold psychosis in HR individuals during a 12-month follow-up. PUFA consumption during the previous year was analyzed in 62 h individuals and 33 healthy controls (HC) at the beginning of the follow-up period using a validated Food-Frequency Questionnaire and the Polish Food Composition Tables. Fifteen HR individuals converted into psychosis (C-HR) during the 12-month follow-up. C-HR individuals reported significantly higher consumption of n-6 fatty acids (linoleic acid, LA and arachidonic acid, AA) in comparison with individuals who did not develop psychosis (NC-HR). The C-HR group reported a significantly higher AA/(EPA+DHA) consumption ratio than the NC-HR group. HC reported significantly higher consumption of most n-3 PUFA and lower consumption of all n-6 PUFA than both groups of HR individuals. The results suggest that dietary patterns of PUFA consumption may play a role in the conversion to psychosis of HR individuals. PMID:27154362

  6. A meta-analysis of differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder and high-functioning autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Hsu-Min; Tsai, Luke Y; Cheung, Ying Kuen; Brown, Alice; Li, Huacheng

    2014-07-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to examine differences in IQ profiles between individuals with Asperger's disorder (AspD) and high-functioning autism (HFA). Fifty-two studies were included for this study. The results showed that (a) individuals with AspD had significantly higher full-scale IQ, verbal IQ (VIQ), and performance IQ (PIQ) than did individuals with HFA; (b) individuals with AspD had significantly higher VIQ than PIQ; and (c) VIQ was similar to PIQ in individuals with HFA. These findings seem to suggest that AspD and HFA are two different subtypes of Autism. The implications of the present findings to DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder are discussed. PMID:24362849

  7. Identifying individuals at high risk of psychosis: predictive utility of Support Vector Machine using structural and functional MRI data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel eValli

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The identification of individuals at high risk of developing psychosis is entirely based on clinical assessment, associated with limited predictive potential. There is therefore increasing interest in the development of biological markers that could be used in clinical practice for this purpose. We studied 25 individuals with an At Risk Mental State for psychosis and 25 healthy controls using structural MRI, and functional MRI in conjunction with a verbal memory task. Data were analysed using a standard univariate analysis, and with Support Vector Machine (SVM, a multivariate pattern recognition technique that enables statistical inferences to be made at the level of the individual, yielding results with high translational potential. The application of SVM to structural MRI data permitted the identification of individuals at high risk of psychosis with a sensitivity of 68% and a specificity of 76%, resulting in an accuracy of 72% (p<0.001. Univariate volumetric between-group differences did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, the univariate fMRI analysis identified between-group differences (p<0.05 corrected while the application of SVM to the same data did not. Since SVM is well suited at identifying the pattern of abnormality that distinguishes two groups, whereas univariate methods are more likely to identify regions that individually are most different between two groups, our results suggest the presence of focal functional abnormalities in the context of a diffuse pattern of structural abnormalities in individuals at high clinical risk of psychosis.

  8. Intraocular lens design for treating high myopia based on individual eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wang, Zhaoqi; Wang, Yan; Zuo, Tong

    2007-02-01

    In this research, we firstly design the phakic intraocular lens (PIOL) based on individual eye model with optical design software ZEMAX. The individual PIOL is designed to correct the defocus and astigmatism, and then we compare the PIOL power calculated from the individual eye model with that from the experiential formula. Close values of PIOL power are obtained between the individual eye model and the formula, but the suggested method has more accuracy with more functions. The impact of PIOL decentration on human eye is evaluated, including rotation decentration, flat axis decentration, steep axis decentration and axial movement of PIOL, which is impossible with traditional method. To control the PIOL decentration errors, we give the limit values of PIOL decentration for the specific eye in this study.

  9. Technology of individualization of training future teacher of pre-school education in high school

    OpenAIRE

    Valentina Abashina; Svetlana Yakob

    2016-01-01

    The article deals with the modern educational technology training individualization of the future teacher of pre-school education, describes the conditions of their use in the educational process with students, reveals the osobennsti introduction this modular technology training.

  10. The Revival of Regional Integration In Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bach, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The need for regional integration in Africa has never seemed more compelling, however the numerous programmes and institutions have achieved very little since independence. Regionalization reveals itself in sub-Saharan Africa through complex and often conflicting trends of interaction. Commitment to regional integration in Africa has been constrained by a highly ambivalent critique of the colonial heritage. At independence, the leaders of the new states readily acknowledged the d...

  11. South Africa; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for South Africa. South Africa’s financial sector operates in a challenging economic environment. Despite remarkable progress since the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africa still has one of the world’s highest unemployment and income inequality rates. Slow economic growth since 2008 has further aggravated unemployment, real disposable income is stagnant, and households are heavily indebted. Relatively high capita...

  12. Uranium enrichment in South Africa: from the world-unique Z-plant to the use of high-technology lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A historical discussion of the technology used in South Africa for the enrichment of uranium, as well as other technological spin-offs for the country that followed from the construction of the Z-plant. The national energy strategy and objectives of the government during the Apartheid years resulted in the development of several large-scale energy projects. The pressure of sanctions forced the Z-plant to be rushed into operation at an uneconomical capacity of 250 000 SWU per annum. In 1994 this implied that enriched uranium was produced at a cost of $200 per SWU while the world market price was below $90. While the production of enriched uranium at the Z-plant ceased early in 1995, the expertise gained will not be lost entirely. As a result of the high energy and financial capital intensive current methods of producing enriched uranium, research started in the early 1970's into alternative production processes making use of lasers. South Africa has opted for the MLIS (molecular laser isotope separation) process, as a result of its vast experience gained from the Z-plant in the handling of the molecular input gas UF6 (uranium hexafluoride), and this has been under development since the early 1980's. During 1994 significant progress was made with MLIS, in particular with single-step enrichment from natural uranium to better than 4% uranium 235 on a macro scale. The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa's strategy is to licence the process internationally. 3 tabs., 3 figs

  13. Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus subtype H5N1 in Africa: a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis and molecular characterization of isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Cattoli

    Full Text Available Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in early 2006. Since the first outbreak in Nigeria, this virus spread rapidly to other African countries. From its emergence to early 2008, 11 African countries experienced A/H5N1 outbreaks in poultry and human cases were also reported in three of these countries. At present, little is known of the epidemiology and molecular evolution of A/H5N1 viruses in Africa. We have generated 494 full gene sequences from 67 African isolates and applied molecular analysis tools to a total of 1,152 A/H5N1 sequences obtained from viruses isolated in Africa, Europe and the Middle East between 2006 and early 2008. Detailed phylogenetic analyses of the 8 gene viral segments confirmed that 3 distinct sublineages were introduced, which have persisted and spread across the continent over this 2-year period. Additionally, our molecular epidemiological studies highlighted the association between genetic clustering and area of origin in a majority of cases. Molecular signatures unique to strains isolated in selected areas also gave us a clearer picture of the spread of A/H5N1 viruses across the continent. Mutations described as typical of human influenza viruses in the genes coding for internal proteins or associated with host adaptation and increased resistance to antiviral drugs have also been detected in the genes coding for transmembrane proteins. These findings raise concern for the possible human health risk presented by viruses with these genetic properties and highlight the need for increased efforts to monitor the evolution of A/H5N1 viruses across the African continent. They further stress how imperative it is to implement sustainable control strategies to improve animal and public health at a global level.

  14. Graves' Disease as a Manifestation of Immune Reconstitution in HIV-Infected Individuals after Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Faria Farhat; Jhansi Gajjala; Robert Delapenha; Syeda Mehreen Zahra; Samad Rasul

    2011-01-01

    Graves' disease after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in certain HIV-1-infected individuals has been described as an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). This phenomenon should be suspected in individuals who present with clinical deterioration and a presentation suggestive of hyperthyroidism despite good virological and immunological response to HAART. Signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism may be discrete or overt and typically develop 8–33 month...

  15. Individualized lung recruitment during high-frequency ventilation in preterm infants is not associated with lung hyperinflation and air leaks

    OpenAIRE

    De Jaegere, Anne P; Deurloo, Eline E.; van Rijn, Rick R.; Offringa, Martin; van Kaam, Anton H.

    2016-01-01

    Lung recruitment during high-frequency ventilation (HFV) in preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) has been associated with an increased risk of lung hyperinflation and air leaks. Individualizing the lung recruitment procedure to the severity of lung disease of each patient might reduce these risks. In this prospective cohort study, we evaluated chest X-ray (CXR) characteristics during individualized oxygenation-guided lung recruitment with HFV in preterm infants with RDS, b...

  16. Individual tree segmentation over large areas using airborne LiDAR point cloud and very high resolution optical imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Qin, Y.; Ferraz, A.; C. Mallet; Iovan, Corina

    2015-01-01

    Timely and accurate measuremen ts of forest parameters are critical for ecosystem studies, sustainable forest resources management, monitoring and planning. This paper presents a processing chain for individual tree segmentation over large areas with airborne LiDAR 3D point cloud and very high resolution (VHR) optical imagery. The proposed processing chain consists of fo rest stand level delineation with optical imagery, individual tree segmentation with Canopy ...

  17. Africa Development Indicators 2006

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    Africa Development Indicators 2006 is the latest annual report from the World Bank on social and economic conditions across the continent. It was revamped this year to better report and monitor the challenges and transformations in Africa. Africa Development Indicators has evolved from a single data book, and this year consists of three independent but complementary products: this book, which brings together an essay and key outcome indicators for Africa, the Little Data Book on Africa 2006, ...

  18. Markers of human immunodeficiency virus infection in high-risk individuals seronegative by first generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, C; Lindhardt, B O; Lauritzen, E;

    1989-01-01

    A total of 228 stored serum samples from 140 high risk individuals was examined for serological markers of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by second generation enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, immunoblot, and HIV antigen assay. All the samples were negative in first generation enzyme...... obtained. They were all negative by the tests employed. Further, 37 serum samples from 20 seroconverters were studied. Four patients had antigenaemia 6-12 months before seroconversion was detected by first generation ELISA. Our data do not support the notion that serological signs of HIV infection are...... common in high risk individuals seronegative by first generation ELISA. However, HIV infection do occur in subjects negative by first generation ELISA, which emphasises the need for more sensitive screening assays and/or the use of antigen detection as part of screening in high risk individuals. The...

  19. High-definition optical coherence tomography enables visualization of individual cells in healthy skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc; Jemec, Gregor B E; Del Marmol, Véronique

    2012-01-01

    HD-OCT could be confirmed by the phantom analysis. The identification of cells in the epidermis can be made by both techniques. RCM offers the best lateral resolution, and HD-OCT has the best penetration depth, providing images of individual cells deeper within the dermis. Eccrine ducts and hair...... shafts with pilosebaceous units can be observed depending on skin site. HD-OCT provides morphological imaging with sufficient resolution and penetration depth to permit visualization of individual cells at up to 570 μm in depth offering the possibility of additional structural information complementary...

  20. Rediscovering Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which China and Africa began a friendship that was built around Beijing’s political backing and developmental aid to a crop of emerging indepen- dent African nations.In the 1980s and 1990s,China shifted its focus by devoting more efforts to establishing a rapport with big powers and neighboring countries to create a sound environment for self-development.Since the turn of the cen- tury,however,the African continent has been rediscovered by China as a strategic partner in many areas.As the Chinese market has flourished,so too has the African economy,which maintained a growth momentum in recent years and has achieved a modest prosperity rarely seen in its history. He Fan,Deputy Director of the Research Center on International Finance affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shared his comments about this partnership on blog on the eve of the New Year.

  1. Can remote high-resolution mapping help individual-based fish population models go up-scale? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, B.; Railsback, S.

    2009-12-01

    Spatially explicit, individual-based models of fish populations show great promise for linking physical conditions and processes to population dynamics. The ability to link physical processes and population outcomes is critical for optimizing habitat restoration efforts, forecasting the consequences of climate change, evaluating flow regimes, and other activities necessary to sustain at-risk fish populations. Because individual-based models simulate habitat from the perspective of individual fish, they commonly capture variation in physical habitat on a scale of 1- 50 square meters and rely on simulations (including hydraulic modeling) at the reach scale (0.2 to 1 km). Simulated reaches can be linked in some models such that virtual fish can move among them. The significance of the size, location and arrangement of reaches included in IBM simulations of fish populations has not been investigated in detail. However, the process of reach selection clearly benefits from information on channel physical conditions at the network scale, so that reaches can be selected to well-represent the diversity of habitat at larger spatial scales. High-resolution mapping of channel topography would be a richer source of network-scale information than others used to date, such as habitat typing and simple video. Remote, high-resolution mapping data might also provide a major step forward in the capability of individual-based models to address fish population dynamics at the network scale if the mapping data could be directly used for hydraulic simulations. Challenges for this step include the need to estimate physical habitat variables included in individual-based models that may not be readily discernable from topographic data, such as the availability of cover for fish. Exploring the use of high-resolution mapping data in individual-based modeling of fish populations seems worth doing, in that the individual-based models should be a particularly effective way to derive biological

  2. High-levels of acquired drug resistance in adult patients failing first-line antiretroviral therapy in a rural HIV treatment programme in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justen Manasa

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and patterns of acquired antiretroviral drug resistance in a rural primary health care programme in South Africa. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study nested within HIV treatment programme. METHODS: Adult (≥ 18 years HIV-infected individuals initially treated with a first-line stavudine- or zidovudine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART regimen and with evidence of virological failure (one viral load >1000 copies/ml were enrolled from 17 rural primary health care clinics. Genotypic resistance testing was performed using the in-house SATuRN/Life Technologies system. Sequences were analysed and genotypic susceptibility scores (GSS for standard second-line regimens were calculated using the Stanford HIVDB 6.0.5 algorithms. RESULTS: A total of 222 adults were successfully genotyped for HIV drug resistance between December 2010 and March 2012. The most common regimens at time of genotype were stavudine, lamivudine and efavirenz (51%; and stavudine, lamivudine and nevirapine (24%. Median duration of ART was 42 months (interquartile range (IQR 32-53 and median duration of antiretroviral failure was 27 months (IQR 17-40. One hundred and ninety one (86% had at least one drug resistance mutation. For 34 individuals (15%, the GSS for the standard second-line regimen was <2, suggesting a significantly compromised regimen. In univariate analysis, individuals with a prior nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI substitution were more likely to have a GSS <2 than those on the same NRTIs throughout (odds ratio (OR 5.70, 95% confidence interval (CI 2.60-12.49. CONCLUSIONS: There are high levels of drug resistance in adults with failure of first-line antiretroviral therapy in this rural primary health care programme. Standard second-line regimens could potentially have had reduced efficacy in about one in seven adults involved.

  3. Repairing Distance and Facilitating Support: Reassurance Seeking by Highly Avoidant Individuals Is Associated With Greater Closeness and Partner Support.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girme, Yuthika U; Molloy, Phoebe R; Overall, Nickola C

    2016-05-01

    The interpersonal consequences of reassurance seeking may depend on who is seeking reassurance. This research examined whether greater reassurance seeking during couples' support-relevant discussions was associated with greater partner support when enacted by more avoidant individuals who typically minimize dependence in their relationships. Three dyadic studies (N= 246 couples) demonstrated that the interpersonal effects of reassurance seeking were moderated by attachment avoidance. Greater reassurance seeking repaired the lack of closeness thatpartnersof highly avoidant individuals typically feel (Study 3), and these partners, in turn, provided more support across studies. In contrast, greater reassurance seeking by less avoidant individuals was associated withpartnersfeeling less close (Study 3), but was not associated with partners' support across studies. These results provide the first evidence that reassurance seeking during support-relevant interactions can repair distance and facilitate support, but these positive interpersonal effects occur when reassurance seekers are high in attachment avoidance. PMID:27056963

  4. Attentional bias in high math-anxious individuals: evidence from an emotional Stroop task

    OpenAIRE

    Suárez-Pellicioni, Macarena; Núñez-Peña, Maria Isabel; Colomé, Àngels

    2015-01-01

    Attentional bias toward threatening or emotional information is considered a cognitive marker of anxiety, and it has been described in various clinical and subclinical populations. This study used an emotional Stroop task to investigate whether math anxiety is characterized by an attentional bias toward math-related words. Two previous studies failed to observe such an effect in math-anxious individuals, although the authors acknowledged certain methodological limitations that the present stu...

  5. Predicting Bullying Among High School Students Using Individual and School Factors: Analysis of a National Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bohn, Chad M.

    2011-01-01

    Being bullied has been recognized as a problem within the U.S. school systems. Individuals who have been bullied physically, verbally, relationally, or electronically typically suffer from mental health problems as a result. As it has been shown that males are more at risk for being bullied, it is important to understand what variables can predict males being bullied in order to design appropriate preventions and interventions to curb bullying in the schools. Four forms of school bullying beh...

  6. Seed+Expand: A Validated Methodology for Creating High Quality Publication Oeuvres of Individual Researchers.

    OpenAIRE

    Reijnhoudt, L.; Costas, R.; Noyons, E.; Borner, K; A. SCHARNHORST

    2013-01-01

    The study of science at the individual micro-level frequently requires the disambiguation of author names. The creation of author's publication oeuvres involves matching the list of unique author names to names used in publication databases. Despite recent progress in the development of unique author identifiers, e.g., ORCID, VIVO, or DAI, author disambiguation remains a key problem when it comes to large-scale bibliometric analysis using data from multiple databases. This study introduces an...

  7. Perception of emotional facial expressions in individuals with high Autism-spectrum Quotient (AQ)

    OpenAIRE

    Poljac, Ervin

    2012-01-01

    Autism is characterized by difficulties in social interaction, communication, restrictive and repetitive behaviours and specific impairments in emotional processing. The present study employed The Autism Spectrum Quotient (Baron-Cohen et al. 2006) to quantify autistic traits in a group of 260 healthy individuals and to investigate whether this measure is related to the perception of facial emotional expressions. The emotional processing of twelve participants that scored significantly higher ...

  8. Do Natural Disasters Stimulate Individual Saving? Evidence from a Natural Experiment in a Highly Developed Country

    OpenAIRE

    Berlemann, Michael; Steinhardt, Max; Tutt, Jascha

    2015-01-01

    While various empirical studies have found negative growth-effects of natural disasters, little is yet known about the microeconomic channels through which disasters might affect short- and especially long-term growth. This paper contributes to filling this gap in the literature by studying how natural disasters affect individual saving decisions. This study makes use of a natural experiment created by the European Flood of August 2002. Using micro data from the German Socio-Economic Panel th...

  9. Integrative clustering of high-dimensional data with joint and individual clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellton, Kristoffer H; Thoresen, Magne

    2016-07-01

    When measuring a range of genomic, epigenomic, and transcriptomic variables for the same tissue sample, an integrative approach to analysis can strengthen inference and lead to new insights. This is also the case when clustering patient samples, and several integrative cluster procedures have been proposed. Common for these methodologies is the restriction to a joint cluster structure, equal in all data layers. We instead present a clustering extension of the Joint and Individual Variance Explained algorithm (JIVE), Joint and Individual Clustering (JIC), enabling the construction of both joint and data type-specific clusters simultaneously. The procedure builds on the connection between k-means clustering and principal component analysis, and hence, the number of clusters can be determined by the number of relevant principal components. The proposed procedure is compared with iCluster, a method restricted to only joint clusters, and simulations show that JIC is clearly advantageous when both individual and joint clusters are present. The procedure is illustrated using gene expression and miRNA levels measured in breast cancer tissue from The Cancer Genome Atlas. The analysis suggests a division into three joint clusters common for both data types and two expression-specific clusters. PMID:26917056

  10. Moko Jumbies: Dancing Spirits from Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, S. A.; Phillips, Claire; Moore, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    The original Moko Jumbie was a spirit dancer from West Africa. "Moko" is a West African word that refers to gods and "Jumbie" means ghost. In West Africa, Moko Jumbies are known to kidnap and eat disobedient children, steal dreams and see into evildoers' hearts and terrorize them. They walk through villages on 10- to 15-foot-high stilts wearing…

  11. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  12. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  13. Environmental change at the southern Cape coast of South Africa as inferred from a high-resolution Holocene sediment record from Eilandvlei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wündsch, Michael; Haberzettl, Torsten; Meadows, Michael E.; Kirsten, Kelly L.; Meschner, Stephanie; Frenzel, Peter; Baade, Jussi; Daut, Gerhard; Mäusbacher, Roland; Kasper, Thomas; Quick, Lynne J.; Cawthra, Hayley C.; Zabel, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    reservoir effects for the older deposits. This indicates a temporal variability on the degree of old marine carbon affecting Eilandvlei during the Holocene, which was possibly caused by changes in the connectivity between the lake system and the ocean as well as changes in the extent of upwelling along the coast. To solve this problem, variable past reservoir effects were determined based on the dating of sample pairs which were assumingly deposited contemporaneously and are composed of different source material (marine/terrestrial). This approach provides the most reliable chronology revealing a median basal age of 8880 +145/220 cal BP. Thus, the Eilandvlei core represents an ultra-high-resolution record of environmental change during the Holocene, which is a unique discovery for entire southern Africa. Palaeoenvironmental interpretations of the this record strongly suggest that sedimentation conditions at Eilandvlei were closely coupled to global sea level changes. Moreover, the multi-proxy approach provides great potential for palaeoclimatic interpretations of this record. For example, geochemical proxies reflecting the varying input of terrestrial material suggest changes in the discharge of inflowing rivers which, in turn, may be linked to variations in rainfall and hence climate within the year-round rainfall zone of South Africa.

  14. Selected Annotated Bibliography: "Schools as Learning Communities." The Creation of High-Performance Schools through Organizational and Individual Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, James; Nakayama, Michelle

    This annotated bibliography is part of a three-part report on creating high performing schools through organizational and individual learning. It includes such topics as: teachers supporting teachers; educational improvement via total quality management; overcoming barriers to organizational change; the institutionalization of public schools;…

  15. Take One for the Team? Influence of Team and Individual Sport Participation on High School Athlete Substance Use Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulesza, Magdalena; Grossbard, Joel R.; Kilmer, Jason; Copeland, Amy L.; Larimer, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    The current Web-based survey investigated the association between team or individual sport participation (or both) and self-reported alcohol and tobacco use among high school athletes (N = 1,275) transitioning to college. Peak blood alcohol concentration, weekly drinking, and alcohol-related problems were significantly lower among athletes in…

  16. A stable, reusable, and highly active photosynthetic bioreactor by bio-interfacing an individual cyanobacterium with a mesoporous bilayer nanoshell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nan; Yang, Xiao-Yu; Deng, Zhao; Wang, Li; Hu, Zhi-Yi; Tian, Ge; Ying, Guo-Liang; Shen, Ling; Zhang, Ming-Xi; Su, Bao-Lian

    2015-05-01

    An individual cyanobacterium cell is interfaced with a nanoporous biohybrid layer within a mesoporous silica layer. The bio-interface acts as an egg membrane for cell protection and growth of outer shell. The resulting bilayer shell provides efficient functions to create a single cell photosynthetic bioreactor with high stability, reusability, and activity. PMID:25641812

  17. High mortality risk among individuals assumed to be TB-negative can be predicted using a simple test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rabna, Paulo; Andersen, Andreas; Wejse, Christian;

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine mortality among assumed TB negative (aTBneg) individuals in Guinea-Bissau and to investigate whether plasma levels of soluble urokinase receptor (suPAR) can be used to determine post-consultation mortality risk. METHODS: This prospective West-African cohort study included......PAR levels <15 ng/ml and mortality. In the log-linear range, a 1 ng/ml increase was associated with a 46% increase in the mortality rate: MRR = 1.46 (95% CI 1.34-1.59). The area under the ROC curves was 0.88 for HIV-positive individuals and 0.79 for HIV-negative individuals. CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed a...... high mortality rate among aTBneg individuals and demonstrated that suPAR measurements can provide prognostic information on mortality among individuals without disease diagnosis. Measuring suPAR is a technically simple method for determining mortality risk in individuals that are assumed to be TB-negative....

  18. 76 FR 57924 - Transportation for Individuals With Disabilities at Intercity, Commuter, and High Speed Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-19

    ... station-based lifts. On commuter, intercity, or high-speed rail lines or systems in which track passing... serves new or altered stations on the line or system. For example, if a new commuter or high-speed rail..., Commuter, and High Speed Passenger Railroad Station Platforms; Miscellaneous Amendments AGENCY: Office...

  19. Condom use and sexuality communication with adults: a study among high school students in South Africa and Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Fostering adolescents’ communication on sexuality issues with their parents and other significant adults is often assumed to be an important component of intervention programmes aimed at promoting healthy adolescent sexual practices. However, there are few studies describing the relationship between such communication and sexual practices, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. This study examined the relationships between adolescents’ communication with significant adults and their condom use in three sites in this region. Methods Data stem from a multi-site randomized controlled trial of a school-based HIV prevention intervention implemented in Cape Town and Mankweng, South Africa and Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Only data from comparison schools were used. The design is therefore a prospective panel study with three waves of data collections. Data were collected in 2004 from 6,251 participants in 40 schools. Associations between adolescents’ communication with adults about sexuality issues and their use of condoms were analysed cross-sectionally using analysis of variance, as well as prospectively using multiple ordinal logistic regression analysis. Results Cross-sectional analyses showed that consistent condom users had significantly higher mean scores on communication (across topics and communication partners) than both occasional users and never-users, who had the lowest scores. After controlling for condom use at the first data collection occasion in each model as well as for possible confounders, communication scores significantly predicted consistent condom use prospectively in all three ordinal logistic regression models (Model R2 = .23 to .31). Conclusion The findings are consistent with the assertion that communication on sexuality issues between adolescents and significant adults results in safer sexual practices, as reflected by condom use, among in-school adolescents. The associations between communication variables and condom use might

  20. Quality Management in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kwanten, Tine

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This dissertation addresses something which is extremely important for both individual enterprises as well as entire nations i.e. the ability to deliver quality goods and services. Notwithstanding its geographical distant location, South Africa is increasingly becoming a more important participant in the global economy and increasingly relying on export. Local businesses therefore need to meet international quality standards. For this matter this dissertation investigated the sta...

  1. High Intellectual Function in Individuals with Mutation-Positive Microform Holoprosencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, B D; Pineda-Alvarez, D E; Gropman, A L; Willis, M J; Hadley, D W; Muenke, M

    2012-09-01

    Holoprosencephaly is the most common malformation of the forebrain and typically results in severe neurocognitive impairment with accompanying midline facial anomalies. Holoprosencephaly is heterogeneous and may be caused by chromosome aberrations or environmental factors, occur in the context of a syndrome or be due to heterozygous mutations in over 10 identified genes. The presence of these mutations may result in an extremely wide spectrum of severity, ranging from brain malformations incompatible with life to individuals with normal brain findings and subtle midline facial differences. Typically, clinicians regard intellectual disability as a sign that a parent or relative of a severely affected patient may be a mildly affected mutation 'carrier' with what is termed microform holoprosencephaly. Here we present 5 patients with clear phenotypic signs of microform holoprosencephaly, all of whom have evidence of above-average intellectual function. In 4 of these 5 individuals, the molecular cause of holoprosencephaly has been identified and includes mutations affecting SHH, SIX3, GLI2, and FGF8. This report expands the phenotypic spectrum of holoprosencephaly and is important in the counseling of patient and affected families. PMID:23112757

  2. Does human body odor represent a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin T Lübke

    Full Text Available Across a wide variety of domains, experts differ from novices in their response to stimuli linked to their respective field of expertise. It is currently unknown whether similar patterns can be observed with regard to social expertise. The current study therefore focuses on social openness, a central social skill necessary to initiate social contact. Human body odors were used as social cues, as they inherently signal the presence of another human being. Using functional MRI, hemodynamic brain responses to body odors of women reporting a high (n = 14 or a low (n = 12 level of social openness were compared. Greater activation within the inferior frontal gyrus and the caudate nucleus was observed in high socially open individuals compared to individuals low in social openness. With the inferior frontal gyrus being a crucial part of the human mirror neuron system, and the caudate nucleus being implicated in social reward, it is discussed whether human body odor might constitute more of a significant and rewarding social signal to individuals high in social openness compared to individuals low in social openness process.

  3. Toward the development of a supported employment program for individuals with high-functioning autism in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeley, K; Kirchner, J C; Gawronski, A; Tebartz van Elst, L; Dziobek, I

    2013-11-01

    Human-human interactions are of central relevance for the success in professional and occupational environments, which also substantially influence quality of life. This is especially true in the case of individuals with high-functioning autism (HFA), who experience deficits in social cognition that often lead to social exclusion and unemployment. Despite good education and high motivation, individuals with HFA do not reach employment rates that are substantially higher than 50 %. This is an alarmingly high rate of unemployment considering that the United Nations have recently emphasized the inclusion of handicapped persons as a mandatory human right. To date, the specific needs of autistic persons with respect to their working environment are largely unexplored. It remains moreover an open question how support systems and activities, including newly developed communication devices for professional environments of individuals with HFA, should look like. The German health and social care systems are not adequately prepared for the proper support of this population. This leads us to suggest that supported employment programs should be developed for adults with HFA that specifically address their needs and requirements. Such programs should comprise (1) the adequate assessment of HFA, including a neuropsychological profile and an individual matching of persons' preferences with requirements of the working place, (2) on-the-job coaching activities that include systematic communication and interaction training, and (3) instruction of non-autistic peers, including colleagues and supervisors, about weaknesses and strengths of HFA. PMID:24077909

  4. World review: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) in some parts of Africa in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Countries specifically mentioned are Algeria, Angola, Nigeria, South Africa and Tunisia

  5. Mutations in NYX of individuals with high myopia, but without night blindness

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qingjiong; Xiao, Xueshan; Li, Shiqiang; Jia, Xiaoyun; Yang, Zhikuan; Huang, Shizhou; Caruso, Rafael C.; Guan, Tianqin; Sergeev, Yuri; Guo, Xiangming; Hejtmancik, J. Fielding

    2007-01-01

    Purpose High myopia is a common genetic variant that severely affects vision. Genes responsible for myopia without linked additional functional defects have not been identified. Mutations in the nyctalopin gene (NYX) located at Xp11.4 are responsible for a complete form of congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB1). High myopia is usually observed in patients with CSNB1. This study was designed to test the possibility that mutations in the NYX gene might cause high myopia without congenita...

  6. Cretaceous paleogeography of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.

    1986-05-01

    Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.

  7. Expanding radio astronomy in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) Organisation announced in May 2012 that its members had agreed on a dual site solution for the SKA [1]. South Africa's bid for hosting the SKA has caused a ramp up of radio astronomy in Africa. To develop technology towards the SKA, the South African SKA Project (SKA SA) built a protoype radio telescope in 2007, followed in 2010 the seven antenna Karoo Array Telescope (KAT-7). Next is the 64 antenna MeerKAT, which will merge into SKA Phase 1 in Africa. As SKA Phase 2 is intended to add a high resolution capability with baselines out to 3000 km, the SKA SA brought in partner countries in Africa to host outstations. South Africa has been working with the partners to build capacity to operate the SKA and to benefit from it. The SA Department of Science and Technology (DST) developed a proposal to establish radio telescopes in the partner countries to provide hands-on learning and a capability for Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) research. Redundant 30 m class satellite antennas are being incorporated in this project.

  8. Dexamethasone improves maximal exercise capacity of individuals susceptible to high altitude pulmonary edema at 4559 m

    OpenAIRE

    Siebenmann, C; Bloch, K E; Lundby, C; Nussbamer-Ochsner, Y; Schoeb, M; Maggiorini, M

    2011-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that prophylactic intake of dexamethasone improves maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) in high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) susceptible subjects 4 to 6 h after a 2-day climb to 4559 m. However, since with this ascent protocol HAPE usually develops after the first night at 4559 m or later, we hypothesized that a continued dexamethasone prophylaxis would result in an even more pronounced improvement of Vo(2)max after an additional night at high altitude. Vo(2)max...

  9. GlobWetland Africa: Implementing Sustainable Earth Observation Based Wetland Monitoring Capacity in Africa and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tottrup, Christian; Riffler, Michael; Wang, Tiejun;

    Lack of data, appropriate information and challenges in human and institutional capacity put a serious constraint on effective monitoring and management of wetlands in Africa. Conventional data are often lacking in time or space, of poor quality or available at locations that are not necessarily...... in Africa has also traditionally been constrained either because of high costs or, especially in Equatorial Africa, owing to frequent cloud cover. To meet these challenges the European Space Agency has launched GlobWetland Africa as a major initiative to facilitate the exploitation of satellite...... observations for the conservation, wiseuse and effective management of wetlands in Africa and to provide African stakeholders with the necessary EO methods and tools to better fulfil their commitments and obligations towards the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. The main objective of GlobWetland Africa (GW-A) is...

  10. High-throughput, multiplexed analysis of 3-nitrotyrosine in individual proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Hongjun; Zangar, Richard C

    2012-02-01

    Reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are derived as a result of inflammation and oxidative stress and can result in protein modifications. As such, these protein modifications are used as biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, modifications in single-tissue-associated proteins released into blood can provide insight into the tissue localization of the inflammation or oxidative stress. We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibody microarray platform to analyze the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine in specific proteins in a variety of biological samples, including human plasma and sputum. Selective-capture antibodies are used to immunoprecipitate individual proteins from samples onto isolated spots on the microarray chips. Then, a monoclonal antibody for 3-nitrotyrosine is used to detect the amount of 3-nitrotyrosine on each spot. Our studies suggest that this approach can be used to detect trace amounts of 3-nitrotyrosine in human plasma and sputum. In this paper, we describe our antibody microarray protocol for detecting 3-nitrotyrosine in specific proteins. PMID:22511115

  11. Extended Lyman alpha haloes around individual high-redshift galaxies revealed by MUSE

    CERN Document Server

    Wisotzki, L; Blaizot, J; Brinchmann, J; Herenz, E C; Schaye, J; Bouché, N; Cantalupo, S; Contini, T; Carollo, C M; Caruana, J; Courbot, J -B; Emsellem, E; Kamann, S; Kerutt, J; Leclercq, F; Lilly, S J; Patrício, V; Sandin, C; Steinmetz, M; Straka, L A; Urrutia, T; Verhamme, A; Weilbacher, P M; Wendt, M

    2015-01-01

    We report the detection of extended Ly alpha emission around individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts z = 3-6 in an ultradeep exposure of the Hubble Deep Field South obtained with MUSE on the ESO-VLT. The data reach a limiting surface brightness (1sigma) of ~1 x 10^-19 erg s^-1 cm^-2 arcsec^-2 in azimuthally averaged radial profiles, an order of magnitude improvement over previous narrowband imaging. Our sample consists of 26 spectroscopically confirmed Ly alpha-emitting, but mostly continuum-faint (m_AB >~ 27) galaxies. In most objects the Ly alpha emission is considerably more extended than the UV continuum light. While 5 of the faintest galaxies in the sample show no significantly detected Ly alpha haloes, the derived upper limits suggest that this is just due to insufficient S/N. Ly alpha haloes therefore appear to be (nearly) ubiquitous even for low-mass (~10^8-10^9 M_sun) star-forming galaxies at z>3. We decompose the Ly alpha emission of each object into a compact `continuum-like' and an extended ...

  12. Efficiency analysis of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslana Sushko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to identify the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential. Material and Methods: in order to identify the factors that have supported the performance of Ukraine's male national team in the European Championship, data analysis and generalization of scientific and technical literature and online data, analysis of official protocols of competitive activities, analysis and generalization of best pedagogical practices, pedagogical supervision, methods of mathematical statistics were used. Results: the efficiency of competitive activity of basketball players was analyzed using such indicators as team roles, won and lost matches, scored and missed points, technical, tactical and age indicators. Conclusions: the factors of efficiency of competitive activity of highly skilled basketball players at the stage of maximum realization of individual potential were identified with regard to age indicators

  13. Light extinction and scattering from individual and arrayed high-aspect-ratio trenches in metals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roberts, Alexander Sylvester; Søndergaard, Thomas; Chirumamilla, Manohar; Pors, Anders Lambertus; Beermann, Jonas; Pedersen, Kjeld; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the scattering properties of two-dimensional high-aspect-ratio metal trenches acting as resonators for gap-surface plasmons and show that these resonators are highly efficient scatterers of free waves, reaching at resonance in the perfect-conductor limit the unitary dipolar limit for...... only on the resonance wavelength. For real metals with nonzero absorption, efficient monomaterial absorbers and emitters can be fabricated. We extend the analysis to tapering trenches that can be readily fabricated employing common milling or etching techniques and verify by reflection spectroscopy and...

  14. Individual and environmental risk factors for high blood lead concentrations in Danish indoor shooters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandahl, Kasper; Suadicani, Poul; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical environm......International studies have shown blood lead at levels causing health concern in recreational indoor shooters. We hypothesized that Danish recreational indoor shooters would also have a high level of blood lead, and that this could be explained by shooting characteristics and the physical...

  15. Regional responses: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author presents the theory that for Africa to work towards reduction of global warming, it must first address its environmental problems; i.e. land use, deforestation, desertification, poverty and hunger. He argues that Africa should aim for growth in the productivity and quantity of energy use. The following suggestions were made: Africa must shift from low-quantity biomass to secondary sources in the short term; developed countries must avoid pushing experimental and frontier technologies on Africa; with financial and technical help, Africa could develop its largely untapped reserves of hydropower. Nuclear power should not be an option because reliable production is not possible at present

  16. Do Individuals with High-Functioning Autism Who Speak a Tone Language Show Intonation Deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kary K. L.; To, Carol K. S.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether intonation deficits were observed in 19 Cantonese-speaking adults with high-functioning autism (HFA) when compared to 19 matched neurotypical (NT) controls. This study also investigated the use of sentence-final particles (SFPs) and their relationship with intonation in both groups. Standard deviations…

  17. Lexical Processing in Individuals with High-Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speirs, Samantha; Yelland, Greg; Rinehart, Nicole; Tonge, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The presence or absence of clinically delayed language development prior to 3 years of age is a key, but contentious, clinical feature distinguishing autism from Asperger's disorder. The aim of this study was to examine language processing in children with high-functioning autism (HFA) and Asperger's disorder (AD) using a task which taps lexical…

  18. Antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 4 are highly prevalent in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewals, Benjamin; Gillet, Laurent; Gerdes, Truuske; Taracha, Evans L N; Thiry, Etienne; Vanderplasschen, Alain

    2005-10-31

    Bovine herpesvirus 4 (BoHV-4) has been isolated from cattle throughout the world. Interestingly, a survey of wild African buffaloes mainly from the Maasai Mara Game Reserve in Kenya revealed that 94% of the animals tested had anti-BoHV-4 antibodies [Rossiter, P.B., Gumm, I.D., Stagg, D.A., Conrad, P.A., Mukolwe, S., Davies, F.G., White, H., 1989. Isolation of bovine herpesvirus-3 from African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer). Res. Vet. Sci. 46, 337-343]. These authors also proposed that the serological antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1) could confer to BoHV-4 infected buffaloes a protective immune response against lethal AlHV-1 infection. In the present study, we addressed two questions related to Rossiter et al. paper. Firstly, to investigate the role of the African buffalo as a natural host species of BoHV-4, the seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies was analysed in wild African buffaloes throughout eastern and southern Africa. A total of 400 sera was analysed using two complementary immunofluorescent assays. These analyses revealed that independently of their geographical origin, wild African buffaloes exhibit a seroprevalence of anti-BoHV-4 antibodies higher than 68%. This result is by far above the seroprevalence generally observed in cattle. Our data are discussed in the light of our recent phylogenetic study demonstrating that the BoHV-4 Bo17 gene has been acquired from a recent ancestor of the African buffalo. Secondly, we investigated the humoral antigenic relationship existing between BoHV-4 and AlHV-1. Our results demonstrate that among the antigens expressed in AlHV-1 infected cells, epitope(s) recognised by anti-BoHV-4 antibodies are exclusively nuclear, suggesting that the putative property of BoHV-4 to confer an immune protection against AlHV-1 relies on a cellular rather than on a humoral immune response. PMID:16153785

  19. Coaching individuals with perfectionistic tendencies When high standards help and hinder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Corrie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Perfectionism has been widely recognised in the clinical field but has received less attention in the coaching psychology literature. Referring to overly high and unforgiving personal standards of performance that are accompanied by harsh self-evaluation when self-imposed standards are not met, perfectionism has the potential to undermine the coachee’s ability to achieve their goals as well as the coaching process itself. In consequence, it is important for practitioners to be able to identify and work effectively with those coachees whose perfectionistic tendencies represent an obstacle to progress. This paper discusses the current literature on perfectionism and provides recommendations on how to work effectively with coachees for whom unremittingly high personal standards are an impediment to personal growth and development.

  20. Effect of moderate- and high-intensity acute exercise on appetite in obese individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Catia; Stensvold, Dorthe; Finlayson, Graham;

    2015-01-01

    , polypeptide YY3-36, and glucagon-like peptide 1 and subjective feelings of appetite were measured every 30 min for 3 h. Nutrient and taste preferences were measured at the beginning and end of each condition using the Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire. RESULTS: Insulin levels were significantly reduced, and...... at high intensity, does not induce any known physiological adaptation that would lead to increased EI....

  1. Enhanced discrimination between threatening and safe contexts in high-anxious individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Glotzbach-Schoon, Evelyn; Tadda, Regina; Andreatta, Marta; Tröger, Christian; Ewald, Heike; Grillon, Christian; Pauli, Paul; Mühlberger, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Trait anxiety, a stable personality trait associated with increased fear responses to threat, is regarded as a risk factor for the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders. Although the effect of trait anxiety has been examined with regard to explicit threat cues, little is known about the effect of trait anxiety on contextual threat learning. To assess this issue, extreme groups of low and high trait anxiety underwent a contextual fear conditioning protocol using virtual reality. Two...

  2. Emotion processing and regulation: an electrophysiological investigation among high borderline personality trait individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Sramko, Valery

    2014-01-01

    Emotion processing and regulation are fundamental for stable mental functioning and healthy interpersonal relationships. Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe mental disorder where emotional dysregulation is a core feature, yet the neural processes underlying this dysfunction remain poorly understood. We examined bottom-up and top-down mechanisms involved in emotion processing among females selected for high and low levels of BPD traits (HBT and LBT groups). Study 1 (30 participan...

  3. Does entrepreneurial confidence influence the nature of entrepreneurial projects chosen by individuals with high ability?

    OpenAIRE

    Bayon, Manoj; Lafuente González, Esteban Miguel; Vaillant, Yancy

    2015-01-01

    This empirical study of 247 nascent entrepreneurs examines the joint effect of high ability and entrepreneurial confidence is influencing the choice of innovative entrepreneurship. We suggest that in their decision to pursue entrepreneurship aspiring nascent entrepreneurs seek to gain strategic advantages that allow their new ventures to enter and compete in a given marketplace. We argue that aspiring nascent entrepreneurs create such advantages by choosing innovative entrepreneurial projects...

  4. Understanding South Africa's Economic Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2006-01-01

    South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...

  5. Extended Lyman α haloes around individual high-redshift galaxies revealed by MUSE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisotzki, L.; Bacon, R.; Blaizot, J.; Brinchmann, J.; Herenz, E. C.; Schaye, J.; Bouché, N.; Cantalupo, S.; Contini, T.; Carollo, C. M.; Caruana, J.; Courbot, J.-B.; Emsellem, E.; Kamann, S.; Kerutt, J.; Leclercq, F.; Lilly, S. J.; Patrício, V.; Sandin, C.; Steinmetz, M.; Straka, L. A.; Urrutia, T.; Verhamme, A.; Weilbacher, P. M.; Wendt, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of extended Lyα emission around individual star-forming galaxies at redshifts z = 3-6 in an ultradeep exposure of the Hubble Deep Field South obtained with MUSE on the ESO-VLT. The data reach a limiting surface brightness (1σ) of ~1 × 10-19 erg s-1 cm-2 arcsec-2 in azimuthally averaged radial profiles, an order of magnitude improvement over previous narrowband imaging. Our sample consists of 26 spectroscopically confirmed Lyα-emitting, but mostly continuum-faint (mAB ≳ 27) galaxies. In most objects the Lyα emission is considerably more extended than the UV continuum light. While five of the faintest galaxies in the sample show no significantly detected Lyα haloes, the derived upper limits suggest that this is due to insufficient S/N. Lyα haloes therefore appear to be ubiquitous even for low-mass (~ 108-109 M⊙) star-forming galaxies at z > 3. We decompose the Lyα emission of each object into a compact component tracing the UV continuum and an extended halo component, and infer sizes and luminosities of the haloes. The extended Lyα emission approximately follows an exponential surface brightness distribution with a scale length of a few kpc. While these haloes are thus quite modest in terms of their absolute sizes, they are larger by a factor of 5-15 than the corresponding rest-frame UV continuum sources as seen by HST. They are also much more extended, by a factor ~5, than Lyα haloes around low-redshift star-forming galaxies. Between ~40% and ≳90% of the observed Lyα flux comes from the extended halo component, with no obvious correlation of this fraction with either the absolute or the relative size of the Lyα halo. Our observations provide direct insights into the spatial distribution of at least partly neutral gas residing in the circumgalactic medium of low to intermediate mass galaxies at z > 3.

  6. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kaczmarczyk, J.;

    2010-01-01

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and...... local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 degrees C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front...... room air temperature of 26 degrees C and relative humidity of 70%....

  7. The Development of an Individual Dosimeter for Measurement of High-Level Radiation Doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with industry a dosimeter has been developed over the last few years which seems to be suited for general use in the measurement of high doses for radiation protection purposes. It consists of a phosphate glass and a filter. The case is water- and dust-proof and can be attached to an identity disc. The report gives values over the properties of the phosphate glass together with the results of tests on temperature and time response, the dependence on energy and direction of radiation and the influence of the dose rate. (author)

  8. Controlled fabrication of individual silicon quantum rods yielding high intensity, polarized light emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elongated silicon quantum dots (also referred to as rods) were fabricated using a lithographic process which reliably yields sufficient numbers of emitters. These quantum rods are perfectly aligned and the vast majority are spatially separated well enough to enable single-dot spectroscopy. Not only do they exhibit extraordinarily high linear polarization with respect to both absorption and emission, but the silicon rods also appear to luminesce much more brightly than their spherical counterparts. Significantly increased quantum efficiency and almost unity degree of linear polarization render these quantum rods perfect candidates for numerous applications.

  9. The medical management of high risk individuals. Experiences with persons exposed to chronic internal irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The medical management and counseling of persons at high risk due to exposure to chemicals or radiation or due to personal disposition, present an additional challenge for physicians and especially radiologists involved. This article is based on own experiences with patients who had been exposed to Thorotrast. They had been injected with the contrast medium Thorotrast, which was in use world-wide until around 1950. Thorotrast caused a chronic alpha irradiation mainly of the liver (up to 0.4 Gy/a), spleen (1.2 Gy/a) and bone marrow (0.1 Gy/a). For the Thorotrast patients and their physicians the most worrying problem was the risk of primary malignant liver tumors which occurred in more than 20% of the exposed persons, i.e. 100 times more frequently than in a non-exposed control group. The medical and especially radiological experiences with the management of these patients summarize a general aspect of the problem and can be referred to when managing other high risk groups. (orig.)

  10. Individualized radiotherapy by combining high-end irradiation and magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E.; Wilkens, Jan J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany); Helmholtz Zentrum Muenchen, Institute of Innovative Radiotherapy (iRT), Department of Radiation Sciences (DRS), Neuherberg (Germany); Nuesslin, Fridtjof [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Department of Radiation Oncology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-04-15

    Image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) has been integrated into daily clinical routine and can today be considered the standard especially with high-dose radiotherapy. Currently imaging is based on MV- or kV-CT, which has clear limitations especially in soft-tissue contrast. Thus, combination of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and high-end radiotherapy opens a new horizon. The intricate technical properties of MR imagers pose a challenge to technology when combined with radiation technology. Several solutions that are almost ready for routine clinical application have been developed. The clinical questions include dose-escalation strategies, monitoring of changes during treatment as well as imaging without additional radiation exposure during treatment. (orig.) [German] Die bildgestuetzte Radiotherapie (''image guided radiotherapy'', IGRT) ist in die taegliche klinische Routine integriert und kann heute als Therapiestandard angesehen werden, insbesondere bei dosiseskalierten Strahlentherapiekonzepten. Die derzeitige Bildgebung basiert auf der MV- oder kV-CT, welche beide besonders in Bezug auf die Darstellung von Weichteilen Limitationen aufweisen. Aus diesem Grund ist die Kombination von Magnetresonanz-(MR-)Bildgebung und moderner Strahlentherapietechnik eine zukunftsweisende Entwicklung. Die speziellen technischen Eigenschaften von MR-Scannern bringen eine grosse Herausforderung mit sich, wenn sie mit hochmodernen Strahlentherapiegeraeten kombiniert werden sollen. Eine Reihe technischer Loesungen sind entwickelt worden, die kurz vor dem klinischen Einsatz stehen. Die klinischen Fragestellungen umfassen unter anderem Strategien zur Dosiseskalation, Ueberwachung von Gewebeveraenderungen waehrend einer Strahlentherapie sowie Bildgebung unter Therapie ohne zusaetzliche Dosisapplikation. (orig.)

  11. Individualizing Services, Individualizing Responsibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garsten, Christina; Hollertz, Katarina; Jacobsson, Kerstin

    The paper focuses on the unemployed individual and her position in local activation practice. The overall aim is to analyse the role of individualisation of local activation policy in the construction of social citizenship in Sweden. More specifically, we ask: To what extent do clients have possi...

  12. Resection of individually identified high-rate high-frequency oscillations region is associated with favorable outcome in neocortical epilepsy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cho, J.R.; Koo, D.L.; Joo, E.Y.; Seo, D.W.; Hong, S.-Ch.; Jiruška, Přemysl; Hong, S.B.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 11 (2014), s. 1872-1883. ISSN 0013-9580 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT14489 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : epilepsy surgery * high-frequency oscillations * neocortical epilepsy Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 4.571, year: 2014

  13. Africa's Pulse, October 2013 : An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa's Economic Future

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Africa's pulse newsletter includes the following headings: economic prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa remain strong, but growth is vulnerable to a sharp decline in commodity prices; the region's progress on reducing poverty has been slow, hindered by high inequality; and faster reduction in poverty will require growth with equity.

  14. Statistical parametric mapping of LORETA using high density EEG and individual MRI: application to mismatch negativities in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Jeong; Kwon, Jun Soo; Youn, Tak; Pae, Ji Soo; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Myung-Sun; Ha, Kyoo-Seob

    2002-11-01

    We describe a method for the statistical parametric mapping of low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) using high-density electroencephalography (EEG) and individual magnetic resonance images (MRI) to investigate the characteristics of the mismatch negativity (MMN) generators in schizophrenia. LORETA, using a realistic head model of the boundary element method derived from the individual anatomy, estimated the current density maps from the scalp topography of the 128-channel EEG. From the current density maps that covered the whole cortical gray matter (up to 20,000 points), volumetric current density images were reconstructed. Intensity normalization of the smoothed current density images was used to reduce the confounding effect of subject specific global activity. After transforming each image into a standard stereotaxic space, we carried out statistical parametric mapping of the normalized current density images. We applied this method to the source localization of MMN in schizophrenia. The MMN generators, produced by a deviant tone of 1,200 Hz (5% of 1,600 trials) under the standard tone of 1,000 Hz, 80 dB binaural stimuli with 300 msec of inter-stimulus interval, were measured in 14 right-handed schizophrenic subjects and 14 age-, gender-, and handedness-matched controls. We found that the schizophrenic group exhibited significant current density reductions of MMN in the left superior temporal gyrus and the left inferior parietal gyrus (P statistical mapping of current density using individual MRI and high-density EEG. PMID:12391570

  15. Features of formation of the individual students in secondary and high school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutula V.O.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Analyzed features of motivation to achievement and need to praise the students of secondary and high school. Material: In the survey took part 1634 students of secondary school in Kharkov, Vinnitsa and Lugansk regions. Carried out a comprehensive psychological testing, which allowed to find out the level of motivation of students to achievement and need for praise. Results: It is shown that during the period of study at school from fifth to eleventh classes a number of students have a low motivation to achievements, and low need for praise. Confirmed provision indicates that the modern school is still not fully realized the potential of educational pedagogy. Conclusions: It is shown that the formation personality physical education students in general education is possible only with the active and conscious of their participation in various forms of sports and recreation activities undertaken in the modern school.

  16. Impact of individually controlled facially applied air movement on perceived air quality at high humidity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skwarczynski, M.A. [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Institute of Environmental Protection Engineering, Department of Indoor Environment Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland); International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Melikov, A.K.; Lyubenova, V. [International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy, Department of Civil Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen (Denmark); Kaczmarczyk, J. [Faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Department of Heating, Ventilation and Dust Removal Technology, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice (Poland)

    2010-10-15

    The effect of facially applied air movement on perceived air quality (PAQ) at high humidity was studied. Thirty subjects (21 males and 9 females) participated in three, 3-h experiments performed in a climate chamber. The experimental conditions covered three combinations of relative humidity and local air velocity under a constant air temperature of 26 C, namely: 70% relative humidity without air movement, 30% relative humidity without air movement and 70% relative humidity with air movement under isothermal conditions. Personalized ventilation was used to supply room air from the front toward the upper part of the body (upper chest, head). The subjects could control the flow rate (velocity) of the supplied air in the vicinity of their bodies. The results indicate an airflow with elevated velocity applied to the face significantly improves the acceptability of the air quality at the room air temperature of 26 C and relative humidity of 70%. (author)

  17. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Argentero, G; Kotakoski, J; Eder, F R; Meyer, J C

    2015-01-01

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number.

  18. Violent and nonviolent video games differentially affect physical aggression for individuals high vs. low in dispositional anger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Christopher R; Bartholow, Bruce D; Saults, J Scott

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous experiments have shown that exposure to violent video games (VVG) causes increases in aggression, relatively few studies have investigated the extent to which this effect differs as a function of theoretically relevant individual difference factors. This study investigated whether video game content differentially influences aggression as a function of individual differences in trait anger. Participants were randomly assigned to play a violent or nonviolent video game before completing a task in which they could behave aggressively. Results showed that participants high in trait anger were the most aggressive, but only if they first played a VVG. This relationship held while statistically controlling for dimensions other than violent content on which game conditions differed (e.g. frustration, arousal). Implications of these findings for models explaining the effects of video games on behavior are discussed. PMID:21905039

  19. Bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and healthy individuals: demonstration with high resolution computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schueller, G. E-mail: gerd.schueller@univie.ac.at; Neumann, K.; Helbich, T.; Riemer, H.; Backfrieder, W.; Sertl, K.; Herold, C.J

    2004-11-01

    Objective: High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) was used to assess the extent of bronchial reactivity after inhalative bronchoprovocation and dilation in hyperresponsive patients and healthy subjects. Patients and methods: Patients with mild intermittent asthma, 15 with a >20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}+) in PaO{sub 2}, 12 with a <20% decrease in FEV{sub 1} and a >10 mmHg (PC{sub 20}-) in PaO{sub 2} after provocation, and eight healthy humans were included in the study. Changes in cross-sectional area in a total of 1256 bronchi and in bronchial wall area (792 bronchi) were evaluated after histamine-triggered bronchoprovocation and salbutamol-induced bronchodilation at high lung volumes (FVC 80%). Data were compared with the results of pulmonary function tests (FEV{sub 1}, PaO{sub 2}, PaCO{sub 2}). Results: In all groups, a significant decrease in bronchial cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and a significant increase in bronchial wall area (P<0.001) were observed subsequent to bronchoprovocation. After bronchodilation, the increase in cross-sectional area (P<0.001) and the further increase in airway wall area (P<0.01) were significant in all groups. In PC{sub 20}+ and PC{sub 20}- asthmatics, significant differences (P<0.05) in PaO{sub 2}, >10 mmHg between baseline and provocation were observed. In healthy persons, the PaO{sub 2} decrease was <10 mmHg (P>0.05). After histamine provocation, the decrease in FEV{sub 1} was measured in the PC{sub 20}+ group, whereas a <20% FEV{sub 1} decrease was found in the PC{sub 20}- and the control groups, respectively. No significant correlations were observed between radiological data and the results of pulmonary function tests. Conclusions: HRCT demonstrated bronchial reactivity in hyperresponsive patients and, unexpectedly, in healthy subjects. The applied pulmonary function tests failed to characterize bronchial reactions in the healthy subjects. Based on these results, HRCT is a useful tool by which

  20. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rain belt over Middle East and North Africa: A high-resolution AGCM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu; Stenchikov, Georgiy

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rain belt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high-resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model, the High-Resolution Atmospheric Model. Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rain belt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust-induced responses in global- and regional-scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rain belt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet and West African Monsoon circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rain belt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semiarid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the "Sahel drought," the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region's climate.

  1. Towards weighing individual atoms by high-angle scattering of electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argentero, G.; Mangler, C.; Kotakoski, J.; Eder, F.R.; Meyer, J.C., E-mail: Jannik.Meyer@univie.ac.at

    2015-04-15

    We consider theoretically the energy loss of electrons scattered to high angles when assuming that the primary beam can be limited to a single atom. We discuss the possibility of identifying the isotopes of light elements and of extracting information about phonons in this signal. The energy loss is related to the mass of the much heavier nucleus, and is spread out due to atomic vibrations. Importantly, while the width of the broadening is much larger than the energy separation of isotopes, only the shift in the peak positions must be detected if the beam is limited to a single atom. We conclude that the experimental case will be challenging but is not excluded by the physical principles as far as considered here. Moreover, the initial experiments demonstrate that the separation of gold and carbon based on a signal that is related to their mass, rather than their atomic number. - Highlights: • We explore how energy loss spectroscopy could be used to obtain information about the mass, rather than the charge, of atoms. • The dose and precision that would be needed to distinguish between the two isotopes of carbon, C12 and C13, is estimated. • Signal broadening due to phonons is included in the calculation. • Initial experiments show the separation between gold and carbon based on their mass rather than charge.

  2. An inexpensive workplace initiative to motivate high-risk individual health improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchner, Aimee T; Ladd, D Alan; Elshaw, John J; Schlub, James F

    2013-08-01

    Unhealthy lifestyles cost businesses, governmental organizations, and the U.S. military billions of dollars every year, not to mention intangible costs associated with increased mortality. This study implemented a low-cost cognitive-behavioral motivational intervention to effect behavioral change in high-risk civilian employees working for a U.S. military organization, with accompanying improvement in certain health indicators after 120 days compared with a control group. Our analysis of these results led to two conclusions: first, low-cost cognitive-behavioral motivational treatments can improve both behavior and health, and second, tentative results indicate a fully mediated relationship may exist among the cognitive variables of locus of control and self-efficacy, vice the predicted parallel relationship. Overall, we assert that effective implementation of an intervention like the one used in this study might lower the U.S. Air Force's health care bill by as much as $40 million, improve employee efficiency and mission capability, enable healthier lives, and prevent premature death. PMID:23929061

  3. Rifampicin mono-resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a significant phenomenon in a high prevalence TB-HIV region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacoob Mahomed Coovadia

    Full Text Available SETTING: The dual epidemics of HIV-TB including MDR-TB are major contributors to high morbidity and mortality rates in South Africa. Rifampicin (RIF resistance is regarded as a proxy for MDR-TB. Currently available molecular assays have the advantage of rapidly detecting resistant strains of MTB, but the GeneXpert does not detect isoniazid (INH resistance and the GenoTypeMTBDRplus(LPA assay may underestimate resistance to INH. Increasing proportions of rifampicin mono-resistance resistance (RMR have recently been reported from South Africa and other countries. OBJECTIVE: This laboratory based study was conducted at NHLS TB Laboratory, Durban, which is the reference laboratory for culture and susceptibility testing in KwaZulu-Natal. We retrospectively determined, for the period 2007 to 2009, the proportion of RMR amongst Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB isolates, that were tested for both RIF and INH, using the gold standard of culture based phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST. Gender and age were also analysed to identify possible risk factors for RMR. DESIGN: MTB culture positive sputum samples from 16,748 patients were analysed for susceptibility to RIF and INH during the period 2007 to 2009. RMR was defined as MTB resistant to RIF and susceptible to INH. For the purposes of this study, only the first specimen from each patient was included in the analysis. RESULTS: RMR was observed throughout the study period. The proportion of RMR varied from a low of 7.3% to a high of 10.0% [overall 8.8%]. Overall, males had a 42% increased odds of being RMR as compared to females. In comparison to the 50 plus age group, RMR was 37% more likely to occur in the 25-29 year age category. CONCLUSION: We report higher proportions of RMR ranging from 7.3% to 10% [overall 8.8%] than previously reported in the literature. To avoid misclassification of RMR, detected by the GeneXpert, as MDR-TB, culture based phenotypic DST must be performed on a second

  4. 'Testing Together Challenges the Relationship': Consequences of HIV Testing as a Couple in a High HIV Prevalence Setting in Rural South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanani Tabana

    Full Text Available We conducted qualitative individual and combined interviews with couples to explore their experiences since the time of taking an HIV test and receiving the test result together, as part of a home-based HIV counselling and testing intervention.This study was conducted in October 2011 in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, about 2 years after couples tested and received results together. Fourteen couples were purposively sampled: discordant, concordant negative and concordant positive couples.Learning about each other's status together challenged relationships of the couples in different ways depending on HIV status and gender. The mutual information confirmed suspected infidelity that had not been discussed before. Negative women in discordant partnerships remained with their positive partner due to social pressure and struggled to maintain their HIV negative status. Most of the couple relationships were characterized by silence and mistrust. Knowledge of sero-status also led to loss of sexual intimacy in some couples especially the discordant. For most men in concordant negative couples, knowledge of status was an awakening of the importance of fidelity and an opportunity for behaviour change, while for concordant positive and discordant couples, it was seen as proof of infidelity. Although positive HIV status was perceived as confirmation of infidelity, couples continued their relationship and offered some support for each other, living and managing life together. Sexual life in these couples was characterized by conflict and sometimes violence. In the concordant negative couples, trust was enhanced and behaviour change was promised.Findings suggest that testing together as couples challenged relationships in both negative and positive ways. Further, knowledge of HIV status indicated potential to influence behaviour change especially among concordant negatives. In the discordant and concordant positive couples, traditional gender roles exposed

  5. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Source Memory in High-Trait-Anxiety Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P S; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for

  6. Electrophysiological Correlates of Emotional Source Memory in High-Trait-Anxiety Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Lixia; Shi, Guangyuan; He, Fan; Zhang, Qin; Oei, Tian P. S.; Guo, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between recognition memory and emotion has become a research hotspot in recent years. Dual process theory posits that familiarity and recollection are two separate processes contributing to recognition memory, but further experimental evidence is needed. The present study explored the emotional context effects on successful and unsuccessful source retrieval amongst 15 high-trait-anxiety college students by using event-related potentials (ERPs) measurement. During study, a happy, fearful, or neutral face picture first was displayed, then a Chinese word was superimposed centrally on the picture and subjects were asked to remember the word and the corresponding type of picture. During the test participants were instructed to press one of four buttons to indicate whether the displayed word was an old or new word. And then, for the old word, indicate whether it had been shown with a fearful, happy, or neutral face during the study. ERPs were generally more positive for remembered words than for new words and the ERP difference was termed as an old/new effect. It was found that, for successful source retrieval (it meant both the item and the source were remembered accurately) between 500 and 700 ms (corresponding to a late positive component, LPC), there were significant old/new effects in all contexts. However, for unsuccessful source retrieval (it meant the correct recognition of old items matched with incorrect source attribution), there were no significant old/new effects in happy and neutral contexts, though significant old/new effects were observed in the fearful context. Between 700 and 1200 ms (corresponding to a late slow wave, LSW), there were significant old/new effects for successful source retrieval in happy and neutral contexts. However, in the fearful context, the old/new effects were reversed, ERPs were more negative for successful source retrieval compared to correct rejections. Moreover, there were significant emotion effects for

  7. pRB expression in esophageal mucosa of individuals at high risk for squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simone S Contu; Paulo C Contu; Daniel C Damin; Renato B Fagundes; Fabiano Bevilacqua; Aline S Rosa; Jo(a)o C Prolla; Luis F Moreira

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pRb expression in a large group of patients with history of chronic exposure to the main risk factors for development of squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus.METHODS: One hundred and seventy asympto matic individuals at high risk for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (consumption of more than 80 g of ethanol and 10 cigarettes/d for at least 10 years) underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with biopsies of the esophageal mucosa. As a control group, specimens of esophageal mucosa obtained from 20 healthy subjects were also studied. Immunohistochemical assessment of the tissues was performed using a monoclonal antibody anti-pRB protein.RESULTS: Absence of the pRB staining, indicating loss of RB function, was observed in 33 (19.4%) of the individuals at risk for esophageal cancer, but in none of the healthy controls (P < 0.02). Loss of pRb expression increased in a stepwise fashion according to the severity of the histological findings (P < 0.005): normal mucosa (11/97 or 11.3%), chronic esophagitis (17/60 or 28.3%), low-grade dysplasia (3/10 or 30%), high-grade dysplasia 1/2 or 50%) and squamous cell carcinoma (1/1 or 100%).CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that abnormal expression of the pRB protein may be implicated in the process of esophageal carcinogenesis. Additional studies are warranted to define the role of the pRBprotein as a biomarker for development of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in individuals at high risk for this malignancy.

  8. Is psychodynamic psychotherapy an effective intervention for individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR of psychosis?: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula A. Martins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report a case and to discuss the use of psychodynamic psychotherapy (PD-P to treat individuals at ultra-high risk (UHR of psychosis. METHODS: An individual at UHR was followed up for 24 months. The baseline evaluation included a psychiatric interview, the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS, the Scale of Prodromal Symptoms (SOPS, and neuropsychological assessment. He underwent weekly sessions of PD-P for 12 months and was followed up for 12 months after the end of PD-P. The evaluations were at baseline, after 6-, 12-, and 24-month follow-up. No medication was prescribed during the 24-month follow-up. RESULTS: The prodromal symptoms remitted. The initial total score on the SIPS/SOPS was 37 points. After the first 12 months of PD-P, there was a reduction to 12 points on the SIPS/SOPS score, which stabilized in the 24-month follow-up. There was also a slight improvement in his performance on the neuropsychological evaluations. CONCLUSION: This case report suggests that PD-P can reduce prodromal symptoms; nevertheless, a better understanding of the specificity and efficacy of PD-P as an option of treatment for UHR individuals is needed.

  9. History of childhood physical trauma is related to cognitive decline in individuals with ultra-high risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üçok, Alp; Kaya, Hatice; Uğurpala, Can; Çıkrıkçılı, Uğur; Ergül, Ceylan; Yokuşoğlu, Çağdaş; Bülbül, Öznur; Direk, Nese

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between childhood trauma (CT) and cognitive functioning in individuals with ultra-high risk for psychosis (UHR). Fifty-three individuals at UHR for psychosis were administered a neurocognitive battery that assessed attention, processing speed, verbal learning, memory, working memory, interference inhibition, and sustained attention. The CT was assessed using the short-version Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). We dichotomized the sample by using cut-off scores for the presence of emotional, physical and sexual trauma, and physical and emotional neglect. Those with a history of physical trauma performed worse on the Digit Span Forward test, Trail making B (time), Stroop test (difference between color and word reading times), and completed categories of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST). Physical trauma scores were correlated with WCST-completed categories, Digit Span Forward and Stroop test scores. Physical neglect scores were negatively correlated with Digit Span Forward Test scores. Most of the significant dose–response relationships between cognitive impairment and different subtypes of CT were found only in men. There was no difference between those with and without other kinds of childhood abuse or neglect in terms of cognitive impairment. Our findings suggest that a history of physical trauma has a negative impact on cognitive function in individuals at UHR for psychosis. PMID:26386899

  10. High body mass index and risk of exacerbations and pneumonias in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Çolak, Yunus; Afzal, Shoaib; Lange, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    descent, aged 20-100 years, from the Copenhagen General Population Study, for FTO (rs9939609), MC4R (rs17782313) and TMEM18 (rs6548238), and created an allele score. A total of 10 883 individuals had spirometric COPD with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) / forced vital capacity (FVC) < lower limit......BACKGROUND: In the clinic, the combination of obesity and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been increasing. However, whether high body mass index (BMI) affects the risk of exacerbations and pneumonias in individuals with COPD is presently unknown. Genetics can be used to assess the...... of normal (LLN). In these individuals, we observed 1453 exacerbations and 3390 pneumonias during 4.7 years of follow-up. RESULTS: For each increase in allele score, BMI was 0.28 kg/m(2) [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.30) higher. Age- and sex-adjusted genetic hazard ratios (HRs) per one allele...

  11. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  12. Pit formation on poly(methyl methacrylate) due to ablation induced by individual slow highly charged ion impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, R.; Wilhelm, R. A.; Ginzel, R.; Kowarik, G.; Heller, R.; El-Said, A. S.; Papaléo, R. M.; Rupp, W.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Ullrich, J.; Facsko, S.; Aumayr, F.

    2012-01-01

    We report the formation of nano-sized pits on poly(methyl methacrylate) after exposure to slow highly charged ion beams. The pits are formed on the polymer surface as a direct result of individual ion impacts. Intermittent contact mode atomic-force microscopy was employed to study the size evolution of the pits in dependence of potential and kinetic energies of the incident ions. A potential energy threshold value of approximately 7 keV was found for pit formation. Above this value an increase in potential energy results in an increasing pit volume, while the pit shape can be tuned by varying the kinetic energy.

  13. Disarming not defending Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Moorcraft

    2012-01-01

    Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no menti...

  14. Poverty reduction in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. The paper attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. It argues that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features which globally cause problems but which are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These f...

  15. Individual variation in contagious yawning susceptibility is highly stable and largely unexplained by empathy or other known factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, Alex J; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological functioning of humans. We administered 328 participants a 3-minute yawning video stimulus, a cognitive battery, and a comprehensive questionnaire that included measures of empathy, emotional contagion, circadian energy rhythms, and sleepiness. Individual contagious yawning measurements were found to be highly stable across testing sessions, both in a lab setting and if administered remotely online, confirming that certain healthy individuals are less susceptible to contagious yawns than are others. Additionally, most individuals who failed to contagiously yawn in our study were not simply suppressing their reaction, as they reported not even feeling like yawning in response to the stimulus. In contrast to previous studies indicating that empathy, time of day, or intelligence may influence contagious yawning susceptibility, we found no influence of these variables once accounting for the age of the participant. Participants were less likely to show contagious yawning as their age increased, even when restricting to ages of less than 40 years. However, age was only able to explain 8% of the variability in the contagious yawn response. The vast majority of the variability in this extremely stable trait remained unexplained, suggesting that studies of its inheritance are warranted. PMID:24632594

  16. Comanagement at the Fringes: Examining Stakeholder Perspectives at Macassar Dunes, Cape Town, South Africa--at the Intersection of High Biodiversity, Urban Poverty, and Inequality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Graham

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Theoretically, co-management provides a fruitful way to engage local residents in efforts to conserve and manage particular spaces of ecological value. However, natural resource management, and biodiversity conservation in particular, are faced with novel sets of complexities in the rapidly urbanizing areas of Cape Town, South Africa, and in the nexus between an apartheid past, informal settlements, remnant biodiversity patches, and urban poverty. Departing from such a dynamic social and ecological context, this article first provides an historical account of the decade-long comanagement process at Macassar Dunes, and then considers, through stakeholder perceptions, what are the successes and failures of the contested process. We find that comanagement at Macassar Dunes faces serious legitimacy, trust, and commitment issues, but also that stakeholders find common ground on education and awareness-raising activities. In conclusion we argue that the knowledge generated from case studies like this is useful in challenging and rethinking natural resource management theory generally, but specifically it is useful for the growing cities of the Global South. More case studies and a deeper engagement are needed with geographical theories on the “urban fringe” as “possibility space”, to help build a firm empirical base for theorizing comanagement “at the fringes”, i.e., at the intersection of poverty, socioeconomic inequality, and high biodiversity and ecological values.

  17. Aeromagnetics, Geology and the Geoscience Database for Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Colin

    2010-05-01

    The process of systematic geological mapping of Africa, as established in the first half of the twentieth century, involved heroic periods of field mapping by individuals on single map sheets, supported eventually by interpretation of aerial photography, with the publication of colour maps and reports on paper as the ultimate aim. Despite the advent of satellite imagery in the 1970s, this activity trailed off in the final decades of the century. This was partly due to political changes in Africa but also due to the growing realization that the amount of outcrop available for examination is little to none over great swathes of the continent. Estimates indicate that less than half the sheets that cover the continent had been mapped by about the year 2000, and only half of those mapped had actually reached publication stage. Even then, ‘publication' often meant only that paper copies could be purchased from the sales office of a national geological survey, of which there are more than 50. The second half of the century saw the growing realization that aeromagnetic surveys (that effectively ‘saw through' weathering and widespread sedimentary veneers) could accelerate the geological mapping process and provide useful geological reconnaissance of large areas - typically whole African countries - in years rather than decades. With, in some cases, the support of international aid agencies, airborne geophysical programmes have been launched across Africa and, in some countries, re-launched with greater detail as airborne survey technology continuously improved with time. The advent of gamma-ray spectrometry of high resolution delivered a powerful additional tool after about 1990. It is certain that several hundred million dollars have now been invested in programmes of this type across Africa. It is argued that much of the value of this work has still to be realized. The extraction of geological information from airborne geophysical surveys involves the application of

  18. Individual variability in cardiac biomarker release after 30 min of high-intensity rowing in elite and amateur athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legaz-Arrese, Alejandro; López-Laval, Isaac; George, Keith; Puente-Lanzarote, Juan José; Moliner-Urdiales, Diego; Ayala-Tajuelo, Vicente Javier; Mayolas-Pi, Carmen; Reverter-Masià, Joaquín

    2015-09-01

    This study had two objectives: (i) to examine individual variation in the pattern of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) release in response to high-intensity rowing exercise, and (ii) to establish whether individual heterogeneity in biomarker appearance was influenced by athletic status (elite vs. amateur). We examined cTnI and NT-proBNP in 18 elite and 14 amateur rowers before and 5 min, 1, 3, 6, 12, and 24 h after a 30-min maximal rowing test. Compared with pre-exercise levels, peak postexercise cTnI (pre: 0.014 ± 0.030 μg·L(-1); peak post: 0.058 ± 0.091 μg·L(-1); p = 0.000) and NT-proBNP (pre: 15 ± 11 ng·L(-1); peak post: 31 ± 19 ng·L(-1); p = 0.000) were elevated. Substantial individual heterogeneity in peak and time-course data was noted for cTnI. Peak cTnI exceeded the upper reference limit (URL) in 9 elite and 3 amateur rowers. No rower exceeded the URL for NT-proBNP. Elite rowers had higher baseline (0.019 ± 0.038 vs. 0.008 ± 0.015 μg·L(-1); p = 0.003) and peak postexercise cTnI (0.080 ± 0.115 vs. 0.030 ± 0.029 μg·L(-1); p = 0.022) than amateur rowers, but the change with exercise was similar between groups. There were no significant differences in baseline and peak postexercise NT-proBNP between groups. In summary, marked individuality in the cTnI response to a short but high-intensity rowing bout was observed. Athletic status did not seem to affect the change in cardiac biomarkers in response to high-intensity exercise. PMID:26307519

  19. A Qualitative Study of Patient Motivation to Adhere to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Loggerenberg, F; Gray, D.; Gengiah, S; Kunene, P; Gengiah, TN; Naidoo, K.; Grant, AD

    2015-01-01

    Taken as prescribed, that is, with high adherence, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed HIV infection and disease from being a sure predictor of death to a manageable chronic illness. Adherence, however, is difficult to achieve and maintain. The CAPRISA 058 study was conducted between 2007 and 2009 to test the efficacy of individualized motivational counselling to enhance ART adherence in South Africa. As part of the overall trial, a qualitative sub-study was conducted, includ...

  20. The health costs of ethnic distance: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Joseph Flavian

    2014-01-01

    We show that ethnic distances can explain the ethnic inequalities in child mortality rates in Africa. Using individual level micro data from DHS surveys for fourteen Sub-Saharan African countries combined with a novel high resolution dataset on the spatial distribution of ethnic groups we show that children whose mothers have a higher linguistic distance from their neighbours have a higher probability of dying. Fractionalization reduces the probability of child death. We argue that fractional...

  1. Biodiversity of frog haemoparasites from sub-tropical northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Netherlands, Edward C; Cook, Courtney A.; Donnavan J.D. Kruger; Du Preez, Louis H.; Smit, Nico J.

    2015-01-01

    Since South Africa boasts a high biodiversity of frog species, a multispecies haemoparasite survey was conducted by screening the blood from 29 species and 436 individual frogs. Frogs were collected at three localities in sub-tropical KwaZulu-Natal, a hotspot for frog diversity. Twenty per cent of the frogs were infected with at least one of five groups of parasites recorded. Intraerythrocytic parasites comprising Hepatozoon, Dactylosoma, and viral or bacterial organisms, as well as extracell...

  2. Temporal Variations in the Effective Reproduction Number of the 2014 West Africa Ebola Outbreak

    OpenAIRE

    Towers, Sherry; Patterson-Lomba, Oscar; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos; Currents, PLOS

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapidly evolving 2014 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in West Africa is the largest documented in history, both in terms of the number of people infected and in the geographic spread. The high morbidity and mortality have inspired response strategies to the outbreak at the individual, regional, and national levels. Methods to provide real-time assessment of changing transmission dynamics are critical to the understanding of how these adaptive intervention measures have affec...

  3. Public service delivery and private firms in South Africa : perceptions and possible impacts / Juanita Loots

    OpenAIRE

    Loots, Juanita

    2010-01-01

    Since the advent of democracy in 1994, the South African Government has accomplished greater economic growth, a reduction in the fiscal deficit, lower inflation as well as tax relief for corporates and individuals. Regardless of these accomplishments, South Africa as a country is still struggling with a number of difficulties, including high unemployment, unequal income distributions as well as extreme poverty and crime. To overcome these problems, the majority of studies show ...

  4. Molecular monitoring of the Leu-164 mutation of dihydrofolate reductase in a highly sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine-resistant area in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mutabingwa Theonest

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The selection of point mutation at codon 164 (from isoleucine to leucine of the dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR enzyme in Plasmodium falciparum is associated with high sulfadoxine /pyrimethamine (SP resistance. Using the yeast expression system that allows the detection of dhfr allele present at low level, the presence of this mutation had previously been reported between 1998–1999 in Muheza, Tanzania, an area of high SP resistance. Eighty five P. falciparum isolates, obtained from the same area between 2002 and 2003, were analysed for the presence of Leu-164 mutation, using standard protocol based on PCR-RFLP. None of the isolates had the Leu-164 mutation.

  5. Individual finger control of a modular prosthetic limb using high-density electrocorticography in a human subject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotson, Guy; McMullen, David P.; Fifer, Matthew S.; Johannes, Matthew S.; Katyal, Kapil D.; Para, Matthew P.; Armiger, Robert; Anderson, William S.; Thakor, Nitish V.; Wester, Brock A.; Crone, Nathan E.

    2016-04-01

    Objective. We used native sensorimotor representations of fingers in a brain-machine interface (BMI) to achieve immediate online control of individual prosthetic fingers. Approach. Using high gamma responses recorded with a high-density electrocorticography (ECoG) array, we rapidly mapped the functional anatomy of cued finger movements. We used these cortical maps to select ECoG electrodes for a hierarchical linear discriminant analysis classification scheme to predict: (1) if any finger was moving, and, if so, (2) which digit was moving. To account for sensory feedback, we also mapped the spatiotemporal activation elicited by vibrotactile stimulation. Finally, we used this prediction framework to provide immediate online control over individual fingers of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory modular prosthetic limb. Main results. The balanced classification accuracy for detection of movements during the online control session was 92% (chance: 50%). At the onset of movement, finger classification was 76% (chance: 20%), and 88% (chance: 25%) if the pinky and ring finger movements were coupled. Balanced accuracy of fully flexing the cued finger was 64%, and 77% had we combined pinky and ring commands. Offline decoding yielded a peak finger decoding accuracy of 96.5% (chance: 20%) when using an optimized selection of electrodes. Offline analysis demonstrated significant finger-specific activations throughout sensorimotor cortex. Activations either prior to movement onset or during sensory feedback led to discriminable finger control. Significance. Our results demonstrate the ability of ECoG-based BMIs to leverage the native functional anatomy of sensorimotor cortical populations to immediately control individual finger movements in real time.

  6. Employment creation through public works programmes and projects in South Africa: Experiences and potentials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. D. Thwala

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose/objectives: The aim of this article is to look at the experiences, problems and the potential contribution of employment creation programmes in alleviating the unemployment problem in other African countries through the construction of public infrastructure through the use of labour-intensive methods. The article then describes the problems and experiences that have been encountered in South Africa in relation to employment creation through the construction of public infrastructure.Problem investigated: In South Africa the levels of unemployment and poverty are extremely high and unemployment is one of South Africa's most pressing problems. At the same time there is a lack of capacity and skills at institutional, community and individual levels. Labour-intensive programmes generate more direct and indirect local employment opportunities and income by using locally available inputs (materials, simple tools and local labour and thus creating a greater demand for local products and services than do high-technology programmes reliant on imported technology and equipment. Design/Methodology/Approach: Drawing on research on labour-intensive, public works programmes and projects, the paper is mainly a literature review. From a theoretical perspective supported by experience elsewhere in Africa, there are reasons for considering that properly formulated employment creation programmes based on the use of labour-intensive methods could be established to construct and maintain the required physical infrastructure, thus creating employment, skills and institutional capacities. The article closes with some recommendations for the future programmes success.Findings/Implications: The article attributes the failure of projects and programmes in South Africa to different factors which must be avoided in future in order for projects and programmes to be successful in South Africa. Investment in infrastructure has a huge potential to redress the high

  7. Development of the roadmap and guidelines for the prevention and management of high blood pressure in Africa: Proceedings of the PASCAR Hypertension Task Force meeting: Nairobi, Kenya, 27 October 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzudie, A; Ojji, D; Anisiuba, B C; Abdou, B A; Cornick, R; Damasceno, A; Kane, A L; Mocumbi, A O; Mohamed, A; Nel, G; Ogola, E; Onwubere, B; Otieno, H; Rainer, B; Schutte, A; Ali, I T; Twagirumukiza, M; Poulter, N; Mayosi, B

    2015-01-01

    Africa has one of the fastest growing economies in the world. The economic changes are associated with a health transition characterised by a rise in cardiovascular risk factors and complications, which tend to affect the African population at their age of maximum productivity. Recent data from Africa have highlighted the increasing importance of high blood pressure in this region of the world. This condition is largely underdiagnosed and poorly treated, and therefore leads to stroke, renal and heart failure, and death. Henceforth, African countries are taking steps to develop relevant policies and programmes to address the issue of blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in response to a call by the World Health Organisation (WHO) to reduce premature deaths from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) by 25% by the year 2025 (25 × 25). The World Heart Federation (WHF) has developed a roadmap for global implementation of the prevention and management of raised blood pressure using a health system approach to help realise the 25 × 25 goal set by the WHO. As the leading continental organisation of cardiovascular professionals, the Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) aims to contextualise the roadmap framework of the WHF to the African continent through the PASCAR Taskforce on Hypertension. The Taskforce held a workshop in Kenya on 27 October 2014 to discuss a process by which effective prevention and control of hypertension in Africa may be achieved. It was agreed that a set of clinical guidelines for the management of hypertension are needed in Africa. The ultimate goal of this work is to develop a roadmap for implementation of the prevention and management of hypertension in Africa under the auspices of the WHF. PMID:25940121

  8. Ultralow mode-volume photonic crystal nanobeam cavities for high-efficiency coupling to individual carbon nanotube emitters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, R.; Imamura, S.; Ohta, R.; Ishii, A.; Liu, X.; Shimada, T.; Iwamoto, S.; Arakawa, Y.; Kato, Y. K.

    2014-11-01

    The unique emission properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes are attractive for achieving increased functionality in integrated photonics. In addition to being room-temperature telecom-band emitters that can be directly grown on silicon, they are ideal for coupling to nanoscale photonic structures. Here we report on high-efficiency coupling of individual air-suspended carbon nanotubes to silicon photonic crystal nanobeam cavities. Photoluminescence images of dielectric- and air-mode cavities reflect their distinctly different mode profiles and show that fields in the air are important for coupling. We find that the air-mode cavities couple more efficiently, and estimated spontaneous emission coupling factors reach a value as high as 0.85. Our results demonstrate advantages of ultralow mode-volumes in air-mode cavities for coupling to low-dimensional nanoscale emitters.

  9. A high resolution and continuous isotopic speleothem record of paleoclimate and paleoenvironment from 90-53 ka from the south coast of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Matthews, Miryam; Marean, Curtis W.; Jacobs, Zenobia; Karkanas, Panagiotis; Fisher, Erich C.; Herries, Andy I. R.; Brown, Kyle; Williams, Hope M.; Bernatchez, Jocelyn; Ayalon, Avner; Nielssen, Peter J.

    2010-05-01

    The south coast of Africa is near the confluence of two oceans (Atlantic and Indian) and two major oceanic systems influential to world climate - the cold Benguela Upwelling on the west coast and the warm Agulhas Current flowing down the east coast. The south coast is also at the juncture of a winter rainfall system to the west and summer to the east, and the relative positions of these systems in reaction to global climate change have long been a focus of study and debate. Coastal South Africa draws interdisciplinary interests due to the co-occurrence of a rich record for early human behavioral modernity, hyper-diverse vegetation with very high endemism (the Cape Floral Region, CFR), and globally influential oceanic and climate systems. There is also a transition from C3 grass domination in the winter rainfall areas to the west to more C4 grass representation to the east in the summer rainfall areas. High resolution and continuous climate and environmental records are needed to provide the context for the evolution of behavioral modernity and this diverse flora. The coastal cliffs are highly folded and faulted exposures of the Skurweberg Formation of the Paleozoic Table Mountain Sandstone Group (TMS). This formation comprises coarse-grained quartzitic sandstone. Shear zones with boudinage features cut through the TMS, and large number of caves and rockshelters are found in these eroded fault breccias. The offshore platform was the source for much of the aeolian sands that comprise the extensive ancient dune systems on land and in the caves. Speleothems are present in almost all the caves, often intercalated with archaeological deposits, and almost always occurring behind aeolianite remnants. The intercalation of speleothem with sediments affords the opportunity to conduct both uranium-thorium dating (U-Th) and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) on intercalated sediments. Here we present the first high resolution and precisely dated record for climate and

  10. Medical physics and challenges faced in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    , Uganda and Ghana. A questionnaire was used to collect data inline with the objectives. The data collected was analysed to identify the correlation between the challenges identified and the objectives of FAMPO. Results and discussions Challenges faced by medical physicists in African countries There is shortage of qualified skilled medical physicists to man all the activities the three areas of Radiotherapy, Radiology and Nuclear Medicine. 5 The cost involved to obtain clinical training from the recognized training centres is high and there no local training centres. Training of qualified medical physicists has been done by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as little or no support is given to training medical physicists by individual governments. Lack of recognized bodies governing medical physicists, hence lack of coordination among medical physicists in a particular country and between countries in Africa. The law governing the use ionizing radiation is still weak in some African countries. Ignorance about the role of a medical physicist from the hospital managers and health ministries, hence limitation of their participation in research and publication. Lack of equipment has inhibited execution of their duties especially in areas of dosimetry, dose assessment and radiation monitoring. Hospitals have no budget for continuous education to fund conferences or congress attendance. Most of these conferences are commonly supported by international organizations like IAEA, WHO. Aims and Functions of FAMPO To promote improved quality service to patients and the community in the region. To promote the co-operation and communication between medical physics organization in the region, and where such organizations do not exist between individual medical physicists. To promote the profession and practice of medical physics and related activities in the region. To promote the advancement in status and standard of practice of medical physics profession. To promote and

  11. Africa : Irrigation investment Needs in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    You, Liang Zhi

    2008-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rainfall is highly variable and, in many places, plainly in sufficient. Although irrigation has the potential to boost agricultural yields by at least 50 percent, food production in the region is almost entirely rain-fed. The irrigated area, extending over 6 million hectares, makes up just 5 percent of the total cultivated area, compared to 37 percent in Asia and 14 ...

  12. Educational issues for sustainable development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Raheem, Kolawole; Kupari, Pekka; Lasonen, Johanna

    2006-01-01

    Educational systems in Africa during the colonial period focused on a school system that was based on the perspectives of the colonial rulers. Nearly half a century ago African leaders, after the independence granted to their countries, were expressing the high hopes of positive political and economic development in their countries. But alas, the development has been regressive. Today Africa is the only continent in the world that has become poorer in the past 25 years. There h...

  13. Constitutional Design and Conflict Management in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperman Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The CDCM project explores whether and how constitutional reform could reduce political instability and violence in Africa, by addressing the question in three steps. First, case studies of seven African countries identify how at key turning points the domestic political institutions either mitigated – or exacerbated – violent outcomes. Second, an unprecedented database of constitutional design in all of Africa reveals that most countries on the continent have highly centralized political inst...

  14. Role of dust direct radiative effect on the tropical rainbelt over Middle East and North Africa: A high resolution AGCM study

    KAUST Repository

    Bangalath, Hamza Kunhu

    2015-04-25

    To investigate the influence of direct radiative effect of dust on the tropical summer rainbelt across the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), the present study utilizes the high resolution capability of an Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM),the High Resolution Atmospheric Model (HiRAM). Ensembles of Atmospheric Model Inter-comparison Project (AMIP)-style simulations have been conducted with and without dust radiative impacts, to differentiate the influence of dust on the tropical rainbelt. The analysis focuses on summer season. The results highlight the role of dust induced responses in global and regional scale circulations in determining the strength and the latitudinal extent of the tropical rainbelt. A significant response in the strength and position of the local Hadley circulation is predicted in response to meridionally asymmetric distribution of dust and the corresponding radiative effects. Significant responses are also found in regional circulation features such as African Easterly Jet (AEJ) and West African Monsoon (WAM) circulation. Consistent with these dynamic responses at various scales, the tropical rainbelt across MENA strengthens and shifts northward. Importantly, the summer precipitation over the semi-arid strip south of Sahara, including Sahel, increases up to 20%. As this region is characterized by the “Sahel drought" , the predicted precipitation sensitivity to the dust loading over this region has a wide-range of socioeconomic implications. Overall, the study demonstrates the extreme importance of incorporating dust radiative effects and the corresponding circulation responses at various scales, in the simulations and future projections of this region\\'s climate.

  15. Energy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre; Fattouh, Bassam; Khadduri, Walid; Copinschi, Philippe; Doucet, Gerald; Fall, Latsoucabé

    2008-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Favennec on the importance of oil in Africa; Bassam Fattouh considers the history of foreign oil companies in Libya; Walid Khadduri looks at Algerian petroleum development and its imperfections; Philippe Copinschi assesses frustrated contested oil ambitions in Nigeria; Gerald Doucet and Latsoucabé Fall stress the importance of the Inga hydropower projects for Africa;

  16. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  17. CPIA Africa, June 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa report describes the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of their policies and institutions. Some of the results from this report include: The overall quality of policies and institutions in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa was unchanged in 2014, but there was much variation in performance across co...

  18. Measuring irrigation performance in Africa:

    OpenAIRE

    Svendsen, Mark; Ewing, Mandy; Msangi, Siwa

    2009-01-01

    "The paper develops indicators to look at the performance of the irrigation sector in Sub-Saharan Africa, where demand for food is high and irrigation has a proven potential to boost levels of agricultural productivity. By looking at six indicator categories—institutional framework, water resource use, irrigation area, irrigation technology, agricultural productivity, and poverty and food security—we assess the potential for improving performance in the agricultural food security sector throu...

  19. Hepatitis B epidemiology in Asia, the Middle East and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, F

    2000-02-18

    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control. PMID:10683538

  20. Incidence of Human Herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8 infection among HIV-uninfected individuals at high risk for sexually transmitted infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palamara Guido

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The occurrence of, and risk factors for, HHV-8 infection have yet to be definitively determined, particularly among heterosexual individuals with at-risk behavior for sexually transmitted infections (STI. The objective of this study was to estimate the incidence and determinants of HHV-8 infection among HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly attending an urban STI clinic. Methods Sera from consecutive HIV-uninfected individuals repeatedly tested for HIV-1 antibodies were additionally tested for HHV-8 antibodies using an immunofluorescence assay. To identify determinants of HHV-8 infection, a nested case-control study and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed. Results Sera from 456 HIV-uninfected individuals (224 multiple-partner heterosexuals and 232 men who have sex with men (MSM] were identified for inclusion in the study. The HHV-8 seroprevalence at enrollment was 9.4% (21/224; 95% C.I.: 6.0–14.2% among heterosexuals with multiple partners and 22.0% (51/232; 95% C.I.: 16.9–28.0% among MSM. Among the 203 multiple-partner heterosexuals and 181 MSM who were initially HHV-8-negative, 17 (IR = 3.0/100 p-y, 95% C.I.: 1.9 – 4.8 and 21 (IR = 3.3/100 p-y, 95% C.I:.2.1 – 5.1 seroconversions occurred, respectively. HHV-8 seroconversion tended to be associated with a high number of sexual partners during the follow-up among MSM (> 10 partners: AOR = 3.32 95% CI:0.89–12.46 and among the multiple-partner heterosexuals (> 10 partner; AOR = 3.46, 95% CI:0.42–28.2. Moreover, among MSM, HHV-8 seroconversion tended to be associated with STI (AOR = 1.80 95%CI: 0.52–7.96. During the study period the HIV-1 incidence was lower than that of HHV-8 among both groups (0.89/100 p-y among MSM and 0.95/100 p-y among multiple-partner heterosexuals. Conclusion The large difference between the incidence of HHV-8 and the incidence of HIV-1 and other STIs may suggest that the circulation of HHV-8 is sustained by practices

  1. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24±19.03 cm2 and 32.55±11.91 cm2, respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48±74.43 mm2/kg/m2 in the IPF patients and 137.06±41.76 mm2/kg/m2 in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The hypertrophy of mediastinal and extrapleural fat in

  2. Mediastinal and extrapleural fat hypertrophy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis on high-resolution CT: comparison with normal individuals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Kyu Ri; Lee, Hyun Ju; Lim, Kun Young; Lee, Chang Hyun; Goo, Jin Mo; Im, Jung Gi [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-12-01

    We wished to compare the amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat on high resolution CT for patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with that of normal individuals, and we wished to evaluate the correlation between the amount of fat and the degree of pulmonary fibrosis. We selected a group of 25 patients with radiologically and clinically diagnosed IPF and we also selected another group of 25 age and gender-matched patients having no abnormalities on pulmonary function testing as well as HRCT as controls from our radiologic database search (mean age: 59 years, M:F= 11:14). We measured the area of mediastinal and extrapleural fat at the levels of the aortic arch and at the origin of the right pulmonary artery and right inferior pulmonary vein on three sections of HRCT by using software (Rapidia; 3DMED, Seoul, Korea). The total amount of fat was calculated by summing up the areas of the mediastinal and extrapleural fat, which is corrected by the body mass index; we also evaluated statistical differences between the two groups. At same sections of CT, the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area to the total areas of the lung was calculated. We evaluated the relationship between the amount of extrapleural or mediastinal fat with the ratio (%) of the honeycombing area. The total amount of fat in patients with IPF and normal individuals were 67.24{+-}19.03 cm{sup 2} and 32.55{+-}11.91 cm{sup 2}, respectively. The fat amount corrected by body mass index was 280.48{+-}74.43 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in the IPF patients and 137.06{+-}41.76 mm{sup 2}/kg/m{sup 2} in normal individuals. The differences between two groups for the total amount of fat and fat amount, as corrected for by the body mass index, were statistically significant (p<0.0001). The ratio (%) of the honeycombing area and the total amount of fat showed a moderate correlation (rho= 0.43, p=0.032). Patients with IPF have a larger amount of mediastinal and extrapleural fat than normal individuals. The

  3. High-performance liquid chromatography combined with intrinsic fluorescence detection to analyse melittin in individual honeybee (Apis mellifera) venom sac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jiangtao; Ying, Bihua; Huang, Shaokang; Ma, Shuangqin; Long, Peng; Tu, Xijuan; Yang, Wenchao; Wu, Zhenhong; Chen, Wenbin; Miao, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    Melittin is the major toxin peptide in bee venom, which has diverse biological effects. In the present study, melittin was separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and was then detected using intrinsic fluorescence signal of tryptophan residue. The accuracy, linearity, limit of quantitation (LOQ), intra-day and inter-day precision of the method were carefully validated in this study. Results indicate that the intrinsic fluorescence signal of melittin has linear range from 0.04μg/mL to 20μg/mL with LOQ of 0.04μg/mL. The recovery range of spiked samples is between 81.93% and 105.25%. The precision results are expressed as relative standard deviation (RSD), which is in the range of 2.1-7.4% for intra-day precision and 6.2-10.8% for inter-day precision. Because of the large linear dynamic range and the high sensitivity, intrinsic fluorescence detection (IFD) can be used for analyzing melittin contents in individual venom sac of honeybee (Apis mellifera). The detected contents of melittin in individual bee venom sac are 0.18±0.25μg for one-day old honeybees (n=30), and 114.98±43.51μg for 25-day old (n=30) honeybees, respectively. Results indicate that there is large bee-to-bee difference in melittin contents. The developed method can be useful for discovering the melittin related honeybee biology information, which might be covered in the complex samples. PMID:26319802

  4. Highly Specific Detection of Myostatin Prodomain by an Immunoradiometric Sandwich Assay in Serum of Healthy Individuals and Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widera, Christian; Gottlieb, Jens; Vogel, Arndt; Schmidt, Sebastian; Brandes, Gudrun; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker. Methods We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Results The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25th-75th percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25th-75th percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Conclusions We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly

  5. Rapid screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin polymorphisms in Africa by a simple high-throughput SSOP-ELISA method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theander Thor G

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutations in the haemoglobin beta-globin (HbB and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD genes cause widespread human genetic disorders such as sickle cell diseases and G6PD deficiency. In sub-Saharan Africa, a few predominant polymorphic variants of each gene account for a majority of these deficiencies. Examining at a larger scale the clinical importance of these independent genetic disorders, their possible association with malaria pathogenesis and innate resistance, and their relevance for antimalarial drug treatment, would be easier if an accurate screening method with limited costs was available. Methods A simple and rapid technique was developed to detect the most prominent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the HbB and G6PD genes. The method is able to detect the different haemoglobin polymorphisms A, S, C and E, as well as G6PD polymorphisms B, A and A- based on PCR-amplification followed by a hybridization step using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs specific for the SNP variants and quantified by ELISA. Results The SSOP-ELISA method was found to be specific, and compared well to the commonly used PCR-RFLP technique. Identical results were obtained in 98% (haemoglobin and 95% (G6PD of the tested 90 field samples from a high-transmission area in Tanzania, which were used to validate the new technique. Conclusion The simplicity and accuracy of the new methodology makes it suitable for application in settings where resources are limited. It would serve as a valuable tool for research purposes by monitoring genotype frequencies in relation to disease epidemiology.

  6. From Africa to Europe and back: refugia and range shifts cause high genetic differentiation in the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rödder Dennis

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The glacial-interglacial oscillations caused severe range modifications of biota. Thermophilic species became extinct in the North and survived in southern retreats, e.g. the Mediterranean Basin. These repeated extinction and (recolonisation events led to long-term isolation and intermixing of populations and thus resulted in strong genetic imprints in many European species therefore being composed of several genetic lineages. To better understand these cycles of repeated expansion and retraction, we selected the Marbled White butterfly Melanargia galathea. Fourty-one populations scattered over Europe and the Maghreb and one population of the sibling taxon M. lachesis were analysed using allozyme electrophoresis. Results We obtained seven distinct lineages applying neighbour joining and STRUCTURE analyses: (i Morocco, (ii Tunisia, (iii Sicily, (iv Italy and southern France, (v eastern Balkans extending to Central Europe, (vi western Balkans with western Carpathian Basin as well as (vii south-western Alps. The hierarchy of these splits is well matching the chronology of glacial and interglacial cycles since the Günz ice age starting with an initial split between the galathea group in North Africa and the lachesis group in Iberia. These genetic structures were compared with past distribution patterns during the last glacial stage calculated with distribution models. Conclusions Both methods suggest climatically suitable areas in the Maghreb and the southern European peninsulas with distinct refugia during the last glacial period and underpin strong range expansions to the North during the Postglacial. However, the allozyme patterns reveal biogeographical structures not detected by distribution modelling as two distinct refugia in the Maghreb, two or more distinct refugia at the Balkans and a close link between the eastern Maghreb and Sicily. Furthermore, the genetically highly diverse western Maghreb might have acted as source

  7. High prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus (CAV) type 2 in domestic dog populations in South Africa precludes the use of CAV-based recombinant rabies vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, N; Jackson, F R; Niezgoda, M; Ellison, J A; Rupprecht, C E; Nel, L H

    2013-08-28

    Rabies in dogs can be controlled through mass vaccination. Oral vaccination of domestic dogs would be useful in the developing world, where greater vaccination coverage is needed especially in inaccessible areas or places with large numbers of free-roaming dogs. From this perspective, recent research has focused on development of new recombinant vaccines that can be administered orally in a bait to be used as adjunct for parenteral vaccination. One such candidate, a recombinant canine adenovirus type 2 vaccine expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein (CAV2-RG), is considered a promising option for dogs, given host specificity and safety. To assess the potential use of this vaccine in domestic dog populations, we investigated the prevalence of antibodies against canine adenovirus type 2 in South African dogs. Blood was collected from 241 dogs from the Gauteng and KwaZulu-Natal provinces. Sampled dogs had not previously been vaccinated against canine adenovirus type 1 (CAV1) or canine adenovirus type 2 (CAV2). Animals from both provinces had a high percentage of seropositivity (45% and 62%), suggesting that CAV2 circulates extensively among domestic dog populations in South Africa. Given this finding, we evaluated the effect of pre-existing CAV-specific antibodies on the efficacy of the CAV2-RG vaccine delivered via the oral route in dogs. Purpose-bred Beagle dogs, which received prior vaccination against canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and CAV, were immunized by oral administration of CAV2-RG. After rabies virus (RABV) infection all animals, except one vaccinated dog, developed rabies. This study demonstrated that pre-existing antibodies against CAV, such as naturally occurs in South African dogs, inhibits the development of neutralizing antibodies against RABV when immunized with a CAV-based rabies recombinant vaccine. PMID:23867013

  8. Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitas, F; Newton, R

    2001-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma was endemic in South Africa even before the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Between 1988 and 1996, the incidence of Kaposi's sarcoma in South Africa has risen at least threefold and continues to increase as the HIV epidemic grows. Research from South Africa has shown that infection with human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) is associated with Kaposi's sarcoma but not with any other major cancer site or type. In addition, the risk of Kaposi's sarcoma increases with increasing antibody titer to HHV8, but, for a given titer, the risk is greater in HIV-seropositive compared with HIV-seronegative individuals. The age- and sex-standardized seroprevalence of HHV8 in black South African hospital patients was found to be slightly more than 30%; the seroprevalence of HHV8 increased with age and was similar in men and in women. The modes of transmission of HHV8 are yet to be fully elucidated. Limited evidence exists for sexual transmission in black South African adults, but mother-to-child and person-to-person transmission in childhood is also likely. Furthermore, the seroprevalence of HHV8 decreases with increasing levels of education and is lower in whites than in blacks, suggesting that factors associated with poverty may be important determinants of transmission. Future research should focus on risk factors for Kaposi's sarcoma in HHV8-infected individuals, on determinants and mode of transmission of HHV8, and on the elucidation of the effect of primary HHV8 infection in adults and in children. PMID:11158199

  9. WRF model performance and sensitivity to model physics in a medium- and high-resolution downscaling experiment for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Cornelia; Bliefernicht, Jan; Heinzeller, Dominikus; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2014-05-01

    downscaling improved the representation of strong precipitation events and reduced the bias in the Volta basin region from -1.1 to -0.1 mm/day. A group of well-performing configurations is identified for further analysis in high-resolution simulations at 4 km. It is shown, that regional modeling at convection resolving scales can greatly improve the representation of mesoscale convective systems, which is of major importance for capturing precipitation extremes in this region.

  10. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Africa competitiveness report 2011 comes out as the world emerges from the most significant financial and economic crisis in generations. While many advanced economies are still struggling to get their economies back on a solid footing, Africa has, for the most part, weathered the storm remarkably well. The Africa competitiveness report focuses on harnessing Africa's underutilized reso...

  11. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a

  12. Regional integration, FDI and competitiveness in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Southern Africa, with its vast natural resources and relatively skilled workforce, should be a magnet for foreign direct investment (FDI). This, however, is not the case. Indeed, even domestic investment is low, though intra-regional investment, mainly from South Africa and Mauritius is notable. This book analyses investment flows within the region and examines the role ofFDI in key industries. It concludes that Southern Africa still has to shake off a reputation for instability and high risk...

  13. Determinats and Impacts of Foreign Direct Investment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kassim, Leila Hashim

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the determinants and impacts of foreign direct investment in South Africa for the period 1970-2006. Recognising that FDI can contribute to economic growth and development of most countries, South Africa is constantly working to attract FDI and hence its demand has become highly competitive. South Africa has made considerable efforts over the past decade to improve their investment climate. They have liberalized their investment regulations and have offered incentives to fo...

  14. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J.; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K. Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based a...

  15. Africa's Pulse, April 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Chuhan-Pole, Punam; Francisco H.G. Ferreira; Calderon, Cesar; Christiaensen, Luc; Evans, David; Kambou, Gerard; Boreux, Sebastien; Korman, Vijdan; Kubota, Megumi; Buitano, Mapi

    2015-01-01

    Africa’s Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macro-economic outlook for the region. It also includes a section focusing on a topic that represents a particular development challenges for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region.This issue is an analysis of issues shaping Africa's economic future. Growth remains stable in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some countries are seeing a slowdown, but the region's economic pros...

  16. Africa's Pulse, October 2014

    OpenAIRE

    Punam, Chuhan-Pole; Ferreira, Francisco H.G.

    2014-01-01

    Africa’s Pulse is a biannual publication containing an analysis of the near-term macro-economic outlook for the region. It also includes a section focusing on a topic that represents a particular development challenges for the continent. It is produced by the Office of the Chief Economist for the Africa Region.This issue is an analysis of issues shaping Africa's economic future. Growth remains stable in Sub-Saharan Africa. Some countries are seeing a slowdown, but the region's economic pros...

  17. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical. Results. Twenty participants (10 men completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1 there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2 the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P=0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  18. Advances In Vertical Solid-State Current Limiters For Individual Field Emitter Regulation In High-Density Arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frances A.; Velásquez-García, Luis F.

    2015-12-01

    We report the design, fabrication, and characterization of improved solid-state elements intended for individual regulation of field emitters part of high-density arrays. We demonstrate a high-yield, CMOS compatible fabrication process of single-crystal, vertical, ungated, n-type silicon field-effect transistors (FETs); each device behaves as a current source when is biased at a voltage larger than its drain-source saturation voltage. An ungated FET in saturation connected in series to a field emitter can compensate for the wide variation in current-voltage characteristics of the field emitters due to the tip radii spread present in any field emitter array, which should result in emitter burn-out protection, larger array utilization, and smaller array emission non-uniformity. Using 1-2 Ωcm single-crystal n-Si wafers, we fabricated arrays of 25 μm tall vertical ungated FETs with 0.5 μm diameter that span two orders of magnitude of array size. Experimental characterization of the arrays demonstrates that the current is limited with > 3.5 V bias voltage to the same ∼6 μA (6 A.cm-2) per-FET value. Finite element simulations of the device predict a saturation voltage close to the experimental value and a saturation current within a factor of two of the experimental value.

  19. Improving the efficiency and accuracy of individual tree crown delineation from high-density LiDAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Baoxin; Li, Jili; Jing, Linhai; Judah, Aaron

    2014-02-01

    Canopy height model (CHM) derived from LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) data has been commonly used to generate segments of individual tree crowns for forest inventory and sustainable management. However, branches, tree crowns, and tree clusters usually have similar shapes and overlapping sizes, which cause current individual tree crown delineation methods to work less effectively on closed canopy, deciduous or mixedwood forests. In addition, the potential of 3-dimentional (3-D) LiDAR data is not fully realized by CHM-oriented methods. In this study, a framework was proposed to take advantage of the simplicity of a CHM-oriented method, detailed vertical structures of tree crowns represented in high-density LiDAR data, and any prior knowledge of tree crowns. The efficiency and accuracy of ITC delineation can be improved. This framework consists of five steps: (1) determination of dominant crown sizes; (2) generation of initial tree segments using a multi-scale segmentation method; (3) identification of “problematic” segments; (4) determination of the number of trees based on the 3-D LiDAR points in each of the identified segments; and (5) refinement of the “problematic” segments by splitting and merging operations. The proposed framework was efficient, since the detailed examination of 3-D LiDAR points was not applied to all initial segments, but only to those needed further evaluations based on prior knowledge. It was also demonstrated to be effective based on an experiment on natural forests in Ontario, Canada. The proposed framework and specific methods yielded crown maps having a good consistency with manual and visual interpretation. The automated method correctly delineated about 74% and 72% of the tree crowns in two plots with mixedwood and deciduous trees, respectively.

  20. Functional group and individual maceral chemistry of high volatile bituminous coals from southern Indiana: Controls on coking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The individual maceral chemistries of two Pennsylvanian, high volatile bituminous coals, the Danville Coal Member (Dugger Formation, R o=0.55%) and the Lower Block Coal Member (Brazil Formation, R o=0.56%) of Indiana, were investigated using electron microprobe and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FTIR) techniques, with the purpose of understanding differences in their coking behavior. Microprobe results reveal that carbon contents are highest in inertinite and sporinite, followed by desmocollinite and telocollinite. Oxygen and organic nitrogen are most abundant in telocollinite and desmocollinite; sporinite and inertinite contain lesser amounts of these two elements. Organic sulfur contents are highest in sporinite, lowest in inertinite, and intermediate in desmocollinite and telocollinite. Vitrinites within the Danville and Lower Block coals are very similar in elemental composition, while Lower Block inertinites and sporinites have higher carbon, lower oxygen, and sulfur contents which, when combined with the inertinite-and sporinite-rich composition of the Lower Block seam, strongly influences its whole coal chemistry. Fourier transform infrared spectrometry revealed greater aromatic hydrogen in the Lower Block coal, along with higher CH2/CH3 ratios, which suggest that liptinites contribute considerable amounts of long-chain, unbranched aliphatics to the overall kerogen composition of the Lower Block coal. Long-chain, unbranched aliphatics crack at higher temperatures, producing tar and oily byproducts during coking; these may help increase Lower Block plasticity. Electron microprobe and FTIR results indicate that individual maceral chemistries, combined with the maceral composition of the seam, are the primary control of better coking properties of the Lower Block coal. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. High seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi antibodies in forestry workers and individuals suspected of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahfari, S; Herremans, T; Platonov, A E; Kuiper, H; Karan, L S; Vasilieva, O; Koopmans, M P G; Hovius, J W R; Sprong, H

    2014-09-01

    Substantial exposure to Borrelia miyamotoi occurs through bites from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands, which also transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Direct evidence for B. miyamotoi infection in European populations is scarce. A flu-like illness with high fever, resembling human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has been attributed to B. miyamotoi infections in relatively small groups. Borrelia miyamotoi infections associated with chronic meningoencephalitis have also been described in case reports. Assuming that an IgG antibody response against B. miyamotoi antigens reflects (endured) infection, the seroprevalence in different risk groups was examined. Sera from nine out of ten confirmed B. miyamotoi infections from Russia were found to be positive with the recombinant antigen used, and no significant cross-reactivity was observed in secondary syphilis patients. The seroprevalence in blood donors was set at 2.0% (95% CI 0.4-5.7%). Elevated seroprevalences in individuals with serologically confirmed, 7.4% (2.0-17.9%), or unconfirmed, 8.6% (1.8-23%), Lyme neuroborreliosis were not significantly different from those in blood donors. The prevalence of anti-B. miyamotoi antibodies among forestry workers was 10% (5.3-16.8%) and in patients with serologically unconfirmed but suspected human granulocytic anaplasmosis was 14.6% (9.0-21.8%); these were significantly higher compared with the seroprevalence in blood donors. Our findings indicate that infections with B. miyamotoi occur in tick-exposed individuals in the Netherlands. In addition, B. miyamotoi infections should be considered in patients reporting tick bites and febrile illness with unresolved aetiology in the Netherlands, and other countries where I. ricinus ticks are endemic. PMID:25356364

  2. High seroprevalence of Borrelia miyamotoi antibodies in forestry workers and individuals suspected of human granulocytic anaplasmosis in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Jahfari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Substantial exposure to Borrelia miyamotoi occurs through bites from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Netherlands, which also transmit Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato and Anaplasma phagocytophilum. Direct evidence for B. miyamotoi infection in European populations is scarce. A flu-like illness with high fever, resembling human granulocytic anaplasmosis, has been attributed to B. miyamotoi infections in relatively small groups. Borrelia miyamotoi infections associated with chronic meningoencephalitis have also been described in case reports. Assuming that an IgG antibody response against B. miyamotoi antigens reflects (endured infection, the seroprevalence in different risk groups was examined. Sera from nine out of ten confirmed B. miyamotoi infections from Russia were found to be positive with the recombinant antigen used, and no significant cross-reactivity was observed in secondary syphilis patients. The seroprevalence in blood donors was set at 2.0% (95% CI 0.4–5.7%. Elevated seroprevalences in individuals with serologically confirmed, 7.4% (2.0–17.9%, or unconfirmed, 8.6% (1.8–23%, Lyme neuroborreliosis were not significantly different from those in blood donors. The prevalence of anti-B. miyamotoi antibodies among forestry workers was 10% (5.3–16.8% and in patients with serologically unconfirmed but suspected human granulocytic anaplasmosis was 14.6% (9.0–21.8%; these were significantly higher compared with the seroprevalence in blood donors. Our findings indicate that infections with B. miyamotoi occur in tick-exposed individuals in the Netherlands. In addition, B. miyamotoi infections should be considered in patients reporting tick bites and febrile illness with unresolved aetiology in the Netherlands, and other countries where I. ricinus ticks are endemic.

  3. Curbing stem cell tourism in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelein Meissner-Roloff

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stem cells have received much attention globally due in part to the immense therapeutic potential they harbor. Unfortunately, malpractice and exploitation (financial and emotional of vulnerable patients have also drawn attention to this field as a result of the detrimental consequences experienced by some individuals that have undergone unproven stem cell therapies. South Africa has had limited exposure to stem cells and their applications and, while any exploitation is detrimental to the field of stem cells, South Africa is particularly vulnerable in this regard. The current absence of adequate legislation and the inability to enforce existing legislation, coupled to the sea of misinformation available on the Internet could lead to an increase in illegitimate stem cell practices in South Africa. Circumstances are already precarious because of a lack of understanding of concepts involved in stem cell applications. What is more, credible and easily accessible information is not available to the public. This in turn cultivates fears born out of existing superstitions, cultural beliefs, rituals and practices. Certain cultural or religious concerns could potentially hinder the effective application of stem cell therapies in South Africa and novel ways of addressing these concerns are necessary. Understanding how scientific progress and its implementation will affect each individual and, consequently, the community, will be of cardinal importance to the success of the fields of stem cell therapy and regenerative medicine in South Africa. A failure to understand the ethical, cultural or moral ramifications when new scientific concepts are introduced could hinder the efficacy and speed of bringing discoveries to the patient. Neglecting proper procedure for establishing the field would lead to long delays in gaining public support in South Africa. Understanding the dangers of stem cell tourism – where vulnerable patients are subjected to unproven stem

  4. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  5. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium: A Key to Developing the Future Geoscience Workforce in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhonjera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Africa is facing serious challenges in geoscience education. This has been as a result of absence of or very young/small Earth Science Departments in some universities (e.g., Mauritius, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi): Limited capacity (staff and equipment needed for practicals) to cope with the growing number of students, compounded by brain drain of academic staffs and the fact that current tertiary programmes do not seem to produce graduates suitable for the industry are some of the contributing factors to the challenges, (UNESCO-AEON Report, 2009). As such Earth Science studies in Africa have been one of the career paths that has not been promoted or highly preferred by many students. In January 2011, the YES Network African chapter was launched through the YES Africa 2011 Symposium that took place at the University of Johannesburg South Africa in Conjunction with the 23rd Colloquium of Africa Geology from the 08-14th January 2011. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium was organized by five YES African National networks from Southern, Central, Eastern and Northern Africa to bring young geoscientists from all regions of Africa together to present their research about African geoscience topics. The symposium also included roundtable discussions about increasing the involvement of youth's participation in geoscience issues in Africa, about how to increase the number of youths in African geosciences education university programs, and about how to promote geoscience careers to university students in Africa c. Roundtable discussions revealed that many African colleges and universities do not provide adequate infrastructure and resources to support the students studying in the department. As such, most students graduate with poor preparation for geoscience careers, having gained a theoretical understanding of geology, but not the practical application of the discipline. The recommendations from the YES Africa 2011 Symposium also highlighted on the best ways of

  6. Application of High Resolution Satellite Imagery to Characterize Individual-Based Environmental Heterogeneity in a Wild Blue Tit Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Szulkin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Environmental heterogeneity in space and time plays a key role in influencing trait variability in animals, and can be particularly relevant to animal phenology. Until recently, the use of remotely sensed imagery in understanding animal variation was limited to analyses at the population level, largely because of a lack of high-resolution data that would allow inference at the individual level. We evaluated the potential of SPOT 4 (Take 5 satellite imagery data (with observations every fifth day at 20 m resolution and equivalent to acquisition parameters of Sentinel-2 in animal ecology research. We focused on blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus reproduction in a study site containing 227 nestboxes scattered in a Mediterranean forest dominated by deciduous downy oaks Quercus pubescens with a secondary cover of evergreen holm oaks Quercus ilex. We observed high congruence between ground data collected in a 50 m radius around each nestbox and NDVI values averaged across a 5 by 5 pixel grid centered around each nestbox of the study site. The number of deciduous and evergreen oaks around nestboxes explained up to 66% of variance in nestbox-centered, SPOT-derived NDVI values. We also found highly equivalent patterns of spatial autocorrelation for both ground- and satellite-derived indexes of environmental heterogeneity. For deciduous and evergreen oaks, the derived NDVI signal was highly distinctive in winter and early spring. June NDVI values for deciduous and evergreen oaks were higher by 58% and 8% relative to February values, respectively. The number of evergreen oaks was positively associated with later timing of breeding in blue tits. SPOT-derived, Sentinel-2 like imagery thus provided highly reliable, ground-validated information on habitat heterogeneity of direct relevance to a long-term field study of a free-living passerine bird. Given that the logistical demands of gathering ground data often limit our understanding of variation in animal

  7. Physics in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the role of basic sciences in the development of technology. This is then tied up with the broader issue of the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in the socio-economic development of a country. Physics forms the basis for most of the natural and applied sciences and technology. The state of physics in Africa is reviewed. The need for regional and international cooperation in physics education and research in Africa is stressed. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  8. Why Not Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Richard B. Freeman; David L. Lindauer

    1999-01-01

    Various arguments have been used to explain Sub-Saharan Africa's economic decline. We find that a stress on investments in education as a prerequisite for more rapid growth is misplaced; that greater openness is far from sufficient to insure economic progress; that income inequality and urban bias are not so extreme as to foreclose prospects for more rapid growth and poverty alleviation; and that the constraints imposed by Sub-Saharan Africa's human and physical geography are not core explana...

  9. Climate strategy for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn

    1995-01-01

    1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...

  10. Growth and Poverty in Africa: Shifting Fortunes and New Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Shimeles, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Growth has been high and widespread in the last decade in Africa. Whether this shift in Africa's fortune has impacted poverty has been a subject of controversy. This paper brings into focus recent evidence on the pace of poverty reduction in Africa and addresses whether or not previously held belief that Africa is too poor to grow is relevant today. The findings suggest that there is credible evidence for poverty to have declined significantly since the 1990s but at a lesser speed than growth...

  11. Disarming not defending Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Moorcraft

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no mention of the current debate on how Africa's 'ethnic' wars are interpreted by the international media, and its assumed impact on humanitarian and military intervention. If they have not done so already, the editors should read Tim Allen and Jean Seaton's new book, The Media of Conflict. Here the implications of the so-called second scramble for Africa, including the role of aid agencies and the International Monetary Fund, are scrutinised. Seaton and Allen reject the notion of mindless, primordial violence in Africa, and instead examine the repercussions of foreign intervention (most egregiously French meddling in Rwanda as well as the rational economic motivations of the assorted warlords.

  12. Limits on the strength of individual gravitational wave sources using high-cadence observations of PSR B1937+21

    CERN Document Server

    Yi, Shuxu; Sanidas, Sotirios A; Bassa, Cees G; Janssen, Gemma H; Lyne, Andrew G; Kramer, Michael; Zhang, Shuang-Nan

    2014-01-01

    We present the results of a search for gravitational waves (GWs) from individual sources using high cadence observations of PSR B1937+21. The data were acquired from an intensive observation campaign with the Lovell telescope at Jodrell Bank, between June 2011 and May 2013. The almost daily cadence achieved, allowed us to be sensitive to GWs with frequencies up to $4.98\\times10^{-6}\\,\\rm {Hz}$, extending the upper bound of the typical frequency range probed by Pulsar Timing Arrays. We used observations taken at three different radio frequencies with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope in order to correct for dispersion measure effects and scattering variances. The corrected timing residuals exhibited an unmodeled periodic noise with an amplitude $~150\\,\\rm {ns}$ and a frequency of $3.4\\rm {yr}^{-1}$. As the signal is not present in the entire data set, we attributed it to the rotational behaviour of the pulsar, ruling out the possibilities of being either due to a GW or an asteroid as the cause. After re...

  13. Estimation of undernutrition and mean calorie intake in Africa: methodology, findings and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nubé Maarten

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As poverty and hunger are basic yardsticks of underdevelopment and destitution, the need for reliable statistics in this domain is self-evident. While the measurement of poverty through surveys is relatively well documented in the literature, for hunger, information is much scarcer, particularly for adults, and very different methodologies are applied for children and adults. Our paper seeks to improve on this practice in two ways. One is that we estimate the prevalence of undernutrition in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for both children and adults based on anthropometric data available at province or district level, and secondly, we estimate the mean calorie intake and implied calorie gap for SSA, also using anthropometric data on the same geographical aggregation level. Results Our main results are, first, that we find a much lower prevalence of hunger than presented in the Millennium Development reports (17.3% against 27.8% for the continent as a whole. Secondly, we find that there is much less spread in mean calorie intake across the continent than reported by the Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO in the State of Food and Agriculture, 2007, the only estimate that covers the whole of Africa. While FAO estimates for calorie availability vary from a low of 1760 Kcal/capita/day for Central Africa to a high of 2825 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa, our estimates lay in a range of 2245 Kcal/capita/day (Eastern Africa to 2618 Kcal/capita/day for Southern Africa. Thirdly, we validate the main data sources used (the Demographic and Health Surveys by comparing them over time and with other available data sources for various countries. Conclusion We conclude that the picture of Africa that emerges from anthropometric data is much less negative than that usually presented. Especially for Eastern and Central Africa, the nutritional status is less critical than commonly assumed and also mean calorie intake is higher, which implies

  14. Near-Field High-Resolution Seismic, Strain and Displacement Measurements for Earthquake Source Studies in Deep Mines in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M. J.; Reches, Z.; van Aswegan, G.; McGarr, A.; Lockner, D.; Sellers, E.; Ben Zion, Y.; Williams, C.

    2004-12-01

    Unique access to information on the physics of the earthquake source (earthquake nucleation, fault rupture, heat generation, stress state, seismic wave propagation, fault displacement, material properties and particularly changes in some of these parameters prior to rupture) exists in the near-field of mining-induced earthquakes in deep gold mines in South Africa. The new NSF funded Natural Earthquake Laboratory in South African Mines (NELSAM) will provide seismic velocity/acceleration, ground strain, temperature, fault displacement, acoustic emission (AE), and perhaps self-potential (SP) data in small 3-D arrays across and within active faults in two different mines. 3-component accelerometers to be installed in or near the faults have a range from micro g to 0.5 g in the band 0.05 - 500 Hz. Fault displacement meters (creepmeters) to be installed at low angles across faults within boreholes have a range of microns to 0.2 m and cover the frequency range from DC to 100 Hz. Successful measurement of total displacement will depend on the creepmeter reference length surviving the fault rupture. Temperature will be measured to millidegrees C at points within, and at increasing distances from fault zones, to capture the heat generated by future and past earthquakes. Strain transients will be measured with 3-component near-fault borehole strainmeters with capacitance displacement transducers providing a resolution transducers will be installed together with each accelerometer and supplement the current mine seismic network. AE and SP will be measured within boreholes crossing faults if recording capability is sufficient. All data will be digitally sampled and transmitted to the surface in real-time for analysis to focus on unraveling the physics of the nucleation process, non-linear deformation prior to rupture, propagating aseismic slip, and variation in the material properties of near-fault materials (e.g. state/rate dependent friction). Similar high-resolution borehole

  15. Africa: signs of hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa’s most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa – for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.

  16. Africa's Infrastructure Gathering: A Report Card

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, Reinier

    2006-12-15

    This conference's high turnout and buoyant mood was a tribute to the progress that the Corporate Council on Africa, and the constituencies represented at the conference, have made in focusing on Africa's real development challenges and in persuading U.S. corporations and institutions to do so. (author)

  17. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Campbell; Igor Rudan

    2011-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies.

  18. Africa Steps up Efforts to Train Top Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindow, Megan

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on new programs that focus on training skilled scientists and mathematicians who will help solve Africa's myriad problems. The African Institute for Mathematical Sciences, in Cape Town, South Africa, offers one of the first working examples of a growing effort to develop a cadre of highly trained, practically minded scientists…

  19. Maturity of Real Estate Markets in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    N. Rothacher

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to determine the maturity of real estate markets in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) with focus on the United Republic of Tanzania and the Republic of South Africa. These individual markets are investigated on the basis of market maturity features such as market transparency, connectivity with international capital markets, commercial building offer, domestic and international corporate base.Design/methodology/approach - The present study is placed on an empirical investigat...

  20. A Comparison Between Two Public Expenditure Management Systems in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    This paper assesses the advantages and disadvantages of the French and British public expenditure management systems as used in Africa. The main differences are in budget execution and government accounting. In both francophone and anglophone Africa, there are common weaknesses in the application of the inherited systems, which appear to dominate any distinct features of the individual systems. Desirable reforms in both systems will only be successful if they are accompanied by measures that ...

  1. Organization and training in radiotherapy for developing countries in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Seminar was arranged to help identify and solve problems likely to be encountered by developing countries, especially in Africa, interested in developing radiotherapy facilities. The Proceedings contain status reports of medical facilities in a number of African countries as well as several more general papers dealing with the epidemiology of cancer in Africa, the attitudes of patients and the importance of different radiotherapeutical techniques in cancer treatment. The individual papers are indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. The sero-monitoring of rinderpest throughout Africa. Phase one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The co-ordinated research program ''The sero-monitoring of Rinderpest in Africa'' is concerned with supporting national laboratories in their involvement in the Pan African Rinderpest Campaign, which aims at the eradication of rinderpest from Africa. Phase one of the program focussed on the introduction and routine use of an ELISA-based system for rinderpest sero-monitoring. The individual documents in this publication have been indexed separately. Refs, figs and tabs

  3. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.

  4. Human-induced changes in landscape configuration influence individual movement routines: lessons from a versatile, highly mobile species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Camacho

    Full Text Available Landscape conversion by humans may have detrimental effects on animal populations inhabiting managed ecosystems, but human-altered areas may also provide suitable environments for tolerant species. We investigated the spatial ecology of a highly mobile nocturnal avian species-the red-necked nightjar (Caprimulgus ruficollis-in two contrastingly managed areas in Southwestern Spain to provide management recommendations for species having multiple habitat requirements. Based on habitat use by radiotagged nightjars, we created maps of functional heterogeneity in both areas so that the movements of breeding individuals could be modeled using least-cost path analyses. In both the natural and the managed area, nightjars used remnants of native shrublands as nesting sites, while pinewood patches (either newly planted or natural mature and roads were selected as roosting and foraging habitats, respectively. Although the fraction of functional habitat was held relatively constant (60.9% vs. 74.1% in the natural and the managed area, respectively, landscape configuration changed noticeably. As a result, least-cost routes (summed linear distances from nest locations to the nearest roost and foraging sites were three times larger in the natural than in the managed area (mean ± SE: 1356±76 m vs. 439±32 m. It seems likely that the increased proximity of functional habitats in the managed area relative to the natural one is underlying the significantly higher abundances of nightjars observed therein, where breeders should travel shorter distances to link together essential resources, thus likely reducing their energy expenditure and mortality risks. Our results suggest that landscape configuration, but not habitat availability, is responsible for the observed differences between the natural and the managed area in the abundance and movements of breeding nightjars, although no effect on body condition was detected. Agricultural landscapes could be moderately

  5. Highly variable individual donor cell fates characterize robust horizontal gene transfer of an integrative and conjugative element.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delavat, François; Mitri, Sara; Pelet, Serge; van der Meer, Jan Roelof

    2016-06-14

    Horizontal gene transfer is an important evolutionary mechanism for bacterial adaptation. However, given the typical low transfer frequencies in a bacterial population, little is known about the fate and interplay of donor cells and the mobilized DNA during transfer. Here we study transfer of an integrative and conjugative element (ICE) among individual live bacterial cells. ICEs are widely distributed mobile DNA elements that are different than plasmids because they reside silent in the host chromosome and are maintained through vertical descent. Occasionally, ICEs become active, excise, and transmit their DNA to a new recipient, where it is reintegrated. We develop a fluorescent tool to differentiate excision, transfer, and reintegration of a model ICE named ICEclc (for carrying the clc genes for chlorocatechol metabolism) among single Pseudomonas cells by using time-lapse microscopy. We find that ICEclc activation is initiated in stationary phase cells, but excision and transfer predominantly occur only when such cells have been presented with new nutrients. Donors with activated ICE develop a number of different states, characterized by reduced cell division rates or growth arrest, persistence, or lysis, concomitant with ICE excision, and likely, ICE loss or replication. The donor cell state transitions can be described by using a stochastic model, which predicts that ICE fitness is optimal at low initiation rates in stationary phase. Despite highly variable donor cell fates, ICE transfer is remarkably robust overall, with 75% success after excision. Our results help to better understand ICE behavior and shed a new light on bacterial cellular differentiation during horizontal gene transfer. PMID:27247406

  6. Impact of altering proximity on snack food intake in individuals with high and low executive function: study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Hunter, Jennifer A.; Hollands, Gareth J.; Couturier, Dominique-Laurent; Marteau, Theresa M

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite attempts to improve diet at population level, people living in material and social deprivation continue to consume unhealthy diets. Executive function - the ability to regulate behaviour and resist impulses – is weaker in individuals living in deprivation. Dietary interventions that educate and persuade people to reflect on and actively change behaviour may therefore disproportionately benefit individuals who are socioeconomically advantaged and have stronger executive func...

  7. The effects of consuming a high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio, Jose; Peacock, Corey A; Ellerbroek, Anya; Fromhoff, Brandon; Silver, Tobin

    2014-01-01

    Background The consumption of dietary protein is important for resistance-trained individuals. It has been posited that intakes of 1.4 to 2.0 g/kg/day are needed for physically active individuals. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a very high protein diet (4.4 g/kg/d) on body composition in resistance-trained men and women. Methods Thirty healthy resistance-trained individuals participated in this study (mean ± SD; age: 24.1 ± 5.6 yr; height: 171.4 ± 8.8 ...

  8. Discrimination of individuals in a general population at high-risk for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on liver stiffness: a cross section study

    OpenAIRE

    Kasai Kenji; Bandou Hideaki; Furuya Ken; Baba Masaru; Sadaoka Kuniaki

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Factors associated with liver stiffness (LS) are unknown and normal reference values for LS have not been established. Individuals at high risk for alcoholic (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty (NAFLD) liver disease need to be non-invasively discriminated during routine health checks. Factors related to LS measured using a FibroScan and normal reference values for LS are presented in this report. Methods We measured LS using a FibroScan in 416 consecutive individuals who present...

  9. Modeling impacts of climate change on freshwater availability in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faramarzi, Monireh; Abbaspour, Karim C.; Ashraf Vaghefi, Saeid; Farzaneh, Mohammad Reza; Zehnder, Alexander J. B.; Srinivasan, Raghavan; Yang, Hong

    2013-02-01

    SummaryThis study analyzes the impact of climate change on freshwater availability in Africa at the subbasin level for the period of 2020-2040. Future climate projections from five global circulation models (GCMs) under the four IPCC emission scenarios were fed into an existing SWAT hydrological model to project the impact on different components of water resources across the African continent. The GCMs have been downscaled based on observed data of Climate Research Unit to represent local climate conditions at 0.5° grid spatial resolution. The results show that for Africa as a whole, the mean total quantity of water resources is likely to increase. For individual subbasins and countries, variations are substantial. Although uncertainties are high in the simulated results, we found that in many regions/countries, most of the climate scenarios projected the same direction of changes in water resources, suggesting a relatively high confidence in the projections. The assessment of the number of dry days and the frequency of their occurrences suggests an increase in the drought events and their duration in the future. Overall, the dry regions have higher uncertainties than the wet regions in the projected impacts on water resources. This poses additional challenge to the agriculture in dry regions where water shortage is already severe while irrigation is expected to become more important to stabilize and increase food production.

  10. Climate and southern Africa's water-energy-food nexus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Declan; van Garderen, Emma Archer; Deryng, Delphine; Dorling, Steve; Krueger, Tobias; Landman, Willem; Lankford, Bruce; Lebek, Karen; Osborn, Tim; Ringler, Claudia; Thurlow, James; Zhu, Tingju; Dalin, Carole

    2015-09-01

    In southern Africa, the connections between climate and the water-energy-food nexus are strong. Physical and socioeconomic exposure to climate is high in many areas and in crucial economic sectors. Spatial interdependence is also high, driven, for example, by the regional extent of many climate anomalies and river basins and aquifers that span national boundaries. There is now strong evidence of the effects of individual climate anomalies, but associations between national rainfall and gross domestic product and crop production remain relatively weak. The majority of climate models project decreases in annual precipitation for southern Africa, typically by as much as 20% by the 2080s. Impact models suggest these changes would propagate into reduced water availability and crop yields. Recognition of spatial and sectoral interdependencies should inform policies, institutions and investments for enhancing water, energy and food security. Three key political and economic instruments could be strengthened for this purpose: the Southern African Development Community, the Southern African Power Pool and trade of agricultural products amounting to significant transfers of embedded water.

  11. South-South medical tourism and the quest for health in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crush, Jonathan; Chikanda, Abel

    2015-01-01

    Intra-regional South-South medical tourism is a vastly understudied subject despite its significance in many parts of the Global South. This paper takes issue with the conventional notion of South Africa purely as a high-end "surgeon and safari" destination for medical tourists from the Global North. It argues that South-South movement to South Africa for medical treatment is far more significant, numerically and financially, than North-South movement. The general lack of access to medical diagnosis and treatment in SADC countries has led to a growing temporary movement of people across borders to seek help at South African institutions in border towns and in the major cities. These movements are both formal (institutional) and informal (individual) in nature. In some cases, patients go to South Africa for procedures that are not offered in their own countries. In others, patients are referred by doctors and hospitals to South African facilities. But the majority of the movement is motivated by lack of access to basic healthcare at home. The high demand and large informal flow of patients from countries neighbouring South Africa has prompted the South African government to try and formalise arrangements for medical travel to its public hospitals and clinics through inter-country agreements in order to recover the cost of treating non-residents. The danger, for 'disenfranchised' medical tourists who fall outside these agreements, is that medical xenophobia in South Africa may lead to increasing exclusion and denial of treatment. Medical tourism in this region and South-South medical tourism in general are areas that require much additional research. PMID:24973022

  12. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  13. Powering Africa: Meeting the financing and reform challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sub-Saharan Africa faces chronic power problems, including insufficient generation capacity, low connectivity, poor reliability, and high costs, all of which constrain development. The investment requirements to meet Africa's power needs are noted and strategies to address the funding gap are set out. The time for an ideological debate on public versus private investment is over—both are needed. Africa's key challenges are the management of hybrid power markets, the reform of state-owned utilities, cost-reflective pricing, better targeting of subsidies, the nimbler rollout of electrification, and stronger regional integration. - Highlights: ► Africa has insufficient power generation, low connectivity, poor reliability, and high costs. ► Investment requirements to meet Africa's power needs are calculated. ► Key challenges are the management of hybrid power markets and the reform of state-owned utilities. ► Other challenges are cost-reflective pricing, extending access, and stronger regional integration.

  14. Childhood cancer in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Mariana; Hendricks, Marc; Davidson, Alan; Stefan, Cristina D; van Eyssen, Ann L; Uys, Ronelle; van Zyl, Anel; Hesseling, Peter

    2014-04-01

    The majority of children with cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) with little or no access to cancer treatment. The purpose of the paper is to describe the current status of childhood cancer treatment in Africa, as documented in publications, dedicated websites and information collected through surveys. Successful twinning programmes, like those in Malawi and Cameroon, as well as the collaborative clinical trial approach of the Franco-African Childhood Cancer Group (GFAOP), provide good models for childhood cancer treatment. The overview will hopefully influence health-care policies to facilitate access to cancer care for all children in Africa. PMID:24214130

  15. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  16. Hematology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makani, Julie; Roberts, David J

    2016-04-01

    This review of hematology in Africa highlights areas of current practice and the immediate needs for development and clinical research. Acute hematological practice is dominated by anemia, sickle cell disease, and the need to provide a safe and rapidly available supply of blood. There is a growing need for specialist services for bleeding and coagulation, hematological malignancy, and palliative care. There are many areas of practice where straightforward measures could yield large gains in patient care. There is an urgent need for good clinical research to describe the epidemiology, natural history, and management of hematological diseases in Africa. PMID:27040965

  17. The approach to individual and collective risk in regard to radiation and its application to disposal of high level waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In international and national criteria on disposal of HLW there are at present a number of requirements to the protection of individuals now and in the future. The protection of society (or environment) is directly or indirectly addressed in some criteria, but the number of people exposed, potentially exposed or at risk is not considered as a specific issue or quantity with constraints and implications. The report describes the various attitudes of society and its individuals towards the protection of the individual and the public. In particular, it treats how the number of people concerned by an irradiation situation influences the involvement of society in social and economic terms. Some conclusions can be drawn that are applicable to the situation of disposal of HLW. The discussion may illuminate the problems of disposal of HLW from some new angles and further the ambition of the society to present the disposal problems as broadly as possible. 23 refs

  18. Tuberculosis prevention in HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C E Martin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The high burden of HIV and tuberculosis (TB among pregnant women in South Africa contributes to a high maternal mortality rate. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT is recommended for the prevention of active TB in HIV-infected individuals, including pregnant women. However, there are few data regarding IPT use in the latter, with concern regarding the concurrent use of IPT with nevirapine in pregnancy, as both treatments are hepatotoxic. The benefit and safety of IPT in HIV-infected pregnant women has not been established. We recommend a simplification of HIV and TB interventions by providing triple antiretroviral therapy to all HIV-infected pregnant women.

  19. Marywood Librarians Teach in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Watson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians Leslie Christianson and Julie Watson from Marywood University have been working to educate Catholic nuns in Africa. Funded by a grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa (HESA project is a partnership between Marywood University and Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA in Nairobi, Kenya.

  20. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  1. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  2. Youth in Africa's Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Marito; Fares, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Youth and Africa have received increased attention in recent policy discussions and World Bank work, as articulated in the Africa action plan and the World Development Report 2007: development and the next generation. The Africa action plan offers a framework to support critical policy and public action led by African countries to achieve well-defined goals, such as the Millennium Developm...

  3. Fission Product Release Behavior of Individual Coated Fuel Particles for High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Postirradiation heating tests of TRISO-coated UO2 particles at 1700 and 1800degC were performed to understand fission product release behavior at accident temperatures. The inventory measurements of the individual particles were carried out before and after the heating tests with gamma-ray spectrometry to study the behavior of the individual particles. The time-dependent release behavior of 85Kr, 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 154Eu were obtained with on-line measurements of fission gas release and intermittent measurements of metallic fission product release during the heating tests. The inventory measurements of the individual particles revealed that fission product release behavior of the individual particles was not uniform, and large particle-to-particle variations in the release behavior of 110mAg, 134Cs, 137Cs, and 154Eu were found. X-ray microradiography and ceramography showed that the variations could not be explained by only the presence or absence of cracks in the SiC coating layer. The SiC degradation may have been related to the variations

  4. Efficient suppression of radiation damping in individual plasmonic resonators: towards high-Q nano-volume sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Della Valle, G.; Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

    2012-01-01

    Recent results on radiation damping suppression in individual plasmonic resonators using conformal bending of the structure, which suppresses the electric-dipole response in favor of magnetic dipole one, are overviewed. It is demonstrated that bending of linear plasmonic nano-antennas increases...

  5. Aid Effectiveness Revisited: Comparative Studies of Modalities of Aid to Asia and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Hino; Atsushi Iimi

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a variety of evidence that shows that in Asia, aid leveraged private investment in the long run, while in Africa the correlation between aid and domestic investment was at best ambiguous. Aid in Africa was diametrically opposite to that of Asia in terms of the amounts the countries received, the sector compositions, the size of individual projects, and the intensity of donor involvement. The sharp contrast in aid effectiveness between Asia and Africa could be attributed at...

  6. Developing family interventions for adolescent HIV prevention in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Caroline; Atujuna, Millicent; Mathews, Catherine; Stein, Dan J; Hoare, Jacqueline; Beardslee, William; Operario, Don; Cluver, Lucie; K Brown, Larry

    2016-01-01

    Adolescents and young people account for 40% of all new HIV infections each year, with South Africa one of the hardest hit countries, and having the largest population of people living with HIV. Although adolescent HIV prevention has been delivered through diverse modalities in South Africa, and although family-based approaches for adolescent HIV prevention have great potential for highly affected settings such as South Africa, there is a scarcity of empirically tested family-based adolescent HIV preventive interventions in this setting. We therefore conducted focus groups and in-depth interviews with key informants including clinicians, researchers, and other individuals representing organizations providing HIV and related health services to adolescents and parents (N = 82). We explored family perspectives and interactions around topics such as communication about sex, HIV, and relationships. Participants described aspects of family interactions that presented both challenges and opportunities for family-based adolescent HIV prevention. Parent-child communication on sexual topics were taboo, with these conversations perceived by some adults as an invitation for children to engage in HIV risk behavior. Parents experienced social sanctions for discussing sex and adolescents who asked about sex were often viewed as disrespectful and needing discipline. However, participants also identified context-appropriate strategies for addressing family challenges around HIV prevention including family meetings, communal parenting, building efficacy around parent-adolescent communication around sexual topics, and the need to strengthen family bonding and positive parenting. Findings indicate the need for a family intervention and identify strategies for development of family-based interventions for adolescent HIV prevention. These findings will inform design of a family intervention to be tested in a randomized pilot trial (ClinicalTrials.gov #NCT02432352). PMID:26916841

  7. Pregnancy and virologic response to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Westreich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although women of reproductive age are the largest group of HIV-infected individuals in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about the impact of pregnancy on response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART in that setting. We examined the effect of incident pregnancy after HAART initiation on virologic response to HAART. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We evaluated a prospective clinical cohort of adult women who initiated HAART in Johannesburg, South Africa between 1 April 2004 and 30 September 2009, and followed up until an event, death, transfer, drop-out, or administrative end of follow-up on 31 March 2010. Women over age 45 and women who were pregnant at HAART initiation were excluded from the study; final sample size for analysis was 5,494 women. Main exposure was incident pregnancy, experienced by 541 women; main outcome was virologic failure, defined as a failure to suppress virus to ≤ 400 copies/ml by six months or virologic rebound >400 copies/ml thereafter. We calculated adjusted hazard ratios using marginal structural Cox proportional hazards models and weighted lifetable analysis to calculate adjusted five-year risk differences. The weighted hazard ratio for the effect of pregnancy on time to virologic failure was 1.34 (95% confidence limit [CL] 1.02, 1.78. Sensitivity analyses generally confirmed these main results. CONCLUSIONS: Incident pregnancy after HAART initiation was associated with modest increases in both relative and absolute risks of virologic failure, although uncontrolled confounding cannot be ruled out. Nonetheless, these results reinforce that family planning is an essential part of care for HIV-positive women in sub-Saharan Africa. More work is needed to confirm these findings and to explore specific etiologic pathways by which such effects may operate.

  8. The Image of Africa in Our Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that the media portrayal of Africa remains highly selective, focusing almost solely on negative and violent stories. Positive stories (local initiatives, political reform) go unreported as does much of the Western powers involvement in famine and destruction. Includes a list of sources on African current affairs. (MJP)

  9. Protocol for ADDITION-PRO: a longitudinal cohort study of the cardiovascular experience of individuals at high risk for diabetes recruited from Danish primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Nanna B

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening programmes for type 2 diabetes inevitably find more individuals at high risk for diabetes than people with undiagnosed prevalent disease. While well established guidelines for the treatment of diabetes exist, less is known about treatment or prevention strategies for individuals found at high risk following screening. In order to make better use of the opportunities for primary prevention of diabetes and its complications among this high risk group, it is important to quantify diabetes progression rates and to examine the development of early markers of cardiovascular disease and microvascular diabetic complications. We also require a better understanding of the mechanisms that underlie and drive early changes in cardiometabolic physiology. The ADDITION-PRO study was designed to address these issues among individuals at different levels of diabetes risk recruited from Danish primary care. Methods/Design ADDITION-PRO is a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of individuals at high risk for diabetes. 16,136 eligible individuals were identified at high risk following participation in a stepwise screening programme in Danish general practice between 2001 and 2006. All individuals with impaired glucose regulation at screening, those who developed diabetes following screening, and a random sub-sample of those at lower levels of diabetes risk were invited to attend a follow-up health assessment in 2009–2011 (n = 4,188, of whom 2,082 (50% attended. The health assessment included detailed measurement of anthropometry, body composition, biochemistry, physical activity and cardiovascular risk factors including aortic stiffness and central blood pressure. All ADDITION-PRO participants are being followed for incident cardiovascular disease and death. Discussion The ADDITION-PRO study is designed to increase understanding of cardiovascular risk and its underlying mechanisms among individuals at high risk of diabetes

  10. Africa's macroeconomic story

    OpenAIRE

    Hostland, Douglas; Marcelo M. Giugale

    2013-01-01

    Much of Sub-Saharan Africa's post-independence macroeconomic history has been characterized by boom-bust cycles. Growth accelerations have been common, but short lived. Weak policy formulation and implementation led to large external and fiscal imbalances, excessive debt accumulation, volatile inflation, and sharp exchange rate fluctuations. This characterization changed, however, in the m...

  11. China and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pigato, Miria; Tang, Wenxia

    2015-01-01

    Economic growth in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has averaged roughly 5 percent per year over the past decade, improving living standards and bolstering human development indicators across the continent. Stronger public institutions, a supportive, private sector focused policy environment, responsible macroeconomic management, and a sustained commitment to structural reforms have greatly expand...

  12. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace to the...

  13. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  14. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  15. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  16. Investment Climate in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, David; Adamali, Aref

    2015-01-01

    The World Bank Group has been working on investment climate reform in Sub-Saharan Africa for nearly a decade, a period characterized by dramatic economic growth on the continent. Establishing links between such reform interventions and economic growth, however, is a complex problem. Although this note finds some connection between investment climate reform and economic growth, establishing ...

  17. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  18. Dietary mineral supplies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Edward J M; Ander, E Louise; Young, Scott D; Black, Colin R; Watts, Michael J; Chilimba, Allan D C; Chilima, Benson; Siyame, Edwin W P; Kalimbira, Alexander A; Hurst, Rachel; Fairweather-Tait, Susan J; Stein, Alexander J; Gibson, Rosalind S; White, Philip J; Broadley, Martin R

    2014-07-01

    Dietary micronutrient deficiencies (MNDs) are widespread, yet their prevalence can be difficult to assess. Here, we estimate MND risks due to inadequate intakes for seven minerals in Africa using food supply and composition data, and consider the potential of food-based and agricultural interventions. Food Balance Sheets (FBSs) for 46 countries were integrated with food composition data to estimate per capita supply of calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), iodine (I), magnesium (Mg), selenium (Se) and zinc (Zn), and also phytate. Deficiency risks were quantified using an estimated average requirement (EAR) 'cut-point' approach. Deficiency risks are highest for Ca (54% of the population), followed by Zn (40%), Se (28%) and I (19%, after accounting for iodized salt consumption). The risk of Cu (1%) and Mg (risks are generally lower in the north and west of Africa. Multiple MND risks are high in many countries. The population-weighted mean phytate supply is 2770 mg capita(-1) day(-1). Deficiency risks for Fe are lower than expected (5%). However, 'cut-point' approaches for Fe are sensitive to assumptions regarding requirements; e.g. estimates of Fe deficiency risks are 43% under very low bioavailability scenarios consistent with high-phytate, low-animal protein diets. Fertilization and breeding strategies could greatly reduce certain MNDs. For example, meeting HarvestPlus breeding targets for Zn would reduce dietary Zn deficiency risk by 90% based on supply data. Dietary diversification or direct fortification is likely to be needed to address Ca deficiency risks. PMID:24524331

  19. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals. PMID:12743881

  20. Discrimination of individuals in a general population at high-risk for alcoholic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease based on liver stiffness: a cross section study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasai Kenji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Factors associated with liver stiffness (LS are unknown and normal reference values for LS have not been established. Individuals at high risk for alcoholic (ALD and non-alcoholic fatty (NAFLD liver disease need to be non-invasively discriminated during routine health checks. Factors related to LS measured using a FibroScan and normal reference values for LS are presented in this report. Methods We measured LS using a FibroScan in 416 consecutive individuals who presented for routine medical checks. We also investigated the relationship between LS and age, body mass index (BMI, liver function (LF, alcohol consumption, and fatty liver determined by ultrasonography. We identified individuals at high-risk for ALD and NAFLD as having a higher LS value than the normal upper limit detected in 171 healthy controls. Results The LS value for all individuals was 4.7 +/- 1.5 kPa (mean +/- SD and LS significantly and positively correlated with BMI and LF test results. The LS was significantly higher among individuals with, than without fatty liver. Liver stiffness in the 171 healthy controls was 4.3 +/- 0.81 kPa and the upper limit of LS in the normal controls was 5.9 kPa. We found that 60 (14.3% of 416 study participants had abnormal LS. The proportion of individuals whose LS values exceeded the normal upper limit was over five-fold higher among those with, than without fatty liver accompanied by abnormal LF test results. Conclusions Liver stiffness could be used to non-invasively monitor the progression of chronic liver diseases and to discriminate individuals at high risk for ALD and NAFLD during routine health assessments.

  1. Individual Variation in Contagious Yawning Susceptibility Is Highly Stable and Largely Unexplained by Empathy or Other Known Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomew, Alex J.; Cirulli, Elizabeth T

    2014-01-01

    The contagious aspect of yawning is a well-known phenomenon that exhibits variation in the human population. Despite the observed variation, few studies have addressed its intra-individual reliability or the factors modulating differences in the susceptibility of healthy volunteers. Due to its obvious biological basis and impairment in diseases like autism and schizophrenia, a better understanding of this trait could lead to novel insights into these conditions and the general biological func...

  2. Identifying a Highly-Aggressive DCIS Subgroup by Studying Intra-Individual DCIS Heterogeneity among Invasive Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Pape-Zambito, Dana; Jiang, Zhengyu; Wu,Hong; Devarajan, Karthik; Slater, Carolyn M.; Cai, Kathy Q.; Patchefsky, Arthur; Daly, Mary B.; Chen, Xiaowei

    2014-01-01

    The heterogeneity among multiple ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) lesions within the same patient also diagnosed with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) has not been well evaluated, leaving research implications of intra-individual DCIS heterogeneity yet to be explored. In this study formalin-fixed paraffin embedded sections from 36 patients concurrently diagnosed with DCIS and IDC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Ten DCIS lesions from each patient were then randomly selected and scored. O...

  3. The high prevalence of poor physical health and unhealthy lifestyle behaviours in individuals with severe mental illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David; Happell, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    Recent mental health care policy has addressed the need for health care professionals to consider the physical health of consumers. Mental health nurses are particularly well-placed for this role. To provide mental health nurses with practical information, this narrative review summarises evidence from recent research on the physical health of individuals with Serious Mental Illness (SMI). In those with SMI, the international prevalence of obesity, the metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and respiratory disease all exceed that of the general population by at least two times, and HIV prevalence may be increased by as much as eight times. This increased prevalence of chronic disease may be largely responsible for an increased risk of death of up to five times, resulting in as much as 30 years of potential life lost. Of particular concern, the recent evidence suggests that for physical health and increased mortality, the gap between individuals with SMI and the general population is worsening. Unhealthy lifestyle behaviours undoubtedly play a role in the development of poor physical health and chronic disease, and the present review indicates that low physical activity, poor diet, smoking, alcohol and substance abuse, and risky sexual behaviour are common in individuals with SMI. This narrative review demonstrates that the prevalence of poor physical health and health behaviours in people with SMI far exceed that observed in the general population, and reinforces the urgent need for mental health nurses to address physical health concerns in patients. PMID:21859410

  4. Poverty and vote buying: Survey-based evidence from Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter Sandholt; Justesen, Mogens K.

    2014-01-01

    Alongside the spread of democracy in the developing world, vote buying has emerged as an integral part of election campaigns. Yet, we know little about the causes of vote buying in young democracies. In this paper, we analyse the sources of vote buying in sub-Saharan African. Using data from the...... Afrobarometer, we focus on the impact of poverty on vote buying at the individual- and country-level. Results from multilevel regressions show that poor voters are significantly more likely to be targets of vote buying than wealthier voters. This effect increases when elections are highly competitive. Thus......, micro-level poverty seems to be an important source of vote buying in Africa and has major implications for the way electoral democracy operates....

  5. Rapidly developing market regions : South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In South Africa, a country that is rich in natural resources, gross domestic product has risen steadily since the historic elections in April 1994. In 1995, foreign trade made up almost 50 per cent of the country's gross national product. Unemployment and concurrent shortage of skilled labour are some of the major challenges that still exist for South Africa. Sasol is one of South Africa's top 10 private companies. It was founded in 1950; it supplies 44 per cent of South Africa's liquid fuel needs and produces most of the feedstocks used by the chemical and plastics industries in the country. The company is known for innovative technologies, such as the Sasol Synthol Process. It produces high-quality synthetic fuels such as petrol, diesel, kerosene, gas and furnace oils. The unique Sasol Synthol Process was described. Coal is put under high pressure and high temperature in the presence of steam and oxygen, is converted to crude gas, purified by removing sulfur and is then used in the production of gasoline, diesel and other fuels. The process also yields 120 other chemical products for domestic and international markets. 3 refs., 5 figs

  6. Individualized toxicity-titrated 6-mercaptopurine increments during high-dose methotrexate consolidation treatment of lower risk childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Thomas Leth; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Lausen, Birgitte Frederiksen;

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and toxicity of individualized toxicity-titrated 6-mercaptopurine (6MP) dose increments during post-remission treatment with High-dose methotrexate (HDM) (5000 mg/m2, ×3) in 38 patients with Childhood (ALL). Patients were increased in steps of 25 mg 6MP/m2 per ...

  7. An Analysis of Success Factors in the Utilization of Learning Activity Packages Employed as Vehicles for Individualizing Science Instruction at Nova High School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Roy Franklin

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether "Learning Activity Packages" (LAPs) could be used as the basic instructional material of individualized instruction for certain types of students and not for others. A sample of 133 biology students was selected at random and assigned to one of three groups, low, medium or high, on the basis of…

  8. Teacher Use of Brain-Based Research, Response to Intervention, and Teacher Efficacy in Elementary Schools with High and Low Individual Education Plan Growth for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the possible causes that might contribute to the disproportionate percentage of English language learners ELLs with special education individual education plans (IEPs). Elementary school classroom teachers from school districts that exhibited high growth in the percentage of ELLs with IEPs during 2007-2010…

  9. The Perspective of Young Adult Siblings of Individuals with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism: An Exploration of Grief and Implications for Developmental Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgood, Nicole R.

    2010-01-01

    Asperger syndrome (AS) and high functioning autism are complex developmental disabilities that have a significant impact on the individual and his/her family. Asperger syndrome is characterized by challenges with understanding non-verbal communication, difficulties with social relationships, and restricted interests. Having a brother or sister…

  10. A 1-year lifestyle intervention for weight loss in individuals with type 2 diabetes reduces high C-reactive protein levels and identifies metabolic predictors of change

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: We examined whether a 1-year intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss reduced elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in obese individuals with diabetes and identified metabolic and fitness predictors of hs-CRP change. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Look A...

  11. Unemotional on all counts: Evidence of reduced affective responses in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits across emotion systems and valences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanti, Kostas A; Panayiotou, Georgia; Lombardo, Michael V; Kyranides, Melina Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify atypical neurophysiological activity associated with deficient affective processing in individuals with high callous-unemotional traits (CU). Fifty-six participants (M age = 20.52; 46% male) divided in two groups, differentiated on levels of CU traits, were invited to participate in the experimental phase of the study. Medial prefrontal cortex activity, measured with functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, and facial electro-myography activity were recorded during videos depicting violent, comedy and neutral scenes. Individuals high on CU traits showed similar medial prefrontal cortex oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO(2)) activity to positive and negative films, while the pre-frontal cortical responses of low CU individuals were more pronounced to positive than negative materials. High CU participants also showed reduced facial electromyography at the corrugator muscle in response to violent films, which was not differentiated from their responses to comedy films. These findings suggest that individuals high on CU traits show reduced but not absent (i.e., flat) affect to emotional material. Deficits in processing positive and negative valent material, measured with different neuro-physiological modalities, might be essential to understand CU traits. PMID:25807203

  12. A highly restricted T-cell receptor dominates the CD8+ T-cell response to parvovirus B19 infection in HLA-A*2402-positive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasprowicz, V; Jeffery, K; Broliden, K;

    2006-01-01

    Six of seven HLA-A*2402-positive individuals with acute parvovirus B19 infections made vigorous CD8-positive cytotoxic T-cell (CTL) responses to the viral epitope FYTPLADQF. All responders showed highly focused T-cell receptor (TCR) usage, using almost exclusively BV5.1. The BV5.1 TCR dominated the...

  13. Africa's Perspectives on China-Africa Relations and Forum on China-Africa Cooperation(FOCAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osita; C.Eze

    2009-01-01

    China is in Africa in a vigorous way,and doing business in several countries like Sudan,Congo DRC,Angola,South Africa,and Nigeria.In the short term,the relationship may appear to be mutually beneficial.This paper seeks to address the issue of Africa's perspectives on China-Africa Relations and the FOCAC and examine the concept of strategic partnerships,determine the state of China-Africa relations,examines FOCAC and draw conclusion as well as recommendation on possible ways and issues for future engageme...

  14. Dose-effect relationship in production of dicentrics and rings in blood lymphocytes of individuals living in high background radiation area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the dose-effect relationship in the production of chromosome aberrations by high background radiation by using statistically appropriate individual measurements. Methods: Chromosome analysis was performed in separated blood lymphocytes of 39 family members of different ages from either high background radiation area (HBRA) or control area (CA). Individual cumulative doses ranged from 23.9-261.3 and 5.2-29.8 mGy for HBRA and CA, respectively. A total of about 100,000 cells were scored and dicentric and ring chromosome (dic + Rc) aberrations recorded. Results: In the case of HBRA, individual chromosome aberration frequencies increased with age within each family. The increasing trend was in general not significantly different among families. The increase in individual aberration was closely correlated with age and cumulative dose. Age-and dose-effect relationship fit well the linear equation: Y = 0.0448X + 0.4913 (R2 = 0.7814) for age and Y 0.0156X + 0.5715 (R2 = 0.7061) for cumulative dose, respectively. In the case of CA, there was no significant difference in aberration yields among individuals of different ages, and the group mean aberration frequency was 1.24 +- 0.69 x 10-3. Conclusions: Dic and Rc can continuously accumulate over a lifetime chronic low dose exposures, and can serve as a reliable biological indicator. However, the ultimate sensitivity is about 50 mGy

  15. Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Despite this, there is little quantitative information on groundwater resources in Africa, and groundwater storage is consequently omitted from assessments of freshwater availability. Here we present the first quantitative continent-wide maps of aquifer storage and potential borehole yields in Africa based on an extensive review of available maps, publications and data. We estimate total groundwater storage in Africa to be 0.66 million km3 (0.36–1.75 million km3). Not all of this groundwater storage is available for abstraction, but the estimated volume is more than 100 times estimates of annual renewable freshwater resources on Africa. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed: the largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan. Nevertheless, for many African countries appropriately sited and constructed boreholes can support handpump abstraction (yields of 0.1–0.3 l s−1), and contain sufficient storage to sustain abstraction through inter-annual variations in recharge. The maps show further that the potential for higher yielding boreholes ( > 5 l s−1) is much more limited. Therefore, strategies for increasing irrigation or supplying water to rapidly urbanizing cities that are predicated on the widespread drilling of high yielding boreholes are likely to be unsuccessful. As groundwater is the largest and most widely distributed store of freshwater in Africa, the quantitative maps are intended to lead to more realistic assessments of water security and water stress, and to promote a more quantitative approach to mapping of groundwater resources at national and regional level. (letter)

  16. Entrepreneurial Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Halbinger, Maria

    2014-01-01

    New ventures are central to an economy’s welfare and substantial promoters of technological change and innovation. Extant research has identified individuals and their role in entrepreneurial processes as the core pillars of entrepreneurship. This PhD dissertation aims to refine our understanding of the fundamental relationship between individuals and their entrepreneurial activities. In order to empirically test the hypotheses built, the analyses are based on a unique dataset ...

  17. Private Enterprise-Led Economic Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John Ernest

    Private Enterprise-Led Development in Sub-Saharan Africa provides a novel theoretical and conceptual model to guide research into Africa's economic development. It endorses the view that private enterprise-led growth will help reduce poverty since it strengthens individuals' capacity to care...

  18. The Risk Factors for Criminal Behaviour in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders (HFASDs): A Comparison of Childhood Adversities between Individuals with HFASDs Who Exhibit Criminal Behaviour and Those with HFASD and No Criminal Histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Chihiro; Ohnishi, Masafumi; Sugiyama, Toshiro; Someki, Fumio; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Tsujii, Masatsugu

    2012-01-01

    Most reports of the criminal behaviour of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD) have been case studies, and few have empirically examined the risk factors of criminal behaviour among these individuals. This study examined 175 individuals with HFASD, including 36 individuals who had a prior history of criminal…

  19. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  20. Household-based malaria control in a highly endemic area of Africa (Tanzania: determinants of transmission and disease and indicators for monitoring - Kilombero Malaria Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Teuscher

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available The Kilombero Malaria Project (KMP attemps to define opperationally useful indicators of levels of transmission and disease and health system relevant monitoring indicators to evaluate the impact of disease control at the community or health facility level. The KMP is longitudinal community based study (N = 1024 in rural Southern Tanzania, investigating risk factors for malarial morbidity and developing household based malaria control strategies. Biweekly morbidity and bimonthly serological, parasitological and drug consumption surveys are carried out in all study households. Mosquito densities are measured biweekly in 50 sentinel houses by timed light traps. Determinants of transmission and indicators of exposure were not strongly aggregated within households. Subjective morbidity (recalled fever, objective morbidity (elevated body temperature and high parasitaemia and chloroquine consumption were strongly aggregated within a few households. Nested analysis of anti-NANP40 antibody suggest that only approximately 30% of the titer variance can explained by household clustering and that the largest proportion of antibody titer variability must be explained by non-measured behavioral determinants relating to an individual's level of exposure within a household. Indicators for evaluation and monitoring and outcome measures are described within the context of health service management to describe control measure output in terms of community effectiveness.

  1. High frequency of the CCR5delta32 variant among individuals from an admixed Brazilian population with sickle cell anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A.B. Chies

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Homozygous sickle cell disease (SCD has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations. In Brazil, the main cause of death of individuals with SCD is recurrent infection. The CCR5delta32 allele, which confers relative resistance to macrophage-tropic HIV virus infection, probably has reached its frequency and world distribution due to other pathogens that target macrophage in European populations. In the present investigation a relatively higher prevalence (5.1% of the CCR5delta32 allele was identified, by PCR amplification using specific primers, in 79 SCD patients when compared to healthy controls (1.3% with the same ethnic background (Afro-Brazilians. Based on a hypothesis that considers SCD as a chronic inflammatory condition, and since the CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in directing a Th1-type immune response, we suggest that a Th1/Th2 balance can influence the morbidity of SCD. If the presence of the null CCR5delta32 allele results in a reduction of the chronic inflammation state present in SCD patients, this could lead to differential survival of SCD individuals who are carriers of the CCR5delta32 allele. This differential survival could be due to the development of less severe infections and consequently reduced or less severe vaso-occlusive crises.

  2. Product Quality Assurance for Off-Grid Lighting in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    World Bank; Mills, Evan; Mills, Evan

    2008-07-13

    Although the emergence of markets for high efficiency off-grid lighting technologies holds promise, realizing the potential of this opportunity on a long-term, sustainable basis requires careful attention to issues of product quality, consumer protection, and the potential for significant 'market spoiling', in anticipation of increases of sales of low cost, low performance off-grid lighting products. The goal of the Lighting Africa quality assurance workshop was to articulate strategies to mitigate the dangers of market spoiling and to explore ways to protect consumers from misleading advertising for sales of inferior, off-grid lighting products in the context of Lighting Africa's overarching objective to support the industry in developing a robust off-grid lighting market in Africa. The workshop resulted in the identification of two strategic approaches for meeting Lighting Africa quality assurance programmatic needs. The first strategy is intended to meet a short-term programmatic need for quality associated with requests for lighting products by bulk procurement agents, such as in a World Bank-financed project. The development of procurement specifications and test procedures that could be used in a quality/usability screening method in order to provide guidance for forthcoming large volume purchases emerged as the best solution to meet this need. Such approaches are used in World Bank-financed solar home systems (SHSs) projects in Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, and China, among others. However, unlike the SHSs which have multiple balance-of-system (BOS) components warranting the need for an array of specifications for individual components, stand alone lighting systems require specifications that are amenable to individual light points. To test this approach, Lighting Africa elected to use the technical specifications issued by the Photovoltaic Global Approval Program for solar lanterns that use CFL bulbs (PVRS11A) as the basis of qualifying such

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. De Schryver

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available Sexually transmitted diseases (STD are defined as a group of communicable diseases which have in common that they are transmitted predominantly by sexual contact. The number of agents now known to be sexually transmitted include some 20 pathogens. Some of these agents (such as Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, human papilloma virus, hepatitis B-virus, human immunodeficiency virus tend to replace the classical "venereal diseases" both in importance and frequency as these agents are often more difficult to detect, treat, and control. Sexually transmitted diseases are a major public health problem in most African countries on account of their frequency, their associated morbidity and mortality, their impact on paternal and infant health, as well as their economic costs in terms of health expenditure and lost productivity, and, last but not least, because of their social consequences. Recent epidemiological studies using sophisticated diagnostic technologies greatly extend our knowledge on the true spectrum of complications and sequelae associated with these infections. Nongonococcal urethritis - caused to 40% by Chlamydia trachomatis - and gonococcal infections are together the most frequent sexually transmitted diseases. The increasing importance of chlamydial infections, in contrast to a gradual decrease of gonococcal infections, is related to the fact that these infections frequently cause asymptomatic or mild disease and do not motivate patients to seek medical care, resulting in an extended period of infectivity and high risk of developing complications. Untreated gonorrhoea and chlamydial infections are the most common causes of epididymitis in males under the age of 35 years and may lead to decreased fertility. In some parts of sub-saharan Africa where urethritis often goes untreated, epididymitis is the leading course of male infertility. Also urethral strictures still from a large part of urogenital practice in some African

  4. Volcanism in Eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauthen, Clay; Coombs, Cassandra R.

    1996-01-01

    In 1891, the Virunga Mountains of Eastern Zaire were first acknowledged as volcanoes, and since then, the Virunga Mountain chain has demonstrated its potentially violent volcanic nature. The Virunga Mountains lie across the Eastern African Rift in an E-W direction located north of Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyamuragira and Mt. Nyiragongo present the most hazard of the eight mountains making up Virunga volcanic field, with the most recent activity during the 1970-90's. In 1977, after almost eighty years of moderate activity and periods of quiescence, Mt. Nyamuragira became highly active with lava flows that extruded from fissures on flanks circumscribing the volcano. The flows destroyed vast areas of vegetation and Zairian National Park areas, but no casualties were reported. Mt. Nyiragongo exhibited the same type volcanic activity, in association with regional tectonics that effected Mt. Nyamuragira, with variations of lava lake levels, lava fountains, and lava flows that resided in Lake Kivu. Mt. Nyiragongo, recently named a Decade volcano, presents both a direct and an indirect hazard to the inhabitants and properties located near the volcano. The Virunga volcanoes pose four major threats: volcanic eruptions, lava flows, toxic gas emission (CH4 and CO2), and earthquakes. Thus, the volcanoes of the Eastern African volcanic field emanate harm to the surrounding area by the forecast of volcanic eruptions. During the JSC Summer Fellowship program, we will acquire and collate remote sensing, photographic (Space Shuttle images), topographic and field data. In addition, maps of the extent and morphology(ies) of the features will be constructed using digital image information. The database generated will serve to create a Geographic Information System for easy access of information of the Eastem African volcanic field. The analysis of volcanism in Eastern Africa will permit a comparison for those areas from which we have field data. Results from this summer's work will permit

  5. Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [11C] DASB positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls. We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [11C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m2) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m2) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BPND) was used as the outcome parameter. On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BPND in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BPND. The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity. (orig.)

  6. Central serotonin transporter availability in highly obese individuals compared with non-obese controls: A [{sup 11}C] DASB positron emission tomography study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hesse, Swen; Sabri, Osama [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Rullmann, Michael [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Luthardt, Julia; Becker, Georg-Alexander; Bresch, Anke; Patt, Marianne; Meyer, Philipp M. [University of Leipzig, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); Winter, Karsten [University of Leipzig, Centre for Translational Regenerative Medicine, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Institute for Medical Informatics, Statistics, and Epidemiology, Leipzig (Germany); Hankir, Mohammed K.; Zientek, Franziska; Reissig, Georg; Drabe, Mandy [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); Regenthal, Ralf [University of Leipzig, Division of Clinical Pharmacology, Rudolf Boehm Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Leipzig (Germany); Schinke, Christian [University of Leipzig, Department of Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Arelin, Katrin [Max Planck Institute for Human Cognitive and Brain Sciences Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Day Clinic for Cognitive Neurology, Leipzig (Germany); Lobsien, Donald [University of Leipzig, Department of Neuroradiology, Leipzig (Germany); Fasshauer, Mathias; Fenske, Wiebke K.; Stumvoll, Michael [Integrated Research and Treatment Centre Adiposity Diseases Leipzig, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); Blueher, Matthias [University of Leipzig, Medical Department III, Leipzig (Germany); University of Leipzig, Collaborative Research Centre 1052 Obesity Mechanisms, Leipzig (Germany)

    2016-06-15

    The role of the central serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) system in feeding has been extensively studied in animals with the 5-HT family of transporters (5-HTT) being identified as key molecules in the regulation of satiety and body weight. Aberrant 5-HT transmission has been implicated in the pathogenesis of human obesity by in vivo positron emission tomography (PET) and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging techniques. However, results obtained thus far from studies of central 5-HTT availability have been inconsistent, which is thought to be brought about mainly by the low number of individuals with a high body mass index (BMI) previously used. The aim of this study was therefore to assess 5-HTT availability in the brains of highly obese otherwise healthy individuals compared with non-obese healthy controls. We performed PET using the 5-HTT selective radiotracer [{sup 11}C] DASB on 30 highly obese (BMI range between 35 and 55 kg/m{sup 2}) and 15 age- and sex-matched non-obese volunteers (BMI range between 19 and 27 kg/m{sup 2}) in a cross-sectional study design. The 5-HTT binding potential (BP{sub ND}) was used as the outcome parameter. On a group level, there was no significant difference in 5-HTT BP{sub ND} in various cortical and subcortical regions in individuals with the highest BMI compared with non-obese controls, while statistical models showed minor effects of age, sex, and the degree of depression on 5-HTT BP{sub ND}. The overall finding of a lack of significantly altered 5-HTT availability together with its high variance in obese individuals justifies the investigation of individual behavioral responses to external and internal cues which may further define distinct phenotypes and subgroups in human obesity. (orig.)

  7. Post Apartheid South Africa; Evaluating South Africa's Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hopper

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I aim to evaluate whether increasing or decreasing the level of consociationalism in South Africa would be beneficial for the country's stability. Analysing South Africa's political structure since the implementation of free and fair elections, I review the effects of its current degree of consociationalism and debate the arguments of those who contest South Africa's current institutional framework and its capacity to govern.

  8. Africa is on time

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkovskiy, Maxim; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that the recent African growth renaissance has reached Africa's poor. Using survey data on African income distributions and national accounts GDP, we estimate income distributions, poverty rates, and inequality indices for African countries for the period 1990-2011. Our findings are as follows. First, African poverty is falling rapidly. Second, the African countries for which good inequality data exist are set to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) poverty reductio...

  9. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Edward B

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...

  10. Entrepreneurship Development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik; Jeppesen, Søren; Langevang, Thilde

    2010-01-01

    This working paper is a report from the workshop on Entrepreneurship Development arranged by the Centre for Business and Development Studies at CBS and the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in September 2010. The objective of the workshop was to use the participants’ joint knowledge and experiences to discuss and provide conclusions on what role entrepreneurship development has played and can play to stimulate growth and employment in Africa. Entrepreneurship development is understood as the...

  11. Bond Markets in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Yibin Mu; Peter Phelps; Janet Gale Stotsky

    2013-01-01

    African bond markets have been steadily growing in recent years, but nonetheless remain undeveloped. African countries would benefit from greater access to financing and deeper financial markets. This paper compiles a unique set of data on corporate bond markets in Africa. It then applies an econometric model to analyze the key determinants of African government securities market and corporate bond market capitalization. Government securities market capitalization is directly related to bette...

  12. Ebola in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lul Raka; Monica Guardo

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infec...

  13. Unlocking Africa's Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Freemantle

    2011-01-01

    WHILE there are meaningful objections to the nature and structure of much of the new investment in African agriculture,it is dear that the introduction of new capital,skills and technology is an essential component in unlocking the continent's ultimate allure.Investments of $83 billion annually are said to be needed to elevate the developing world's agricultural sector.At least half of this amount is required in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone.

  14. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  15. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...

  16. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  17. Individualizing Medicare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, D J

    1999-05-01

    Despite the enactment of significant changes to the Medicare program in 1997, Medicare's Hospital Insurance trust fund is projected to be exhausted just as the baby boom enters retirement. To address Medicare's financial difficulties, a number of reform proposals have been offered, including several to individualize Medicare financing and benefits. These proposals would attempt to increase Medicare revenues and reduce Medicare expenditures by having individuals bear risk--investment market risk before retirement and insurance market risk after retirement. Many fundamental aspects of these proposals have yet to be worked out, including how to guarantee a baseline level of saving for health insurance after retirement, how retirees might finance unanticipated health insurance price increases after retirement, the potential implications for Medicaid of inadequate individual saving, and whether the administrative cost of making the system fair and adequate ultimately would eliminate any rate-of-return advantages from allowing workers to invest their Medicare contributions in corporate stocks and bonds. PMID:10915458

  18. Individual differences in preferences for matched-ethnic mentors among high-achieving ethnically diverse adolescents in STEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Moin; Goza, Barbara K; Chemers, Martin M; Zurbriggen, Eileen L

    2012-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined (a) adolescents' contact with mentors who share their background in relation to the importance they place on having such mentors, and (b) the associations of these perceptions with self-efficacy, identity, and commitment to a science career. Participants were 265 ethnically diverse adolescents (M age = 15.82) attending a 4-week science education program. Cluster analyses indicated that at Time 1, underrepresented ethnic minorities were more often in the cluster defined by feelings of importance of having a matched-background mentor but not having much contact. Perceptions of contact increased over time for these students and were associated with increased feelings of identity as a science student. The results suggest the need for attending to individual differences in students' preferences for matched-background mentors. PMID:22506789

  19. Social network based recruitment successfully reveals HIV-1 transmission networks among high risk individuals in El Salvador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennis, Ann M.; Murillo, Wendy; de Maria Hernandez, Flor; Guardado, Maria Elena; Nieto, Ana Isabel; de Rivera, Ivette Lorenzana; Eron, Joseph J.; Paz-Bailey, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Objective HIV in Central America is concentrated among certain groups such as men who have sex with men (MSM) and female sex workers (FSW). We compared social recruitment chains and HIV transmission clusters from 699 MSM and 757 FSW to better understand factors contributing to ongoing HIV transmission in El Salvador. Methods Phylogenies were reconstructed using pol sequences from 119 HIV-positive individuals recruited by respondent driven sampling (RDS) and compared to RDS chains in three cities in El Salvador. Transmission clusters with a mean pairwise genetic distance ≤0.015 and Bayesian posterior probabilities=1 were identified. Factors associated with cluster membership were evaluated among MSM. Results Sequences from 34 (43%) MSM and 4 (10%) FSW grouped in 14 transmission clusters. Clusters were defined by risk group (12 MSM clusters) and geographic residence (only one spanned separate cities). In 4 MSM clusters (all n=2), individuals were also members of the same RDS chain but only 2 had members directly linked through recruitment. All large clusters (n≥3) spanned more than one RDS chain. Among MSM, factors independently associated with cluster membership included recent infection by BED assay (P=0.02), sex with stable male partners (P=0.02), and sex with ≥3 male partners in past year (P=0.04). Conclusions We found few HIV transmissions corresponding directly with the social recruitment. However, we identified clustering in nearly one half of MSM suggesting RDS recruitment was indirectly but successfully uncovering transmission networks, particularly among recent infections. Interrogating RDS chains with phylogenetic analyses may help refine methods for identifying transmission clusters. PMID:23364512

  20. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  1. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  2. ENVIRONMENT, INCOME, AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Duane

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that rural forest and agricultural resources in Southern Africa are overused, in the sense that both biomass and harvest levels are significantly below levels of maximum sustainable yield. However, economic theory suggests that high interest and time preference rates cause the economic optimum to coincide with generally-observed patterns. In addition, low income may be the driving factor behind high interest and time preference rates. In macro-economic terms, Southern Af...

  3. Consumption of honey, sucrose, and high fructose corn syrup produce similar metabolic effects in glucose tolerant and glucose intolerant individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Current public health recommendations call for reduction of added sugars; however, controversy exits over whether all nutritive sweeteners produce similar metabolic effects. Objective: To compare effects of chronic consumption of three nutritive sweeteners (honey, sucrose and high fructo...

  4. High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality in a general population sample of 55 568 individuals, but not with short telomeres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Bojesen, Stig E; Weischer, Maren;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55,568 individu......BACKGROUND: High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. We tested the hypothesis that high tobacco consumption is causally associated with short telomeres and with increased all-cause mortality. METHODS: We studied 55......,568 individuals including 32,823 ever smokers from the Danish general population, of whom 3430 died during 10 years of follow-up. All had telomere length measured, detailed information on smoking history, and CHRNA3 rs1051730 genotype, which is associated with tobacco consumption, determined. In a Mendelian...... short telomeres explained only +0.4% (-3.5%, +4.3%) of the association between high tobacco consumption and increased all-cause mortality. CONCLUSIONS: High tobacco consumption is causally associated with increased all-cause mortality. High cumulative tobacco consumption is associated with short...

  5. Atlas of isotope hydrology - Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are abundant water resources in Africa - about 17 large rivers and 160 lakes greater than 27 km2 - most of these resources are located in the humid and sub-humid regions around the equator. The surface runoff in Africa, on average, is much lower than average precipitation as a result of high evaporation and evapotranspiration, resulting in endemic drought in parts of the continent. Consequently, groundwater is a very important resource for Africa, providing nearly two-thirds of drinking water on the continent, and an even greater proportion in northern Africa. Despite the importance of groundwater for many societies, there is a lack of corresponding public concern about its protection, perhaps because the extent and availability of groundwater are not easily measured. The impact of increasing degrees of temporal and spatial climatic variability on water resources is also an important consideration, and groundwater to some extent provides an opportunity to mitigate the impacts of climate change. Applications of isotopes in hydrology are based on the general concept of 'tracing', in which naturally occurring or environmental isotopes (either radioactive or stable) are used to study hydrological processes on large temporal and spatial scales through their natural distribution in a hydrological system. Thus, environmental isotope methodologies are unique in regional studies of water resources to obtain integrated characteristics of groundwater systems. The most frequently used environmental isotopes include those of the water molecule, hydrogen (2H or D, also called deuterium, and 3H, also called tritium) and oxygen (18O), as well as of carbon (13C and 14C, also called radiocarbon or carbon-14) occurring in water as constituents of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon compounds. 2H, 13C and 18O are stable isotopes of the respective elements, whereas 3H and 14C are radioactive isotopes. Among the most important areas where isotopes are useful in

  6. Precision Irrigation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...

  7. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  8. Prostate cancer incidence rates in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lisa W; Ritchey, Jamie; Devesa, Susan S; Quraishi, Sabah M; Zhang, Hongmei; Hsing, Ann W

    2011-01-01

    African American men have among the highest prostate cancer incidence rates in the world yet rates among their African counterparts are unclear. In this paper, we compared reported rates among black men of Sub-Saharan African descent using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the National Cancer Institute Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program for 1973-2007. Although population-based data in Africa are quite limited, the available data from IARC showed that rates among blacks were highest in the East (10.7-38.1 per 100,000 man-years, age-adjusted world standard) and lowest in the West (4.7-19.8). These rates were considerably lower than those of 80.0-195.3 observed among African Americans. Rates in Africa increased over time (1987-2002) and have been comparable to those for distant stage in African Americans. These patterns are likely due to differences between African and African American men in medical care access, screening, registry quality, genetic diversity, and Westernization. Incidence rates in Africa will likely continue to rise with improving economies and increasing Westernization, warranting the need for more high-quality population-based registration to monitor cancer incidence in Africa. PMID:22111004

  9. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  10. Cold War in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Graham

    2010-01-01

    Review Article: Cold War in Southern Africa Gary Baines, Peter Vale (eds.) (2008), Beyond the Border War: New Perspectives on Southern Africa’s Late-Cold War Conflicts , Pretoria: Unisa Press, ISBN 978 1 86888 456 8, xix + 342 pp. Sue Onslow (ed.) (2009), Cold War in Southern Africa: White Power, Black Liberation , Abingdon: Routledge, ISBN 978 0 415 47420 7, 253 pp. Vladimir Shubin (2008), The Hot “Cold War†: The USSR in Southern Africa , London: Pluto Press, ISBN 978 0745324722, 320 p...

  11. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus -- the "D-shuttle" project --

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, N; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernandini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Guérin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molęda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2015-01-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter "D-shuttle" for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the background radiation level of other regions/countries.

  12. The Art of Athlete Leadership: Identifying High-Quality Athlete Leadership at the Individual and Team Level Through Social Network Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fransen, Katrien; Van Puyenbroeck, Stef; Loughead, Todd M; Vanbeselaere, Norbert; De Cuyper, Bert; Vande Broek, Gert; Boen, Filip

    2015-06-01

    This research aimed to introduce social network analysis as a novel technique in sports teams to identify the attributes of high-quality athlete leadership, both at the individual and at the team level. Study 1 included 25 sports teams (N = 308 athletes) and focused on athletes' general leadership quality. Study 2 comprised 21 sports teams (N = 267 athletes) and focused on athletes' specific leadership quality as a task, motivational, social, and external leader. The extent to which athletes felt connected with their leader proved to be most predictive for athletes' perceptions of that leader's quality on each leadership role. Also at the team level, teams with higher athlete leadership quality were more strongly connected. We conclude that social network analysis constitutes a valuable tool to provide more insight in the attributes of high-quality leadership both at the individual and at the team level. PMID:26265340

  13. Measurement and comparison of individual external doses of high-school students living in Japan, France, Poland and Belarus-the 'D-shuttle' project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, N; Adamovitch, V; Adjovi, Y; Aida, K; Akamatsu, H; Akiyama, S; Akli, A; Ando, A; Andrault, T; Antonietti, H; Anzai, S; Arkoun, G; Avenoso, C; Ayrault, D; Banasiewicz, M; Banaśkiewicz, M; Bernardini, L; Bernard, E; Berthet, E; Blanchard, M; Boreyko, D; Boros, K; Charron, S; Cornette, P; Czerkas, K; Dameron, M; Date, I; De Pontbriand, M; Demangeau, F; Dobaczewski, Ł; Dobrzyński, L; Ducouret, A; Dziedzic, M; Ecalle, A; Edon, V; Endo, K; Endo, T; Endo, Y; Etryk, D; Fabiszewska, M; Fang, S; Fauchier, D; Felici, F; Fujiwara, Y; Gardais, C; Gaul, W; Gurin, L; Hakoda, R; Hamamatsu, I; Handa, K; Haneda, H; Hara, T; Hashimoto, M; Hashimoto, T; Hashimoto, K; Hata, D; Hattori, M; Hayano, R; Hayashi, R; Higasi, H; Hiruta, M; Honda, A; Horikawa, Y; Horiuchi, H; Hozumi, Y; Ide, M; Ihara, S; Ikoma, T; Inohara, Y; Itazu, M; Ito, A; Janvrin, J; Jout, I; Kanda, H; Kanemori, G; Kanno, M; Kanomata, N; Kato, T; Kato, S; Katsu, J; Kawasaki, Y; Kikuchi, K; Kilian, P; Kimura, N; Kiya, M; Klepuszewski, M; Kluchnikov, E; Kodama, Y; Kokubun, R; Konishi, F; Konno, A; Kontsevoy, V; Koori, A; Koutaka, A; Kowol, A; Koyama, Y; Kozioł, M; Kozue, M; Kravtchenko, O; Kruczała, W; Kudła, M; Kudo, H; Kumagai, R; Kurogome, K; Kurosu, A; Kuse, M; Lacombe, A; Lefaillet, E; Magara, M; Malinowska, J; Malinowski, M; Maroselli, V; Masui, Y; Matsukawa, K; Matsuya, K; Matusik, B; Maulny, M; Mazur, P; Miyake, C; Miyamoto, Y; Miyata, K; Miyata, K; Miyazaki, M; Molȩda, M; Morioka, T; Morita, E; Muto, K; Nadamoto, H; Nadzikiewicz, M; Nagashima, K; Nakade, M; Nakayama, C; Nakazawa, H; Nihei, Y; Nikul, R; Niwa, S; Niwa, O; Nogi, M; Nomura, K; Ogata, D; Ohguchi, H; Ohno, J; Okabe, M; Okada, M; Okada, Y; Omi, N; Onodera, H; Onodera, K; Ooki, S; Oonishi, K; Oonuma, H; Ooshima, H; Oouchi, H; Orsucci, M; Paoli, M; Penaud, M; Perdrisot, C; Petit, M; Piskowski, A; Płocharski, A; Polis, A; Polti, L; Potsepnia, T; Przybylski, D; Pytel, M; Quillet, W; Remy, A; Robert, C; Sadowski, M; Saito, M; Sakuma, D; Sano, K; Sasaki, Y; Sato, N; Schneider, T; Schneider, C; Schwartzman, K; Selivanov, E; Sezaki, M; Shiroishi, K; Shustava, I; Śniecińska, A; Stalchenko, E; Staroń, A; Stromboni, M; Studzińska, W; Sugisaki, H; Sukegawa, T; Sumida, M; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, K; Suzuki, R; Suzuki, H; Suzuki, K; Świderski, W; Szudejko, M; Szymaszek, M; Tada, J; Taguchi, H; Takahashi, K; Tanaka, D; Tanaka, G; Tanaka, S; Tanino, K; Tazbir, K; Tcesnokova, N; Tgawa, N; Toda, N; Tsuchiya, H; Tsukamoto, H; Tsushima, T; Tsutsumi, K; Umemura, H; Uno, M; Usui, A; Utsumi, H; Vaucelle, M; Wada, Y; Watanabe, K; Watanabe, S; Watase, K; Witkowski, M; Yamaki, T; Yamamoto, J; Yamamoto, T; Yamashita, M; Yanai, M; Yasuda, K; Yoshida, Y; Yoshida, A; Yoshimura, K; Żmijewska, M; Zuclarelli, E

    2016-03-01

    Twelve high schools in Japan (of which six are in Fukushima Prefecture), four in France, eight in Poland and two in Belarus cooperated in the measurement and comparison of individual external doses in 2014. In total 216 high-school students and teachers participated in the study. Each participant wore an electronic personal dosimeter 'D-shuttle' for two weeks, and kept a journal of his/her whereabouts and activities. The distributions of annual external doses estimated for each region overlap with each other, demonstrating that the personal external individual doses in locations where residence is currently allowed in Fukushima Prefecture and in Belarus are well within the range of estimated annual doses due to the terrestrial background radiation level of other regions/countries. PMID:26613195

  14. Talking Science in Multilingual Contexts in South Africa: Possibilities and challenges for engagement in learners home languages in high school classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msimanga, Audrey; Lelliott, Anthony

    2014-05-01

    This paper discusses the nature of learner engagement with science content during small group discussions in which learners use their home languages. We observed that learners reverted to their home languages in small group discussions, yet very little is known about the dynamics of learner engagement when they use their home languages in classroom discussions in South Africa and elsewhere. We analysed transcripts of discussions by three small groups in a Grade 10 Chemistry class. Contrary to teachers' fears that learners may not engage meaningfully with science content when talking in their home languages, all three groups spent over 90% of discussion time on task. Learners made and supported claims, challenged each others' ideas and questioned each others' thinking. Although the levels of critique varied between the groups, there was evidence of negotiation of understandings of the concepts. We argue that use of learners' home languages for engagement with difficult concepts may be a legitimate resource for science teachers to create opportunities for learner conceptual understanding. Further research is needed to understand the dynamics of teacher and learner use of their languages in science lessons, the best teaching strategies to achieve this, how teacher educators may model these strategies without undermining the need by both parents and learners' for English language proficiency to access social goods.

  15. Novel, high-intensity exercise prescription improves muscle mass, mitochondrial function, and physical capacity in individuals with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A.; Ford, Matthew P.; Standaert, David G.; Watts, Ray L.; Bickel, C. Scott; Moellering, Douglas R.; Tuggle, S. Craig; Williams, Jeri Y.; Lieb, Laura; Windham, Samuel T.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted, in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), a thorough assessment of neuromotor function and performance in conjunction with phenotypic analyses of skeletal muscle tissue, and further tested the adaptability of PD muscle to high-intensity exercise training. Fifteen participants with PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage 2–3) completed 16 wk of high-intensity exercise training designed to simultaneously challenge strength, power, endurance, balance, and mobility function. Skeletal muscle adaptations (P changes in skeletal muscle at the cellular and subcellular levels that are associated with improvements in motor function, physical capacity, and fatigue perception. PMID:24408997

  16. Estimating agricultural yield gap in Africa using MODIS NDVI dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luan, Y.; Zhu, W.; Luo, X.; Liu, J.; Cui, X.

    2013-12-01

    Global agriculture has undergone a period of rapid intensification characterized as 'Green Revolution', except for Africa, which is the region most affected by unreliable food access and undernourishment. Increasing crop production will be one of the most challenges and most effectual way to mitigate food insecurity there, as Africa's agricultural yield is on a much lower level comparing to global average. In this study we characterize cropland vegetation phenology in Africa based on MODIS NDVI time series between 2000 and 2012. Cumulated NDVI is a proxy for net primary productivity and used as an indicator for evaluating the potential yield gap in Africa. It is achieved via translating the gap between optimum attainable productivity level in each classification of cropping systems and actual productivity level by the relationship of cumulated NDVI and cereal-equivalent production. The results show most of cropland area in Africa have decreasing trend in cumulated NDVI, distributing in the Nile Delta, Eastern Africa and central of semi-arid to arid savanna area, except significant positive cumulated NDVI trends are mainly found between Senegal and Benin. Using cumulated NDVI and statistics of cereal equivalent production, we find remarkable potential yield gap at the Horn of East Africa (especially in Somalia), Northern Africa (Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia). Meanwhile, countries locating at the savanna area near Sahel desert and South Africa also show significant potential, though they already have a relatively high level of productivity. Our results can help provide policy recommendation for local government or NGO to tackle food security problems by identifying zones with high potential of yield improvement.

  17. Individual Attitudes Towards Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jäkel, Ina Charlotte; Smolka, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Using the 2007 wave of the Pew Global Attitudes Project, this paper finds statistically significant and economically large Stolper-Samuelson effects in individuals’ preference formation towards trade policy. High-skilled individuals are substantially more pro-trade than low-skilled individuals......-Ohlin model in shaping free trade attitudes, relative to existing literature....

  18. Classifying individuals at high-risk for psychosis based on functional brain activity during working memory processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Bendfeldt

    2015-01-01

    These results suggest that FEP and HC or FEP and ARMS cannot be accurately separated in small samples under these conditions. However, ARMS can be identified with very high sensitivity in comparison to HC. This might aid classification and help to predict transition in the ARMS.

  19. Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety : differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Peter

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of negative self-image in social phobia. Participants were 19 high and 19 low socially anxious women. Because self-report measures of self-esteem are sensitive to self-presentation and impression management strategies, an implicit association test (IAT

  20. The historiography of Danish representations of Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars

    Denmark has one of Europe's longest historical records of contacts with Africa. This article looks at the continuity and breaks in Danish conceptualisations of Africa through Danish texts which engage with Africa in the past and the present....

  1. Knowledge and perceptions of risk for cardiovascular disease: Findings of a qualitative investigation from a low-income peri-urban community in the Western Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Surka; Krisela Steyn; Katherine Everett-Murphy; Gaziano, Thomas A.; Naomi Levitt

    2015-01-01

    Background: South Africa currently faces an increasing burden of cardiovascular disease. Although referred to clinics after community screening initiatives, few individuals who are identified to be at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease attend. Low health literacy and risk perception have been identified as possible causes. We investigated the knowledge and perceptions about risk for cardiovascular disease in a community.Method: We conducted a series of focus group discussions wit...

  2. Country of origin and employment prospects among immigrants: An analysis of south-south and north-south migrants to South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amos C Peters; Asha Sundaram

    2014-01-01

    We study the relationship between country of origin and employment prospects for immigrants to South Africa, an emerging host country characterized by high levels of unemployment, labour market imperfections and a scarcity of skills. Using the 2001 South African census, we estimate the probability of being employed for working-age immigrant men and South African internal migrants. We find that, conditional on individual characteristics and education levels, the probability of being employed v...

  3. Extending wind turbine operational conditions; a comparison of set point adaptation and LQG individual pitch control for highly turbulent wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extreme wind conditions can cause excessive loading on the turbine. This not only results in higher design loads, but when these conditions occur in practice, will also result in higher maintenance cost. Although there are already effective methods of dealing with gusts, other extreme conditions should also be examined. More specifically, extreme turbulence conditions (e.g. those specified by design load case 1.3 in IEC61400-1 ed. 3) require special attention as they can lead to design-driving extreme loads on blades, tower and other wind turbine components. This paper examines two methods to deal with extreme loads in a case of extreme turbulent wind. One method is derating the turbine, the other method is an individual pitch control (IPC) algorithm. Derating of the turbine can be achieved in two ways, one is changing the rated torque, the other is changing the rated rotor speed. The effect of these methods on fatigue loads and extreme loads is examined. Non-linear aero-elastic simulations using Phatas, show that reducing the rated rotor speed is far more effective at reducing the loads than reducing torque. Then, the IPC algorithm is proposed. This algorithm is a linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller based on a time invariant model, defined in the fixed reference frame that includes the first tower and blade modes. Because this method takes the dynamics of the system into account more than conventional IPC control, it is expected that these loads dealt with more effectively, when they are particularly relevant. It is expected that in extreme turbulent the blade and tower dynamics are indeed more relevant. The effect of this algorithm on fatigue loads and pitch effort is examined and compared with the fatigue loads and pitch effort of reference IPC. Finally, the methods are compared in non-linear aero-elastic simulations with extreme turbulent wind

  4. High levels of T lymphocyte activation in Leishmania-HIV-1 co-infected individuals despite low HIV viral load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grinsztejn Beatriz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concomitant infections may influence HIV progression by causing chronic activation leading to decline in T-cell function. In the Americas, visceral (AVL and tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL have emerged as important opportunistic infections in HIV-AIDS patients and both of those diseases have been implicated as potentially important co-factors in disease progression. We investigated whether leishmaniasis increases lymphocyte activation in HIV-1 co-infected patients. This might contribute to impaired cellular immune function. Methods To address this issue we analyzed CD4+ T absolute counts and the proportion of CD8+ T cells expressing CD38 in Leishmania/HIV co-infected patients that recovered after anti-leishmanial therapy. Results We found that, despite clinical remission of leishmaniasis, AVL co-infected patients presented a more severe immunossupression as suggested by CD4+ T cell counts under 200 cells/mm3, differing from ATL/HIV-AIDS cases that tends to show higher lymphocytes levels (over 350 cells/mm3. Furthermore, five out of nine, AVL/HIV-AIDS presented low CD4+ T cell counts in spite of low or undetectable viral load. Expression of CD38 on CD8+ T lymphocytes was significantly higher in AVL or ATL/HIV-AIDS cases compared to HIV/AIDS patients without leishmaniasis or healthy subjects. Conclusions Leishmania infection can increase the degree of immune system activation in individuals concomitantly infected with HIV. In addition, AVL/HIV-AIDS patients can present low CD4+ T cell counts and higher proportion of activated T lymphocytes even when HIV viral load is suppressed under HAART. This fact can cause a misinterpretation of these laboratorial markers in co-infected patients.

  5. Ammonia Levels and Urine-Spot Characteristics as Cage-Change Indicators for High-Density Individually Ventilated Mouse Cages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Ida M; Payton, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Mouse cage and bedding changes are potentially stressful to mice and are also labor- and resource-intensive. These changes are often performed on a calendar-based schedule to maintain a clean microenvironment and limit the concentrations of ammonia to which mice and workers are exposed. The current study sought to establish a performance-based approach to mouse cage-changing that uses urine spot characteristics as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels. Colorimetric ammonia indicators were used to measure ammonia levels in individually-ventilated cages (IVC) housing male or female mice (n =5 per cage) of various strains at 1 to 16 d after cage change. Urine spot characteristics were correlated with ammonia levels to create a visual indicator of the cage-change criterion of 25 ppm ammonia. Results demonstrated a consistent increase in ammonia levels with days since cage change, with cages reaching the cage-change criterion at approximately 10 d for IVC containing male mice and 16 d for those with female mice. Ammonia levels were higher for male than female mice but were not correlated with mouse age. However, urine spot diameter, color, and edge characteristics were strongly correlated with ammonia levels. Husbandry practices based on using urine spot characteristics as indicators of ammonia levels led to fewer weekly cage changes and concomitant savings in labor and resources. Therefore, urine spot characteristics can be used as visual indicators of intracage ammonia levels for use of a performance (urine spot)-based approach to cage-changing frequency that maintains animal health and wellbeing. PMID:27177558

  6. Individualized Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    IntelliWeb and IntelliPrint, products from MicroMass Communications, utilize C Language Integrated Production System (CLIPS), a development and delivery expert systems tool developed at Johnson Space Center. IntelliWeb delivers personalized messages by dynamically creating single web pages or entire web sites based on information provided by each website visitor. IntelliPrint is a product designed to create tailored, individualized messages via printed media. The software uses proprietary technology to generate printed messages that are personally relevant and tailored to meet each individual's needs. Intelliprint is in use in many operations including Brystol-Myers Squibb's personalized newsletter, "Living at Your Best," geared to each recipient based on a health and lifestyle survey taken earlier; and SmithKline Beecham's "Nicorette Committed Quitters Program," in which customized motivational materials support participants in their attempt to quit smoking.

  7. Collective individualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baarts, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Safety knowledge appears to be ‘a doing’. In construction work safety is practised in the complex interrelationship between the individual, pair and gang. Thus the aim is to explore the nature and scope of individualist and collectivist preferences pertaining to the practice of safety at a...... construction site. An ethnographic fieldwork, in which the researcher worked as an apprentice, will provide detailed and experiencenear insights into the complexity of these processes. Findings show that individualist and collectivist preferences influence the amount of risk the individual worker will assume...... and expose workmates to. Aspects such as self-regulation, self-confidence and independence are acceptable values only to the extent that they do not pose a threat to the solidarity of the community or safety of other workers. The informal practice of safety is a tight-rope act that involves balancing...

  8. Paléocontraintes et déformations syn- et post-collision Afrique Europe identifiées dans la couverture mésozoïque et cénozoïque du Haut Atlas occidental (Maroc)Syn- and post-collision Africa Europe palaeostresses and deformations identified in the West High-Atlas Mesozoic and Cenozoic cover (Morocco)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhar, Mostafa

    Palaeostresses and deformation axis reconstruction related to the intracontinental High-Atlas uplift evidences two shortening phases from Upper Cretaceous to Quaternary. The first compression is oriented N20-30°E and is Maastrichtian to Oligocene age; the second one, oriented N120-160°E, is syn-Mio-Pliocene. Tectonic inversion of the lateral to compressive Jurassic regime is contemporaneous with the beginning of Africa and Europe collision. Rotation of the Mio-Pliocene shortening orientation could be linked to the change of the convergence direction between the Africa and Europe plates. To cite this article: M. Amrhar, C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 279-285.

  9. No Easy Walk: Advancing Refugee Protection in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. Handmaker (Jeff)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractSouth Africa only began accepting individual applications for political asylum in 1994. A policy designed to recognize former Mozambican refugees for the purposes of a repatriation program became the (awkward) basis of the asylum procedure up until April 2000. Criticized by some, a livel

  10. Korea-South Africa nuclear energy focal point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major objective of the project is to hold Korea-S. Africa joint nuclear or workshop and establish a network of nuclear experts between the two countries. In addition, identification of the collaboration items is another objective of this project. the outcome of this program would be a cornerstone for the nuclear collaboration between Korea and S. Africa. African countries is usually very abundant in the natural resources and developed countries are trying to improve relationships with African countries to secure the natural resources, S. Africa is also very rich with some resources including uranium. Therefore, Korea depending on foreign resources needs to improve the relationship with S. Africa form the viewpoint of securing natural resources. S. Africa has two PWR-type nuclear power plants and is planning to deploy more PWRs to increase the nuclear capacity. In addition, S. Africa is a leading country in developing the PBMR, which is a type of Generation-IV VHTR (very high temperature reactor). In Korea, the VHTR technologies are also under development for the nuclear hydrogen. Although Korea has its own PWR brand, it is not well known to S. Africa. The focal point program would lay a cornerstone for mutually beneficial nuclear collaborations between two countries

  11. Individual monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Practical Radiation Technical Manual is one of a series which has been designed to provide guidance on radiological protection for employers, Radiation Protection Officers, managers and other technically competent persons who have a responsibility to ensure the safety of employees working with ionizing radiation. The Manual may be used together with the appropriate IAEA Practical Radiation Safety Manual to provide adequate training, instruction or information on individual monitoring for all employees engaged in work with ionizing radiations. Sources of ionizing radiation have a large number of applications in the workplace. The exposures of the individual workers involved may need to be routinely monitored and records kept of their cumulative radiation doses. There are also occasions when it is necessary to retrospectively determine a dose which may have been received by a worker. This Manual explains the basic terminology associated with individual monitoring and describes the principal types of dosimeters and other related techniques and their application in the workplace. The Manual will be of most benefit if it forms part of more comprehensive training or is supplemented by the advice of a qualified expert in radiation protection. Most of the dosimeters and techniques described in this Manual can only be provided by qualified experts

  12. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  13. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira; Marcela Paranhos Knibel; Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres; José Firmino Nogueira Neto; Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stag...

  14. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein and liver enzymes in individuals with Metabolic Syndrome in Talca, Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Leiva, E.; V. Mujica; PALOMO, I.; ORREGO, R.; Guzmán, L.; S. Núñez; MOORE-CARRASCO, R.; Icaza, G.; Díaz, N.

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a core set of disorders, including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia that together predict the development of diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the relationship between liver enzyme levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in subjects with and without MS. Alanine-aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartate-aminotransferase (ASAT), γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) and hs-CRP were measured in 510...

  15. A system and methodology for high-content visual screening of individual intact living cells in suspension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Olivier; Heintzmann, Rainer; Sáez-Cirión, Asier; Schnelle, Thomas; Mueller, Torsten; Shorte, Spencer

    2007-02-01

    Three dimensional imaging provides high-content information from living intact biology, and can serve as a visual screening cue. In the case of single cell imaging the current state of the art uses so-called "axial through-stacking". However, three-dimensional axial through-stacking requires that the object (i.e. a living cell) be adherently stabilized on an optically transparent surface, usually glass; evidently precluding use of cells in suspension. Aiming to overcome this limitation we present here the utility of dielectric field trapping of single cells in three-dimensional electrode cages. Our approach allows gentle and precise spatial orientation and vectored rotation of living, non-adherent cells in fluid suspension. Using various modes of widefield, and confocal microscope imaging we show how so-called "microrotation" can provide a unique and powerful method for multiple point-of-view (three-dimensional) interrogation of intact living biological micro-objects (e.g. single-cells, cell aggregates, and embryos). Further, we show how visual screening by micro-rotation imaging can be combined with micro-fluidic sorting, allowing selection of rare phenotype targets from small populations of cells in suspension, and subsequent one-step single cell cloning (with high-viability). Our methodology combining high-content 3D visual screening with one-step single cell cloning, will impact diverse paradigms, for example cytological and cytogenetic analysis on haematopoietic stem cells, blood cells including lymphocytes, and cancer cells.

  16. Survivability of bare, individual Bacillus subtilis spores to high-velocity surface impact: Implications for microbial transfer through space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Brandon L.; Pratt, Sara N.; Austin, Daniel E.

    2016-06-01

    Laboratory experiments show that endospores of Bacillus subtilis survive impact against a solid surface at velocities as high as 299 ±28 m/s. During impact, spores experience and survive accelerations of at least 1010 m/s2. The spores were introduced into a vacuum chamber using an electrospray source and accelerated to a narrow velocity distribution by entrainment in a differentially pumped gas flow. Different velocity ranges were studied by modifying the gas flow parameters. The spores were electrically charged, allowing direct measurement of the velocity of each spore as it passed through an image charge detector prior to surface impact. Spores impacted a glass surface and were collected for subsequent analysis by culturing. Most spores survived impact at all measured velocities. These experiments differ fundamentally from other studies that show either shock or impact survivability of bacteria embedded within or on the surface of a projectile. Bacteria in the present experiments undergo a single interaction with a solid surface at the full impact velocity, in the absence of any other effects such as cushioning due to microbe agglomerations, deceleration due to air or vapor, or transfer of impact shock through solid or liquid media. During these full-velocity impact events, the spores experience extremely high decelerations. This study is the first reported instance of accelerations of this magnitude experienced during a bacteria impact event. These results are discussed in the context of potential transfer of viable microbes in space and other scenarios involving surface impacts at high velocities.

  17. The genetic landscape of Ceratocystis albifundus populations in South Africa reveals a recent fungal introduction event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hyeon; Roux, Jolanda; Wingfield, Brenda D; Barnes, Irene; Mostert, Lizel; Wingfield, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Geographical range expansion or host shifts is amongst the various evolutionary forces that underlie numerous emerging diseases caused by fungal pathogens. In this regard, Ceratocystis albifundus, the causal agent of a serious wilt disease of Acacia mearnsii trees in Africa, was recently identified killing cultivated Protea cynaroides in the Western Cape (WC) Province of South Africa. Protea cynaroides is an important native plant in the area and a key component of the Cape Floristic Region. The appearance of this new disease outbreak, together with isolates of C. albifundus from natural ecosystems as well as plantations of nonnative trees, provided an opportunity to consider questions relating to the possible origin and movement of the pathogen in South Africa. Ten microsatellite markers were used to determine the genetic diversity, population structure, and possible gene flow in a collection of 193 C. albifundus isolates. All populations, other than those from the WC, showed high levels of genetic diversity. An intermediate level of gene flow was found amongst populations of the pathogen. The results suggest that a limited number of individuals have recently been introduced into the WC, resulting in a novel disease problem in the area. PMID:27109366

  18. Diverse Molecular Genotypes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex Isolates Circulating in the Free State, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Spoel van Dijk, Anneke; Makhoahle, Pakiso M; Rigouts, Leen; Baba, Kamaldeen

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a serious public health concern especially in Africa and Asia. Studies describing strain diversity are lacking in the Free State region of South Africa. The aim of the study was to describe the diversity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) strain families in the Free State province of South Africa. A total of 86 M. tuberculosis isolates were genotyped using spoligotyping. A 12-locus mycobacterial interspersed repetitive units-variable-number tandem repeats (MIRU-VNTRs) typing was used to further characterize the resulting spoligotyping clusters. SITVITWEB identified 49 different patterns with allocation to six lineages including Latin-American-Mediterranean (LAM) (18 isolates), T (14 isolates), Beijing (five isolates), S (six isolates), Haarlem (one isolate), and X (five isolates), while 37 (43.0%) orphans were identified. Eight clusters included 37 isolates with identical spoligotypes (2 to 13/cluster). MIRU-VNTR typing further differentiated three spoligotyping clusters: SIT1/Beijing/MIT17, SIT33/LAM3/MIT213, and confirmed one SIT34/S/MIT311. In addition, SpolDB3/RIM assignment of the orphan strains resulted in a further 10 LAM and 13 T families. In total, LAM (28 isolates) and T (27 isolates) cause 63% of the individual cases of MTB in our study. The Free State has a highly diverse TB population with LAM being predominant. Further studies with inclusion of multidrug-resistant strains with larger sample size are warranted. PMID:27073397

  19. Erythristic leopards Panthera pardus in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara J. Pirie

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Leopards (Panthera pardus show genetically determined colour variation. Erythristic (strawberry morphs, where individuals are paler and black pigment in the coat is replaced by a red-brown colour, are exceptionally rare in the wild. Historically, few records exist, with only five putative records known from India.Objectives: To record the presence of erythristic leopards in our study site (Thaba Tholo Wilderness Reserve, Mpumalanga and to collate records from across South Africa. Method: A network of camera traps was used to record individual leopards at Thaba Tholo. We also surveyed local experts, searched the popular South African press, and used social media to request observations.Results: Two out of 28 individual leopards (7.1% recorded in our study site over 3 years were of this colour morph. We obtained records of five other erythristic leopards in the North West and Mpumalanga regions, with no reports outside of this population.Conclusions: Erythristic leopards are widely dispersed across north-east South Africa, predominantly in the Lydenburg region, Mpumalanga. The presence of this rare colour morph may reflect the consequences of population fragmentation.

  20. Segmentation and classification of high resolution imagery for mapping individual species in a closed canopy, deciduous forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Timothy A. Warner; James B. McGraw; Rick Landenberger

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the use of a shadow-based delineation program for identifying segments in imagery of a closed canopy, deciduous forest, in West Virginia, USA, as a way to reduce the noise associated with per-pixel classification in forested environments. Shadows typically cluster along the boundaries of trees and therefore can be used to provide a network of nodes for the delineation of segments. A minimum cost path algorithm, where cost is defined as the cumulative sum of brightness values traversed along the connecting route, was used to connect shadow clumps. To test this approach, a series of classifications was undertaken using a multispectral digital aerial image of a six hectare test site and a minimum cost path segmentation. Three species were mapped: oaks, red maple and yellow poplar. The accuracy of an aspatial maximum likelihood classification (termed PERPIXEL classification) was 68.5%, compared to 74.0% for classification using the mean vector of the segments identified with the minimum cost path algorithm (MEAN_SEG), and 78% when the most common class present in the segment is assigned to the entire segment (POSTCLASS_SEG). By comparison, multispectral classification of the multispectral data using the field-mapped polygons of individual trees as segments, produced an accuracy of 82.3% when the mean vector of the polygon was used for classification (MEAN_TREE), and 85.7% when the most common class was assigned to the entire polygon (POSTCLASS_TREE). A moving window-based post-classification majority filter (POSTCLASS_MAJ5BY5) produced an intermediate accuracy value, 73.8%. The minimum cost path segmentation algorithm was found to correctly delineate approximately 28% of the trees. The remaining trees were either segmented, aggregated, or a combination of both segmented and aggregated. Varying the threshold that was used to discriminate shadows appeared to have little effect on the number of correctly delineated trees, or on the overall

  1. 精神分裂症患者一级亲属人格特征的研究%Personality traits in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚静; 李涛; 郭兰婷; 孙锦华; 王强; 马小红; 刘协和; 孙学礼

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨精神分裂症患者一级亲属的人格特征.方法 采用分裂型人格问卷(SPQ)及三维人格问卷(TPQ)评定181例精神分裂症患者一级亲属(高危组)、321名正常对照个体(对照组)的人格特征.结果 高危组sPQ阴性分裂型人格维度评分[(9.80±7.05)分]高于对照组[(8.42±5.87)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).高危组在TPQ寻求新奇维度评分[(15.60±5.62)分]、奖赏依赖维度评分[(17.41 ±1.13)分]与对照组[(14.20±2.83)分,(18.22±3.26)分]的差异均有统计学意义(P均<0.01).高危组的阴性分裂型人格维度分数与寻求新奇维度、奖赏依赖维度分数显著相关(r=0.17和-0.23).结论 精神分裂症患者一级亲属具有阴性分裂型维度、寻求新奇维度、奖赏依赖维度的人格特征.%Objective To explore the personality traits in individuals at high risk for schizophrenia.Methods All 181 individuals at high risk for schizophrenia whose parents or siblings were affected with schizophrenia, and 321 normal controls were assessed with the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ)and ridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ). Results The score of negative sehizotypal dimension of SPQ was higher in the individuals at high risk than controls ( P < 0.05 ). The novelty-seeking dimension and reward-dependence dimension of TPQ were ignificant lower in the individuals at high risk for schizophrenia than controls ( P < 0.01 ). The score of negative schizotypal dimension was related to the scores of novelty-seeking dimension and reward-dependence dimension of TPQ ( r=0.17 and-0.23 ).Conclusion The individuals at high risk for schizophrenia have some personality traits such as negative schizotypal dimension in SPQ, novelty- seeking dimension and reward-dependence dimension in TPQ.

  2. Developing solar: PV solar system markets in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Governments, NGO's and UN organisations are increasingly convinced that renewable energies not only help to solve energy problems in Africa but are indispensable in alleviating regional disparities, social problems and bridging the digital gap. Still, many years after introducing high efficiency solar PV systems the necessary breakthrough of implementing them on a mass scale is still not a reality. The author provides perspectives on developing solar PV in Africa. (Author)

  3. Evolving land rights, policy and tenure in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Toulmin, Camilla; Quan, Julian

    2000-01-01

    Evolving land rights, policy and tenure in Africa presents and discusses several key aspects of Africa's ongoing land policy debate including legislative reform, the management of land rights, issues of implementation, and policy-making processes. It provides readers with examples of how different countries have approached the highly political and sensitive subject of rights to land and other natural resources. Recent innovative land reform programmes are described, and the authors assess the...

  4. Unemployment and wages in South Africa: A spatial approach

    OpenAIRE

    Geeta Kingdon; John Knight

    1999-01-01

    A large amount of recent evidence finds a negative relationship between local unemployment and wages in OECD countries, a relationship christened a ‘wage curve’. This contradicts the conventional model of the labour market in which high unemployment regions have higher wages to compensate for search and other costs. This paper discovers a wage curve in South Africa, a country with several times the typical unemployment rate of OECD countries. The wage curve elasticity in South Africa is simil...

  5. Robust Estimates of Okun's Coefficient for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    J. Geldenhuys; M. Marinkov

    2007-01-01

    Persistently high unemployment in South Africa, especially in the face of improved economic conditions since 1994, begs the question: Does unemployment in South Africa respond to changes in output? When considering the linkages between output and unemployment, it is useful to decompose unemployment into its three components: structural, frictional and cyclical unemployment. Deficient aggregate demand gives rise to cyclical unemployment. Okun's law (1962) refers to the inverse relationship tha...

  6. Implementation of a Basic Income Grant in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Eilers, Julie Lundberg; Pallesen, Josefine Eva Lilly; Jesting, Kathrine; Tewolde, Eden

    2015-01-01

    This paper sets out to analyse why the Basic Income Grant (BIG) was not implemented in South Africa. During the 1990’s the BIG was discussed within academic circles and civil society organisations argued in favour of its implementation. Despite pressure, the governing party, the African National Congress (ANC) never decided to pass the proposal and introduce a universal grant. Present day South Africa is characterised as a highly uneven country facing severe numbers of unemployment and povert...

  7. Transmission of HIV in sexual networks in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vijver, David A. M. C.; Prosperi, Mattia C. F.; Ramasco, José J.

    2013-09-01

    We are reviewing the literature regarding sexual networks and HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe. On Likoma Island in Malawi, a sexual network was reconstructed using a sociometric survey in which individuals named their sexual partners. The sexual network identified one giant component including half of all sexually active individuals. More than 25% of respondents were linked through independent chains of sexual relations. HIV was more common in the sparser regions of the network due to over-representation of groups with higher HIV prevalence. A study from KwaZulu-Natal in South-Africa collected egocentric data about sexual partners and found that new infections in women in a particular area was associated with the number of life-time partners in men. Data about sexual networks and HIV transmission are not reported in Europe. It is, however, found that the annual number of sexual partners follows a scale-free network. Phylogenetic studies that determine genetic relatedness between HIV isolates obtained from infected individuals, found that patients in the early stages of infections explain a high number of new infections. In conclusion, the limited information that is available suggest that sexual networks play a role in spread of HIV. Obtaining more information about sexual networks can be of benefit for modeling studies on HIV transmission and prevention.

  8. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2000-01-01

    The external current account in South Africa has strengthened significantly in 1999, mainly owing to a large decline in imports. Compared with a deficit of about 1.5 percent of GDP in recent years, it is close to balance during the first three quarters of 1999. A resumption of investor confidence has led to an increase in international reserves and facilitated a decline in the net open forward position (NOFP). The external current account deficit has declined to 0.2 percent of GDP during the ...

  9. Africa. Salvation or Despair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    change that was also expected and demanded by the international community. As a consequence of this change, South Africa is now trying to lead by example, trying to export particular values and norms to the rest of the continent, while at the same time carrying Africa’s banner on the international stage....... A state wanting to be recognized and perceived as a benign “peacemaker” cannot use military power in the same way as a pariah state. To cultivate a reputation as a benign power, it must use force in a way that is acceptable to its neighbours and the international community at large. The purpose of...

  10. Nutrition problem of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Skákalová, Jana

    2014-01-01

    What lies at the core of both poor nutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa as well as an elevated percentage of the population living in extreme poverty is the inability of local countries to establish a foundation for long-term economic growth. The main reason for this is their inability to establish adequate governance systems, which commenced in the 1960s, when African countries successively obtained independence. Two former superpowers, both the USA and the USSR, have their share of blame in this...

  11. Annual risk of tuberculous infection using different methods in communities with a high prevalence of TB and HIV in Zambia and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwame Shanaube

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The annual risk of tuberculous infection (ARTI is a key epidemiological indicator of the extent of transmission in a community. Several methods have been suggested to estimate the prevalence of tuberculous infection using tuberculin skin test data. This paper explores the implications of using different methods to estimate prevalence of infection and ARTI. The effect of BCG vaccination on these estimates is also investigated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Tuberculin surveys among school children in 16 communities in Zambia and 8 in South Africa (SA were performed in 2005, as part of baseline data collection and for randomisation purposes of the ZAMSTAR study. Infection prevalence and ARTI estimates were calculated using five methods: different cut-offs with or without adjustments for sensitivity, the mirror method, and mixture analysis. A total of 49,835 children were registered for the surveys, of which 25,048 (50% had skin tests done and 22,563 (90% of those tested were read. Infection prevalence was higher in the combined SA than Zambian communities. The mirror method resulted in the least difference of 7.8%, whereas that estimated by the cut-off methods varied from 12.2% to 17.3%. The ARTI in the Zambian and SA communities was between 0.8% and 2.8% and 2.5% and 4.2% respectively, depending on the method used. In the SA communities, the ARTI was higher among the younger children. BCG vaccination had little effect on these estimates. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: ARTI estimates are dependent on the calculation method used. All methods agreed that there were substantial differences in infection prevalence across the communities, with higher rates in SA. Although TB notification rates have increased over the past decades, the difference in cumulative exposure between younger and older children is less dramatic and a rise in risk of infection in parallel with the estimated incidence of active tuberculosis cannot be excluded.

  12. On the transferability of RegCM4: Europe, Africa and Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Michal; Halenka, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Simulations driven by ERA-interim reanalysis for CORDEX domains covering Europe, Africa and Asia have been performed using RegCM4 at 50 km resolution. The same settings are used in basic simulations and preliminary evaluation of model performance for individual regions will be presented. Several settings of different options is tested and sensitivity of selected ones will be shown in individual regions. Secant Mercator projection is introduced for Africa providing more efficient model geometry setting, the impact of proper emissivity inclusion is compared especially for Africa and Asia desserts. CRU data are used for the validation.

  13. Percent voluntary inactivation and peak force predictions with the interpolated twitch technique in individuals with high ability of voluntary activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to examine the sensitivity and peak force prediction capability of the interpolated twitch technique (ITT) performed during submaximal and maximal voluntary contractions (MVCs) in subjects with the ability to maximally activate their plantar flexors. Twelve subjects performed two MVCs and nine submaximal contractions with the ITT method to calculate percent voluntary inactivation (%VI). Additionally, two MVCs were performed without the ITT. Polynomial models (linear, quadratic and cubic) were applied to the 10–90% VI and 40–90% VI versus force relationships to predict force. Peak force from the ITT MVC was 6.7% less than peak force from the MVC without the ITT. Fifty-eight percent of the 10–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with nonlinear models; however, all 40–90% VI versus force relationships were best fit with linear models. Regardless of the polynomial model or the contraction intensities used to predict force, all models underestimated the actual force from 22% to 28%. There was low sensitivity of the ITT method at high contraction intensities and the predicted force from polynomial models significantly underestimated the actual force. Caution is warranted when interpreting the % VI at high contraction intensities and predicted peak force from submaximal contractions

  14. Gender differences in body size dissatisfaction among individuals with low, medium, or high levels of body focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokken, Kristine; Ferraro, F Richard; Kirchner, Tara; Bowling, Margo

    2003-07-01

    The authors designed the present study to test whether women reported higher levels of body dissatisfaction than did men even when the 2 genders were matched on a measure of degree of body focus. Sixty undergraduates (30 men, 30 women) were screened on attention-to-body-shape scores and divided into high, medium, and low body-shape-focus groups. The participants also completed questionnaires that provided information on age, education, vocabulary ability, levels of depression, and body-image assessment. The groups did not differ (ps > .05) on age, education, vocabulary ability, or levels of depression. However, women in all 3 body-shape-focus categories indicated a larger discrepancy between their real vs. ideal body images (p < .01) than did the men. In the high-body-focus group, there was an 11:1ratio between women's and men's reported real-ideal body-shape discrepancies. Women showed greater body dissatisfaction than did men, even when the genders were matched on a measure of body focus. PMID:12926515

  15. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost. PMID:20637906

  16. Effect of variable transmission rate on the dynamics of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stewart Sarah L

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cause of the high HIV prevalence in sub-Saharan Africa is incompletely understood, with heterosexual penile-vaginal transmission proposed as the main mechanism. Heterosexual HIV transmission has been estimated to have a very low probability; but effects of cofactors that vary in space and time may substantially alter this pattern. Methods To test the effect of individual variation in the HIV infectiousness generated by co-infection, we developed and analyzed a mathematical sexual network model that simulates the behavioral components of a population from Malawi, as well as the dynamics of HIV and the co-infection effect caused by other infectious diseases, including herpes simplex virus type-2, gonorrhea, syphilis and malaria. Results The analysis shows that without the amplification effect caused by co-infection, no epidemic is generated, and HIV prevalence decreases to extinction. But the model indicates that an epidemic can be generated by the amplification effect on HIV transmission caused by co-infection. Conclusion The simulated sexual network demonstrated that a single value for HIV infectivity fails to describe the dynamics of the epidemic. Regardless of the low probability of heterosexual transmission per sexual contact, the inclusion of individual variation generated by transient but repeated increases in HIV viral load associated with co-infections may provide a biological basis for the accelerated spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. Moreover, our work raises the possibility that the natural history of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa cannot be fully understood if individual variation in infectiousness is neglected.

  17. Individual responsibility.

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Ph.D. Paul Marinescu

    2005-01-01

    When, and how far, should individuals assume responsibility for their own disadvantages themselves, and when, in contrast to this, is it right for society as a collective body to try to remedy or mitigate disadvantage? Some theorists argue that in so far as disadvantages result from voluntary choices, they should be borne by the agents themselves and do not raise a case of justice for public assistance. This criterion is plausible in some cases but far from self-evident in others. In reality,...

  18. Africa in World Cultures Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Jo

    1980-01-01

    Maintains that many world geography and culture textbooks that deal with Africa present misinformation and misleading generalities. Reviews three recent textbooks--"Insights: Sub-Saharan Africa," by Ella C. Leppert, "People and Progress: A Global History," by Milton Finkelstein, and "World Cultures," by Clarence L. Van Steeg. (DB)

  19. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...

  20. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).