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Sample records for africa dispelling doubts

  1. The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data

    OpenAIRE

    Lembo, T.; Hampson, K.; Kaare, M.T.; Ernest, E.; Knobel, D.; Kazwala, R.R.; Haydon, D. T.; Cleaveland, S.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent. Methodology/Principal Findings: This paper identifies four common reasons given for the lack of effective canine rabies control in Africa: (a) a low priority given for disease control as a result of lack of awareness of the rabies burden; (b) epidemiological constraints such as uncertainties about the required levels of vaccination coverage and...

  2. The feasibility of canine rabies elimination in Africa: dispelling doubts with data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Lembo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Canine rabies causes many thousands of human deaths every year in Africa, and continues to increase throughout much of the continent. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This paper identifies four common reasons given for the lack of effective canine rabies control in Africa: (a a low priority given for disease control as a result of lack of awareness of the rabies burden; (b epidemiological constraints such as uncertainties about the required levels of vaccination coverage and the possibility of sustained cycles of infection in wildlife; (c operational constraints including accessibility of dogs for vaccination and insufficient knowledge of dog population sizes for planning of vaccination campaigns; and (d limited resources for implementation of rabies surveillance and control. We address each of these issues in turn, presenting data from field studies and modelling approaches used in Tanzania, including burden of disease evaluations, detailed epidemiological studies, operational data from vaccination campaigns in different demographic and ecological settings, and economic analyses of the cost-effectiveness of dog vaccination for human rabies prevention. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that there are no insurmountable problems to canine rabies control in most of Africa; that elimination of canine rabies is epidemiologically and practically feasible through mass vaccination of domestic dogs; and that domestic dog vaccination provides a cost-effective approach to the prevention and elimination of human rabies deaths.

  3. Myth Dispelled

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-03-20

    Dr. Adam Possner, an assistant professor of general internal medicine at George Washington University, reads and discusses his poem, "Myth Dispelled.".  Created: 3/20/2013 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/21/2013.

  4. Darwin as a geologist in Africadispelling the myths and unravelling a confused knot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Master

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Two myths persist concerning the role played by Charles Darwin as a geologist in Africa during his epic voyage around the world (1831–1836. The first myth is that Darwin was a completely self-taught geologist, with no formal training. The second myth is that it was Darwin who finally solved the problem of the granite–schist contact at the famous Sea Point coastal exposures in Cape Town, after deliberately setting out to prove his predecessors wrong. These myths are challenged by the now ample evidence that Darwin had excellent help in his geological education from the likes of Robert Jameson, John Henslow and Adam Sedgwick. The story of Darwin and his predecessors at the Sea Point granite contact has become confused, and even conflated, with previous descriptions by Basil Hall (1813 and Clark Abel (1818. Here, the historical record is unravelled and set straight, and it is shown from the evidence of his notebooks that Darwin was quite unaware of the outcrops in Cape Town. His erudite account of the contact was a result of the 8 years spent in writing and correspondence after his return to England and not because of his brilliant insights on the outcrop, as the myth would have it. While there has been little to indicate Darwin’s landfalls in Africa, a new plaque now explains the geology of the Sea Point Contact, and includes a drawing of Darwin’s ship, the Beagle, and quotes from his work.

  5. Dispelling the Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sain, Tony

    2002-01-01

    Attempts to dispel four "myths" about sheet vinyl flooring: it emits toxic fumes and poses a health/safety risk; it is a low-class, unstylish flooring option; it is less friendly to the environment; and there are many kinds of flooring that match its durability and cost effectiveness. (EV)

  6. Dispelling Myths about Gum Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leadership History Employment Opportunities Find a Periodontist Dispelling Myths about Gum Disease: The Truth Behind Healthy Teeth ... Dr. Low. “Unfortunately, there are a variety of myths surrounding periodontal disease and its repercussions.” In order ...

  7. When in Doubt...?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bubandt, Nils Ole

    2016-01-01

    Response to Hau Symposium on Bubandt, Nils. 2014. The empty seashell: Witchcraft and doubt on an Indonesian island. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.......Response to Hau Symposium on Bubandt, Nils. 2014. The empty seashell: Witchcraft and doubt on an Indonesian island. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press....

  8. Dispelling Rumours Around Zika and Complications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outbreak MERS-CoV Humanitarian emergencies Dispelling rumours around Zika and complications Updated 5 August 2016 Updated! Bacteria ... sterilized male mosquitoes contribute to the spread of Zika A technique being developed to stop Zika is ...

  9. Reforming Schools: The Collective Doubting Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schechter, Chen; Ganon-Shilon, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The ongoing challenge to sustain educational reforms requires a learning process through which doubt is induced as a means of fostering productive school change. The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of doubt as well as the doubting process and its importance to the school community, particularly with regard to educational…

  10. On Measuring Quantitative Interpretations of Reasonable Doubt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhami, Mandeep K.

    2008-01-01

    Beyond reasonable doubt represents a probability value that acts as the criterion for conviction in criminal trials. I introduce the membership function (MF) method as a new tool for measuring quantitative interpretations of reasonable doubt. Experiment 1 demonstrated that three different methods (i.e., direct rating, decision theory based, and…

  11. Doubt in the psychoanalysis of a paedophile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Donald

    2014-06-01

    In this single case study, I will address the question of how incestuous sexual abuse causes doubt of three distinct types: (1) honest doubt that is essential to the pursuit of knowledge; (2) inherent doubt that can result from a trauma that leaves the victim's mind fragmented and confused; and (3) the sadistic imposition of doubt intended to deceive, disorient and attack unbearable knowledge in the victim or another person familiar with the abuse (in this case, the analyst and the victim's later victims). During the course of my psychoanalysis of a paedophile, it became clear that this third form of doubt played an integral role in the patient's sexual abuse of children, a role I will link to the nature and function of paedophilia and to the experience of working psychoanalytically with a paedophile. PMID:24925193

  12. String theory: results, magic and doubts

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinovici, Eliezer

    2013-01-01

    This talk was given at a special place and on a special occasion for a special audience. It describes the results, magic and doubts that an attempt to construct a theory based on the idea that the basic constituents of matter can also be extended objects has led to. The emphasis is on the spirit behind the ideas.

  13. A Study of Dispelling Lexical Fossilization for English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Ai-ling

    2016-01-01

    Fossilization was first proposed by the famous British linguist Larry Selinker in his article Interlanguage in 1972. Non-English majors make many lexical errors in the process of English writings in universities. Therefore, their writing levels may reach a plateau and fail to make progress. Once English vocabulary is fossilized, it will prevent the development of students’ writing competence. Inspired and stimulated by the observation of lexical errors in the university, the author intends to explore effective and feasible methods of dispelling lexical fossilization from the perspective of the theories of prototype and basic-level category and tries to provide a useful supplement in this area.

  14. DISPELLING MYTHS AND MISCONCEPTIONS TO IMPLEMENT A SAFETY CULTURE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potts, T. Todd; Smith, Ken; Hylko, James M.

    2003-02-27

    Industrial accidents are typically reported in terms of technological malfunctions, ignoring the human element in accident causation. However, over two-thirds of all accidents are attributable to human and organizational factors (e.g., planning, written procedures, job factors, training, communication, and teamwork), thereby affecting risk perception, behavior and attitudes. This paper reviews the development of WESKEM, LLC's Environmental, Safety, and Health (ES&H) Program that addresses human and organizational factors from a top-down, bottom-up approach. This approach is derived from the Department of Energy's Integrated Safety Management System. As a result, dispelling common myths and misconceptions about safety, while empowering employees to ''STOP work'' if necessary, have contributed to reducing an unusually high number of vehicle, ergonomic and slip/trip/fall incidents successfully. Furthermore, the safety culture that has developed within WESKEM, LLC's workforce consists of three common characteristics: (1) all employees hold safety as a value; (2) each individual feels responsible for the safety of their co-workers as well as themselves; and (3) each individual is willing and able to ''go beyond the call of duty'' on behalf of the safety of others. WESKEM, LLC as a company, upholds the safety culture and continues to enhance its existing ES&H program by incorporating employee feedback and lessons learned collected from other high-stress industries, thereby protecting its most vital resource - the employees. The success of this program is evident by reduced accident and injury rates, as well as the number of safe work hours accrued while performing hands-on field activities. WESKEM, LLC (Paducah + Oak Ridge) achieved over 800,000 safe work hours through August 2002. WESKEM-Paducah has achieved over 665,000 safe work hours without a recordable injury or lost workday case since it started operations on

  15. Manufactured Doubt: The Campaign Against Nuclear Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, N. L.

    2012-12-01

    Nuclear electricity is a CO2 free technology with a proven track record of large scale commercial deployment. For example, France generates 78% of its electrical power with nuclear plants. France has the lowest pre-tax cost of electricity in Europe at 4.75 eurocents per KWH and France is the world's largest exporter of electricity. There are large world reserves of uranium sufficient for hundreds of years, even without breeder technology. Additionally, thorium, another radioactive mineral is in even more plentiful supply. Although present-day nuclear technology has proven to be safe and reliable, waiting in the wings is new generation technology that promises great improvements in both safety and cost. Yet, there has been a calculated and sophisticated campaign in the later part of the 20th century to create doubt and fear concerning nuclear power. In the United States this campaign has essentially destroyed the nuclear industry. No new plants have been commissioned for decades. Leadership in the nuclear power field has been ceded to other countries. The great paradox is that the very organizations that express great alarm concerning CO2 emissions are the same organizations that led the campaign against nuclear power decades ago. Representatives of these organizations will say privately that they are taking a new look at nuclear power, but no major organization has reversed course and become a supporter of nuclear power. To do so would involve a loss of face and create doubts concerning the credibility of the organization. As recently as 2001 environmentalist lobbyists made great efforts to ensure that no credit could be given for nuclear power under the Kyoto accords and the associated clean development mechanism. They succeeded and nuclear power receives unfavorable treatment under the Kyoto accords even though it is a proven solution for reducing CO2 emissions. The technique used to destroy nuclear energy as a viable alternative in the United States had two

  16. Incremental Beliefs About Ability Ameliorate Self-Doubt Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Zhao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Past research has typically shown negative effects of self-doubt on performance and psychological well-being. We suggest that these self-doubt effects largely may be due to an underlying assumption that ability is innate and fixed. The present research investigated the main hypothesis that incremental beliefs about ability might ameliorate negative effects of self-doubt. We examined our hypotheses using two lab tasks: verbal reasoning and anagram tasks. Participants’ self-doubt was measured and beliefs about ability were measured after participants read articles advocating either for incremental or entity theories of ability. American College Testing (ACT scores were obtained to index actual ability level. Consistent with our hypothesis, for participants who believed ability was relatively fixed, higher self-doubt was associated with increased negative affect and lower task performance and engagement. In contrast, for participants who believed that ability was malleable, negative self-doubt effects were ameliorated; self-doubt was even associated with better task performance. These effects were further moderated by participants’ academic ability. These findings suggest that mind-sets about ability moderate self-doubt effects. Self-doubt may have negative effects only when it is interpreted as signaling that ability is immutably low.

  17. Dispel4py: An Open-Source Python library for Data-Intensive Seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, Rosa; Krause, Amrey; Spinuso, Alessandro; Klampanos, Iraklis; Danecek, Peter; Atkinson, Malcolm

    2015-04-01

    Scientific workflows are a necessary tool for many scientific communities as they enable easy composition and execution of applications on computing resources while scientists can focus on their research without being distracted by the computation management. Nowadays, scientific communities (e.g. Seismology) have access to a large variety of computing resources and their computational problems are best addressed using parallel computing technology. However, successful use of these technologies requires a lot of additional machinery whose use is not straightforward for non-experts: different parallel frameworks (MPI, Storm, multiprocessing, etc.) must be used depending on the computing resources (local machines, grids, clouds, clusters) where applications are run. This implies that for achieving the best applications' performance, users usually have to change their codes depending on the features of the platform selected for running them. This work presents dispel4py, a new open-source Python library for describing abstract stream-based workflows for distributed data-intensive applications. Special care has been taken to provide dispel4py with the ability to map abstract workflows to different platforms dynamically at run-time. Currently dispel4py has four mappings: Apache Storm, MPI, multi-threading and sequential. The main goal of dispel4py is to provide an easy-to-use tool to develop and test workflows in local resources by using the sequential mode with a small dataset. Later, once a workflow is ready for long runs, it can be automatically executed on different parallel resources. dispel4py takes care of the underlying mappings by performing an efficient parallelisation. Processing Elements (PE) represent the basic computational activities of any dispel4Py workflow, which can be a seismologic algorithm, or a data transformation process. For creating a dispel4py workflow, users only have to write very few lines of code to describe their PEs and how they are

  18. Academic Resourcefulness, Coping Strategies and Doubting in University Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuereb, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study hypothesised that academic resourcefulness and coping strategies would predict doubting amongst university undergraduates. Doubting refers to the serious consideration of prematurely withdrawing from university. It was predicted that mature students would report higher levels of academic resourcefulness and adaptive coping strategies,…

  19. Examining Preservice Teachers' Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy Doubts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siwatu, Kamau Oginga; Chesnut, Steven Randall; Alejandro, Angela Ybarra; Young, Haeni Alecia

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to add to the research on teachers' self-efficacy beliefs by examining preservice teachers' culturally responsive teaching self-efficacy doubts. We examined the tasks that preservice teachers felt least efficacious to successfully execute and explored the reasoning behind these self-efficacy doubts. Consequently, we were…

  20. Expression and communication of doubt/uncertainty through facial expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio E. Ricci Bitti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide debate on the mental state of doubt/uncertainty; one wonders whether it is a predominantly cognitive or emotional state of mind and whether typical facial expressions communicate doubt/uncertainty. To this purpose,through a role playing procedure, a large sample of expressions were collected and afterwards evaluated through a combination of encoding and decoding procedures,including also FACS (Facial Action Coding System analysis. The results have partially confirmed our hypothesis, identifying two typical facial expressions of doubt/uncertainty, which share the same facial actions in the inferior part of the face and show differential facial actions in the upper face.

  1. Without a 'doubt'? Unsupervised discovery of downward-entailing operators

    CERN Document Server

    Danescu-Niculescu-Mizil, Cristian; Ducott, Richard

    2009-01-01

    An important part of textual inference is making deductions involving monotonicity, that is, determining whether a given assertion entails restrictions or relaxations of that assertion. For instance, the statement 'We know the epidemic spread quickly' does not entail 'We know the epidemic spread quickly via fleas', but 'We doubt the epidemic spread quickly' entails 'We doubt the epidemic spread quickly via fleas'. Here, we present the first algorithm for the challenging lexical-semantics problem of learning linguistic constructions that, like 'doubt', are downward entailing (DE). Our algorithm is unsupervised, resource-lean, and effective, accurately recovering many DE operators that are missing from the hand-constructed lists that textual-inference systems currently use.

  2. When in doubt follow your nose – a wayfinding strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias eMeilinger

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Route selection is governed by various strategies which often allow minimizing the required memory capacity. Previous research showed that navigators primarily remember information at route decision points and at route turns, rather than at intersections which required straight walking. However, when actually navigating the route or indicating directional decisions, navigators make fewer errors when they are required to walk straight. This tradeoff between location memory and route decisions accuracy was interpreted as a when in doubt follow your nose strategy which allows navigators to only memorize turns and walk straight by default, thus considerably reducing the number of intersections to memorize. These findings were based on newly learned routes. In the present study we show that such an asymmetry in route memory also prevails for planning routes within highly familiar environments. Participants planned route sequences between locations in their city of residency by pressing arrow keys on a keyboard. They tended to ignore straight walking intersections, but they ignored turns much less so. However, for reported intersections participants were quicker at indicating straight walking than turning. Together with results described in the literature, these findings suggest that a when in doubt follow your nose strategy is applied also within highly familiar spaces and might originate from limited working memory capacity during planning a route.

  3. Confronting, Confirming, and Dispelling Myths Surrounding ERP-in-the-Cloud

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beaulieu, Tanya; C. Martin, Todd; Sarker, Saonee;

    2015-01-01

    understanding about the true challenges related to ERP cloud computing, it is important to examine these myths in an effort to dispel or support them. In this paper, we attempt to achieve that. Specifically, we explore eight myths related to cloud-based ERP systems through a study involving in-depth interviews......Although cloud computing is still in its infancy, it is rapidly becoming one of the most used buzzwords in the IS/IT field and ERP-systems are one of the fastest growing SaaS cloud applications. However, given the relative newness of ERP cloud computing, and the lack of empirical research...... on the topic, there is substantial uncertainty surrounding the benefits and challenges of ERP cloud computing. Consequently, as often is the case with new technologies, popular myths surrounding the technology are used to make adoption and implementation decisions. As a first step toward providing an informed...

  4. Negotiating contingent knowledges in a time of epistemic doubt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, Louise Jane

    How can/should we produce and communicate social scientific knowledge with authority under conditions of epistemic doubt? If all knowledge is contingent and if truth is a discursive effect rather than the final claim about reality - as post-foundationalism suggests - how can we formulate...... and provide support for contingent knowledge-claims? And how can the communication of social scientificknowlege be theorised and practised as the negotiation between social scientific knowledge and other forms of contingent knowledge rather than the one-way transmission of universal, value-free truth......-claims? In the paper, I outline an approach to addressing the final question. The approach is based on a combination of approaches to the production of knowledge developed in post-foundationalist sociology and philosophy of science, approaches to the communication of knowlege developed within communication studies...

  5. Research integrity: the experience of a doubting Thomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettinger, Thomas P

    2014-04-01

    The sensational "reactome array" paper published in Science in 2009 was investigated in Spain by the Ethics Committee of Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas (CSIC) after Science issued an editorial expression of concern. The paper was retracted in 2010 because of "skepticism" due to "errors" in chemistry. The "errors" were so profound that many readers expressed doubt that they were really errors, but part of an elaborate hoax. I conducted a forensic analysis of mass spectrometry data in the paper's Supporting Online Material (SOM) and was able to prove that thousands of data values were in fact fabricated. The SOM contains signatures of improper extensive spreadsheet manipulations of incorrect atomic and molecular mass values as well as impossibly repetitive deviations of found molecular mass values from their expected values. No evidence of real mass spectrometry data was detected. Both CSIC and Science have been content to retract the paper without acknowledging the fabrications or assigning responsibility for them. Neither CSIC nor Science has expressed interest in having an independent investigation determining how the paper came to be written, reviewed and published. Their weak response to this episode is a daunting signal that there is an impending crisis in research integrity and science journalism.

  6. [Depression in Sub-Saharan Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, S; Junod, A

    1998-01-01

    We now have a better knowledge of the specific features of depression in sub-Saharan Africa. Anthropologically speaking, the Western model is irrelevant. Depression in sub-Saharan Africa involves the relationship of the subject to himself or others in a mode specific to African cultures. Ignoring this fact can lead to simplistic ethnocentrism. From a clinical standpoint, depressive illness characterized by somatic manifestations, delusions of persecution, and anxiety are increasingly uncommon. As African societies modernize, these traditional forms are being gradually supplanted by states with symptoms and prognoses more like those observed in industrialized countries. Hybrid depressive syndromes are now the most widespread. Epidemiologically the notion widely held only a few decades ago that depression is a rare occurrence in Africa has now been dispelled. Many studies have been conducted to determine the exact incidence, age distribution, and sex ratio but more precise data is still needed. This investigation will require improvement in screening and diagnostic methods which must be not only suitable for clinical use but also adaptable to local conditions. This is also true with regard to management which has the same goals as anywhere else in the world. Treatment facilities are different in urban and rural areas but care is often dispensed in unconventional settings and may be combined with traditional methods. Drug availability is limited by problems involving supply and cost. This explains why electro-convulsive therapy which was introduced into sub-Saharan Africa long ago still plays a major role in the treatment of depression.

  7. Africa trade and investment with BRIC nations in a changing economic landscape: the role of China

    OpenAIRE

    Ndambendia, Houdou

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the trade and investment cooperation between African states and BRIC countries in a dynamic economic environment. No doubt that given it size and open up strategy, China is playing an outstanding role in this cooperation. It appears as the top trading and investor partner among BRIC countries with Africa. Trade is mainly dominated by raw materials coming from Africa to BRIC and manufactured products going to Africa from BRIC. China has the most geographically diversified ...

  8. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Celebrity Interventions g. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies – Conclusions and a Research Agenda...

  9. dispel4py : An Open Source Python Framework for Encoding, Mapping and Reusing Seismic Continuous Data Streams: Intensive Analysis and Data Mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filgueira, R.; Krause, A.; Atkinson, M.; Spinuso, A.; Klampanos, I.; Magnoni, F.; Casarotti, E.; Vilotte, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific workflows are needed by many scientific communities, such as seismology, as they enable easy composition and execution of applications, enabling scientists to focus on their research without being distracted by arranging computation and data management. However, there are challenges to be addressed. In many systems users have to adapt their codes and data movement as they change from one HPC-architecture to another. They still need to be aware of the computing architectures available for achieving the best application performance. We present dispel4py, an open-source framework presented as a Python library for encoding and automating data-intensive scientific methods as a graph of operations coupled together by data-streams. It enables scientists to develop and experiment with their own data-intensive applications using their familiar work environment. These are then automatically mapped to a variety of HPC-architectures, i.e., MPI, multiprocessing, Storm and Spark frameworks, increasing the chances to reuse their applications in different computing resources. dispel4py comes with data provenance, as shown in the screenshot, and with an information registry that can be accessed transparently from within workflows. dispel4py has been enhanced with a new run-time adaptive compression strategy to reduce the data stream volume and a diagnostic tool which monitors workflow performance and computes the most efficient parallelisation to use. dispel4py has been used by seismologists in the project VERCE for seismic ambient noise cross-correlation applications and for orchestrated HPC wave simulation and data misfit analysis workflows; two data-intensive problems that are common in today's research practice. Both have been tested in several local computing resources and later submitted to a variety of European PRACE HPC-architectures (e.g. SuperMUC & CINECA) for longer runs without change. Results show that dispel4py is an easy tool for developing, sharing and

  10. Doubt Undogmatized

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan Pritchard

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available It has become almost a conventional wisdom to argue that Cartesian scepticism poses a far more radical sceptical threat than its classical Pyrrhonian counterpart. Such a view fails to recognise, however, that there is a species of sceptical concern that can only plausibly be regarded as captured by the Pyrrhonian strategy. For whereas Cartesian scepticism is closely tied to the contentious doctrine of epistemological internalism, it is far from obvious that Pyrrhonian scepticism bears any such theoretical commitments. It is argued here that by viewing the Pyrrhonian style of sceptical argument in terms of this contemporary epistemological externalist/internalist distinction one can gain a new insight into some of the more problematic elements of this variety of classical thought and also get a handle on certain contemporary worries that have been raised regarding the anti-sceptical efficacy of externalist theories of knowledge.

  11. Unforgiving Confucian Culture: A Breeding Ground for High Academic Achievement, Test Anxiety and Self-Doubt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankov, Lazar

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews findings from several studies that contribute to our understanding of cross-cultural differences in academic achievement, anxiety and self-doubt. The focus is on comparisons between Confucian Asian and European regions. Recent studies indicate that high academic achievement of students from Confucian Asian countries is…

  12. Doubts about actions and flanker incongruity-related potentials and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tops, Mattie; Wijers, Albertus A.

    2012-01-01

    The brain networks that are involved in flanker incongruity and error processing are also consistently implicated in mental disorders such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) that feature increased "Doubts about Actions" (DaA) scores. In the present study we investigated whether DaA scores, simil

  13. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  14. The Roles of Academic Procrastination Tendency on the Relationships among Self Doubt, Self Esteem and Academic Achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Duru, Erdinç; Pamukkale Üniversitesi; Balkıs, Murat; Pamukkale Üniversitesi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among self doubt, academic procrastination, self esteem, and academic achievement and to investigate the indirect roles of academic procrastination on the relationships between self doubt- self esteem and self doubt-academic achievement within the framework of structural equation modeling. 261 students aged between 18- 30, and studying in different departments at Pamukkale Universtiy, Faculty of Education participated in the study. As...

  15. AFRICA2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.

  16. Reporting Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baffour Ankomah

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available When opening this conference, Professor Lizette Rabe quoted a statistic that struck a chord with me.
    In a six-month period between March and August 2000, the TransAfrica Forum in the USA had counted 89 stories on Africa published by The New York Times and Washington Post. Of the 89, 75 were negative, and 63 of the 89 were about conflict in Africa.
    What this statistic does is to portray in a small way the massive problem of how Africa is reported by the Western media, and which we, the African media, sometimes reflect and amplify in our reporting of the continent, by mimicking the Western media.
    No right-thinking African will ever deny that conflict does happen in Africa. However, the problem with the negative reporting is that it does not put the raw facts in context.
    Africa is a continent of 53 countries. It is the most variegated continent on Earth. Conflict is part and parcel of human nature, of life. In that context, Africans would not be human if conflict did not happen on this huge, variegated continent.

  17. Financing low carbon energy access in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern energy access in Africa is critical to meeting a wide range of developmental challenges including poverty reduction and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). Despite having a huge amount and variety of energy resources, modern energy access in the continent is abysmal, especially Sub-Saharan Africa. Only about 31% of the Sub-Saharan African population have access to electricity while traditional biomass energy accounts for over 80% of energy consumption in many Sub-Saharan African countries. With energy use per capita among the lowest in the world, there is no doubt that Africa will need to increase its energy consumption to drive economic growth and human development. Africa also faces a severe threat from global climate change with vulnerabilities in several key areas or sectors in the continent including agriculture, water supply, energy, etc. Low carbon development provides opportunities for African countries to improve and expand access to modern energy services while also building low-emission and climate-resilient economies. However, access to finance from different sources will be critical in achieving these objectives. This paper sets out to explore the financial instruments available for low carbon energy access in Africa including the opportunities, markets and risks in low carbon energy investments in the continent. - Highlights: ► Access to finance will be critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa. ► Domestic finance will be important in leveraging private finance. ► Private sector participation in modern and clean energy in Africa is still low. ► Many financing mechanisms exist for low carbon energy access in Africa. ► The right institutional frameworks are critical to achieving low carbon energy access in Africa.

  18. Transition from Doubt to Knowledge and Comprehension of the Mind itself in Descartes’ Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlyas Altuner

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Descartes uses skepticism as a method in seeking the truth and afterwards he arrives at the knowledge of truth by conception cogito which is an intuitive proposition. Comprehension of the mind itself is asserted from which ego cannot be cut from thinking, and this conception is based on the existence of God which does exist to be contained in the mind conceptually. God is stated the most perfect being which does rescue from doubt and show its real being it.

  19. The fact of uncertainty, the uncertainty of facts and the cultural resonance of doubt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oreskes, Naomi

    2015-11-28

    Sixty years after industry executives first decided to fight the facts of tobacco, the exploitation of doubt and uncertainty as a defensive tactic has spread to a diverse set of industries and issues with an interest in challenging scientific evidence. However, one can find examples of doubt-mongering before tobacco. One involves the early history of electricity generation in the USA. In the 1920s, the American National Electric Light Association ran a major propaganda campaign against public sector electricity generation, focused on the insistence that privately generated electricity was cheaper and that public power generation was socialistic and therefore un-American. This campaign included advertisements, editorials (generally ghost-written), the rewriting of textbooks and the development of high school and college curricula designed to cast doubt on the cost-effectiveness of public electricity generation and extol the virtues of laissez-faire capitalism. It worked in large part by finding, cultivating and paying experts to endorse the industry's claims in the mass media and the public debate, and to legitimatize the alterations to textbooks and curricula. The similarities between the electric industry strategy and the defence of tobacco, lead paint and fossil fuels suggests that these strategies work for reasons that are not specific to the particular technical claims under consideration. This paper argues that a reason for the cultural persistence of doubt is what we may label the 'fact of uncertainty'. Uncertainty is intrinsic to science, and this creates vulnerabilities that interested parties may, and commonly do, exploit, both by attempting to challenge the specific conclusions of technical experts and by implying that those conclusions threaten other social values. PMID:26460112

  20. Dialogues of The Doubt: Dostoevsky's The Eternal Husband and Machado de Assis's Dom Casmurro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa de Barros

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article establishes a dialogic analysis of Dostoevski's The Eternal Husband (1870 and Machado de Assis's Dom Casmurro(1899, focusing on the treatment of the doubt as an aesthetic cathegory by both authors. This dialog opens room to questions related to the specificities of their prose in the context of Realism and to the signs of dialogism on the writing of the authors.

  1. Development of Religious Identity through Doubts among Religious Adolescents in Israel: An Empirical Perspective and Educational Ramifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisherman, Shraga

    2016-01-01

    Researchers have been demonstrating interest in doubts regarding religious faith for thirty years. The current study goal was examining differences between three groups of religious male adolescents in Israel, regarding faith identity, doubts in religious faith (past and present), religious behavior, and the connection between them. Three…

  2. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  3. Motivated Doubts: A Comment on Walton’S Theory of Criticism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laar Jan Albert van

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In his theory of criticism, D. N. Walton presupposes that an opponent either critically questions an argument, without supplementing this questioning with any reasoning of her own, or that she puts forward a critical question and supplements it with a counterargument, that is, with reasoning in defense of an opposite position of her own. In this paper, I show that there is a kind of in-between critical option for the opponent that needs to be taken into account in any classification of types of criticism, and that should not be overlooked in a system of dialogue norms, nor in a procedure for developing a strategically expedient critique. In this third option, an opponent questions and overtly doubts a statement of the proponent and supplements her doubts with a counterconsideration that explains and motivates her position of critical doubt, yet without supporting any opposite thesis, thereby assisting, as it were, the proponent in his attempt to develop a responsive argumentation, tailor-made to convince this particular opponent. First, I elaborate on the notion of an explanatory counterconsideration. Second, I discuss Walton’s distinction between premises that can be challenged by mere questioning (“ordinary premises” and “assumptions” and premises that must be challenged by incurring the obligation to offer counter-argumentation (somewhat confusingly labeled “exceptions”. I contend that the latter type of premises, that I would label “normality premises,” can be attacked without incurring a genuine burden of proof. Instead, it can be attacked by means of incurring a burden of criticism (Van Laar and Krabbe, 2013 that amounts to the obligation to offer an explanatory counterconsideration, rather than a convincing ex concessis argument. Of course, providing the opponent with the right to discharge her burden of criticism with explanatory counterconsiderations brings a clear strategic ad- vantage to her. It is much less

  4. An Empirical Analysis of the Structure of Imports in Sub-Sahara Africa

    OpenAIRE

    AYODOTUN, Ayorinde; FARAYIBI, Adesoji

    2016-01-01

    The economy of most developing countries, especially those in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has been subjected to periodic fluctuations in the world market since the implementation of structural adjustment program (SAP) due to the impact of trade liberalization. This has no doubt affected the structure of imports in this sub region since then. This paper provides an empirical study of the structure of imports in Sub-Saharan Africa from 1995 to 2012. In its methodology, trend analysis is used t...

  5. AFRICA 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce; Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    A year highlighted by a new nation,regime change,famine and hopes for climate change solutions THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.

  6. Doubts of caregivers of children with cleft lip and palate on postoperative care after cheiloplasty and palatoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando dos Santos Trettene

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To identify the main doubts of caregivers of children with cleft lip and palate on postoperative care after cheiloplasty and palatoplasty. Method Cross-sectional study carried out in a reference hospital, between September and November 2012. The sample was composed of 50 individuals divided in two groups, of which 25 caregivers of children submitted to cheiloplasty, and 25 of children submitted to palatoplasty. The doubts were identified by an interview applied during the preoperative nursing consultation and were then categorized by similarity. Descriptive statistics was used for analysis of the outcomes. Results Concerning cheiloplasty, the doubts were related to feeding (36%, hygiene and healing (24% each, pain and infection (8% each. With regard to palatoplasty, the doubts were related to feeding (48%, hygiene (24%, pain (16%, bleeding (8% and infection (4%. Conclusion The study evidenced the concern of caregivers in relation to feeding and care of the postoperative wound.

  7. Doubt in the Insula: Risk Processing in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luigjes, Judy; Figee, Martijn; Tobler, Philippe N.; van den Brink, Wim; de Kwaasteniet, Bart; van Wingen, Guido; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-01-01

    Extensive cleaning or checking of patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) are often interpreted as strategies to avoid harm and as an expression of the widespread belief that OCD patients are more risk-averse. However, despite its clinical significance, the neural basis of risk attitude in OCD is unknown. Here, we investigated neural activity during risk processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging and simultaneously assessed risk attitude using a separate behavioral paradigm in OCD patients with different symptoms versus healthy controls (HCs). We found opposite insula responses to high versus low risk in OCD patients compared to HCs: a positive correlation between insula activity and risk-aversion in patients versus a negative correlation in controls. Although OCD patients overall were not more risk-averse than controls, there were differences between subgroups of OCD patients: patients with doubt/checking symptoms were more risk-averse than other patients. Taken together, OCD patients show a reversed pattern of risk processing by the insula compared to HCs. Moreover, the data suggest that increased activation of the insula signals an abnormal urge to avoid risks in the subpopulation of OCD patients with doubt and checking symptoms. These results indicate a role for the insula in excessive risk-avoidance relevant to OCD. PMID:27378883

  8. Six Doubts about Micro-Lesson and Responses to the Doubts%微课的六点质疑及回应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小军; 张霞

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, micro-lesson has become a hot spot in the development of educational informatization in our country. The emergence of micro-lesson has caused a great stir in the field of education, and aroused a wave of"micro-lesson boom". To sum up, people mainly have six doubts about micro-lesson:first, people think that micro-lesson is"short-term speculation";second, they think that micro-lesson is merely putting new wine into old bottles;third, they think that micro lesson is the"culprit"that give rise to the fragmentation of knowledge; fourth, they think that micro-lesson has little technical content; fifth, they think that micro-lesson may tend to winnow out the traditional classroom live recordings; sixth, they think that micro-lesson with varied types lacks a unified evaluation standard, a creation mode and a authoring tool. The reason why people are raising these doubts is that people lack rational thinking and practical exploration into the related problems of micro-lesson in aspects of background, realistic demand, core and essence, strengths and weaknesses, value of education, prospect of application, trend of development and creative methods, etc. In the future, the micro-lesson researchers have to work together to solve the problems in regard to principles and strategies of micro-lesson design, evaluation criteria, methods of supporting and transforming teaching and learning, ways of changing micro-lesson to micro-course, development of integrative micro-lesson platform and so on. Only solving these problems can lead the micro-lesson to a healthy and rapid development.%目前,微课已成为我国教育信息化发展的新热点。微课的出现,在教育领域掀起了轩然大波,也引发了一波波的“微课热潮”。归纳起来,人们对微课的质疑主要有六点:一是认为微课热是“短时炒作”,二是认为微课是“新瓶”装“旧酒”,三是认为微课是导致知识碎片化的“元凶”,四是认为

  9. Several Doubts of Ancient Olympic Games%古奥运会的疑点解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤梅; 王艳芳

    2012-01-01

    古奥运会的相关记载中尚存诸多让人迷惑甚至自相矛盾之处。为了进一步解释和澄清古奥运会的历史真实和消除疑惑,对当前古奥运会研究中存在的几处疑点(游泳未成为比赛项目、斯巴达与雅典教育制度的优劣比较及赛会实体内容的界定)进行了重新解析发现:古希腊人特有的民族性格与游泳场地的特殊要求是造成游泳未能成为古奥运会比赛项目的主要原因;古斯巴达的教育是斯巴达公民根据自己民族的特点而实施的务实教育;明确古奥运会或古奥林匹亚祭典与古奥林匹亚体育竞技的内涵是界定古奥运会实体内容的逻辑前提。%There are many doubts and contradictions in the records of the ancient Olympic Games. In order to explain the doubts of the ancient Olympic Games, the paper analyses the doubts, such as failure of swimming to be the competition item, advantages and disadvantages of Sparta and Athens educational system and definition of competition content. The paper reveals that swimming failed to be one of the Olympic sports items because of the special national personality of the ancient Greeks and the special demands of the swimming spot. The ancient Sparta education is a practical education according to the national features of the Sparta people. Clear recognition of Ancient Olympia fiesta and the connotation of the ancient Olympic sport competition is the precondition of defining the content of the ancient Olympic Games.

  10. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    This paper explores the macroeconomic situation and medium-term perspectives of the South African economy. Three fully quantified and internally consistent scenarios are presented. The projections demonstrate that there is room for increased public spending in real terms to help address South...... Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  11. 探析贾宝玉女儿情结的消释%Exploration into dispelling of Jia Baoyu' daughter complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏玉莲

    2012-01-01

    女儿情结是《红楼梦》中贾宝玉形象魅力独具之所在。黛玉仙逝,宝钗、袭人等因道学的侵袭女儿本性已被扭曲,是失去了个性精神徒有女儿之身的假男人。贾宝玉女儿情结随女儿们人性的异化而消释。男权意识的强势也注定了宝玉女儿情结消释的必然性。%The daughter complex is what Jia Baoyu's image charm is in A Dream of Red Mansions.After Lin Daiyu died,Xue Baochai and Xi Ren became pseudo-men with female body but without individual spirit because their daughter nature was distorted by Taoism.Jia Baoyu's daughter complex was dispelled with the alienation of daughters' humanity.Male superiority determines the necessity of dispelling of Jia Baoyu' daughter complex

  12. Africa Development Indicators 2006

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2006-01-01

    Africa Development Indicators 2006 is the latest annual report from the World Bank on social and economic conditions across the continent. It was revamped this year to better report and monitor the challenges and transformations in Africa. Africa Development Indicators has evolved from a single data book, and this year consists of three independent but complementary products: this book, which brings together an essay and key outcome indicators for Africa, the Little Data Book on Africa 2006, ...

  13. Odd complaints and doubtful conditions: norms of hypochondria in Jane Austen and Catherine Belling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, James Lindemann

    2014-06-01

    In her final fragmentary novel Sanditon, Jane Austen develops a theme that pervades her work from her juvenilia onward: illness, and in particular, illness imagined, invented, or self-inflicted. While the "invention of odd complaints" is characteristically a token of folly or weakness throughout her writing, in this last work imagined illness is also both a symbol and a cause of how selves and societies degenerate. In the shifting world of Sanditon, hypochondria is the lubricant for a society bent on turning health into a commodity. As a result, people's rationality and their moral character come under attack. Catherine Belling's recent subtle study, A Condition of Doubt: The Meanings of Hypochondria, unveils hypochondria's discursive and cultural character. Running sharply against the tenor of Austen's treatment, however, she argues in defense of the rationality of hypochondriacs; the notion that the condition may involve morally significant defects is not entertained; any connection to the commercialization of health care is muted. Here, I contrast Austen's morally and epistemically negative rendering of her hypochondriacal characters in Sanditon with Belling's efforts to create a sympathetic understanding of people with hypochondria. I will argue that, despite time gaps and genre differences, joint consideration of these texts can help bioethicists better appreciate how medicine can intensify, pathologize, and exploit anxieties about illness and death, thus adding to the challenges of living well in the face of mortality and morbidity.

  14. Some Doubts on the Validity of the Foreground Galactic Contribution Subtraction from Microwave Anisotropies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Martín López-Corredoira

    2007-06-01

    The Galactic foreground contamination in CMBR anisotropies, especially from the dust component, is not easily separable from the cosmological or extragalactic component. In this paper, some doubts will be raised concerning the validity of the methods used until now to remove Galactic dust emission and will show that none of them achieves its goal. First, I review the recent bibliography on the topic and discuss critically the methods of foreground subtraction: the cross-correlation with templates, analysis assuming the spectral shape of the Galactic components, the ``maximum entropy method”, ``internal linear combination”, and ``wavelet-based high resolution fitting of internal templates”. Second, I analyse the Galactic latitude dependence from WMAP data. The frequency dependence is discussed with data in the available literature. The result is that all methods of subtracting the Galactic contamination are inaccurate. The Galactic latitude dependence analysis or the frequency dependence of the anisotropies in the range 50–250 GHz put a constraint on the maximum Galactic contribution in the power spectrum to be less than ∼ 10% (68% C. L.) for an ∼ 1 degree scale, and possibly higher for larger scales. The origin of most of the signals in the CMBR anisotropies is not Galactic. In any case, the subtraction of the galaxy is not accurate enough to allow a ``precision Cosmology”; other sources of contamination (extragalactic, solar system) are also present.

  15. Comprehending Adverbs of Doubt and Certainty in Health Communication: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segalowitz, Norman S; Doucerain, Marina M; Meuter, Renata F I; Zhao, Yue; Hocking, Julia; Ryder, Andrew G

    2016-01-01

    This research explored the feasibility of using multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis in novel combination with other techniques to study comprehension of epistemic adverbs expressing doubt and certainty (e.g., evidently, obviously, probably) as they relate to health communication in clinical settings. In Study 1, Australian English speakers performed a dissimilarity-rating task with sentence pairs containing the target stimuli, presented as "doctors' opinions." Ratings were analyzed using a combination of cultural consensus analysis (factor analysis across participants), weighted-data classical-MDS, and cluster analysis. Analyses revealed strong within-community consistency for a 3-dimensional semantic space solution that took into account individual differences, strong statistical acceptability of the MDS results in terms of stress and explained variance, and semantic configurations that were interpretable in terms of linguistic analyses of the target adverbs. The results confirmed the feasibility of using MDS in this context. Study 2 replicated the results with Canadian English speakers on the same task. Semantic analyses and stress decomposition analysis were performed on the Australian and Canadian data sets, revealing similarities and differences between the two groups. Overall, the results support using MDS to study comprehension of words critical for health communication, including in future studies, for example, second language speaking patients and/or practitioners. More broadly, the results indicate that the techniques described should be promising for comprehension studies in many communicative domains, in both clinical settings and beyond, and including those targeting other aspects of language and focusing on comparisons across different speech communities.

  16. Taxonomic revision of doubtful Brazilian freshwater shrimp species of genus Macrobrachium (Decapoda, Palaemonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo G. Pileggi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The freshwater prawns of the genus Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 are widely distributed in rivers of tropical and subtropical regions and represent an interesting group with controversial taxonomy. The morphological characters traditionally used to separate species have shown a high intraspecific variation. Doubts about the status of M. birai Lobão, Melo & Fernandes, 1986, M. holthuisi Genofre & Lobão, 1978 and M. petronioi Melo, Lobão & Fernandes, 1986 have been arisen due to the high resemblance of the former two species with M. olfersi (Wiegmann, 1836, and the latter one with M. potiuna (Müller, 1880. Therefore, we performed a detailed morphological analysis of these species, including new characters not usually used in the species recognition. The present results here with molecular data lead us to conclude that M. birai and M. holthuisi are junior synonyms of M. olfersi, and M. petronioi is a junior synonym of M. potiuna. Considering these synonymies, 17 valid species are now reported for the Brazilian territory.

  17. [Malaria control in tropical Africa. 1956].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, P M

    1998-01-01

    Although spraying with insecticides has caused a spectacular regression in malaria in many parts of Africa, it cannot be said that the transmission of the disease has been definitely interrupted in any large area on the mainland. There is therefore some uneasiness regarding the methods so far adopted and doubts as to whether the very considerable expenditure involved is justified. There is, moreover, acute anxiety about the possible development of resistance to insecticides by the vector anopheles. Fortunately, so far there does not appear to be any in Africa, and the author considers that logical aim should be complete eradication of malaria before resistance does appear to the powerful insecticides now available. Control measures must inevitably be continued indefinitely, but if the aim of eradication is achieved, operations could cease and it would be possible for anopheles to co-exist with man without transmitting malaria. The author points out that before any continent-wide campaign can be begun, there are, in addition to the problem of funds, a number of other problems which must be carefully studied. Among these are the lack of trained specialized staff at all levels, transport difficulties, shortage of water over vast areas in the dry season and floods during the rains, the differing habits of the various African populations, and the biology of the vector mosquitos. Despite these problems, however, the time for concerted action to achieve eradication in Africa draws nearer with each succeeding day. PMID:9615491

  18. Rediscovering Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The 1960s and 1970s were decades in which China and Africa began a friendship that was built around Beijing’s political backing and developmental aid to a crop of emerging indepen- dent African nations.In the 1980s and 1990s,China shifted its focus by devoting more efforts to establishing a rapport with big powers and neighboring countries to create a sound environment for self-development.Since the turn of the cen- tury,however,the African continent has been rediscovered by China as a strategic partner in many areas.As the Chinese market has flourished,so too has the African economy,which maintained a growth momentum in recent years and has achieved a modest prosperity rarely seen in its history. He Fan,Deputy Director of the Research Center on International Finance affiliated to the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences shared his comments about this partnership on blog on the eve of the New Year.

  19. Out on a Limb on Our Own: Uncertainty and Doubt Moving from Subject-Centered to Interdisciplinary Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Denise; Nolan, Jim, Jr.

    2001-01-01

    Examined how high school teachers made meaning of a change process involving teamwork, interdisciplinary teaching, and block scheduling. Document analysis, observation, and interview data indicated that uncertainty and doubt were the pervading themes and had a critical effect on the teaching team's ability to move to interdisciplinary teaching.…

  20. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: Damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik eAsp

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available We have proposed the False Tagging Theory as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the False Tagging Theory to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex would cause a doubt deficit that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with ventromedial prefrontal cortex damage were (1 more credulous to misleading ads; and (2 showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was corrected by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex disrupts a false tagging mechanism which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging are exposed to persuasive information.

  1. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information.

  2. A neuropsychological test of belief and doubt: damage to ventromedial prefrontal cortex increases credulity for misleading advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A; Denburg, Natalie L; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a "doubt deficit" that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was "corrected" by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a "false tagging mechanism" which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information. PMID:22787439

  3. A Neuropsychological Test of Belief and Doubt: Damage to Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex Increases Credulity for Misleading Advertising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asp, Erik; Manzel, Kenneth; Koestner, Bryan; Cole, Catherine A.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed the False Tagging Theory (FTT) as a neurobiological model of belief and doubt processes. The theory posits that the prefrontal cortex is critical for normative doubt toward properly comprehended ideas or cognitions. Such doubt is important for advantageous decisions, for example in the financial and consumer purchasing realms. Here, using a neuropsychological approach, we put the FTT to an empirical test, hypothesizing that focal damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) would cause a “doubt deficit” that would result in higher credulity and purchase intention for consumer products featured in misleading advertisements. We presented 8 consumer ads to 18 patients with focal brain damage to the vmPFC, 21 patients with focal brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex, and 10 demographically similar healthy comparison participants. Patients with vmPFC damage were (1) more credulous to misleading ads; and (2) showed the highest intention to purchase the products in the misleading advertisements, relative to patients with brain damage outside the prefrontal cortex and healthy comparison participants. The pattern of findings was obtained even for ads in which the misleading bent was “corrected” by a disclaimer. The evidence is consistent with our proposal that damage to the vmPFC disrupts a “false tagging mechanism” which normally produces doubt and skepticism for cognitive representations. We suggest that the disruption increases credulity for misleading information, even when the misleading information is corrected for by a disclaimer. This mechanism could help explain poor financial decision-making when persons with ventromedial prefrontal dysfunction (e.g., caused by neurological injury or aging) are exposed to persuasive information. PMID:22787439

  4. Comprehending Adverbs Of Doubt And Certainty In Health Communication: A Multidimensional Scaling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman S. Segalowitz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This research explored the feasibility of using multidimensional scaling (MDS analysis in novel combination with other techniques to study comprehension of epistemic adverbs expressing doubt and certainty (e.g., evidently, obviously, probably as they relate to health communication in clinical settings. In Study 1, Australian English speakers performed a dissimilarity-rating task with sentence pairs containing the target stimuli, presented as doctors' opinions. Ratings were analyzed using a combination of cultural consensus analysis (factor analysis across participants, weighted-data classical-MDS, and cluster analysis. Analyses revealed strong within-community consistency for a 3-dimensional semantic space solution that took into account individual differences, strong statistical acceptability of the MDS results in terms of stress and explained variance, and semantic configurations that were interpretable in terms of linguistic analyses of the target adverbs. The results confirmed the feasibility of using MDS in this context. Study 2 replicated the results with Canadian English speakers on the same task. Semantic analyses and stress decomposition analysis were performed on the Australian and Canadian data sets, revealing similarities and differences between the two groups. Overall, the results support using MDS to study comprehension of words critical for health communication, including in future studies, for example, second language speaking patients and/or practitioners. More broadly, the results indicate that the techniques described should be promising for comprehension studies in many communicative domains, in both clinical settings and beyond, and including those targeting other aspects of language and focusing on comparisons across different speech communities.

  5. Doubt, defiance, and identity: Understanding resistance to male circumcision for HIV prevention in Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkhurst, Justin O; Chilongozi, David; Hutchinson, Eleanor

    2015-06-01

    Global policy recommendations to scale up of male circumcision (MC) for HIV prevention tend to frame the procedure as a simple and efficacious public health intervention. However, there has been variable uptake of MC in countries with significant HIV epidemics. Kenya, for example, has embraced MC and has been dubbed a 'leader' by the global health community, while Malawi has been branded a 'laggard' in its slow adoption of a national programme, with a strong political discourse of resistance forming around MC. Regardless of any epidemiological or technical evidence, the uptake of international recommendations will be shaped by how a policy, and the specific artefacts that constitute that policy, intersect with local concerns. MC holds particular significance within many ethnic and religious groups, serving as an important rite of passage, but also designating otherness or enabling the identification of the social and political self. Understanding how the artefact of MC intersects with local social, economic, and political contexts, is therefore essential to understand the acceptance or resistance of global policy recommendations. In this paper we present an in-depth analysis of Malawi's political resistance to MC, finding that ethnic and religious divisions dominating recent political movements aligned well with differing circumcision practices. Political resistance was further found to manifest through two key narratives: a 'narrative of defiance' around the need to resist donor manipulation, and a 'narrative of doubt' which seized on a piece of epidemiological evidence to refute global claims of efficacy. Further, we found that discussions over MC served as an additional arena through which ethnic identities and claims to power could themselves be negotiated, and therefore used to support claims of political legitimacy.

  6. Potential source regions of dust accumulated in northern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowska, S.; Woronko, B.

    2012-04-01

    Sahara is the largest source of the dust in the world. The material sampled from dust storms in Tunisia (Nefta Oasis, El Kantoui Harbor), north Egypt (Alexandria) and Morocco (Mhamid Oasis) (March 2001, March and April 2009) was taken to identify the potential sources of dust accumulation and transport paths in North Africa. The samples were analyzed on grain size, micromorphology of silt grain surfaces in Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), elemental composition of grains and their surface crusts, loss on ignition, mineralogical composition of samples and carbonate content. Additionally the meteorological situation was analyzed during the dust storm occurrences and preceding periods. The results of grain size analyses show that all studied sediments belong to the small dust type, and dust accumulated in Mhamid is the clay mineral agglomerated (CMA) dust. The source of the CMA are the old dry lake beds. Dust particles are mobilized as aggregates of clay minerals, what is controlled by structure (particle packing) of the original lake sediment, and accumulation is dry and wet as well. The results of the analysis of the quartz grain surface micromorphology, the elemental composition and loss on ignition indicate that dust accumulated in Morocco originated from a relatively homogenous sediment source and, on the other hand, dust found in Alexandria comes from a diversified source. Dust sampled in Tunisia is characterized by the highest content of carbonates and organic matter which suggests the intensive dispelling acting on the weathered material from carbonate rocks and local Mediterranean soil covers rich in CaCO3. The analyses of meteorological conditions during the dust storms and the analyses of the textural characteristics of deposits show that it is highly probable that analysed aeolian dust was transported both for shorter and longer distances. Hypothetic source areas of dust accumulated in Mhamid could be the old ergs, some located 300-500 km away like

  7. Wind engineering in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wisse, J.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    The International Association for Wind Engineering (IAWE) has very few contacts in Africa, the second-largest continent. This paper reviews important wind-related African issues. They all require data on wind climate, which are very sparse in Africa. Wind engineering in Africa can assist in collecti

  8. Adventure in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelProsser

    2004-01-01

    In 1990 to 1991, my wife and I taught at the University of Swaziland in southeast Africa. Swaziland is one of the only three country kingdoms in Africa, with Morocco and Leaotho as the others. Swaziland is surrouded by South Africa on three sides and on one side by Mozambique. it has ling been called the peaceful kingdom and is 97% black.

  9. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure

  10. Nuclear axis. Secret collaboration between West Germany and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervenka, Z.; Rogers, B.

    1978-01-01

    Today there is virtually no doubt that the white racist minority government in Pretoria has-or shortly will have-its finger on the nuclear button, introducing a new and extremely volatile element into African politics and threatening the peace of the whole world. This book is the sinister story of how they are getting the bomb and who has helped them. Relying on hitherto top-secret government documents, informants, and the public record, Zdenek Cervenka of the Scandinavian Institute of Africa Affairs, and Barbara Rogers, formerly of the British Foreign Office and a consultant to the United Nations and the Congressional Subcommittee on Southern Africa, have pieced together the story of the clandestine collaboration between West Germany, and South Africa to develop operational nuclear weapons. The authors trace Germany's rise as a military nuclear power (only thirty years after unconditional surrender); the growth of its atomic cooperation with South Africa; the transfer of secret technological data; the way in which other countries-including the United States, Britain, France, Israel-have been involved. The authors show that the Germans, pledged never to develop nuclear weapons, have become a major nuclear power, and, together with the South African military-industrial complex, now have the power to alter the course of modern history in Europe, Africa, and the rest of the world. The authors conclude with a discussion of how the international system of nuclear safeguards failed and how the Western allies acquiesced in that failure.

  11. Financial liberalisation and interest rate risk management in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Willem Naudé

    1996-01-01

    The appropriateness of financial liberalisation in Africa - at least over the short-term - is in doubt. It has been suggested that the credit risks faced by financial institutions will be detrimental to the supply of credit. The contribution of this paper is to point out that financial liberalisation creates a significant interest rate risk. It is argued that this interest rate risk will bias African banks’ activities towards brokerage rather than maturity-transformation functions. Furthermor...

  12. Human resource management in South Africa: A macro-economic audit

    OpenAIRE

    van Zyl, G

    1999-01-01

    There should be no doubt in the minds of important economic decision-makers that the widely reported lack of international competitiveness of the South African economy must be addressed as a matter of urgency. Low levels of labour productivity are often listed as one of the major reasons for the lack of international competitiveness. This paper attempts to research the macro aspects of human resource management in South Africa as an essential element of the current debate on the level of co...

  13. Inaugural COA Forum Emphasizes the Importance of U.S. Foreign Policy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2011-01-01

    The African continent has long been recognized as a vast land with nations in various stages of transition – some nations seek prosperity with planned pathways to it, while others are rife with instability and corruption. Without doubt, however, is that the United States, specifically the U.S. Africa Command (AFRICOM), has a role to play in bridging the gap between volatility, and stability.

  14. Regional responses: Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the author presents the theory that for Africa to work towards reduction of global warming, it must first address its environmental problems; i.e. land use, deforestation, desertification, poverty and hunger. He argues that Africa should aim for growth in the productivity and quantity of energy use. The following suggestions were made: Africa must shift from low-quantity biomass to secondary sources in the short term; developed countries must avoid pushing experimental and frontier technologies on Africa; with financial and technical help, Africa could develop its largely untapped reserves of hydropower. Nuclear power should not be an option because reliable production is not possible at present

  15. Disarming not defending Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Paul Moorcraft

    2012-01-01

    Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no menti...

  16. Poverty reduction in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Collier, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Poverty in Africa has been rising for the last quarter-century while it has been falling in the rest of the developing world. Africa's distinctive problem is that its economies have not been growing. The paper attempts to synthesize a range of recent research to account for this failure of the growth process. It argues that the reasons lie not in African peculiarities but rather in geographic features which globally cause problems but which are disproportionately pronounced in Africa. These f...

  17. Energy in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Favennec, Jean-Pierre; Fattouh, Bassam; Khadduri, Walid; Copinschi, Philippe; Doucet, Gerald; Fall, Latsoucabé

    2008-01-01

    Jean-Pierre Favennec on the importance of oil in Africa; Bassam Fattouh considers the history of foreign oil companies in Libya; Walid Khadduri looks at Algerian petroleum development and its imperfections; Philippe Copinschi assesses frustrated contested oil ambitions in Nigeria; Gerald Doucet and Latsoucabé Fall stress the importance of the Inga hydropower projects for Africa;

  18. CPIA Africa, June 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2015-01-01

    The Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA) Africa report describes the progress African countries are making on strengthening the quality of their policies and institutions. Some of the results from this report include: The overall quality of policies and institutions in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa was unchanged in 2014, but there was much variation in performance across co...

  19. Multilingualism in Southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peirce, Bonny Norton; Ridge, Stanley G. M.

    1997-01-01

    Reviews recent research in multilingualism in Southern Africa, focusing on the role of languages in education, sociolinguistics, and language policy. Much of the research is on South Africa. Topics discussed include language of instruction in schools, teacher education, higher education, adult literacy, language contact, gender and linguistic…

  20. Generation 2030/Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Danzhen; Hug, Lucia; Anthony, David

    2014-01-01

    Until relatively recently, much of Africa has been among the economically least developed and least densely populated places on earth, replete with villages and rural communities. Africa is changing rapidly, in its economy, trade and investment; in climate change; in conflict and stability; in urbanization, migration patterns, and most of all in…

  1. Building effective partnerships: the role of trust in the Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virus Resistant Cassava for Africa (VIRCA is an agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP comprising the Donald Danforth Plant Sciences Center (DDPSC, National Agricultural Research Organization (NARO of Uganda and Kenya Agricultural Research Institute (KARI. The project seeks to develop virus-resistant cassava for farmers in Kenya and Uganda. Yet, there is much public skepticism about the use of genetically modified (GM crops and private sector involvement in Africa. This case study sought to understand the role of trust in the VIRCA partnership. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ views on the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the VIRCA partnership. Interviewee responses, together with relevant documents and articles, were analyzed to generate descriptions of how trust is operationalized in this evolving agbiotech PPP. Data were analyzed based on recurring and emergent themes from the interviewee responses. Results Various factors undermine and build trust in agbiotech PPPs. Individual and institutional enthusiasm and detailed collaborative agreements stipulating partner roles and responsibilities are likely to enhance trust among partners. On the other hand, negative perceptions propagated by international partners about the capacities of African institutions and scientists, coupled with slow regulatory processes in Africa, are likely to be impediments to trust building. Conclusions Based on the findings of this study, we have derived four key lessons. First, differences in the capacity of the partner institutions and individuals should be respected. Second, technical and infrastructural capacity support for regulatory processes in Africa must be built. Third, detailed agreements and open and transparent partner practices during project implementation are necessary to dispel perceptions of inequality among partners. Fourth, institutional

  2. Reinventing the doubt of the icon: A virtual case study in a post-Soviet country’s capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazaros Elias Mavromatidis

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to define, negotiate and debate radical socio-cultural approaches of landscape creation in today’s megacities, within a strict capitalist context. For this reason, it investigates both the theoretical and concrete manner of the spatial expression within an imposed contemporary Foucauldian state of disciplines. Therefore, the research methodology simultaneously develops two different hypotheses in order to bridge the gap between the theoretical explorations and concrete dimension of architectural creation. The primary hypothesis is based on the Lacanian dimension of doubt that is considered in this work as the Chomskyan primitive power that gives birth to every idea or concept, having the potential to exasperate the radical imaginary of each society such as it is defined in Castoriadis’ writings. The second main hypothesis is based on an analytical exploration of space creation within strict political and economical contexts. For this purpose, a post-Soviet country served as a case study in order to investigate the cultural landscape values in both communist and capitalist regimes. Hence, focusing on Armenia and especially on Yerevan’s landscape transformations during the transition from communism to capitalism, this article first departs from the need to employ a deep theoretical analysis of non-economic factors in order to guide capitalist societies through cooperation with the disadvantaged social structure that has no space in today’s megacities and, second, details an original landscape creation sketched by a real recent architectural competition that is seen here as a contemporary Foucauldian state of disciplines. The main object of the architectural composition presented in this contribution is to fulfil the competitions’ guidelines – having in mind, however, consolidation of the imposed image of global capitalism with local elements in order to form a Foucauldian heterotopia by allowing

  3. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2011

    OpenAIRE

    World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank

    2011-01-01

    The Africa competitiveness report 2011 comes out as the world emerges from the most significant financial and economic crisis in generations. While many advanced economies are still struggling to get their economies back on a solid footing, Africa has, for the most part, weathered the storm remarkably well. The Africa competitiveness report focuses on harnessing Africa's underutilized reso...

  4. Africa (south of the Sahara)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorweg, J.C.; Staudt Sexton, V.; Misiak, H.

    1976-01-01

    This review of the development and current status of psychology in Africa focuses on Africa south of the Sahara, excluding South Africa. The author discusses the research topics which have attracted the attention of psychologists in Africa, including perception (illusions, pictorial representation a

  5. 初中语文教学自疑初探%The Junior Middle School Language Teaching of Self Doubt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖大林

    2014-01-01

    孔子说:“疑是思之始,学之端。”陶行知说:“创造始于问题,有了问题才会有思考,有了思考才有解决问题的方法,才有找到独立思路的可能。”%Confucius tells us:“doubt is the beginning,learn in the end.”Tao Xingzhi said:“the creation begins with problem, the problem will be thinking,thinking is the way to solve the problem, we can find the possibility of independent thought.”

  6. Study on the Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides to prevent Leucocytozoonosis%驱蚊草驱除库蠓预防鸡白冠病的应用试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代友洪; 蒋清蓉; 叶兆美; 赖守勋

    2012-01-01

    This test. used sticky paper to collect Culicoides, understanding the effect of Pelargonium graveolens dispelling Culicoides inside and outside henhouse. The resuhs showed that using Pelargonium graveolens could effectively reduce the number of Culicoides in the range of 1.5 m (P〈0.05). Placing Pelargonium graveolens in the house dispelling Culicoides better than without placing Pelargonium graveolens significantly (P〈0.05). Pelargonium graveolen had no significant effect on laying rate and death rate for laying hens. So we summarized that Pelargonium graveolens had significant effect of dispelling Culicoides, also reached the purpose of preventing white-crowned disease.%本试验采用粘蚊帖收集库蠓的方法,了解在鸡舍内和鸡舍外使用驱蚊草对库蠓的驱除作用。试验结果证明:使用驱蚊草在鸡舍外能够在1.5m范围内有效地减少库蠓的数量(P〈0.05):放置了驱蚊草的鸡舍相比未放置驱蚊草的鸡舍其库蠓数量明显减少(P〈0.05);另外,驱蚊草对蛋鸡的产蛋率与死淘率无明显影响。由此可见,驱蚊草有明显的驱库蠓效果,能达到预防鸡白冠病的目的,

  7. Dracaena in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    This taxonomic revision of the genus Dracaena L. (Liliaceae) in West Africa is another contribution towards a monograph on this group.Short general chapters contain historical, phytogeographical, morphological and phylogenetic observations. The taxonomic treatment contains a revised genus descriptio

  8. NORTH AFRICA IN FOCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa has been firmly implanted in global headlines this year-often for all the wrong reasons.The world watches as political unrest,conflict and foreign intervention reap relentless media exposure.Both from a

  9. Procurement Under The UNCITRAL Model Law: A Southern Africa Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen De La Harpe

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Africa, economic integration, realised through regional integration, is seen as one of the driving factors that will improve the lives of its people. To enable regionalisation, economic growth and to unlock the potential of Africa its infrastructure will have to be improved. Infrastructure will on the whole be realised through public procurement. The stages for opening up procurement markets, referred to by Yukins and Schooner, is discussed and it is concluded that the states in SADC is still in the initial stages of opening its public procurement markets for regional competition. Although COMESA is not yet in full compliance with all four the stages great strides have been made and have elements of all stages been addressed. Because of the influence the Model Law has already played in COMESA, and the rest of Africa, it would be contra productive should SADC not take the same route as COMESA. If regard is had to the four categories of procurement rules that serves as barriers to national procurement markets, as set out by Arrowsmith it is clear that all of these are present in most SADC member states. Also in the case of COMESA these barriers still exist albeit to a lesser extent. What is necessary is a phased approach to address all of these barriers. This will be possible under the UNCITRAL Model Law as the 2011 Model Law does provide for the possibility of complying with international obligations and for states to allow for socio economic objectives in their procurement regimes. There can be little doubt that the 1994 Model Law has already had a marked influence on public procurement regulation in Africa and that the 2011 Model Law will in future continue to do so. Public procurement is essential for economic development and is the integration and harmonisation thereof on a regional basis the first step In this regard SADC, and especially South Africa, has an important role to play.

  10. Climate strategy for Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hernes, Helga; Dalfelt, Arne; Berntsen, Terje; Holtsmark, Bjart; Næss, Lars Otto; Selrod, Rolf; Aaheim, H. Asbjørn

    1995-01-01

    1. General observations Africa south of the Sahara is probably the most vulnerable region when it comes to the impact and consequences of climate changes. Yet the African continent runs a serious risk of being marginalized in the global dialogue on climate issues. Africa contributes little to the global emissions of CO2, and other greenhouse gases. The major focus of the Framework Convention on Climate Change is on abatement and mitigation of emissions rather than adaptation to the con...

  11. Physics in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the role of basic sciences in the development of technology. This is then tied up with the broader issue of the importance of scientific and technological knowledge in the socio-economic development of a country. Physics forms the basis for most of the natural and applied sciences and technology. The state of physics in Africa is reviewed. The need for regional and international cooperation in physics education and research in Africa is stressed. (author). 13 refs, 2 tabs

  12. GREAT TREK INTO AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    On the eve of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation, to be held between November 2 and 5 in Beijing, Beijing Review reporter Li Li talks with South African Kobus van der Wath, the founder and Managing Director of The Beijing Axis, a consulting firm based in Beijing and Johannesburg that serves foreign organizations with a "China agenda," especially those from Africa. Van der Wath discussed China’s economic boom and its implications for the African continent

  13. Disarming not defending Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Moorcraft

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Most sub-Saharan states cannot protect themselves from major military threats, especially extra-continental ones. From the perspective of the big international players the question is: should Africa be protected? In this collection of essays, the impact of Africa's global marginalisation is duly noted. This fundamental facet of Africa's security dilemma, however, is not analysed in any meaningful way. True, the usual malaises, including 'ethnic nationalism', are paraded, but there is no mention of the current debate on how Africa's 'ethnic' wars are interpreted by the international media, and its assumed impact on humanitarian and military intervention. If they have not done so already, the editors should read Tim Allen and Jean Seaton's new book, The Media of Conflict. Here the implications of the so-called second scramble for Africa, including the role of aid agencies and the International Monetary Fund, are scrutinised. Seaton and Allen reject the notion of mindless, primordial violence in Africa, and instead examine the repercussions of foreign intervention (most egregiously French meddling in Rwanda as well as the rational economic motivations of the assorted warlords.

  14. Governance of Oil in Africa: Unfinished Business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A closer inspection of the world's oil and gas resources, tempered by a critical assessment of their accessibility, would lead many investors now focused on Russia and the Middle East to turn their attention to the Caspian Basin. But many of these oil and gas provinces are largely off limits for international investors, or the investment conditions have become so unpredictable that investors are forced to look elsewhere for the oil and gas to meet the world's increasing demand. Even if today's economic crisis has taken the urgency out of today's supply and demand balances, economic recovery will soon reveal the need for ever-increasing investment upstream. Other parts of the world may not hold the huge hydrocarbon resources of the Middle East, but there is considerable opportunity elsewhere. This study is dedicated to sub-Saharan Africa where considerable resources have been found and more is no doubt yet to be discovered. Specifically, the countries of the Gulf of Guinea have long been in the oil business and some are now in the gas business. What have the experiences in the oil and gas sectors of these countries been? How has governance evolved over the years and why have some of these countries been unable to realize the full benefits of their resource endowments? The Gulf of Guinea holds considerable promise for more oil and gas for world markets, but the experiences of the past decades suggest a need for substantial reform. Income distribution,welfare, development are not generally the business of energy companies, but if governments do not see to these basic requirements of their populations, energy companies will not be able to bring those energy commodities to the market. This book includes four chapters that examine how energy, governance, corruption, income distribution, and corporate issues are linked. The IFRI program on European Governance and Geopolitics of Energy hopes this publication will shed light on the role of hydrocarbon production in Africa

  15. HIV/AIDS, conflict and security in Africa: rethinking relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becker Joseph U

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of conflict on HIV transmission and regional and global security has been the subject of much recent discussion and debate. Many long held assumptions regarding these relationships are being reconsidered. Conflict has long been assumed to contribute significantly to the spread of HIV infection. However, new research is casting doubt on this assumption. Studies from Africa suggest that conflict does not necessarily predispose to HIV transmission and indeed, there is evidence to suggest that recovery in the "post-conflict" state is potentially dangerous from the standpoint of HIV transmission. As well, refugee populations have been previously considered as highly infected vectors of HIV transmission. But in light of new investigation this belief is also being reconsidered. There has additionally been concern that high rates of HIV infection among many of the militaries of sub-Saharan Africa poses a threat to regional security. However, data is lacking on both dramatically elevated prevalence amongst soldiers and a possible negative effect on regional security. Nevertheless, HIV/AIDS remain a serious threat to population health and economic well being in this region. These issues are of vital importance for HIV programming and health sector development in conflict and "post-conflict" societies and will constitute formidable challenges to the international community. Further research is required to better inform the discussion of HIV, conflict, and security in sub-Saharan Africa.

  16. South Africa offers exploratory potential in variety of basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broad, D.S.; Mills, S.R. (Soekor Ltd., Cape Town (South Africa))

    1993-12-06

    While the future suspension of the oil embargo against South Africa will no doubt help revitalize the region's most powerful economy, a move away from dependence on coal as the major local energy source is also likely. This could be accomplished through regional cooperation and development were it not for the ongoing conflict in Angola, the only producer of oil and gas in the Southern African Development Community. Even with world oil prices in the doldrums, massive foreign exchange savings would result from a domestic source, and in line with world trends the possibility of harnessing the gas resources of the region is increasingly seen as a possibility. For the present, those resources remain to be defined. But ENH of Mozambique is pursuing an appraisal program for Pande field with World Bank funding, while Shell and its partners are considering possibilities of Kudu field in Namiba. And while South Africa's own national oil company, Soekor, has had limited success with its search for oil during the apartheid years, offshore F-A gas field is in production, and the potential for hydrocarbons-gas in particular--requires a great deal more investigation. The colleagues have prepared a series of articles on basins off South Africa. These articles were prepared in anticipation of the completion of political reform and of the start of a licensing round, possibly during 1994. This article draws together summaries of aspects thought to be most pertinent to petroleum exploration.

  17. Dispelling Myths about Female Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Ethel

    1980-01-01

    Discussed are several myths and stereotypes about female physiology. Also included are new technical advances concerning the female reproduction physiology, new techniques in hormone measurement, hypotholomic-pituitary-ovarian axis, hormones and the monthly cycles, dysmenorrhea, menopause, infertility, and future areas for investigation about the…

  18. Africa: signs of hope?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F. Kirsten

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The dawning of the 21st century generally brought new hope to African leaders and countless thousands of ordinary citizens of many countries on the continent. The first signs of a new turn of events shone through by the end of the last decade of the previous century. This was manifested by economic growth rates that started to pick up in a number of African states, by pro-democracy movements which in country after country succeeded in replacing authoritarian regimes, and by the winding down and termination of some of Africa’s most devastating wars. The results of this analysis confirm the above-mentioned positive political, economic and conflict trends in Africa. It is clearly a significant turn of events given the well-known political and economic predicament with which Africa is struggling. When this negative legacy and Cold War background of Africa is considered, the importance of present developments is clear to see. The identified heightened sense of purpose among the leaders and peoples of Africa and the changed mood and need among Africans to take charge of their own future that found expression in the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD are indeed significant and bode well for the future of the continent. A word of warning here is, however, necessary. Our conduct with Africa must be very cautious and we must guard against over-optimism and the exaggerated belief that Africa is now on a trajectory of sustained development and peace. We cannot generalise about Africa – for that the continent is just too big and diverse from a geographical, cultural, economic and political point of view.

  19. A Bloc in Doubt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Six decades after its founding, NATO is gingerly embracing a new vision NATO, which turned 60 on April 4, held its 24th summit in Baden-Baden and Kehl, Germany, and in Strasbourg, France, on April 3-4. In the 60-year history of the military

  20. UNDERSTANDING GOUT BEYOND DOUBT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parle Milind

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Life is all about movements and activities. Our entire livelihood and existence comes into trouble, we become immobile and inactive due to joint pains and swelling. Gout is one such condition, which affects an individual’s life. Gout is a type of arthritis that occurs, when too much uric acid builds up in the body, causing deposition of urate crystals in the joints. It is accompanied by excruciating, unexpected, burning pain, swelling and inflammation leading to complete immobility of the joints. Gout can be hereditary. Excessive intake of certain types of food, alcohol, infection, physical or emotional stress, or the use of certain drugs can lead to the development of gout symptoms. Gout occurs commonly in men (over 40 years of age affecting their toes, but can appear in other parts of the body as well. It affects women too, especially after menopause. Low-grade fever may be present during gout attack. The crystals formed inside the joints cause intense and debilitating pain. The inflammation of the tissues around the joint causes the skin to become swollen, tender and sore, to even a slight touch. The lightest sheet draping over the affected area could cause extreme pain. It is commonly treated with anti- inflammatory medicines or corticosteroid drugs. The patients always seek for fast and quick relief, so that they can resume their daily routine. The present review article focuses on the causes, pathophysiology and various treatment options available to the gout patient.

  1. Doubting the Sceptic

    OpenAIRE

    Marco A. Frangiotti

    1997-01-01

    This article aims at showing that contemporary attempts to rehabilitate Pyrrhonian scepticism do not hold water. I claim that a sceptic of this trend gets stuck in two major dilemmas. The first regards her object of investigation. I argue that, if she holds that her object of investigation is the non-evident truth, she will not be able to distance herself from dogmatism. In turn, if she holds that she seeks to establish sense data propositions, she will not be able to pose herself as an inves...

  2. Doubting the Sceptic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco A. Frangiotti

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at showing that contemporary attempts to rehabilitate Pyrrhonian scepticism do not hold water. I claim that a sceptic of this trend gets stuck in two major dilemmas. The first regards her object of investigation. I argue that, if she holds that her object of investigation is the non-evident truth, she will not be able to distance herself from dogmatism. In turn, if she holds that she seeks to establish sense data propositions, she will not be able to pose herself as an investigator. The second dilemma stems from the sceptical attempt to wipe out dogmatism by developing arguments to the effect that no (dogmatic proof exists. I contend that those arguments can be viewed either as "good" arguments, in which case the sceptic will be considered just another theorist in possession of an explanation; or as expendable devices, in which case the sceptic will be incapable of carrying out her anti-dogmatic programme. Either way the sceptical position crumbles.

  3. Beyond a reasonable doubt?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Bo; Einhorn, Thomas A

    2012-01-01

    and discussed in this joint commentary. The hypothetical chain of evidence between bisphosphonates, decreased toughness of bone, microcrack accumulation in man and atypical fractures is plausible but unproven. However, the combination of consistent clinical features (which may include a stress reaction...

  4. Doubts Down Under

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cohen, Michael; O'Neil, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    . The Howard government coveted a US tripwire force presence, and the Clinton administration’s unwillingness to provide this raised serious concerns among Australian political leaders about the alliance. While this says little about the separate question of whether Washington would use nuclear or conventional...... weapons in defense of Australian sovereignty, the Timor case indicates the existence of an extended deterrence credibility deficit regarding the more probable low intensity conflicts that Australia finds itself in....

  5. [The tragic doubt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musial, G

    2001-01-01

    Starting with two statements made by two great artists and witnesses of the XXth century - Joseph Brodsky and the Polish poet, Tadeusz Rozewicz - the author discusses the roots of our current moral crisis to which we ourselves bear witness: in the unchecked population explosion (Brodsky), and in the sinister legacy of World War II, the effects of which we witness on a daily basis (Rozewicz). The author recalls a third witness: Czeslaw Milosz, who wrote that the world's progress exhibits an inevitable tendency toward nihilism. In his discourse with the three statements mentioned, the author refers to certain XXth century intellectuals - Ortega y Gasset, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Mircea Eliade, Herbert Read - who confirm and develop the thesis of man s spiritual fall and rejection of transcendence through technology. The author further illustrates his thesis with examples taken from the scientific research concerning IT, cloning, euthanasia, as well as from the world of the arts from the apocalyptic works of Hieronymous Bosch and Pieter Bruegel the Elder to the latest performers. He invokes a worldview which, by rejecting the metaphysics of man s birth, aging, and death, also rejects the judeo-christian taboo of the human body as a "dwelling place for the spirit" (porno festivals, exhibitions of human corpses by Prof. von Hagens in Germany). PMID:11684776

  6. Doubts Over Maglev Future

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN LIXIN

    2006-01-01

    @@ On August Ⅱ, at around 2:50 pm,the second carriage of a Shanghai maglev train leaving the Pudong International Airport caught fire just 500meters from the Longyang Lu terminal. Fire fighters were quick on the scene, but for the next week the train that has racked up speeds of 400 kph crouched motionlessly on the spot where the fire had been extinguished.

  7. Explaining adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa: an ethnographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C Ware

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa generally take more than 90% of prescribed doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This number exceeds the levels of adherence observed in North America and dispels early scale-up concerns that adherence would be inadequate in settings of extreme poverty. This paper offers an explanation and theoretical model of ART adherence success based on the results of an ethnographic study in three sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Determinants of ART adherence for HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa were examined with ethnographic research methods. 414 in-person interviews were carried out with 252 persons taking ART, their treatment partners, and health care professionals at HIV treatment sites in Jos, Nigeria; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Mbarara, Uganda. 136 field observations of clinic activities were also conducted. Data were examined using category construction and interpretive approaches to analysis. Findings indicate that individuals taking ART routinely overcome economic obstacles to ART adherence through a number of deliberate strategies aimed at prioritizing adherence: borrowing and "begging" transport funds, making "impossible choices" to allocate resources in favor of treatment, and "doing without." Prioritization of adherence is accomplished through resources and help made available by treatment partners, other family members and friends, and health care providers. Helpers expect adherence and make their expectations known, creating a responsibility on the part of patients to adhere. Patients adhere to promote good will on the part of helpers, thereby ensuring help will be available when future needs arise. CONCLUSION: Adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa can be explained as a means of fulfilling social responsibilities and thus preserving social capital in essential relationships.

  8. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelock, Patricia A

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to ...

  9. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...

  10. African Peacekeepers in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emmanuel, Nikolas G.

    2015-01-01

    peacekeeping operations in the region. It is important to add that the international community has frequently tried to facilitate the deployment of African armed forces with aid and training. From this reality, the following study goes beyond the current literature by focusing on the international factors...... behind African participation in United Nations (UN) peacekeeping operations in Africa. In doing so, this research focuses on US military aid and foreign troop training from 2002 to 2012, and its impact on African deployments into UN peacekeeping missions in Africa. As can be expected, such third...

  11. Tobacco in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yach, D

    1996-01-01

    Tobacco has been a common commodity in Africa for over three centuries. By 1993, some 500 000 tons of tobacco were being grown in 33 African countries, with only two countries exporting more than they import. Attempts to measure the current and potential impact of the tobacco business on health, society and the environment are still in their early stages, but the need for preventive action is already inescapably clear. Comprehensive control strategies are urgently required to prevent a major epidemic of tobacco-related disease in Africa. PMID:8820139

  12. Marywood Librarians Teach in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Watson

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Librarians Leslie Christianson and Julie Watson from Marywood University have been working to educate Catholic nuns in Africa. Funded by a grant from the Conrad N. Hilton Foundation, the Higher Education for Sisters in Africa (HESA project is a partnership between Marywood University and Catholic University of Eastern Africa (CUEA in Nairobi, Kenya.

  13. Youth in Africa's Labor Market

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, Marito; Fares, Jean

    2008-01-01

    Youth and Africa have received increased attention in recent policy discussions and World Bank work, as articulated in the Africa action plan and the World Development Report 2007: development and the next generation. The Africa action plan offers a framework to support critical policy and public action led by African countries to achieve well-defined goals, such as the Millennium Developm...

  14. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa

  15. Country Energy Profile, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    This country energy profile provides energy and economic information about South Africa. Areas covered include: Economics, demographics, and environment; Energy situation; Energy structure; Energy investment opportunities; Department of Energy (DOE) programs in South Africa; and a listing of International aid to South Africa.

  16. Africa: Myth and Reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Barbara B.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the Third International Social Studies Conference held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1994. Discusses democracy, educational reform efforts, and the importance of tourism to the Kenyan economy. Asserts that U.S. teachers must use accurate and nonstereotypical instructional materials in teaching about Africa. (CFR)

  17. Export Diversification in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Huria, Ankur; Brenton, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Economic activity in many African countries remains highly concentrated and exports are often dominated by mineral resources or a few primary products. The World Bank’s 2011 report on light manufacturing in Africa identified poor trade logistics performance as a constraint that especially penalized African exporters that relied on imported inputs, very often making them uncompetitive. The ...

  18. Literacy in Francophone Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokora, Pascal D.

    1991-01-01

    Literacy in francophone Africa, where literacy is still a privilege, is reviewed in terms of the complex linguistic situation, effects of population change, concepts and definitions of literacy, promotion of literacy in adult nonformal settings (e.g., African language literacy materials, multilingual settings). (23 references) (LB)

  19. Photomontage. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Photomontage,"…

  20. Anatomy: Spotlight on Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Beverley; Pather, Nalini; Ihunwo, Amadi O.

    2008-01-01

    Anatomy departments across Africa were surveyed regarding the type of curriculum and method of delivery of their medical courses. While the response rate was low, African anatomy departments appear to be in line with the rest of the world in that many have introduced problem based learning, have hours that are within the range of western medical…

  1. Investment Climate in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bridgman, David; Adamali, Aref

    2015-01-01

    The World Bank Group has been working on investment climate reform in Sub-Saharan Africa for nearly a decade, a period characterized by dramatic economic growth on the continent. Establishing links between such reform interventions and economic growth, however, is a complex problem. Although this note finds some connection between investment climate reform and economic growth, establishing ...

  2. Topical Research: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Karen

    This lesson plan can be used in social studies, language arts, or library research. The instructional objective is for students to select a topic of study relating to Africa, write a thesis statement, collect information from media sources, and develop a conclusion. The teacher may assign the lesson for written or oral evaluation. The teacher…

  3. Migration and Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    2014-01-01

    European powers imposed the nation-state on Africa through colonialism. But even after African independencies, mainstream discourses and government policies have amplified the idea that sedentariness and the state are the only acceptable mode of modernity. Migration is portrayed as a menace...

  4. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING YING

    2011-01-01

    Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city's downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company.In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city.

  5. Energy issues in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topic of the energy sector-and the petroleum sector in particular-in sub-Saharan Africa might well be considered an insignificant issue compared with many of the energy concerns which now command international attention. However, the World Bank believes that it is important for all those in international energy not to forget about the crucial problems facing Africa. They should become informed and concerned about these problems, and, hopefully, work together to bring about a satisfactory solution for an ongoing development dilemma. Simply put, the cost of imported energy to the African economy is exorbitantly high, sapping the resources needed to produce economic growth and social progress. This paper reports that, to address this issue, the World Bank is about to undertake a major initiative-two ground-breaking studies in the field of energy for sub-Saharan Africa. Both of these proposed studies are designed to find ways to reduce the burden of the cost of energy imports, mainly petroleum products, to this continent. One study will examine the design (and, subsequently, the implementation) of a rationalization scheme for the supply and distribution of petroleum products throughout sub-Saharan Africa. The other will consider the feasibility of transporting Nigeria's natural gas to neighbors to the west, all of which presently are importers of energy

  6. Out of Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Continent shows its stars and future potential in Beijing For a continent that hits the headlines most often for wars and famine, the Olympics offered Africa a chance to make the news for more positive reasons, and its athletes obliged with a host of outstanding achievements.

  7. Filosofia e neurociência: entre certezas e dúvidas Philosophy and neuroscience: between certainties and doubts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Zimmermann

    2011-12-01

    hierarchization, but to extract elements that help us to think about our certanties and doubts about the human movement. Philosophy can restate questions and restore the place of doubt, when initially, it helps us to enquire assumptions and consequences of our research. On the other hand, Science opens fields, stimulates curiosity and allows questioning even without one recognizing it. The difference between the ways of thinking reality and knowledge does not need to be fought at the costs of weakening both. However, it is possible to extract interesting consequences from an approximation between Philosophy and Science.

  8. 疏风利咽汤治疗喉源性咳嗽的效果探析%The Effect Research on Dispelling Wind and Relieving Sore Throat Soup Treatment of Laryngeal Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏芳

    2015-01-01

    Objective The treatment effect of dispel ing wind and relieving sore throat soup on Laryngeal Cough is to be analyzed. Methods Choose 74 patients with laryngeal cough who are treated in hospital from June 2013 to June 2014 and separate them into control group and study group according to different treatment methods. The 37 patients in control group are given Western medicine treatment,while the other 37 patients in study group are given dispel ing wind and relieving sore throat soup treatment. Then observe and compare the treatment effects of the two groups. Results Compared to control group,the efficacy of study group treatment is much higher than control group,such a differential has statistic significance,(P<0.05). Conclusion Dispel ing wind and relieving sore throat soup is effective to cure patients with laryngeal cough in clinical treatment,it should be paid attention and applied and promoted.%目的:探析疏风利咽汤对喉源性咳嗽的治疗效果。方法搜集2013年6月~2014年6月我院接收的喉源性咳嗽74例患者,按照治疗方法不同分为对照组(37例)与研究组(37例)。对对照组进行西医常规治疗,对研究组进行疏风利咽汤治疗。观察对照组与研究组的临床疗效,并比较。结果与对照组相比,研究组治疗有效率明显较高,有较大差异,有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论疏风利咽汤治疗喉源性咳嗽的临床效果较好,有效率较高。

  9. The reemergence of state-centred power sector reform: the case of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power sector in South Africa is dominated by the state-owned, vertically integrated utility, Eskom. An Energy Policy White Paper and subsequent Cabinet decisions laid out a path of managed liberalisation. However, government still experiences ambivalence and doubts around restructuring. The 'standard' model of power sector reform of the past decade - vertical and horizontal unbundling, wholesale and retail competition and privatisation - has, in effect, been abandoned by South Africa, and increasingly by many other developing countries. This does not mean that governments will accept inefficient utilities. There is a still a commitment to ensure improved performance by state-owned enterprises through appropriate governance and regulation. Capital constrained countries will also open up space for private investments - mostly within the framework of a 'hybrid market' where the state utility remains dominant. What remains to be seen is whether the investment mistakes of the past can be obviated and whether security of supply can be achieved at an acceptable price. (Author)

  10. Africa's Perspectives on China-Africa Relations and Forum on China-Africa Cooperation(FOCAC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Osita; C.Eze

    2009-01-01

    China is in Africa in a vigorous way,and doing business in several countries like Sudan,Congo DRC,Angola,South Africa,and Nigeria.In the short term,the relationship may appear to be mutually beneficial.This paper seeks to address the issue of Africa's perspectives on China-Africa Relations and the FOCAC and examine the concept of strategic partnerships,determine the state of China-Africa relations,examines FOCAC and draw conclusion as well as recommendation on possible ways and issues for future engageme...

  11. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  12. [Endoscopic gynecologic surgery in Africa. Luxury of necessity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pambou, O; Guyot, B; Antoine, J M; Salat-Baroux, J

    1995-03-01

    Per- and postoperative mortality remain high in black Africa, with rates of the order of 30 to 40% according to teams. Three essential causes are generally reported: infection, hemorrhage and anesthetic complications. There can be no doubt as to the advantages of celiosurgery over open surgery: low postoperative morbidity, less than 1% serious complications, real savings in treatment costs by shortening of average hospital stay and time off work. Celio-surgery is technology-dependent and operator-dependent. The cost of equipment remains prohibitive and its maintenance delicate and expensive, potentially hampering the implantation and spread of this new technique in Africa, which also lacks specifically trained staff as well as an appropriate technical infrastructure. Nevertheless, the experience of teams in Cameroon and Gabon are encouraging with 110 and 220 patients respectively treated by celio-surgery without complications. A veritable journeyman-apprentice approach is necessary for the learning of these new techniques by teams in developing countries, in several possible ways (locally or abroad), in order that the population as a whole can enjoy the benefits of the reproducible therapeutic and diagnostic advances of new techniques (celio-surgery, MAP, antenatal diagnosis, medical imaging). PMID:7784787

  13. The effects of war on children in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertyn, R; Bickler, S W; van As, A B; Millar, A J W; Rode, H

    2003-06-01

    There is no doubt that the effects of war extend to the most vulnerable members of society, including children. Although armed conflicts occur throughout the world, the African continent seems to be a particular background for civil and international wars. The aim of this study was to identify causes of conflict in Africa and to evaluate the effect of war on children and their health in order to make practical recommendations to health care workers dealing with children in the setting of war. All articles written in the past 5 years concerning "war" and "children" were identified by means of a literature search and internet review. Contrary to common belief, the causes of conflict are complicated and multi-factorial. The effects of war on childhood are disastrous and include severe negative effects on general paediatric health status. Short-term recommendations for health care workers working with children in war include supply of emergency medical infrastructures, basic health care, rehabilitation and education. Long-term recommendations include orchestrating the relief and support efforts from both national governments and international non-profit organisations and speeding up of economic recovery. The causes of conflict in Africa are complex and unlikely to be resolved soon. The effects of war on children are horrendous in many ways, but can be limited by providing timely and appropriate health care.

  14. Post Apartheid South Africa; Evaluating South Africa's Institutional Design

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hopper

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, I aim to evaluate whether increasing or decreasing the level of consociationalism in South Africa would be beneficial for the country's stability. Analysing South Africa's political structure since the implementation of free and fair elections, I review the effects of its current degree of consociationalism and debate the arguments of those who contest South Africa's current institutional framework and its capacity to govern.

  15. Financing Water in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bayliss, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Despite repeated policy initiatives from donors and governments, the human and economic cost of continued lack of access to safe water and sanitation in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. Progress is in large part constrained by a persistent ‘financing gap’. This paper shows that a radical reorientation of policy is needed to achieve a significant increase in investment finance in order to raise access levels. Rather than continuing to pursue policies that have failed for the past two decades, ...

  16. Asthma in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel O D Addo-Yobo; Ashley Woodcock; Adorkor Allotey; Benjamin Baffoe-Bonnie; David Strachan; Adnan Custovic

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. The proportion of children with asthma is thought to be increasing worldwide, and particularly among children that live in more developed countries. However, it is not clear why this is, since many different aspects of lifestyle and the environment have been linked with the onset of asthma. In Africa, asthma has typically been thought of as being very uncommon, and indeed in many African dialects there is no word for asthma or the symptoms, such as wheezing, that ...

  17. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...

  18. Entrepreneurship Development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Schaumburg-Müller, Henrik; Jeppesen, Søren; Langevang, Thilde

    2010-01-01

    This working paper is a report from the workshop on Entrepreneurship Development arranged by the Centre for Business and Development Studies at CBS and the Danish Ministry of Foreign Affairs in September 2010. The objective of the workshop was to use the participants’ joint knowledge and experiences to discuss and provide conclusions on what role entrepreneurship development has played and can play to stimulate growth and employment in Africa. Entrepreneurship development is understood as the...

  19. CREATING OPPORTUNITIES IN AFRICA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese enterprises generate jobs for Africans while exploring the vast potential of the continent Driving from the Johannesburg International Airport in South Africa to the city’s downtown area,you can find almost every world-famous company. In Dar es Salaam,Tanzania,huge billboards of foreign companies dot the landscape of the coastal city. With a population of 900 million and

  20. Terrorism in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacFarlane, Campbell

    2003-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa lies at the southern tip of the African continent. The population encompasses a variety of races, ethnic groups, religions, and cultural identities. The country has had a turbulent history from early tribal conflicts, colonialisation, the apartheid period, and post-apartheid readjustment. Modern terrorism developed mainly during the apartheid period, both by activities of the state and by the liberation movements that continued to the time of the first democratic elections in 1994, which saw South Africa evolve into a fully representative democratic state with equal rights for all. Since 1994, terrorist acts have been criminal-based, evolving in the Cape Town area to political acts, largely laid at the feet of a predominantly Muslim organisation, People against Gangsterism and Drugs, a vigilant organisation allegedly infiltrated by Muslim fundamentalists. Along with this, has been terrorist activities, mainly bombings by disaffected members of white, right-wing groups. In the apartheid era, a Draconian series of laws was enacted to suppress liberation activities. After 1994, most of these were repealed and new legislation was enacted, particularly after the events of 11 September 2001; this legislation allows the government to act against terrorism within the constraints of a democratic system. Disaster management in South Africa has been largely local authority-based, with input from provincial authorities and Civil Defence. After 1994, attempts were made to improve this situation, and national direction was provided. After 11 September 2001, activity was increased and the Disaster Management Act 2002 was brought into effect. This standardized disaster management system at national, provincial, and local levels, also facilites risk assessment and limitation as well as disaster mitigation. The potential still exists for terrorism, mainly from right-wing and Muslim fundamentalist groups, but the new legislation should stimulate disaster

  1. Africa is on time

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkovskiy, Maxim; Sala-i-Martin, Xavier

    2014-01-01

    We present evidence that the recent African growth renaissance has reached Africa's poor. Using survey data on African income distributions and national accounts GDP, we estimate income distributions, poverty rates, and inequality indices for African countries for the period 1990-2011. Our findings are as follows. First, African poverty is falling rapidly. Second, the African countries for which good inequality data exist are set to reach the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) poverty reductio...

  2. Unlocking Africa's Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Simon Freemantle

    2011-01-01

    WHILE there are meaningful objections to the nature and structure of much of the new investment in African agriculture,it is dear that the introduction of new capital,skills and technology is an essential component in unlocking the continent's ultimate allure.Investments of $83 billion annually are said to be needed to elevate the developing world's agricultural sector.At least half of this amount is required in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) alone.

  3. Coal in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dykes, A.R.

    1982-01-01

    This paper comprises a report on the coal industry in the Republic of South Africa. Stresses the importance of coal in the South African economy (meets 75% of the country's energy requirements and is in second place in the South African exports table). Covers deposits, production and prices, exports policy; winning methods, productivity and the various grades of coal. Also includes data on investments and refers to synthetic fuels from coal (Sasol I, II, III processes).

  4. South Africa; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1998-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper highlights that cautious monetary and fiscal polices of South Africa during 1997 resulted in a return of financial investor confidence and capital inflows during 1997 and through April 1998. These policies helped the South African economy emerge successfully from the exchange market pressures of 1996 and weather the contagion from the East Asian crisis in the second half of 1997. Throughout 1997 and up until May 1998, inflation and market interest rates fell conside...

  5. Drought in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  6. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  7. Bravo! China: Experience Chinese Culture in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiShegxian

    2004-01-01

    On july 13,2004,"Hail for China and Africa; A Chinese Cultural Tour of Africa" was launched in Prertoria,South Africa,Senior Officials from china and South Africa attended the opening ceremony,including Chinese State Councilor Madame Chen Zhili ,South Africa cultural minister,agricultural minister and mayor of Pretoria.

  8. Ubuntu and the law in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Mokgoro

    1998-11-01

    Full Text Available The new constitutional dispensation, like the idea of freedom in South Africa, is also not free of scepticism. Many a time when crime and criminal activity are rife, sceptics would lament the absence of ubuntu in society and attribute this absence to what they view as the permissiveness which is said to have been brought about by the Constitution with its entrenched Bill of Rights.Firstly, I would like to take this opportunity and (attempt to demonstrate the irony that the absence of the values of ubuntu in society that people often lament about and attribute to the existence of the Constitution with its demands for respect for human rights when crime becomes rife, are the very same values that the Constitution in general and the Bill of Rights in particular aim to inculcate in our society.Secondly, against the background of the call for an African renaissance that has now become topical globally, I would like to demonstrate the potential that traditional African values of ubuntu have for influencing the development of a new South African law and jurisprudence.The concept ubuntu, like many African concepts, is not easily definable. In an attempt to define it, the concept has generally been described as a world-view of African societies and a determining factor in the formation of perceptions which influence social conduct. It has also been described as a philosophy of life.Much as South Africa is a multicultural society, indigenous law has not featured in the mainstream of South African jurisprudence. Without a doubt, some aspects or values of ubuntu are universally inherent to South Africa’s multi cultures.The values of ubuntu are therefore an integral part of that value system which had been established by the Interim Constitution.The founding values of the democracy established by this new Constitution arguably coincide with some key values of ubuntu(ism.Ubuntu(-ism, which is central to age-old African custom and tradition however, abounds

  9. CASL - The CoFI Algebraic Specification Language (Tentative Design, version 0.95) -- Language Summary with annotations concerning questions and doubts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haxthausen, Anne

    1997-01-01

    This is version 0.95 of the official summary of the Tentative Design of CASL, the CoFI Algebraic Specification Language, annotated by the CoFI Semantics Task Group with questions and doubts concerning the meaning of constructs and the semantics of the interaction of constructs, and with notes on...... how these worries will be discharged in version 0.96 of the design...

  10. Precision Irrigation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Dennis, H.J.; Nell, Wilhelm T.

    2002-01-01

    The Republic of South Africa covers an area of 122 million hectare of which 18 million hectare is potential land for cultivation. Eight percent of the potential arable land are under irrigation, which accounts for nearly half of the water requirement in South Africa. With a population of 42 million and an estimated annual population growth of 1,7%, urbanisation and industrialisation will increase the pressure on the availability of water resources and the allocation thereof in South Africa. T...

  11. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyo, Benedict; Kalema, Billy Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs), open access to higher education (HE) was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery,…

  12. Africa. Salvation or Despair?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    ”, a change that was also expected and demanded by the international community. As a consequence of this change, South Africa is now trying to lead by example, trying to export particular values and norms to the rest of the continent, while at the same time carrying Africa’s banner on the international stage....... A state wanting to be recognized and perceived as a benign “peacemaker” cannot use military power in the same way as a pariah state. To cultivate a reputation as a benign power, it must use force in a way that is acceptable to its neighbours and the international community at large. The purpose...

  13. Immunology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cose, Stephen; Bagaya, Bernard; Nerima, Barbara; Joloba, Moses; Kambugu, Andrew; Tweyongyere, Robert; Dunne, David W; Mbidde, Edward; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Elliott, Alison M

    2015-12-01

    Africa is a continent with a large burden of both infectious and non-communicable diseases. If we are to move forward as a continent, we need to equip our growing cadre of exceptional young scientists with the skills needed to tackle the diseases endemic to this continent. For this, immunology is among the key disciplines. Africans should be empowered to study and understand the diseases that affect them, and to perform their cutting-edge research in their country of origin. This requires a multifaceted approach, with buy-in from funders, overseas partners and perhaps, most important of all, African governments themselves.

  14. Schistosomiasis research in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utzinger, Jürg; Brattig, Norbert W.; Kristensen, Thomas K.

    2013-01-01

    and discuss its overarching goal, the interrelated objectives, establishment and running of a research node network across Africa, partnership configuration and modus operandi of the project. A collection of 25 articles is presented that are grouped into five main themes: molecular, biological, spatial......, social and cross-cutting issues pertaining to the epidemiology and control of schistosomiasis. We summarize key achievements made by CONTRAST, many of which are featured in this special issue of Acta Tropica. Together with an independent view put forth by an eminent schistosomiasis researcher...

  15. Readings in modernity in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Geschiere; B. Meyer; P. Pels

    2008-01-01

    This book provides students of Africa with a guide to the bewildering variety of scholarly work on the issue of modernity in Africa, and to offer some tools for dealing with its intellectual paradoxes. Part One contains both analytical and historical examples of the genealogies of modernity in the A

  16. South Africa : Accounting and Auditing

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2003-01-01

    This report provides an assessment of accounting and auditing practices in South Africa, within the broader context of institutional capacity available for ensuring high-quality financial reporting. National accounting and auditing standards in South Africa are developed on the basis of international standards; but lack of legal backing for accounting standards give rise to problems. South...

  17. Managing organizational performance in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuada, John

    2012-01-01

    Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa......Discusses the interplay of political, economic, social and cultural factors in the management of the performance of public and private organizations in Africa...

  18. US-Africa Security Policy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Nicolai Stahlfest

    This paper will discuss the United States security policy towards Africa based on the National Security Strategy from 2006 and the founding of US Africa Command, the new military combatant command that is supposed to unify US military efforts on the African continent. The paper will discuss whether...

  19. Institute enriching students in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Burton, H

    2004-01-01

    In Cape Town, South Africa, the first annual African Summer Theory Institute is being held. This is a three-week conference for university science students throughout the whole of Africa, co-sponsored by Perimeter Institute as part of international outreach initiatives (1 page).

  20. Energy in Africa by 2050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, the authors propose an overview of the main perceivable orientations of the energy sector in African until 2050, and suggest some other perspectives and state some recommendations for new guidelines. In its first part, the report proposes an analysis of the present situation and identifies possible directions. Several issues are addressed: major challenges, African as a continent of energy divide, energy efficiency in Africa, situation of energy per sectors, per energies and per regions. The second part addresses the prospective dimension (by 2050): world context in 2050, Africa within this context, tomorrow's energy and economy for Africa. Appendices address the following topics: the Energizing Africa initiative, promotion of substitutes for wood, alternative fuels and energies for transport, energy in Africa per region and per source

  1. Uranium deposits in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa is not only known for its spectacular diamond, gold, copper, chromium, platinum and phosphorus deposits but also for its uranium deposits. At least two uranium provinces can be distinguished - the southern, with the equatorial sub-province; and the south Saharan province. Uranium deposits are distributed either in cratons or in mobile belts, the first of sandstone and quartz-pebble conglomerate type, while those located in mobile belts are predominantly of vein and similar (disseminated) type. Uranium deposits occur within Precambrian rocks or in younger platform sediments, but close to the exposed Precambrian basement. The Proterozoic host rocks consist of sediments, metamorphics or granitoids. In contrast to Phanerozoic continental uranium-bearing sediments, those in the Precambrian are in marginal marine facies but they do contain organic material. The geology of Africa is briefly reviewed with the emphasis on those features which might control the distribution of uranium. The evolution of the African Platform is considered as a progressive reduction of its craton area which has been affected by three major Precambrian tectonic events. A short survey on the geology of known uranium deposits is made. However, some deposits and occurrences for which little published material is available are treated in more detail. (author)

  2. Cretaceous paleogeography of Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulver, M.L.; Ziegler, A.M.; Rowley, D.B.; Sahagian, D.

    1986-05-01

    Five stage-length maps (Valanginian, Aptian, Cenomanian, Coniacian, and Maestrichtian) of Africa integrate topography/bathymetry, lithofacies, tectonics, and climatically sensitive sediments. These reconstructions differ from currently available maps in their level of detail and accuracy, and in that computer routines were developed to plot all aspects of the maps, including lithofacies patterns. Bathymetric contours were determined from community paleoecology and from thermal subsidence models of the newly opening Atlantic and Indian oceans. Topographic contours have been estimated from uplift models of rift shoulders, as well as from the erosion and sedimentation record of both the internal and marginal basins. The uplift of rift shoulders from Nigeria to Sudan is suggested by the extensive Nubian and equivalent sandstones across north Africa. This Benue-Ngaoundere-Abu Gabra rift system approximately paralleled the paleoequator, and its shoulders must have experienced the high rainfall normally associated with the intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ). In fact, these mountains would have served as a high level heat source, and would have pinned the ITCZ to their summits. Such a system tends to reduce seasonal excursions of the ITCZ, and may have influenced the high biological productivity represented by the oil source rocks of the Arabian peninsula. These sources also lie on the equator and could have resulted from a shelf incursion of the equatorial divergence zone, which is controlled by the ITCZ.

  3. Knowledge transfer to Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Laëtitia Pedroso

    2011-01-01

    For the second year running, a team from CERN comprising experts in the design and running of digital libraries has taken part in a workshop in Africa. The aim of the workshop, which was held in Morocco from 22 to 26 November 2010, was to pass on their expertise and help train librarians and IT engineers from five African countries.   Participants of the training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco).  Although digital libraries are rapidly expanding across the Globe, a large proportion of the professionals working in the field have not followed relevant training, which poses a real challenge. To help to remedy the situation and encourage the development of digital libraries in Africa, CERN and UNESCO organised a training workshop at the National Centre for Scientific and Technical Research in Rabat (Morocco) in November. "The success of the first CERN-UNESCO digital library school, which took place in Rwanda in 2009, encouraged...

  4. BRICS Regional Policy in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Deych

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the BRICS as a whole and an analysis of each member’s policies in Africa. It exploresthe countries’ political and economic interests in Africa, the various patterns and strategies of each country’s cooperationwith Africa, and estimates the impact of BRICS aid and investment on the African economy and Africa’s development. TheBRICS countries have emerged as the new effective actors in the world arena. Their global economic weight and politicalinfluence continue to grow. Not only is the group focusing its attention on strengthening the internal ties of its members, but itis also focusing on assistance to Africa, as a way to implement the emerging powers efforts to change the existing world order.The BRICS is deepening its engagement with African countries, which gained great success in their development in recentyears. Its focus on Africa is determined by the important role of African resources and by the continent’s growing influencein the world economy and contemporary international relations. BRICS countries are major trade partners of Africa, andAfrica’s trade with BRICS members is growing faster than its trade with the traditional partners. Africa has become themain destination for BRICS development aid and investment. The BRICS is also focusing on African infrastructure. BRICScountries use soft power widely, through developing humanitarian ties with Africa, particularly in health care and education.The BRICS is also an active participant in peacekeeping and conflict resolution in Africa. Members currently tend tocompete in Africa, but they are taking steps toward collaboration. The BRICS contributes much to the African economy. Itspresence has become important for the continent and receives a positive response there.

  5. 瑰及乳膏祛腐生肌作用机理的实验研究%Experimental study on the mechanism of GuiJi cream in dispelling effects on corrupt microorganism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梅正平; 王俊杰; 王刚; 常明泉; 杨光义

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of GuiJi cream in dispelling effects on corrupt microorganism.Methods A total of 90 full-layer skin injured rats were served as test model. The effects of Guiji cream on collagen type Ⅰ (C Ⅰ), matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) and MMP-3 in granulation tissue of wound were observed with immunohistochemistry technique and image-analysis system at various stages of healing. Results The expression of C Ⅰ was obviously increased and the level of MMP-1 and MMP-3 increased at the early stage and kept at a high level from day 3 to day 10. Conclusion The mechanism of GuiJi cream for dispelling effects on corrupt microorganism was increasing the C Ⅰ content in granulation tissue of wound through inhibiting the secretion of MMP- 1.%目的 用现代医学方法 探讨瑰及乳膏祛腐生肌作用的机理.方法 以90只大鼠皮肤全层缺损创面为模型,采用免疫组化与图像分析相结合的方法 ,观察瑰及乳膏对创面修复不同时期肉芽组织中基质金属蛋白酶-1(MMP-1)、基质金属蛋白酶-3(MMP-3)和Ⅰ型胶原变化的影响.结果 瑰及乳膏在治疗的第3、7天可提高创面MMP-1、MMP-3,促进创面Ⅰ型胶原分泌.结论 瑰及乳膏祛腐生肌作用机理是在创面愈合的过程中,通过抑制MMP-1的分泌,从而使创面Ⅰ型胶原的分泌增加,起到促进创面愈合的作用.

  6. EVALUATING THE EFFICIENCY OF ACCOUNTING RECORDING FOR DOUBTFUL AND BAD DEBTS : CASE STUDY: UNITY COOPERATIVE SOCIETY(UNICS) CAMEROON. COMPARED TO NORDEA BANK FINLAND

    OpenAIRE

    Jenarius, Taku

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to make an evaluation on the efficiency of accounting for doubtful and bad debts for Unity Co-operative Society Plc. (UNICS), a micro financial institution in Cameroon. A purposive sampling technique was used to select two banks for the study. A face-to-face interview was conducted with the manager of Nordea Bank. The manager of UNICS made available the financial statements for 2006 to 2009, he also answered some questions over the telephone. Research f...

  7. Brazil-Africa geological links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torquato, Joaquim Raul; Cordani, Umberto G.

    1981-04-01

    In this work, the main evidence and conclusions regarding geological links between Brazil and Africa are summarized, with emphasis on the geochronological aspects. Taking into account the geographical position, as well as the similarities in the geochronological pattern, the following main provinces of the two continents are correlated: The Imataca and Falawatra complexes in the Guayana Shield and the Liberian Province of West Africa. The Paraguay-Araguaia and the Rockelide Fold Belts. The Sa˜o Luiz and the West African cratonic areas. The Caririan Fold Belt of northeastern Brazil and the Pan-Africa Belt of Nigeria and Cameroon. The JequiéComplex of Bahia, the Ntem Complex of Cameroon and similar rocks of Gabon and Angola. The Ribeira Fold Belt in Brazil and the West Congo and Damara Belts in West and South Africa. In addition, other geological links are considered, such as some of the major linear fault zones which can be traced across the margins of South America and Africa, in the pre-drift reconstructions. Correlations are also made of the tectonic and stratigraphic evolution of the Paranáand Karroo syneclises, and the Brazilian and African marginal basins around the South Atlantic, during their initial stages. Finally, several similarities in the tectonic evolution of South America and Africa, during and after the onset of drifting, are shown to be compatible with a recent origin for the South Atlantic floor, as required by sea-floor spreading and continental drift between South America and Africa.

  8. Geological Society of Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JohnD.Bennett; NasserEnnih; S.FelixToteu

    2005-01-01

    History and objectives,The ambitious and forward-looking decision to establish a pan-African geological society was taken during the course of a conference on African geology held in Ibadan, Nigeria in 1970. A Steering Committee was convened at that meeting under the Chairmanship of Professor Russell Black of the Department of Geology, Haile Selassie University, Addis Ababa, and the provisional constitution drafted by his Committee was approved at a second conference on African geology in Addis Ababa in 1973. Thus was the Geological Society of Africa (GSA.t) born. Its first President was Professor M O Owawoye (Nigeria) and Dr S M E1 Rabba (Sudan) became its first Secretary General.

  9. Communication received from South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the press release with a statement by Dr. J.W.L. de Villiers, Executive Chairman of the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Limited, issued on 31 January 1984 and included in the letter received by the Director General of the IAEA from the Resident Representative of South Africa to the Agency on 31 January 1984. This statement refers to the transfer of nuclear material equipment and technology by South Africa to other countries and the Non-Proliferation Treaty

  10. NeuroAIDS in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, Kevin; Liner, Jeff; Hakim, James; Sankalé, Jean-Louis; Grant, Igor; Letendre, Scott; Clifford, David; Diop, Amadou Gallo; Jaye, Assan; Kanmogne,Georgette; Njamnshi, Alfred; Langford, T. Dianne; Gemechu Weyessa, Tufa; Wood, Charles; Banda, Mwanza

    2010-01-01

    In July 2009, the Center for Mental Health Research on AIDS at the National Institute of Mental Health organized and supported the meeting “NeuroAIDS in Africa.” This meeting was held in Cape Town, South Africa, and was affiliated with the 5th IAS Conference on HIV Pathogenesis, Treatment and Prevention. Presentations began with an overview of the epidemiology of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, the molecular epidemiology of HIV, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDs), and HAND treatment. ...

  11. Massive Open Online Courses for Africa by Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedict Oyo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Africa is known for inadequate access to all sorts of human needs including health, education, food, shelter, transport, security, and energy. Before the emergence of massive open online courses (MOOCs, open access to higher education (HE was exclusive of Africa. However, as a generally affordable method of post-secondary education delivery, MOOCs place the developing countries at the centre of universal access to HE. This paper provides the strategy for MOOC implementation in the context of limited resources in Africa. The strategy is clustered under five baseline requirements: national accredited MOOC curriculum, electronic content development, development of an online and offline eLearning platform, establishment and funding of MOOC coordination units at public HEIs, and establishment of MOOC access hubs at strategic locations. Emerging from this paper is the insight that a new era of universal access to HE in Africa is achievable through MOOCs only if initial requirements are met by the respective governments.

  12. South Africa and SADC : South Africa, a benevolent regional hegemon?

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Summary: With the fall of apartheid Mandela and his Government expressed the need to commit itself to the Southern African region arguing that South Africa cannot prosper in a continuous underdeveloped region. Mandela s Government expressed the importance of not dominating or using power strength towards its neighbours. The aim of this thesis was to investigate whether South Africa can be said to act as a benevolent regional hegemon in the Southern African Development Community (SADC). F...

  13. Assembly: the Symbolic Reflection of the Dispelling Politicalization of the Social Reality%《集结号》:祛政治化社会现实的象征性反映

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨深林

    2009-01-01

    对解放军的塑造违反基本的历史事实,违反基本的军事常识,这部电影抽空了主旋律的内容,隐蔽而曲折地表达着政治无意识,即所谓的是非不分的"干净主义"的历史观和"懦弱与恐惧"的英雄观.这种想象性解决是祛政治化社会现实的象征性反映.%Assembly is interpreted with Jameson's theory of the Political Unconsciousness on the political horizon from tow aspects as follow: one is the Characterization of the film about Chinese People's Liberation Army's image has distorted the historical facts. The other one is the film has violated the military commonsense knowledge. Thus, the conclusion of the paper is that the film has evacuated the content of theme melody to express its political unconsciousness which is the indiscriminate historical conception of Cleanism, the recreant and horror the concept of hero. This imaginative resolution is the symbolic reflection of the dispelling politicalization of the social reality.

  14. Puerto del Pendulo, doubtful sound: the Malaspina expedition’s visit to New Zealand in quest of the true figure of the earth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    King, Robert J.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Malaspina expedition was assigned the task of conducting a series of experiments using the pendulum to measure the strength of gravity at different locations during the course of its voyage. The immediate objective was to establish the length of a pendulum beating at seconds at latitude 45º as the basic unit of a new universal system of measures. Although the new unit, the metre, was eventually established on a different principle, the gravity experiments carried out by the expedition resulted in useful geodesic information and incidentally led to the first charting of Doubtful Sound in New Zealand.

    La expedición Malaspina tuvo por misión realizar una serie de experimentos utilizando un péndulo para medir la fuerza de la gravedad en los diferentes lugares recorridos durante el viaje. El objetivo inmediato consistió en establecer la longitud de un péndulo oscilando durante unos segundos a una latitud de 45º como unidad básica de un nuevo sistema métrico universal. Aunque la nueva unidad, el metro, fue finalmente establecida por otro principio diferente, los experimentos que llevó a cabo la expedición sobre la gravedad proporcionaron una información geodésica muy útil y por casualidad dieron lugar al primer trazado de mapa de Doubtful Sound, en Nueva Zelanda.

  15. Mineral exploration in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While the level of mineral exploration in much of Africa over the last ten to fifteen years has stagnated or declines, it has risen dramatically in South Africa. This chapter reviews this growth trend along with changes in the type of minerals sought through these exploration expenditures, and then identifies factors important to these shifts over time in the level and distribution of exploration expenditures. The chapter describes certain aspects of the South African mining industry which are important for exploration and which distinguish South Africa from other mineral-producing countries. Annual exploration expenditures for South Africa are shown in millions of current and constant (1982) and in figure 5-2 for the period from 1960 to 1983. The data include exploration for nonfuel minerals as well as two mineral fuels - uranium and coal

  16. Famine Spreads in East Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Crisis highlights deep-seated food security problems on the African continent Worsening famine in the Horn of Africa, which threatens the lives of millions in countries including Ethiopia, Djibouti,Kenya and Somalia,

  17. Erythrineae (Fabaceae in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. F. Franklin Hennessy

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available The two genera represented in the flora of southern Africa.  Erythrina L. and  Mucuna Adans. are revised. Keys to the indigenous species and the commonly cultivated exotic species are provided.

  18. South Africa and the BRICS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Johannes Dragsbæk; Owiso, Michael

    its image and unleash the developmental potential for the rest of the African continent. Comparably, South Africa is probably the least influential member of the BRICS, and this raises the following questions. First, how does South Africa´s affiliation impact on the development and benefits regarding......South Africa and the BRICS: A critical appraisal Michael Omondi Owiso and Johannes Dragsbaek Schmidt Abstract The objective of the BRICS was originally supposed to merge economic synergies and create an alternative voice in the global governance system. Debates around the ability of the BRICS...... to acquire this clout continue to dominate academia and the global discourse. Although the alliance is still in its nascent stage, scholarly attention is increasingly looking at its internal dynamics. The inclusion of South Africa being the smallest economy in the BRICS was indeed an effort to consolidate...

  19. Engendering Economic Policy in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.P. van Staveren (Irene); A. Oduro (Amo)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDespite Africa's relatively commendable growth performance since 2000, growth has not been accompanied by structural transformations. First, there has been little diversification from agriculture into industry, particularly manufacturing. Second, the poverty headcount and inequality rema

  20. Non-Interference in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Africa must be left to solve its own internal problems RECENTLY social unrest has spread widely in Arab countries in North Africa and the Middle East,which led to military actions against the Libyan regime by NATO.In addition,under the support of the UN peacekeepers and French forces,the former president of Cote d’Ivoire was arrested and power transferred to

  1. Peace and Development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ramirez, J. Martin

    2005-01-01

    Africa faces three simultaneous problems that must be addressed; economic development, disease, and peace. Drawing on the work of Jeffrey Sachs and others, this article explains the nature of each of these problems and possible solutions. A comprehensive program of action is advocated with sustained commitment to support those nations that are truly using that support to free themselves from the vicious cycles of war, disease, and poverty that currently plague much of Africa.

  2. South Africa in the BRICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Harrison

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s membership of the BRICS has stirred controversy. A number of observers have argued that South Africa is too small in terms of economy and population to be considered an authentic member of this group. In this article, the author accepts that South Africa may have no place in the analytical construct that Jim O’Neill of Goldman Sachs invented in 2001, but also argues that South Africa is a valuable and legitimate member of the political construct that we know today as the BRIC(S. South Africa has the “soft power” needed to play a constructive role in the rebalancing of geopolitical power globally, and is a potential voice for the continent of Africa. However, South Africa’s position in the BRICS must be understood in terms of its own contested role as a leader in Africa; the ambiguous outcomes of the BRICS engagement with this continent; and the danger that the BRICS may become an exclusive self-selected grouping rather than a potent force for greater global equity.

  3. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  4. Renewable sources of energy in Africa: status of development and future contribution to the energy mix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renewable sources of energy in Africa are widely regarded as alternatives to fossil fuels. Being an abundant indigenous reserve, they offer considerable savings of foreign exchange. Also, they are usually regarded as environmentally friendly and thus do not contribute significantly to the greenhouse effect. However, present contributions of renewable energy to the African energy supply remain negligible despite substantial claims often made about the potential scope for renewable energy forms. This paper is based on a comprehensive study undertaken by the United Nations Economic Commission for Africa in 1993-94. The assessment of renewable energy contributions to the energy mix has been made based on data obtained from African countries. A formula reflecting new and renewable sources of energy (NRSE) utilisation was developed and an attempt was made to delineate some zones with identical patterns of utilisation. Some of the difficulties encountered in the dissemination of NRSE and incentives introduced by African countries are also discussed. The conclusion is that African countries acknowledge the role of NRSE technologies in the development of future world energy systems. Yet the probability of NRSE assuming a greater share in energy supplies within the next two decades in Africa is doubtful. (author) 3 tabs., 1 fig., 7 refs

  5. Globalisation and local power: influences on health matters in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tal; Gilbert, Leah

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews some of the multiple influences on health issues in South Africa, placing them in the context of globalisation. By examining the complexity of factors, both domestic and global, which impact on these issues, it questions the extent to which global patterns in areas such as health policy, HIV/AIDS, health care pluralism, and neo-liberal macroeconomic policy have played out in South Africa. The identification of some of the multiple and complex forces in each case reveals a relatively consistent story of global pressures interacting with domestic realities, with some recognizably local results. There is no doubt that a full and nuanced understanding of health in South Africa requires an appreciation of developments in the global political economy, international organizations such as the WHO and World Bank, and forces which operate outside of institutions. In each case, however, the specific opportunities available to actors within the country, as well as the relative power of those actors, should be given their due consideration in analysing their potential impact on health matters.

  6. Globalisation and local power: influences on health matters in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Tal; Gilbert, Leah

    2004-03-01

    This paper reviews some of the multiple influences on health issues in South Africa, placing them in the context of globalisation. By examining the complexity of factors, both domestic and global, which impact on these issues, it questions the extent to which global patterns in areas such as health policy, HIV/AIDS, health care pluralism, and neo-liberal macroeconomic policy have played out in South Africa. The identification of some of the multiple and complex forces in each case reveals a relatively consistent story of global pressures interacting with domestic realities, with some recognizably local results. There is no doubt that a full and nuanced understanding of health in South Africa requires an appreciation of developments in the global political economy, international organizations such as the WHO and World Bank, and forces which operate outside of institutions. In each case, however, the specific opportunities available to actors within the country, as well as the relative power of those actors, should be given their due consideration in analysing their potential impact on health matters. PMID:15036812

  7. Nurturing talent in Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    2010-01-01

    The first African School of Physics draws to a close tomorrow, and I’m proud that CERN has been a part of it. From an initiative launched by Fermilab scientist Christine Darve, the African School of Physics has grown to involve institutes and universities from all over Europe and the United States.   It’s being hosted by South Africa’s National Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, at Stellenbosch, and has attracted 150 applicants from all over the continent and beyond for the 65 places available. That alone makes it a success, even before NITheP Director Frederik Scholtz uttered his words of welcome nearly three weeks ago.. When I show people the map of where CERN’s users come from, it’s gratifying to see it spanning the world, and in particular to see southern hemisphere countries starting to join the global particle physics family. Africa, however, remains notable more for the number of countries that are not involved than for those that ...

  8. Optics development in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Buah-Bassuah, P K

    2002-01-01

    The case study of the Office of External Activities in Cape Coast, Ghana has turned out to be a successful story in promoting research and capacity building of young scientists. The total involvement of many organizations show how laudable the idea has been. This centre has come to serve as a place to solve scientific problems as well as problems of national interest. It is foreseen that its activities can be a means to congregate African scientists to solve common problems. I think the bold step taken by OEA and some organs of ICTP, Trieste, Italy, Lund Institute of Technology, Sweden and Istituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata, Firenze, Italy has helped up and coming African scientists to come face to face with the challenges of Laser research. Such projects seem feasible and sustainable since experts in these areas can serve as contact persons in Africa to undertake common research using optical techniques. This project has made it possible to explore various areas in optics that can be used to solve proble...

  9. Managing change in Higher Educational Institutions in South Africa: Some challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Froneman

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Higher Education has a vital role in developing an internationally competitive economy, a more affluent society and a sturdy democracy. The newly released National Plan for Higher Education in South Africa should recognise the current social and economic status in the country to realign its mission, and to reconsider the location and target audience of the various institutions in the country, to optimally serve the educational needs of the communities. The proposals in the National Plan, however, attempts to attain in a few years what other stabilised countries took years. That poses major challenges to education management. The aim of this paper is to evaluate some aspects of the managerial skills in the national education authorities. By analysing the National Plan, and testing the views of a number of teaching staff, the conclusion is that there are serious doubts regarding the management acumen in the educational leadership and that various important aspects are left out in the Plan.

  10. On the contemporary African experience: Towards a humanistic mode of philosophy for Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ukpokolo Isaac E.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There is no doubt that Africa today is confronted with many economic, political, social, and developmental problems. The big question and the basic challenge is therefore how best we can tackle these problems especially as we begin and forge ahead in the third millennium. This paper attempts to elucidate a fundamental role that philosophy can play in this regard. It holds that philosophy, as a discipline in the humanities, can help shape fresh ideas that are humanistic in nature in the sense that they encourage free enquiry and social agreement which are vital pillars for a fair and prosperous society; for a society without such genuine humanistic values will show many of the symptoms which are present in contemporary African societies.

  11. The Study of Dispelling Fossilization in L2 Vocabulary Acquisition: A Cognitive Linguistic Approach%二语词汇习得石化消解的认知语言学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林宝珠

    2012-01-01

    Exploration of the acquisition process of L2 vocabulary shows that L1 interference is the major cause of fossilization in L2 vocabulary acquisition. The cognitive linguistic approach to fossilization dispel- ling is of theoretical and practical significance. The prototype theory, metaphor, metonymy, and image-sche- ma transformations combined together can adequately elucidate sense relations of polysemous words. Cog- nitive linguistic approach to L2 vocabulary acquisition is useful for L2 learners to establish a systematic lexical network,to acquire the cognitive mechanism behind language,to strengthen the direct interrelation between L2 semantics and L2 conceptual system,to improve lexical competence,and finally to avoid fossil- ization.%词汇习得过程分析表明母语介入是二语词汇习得石化的主要原因,用认知语言学理论指导二语词汇习得石化消解研究具有重要的理论和现实意义。典型理论、隐喻、转喻与意象图式结合起来可较好地解释多义词义项之间的理据及不同词汇之间的关系。认知语言学角度的二语词汇习得有助于学习者构建较为系统的词汇网络,习得语言事实背后的认知机制,加强二语词汇的语义与二语概念直接紧密的相通,理解和生成词汇,提高词汇能力,防止词汇习得中的石化现象。

  12. China-Africa Seeking Equality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the context of today’s globalization,peace and stability will not prevail in the world unless they first materialize in Africa.This is the view of Liu Guijin,Special Representative of the Chinese Government for African Affairs.As long as the African continent is mired in pov- erty,wars and chaos,the world will not be able to embrace common prosperity,said Liu.He is calling for the international community to assist the continent in resolving its problems with concrete actions,an endeavor that requires the collaboration of all countries and regions, including those from Europe,China and Africa.Liu recently made these and other assessments on the China-Africa connection at a joint interview with CHINAFRICA reporter Wang Zhe and Beijing Review reporter Yan Wei.The main points follow:

  13. South Africa makes some decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-08-01

    The potential heritage of apartheid still affects energy availability in South Africa. This article describes a new Energy Policy White paper, to be presented to Parliament, which will start to rectify current inequalities. Most of the black citizens have no access to electricity, while the affluent white minority have cheap electricity readily available to them. The complexities of funding necessary changes are addressed. South Africa`s low-cost coal reserves, mined from opencast pits next to power stations, are likely to continue to be exploited. As yet the country`s solar potential is unlikely to be developed because of the availability of coal. The production of electricity and the future of liquid fuel industries are likely to remain in crisis, even after the White Paper`s implementation. (UK)

  14. The Exceptional State in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suzuki, Shogo

    2013-01-01

    China's relations with African states have undergone significant changes in recent years. China has projected its relationship with Africa as one of equality and ‘mutual help’. Such perceptions of foreign policy stem from the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence and the shared experience...... of imperialist domination and economic underdevelopment. Moreover, various public statements by China's elites suggest that China is expected to play a much more prominent, even exceptional role in Africa. This purportedly entails moving beyond the hegemonic West's interventionist aid or security policies......, and is also implicitly designed to highlight the West's shortcomings in promoting African economic growth or peace. Yet where does this perception of exceptionalism come from? Why does Beijing feel that it has to play a leading role in Africa's development? How can Beijing distinguish itself from the nations...

  15. China-South Africa Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Our Staff Reporter

    2008-01-01

    <正>On April 24, the founding ceremony of the China-South Africa Friendship Association (CSAFA) was held in Beijing on the occasion of the 10th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa.

  16. The dynamics of EMS in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa.......The paper presents some of the empirical findings of four companies in the automobile industry in South Africa....

  17. Aid, employment, and poverty reduction in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Page, John; Shimeles, Abebe

    2014-01-01

    Growth and poverty reduction in Africa are weakly linked. This paper argues that the reason is that Africa has failed to create enough good jobs. Structural transformation - the relative growth of employment in high productivity sectors - has not featured in Africa's post-1995 growth story. As a result, the region's fastest growing economies have the least responsiveness of employment to growth. The role of development aid in this context is problematic. Across Africa more aid went to countri...

  18. Christianity in Africa: a historical appraisal

    OpenAIRE

    Samson A Fatokun

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa), this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christi...

  19. CPAFFC Delegation Visits South Africa And Namibia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang; Ruimin

    2015-01-01

    At the invitation of the South Africa-Chin a Friendship Association(SACFA)and the Erongo Region of Namibia,aCPAFFC delegation led by Vice President Feng Zuoku paid a visit last November.South Africa,known as the"Rainbow Nation",is the second largest economy in Africa.China is its largest trade partner,while South Africa is China’s largest regional trading partner.

  20. Foreign Direct Investment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jeppesen, Soeren; Claire MAINGUY

    2008-01-01

    Little is known about impact of FDI on economic development in Africa compared to other developing countries, which the paper seeks to address by focusing on examples of impact in Mali and South Africa. The arugment put forward is that the impact has to be identified at the level of the industry or sector and the level of the firm with regard to employment effect, income generation and skills development. The mining and electricity and railway sectors in Mali are investigated and compared to ...

  1. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly underestimated. Our discussion...

  2. South Africa; Selected Economic Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1996-01-01

    This Selected Economic Issues paper examines economic development in South Africa during 1995–96. The paper highlights that in 1995, the economy of South Africa grew by 3.3 percent, the third consecutive year of economic growth, and it is expected to grow between 3½ and 4 percent in 1996. Some aspects of the unemployment problem are addressed in this paper. The paper also focuses on the implications for policy of the steps taken in 1994 and 1995 to establish an outward-oriented economy, af...

  3. The Regionalization of Africa: Delineating Africa's Subregions Using Airline Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Pieter R.; Derudder, Ben; Witlox, Frank J.

    2011-01-01

    Current regionalizations of Africa have limitations in that they are attribute-based and regions are delineated according to national boundaries. Taking the world city network approach as starting point, it is possible to use relational data (i.e., information about the relationships between cities) rather than attribute data, and moreover, it…

  4. Homophobic Africa? Toward a more nuanced view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Awondo; P. Geschiere; G. Reid

    2012-01-01

    The recent emergence of homosexuality as a central issue in public debate in various parts of Africa has encouraged a stereotypical image of one homophobic Africa, often placed in opposition to a tolerant or depraved West. What is striking is that this image of Africa as homophobic is promoted by bo

  5. Movers and shakers : social movements in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Kessel, van W.M.J.

    2009-01-01

    Mobilization against apartheid in South Africa, the campaign against blood diamonds, the women's movement in Liberia where Africa's first female head of State was elected in 2005 - these are all examples of socially based movements that have had a major effect on Africa's recent history. Yet the mos

  6. Economics, scientific doubt and history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, Frank Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Subjects such as public finance, corporate finance, banking theory, risk management and management accounting are all largely based on the neoclassical approach. Most recent appointed professors have started their work with ideas based on a neoclassical fundament and its methodological preferences.

  7. Economics, scientific doubt and history

    OpenAIRE

    Graaf, Frank Jan de

    2010-01-01

    Subjects such as public finance, corporate finance, banking theory, risk management and management accounting are all largely based on the neoclassical approach. Most recent appointed professors have started their work with ideas based on a neoclassical fundament and its methodological preferences. Neoclassical economic thinking is not bad in itself. It has brought much good, even. However, now the downside of neoclassical theory has occurred. Failing financial markets have plunged the global...

  8. Responsible investing in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Viviers, S.; Bosch, J.K.; Smit, vd M E.; Buijs, A.

    2009-01-01

    Given growing interest in the phenomenon of Responsible Investing (RI), both locally and internationally, the purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of the RI sector in South Africa. It focuses on the definition and characteristics of RI within the South African context; the size and nature

  9. ICTs for Agriculture in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zyl, Omri Van; Alexander, Trish; Graaf, Liezl De; Mukherjee, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    The strategic application of information and communications technology (ICT) to the agricultural industry, the largest economic sector in most African countries, offers the best opportunity for economic growth and poverty alleviation on the continent. Food security is paramount for the survival of individuals, families, and ultimately nations, yet Africa's agriculture sector has been in de...

  10. Television, Censorship and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giffard, C. Anthony; Cohen, Lisa

    Network television news has often been accused of inciting and prolonging incidents of public violence, whether riots or terrorism, and in South Africa this type of thinking has led to increasingly stringent restrictions on both domestic and foreign media covering the violent unrest there. A study determined a chronology of events and analyzed the…

  11. The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015

    OpenAIRE

    World Economic Forum; World Bank; African Development Bank; Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

    2015-01-01

    The Africa Competitiveness Report 2015 comes out at a promising time for the continent: for 15 years growth rates have averaged over 5 percent, and rapid population growth holds the promise of a large emerging consumer market as well as an unprecedented labor force that - if leveraged - can provide significant growth opportunities. Moreover, the expansion of innovative business models, suc...

  12. Christian Higher Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stuart; Mutua, Isaac N.

    2012-01-01

    Africa is commonly seen as a continent of rampant political corruption, poverty, violence, and ethnic conflicts rising at times to genocide. There is some truth in this view although the real picture is diverse, with the situation varying considerably from country to country. However, the more important question seldom asked is: What are the…

  13. Forecasting rodent outbreaks in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leirs, Herwig; Verhagen, Ron; Verheyen, Walter;

    1996-01-01

    1. Rainfall data were collated for years preceding historical outbreaks of Mastomys rats in East Africa in order to test the hypothesis that such outbreaks occur after long dry periods. 2. Rodent outbreaks were generally not preceded by long dry periods. 3. Population dynamics of Mastomys natalen...

  14. Madagascar Adventure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  15. Narrative Cartoons. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKoski, David

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  16. Water Pressure. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water Pressure,"…

  17. Reducing postpartum hemorrhage in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeff; Lalonde, A

    2005-01-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is the leading cause of maternal mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. This is being addressed by leading professional organizations, which point to the importance of a skilled attendant at birth. But they also emphasize that the active management of the third stage of labor...

  18. Conservation Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sewell, Keira

    2012-01-01

    Lawrence Anthony is a conservationist for whom actions speak far louder than words. An imposing figure, Anthony does not take "no" for an answer and uses his commitment, enthusiasm and indefatigable drive to change situations, both in his native South Africa and around the world. Anthony has worked tirelessly alongside tribal leaders over many…

  19. TUBERCULOSIS IN AFRICA - ANY NEWS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERWERF, TS

    1994-01-01

    The tuberculosis situation in Africa in the AIDS era has become bleak. The tuberculosis incidence has increased in most sub-Saharan African countries, diagnosis has become more difficult, response to treatment, though initially good, is eventually less effective, and patient compliance, which has be

  20. Collection Development: Sporty South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Loraine; Pulver, A. Issac

    2010-01-01

    This summer, sports-crazy South Africa, recently named by the "New York Times" as one of the "31 Places To Go in 2010," will become the first African nation to host the FIFA World Cup. Soccer fans making the trip will be rewarded with world-class facilities, modern infrastructure, and a nation of startling contrasts and spectacular beauty. For the…

  1. Development in China and Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Shiwei

    2014-01-01

    My dissertation studies the development of China and Africa over the past two decades. First, China has maintained a high rate of economic growth in the past twenty years. At the same time, we observe a rapid growth in the African export flows to China, even faster than those to the US and EU. We ar

  2. Conocimientos sobre VIH/SIDA en adolescentes urbanos: consenso cultural de dudas e incertidumbres Knowledge of HIV/AIDS among urban adolescents: cultural consensus of doubts and uncertainties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramiro Caballero-Hoyos

    2003-01-01

    responses showed: a similar knowledge on casual transmission, AIDS characteristics, and higher risk in sex workers; and b discrepancies regarding doubts and uncertainties about condom protection, distinction between HIV and AIDS, and HIV transmission in health clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge was homogeneous and mainly medically oriented across all SS. Nevertheless, there were elements of doubt and uncertainty that require differentiated informative interventions.

  3. Uranium in South Africa: 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique locally developed uranium enrichment process wil enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R300 million was spend on exploration during 1987. This was spend primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the RAR and EAR-I categories were 536 500 t u. Production during 1987 was 3963 t u. Although a production peaking at over 1100 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceiling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  4. Uranium in South Africa: 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa's participation in the nuclear industry was limited to the production of uranium and research, with minor commercial activities. The commissioning of the Koeberg Nuclear power station in 1984 placed South Africa firmly on the path of commercial nuclear power generation. A unique, locally developed uranium enrichment process will enable South Africa to be self-sufficient in its nuclear-fuel needs. Uranium has always been of secondary importance to gold as a target commodity in the exploration of the quartz-pebble conglomerates. In the Witwatersrand Basin it is estimated that in excess of R100 million was spent on exploration during 1985. This was spent primarily in the search for gold but as many of the gold reefs are uraniferous, new uranium resources are being discovered concurrently with those of gold. Uranium mineralization is present in rocks which encompass almost the whole of the geological history of South Africa. Significant mineralization is restricted to five fairly well-defined time periods. Each period is characterized by a distinct type or combination of types of mineralization. Resource estimates are divided into separate categories that reflect different levels of confidence in the quantities reported. The resource categories are further separated into levels of exploitability based on the estimated cost of their exploitation. A major part (87%) of South Africa's uranium resources is present as a by-product of gold in the quartz-pebble conglomerates of the Witwatersrand Basin. The uranium resources in the reasonably assured resources (RAR) and estimated additional resources - category I (EAR-I) catogories were 483 300 t U. Production during 1985 was 4880 t U. Although a production peaking at over 1200 t U/a is theoretically attainable, it is considered, from market projections, that a production ceilling of 10 000 t U/a would be more realistic

  5. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  6. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  7. Golden South Africa,Great Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey Guo

    2008-01-01

    @@ On the occasion of the 10th anniversary of diplomatic relations between China and South Africa in 2008,China is celebrating"South Africa Week"to com memorate.H.E.Dr.Nkosazana Dlamini Zuma,the minister of South Africa,and the delegation attended the series of activities in China."South Africa Week"got great success and more and more Chinese people focus on the beautiful and attractive country-South Africa.Dr.Ayanda Ntsaluba,the Director General in Foreign Affairs of South Africa shared his view on the bilateral relations and cooperation,and the development of South Africa with the iournalist of China's Foreign Trade magazine.

  8. Analysis and Illustration of the Doubts in Sanguo Zhi Wu Shu%《三国志·吴书》疑义脞录

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高鑫

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares Sanguo Zhi ~ Wu Shu with such books as Zi Zhi Tongiian, Jiankang Shi Lu, Houhan Shu, Houhan Ji, and Jin Shu to locate and correct the mistakes in the former. It also identifies and explains such issues as historical events, chronology, geography and figures, in order to clarify the doubts in Wu Shu, understand the history of Wu and elicit discussions and correction from peers and experts.%以《三国志·吴书》与《资治通鉴》、《建康实录》、《后汉书》、《后汉纪》、《晋书》诸相关文献进行相互比勘,就其中历史事件、纪年、地理、人物等方面之疑义稍作考校、疏解,略参浅见,以期为校正《吴书》舛误及清晰了解三国吴之历史有所预备资料,藉求专家同好指正。

  9. Africa : Irrigation investment Needs in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    You, Liang Zhi

    2008-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, rainfall is highly variable and, in many places, plainly in sufficient. Although irrigation has the potential to boost agricultural yields by at least 50 percent, food production in the region is almost entirely rain-fed. The irrigated area, extending over 6 million hectares, makes up just 5 percent of the total cultivated area, compared to 37 percent in Asia and 14 ...

  10. Burn care in South Africa: a micro cosmos of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, H; Cox, S G; Numanoglu, A; Berg, A M

    2014-07-01

    Burn injuries in Africa are common with between 300,000 and 17.5 million children under 5 years sustaining burn injuries annually, resulting in a high estimated fatality rate. These burns are largely environmentally conditioned and therefore preventable. The Western Cape Province in South Africa can be regarded as a prototype of paediatric burns seen on the continent, with large numbers, high morbidity and mortality rates and an area inclusive of all factors contributing to this extraordinary burden of injury. Most of the mechanisms to prevent burns are not easily modified due to the restraint of low socio-economic homes, overcrowding, unsafe appliances, multiple and complex daily demands on families and multiple psycho-social stressors. Children burns with an average annual rate of 6.0/10,000 child-years. Burn care in South Africa is predominantly emergency driven and variable in terms of organization, clinical management, facilities and staffing. Various treatment strategies were introduced. The management of HIV positive children poses a problem, as well as the conflict of achieving equity of burn care for all children. Without alleviating poverty, developing minimum standards for housing, burn education, safe appliances and legislation, we will not be able to reduce the "curse of poor people" and will continue to treat the consequences.

  11. Dispelling the chronic Lyme disease myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemperman, Melissa M; Bakken, Johan S; Kravitz, Gary R

    2008-07-01

    Lyme disease is a tick-borne illness endemic to Minnesota that can have potentially severe complications. As the incidence of Lyme disease continues to increase, it is important for physicians in Minnesota to become familiar with its clinical aspects, including the concept of "chronic Lyme disease." Chronic Lyme disease is a misnomer that is often applied to patients with nonspecific presentations who may or may not have a history of infection with Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent that causes Lyme disease. When a patient does present with persistent nonspecific symptoms attributed to chronic Lyme disease, clinicians should ascertain the presence of objective manifestations, obtain laboratory results, and get a history of tick exposure. If active infection with B. burgdorferi is unlikely, they should avoid prescribing empiric antibiotic therapy and instead thoroughly evaluate the patient for other possible causes of the complaints and recommend appropriate care.

  12. Abused women: dispelling myths and encouraging intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M C; Ryan, J

    1989-05-01

    Our society abounds with myths and misperceptions in relation to the battering of women. These myths impede the identification of women who are experiencing violence and abuse, and inhibit appropriate intervention. Abuse is not too private a matter to assess for, nor does abuse affect only poor black or Hispanic women. No woman deserves to be beaten. Women do not like or seek out abuse. Abused women are courageous, competent women; what abused women have in common is that they are threatened and controlled by a male partner and live under the constant fear of violence and abuse. Raising one's consciousness about the victimization and oppression of women in our society, and uncovering the myths which leave practitioners powerless and ineffective agents of change for women are important tasks for health care providers. By focusing attention on this enormous health problem, clinicians can provide a leadership role in using health care responses that actually empower women to take control of their own lives. PMID:2726017

  13. Dispelling the myth of a global consumer

    OpenAIRE

    Willer, Ragnar Karl

    2006-01-01

    Welche Bedeutung hat Kultur für das Konsumverhalten? Die hier vorgelegte Auseinandersetzung mit dieser Frage im Kontext der Mischkultur Indonesiens zeichnet sich aus, dass sie über die Binnenräume der jeweiligen Wissenschaftsfächer, wie der Südostasienkunde und der Betriebswirtschaftslehre, weit hinausragt und für die Beantwortung der Fragestellung ein neu entwickeltes analytisches Diagramm zur strukturierten Analyse kultureller Einflüsse auf das Konsumverhalten aufweist, das die Möglichke...

  14. FGM: dispelling the myths; exploring the facts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon-Wright, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    Female genital mutilation is a process that affects our practice. It is becoming more common in our ever-diversifying population and therefore education is vitally important to be able to put robust care plans in place. Understanding the psychological and physical difficulties experienced by women of childbearing age can help us to improve the care that we, as maternity healthcare professionals, can deliver. Looking at current research, this article examines some of the presumed cultural and societal beliefs behind the procedure and highlights some new evidence that change is welcomed by women and their families. PMID:26336759

  15. Dispelling myths concerning pigmented skin lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, V; Russo, T; Giacomel, J; Lallas, A; Alfano, R; Argenziano, G

    2016-06-01

    The history of medicine is replete with examples of debunked myths, and in daily clinical dermatological practice, we must still counter many misconceptions regarding pigmented lesions, both with patients and other medical practitioners. Debunking myths and attempting to explain the reasons for these erroneous beliefs are the purposes of this review. The literature review has been partially guided by the results obtained from an online questionnaire conducted on an Italian website (www.vediamocichiara.it) from February 15, 2015 to March 15, 2015. The remaining discussed were selected on the basis of the existing literature and our personal experience. In order to explore these misconceptions, the following are the seven most salient questions that require investigation: (i) Is it dangerous to excise moles?; (ii) Is it dangerous to traumatize moles?; (iii) Are plantar moles worrisome?; (iv) Is it necessary to selectively apply sunscreen to moles?; (v) Is it inadvisable to partially biopsy a melanoma?; (vi) Do moles turn into melanoma?; and (vii) Is it necessary to perform sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanomas and for atypical Spitz naevi? Myths are ubiquitous, being prevalent in dermatological practice, with many of them concerning pigmented skin lesions. By encouraging critical analysis by patients and medical practitioners, the birth and perpetuation of myths can potentially be minimized, for the ultimate benefit of patients. This requires a scientific approach to be rigorously applied to dermatology, with critical questioning of unsubstantiated hypotheses including those emanating from the mass media as well as from respected sources. PMID:26840917

  16. Dispelling the magic : Towards memory without capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taatgen, NA

    2001-01-01

    The limited capacity for unrelated things is a fact that needs to be explained by a general theory of memory; rather than being itself used as a means of explaining data. A pure storage capacity is therefore not the right assumption for memory research. Instead an explanation is needed of how capaci

  17. Can GM sorghum impact Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Gerda M; Viljoen, Christopher D

    2008-02-01

    It is said that genetic modification (GM) of grain sorghum has the potential to alleviate hunger in Africa. To this end, millions of dollars have been committed to developing GM sorghum. Current developments in the genetic engineering of sorghum are similar to efforts to improve cassava and other traditional African crops, as well as rice in Asia. On closer analysis, GM sorghum is faced with the same limitations as 'Golden Rice' (GM rice) in the context of combating vitamin A deficiency (VAD) efficiently and sustainably. Thus, it is questionable whether the cost of developing GM sorghum can be justified when compared to the cost of investing in sustainable agricultural practice in Africa. PMID:18191263

  18. Aid and Authoritarianism in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In 2013 almost half of Africa’s top aid recipients were ruled by authoritarian regimes. While the West may claim to promote democracy and human rights, in practice major bilateral and international donors, such as USAID , DFID , the World Bank and the European Commission, have seen their aid...... policies become ever more entangled with the survival of their authoritarian protégés. Local citizens thus find themselves at the receiving end of a compromise between aid agencies and government elites, in which development policies are shaped in the interests of maintaining the status quo. Aid...... and Authoritarianism in Africa sheds light on the political intricacies and moral dilemmas raised by the relationship between foreign aid and autocratic rule in Africa. Through contributions by leading experts exploring the revival of authoritarian development politics in Ethiopia, Uganda, Rwanda, Cameroon, Mozambique...

  19. Mansonella perstans filariasis in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonsen, Paul E; Onapa, Ambrose W; Asio, Santa Maria

    2011-09-01

    Mansonella perstans is a vector-borne human filarial nematode, transmitted by tiny blood-sucking flies (biting midges). It is widespread in many parts of Sub-Saharan Africa and also occurs in parts of Central and South America. Despite the commonness of this parasite very few studies have been carried out on its epidemiology and on the morbidity resulting from it, and only few thorough drug trials have been conducted to look for effective and suitable drugs and drug regimens for treatment and control. Here, we review currently available knowledge on M. perstans infections in Africa, including documented aspects of biology, vectors, transmission, diagnosis, epidemiology, morbidity and treatment. It is concluded that there is an urgent need for more research on this widespread but greatly neglected infection in order to properly assess its public health significance and as a background for identifying and recommending optimal means and strategies for treatment and control. PMID:20152790

  20. Poverty in a Rising Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Beegle, Kathleen; Christiaensen, Luc; Dabalen, Andrew; Gaddis, Isis

    2015-01-01

    This report begins by evaluating Africa’s data landscape to monitor poverty. It maps out and assesses in detail the availability and quality of the data needed to track monetary poverty (expenditures, prices, GDP) and also reflects on the governance and political processes that underpin the current situation. Carrying the work from the first chapter forward, it then evaluates in whether poverty statistics in Africa look different, if one takes seriously issues of data comparability, data qual...

  1. Magnetic Separation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Corrans, Ian James; Svoboda, Jan

    1985-01-01

    The use of magnetic separators in the various mineral processing facilities in South Africa is described. A large number are used to recover medium in dense medium plants. The manufacture of various types of magnetic separation machines by three local suppliers is highlighted. The potential use of highgradient and/or high–intensity magnetic separation in the recovery of gold, uranium, and phosphate minerals is discussed.

  2. Africa and Precambrian biological evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Knoll

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available African sedimentary rocks and their contained fossils have played a fundamental role in the unravelling of Precambrian biological history. Various lines of evidence including stromatolites, filamentous and coccoidal microfossils, stable isotope ratios, organic carbon distribution, and oxide facies iron formation suggest that a complex prokaryotic ecosystem fueled by photosynthesis, and perhaps including aerobic photoautotrophs, existed as early as 3 500 m.y. ago. The primary sources of data on early Archean life are rock sequences in southern Africa and Australia. The diversity of later Archean (ca. 2 700 m.y. communities is attested to by abundant and varied stromatolites found in Zimbabwe. The extensive growth and consolidation of continents that heralded the Proterozoic Eon had profound effects on the earth’s biota. Primary productivity must have increased substantially, resulting in the establishment of an 02-rich atmosphere, and, subsequently, the radiation of aerobic respirers. Southern African sequences provide critical evidence bearing on this crust/atmosphere/biota interaction; however, the best known microfossils of this age come from North America. Upper Proterozoic sedimentary rocks abound in Africa. Stromatolites from northwestern Africa have been well studied; however, microfossil occurrences remain but sketchily described. Contemporaneous sequences from Scandinavia and Australia document the initial radiation of eukaryotes in the planktonic realm, as well as a terminal Precambrian episode of extinction among plankters. Early heterotrophic protists are known from several continents. The Nama Group of South West Africa/Namibia contains important evidence of early invertebrates. In general, Precambrian evolution can be viewed as a series of increasingly elevated biological plateaus connected by steps marking relatively short periods of evolutionary innovation and radiation. With each step, communities have increased in complexity

  3. Quality Management in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kwanten, Tine

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT This dissertation addresses something which is extremely important for both individual enterprises as well as entire nations i.e. the ability to deliver quality goods and services. Notwithstanding its geographical distant location, South Africa is increasingly becoming a more important participant in the global economy and increasingly relying on export. Local businesses therefore need to meet international quality standards. For this matter this dissertation investigated the sta...

  4. Assessing women empowerment in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-01-01

    Programme (UNDP) as a universal benchmark for assessing gender inequality. It has been highlighted that agency is a necessary component in the conceptualisation and realisation of women empowerment particularly in Africa. The article further demonstrates that the GEM has capitalist, elitist and Eurocentric...... empowerment measures and indicators should be sensitive to the context and values of those it seeks to assess rather than adopting abstract mappings that tend to reduce and universalise all women in all societies....

  5. Aerosol Transport Over Equatorial Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, C. K.; Tyson, P. D.; Annegarn, H. J.; Kinyua, A. M.; Piketh, S.; King, M.; Helas, G.

    1999-01-01

    Long-range and inter-hemispheric transport of atmospheric aerosols over equatorial Africa has received little attention so far. Most aerosol studies in the region have focussed on emissions from rain forest and savanna (both natural and biomass burning) and were carried out in the framework of programs such as DECAFE (Dynamique et Chimie Atmospherique en Foret Equatoriale) and FOS (Fires of Savanna). Considering the importance of this topic, aerosols samples were measured in different seasons at 4420 meters on Mt Kenya and on the equator. The study is based on continuous aerosol sampling on a two stage (fine and coarse) streaker sampler and elemental analysis by Particle Induced X-ray Emission. Continuous samples were collected for two seasons coinciding with late austral winter and early austral spring of 1997 and austral summer of 1998. Source area identification is by trajectory analysis and sources types by statistical techniques. Major meridional transports of material are observed with fine-fraction silicon (31 to 68 %) in aeolian dust and anthropogenic sulfur (9 to 18 %) being the major constituents of the total aerosol loading for the two seasons. Marine aerosol chlorine (4 to 6 %), potassium (3 to 5 %) and iron (1 to 2 %) make up the important components of the total material transport over Kenya. Minimum sulfur fluxes are associated with recirculation of sulfur-free air over equatorial Africa, while maximum sulfur concentrations are observed following passage over the industrial heartland of South Africa or transport over the Zambian/Congo Copperbelt. Chlorine is advected from the ocean and is accompanied by aeolian dust recirculating back to land from mid-oceanic regions. Biomass burning products are transported from the horn of Africa. Mineral dust from the Sahara is transported towards the Far East and then transported back within equatorial easterlies to Mt Kenya. This was observed during austral summer and coincided with the dying phase of 1997/98 El

  6. Sponsorship evaluation in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele D. Berndt

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Sponsorships are regarded as a marketing communications activity. This is seem as an investment made by an organisation that need to be evaluated in terms of its return and contribution. Sport sponsorships have increased in South Africa since re-admittance to the international sports arena. There are various objectives for sponsorships. The identification of these objectives is important for the evaluation of sponsorships. The articles proposes some guidelines for the evaluation of sponsorships.

  7. Understanding South Africa's Economic Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Dani Rodrik

    2006-01-01

    South Africa has undergone a remarkable transformation since its democratic transition in 1994, but economic growth and employment generation have been disappointing. Most worryingly, unemployment is currently among the highest in the world. While the proximate cause of high unemployment is that prevailing wages levels are too high, the deeper cause lies elsewhere, and is intimately connected to the inability of the South African to generate much growth momentum in the past decade. High unemp...

  8. Regional energy integration in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-06-15

    This report is the first publication produced within the framework of the WEC's Africa Regional Action Plan as part of the 2005-2007 Work Programme. Presently, over 80% of the total energy consumption in Africa is based on traditional biomass used mostly for cooking. This lack of access to modern energy is holding back economic and social development for 1.6 billion people around the world. The situation is particularly grave in sub-Sahara Africa where over 80% of the population lives in rural areas and the average electrification rate is less than 5%. At least 50 million new connections are needed to provide electricity to supply the non-connected areas in Africa. The over 700 million potential customers represented by these new connections provide a major business opportunity. It is now widely recognised that development assistance, bilateral aid, multilateral financing institutions, a multitude of international aid agencies, NGOs and others have failed to make a significant difference. A new approach is required, otherwise the number of people without access to electricity will continue to grow, and none of the Millennium Development Goals set by the United Nations will be achieved. This regional report highlights key factors that affect cooperative energy projects. The geopolitical context, investment climate and appropriate regulation are just as important as the institutional and technical capacity required to execute many of these projects. The report identifies four key benefits of regional integration: improved security of supply and accessibility; increased economic efficiency; enhanced environmental quality and broader development of renewable resources.

  9. Administrative bias in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E S Nwauche

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the interpretation of section 6(2(aii of the Promotion of Administrative Justice Act which makes an administrator “biased or reasonably suspected of bias” a ground of judicial review. In this regard, the paper reviews the determination of administrative bias in South Africa especially highlighting the concept of institutional bias. The paper notes that inspite of the formulation of the bias ground of review the test for administrative bias is the reasonable apprehension test laid down in the case of President of South Africa v South African Rugby Football Union(2 which on close examination is not the same thing. Accordingly the paper urges an alternative interpretation that is based on the reasonable suspicion test enunciated in BTR Industries South Africa (Pty Ltd v Metal and Allied Workers Union and R v Roberts. Within this context, the paper constructs a model for interpreting the bias ground of review that combines the reasonable suspicion test as interpreted in BTR Industries and R v Roberts, the possibility of the waiver of administrative bias, the curative mechanism of administrative appeal as well as some level of judicial review exemplified by the jurisprudence of article 6(1 of the European Convention of Human Rights, especially in the light of the contemplation of the South African Magistrate Court as a jurisdictional route of judicial review.

  10. Soybeans production in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dlamini Thula Sizwe

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Soybeans are a small but important and growing component of South Africa’s agricultural economy. Large-scale production of soybeans did not begin until the late 1990s in South Africa, and area planted to soybeans has expanded rapidly. Rising yields supported by a favourable agricultural policy environment backing the commercialisation and use of agricultural biotechnologies, has facilitated a smooth transition of commercial farmers from the production of traditional grains to soybean production and to be able to rotate soybeans with other grain crops to maximise profits. Although soybeans are produced in nearly all the 9 provinces in South Africa, there is significant variation in output from one province to the other. Using data from the Department of Agriculture Fisheries and Forestry (DAFF, this paper examines the production efficiency of each province with respect to area under production, output and yield per hectare for the past 25 years. Despite the potential of the former homelands in soybean production, there is little progress owing to infrastructural problems and unfamiliarity with the crop. In order to improve production and consumption of soybeans in these areas of South Africa, it may help to set up soybean out-grower schemes, which will encourage smallholder farmers to pool their output and earn income from soybeans whilst learning the food value of the crop.

  11. How Environmental "Merchants of Doubt" Use Peer-Reviewed Publication as a Means to Commandeer Scientific Debate: A Case Study of a Publishing Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, D. I.

    2015-12-01

    This year, the USEPA reported no systemic problem with respect to pollution of potable waters by solutes or natural gas resulting from unconventional drilling for oil and gas, despite attempts by anti-fracking opponents to frighten the public about water pollution from rare circumstances (much as those who have cherry- picked climate data to suggest burning fossil fuels does not affect climate). Scientific "merchants of doubt" have figured out how to use peer-reviewed papers to advocate their bias, regardless of the side for which they advocate. I present a personal example. Prior to the EPA report, authors of a highly-cited peer-reviewed paper argued that more dissolved methane than usual should be expected in ground water located close to unconventional gas wells. This paper figured prominently in the New York State's recent ban on fracking. To test the reproducibility of this conclusion, colleagues and I redid the study but by sampling ~13,000 NE Pennsylvania domestic wells, densely arrayed near ~800 gas wells. Not surprising, we found no systemic relationship between methane in drinking water and proximity to gas wells; failed gas wells actually are rare. The peer reviewed system of publication has been broken for years, because of continual pressure to publish more to achieve academic success coupled to a flood of international submissions. Editors routinely have a difficult time finding senior scientists to agree to review papers, and so they wind up relying more on reviewers suggested by authors, who can and have gamed the peer review system through it. To resolve this problem, I suggest that journal editors be more far more draconian before releasing papers for review and that they enforce clear rubrics to insure that reviewers address reviews properly. Finally, conflict of interest disclosure needs to be clearer, since common assumption that bias inherently evolves from funded research outside of Federal and non-profit organizations, appears to be, at

  12. Assessment of shale-gas resources of the Karoo Province, South Africa and Lesotho, Africa, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownfield, Michael E.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Pitman, Janet K.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Finn, Thomas M.

    2016-07-08

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resource of 44.5 trillion cubic feet of shale gas in the Karoo Province of South Africa and Lesotho, Africa.

  13. Christianity in Africa: a historical appraisal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson A Fatokun

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the author challenges the popular public conception that Christianity in Africa is a latecomer introduced only with the advent of colonialism. By tracing the origins of the Christian faith in both North and sub-Saharan Africa (including, North-Central and West Africa, this paper seeks to show that Christianity has been in Africa virtually since its inception and that the continent� s own adherents to this faith played an important role in the formation and advance of Christianity elsewhere. Moreover, Christianity in Africa can be found almost everywhere on the continent and indigenous varieties of the tradition developed which allowed it to become as part of Africa as African traditional religions.

  14. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges

  15. Uranium in a changing South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    In the early 1980s, the Republic of South Africa was the world's second-largest producer of uranium, and the country historically has been a major exporter of many other important mineral resources, including gold, platinum group metals, manganese, vanadium, and gem-quality diamonds. Yet political turbulence in the latter part of the decade caused economic stress on South Africa. Apartheid, the country's disenfranchisement of the black majority, put South Africa in the international spotlight. The world responded by implementing economic sanctions against South Africa, to pressure its government into change. In the past several years, South Africa has made significant progress toward ending apartheid. As a result, many US economic sanctions previously maintained against the country have been lifted. However, economic troubles continue to plague South Africa; repealing sanctions has done little to alleviate its economic and political challenges.

  16. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  17. Emigration dynamics in southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milazi, D

    1995-01-01

    This review of the dynamics of international migration in Southern Africa focuses on four aspects of labor migration: 1) while migrant workers suffer from discrimination and lack of protection, there are few alternatives for them; 2) the regulations imposed by the Chamber of Mines in South Africa favor the mining industry at the expense of the workers; 3) worker supplier states have few options for negotiating a commercialized migration policy to achieve economic benefits; and 4) foreign mine workers must unionize in order to escape perpetual subordination. The review opens with a consideration of how migrant mine workers from Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland have provided a source of cheap labor which has enhanced the economic prosperity of South Africa. The role of the Chamber of Mines in regulating the supply of labor and employment policy for its members is described. Attention is then turned to Lesotho where land pressure has exacerbated poverty levels. Large-scale migration has led the citizens of Lesotho to consider it a place to live or retire to, not a place to work. Labor migration from Lesotho is organized, is supported by the government, is recurrent, and remains a viable alternative despite faltering demand. The discussion of Lesotho includes a consideration of its political, economic, and demographic situation as well as of ecological factors. Briefer analyses are then provided for Botswana, Swaziland, and Mozambique. The receiving country, South Africa, is shown to be suffering a decline in economic growth which is marked by widespread unemployment. More than 250,000 Whites are prospective emigrants from South Africa. After considering the issues surrounding refugees, regional concerns created by changing economic and political scenarios, and labor strategies which could be adopted by supplier states, the report reiterates a series of recommendations which arose from two major conferences on the problem of unemployment. It is concluded that the

  18. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  19. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    OpenAIRE

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-01-01

    If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF), it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor). According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published ...

  20. Childhood cataract in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Courtright, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Investment by organizations and agencies has led to a growing body of evidence and information to assist ophthalmologists and others to meet the needs of children with cataract in Africa. The geographic distribution of research, training, and programme development across Africa has been uneven; investment has been greatest in eastern and southern Africa. Population based surveys (using key informants) suggest that 15–35% of childhood blindness is due to congenital or developmental cataract. T...

  1. New Development in Sino-Africa Relations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Jinfu

    2008-01-01

    Over the past five decades relations between Africa and China have stood the test of time and are currently thriving. Launched in 2000, the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation marked the beginning of a new stage in Sino-African ties. Sino-African relations are deepening and being defined in broader terms. Enhanced Sino-Africa relations will further solidify solidarity between developing countries and promote South-South cooperation.

  2. State development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Peltier, Jean-Philippe N.

    2001-01-01

    The universal theory of state formation, as discussed by Weber, Tilly and others, is relevant and appropriate to Africa when properly applied. Africa has her own unique history and the variables affecting state development, such as land tenure, remain the same. The value of these variables is what differs from the European experience. As such, state development in Africa remains strikingly similar throughout its history. It is a struggle between the center and the periphery in which the cente...

  3. South Africa; Financial System Stability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses findings of the Financial System Stability Assessment for South Africa. South Africa’s financial sector operates in a challenging economic environment. Despite remarkable progress since the end of apartheid in 1994, South Africa still has one of the world’s highest unemployment and income inequality rates. Slow economic growth since 2008 has further aggravated unemployment, real disposable income is stagnant, and households are heavily indebted. Relatively high capita...

  4. Employment, unemployment, and underemployment in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Golub, Stephen; Hayat, Faraz

    2014-01-01

    This paper documents and analyses the predominance of informal employment in Africa and shows that lack of demand for labour rather than worker characteristics is the main reason for pervasive underemployment. Integration into the global economy and exports of labour-intensive products are vital to boosting the demand for labour in Africa. Africa has some potential to become competitive in light manufacturing, but the most promising avenue for export-led growth of employment in many African c...

  5. Trade liberalisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Jenkins

    1995-01-01

    A striking feature of South Africa`s trade liberalisation is that, until 1995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation was the reduction of anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalent tariffs and other duties. This distinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happened in other African liberalisations. A second distinction (and the two are in all likelihood connected) is that South Africa was not p...

  6. On the fertility transition in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mveyange, Anthony Francis

    A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent with the predicti......A consensus among social scientists is that fertility rates in Africa are declining. What determines these declines? I present fresh evidence that shows education, especially for women, is an important determinant of the fertility transition in Africa. This finding is consistent...

  7. Chemistry for sustainable development in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gurib-Fakim, Ameenah [Mauritius Univ., Reduit (Mauritius); Eloff, Jacobus Nicolaas (eds.) [Pretoria Univ. (South Africa). Faculty of Veterinary Science

    2013-07-01

    Chemistry for Sustainable Development in Africa' gives an insight into current Chemical research in Africa. It is edited and written by distinguished African scientists and includes contributions from Chemists from Northern, Southern, Western, Eastern, Central and Island state African Countries. The core themes embrace the most pressing issues of our time, including Environmental Chemistry, Renewable Energies, Health and Human Well-Being, Food and Nutrition, and Bioprospecting and Commercial Development. This book is invaluable for teaching and research institutes in Africa and worldwide, private sector entities dealing with natural products from Africa, as well as policy and decision-making bodies and non-governmental organizations.

  8. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  9. PPP insights in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit, Japie

    2003-01-01

    After functioning for some time in an increasingly regulated and structured environment in dealing with the private sector in South Africa, it was important to Government, to carefully review the terminology used in this evolving playing field. As the definitions and mechanisms impacting on this form of interaction became clear, it was essential to find a broader definition to encompass all forms of commercial intervention between the two sectors. In preparation for the first South African National Health Summit during 2001, the term public private interaction became a general term used in this context. In the South African healthcare sectors this term is used specifically to indicate that all forms of interaction between the two sectors should be considered, rather than merely focussing on specific Public Private Partnerships (PPPs), that have a much more narrow definition. Recent health policy documents in South Africa all stress four key goals--equity, coherence, quality of care and efficiency--which provide a useful basis for decision-making about PPIs. The range of public-private interactions that may support or constrain the South African health system's development are set within the overall public/private mix of the country. In developing an equitable, efficient, coherent and high quality health system in South Africa, there is considerable potential for constructive engagement (collaboration and co-operation) between the public and the private health care sectors. Both sectors should embrace this opportunity and therefore it is useful to propose some basic guidelines for engagement based on the vision and goals of the national health system. In deciding whether or not to pursue any new PPI within the health sector, or in evaluating whether an existing PPI should continue or be revised, it is necessary to assess its merits in relation to the achievement of health system goals.

  10. Huella del Carbono. Parte 2: La Visión de las Empresas, los Cuestionamientos y el Futuro Carbon Footprint: Part 2: Enterprises Viewpoint, Doubts and the Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Espíndola

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta segunda parte de la serie, se discute sobre la visión y posición que tienen las empresas frente al concepto de Huella del Carbono (HdC y de los métodos para cuantificarla. Se analiza los criterios de clasificación de emisiones en las principales metodologías de cálculo de la HdC y se discute sobre los principales cuestionamientos a la HdC, sobre los temas a resolver y sus alternativas de solución. Se presenta una base comparativa para los cuatro principales métodos de determinación de HdC actualmente vigentes en el mercado y se propone un método denominado Abaco para la contabilización de emisiones de CO2 equivalente , que permite identificar las características comunes de estos métodos. Todo esto puede servir de base en la toma de decisiones gerenciales para adoptar una determinada metodología. Se concluye que d e mantenerse la falta de claridad y comparabilidad en la determinación de emisiones podría provocar la pérdida de una gran oportunidad para lanzar una nueva economía medio-ambientalmente sostenible.In this second part of the series, the viewpoint of the enterprises and their position with respect to the implementation of carbon footprint (CFP quantification. The criteria for classification of emissions and the main methodologies for calculating the CFP are discussed and analyzed. The main questions and doubts about the CFP, on the subjects to be discussed and the alternatives of solution. A comparison of the main four methods currently used for determining the CFP and a method named Abacus for quantifying emissions of equivalent CO2 that allows identifying the common characteristics to all of them. All this can serve as basis for decision-making to adopt a given methodology. It is concluded that if the present situation of confusion of the different approaches to quantify the CFP continues, the companies and governments are loosing a great opportunity to arrive to a new environmentally sustainable economy.

  11. A certeza que pariu a dúvida: paternidade e DNA The certainty that engendered new doubts: DNA and paternity tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fonseca

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Atualmente, no Brasil, existe uma onda de testes de paternidade DNA (nos laboratórios públicos e em clínicas particulares que levanta reflexões interessantes quanto à interseção das esferas médica e jurídica e sua influência sobre as relações de gênero e de parentesco na sociedade contemporânea. Para analisar esse fenômeno, acompanhamos nas diferentes instâncias jurídicas em Porto Alegre (na Defensoria da República, nas Audiências de Conciliação, na Vara de Família e no Serviço Médico do Tribunal pessoas envolvidas em disputas jurídicas em torno da identidade paterna. Investigamos também como recentes mudanças nas leis de reconhecimento paterno são acionadas pelas diferentes personagens do cenário. A partir desses dados, levantamos a hipótese de que, longe de inspirar maior tranqüilidade, a simples existência do teste atiça as dúvidas. Tendo repercussões profundas sobre a nossa maneira de 'saber' quem é pai, a situação descrita nesse paper traz novos desafios para uma antropologia do conhecimento, voltada para a análise das crenças (inclusive científicas ocidentais.DNA paternity tests, in both private and public laboratories, have become popular of late throughout Brazil, raising some interesting questions as to the overlap of the legal and medical spheres in family issues. To analyze this question, we accompanied people involved in paternity disputes presenting their claims in the different judicial instances of Porto Alegre, RS (Defensoria, conciliation sessions, the court medical service, and the Family Court. We also examined how the different actors involved in this scenario interacted with recent Brazilian legislation dealing with paternity. On the basis of this experience, we raise the hypothesis that, far from inspiring greater tranquility, the simple existence of this test stirs up doubts. Reflecting profound repercussions for our manner of "knowing" paternal identity, reactions to the DNA test

  12. Africa and the tsetse fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trypanosomiasis, an infection transmitted by the tsetse fly and causing sleeping sickness in man and Nagana disease in animals, is widespread in Africa. It affects 37 countries (an area as large as the United States) and leads to great losses in the national economy. It can be fought effectively by programmes to eradicate the tsetse fly with the sterile insect technique. The film shows the tsetse habitats and biology and demonstrates how its reproduction circle can be interrupted by sterilization of male flies with gamma rays. This method has proven an effective alternative to the use of pesticides because its efficiency increases with each generation and it causes no environmental pollution problems

  13. International collaboration clusters in Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Adams, Jonathan; Hook, Daniel; Leydesdorff, Loet

    2013-01-01

    Recent discussion about the increase in international research collaboration suggests a comprehensive global network centred around a group of core countries and driven by generic socio-economic factors where the global system influences all national and institutional outcomes. In counterpoint, we demonstrate that the collaboration pattern for countries in Africa is far from universal. Instead, it exhibits layers of internal clusters and external links that are explained not by monotypic global influences but by regional geography and, perhaps even more strongly, by history, culture and language. Analysis of these bottom-up, subjective, human factors is required in order to provide the fuller explanation useful for policy and management purposes.

  14. Governance of Fracking in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caitlin Corrigan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about the environmental and ecological consequences of hydraulic fracturing have accompanied the shale boom in developed countries at the forefront of shale exploration and production. These environmental and ecological consequences may be of even greater concern in developing countries with less governance capacity. We present a conceptual framework that specifies several variables that are expected to contribute to sustainable hydraulic fracturing. We use the framework to characterize prospects for sustainable hydraulic fracturing in South Africa and Botswana. The framework and evidence clarifies the institutional capacity and institutional challenges confronting the sub-Saharan African countries as extraction of natural resources using hydraulic fracturing begins in earnest.

  15. The Seismotectonic Map of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meghraoui, Mustapha

    2015-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events with harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework and mapping of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map also benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures from tomographic anisotropy and gravity anomaly into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies with the analysis of long-term (late Quaternary) and short-term (last decades and centuries) active deformation observed with geodetic and other approaches presented along with the seismotectonic map serves as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map may also be very useful in the assessment of seismic hazard and mitigation of earthquake risk for significant infrastructures and their implications in the socio-economic impact in Africa. In addition, the constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of the seismotectonic map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014), extended to 2016. * Mustapha Meghraoui (Coordinator) EOST - IPG Strasbourg CNRS-UMR 7516 m.meghraoui@unistra.fr corresponding author

  16. Local Economic Development Debates in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, Patrick

    2002-01-01

    This report discusses Local Economic Development (LED) in South Africa, specifically questions regarding the meaning of LED -- what a 'pro-poor' LED consists of in South Africa, and how residual anti-poor strategies are followed up with a globalized context. It is important to connect LED to globalization since it has pushed local municipalities to become more entreprenurial.

  17. Education, Democracy and Poverty Reduction in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    2002-01-01

    Authoritarian rule in Africa has exacerbated poverty levels in six ways. Achievement of greater democracy depends upon political culture and civil society in Africa becoming more democratic; education must play a part in teaching democratic values and behaviors. Examples show how education has not furthered democracy in Botswana, Zimbabwe, and…

  18. Field guide to trees of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishan Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The mainland region of Africa is Southern Africa because it is considered to be robust with an estimate of around 1700 tree species that are native and a couple 100 more that are alien, but have become accustomed to the natural environment; invading, penetrating and replacing vegetation.

  19. Social Change and Language Shift: South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamwangamalu, Nkonko M.

    2003-01-01

    Examines language shift from majority African languages, such as Sotho, Xhosa, and Zulu to English in South Africa. Examines the extent to which sociopolitical changes that have taken place in South Africa have impacted everyday linguistic interaction and have contributed to language shift from the indigenous African language to English,…

  20. Sustainable Development of Africa's Water Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Narenda P. Sharma

    1996-01-01

    This study, African water resources: challenges and opportunities for sustainable management propose a long-term strategy for water resource management, emphasizing the socially sustainable development imperatives for Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The message of this strategy is one of optimism - the groundwork already exists for the sustainable management of Africa's water resources. The stra...

  1. Majority and Minority Languages in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Neville

    This paper discusses three categories of languages in post-apartheid South Africa: high-status, low-status, and endangered. The first section presents demolinguistic profiles and their representation in the media, offering data on the relative numerical importance of the main languages used in South Africa and the average and proportional…

  2. China in Africa: The Human Rights Impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.L. Bennett (Clare); S. McCann (S.); B. Radley (Ben)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This report examines the practical impact of Chinese investment on human rights in Africa, in order to assess how the positive effects of China in Africa can be maximised and how the negative effects – which have the potential to be particularly damaging in states that

  3. Does organized crime exist in Africa?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.; Shaw, M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing international concern about the growth of organized crime in Africa. Important criminal organizations and professional criminals are present in Africa, but we argue that the term "organized crime" is not a very useful description of their activity, since what we are actually witn

  4. Environmental management systems in South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla

    2004-01-01

    The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa.......The article presents som empirical findings regarding environmental management systems of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa....

  5. China's Investment in Africa's Banking Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Jin

    2010-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction The global financial crisis, whose effects have been most severe on the world's largest banks, has created a vacuum in banking sector in Africa by stalling investment from the traditional investor. The world's largest banks, brought to their knees by the crisis, and having had to be bailed out, are in no position to continue investing in the banking sector in Africa.

  6. The Flynn Effect in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    te Nijenhuis, Jan; Murphy, Raegan; van Eeden, Rene

    2011-01-01

    This is a study of secular score gains in South Africa. The findings are based on representative samples from datasets utilized in norm studies of popular mainstream intelligence batteries such as the WAIS as well as widely used test batteries which were locally developed and normed in South Africa. Flynn effects were computed in three ways.…

  7. Western Perspectives in Applied Linguistics in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree; Meinhof, Ulrike H.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this article is to analyze the nature of the historical and contemporary social contexts within which applied linguistics in Africa emerged, and is currently practiced. The article examines the challenges "local" applied Linguistics in Africa is confronted with as it tries to amplify applied linguistic programs emanating from…

  8. Personal Concepts on "Hunger in Africa"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermaier, Gabriele; Schrufer, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    When discussing the topic "Hunger in Africa" with students, incorrect and biased ideas on the causes for hunger are revealed. In order to change the students' personal concepts it is necessary to become acquainted with their mental models. Therefore, a survey of Geography students' different personal theories concerning "Hunger in Africa" was…

  9. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  10. The New Presence of China in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.P. van Dijk (Meine Pieter)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThis book describes China's growing range of activities in Africa, especially in the sub-Saharan region. The three most important instruments China has at its disposal in Africa are development aid, investments and trade policy. The Chinese government, which believes the Western developm

  11. Gender and Law : Eastern Africa Speaks

    OpenAIRE

    Gopal, Gita; Adu, Elizabeth

    1999-01-01

    Gender issues, particularly with respect to women's status and rights, have for a considerable period, been in the forefront of donors' dialogue on social issues with Africa. While Africa countries have fully acknowledged the seriousness of the issues and the urgent need for action, the dialogue has been largely donor-driven and issues and priorities been donor-set. Recognizing the need fo...

  12. Intercultural and Transcultural Literacy in Contemporary Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adejunmobi, Moradewun

    2008-01-01

    This paper argues that the challenge of intercultural communication has often been overlooked in discussions of indigenous language literacy in Africa. The omission continues despite the fact that literacy practices in Africa have often served as a means of intercultural communication, especially among highly educated Africans. Proposals for the…

  13. Nuclear Power: Africa and the Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Africa is a home to around 800 million people. The total population is expected to reach 1.3 billion by 2020. Efficient, clean energy forms are vital to Africa's sustainable development and fight against poverty. Nuclear power is a sustainable, clean, safe and economic way to met the African countries demand for electrical energy and water desalination As of 29 January 2007, there were 435 nuclear power plants in operation around the world. They total about 369 G We of generating capacity and supply about 16% of the world electricity. Of the 435 nuclear power plants in operation, just two are in Africa: Koeberg-1 and Koeberg-2 in South Africa. Both are 900 M We PWRs.There are also 28 new nuclear power plants under construction none in Africa. In this paper, varies factors , which support the attractiveness of nuclear power for African countries are identified and discussed

  14. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  15. Women's cardiovascular health in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocumbi, Ana Olga; Sliwa, Karen

    2012-03-01

    The predominant pattern of cardiovascular diseases in sub-Saharan Africa is that of poverty-related conditions (rheumatic heart valve disease, untreated congenital heart disease, tuberculous pericarditis) and diseases of unclear aetiology with a higher prevalence in this part of the world (peripartum cardiomyopathy, endomyocardial fibrosis). However, the prevalence of the traditional risk factors for cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and marked obesity is high in a number of sub-Saharan settings, although they vary considerably among countries, urban/rural locations and specific subpopulations. In urban settings, hypertensive heart disease with systolic and diastolic function contributes substantially to morbidity. Awareness of the general public and health workers about the burden of cardiovascular diseases in women must be increased, and risk factor control programmes must be included in the health research agenda on the African continent. Improvement in health services with coordination of maternal health services and non-communicable diseases is also needed. This review focuses on the current knowledge of cardiovascular healthcare of women in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly their propensity for various forms of heart disease, access to healthcare, treatment received within the respective healthcare system, response to therapy and mortality. It highlights the gaps in knowledge and the paucity of data in most of these aspects. PMID:22350029

  16. Human origins: Out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  17. Scenarios and Strategies for Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-11-15

    In 2011, IRENA will start developing scenarios and strategies for Africa. This is a pilot study for a project that will ultimately encompass the whole world. The selection of Africa first indicates the priority that the IRENA work programme places on the continent. In the framework of the 2011 IRENA work programme, the analysis of scenarios and strategies will feed into the renewables readiness assessment, which will assess policy priorities and best practices in renewable energy policy-making. This, in turn, will be the basis for financing investment and capacity building activities. Energy policy advice must consider issues, such as the structure of energy supply and demand, the past and future energy trends, renewable energy resources, energy economics and technology access. Scenarios and strategies are key tools for such an analysis. Regional and national differences must be considered and individual sectors and end-use categories further analysed. These include power generation, cooking, heating, industrial process heat, and transport. Urban and rural solutions will be dealt with separately, as well as centralised and decentralised solutions. The analysis will cover issues, such as potentials, technology, supply chains and investment needs.

  18. Atlas of isotope hydrology - Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although there are abundant water resources in Africa - about 17 large rivers and 160 lakes greater than 27 km2 - most of these resources are located in the humid and sub-humid regions around the equator. The surface runoff in Africa, on average, is much lower than average precipitation as a result of high evaporation and evapotranspiration, resulting in endemic drought in parts of the continent. Consequently, groundwater is a very important resource for Africa, providing nearly two-thirds of drinking water on the continent, and an even greater proportion in northern Africa. Despite the importance of groundwater for many societies, there is a lack of corresponding public concern about its protection, perhaps because the extent and availability of groundwater are not easily measured. The impact of increasing degrees of temporal and spatial climatic variability on water resources is also an important consideration, and groundwater to some extent provides an opportunity to mitigate the impacts of climate change. Applications of isotopes in hydrology are based on the general concept of 'tracing', in which naturally occurring or environmental isotopes (either radioactive or stable) are used to study hydrological processes on large temporal and spatial scales through their natural distribution in a hydrological system. Thus, environmental isotope methodologies are unique in regional studies of water resources to obtain integrated characteristics of groundwater systems. The most frequently used environmental isotopes include those of the water molecule, hydrogen (2H or D, also called deuterium, and 3H, also called tritium) and oxygen (18O), as well as of carbon (13C and 14C, also called radiocarbon or carbon-14) occurring in water as constituents of dissolved inorganic and organic carbon compounds. 2H, 13C and 18O are stable isotopes of the respective elements, whereas 3H and 14C are radioactive isotopes. Among the most important areas where isotopes are useful in

  19. Atmospheric Chemistry Over Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatebe, Charles K.; Levy, Robert C.; Thompson, Anne M.

    2011-01-01

    During the southern African dry season, regional haze from mixed industrial pollution, biomass burning aerosol and gases from domestic and grassland fires, and biogenic sources from plants and soils is worsened by a semi-permanent atmosphere gyre over the subcontinent. These factors were a driver of several major international field campaigns in the 1990s and early 2000s, and attracted many scientists to the region. Some researchers were interested in understanding fundamental processes governing chemistry of the atmosphere and interaction with climate change. Others found favorable conditions for evaluating satellite-derived measurements of atmospheric properties and a changing land surface. With that background in mind a workshop on atmospheric chemistry was held in South Africa. Sponsored by the International Commission for Atmospheric Chemistry and Global Pollution (ICACGP; http://www.icacgp.org/), the workshop received generous support from the South African power utility, Eskom, and the Climatology Research Group of the University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa. The purpose of the workshop was to review some earlier findings as well as more recent findings on southern African climate vulnerability, chemical changes due to urbanization, land-use modification, and how these factors interact. Originally proposed by John Burrows, president of ICACGP, the workshop was the first ICACGP regional workshop to study the interaction of air pollution with global chemical and climate change. Organized locally by the University of the Witwatersrand, the workshop attracted more than 60 delegates from South Africa, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, France, Germany, Canada, and the United States. More than 30 presentations were given, exploring both retrospective and prospective aspects of the science. In several talks, attention was focused on southern African chemistry, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and climate processes as they were studied in the field

  20. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  1. South Atlantic continental margins of Africa: a comparison of the tectonic vs climate interplay on the evolution of equatorial west Africa and SW Africa margins

    CERN Document Server

    Seranne, M; Seranne, Michel; Anka, Zahie

    2005-01-01

    The comparative review of 2 representative segments of Africa continental margin: the equatorial western Africa and the SW Africa margins, helps in analysing the main controlling factors on their development. Early Cretaceous active rifting S of the Walvis Ridge resulted in the formation of the SW Africa volcanic margin. The non-volcanic rifting N of the Walvis ridge, led to the formation of the equatorial western Africa margin, with thick and extensive, synrift basins. Regressive erosion of SW Africa prominent shoulder uplift accounts for high clastic sedimentation rate in Late Cretaceous - Eocene, while dominant carbonate production on equatorial western Africa shelf suggests little erosion of a low hinterland. The early Oligocene climate change had contrasted response in both margins. Emplacement of the Congo deep-sea fan reflects increased erosion in equatorial Africa, under the influence of wet climate, whereas establishment of an arid climate over SW Africa induced a drastic decrease of denudation, and ...

  2. Reprivatizing pharmaceutical supplies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turshen, M

    2001-01-01

    Perhaps no part of the health system is as imperiled by neoliberal economic reforms as the public drug sector. The national bill for pharmaceuticals can claim one-third of a developing country's annual health budget. This article describes the essential drugs program created by WHO in the 1980s to protect financially reduced ministries of health from the high prices charged by multinational pharmaceutical companies. It describes the backlash from the World Bank and UNICEF, which launched the Bamako Initiative and other community financing schemes and revolving drug plans in which individuals, families or community groups buy drugs above the wholesale purchase price; clinics use the proceeds to maintain drug supplies and subsidize other health services. When this plan failed, the Bank proposed outright privatization of drug purchase and supply, returning power to the multinational suppliers. The article ends with a consideration of patents and the new intellectual property rights as they pertain to pharmaceutical production in Africa. PMID:11469153

  3. Bringing physics training to Africa

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    Forty-nine students from 15 African countries plus one student from Iran are currently attending the African School of Physics (ASP) 2012. The school, which is in its second year, is a unique opportunity for young African students to receive training in cutting-edge physics research. Listen to their voices…   Participants in the African School of Physics with CERN's John Ellis. “Attending a school like this is an opportunity no student should miss. This school unlocks one's mind and we are so exposed to many exciting things happening in the world of physics. It's just amazing!” says Suzan Phumudzo Bvumbi from the University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Suzan is among the 50 students who have spent over three weeks this summer attending the second edition of the African School of Physics (ASP2012). The school was held in Kumasi, Ghana. "Hosting ASP2012 has given us the opportunity to demonstrate the capacity and resources avai...

  4. Successful Social Enterprises in Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thisted, Karen Panum; Hansen, Michael W.

    of social enterprises is generation of social change through commercial means which is effectuated through innovative business model hybrids. At the bottom of pyramid (BOP) in developing Sub-Saharan Africa, the need for sustainable solutions is greater than ever and social enterprises are increasingly...... in focus as key players in sustainable development. Kenya constitutes a suitable location for the collection of empirical evidence on social enterprises at the BOP, partly because Kenya is a regional forerunner in the promotion of an entrepreneurial business culture, partly because Kenya displays many...... as each constitutes solid evidence of social routes to success at the BOP, they also reveal important dilemmas facing managers who each day are forced to make difficult decisions in order to strike the right balance between achieving both commercial and social goals. Thereby the paper also adds...

  5. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2011-01-01

    YOU ARE WONDERFUL, THANK YOU! As we have indicated previously, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than half a million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. At the beginning of August we opened an account to receive your donations. We are pleased to announce that the funds received are 30’500 CHF, the total sum of which will be transferred to UNICEF. We would like to thank all those who have contributed to this important cause. Rolf Heuer Director-General Michel Goossens President of the Staff Association

  6. New Nationalism and Xenophobia in Africa – A New Inclination?

    OpenAIRE

    Kersting, Norbert

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to the Featured Topic "New Nationalism and Xenophobia in Africa", Africa Spectrum, Vol. 44, No. 1 (2009) Einführung in den Themenschwerpunkt "New Nationalism and Xenophobia in Africa" in Heft 1, Jahrgang 44 (2009) der Zeitschrift "Africa Spectrum".

  7. [Women and AIDS in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coll Seck, A M

    1990-10-01

    The theme of "World Aids Day" for 1990 was "Women and AIDS." This theme was chosen because of the devastating effects AIDS has on women. The World Health Organization's (WHO) latest figures state that women represent 1/3 of the estimated 6 million people infected with AIDS worldwide. The majority of these women are in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and the Caribbean. The outcomes of a recent study done in a Central African country showed that women were 4 times more susceptible to getting AIDS than men, in spite of the fact that there are more men than women in this area of SSA. The reasons that women are so vulnerable are multiple: illiteracy, lack of access to information, prejudices, sexual taboos, and an economic dependency which have all led women towards prostitution and the growing incidence of hetero sexual transmission of AIDS in SSA. Prostitutes are 88% seropositive in Kigali; 16% in Dakar and 90% in Nairobi. 10% of all AIDS cases in SSA are due to transfusions where the blood banks are not monitored because women are loosing large quantities of blood through abortions, hemorrhages, deliveries and chronic anemia due to continuous pregnancies that are badly spaced. Additional problems for women are transmitting AIDS to their babies -- 25-30% of pediatric AIDS are transmitted from mother to child through "vertical transmission (VT)." This VT is a serious problem in East Africa where a survey in Uganda showed that 24% of pregnant women were infected with AIDS. The WHO estimated that between 1980-1987, 80,000 children were infected with AIDS of which 80% died before age 5. AIDS in SSA is taking its toll on women who face environmental, socio-cultural, political and economic discrimination. Such a loss to AIDS to incalculable to society.

  8. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  9. Obama, Africa, and the Post-Racial

    OpenAIRE

    Janis, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In his article "Obama, Africa, and the Post-Racial" Michael Janis examines aspects of U.S. president Barack Obama's election in the context of the epistemology and history of racism. Following an introduction to the history of racism in Europe and in the U.S., Janis discusses the media in the U.S. and in Africa in relation to African American and African politics. The debates on race ignited by the campaign are considered in the light of Africana perspectives on relations between Africa and t...

  10. ChinAfrica : How can the Sino-African cooperation be beneficial for Africa ?

    OpenAIRE

    Marchiori, Luca

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, different scenarios of increased cooperation between China and African countries are simulated. Recent intensifications of political and economic ties between China and Sub-Saharan African countries may give hope that an economic improvement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is possible. Three channels may lead to a catching-up of Africa with China : a reduction in Africa's investment ristk, an increase in its total factor productivity (TFP) and an improvement of its worker skills. A...

  11. Trade liberalisation in sub-Saharan Africa: case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Jenkins; Michael Bleaney; Merle Holden

    1996-01-01

    A striking feature of South Africa's trade liberalisation is that, until 2995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation wsa the reduction of the anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalnet tariffs and other duties. This ditinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happended in other African liberalisations. A seconddistinction (an the two are in in all liklihood conected) is that South Africa was no...

  12. Review of Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling, and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaarsholm, Preben

    2012-01-01

    Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009).......Review article discussing Patrick Chabal, Africa: The Politics of Suffering and Smiling (London: Zed Books, 2009) and Pierre Englebert, Africa: Unity, Sovereignty and Sorrow (Bodulder, CO: Lynne Rienner, 2009)....

  13. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  14. South Africa - record exports defy market misery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, J.

    1999-03-01

    Dry cargo continues to form the backbone of South Africa`s commodities trades, comprising more than 70% of overall import and export activity. Despite economic stagnation in many global markets and poor prospects for any significant recovery in prices, most of South Africa`s dry bulk ports have experienced sustained tonnage levels in 1998, and are focusing on facility improvements to meet future growth expectation. Coal exports in 1998 increased by 2.8 mt to a record 66.7 mt. The main rise in exports was achieved by Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) but Durban`s BMA terminal and Portnet`s Dry Bulk Terminal or Richards Bay, and the upgraded Maputo Terminals at Mozambique also handled more trade. Expansion projects at RBCT are also mentioned. 1 fig., 1 tab., 2 photos.

  15. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  16. SOUTH AFRICA'S MILITARY ON THE MOVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. McWilliams

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available If one looks at the South African Defence Force (SADF, it becomes apparent that it is the strongest defence force in Africa based on trained manpower, organisation, weapons systems, mobilisation capacity and defence budget. The Republic of South Africa has the capability to procure and manufacture the overwhelming majority of its weapons and armaments through its existing parastatal, Armaments Corporation of South Africa Ltd. (Armcscor. According to The Military Balance, 1986-87, published by the International Institute for Strategic Studies, (IISS, South Africa has 250 Centurian/Olifant tanks, 1 600 Eland armoured cars, 1 500 Ratel Infantry combat vehicles, 372 combat aircraft, 16 armed helicopters and 144 other helicopters. The SADF can mobilize over 400 000 personnel. Defence expenditures for 1985/6 were 2,27 billion dollars. The defence budget for 1986/7 indicates allocations of 2,012 billion dollars.

  17. Europa e Africa - Anatomia di un incontro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoppi, Marco

    Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at:  http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy of an enc......Available at: - http://ebook.edizionieiffel.com/product.php?id_product=36 or on AMAZON at:  http://www.amazon.it/Europa-Africa-Anatomia-Marco-Zoppi-ebook/dp/B01DPSBE6C/ref=sr_1_1?ie=UTF8&qid=1460205243&sr=8-1&keywords=marco+zoppi The book title translates as: "Europe and Africa: anatomy...

  18. A review of Leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter K. Ngure; Albert Kimutai; Zipporah W. Ng'ang'a; Geoffrey Rukunga; Willy K. Tonui

    2009-01-01

    The review presents the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in the Eastern Africa region. We searched PUB MED and MEDLINE with several key words-namely,"leishmaniasis";"cutaneous"," diffuse cutaneous"," mucosal", and "visceral leishmaniasis";"kala azar" and "post kala azar dermal leishmaniasis"-for recont clinical and basic science articles related to leishmaniasis in countries in the Eastern Africa region. Poverty, wars, conflicts and migration have significantly aggravated leishmaniases in Eastern Africa. Of particular concern is the increasing incidence of Leishmania-HIV co-infection in Ethiopia where 20--40% of the persons affected by visceral leishmaniasis are HIV-co-infected. Sudan has the highest prevalence rate of post kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis(PKDL) in the world, a skin complication of visceral leishmaniasis(VL) that mainly afflicts children below age ten. In view of its spread to previously non-endemic areas and an increase in imported cases, leishmaniasis in Eastern Africa should be considered a health emergency.

  19. Epidemiology of HIV in southern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanoni, Brian C. [Harvard Medical School, Baylor International AIDS Initiative, Boston, MA (United States)

    2009-06-15

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)

  20. Epidemiology of HIV in southern Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HIV/AIDS disproportionately affects sub-Saharan Africa and 90% of the children with HIV are found there. In addition, non-HIV-infected children in the region are also vulnerable with an estimated 11.4 million AIDS orphans (many of whom are also HIV-positive). South Africa has an estimated 5.5 million people infected with HIV, which is by far the highest in the world. South Africa was reluctant to accept international assistance and began to provide care and treatment much later than its neighbours, and access to care and treatment remains low. Only 36% of children with advanced AIDS living in South Africa were receiving antiretroviral drugs in 2007. This paper not only provides data expressing the extent of the HIV problem affecting children, but also compares neighbouring African countries' successes and failures in combating the disease. (orig.)

  1. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  2. The costs of illiteracy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Gustafsson; Servaas van der Berg; Debra Shepherd; Cobus Burger

    2010-01-01

    In South Africa there has been a surge in publicly funded adult literacy education in recent years. There is a recognition that for the effective monitoring of adult literacy, direct measures of literacy are required. Grade attainment, self-reported ability to read and behavioural variables relating to, for instance, reading habits produce vastly different measures of adult literacy in South Africa. It is noteworthy that self-reported values change over time as people’s perceptions of what co...

  3. SOUTH AFRICA AT WAR, 1912-1982

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Conradie

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The end of the Second Anglo-Boer War also put an end to the commando system that had been the core of military strength in South Africa. With the formation of the Union in 1910 it was realized that South Africa will have to provide its own defence. It was to be no easy task; seeing that the English and Afrikaans-speaking sections of the population had just concluded a bitter war which had left deep scars.

  4. Rural development update for South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arent, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1997-12-01

    This paper describes renewable energy programs implemented in South Africa as part of a collaborative program for rural development. Different facets of this program include: Renewable Energy for South Africa (REFSA); hybrid collaborative R&D; electricity sector restructuring; provincial level initiation of renewable energy applications; renewable energy for African development (REFAD); and Suncorp photovoltaic manufacturing company. Limited detailed information is provided on the activities of each of these different program facets over the past year in particular.

  5. Developmental Regimes in Africa synthesis report

    OpenAIRE

    Booth, D.; Dietz, A.J.; Golooba-Mutebi, F.; Fuady, A.H.; Henley, D; Kelsall, T.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Donge, van, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Many African countries have experienced sustained economic growth, but few have achieved the type of structural change, driven by rising productivity, that has transformed mass living standards in parts of Asia. In the Developmental Regimes in Africa Synthesis Report, editor David Booth examines how DRA research has shed new light on how developmental regimes might emerge and be sustained in Africa in the 21st century. He outlines a concept with defining features at three levels: policy conte...

  6. Orf in South Africa: Endemic but neglected

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Scagliarini; Silvia Piovesana; Filippo Turrini; Federica Savini; Fortune Sithole; Cheryl M. McCrindle

    2012-01-01

    A survey amongst sheep and goat producers and veterinarians was undertaken to collect epidemiological data on orf in South Africa. Previous epidemiological studies on the presence of the disease in the country have not been documented and this report is the first descriptive epidemiological study of orf in South Africa. A seven-month investigation, realised by direct and indirect interviews and field observation, enabled us to outline incidence and risk factors of this disease and to bet...

  7. Africa Ushering in a New Historical Phase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Africa, which comprises a significant number of developing countries, is an important force working for world peace and stability and global economic development. The African continent is rich in natural and human resources and potentials for development. For years, however, Africa gave people the impression that it was a poverty-stricken, backward land ravaged by successive wars and epidemic diseases. Since the beginning of the 21st century, there have been some

  8. Openness, Inequality and Poverty in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alemayehu Geda

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships between openness, poverty and inequality in Africa. The analysis begins with a review of social development on the continent since 1980, followed by a discussion of openness and a lengthy exploration of the patterns of trade and finance that link Africa to the rest of the world. The macroeconomic policy framework that guided African policymaking over the last three decades is the lens through which poverty and inequality are further examined. The paper hi...

  9. Forestry and Water Conservation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bennett, Brett; Kruger, Fred

    2015-01-01

    This innovative interdisciplinary study focuses on the history, science, and policy of tree planting and water conservation in South Africa. South Africa’s forestry sector has sat—often controversially—at the crossroads of policy and scientific debates regarding water conservation, economic development, and biodiversity protection. Bennett and Kruger show how debates about the hydrological impact of exotic tree planting in South Africa shaped the development of modern scientific ideas and sta...

  10. Competing jurisdictions: settling land claims in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling land claims in Africa, including Madagascar (Sandra Evers, Marja Spierenburg and Harry Wels); Communal tenure 'from above' and 'from below': land rights, authority and livelihoods in rural South Afri...

  11. New Game Changers in Africa's Development Strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jacqueline Munalula Musiitwa

    2012-01-01

    Africa is undergoing many positive soft infrastructure developments such as improved rule of law, reduced corruption, improved trade policies and so on changes that are reassuring investors that Africa is indeed open for business. Of note is that some of these changes are prompted by factors not previously considered in development strategies. Jacqueline Munalula Musiitwa addresses the role of netizens, the growing and better organized private sector and financial diplomacy. However, in order...

  12. Emerging Breast Cancer Epidemic: Evidence from Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ogundiran, Temidayo O; Akarolo-Anthony, Sally Nneoma Sarah; Adebamowo, Clement Adebayo

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is an increasingly important public health problem in developing countries, including Africa [1]. As public and professional awareness of the cancer problem has grown, so has interest in the pattern of disease presentation, its epidemiology and treatment outcome. To date, however, there has been limited research about breast cancer in Africa. In the absence of systematic population-based cancer registration, most information has come from small clinical and pathology case series and th...

  13. The economics of marriage in North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Assaad, Ragui; Krafft, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Marriage is the single most important economic transaction and social transition in the lives of young people. Yet little is known about the economics of marriage in much of the developing world. This paper examines the economics of marriage in North Africa, where asymmetric rights in marriage create incentives for extensive up-front bargaining and detailed marriage contracts. As well as describing the limited literature on the economics of marriage in North Africa, this paper draws on econom...

  14. Environmental management systems in South-Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Tine Herreborg; Smink, Carla Kornelia

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences.......The paper presents and discusses some of the empirical findings regarding envi-ronmental management systems (EMS) of four companies in the automotive industry in South Africa and compares some of the findings to Danish and international experiences....

  15. Evaluating ICT for education in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hollow, David

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is situated at the intersection between the three themes of education in Africa, impact assessment, and Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs). Specifically, it seeks to develop a critique of current practices regarding monitoring and evaluation of ICT for education within Africa, and explores plausible alternatives to such practices that would make the benefits of education and technology more available and structured towards the poor and marginalised. Two particip...

  16. FOUNDATIONS OF THE NEW SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.N. De Agrela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available As a history teacher to Forms 4 and 5 (Standard 9 and 10, John Pampallis found that "a pressing need for a general textbook to cover the South African section of our syllabus" existed. Pampallis set out to document the history of South Africa and the fruits of his labour emerged in the form of his book Foundations of the New South Africa which is written from refreshingly different perspective.

  17. Economics of land degradation in Eastern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kirui, Oliver Kiptoo; Mirzabaev, Alisher

    2014-01-01

    Land degradation remains a serious impediment to improving livelihoods in the Eastern Africa region. This working paper presents a general overview of the state and extent of land degradation in East Africa, explores its proximate and underlying drivers, identifies the land degradation hotspots in the region, and also discusses the productivity and poverty impacts of land degradation in the region. It is intended to serve as an exploratory tool for the ensuing more detailed quantitative analy...

  18. China & South Africa in Full Swing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ China and South Africa will soon celebrate the 10th anniversary of their formal diplomatic relations establishment. On this special occasion, China's Foreign Trade conducted an interview with Mr. Alex Khumalo, the General Manager of Asia Pacific South Africa Chamber of Commerce (APSACC) Secretariat. Both countries have witnessed the growing friendship of two sides in the past decade, and more fruits are expected in the coming future.

  19. Africa gaining importance in world LPG trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major LPG projects planned or under way in Africa will increase the importance of that region's presence in world LPG trade. Supplies will nearly double between 1995 and 2005, at which time they will remain steady for at least 10 years. At the same time that exports are leveling, however, increasing domestic demand for PG is likely to reduce export-market participation by Algeria, Nigeria, Egypt, and Libya. The growth of Africa's participation in world LPG supply is reflected in comparisons for the next 15--20 years. Total world supply of LPG in 1995 was about 165 million metric tons (tonnes), of which Africans share was 7.8 million tonnes. By 2000, world supply will grow to slightly more than 200 million tonnes, with Africa's share expected to increase to 13.2 million tonnes (6.6%). And by 2005, world LPG supply will reach nearly 230 million tonnes; Africa's overall supply volumes by that year will be nearly 16.2 million tonnes (7%). World LPG supply for export in 1995 was on order of 44 million tonnes with Africa supply about 4 million tonnes (9%). By 2005, world export volumes of LPG will reach nearly 70 million tonnes; Africa's share will have grown by nearly 10 million tonnes (14.3%)

  20. Food allergy in Africa: myth or reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kung, Shiang-Ju; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Gray, Claudia

    2014-06-01

    Food allergy has been traditionally perceived as being rare in Africa. However, the prevalence of other allergic manifestations such as asthma and atopic dermatitis continue to rise in the higher-income African countries. Since the food allergy epidemic in westernized countries has lagged behind that of allergic respiratory conditions, we hypothesize that food allergy is increasing in Africa. This article systematically reviews the evidence for food allergy in Africa, obtained through searching databases including PubMed, Medline, MD Consult, and scholarly Google. Articles are divided into categories based on strength of methodological diagnosis of food allergy. Information was found for 11 African countries: Botswana, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Morocco, Mozambique, Nigeria, South Africa, Tanzania, Tunisia, and Zimbabwe. Most studies reflect sensitization to food or self-reported symptoms. However, a few studies had more stringent diagnostic testing that is convincing for food allergy, mostly conducted in South Africa. Apart from the foods that commonly cause allergy in westernized countries, other regionally significant or novel food allergens may include pineapple (Ghana), okra (Nigeria), and mopane worm (Botswana). Food allergy is definitely an emerging disease in Africa and resources need to be diverted to study, diagnose, treat, and prevent this important disease.

  1. Wind power potential and integration in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agbetuyi, A.F.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration into power networks is increasing very rapidly all over the world. The great concern about global warming and continued apprehensions about nuclear power around the world should drive most countries in Africa into strong demand for wind generation because of its advantages which include the absence of harmful emissions, very clean and almost infinite availability of wind that is converted into electricity. This paper shows the power available in the wind. It also gives an overview of the wind power potential and integration in some selected Africa countries like Egypt, Morocco, South Africa and Nigeria and the challenges of wind power integration in Africa’s continent are also discussed. The Northern part of Africa is known to be Africa’s Wind pioneers having installed and connected the Wind Energy Converters (WEC to the grid. About 97% of the continent’s total wind installations are located in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Research work should commence on the identified sites with high wind speeds in those selected Africa countries, so that those potential sites can be connected to the grid. This is because the ability of a site to sufficiently accommodate wind generation not only depends on wind speeds but on its ability to interconnect to the existing grid. If these wind energy potentials are tapped and connected to the grid, the erratic and epileptic power supply facing most countries in Africa will be reduced; thereby reducing rural-urban migration and more jobs will be created.

  2. Springtail diversity in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven L. Chown

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite their significance in soil ecosystems and their use for investigations of soil ecosystem functioning and in bioindication elsewhere, springtails (Collembola have not been well investigated in South Africa. Early recognition of their role in soil systems and sporadic systematic work has essentially characterised knowledge of the southern African fauna for some time. The situation is now changing as a consequence of systematic and ecological work on springtails. To date this research has focused mostly on the Cape Floristic Region and has revealed a much more diverse springtail fauna than previously known (136 identifiable species and an estimated 300 species for the Cape Floristic Region in total, including radiations in genera such as the isotomid Cryptopygus. Quantitative ecological work has shown that alpha diversity can be estimated readily and that the group may be useful for demonstrating land use impacts on soil biodiversity. Moreover, this ecological work has revealed that some disturbed sites, such as those dominated by Galenia africana, may be dominated by invasive springtail species. Investigation of the soil fauna involved in decomposition in Renosterveld and Fynbos has also revealed that biological decomposition has likely been underestimated in these vegetation types, and that the role of fire as the presumed predominant source of nutrient return to the soil may have to be re-examined. Ongoing research on the springtails will provide the information necessary for understanding and conserving soils: one of southern Africa’s major natural assets.

  3. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on 'Climate Change Mitigation in Africa' between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  4. South Africa faces coke shortage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-05-01

    Iscor Vanderbijlpark in South Africa may need to import substantial tonnages of coking coal as a result of increasing quality demands on coke at Vanderbiljpark (to support the recently installed PCI process) as well as the Newcastle works. Availability of coke is not only a problem for the South African steel industry but is a global problem as the production of coke in Western countries has declined over the past three years. A massive expansion in coke-making capacity is happening in China but the Chinese beehive ovens create serious pollution problems. A world shortage of coke of 30 million t/y by 2005 is estimated, rising to over 60 million t/y by 2010 of no new capacity is created. Steelmakers have succeeded in reducing their consumption of coke, by pulverised coal injection by better distribution of components in the furnace shaft and by decline in use of the blast furnace-basic oxygen furnace route, but the industry is still facing serious shortages of coke.

  5. Horn of Africa food crisis

    CERN Multimedia

    Association du personnel

    2011-01-01

    Dear colleagues, As many of you are already aware, the Horn of Africa is experiencing an extremely severe food crisis as a result of one of the toughest droughts since the early 1950s. A total of over 12 million people in Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Kenya and Uganda are severely affected by this devastating crisis and the UN has officially declared famine in these regions. In addition, children are the most vulnerable victims, with more than a half million children at risk of imminent death from severe malnutrition and an estimated 2.3 million children already malnourished. An immediate, determined mobilization is required in order to avert an imminent humanitarian catastrophe and to prevent millions of people from being robbed of a future through the scourge of hunger and malnutrition. CERN has decided to join this international mobilization by specifically opening an account for those who want to make a donation to help the drought- and famine-affected populations in the region. Children being the first...

  6. Climate change mitigation in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mackenzie, G.A.; Turkson, J.K.; Davidson, O.R. [eds.

    1998-10-01

    The UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment (UCCEE) in conjunction with the Southern Centre for Energy and Environment (SCEE) hosted a conference on `Climate Change Mitigation in Africa` between 18 and 20 May. The Conference set out to address the following main objectives: to present to a wider audience the results of UNEP/GEF and related country studies; to present results of regional mitigation analysis; exchange of information with similar projects in the region; to expose countries to conceptual and methodological issues related to climate change mitigation; to provide input to national development using climate change related objectives. This volume contains reports of the presentations and discussions, which took place at the conference at Victoria Falls between 18 and 20 May 1998. Representatives of 11 country teams made presentations and in addition two sub-regions were discussed: the Maghreb region and SADC. The conference was attended by a total of 63 people, representing 22 African countries as well as international organisations. (EG)

  7. Renewable Energy Country Profiles. Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The IRENA Renewable Energy Country Profiles take stock of the latest development of renewable energy in two regions where renewable energy can make a significant contribution to combat climate change and bring modern energy services to everyone: Africa and the Pacific. These two regions are presented separately in this volume and its sister publication. The country profiles combine elements of IRENA analysis with the latest information available from a vast array of sources in order to give a brief yet comprehensive and up-to-date picture of the situation of renewable energy that includes energy supply, electrical capacity, energy access, policies, targets, investment climate, projects and endowment in renewable energy resources. Because of the different timelines of these sources, data presented here refer to years between 2008 and 2012. Data availability also differs from country to country, which makes comparison with a wider regional group possible only for the year for which figures are available for all the members of the group; while this may not be the most recent year, the differences between countries, regions and the world remain striking. The current country profiles are just a starting point; they will be extended upon with new indicators to make them more informative, and maintained as a live product on the IRENA website as a key source of information on renewable energy.

  8. Survey of ICT and Education in Africa : South Africa Country Report

    OpenAIRE

    Isaacs, Shafika

    2007-01-01

    This short country report, a result of larger Information for Development Program (infoDev) - supported survey of the Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education in Africa, provides a general overview of current activities and issues related to ICT use in education in the country. In all the different facets of the ICTs for education prism, South Africa boasts more than a...

  9. Africa's Pulse, October 2013 : An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa's Economic Future

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This Africa's pulse newsletter includes the following headings: economic prospects for Sub-Saharan Africa remain strong, but growth is vulnerable to a sharp decline in commodity prices; the region's progress on reducing poverty has been slow, hindered by high inequality; and faster reduction in poverty will require growth with equity.

  10. A socio-historical perspective on the Amazigh (Berber cultural movement in North Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. El Aissati

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available North Africa has known various colonizations which in contact with indigenous ones have given the area a special character. One continuing presence since antiquity is that of the Berbers, or the Imazighen, the indigenous population of the area. In this article an attempt is made to shed light on the status of the language and culture of the Imazighen, and in particular on the recent calls for official recognition of the Amazigh language in the constitutions of the two countries with the highest presence of Imazighen, namely Morocco and Algeria. Although some recent developments, like the teaching of the Amazigh language in primary schools, give reason enough to be optimistic about the future of the indigenous language and culture, a closer look at the ideological background of pan Arab-nationalists casts doubts on any serious government intentions to guarantee the maintenance and development of the Amazigh language and culture. This ideology will be brought to light by contrasting the constitutional rights that some Muslim and/or African countries grant to their citizens who speak different languages than the official one(s.

  11. Application of GM crops in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons learned from Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazuin, Sjoerd; Azadi, Hossein; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    While the Green Revolution has been successful in some regions like South and East Asia, it could hardly address any achievement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper tries to draw a picture on lessons learned from the failures of this revolution that should be taken into account before implementing the so-called Gene Revolution in the SSA region. After scrutinizing the failures and the pros and cons of GM crops in the region, the paper introduces some potentials for improving the malnutrition situation in SSA through launching a successful GM technology. However, it remains doubtful whether this technology can improve the situation of small-scale farmers as long as they receive no financial support from their national governments. Therefore, before any intervention, the socio-economic and environmental impacts of GM technology need to be carefully addressed in the framework of a series of risk assessment studies. Besides, some sort of multi-stakeholder dialog (from small-scale farmers to consumers) involving public-private sector and non-governmental organizations should be heated up at both national and regional levels with regard to the myths and truths of this technology.

  12. Application of GM crops in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons learned from Green Revolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazuin, Sjoerd; Azadi, Hossein; Witlox, Frank

    2011-01-01

    While the Green Revolution has been successful in some regions like South and East Asia, it could hardly address any achievement in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This paper tries to draw a picture on lessons learned from the failures of this revolution that should be taken into account before implementing the so-called Gene Revolution in the SSA region. After scrutinizing the failures and the pros and cons of GM crops in the region, the paper introduces some potentials for improving the malnutrition situation in SSA through launching a successful GM technology. However, it remains doubtful whether this technology can improve the situation of small-scale farmers as long as they receive no financial support from their national governments. Therefore, before any intervention, the socio-economic and environmental impacts of GM technology need to be carefully addressed in the framework of a series of risk assessment studies. Besides, some sort of multi-stakeholder dialog (from small-scale farmers to consumers) involving public-private sector and non-governmental organizations should be heated up at both national and regional levels with regard to the myths and truths of this technology. PMID:21813087

  13. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwong, Tagang; Bello, Mohammed

    2010-01-01

    Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global 'One Health' movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015. PMID:20560123

  14. Decline of birds in a human modified coastal dune forest landscape in South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan J Trimble

    Full Text Available Previous studies demonstrate that old-growth forest remnants and vegetation regenerating after anthropogenic disturbance provide habitat for birds in a human modified coastal dune forest landscape in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. However, occurrence does not ensure persistence. Based on a 13-year monitoring database we calculated population trends for 37 bird species and general trends in overall bird density in different vegetation types. We evaluated species' characteristics as covariates of population trend and assessed changes in rainfall and proportional area and survey coverage per vegetation type. 76% of species assessed have declined, 57% significantly so at an average rate of 13.9% per year. Overall, bird density has fallen at 12.2% per year across old-growth forest and woody regenerating vegetation types. Changes in proportional area and coverage per vegetation type may partly explain trends for a few species but are unlikely to account for most. Below average rainfall may have contributed to bird declines. However, other possibilities warrant further investigation. Species with larger range extents tended to decline more sharply than did others, and these species may be responding to environmental changes on a broader geographical scale. Our results cast doubt on the future persistence of birds in this human modified landscape. More research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms driving population decline in the study area and to investigate whether the declines identified here are more widespread across the region and perhaps the continent.

  15. Emerging diseases and implications for Millennium Development Goals in Africa by 2015 - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Bello

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Emerging zoonotic diseases have assumed increasing fundamental importance in both public and animal health, as the last few years have seen a steady increase of new cases, each emerging from an unsuspected geographic area and causing serious problems, often leading to mortalities among animals and humans. The reasons for disease emergence or re-emergence are multiple and include certain major factors, such as expansion of the human population, climate change and globalisation of trade. Further contributing issues, such as the increased movement of animal species, microbial evolution, ecological disruption, changes in human behaviour, all imply that emerging diseases will not only continue to occur, but the rate of their emergence will also increase. These will constitute constraints for the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals by African Governments by 2015. There is no doubt that the current trend calls for more and stronger partnerships between national and international organisations, veterinary and medical communities, environmentalists, academics and policy-makers of various governments on the continent within the context of the global ‘One Health’ movement. This article attempts to analyse the impact of emerging diseases and the implications for the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals in Africa by the year 2015.

  16. Managing the wetlands. People and rivers: Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, P

    1993-01-01

    At the current population growth rate in Africa, the population will reach 1 billion by 2010. Water is needed to sustain these people, yet rainfall in Africa is erratic. Africans are already confronting a shortage of freshwater. Agriculture supports 66% of the population of sub-Saharan Africa. Sound agricultural development is needed to curb rural-urban migration, but a constant supply of freshwater is essential. Major rivers (the Limpopo in southern Africa and the Save/Sabi in Zimbabwe and Mozambique) now flow only seasonally. The flows of the Chari-Logona, the Nile, and the Zambezi are falling. Continual mismanagement of Africa's river basins coupled with current projections of global climate change will expand desiccation. All but the White Nile and the Zaire rivers flood seasonally every year, thereby expanding Africa's wetlands. Wetlands have been targeted for development projects (e.g., hydroelectric projects and large dams), largely to meet urban-industrial demands. Development planners tend to ignore the economic value of the wetlands. For example, the Niger Inland Delta sustains 550,000 people, 1 million cattle, and 1 million sheep. Wetlands replenish ground water and serve as natural irrigation. River basin planning often results in environmentally disastrous schemes which do not understand local management practices. Hydrologists, engineers, geologists, and economics design these schemes, but sociologists, anthropologists, and development experts should be included. The unfinished Jonglei Canal in southern Sudan would have adversely affected 400,000 pastoralists. The Volta River Authority's Akosombo Dam displaced 84,000 people and flooded the most productive agricultural land in Ghana. A sustainable future in Africa depends on understanding the interactions of human uses and the ways in which they relate to the natural variations in river flow. The IUCN Wetlands Programme, based on the principles of the World Conservation Strategy, is working with

  17. COMPARATIVE STUDY ON "ASIAN" APPROACHES TO AFRICA: AN INTRODUCTORY REFLECTION

    OpenAIRE

    IWATA, Takuo

    2012-01-01

    During the last decade, Asian countries have become more noticeable in Africa. "China in Africa, " and then "India in Africa, " have been talked about as hot topics in academia and journalism. We have already seen an enormous amount of research about "China in Africa." Before China and India, the issue of "Japan in Africa" was focused on in the 1990s. "South Korea in Africa" is the next issue. This article aims to understand the "Asian" character of African policy through a comparative study ...

  18. Electricity supply in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ESCOM, at present providing for some 95% of the electricity demand, has grown from a relatively small undertaking with a total installed capacity of less than 30 MW(e) in 1922 and a capital expenditure of R15 million during the period 1923-1930, to a gigantic undertaking with a fixed-asset value of nearly R16 billion in 1984, a staff complement of more than 60 000 and an income of over R3 billion p.a. With an estimated capital-expansion programme of between 4 and 5 billion rand p.a., ESCOM is the largest single borrower on the local capital market and it exercises a strong influence on the economy. The fact that ESCOM has been able to keep electricity prices competitive, despite inflationary costs, by the efficient utilization of resources such as coal and water, has served as a driving force for economic and industrial development and has made it possible for South Africa to establish energy-intensive metallurgical industries during the seventies. Estimates of future electricity demand based on economic considerations and population growth, lead to a sustained electricity-demand growth rate in the region of 5% p.a. At this rate of growth the known extractable coal reserves will be depleted by the year 2035, and some alternative means of generating electricity will have to be utilized timeously. At present nuclear energy is the only proven alternative to coal. Depending on certain assumptions of fuel costs, escalation and interest rates, it can be shown that nuclear electricity costs, calculated over the lifetime of a nuclear power station at the coast, could be competitive with a coal-fired power station in the interior

  19. Biofuels and sustainability in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combined effects of climate change, the continued volatility of fuel prices, the recent food crisis and global economic turbulence have triggered a sense of urgency among policymakers, industries and development practitioners to find sustainable and viable solutions in the area of biofuels. This sense of urgency is reflected in the rapid expansion of global biofuels production and markets over the past few years. Biofuels development offers developing countries some prospect of self-reliant energy supplies at national and local levels, with potential economic, ecological, social, and security benefits. Forty-two African countries are net oil importers. This makes them particularly vulnerable to volatility in global fuel prices and dependent on foreign exchange to cover their domestic energy needs. The goal therefore is to reduce the high dependence on imported petroleum by developing domestic, renewable energy. But can this objective be achieved while leaving a minimal social and environmental footprint? A fundamental question is if biofuels can be produced with consideration of social, economic and environmental factors without setting unrealistic expectation for an evolving renewable energy industry that holds such great promise. The overall performance of different biofuels in reducing non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions varies when considering the entire lifecycle from production through to use. The net performance depends on the type of feedstock, the production process and the amount of non-renewable energy needed. This paper presents an overview of the development of biofuels in Africa, and highlights country-specific economic, environmental and social issues. It proposes a combination framework of policy incentives as a function of technology maturity, discusses practices, processes and technologies that can improve efficiency, lower energy and water demand, and further reduce the social and environmental footprint of biofuels

  20. Challenge of pediatric oncology in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, Larry G P; Rouma, Bankole S; Saad-Eldin, Yasser

    2012-05-01

    The care of children with malignant solid tumors in sub-Saharan Africa is compromised by resource deficiencies that range from inadequate healthcare budgets and a paucity of appropriately trained personnel, to scarce laboratory facilities and inconsistent drug supplies. Patients face difficulties accessing healthcare, affording investigational and treatment protocols, and attending follow-up. Children routinely present with advanced local and metastatic disease and many children cannot be offered any effective treatment. Additionally, multiple comorbidities, including malaria, tuberculosis, and HIV when added to acute on chronic malnutrition, compound treatment-related toxicities. Survival rates are poor. Pediatric surgical oncology is not yet regarded as a health care priority by governments struggling to achieve their millennium goals. The patterns of childhood solid malignant tumors in Africa are discussed, and the difficulties encountered in their management are highlighted. Three pediatric surgeons from different regions of Africa reflect on their experiences and review the available literature. The overall incidence of pediatric solid malignant tumor is difficult to estimate in Africa because of lack of vital hospital statistics and national cancer registries in most of countries. The reported incidences vary between 5% and 15.5% of all malignant tumors. Throughout the continent, patterns of malignant disease vary with an obvious increase in the prevalence of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and Kaposi sarcoma in response-increased prevalence of HIV disease. In northern Africa, the most common malignant tumor is leukemia, followed by brain tumors and nephroblastoma or neuroblastoma. In sub-Saharan countries, BL is the commonest tumor followed by nephroblastoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma. The overall 5-years survival varied between 5% (in Côte d'Ivoire before 2001) to 34% in Egypt and up to 70% in South Africa. In many reports, the survival rate of

  1. Africa and the global carbon cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denning A Scott

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The African continent has a large and growing role in the global carbon cycle, with potentially important climate change implications. However, the sparse observation network in and around the African continent means that Africa is one of the weakest links in our understanding of the global carbon cycle. Here, we combine data from regional and global inventories as well as forward and inverse model analyses to appraise what is known about Africa's continental-scale carbon dynamics. With low fossil emissions and productivity that largely compensates respiration, land conversion is Africa's primary net carbon release, much of it through burning of forests. Savanna fire emissions, though large, represent a short-term source that is offset by ensuing regrowth. While current data suggest a near zero decadal-scale carbon balance, interannual climate fluctuations (especially drought induce sizeable variability in net ecosystem productivity and savanna fire emissions such that Africa is a major source of interannual variability in global atmospheric CO2. Considering the continent's sizeable carbon stocks, their seemingly high vulnerability to anticipated climate and land use change, as well as growing populations and industrialization, Africa's carbon emissions and their interannual variability are likely to undergo substantial increases through the 21st century.

  2. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium: A Key to Developing the Future Geoscience Workforce in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhonjera, E.

    2011-12-01

    Africa is facing serious challenges in geoscience education. This has been as a result of absence of or very young/small Earth Science Departments in some universities (e.g., Mauritius, Namibia, Botswana, Swaziland, Malawi): Limited capacity (staff and equipment needed for practicals) to cope with the growing number of students, compounded by brain drain of academic staffs and the fact that current tertiary programmes do not seem to produce graduates suitable for the industry are some of the contributing factors to the challenges, (UNESCO-AEON Report, 2009). As such Earth Science studies in Africa have been one of the career paths that has not been promoted or highly preferred by many students. In January 2011, the YES Network African chapter was launched through the YES Africa 2011 Symposium that took place at the University of Johannesburg South Africa in Conjunction with the 23rd Colloquium of Africa Geology from the 08-14th January 2011. The YES Africa 2011 Symposium was organized by five YES African National networks from Southern, Central, Eastern and Northern Africa to bring young geoscientists from all regions of Africa together to present their research about African geoscience topics. The symposium also included roundtable discussions about increasing the involvement of youth's participation in geoscience issues in Africa, about how to increase the number of youths in African geosciences education university programs, and about how to promote geoscience careers to university students in Africa c. Roundtable discussions revealed that many African colleges and universities do not provide adequate infrastructure and resources to support the students studying in the department. As such, most students graduate with poor preparation for geoscience careers, having gained a theoretical understanding of geology, but not the practical application of the discipline. The recommendations from the YES Africa 2011 Symposium also highlighted on the best ways of

  3. 'Africa Alive Corridors': Forging a new future for the people of Africa by the people of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix Toteu, Sadrack; Malcolm Anderson, John; de Wit, Maarten

    2010-11-01

    ' Africa Alive Corridors' (AAC) addresses major stewardship goals in Africa through a selection of 20 heritage Corridors (varying from 1000 to 4000 km in length and 50 to 100 km wide). These include more than 400 heritage nodes (World Heritage Sites, Biosphere Reserves, biodiversity hotspots, Geoparks, etc.). AAC tracks Africa's journey from around 4 billion years ago to the present day through these chronologically sequenced Corridors. And so, the 4-billion-year autobiography of the continent is told. It encompasses the geological, biological and anthropological/cultural history of Africa's 54 nations - a (hi-) story without borders. The wealth of scientific and biographical knowledge archived in this network of Corridors tells the story of continental drift, mega-geohazards, climate variability and change, and the origin and extinction of biodiversity; and includes our human roots, culture and spirituality, our impact on the Earth and our potential to influence its future. In telling this story of Africa, new research avenues will be discovered and new learning methodologies will be experienced and developed and shared. In this way, the AAC provide loci along which the eight UN-Millennium Development Goals may be readily and realistically achieved. In concert, they can form the basis for a new collective endeavour - of Pan African Earth Stewardship Science. In this, the final - 2010 - phase of IYPE (the International Year of Planet Earth), we aim to make a start at bringing the ' Africa Alive Corridors' into real-life context. Whilst the concept of the Corridors has been formulated and presented at various international forums—most recently in Africa at the launch of IYPE in Arusha, Tanzania, in May 2008—here we present in brief their conceptual framework, and summarize the rationale behind the selection of the 20 African Corridors. Then, we describe, for the first time, how the AAC concept might evolve. To achieve the latter, we focus on an exploratory

  4. Military Social Work Thinking in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian D. van Breda

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Military social workers in South Africa have developed distinctive ways of thinking about military social work. These developments have been influenced by various contextual factors, such as the transition of South Africa to a non-racial democracy in 1994 and the establishment of a military social work research capacity. These factors contributed to new ways of thinking, such as the recognition that military social work has a mandate to facilitate organizational change and the adoption of a resilience perspective. A central development in military social work thinking in South Africa was the formulation of a Military Social Work Practice Model, which is described and illustrated in some detail. This model emphasizes binocular vision (focusing on the interface between soldiers and the military organization and four practice positions, derived from occupational social work theory. The author notes the importance of creating appropriate contexts that facilitate further developments in military social work theory.

  5. Bioinformatics in Africa: The Rise of Ghana?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas K Karikari

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, bioinformatics, an important discipline in the biological sciences, was largely limited to countries with advanced scientific resources. Nonetheless, several developing countries have lately been making progress in bioinformatics training and applications. In Africa, leading countries in the discipline include South Africa, Nigeria, and Kenya. However, one country that is less known when it comes to bioinformatics is Ghana. Here, I provide a first description of the development of bioinformatics activities in Ghana and how these activities contribute to the overall development of the discipline in Africa. Over the past decade, scientists in Ghana have been involved in publications incorporating bioinformatics analyses, aimed at addressing research questions in biomedical science and agriculture. Scarce research funding and inadequate training opportunities are some of the challenges that need to be addressed for Ghanaian scientists to continue developing their expertise in bioinformatics.

  6. INFORMATION-BASED CONFLICT IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Van Niekerk

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available For a long time, the African continent was regarded as the ‘Dark Continent’. The rapid assimilation of information technologies into the African economies has placed Africa firmly on a trajectory that will see it compete and integrate with the developed world. As nations and organisations become more information-centric, it is natural that conflicts and competition amongst the various nations or organisations will become increasingly information-based. In this article, the authors reflect upon information-based conflict in Africa. Areas of information conflict that are discussed include censorship, communications intercepts, the use of information and communications to instigate violence and uprisings, and the possibility of cyberwarfare. The article shows that the use of technology to conduct information conflict in Africa is prevalent, and that it is likely to increase.

  7. Usability and Interaction Design in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jannick Kirk

    Good usability is important in all ICT solutions. To achieve good usability, a good praxis for interaction design is needed. Usability and interaction design have however emerged and established itself in a North European and US context. The ICT industry in Africa do not have the same resources...... in the field of interaction design as in the developed world. While good usability and good user experiences are important to all users of ICT, the question is whether the methods and techniques that were mainly developed in Scandinavia, Europe and US are suitable for ICT development in Africa? Can ideals...... for user-involvement and participatory design be directly transferred? How can interaction design and usability be cared for in African ICT development context, given the resources available? This paper aims to initiate a discussion of the conditions for interaction design and usability in West Africa...

  8. Electricity in Africa or the continent of paradoxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article first proposes an overview of the present situation of the electricity sector in Africa: the continent is an energy giant because of all the resources it possesses, but an electricity dwarf regarding its present and actual capacities. The author outlines the differences between potential and actual productions, gives an overview of the current status of supply and of production capacities. She comments the status of electricity demand, electricity consumption and electricity markets in the different parts of Africa (data of electricity consumption, of global, urban and rural electrification in Northern Africa, Western Africa, Central Africa, Eastern Africa, Southern Africa with or without South Africa), and issues related to costs and tariffs. She proposes some explanations for the observed discrepancies between African regions and countries: history, too small markets supported by too fragile economies, political and economic failures. Then, she discusses how to favour a durable development of the African electricity sector

  9. First supplement to the lichen checklist of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teuvo Ahti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Details are given of errors and additions to the recently published checklist of lichens reported from South Africa (Fryday 2015. The overall number of taxa reported from South Africa is increased by one, to 1751.

  10. Legislative Framework Required for Africa's M-Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Idongesit

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa......This article discusses the importance of developing legislative frameworks for the development of an m - economy in Africa...

  11. Nephrology in Africa--not yet uhuru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Charles R; Wearne, Nicola; Okpechi, Ikechi G

    2013-10-01

    Nephrology is a 'Cinderella speciality', a disregarded area of health care, in Africa. Other health issues have relegated the treatment of kidney diseases to a low priority status, and the cost of treating the more common and widespread communicable diseases, financial mismanagement and corruption in many countries has sounded the death knell for expensive therapies such as dialysis. The communicable diseases that have devastated the health systems around Africa are tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS. Until recently, very little information was available on the impact of HIV on acute and chronic dialysis admissions. Patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) in most of Africa are seldom treated because of great distances to travel, lack of expertise, poverty and poor sustainable funding for health matters. An acute peritoneal dialysis (PD) programme has now been initiated in Tanzania but the sustainability of this project will be tested in the future. The International Society of Nephrology (ISN) has developed a training programme for nephrologists from developing countries, which may now be bearing fruit. A report from the sub-Saharan Africa region shows that the numbers of patients on dialysis and those diagnosed with chronic kidney disease (CKD) has increased significantly. Other ISN-sponsored programmes such as Continuing Medical Education activities for physicians and community screening projects have had far-reaching positive effects. Government funding for a dialysis programme is well established in South Africa, but this funding is limited so that the numbers accepted for public dialysis are restricted. Consequently in the Western Cape province of South Africa, a 'category system' has been formulated to attempt to cope with this unacceptable and restrictive ruling.

  12. Primary health care in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buch, E

    1989-01-01

    Even though most countries have committed to primary health care (PHC), South Africa, a middle-income country, has an inadequate PHC system. The poor system has roots in the colonial period and apartheid reinforces this system. Race, class, and place of residence determine the type of health care individuals receive. South Africa falls far short of all 5 principles of PHC. Just 12% of the health budget goes to 40% of the population who live in the homelands which shows the inequitable distribution of health care resources and inadequate quality health care for all. Similarly, South Africa has not altered its communication and education techniques to improve preventive and promotive health services. It has not implemented any successful national campaigns such as a campaign against diarrhea deaths. South Africa does not make good use of available appropriate technology such as breast feeding, oral rehydration, refrigeration, and the ventilated improved pit latrine which lead to health for all. People in South Africa discuss community participation but it is not likely to occur without general political democracy. Some people have made local attempts at community participation but they tend to use inflexible means and request either cash or contributions in kind from people who have little. The elite in South Africa has not recognized the need to correct socioeconomic inequalities. The Population Development Plan Programme among white farmer-owners has showed some support for a multisectoral approach to improve health care, however. For example, it acknowledges that non-health-care interventions such as better salaries, literacy, and living conditions, lead to better health. The Department of National Health has discussed improved coordination of the budget to allow priority determination of national PHD and manpower plans. Nongovernmental organizations are beginning to use the PHC approach instead of the charitable approach.

  13. Narrative review of EHDI in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvarani Moodley

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: With 17 babies born with hearing loss every day in South Africa, there is a pressing need for systematic Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI services. Progress is being made in offering newborn hearing screening and studies have been conducted to document these processes within South Africa. However, due to the lack of a national and holistic overview of EHDI services to date, an accurate picture of the current status of EHDI within the South African context is required. Objective: To document and profile what has been published within the field of EHDI in South Africa over the last two decades (Jan 1995–Sept 2014 in order to gain a comprehensive overview of the current status and practice of screening and diagnosis in the field of paediatric hearing loss. Method: A narrative review of peer-reviewed articles related to EHDI in South Africa was conducted by searching the EBSCOHOST, SCOPUS and JSTOR databases for the period January 1995 to September 2014. Results: Results indicate that over the last two decades research and publications in the field of EHDI have increased considerably. These publications have revealed extensive knowledge related to paediatric hearing screening and intervention services in South Africa; however, this knowledge seems to be limited primarily to the provinces of Gauteng and the Western Cape. Furthermore, studies pertaining to diagnosis have revealed that, although much has been written on the scientific aspects on tools for diagnosis of hearing loss, there is a lack of comprehensive information on diagnostic protocols and procedures. Conclusion: Despite the clear progress being made in South Africa in the field of early hearing detection and intervention, there is a need for comprehensive studies on protocols and procedures in diagnosing paediatric hearing loss. Finally, the narrative review revealed a clear need to ensure that development and growth in the field of EHDI is a national priority

  14. The first modern human dispersals across Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Rito

    Full Text Available The emergence of more refined chronologies for climate change and archaeology in prehistoric Africa, and for the evolution of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA, now make it feasible to test more sophisticated models of early modern human dispersals suggested by mtDNA distributions. Here we have generated 42 novel whole-mtDNA genomes belonging to haplogroup L0, the most divergent clade in the maternal line of descent, and analysed them alongside the growing database of African lineages belonging to L0's sister clade, L1'6. We propose that the last common ancestor of modern human mtDNAs (carried by "mitochondrial Eve" possibly arose in central Africa ~180 ka, at a time of low population size. By ~130 ka two distinct groups of anatomically modern humans co-existed in Africa: broadly, the ancestors of many modern-day Khoe and San populations in the south and a second central/eastern African group that includes the ancestors of most extant worldwide populations. Early modern human dispersals correlate with climate changes, particularly the tropical African "megadroughts" of MIS 5 (marine isotope stage 5, 135-75 ka which paradoxically may have facilitated expansions in central and eastern Africa, ultimately triggering the dispersal out of Africa of people carrying haplogroup L3 ~60 ka. Two south to east migrations are discernible within haplogroup LO. One, between 120 and 75 ka, represents the first unambiguous long-range modern human dispersal detected by mtDNA and might have allowed the dispersal of several markers of modernity. A second one, within the last 20 ka signalled by L0d, may have been responsible for the spread of southern click-consonant languages to eastern Africa, contrary to the view that these eastern examples constitute relicts of an ancient, much wider distribution.

  15. Quantitative maps of groundwater resources in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, A. M.; Bonsor, H. C.; Dochartaigh, B. É. Ó.; Taylor, R. G.

    2012-06-01

    In Africa, groundwater is the major source of drinking water and its use for irrigation is forecast to increase substantially to combat growing food insecurity. Despite this, there is little quantitative information on groundwater resources in Africa, and groundwater storage is consequently omitted from assessments of freshwater availability. Here we present the first quantitative continent-wide maps of aquifer storage and potential borehole yields in Africa based on an extensive review of available maps, publications and data. We estimate total groundwater storage in Africa to be 0.66 million km3 (0.36-1.75 million km3). Not all of this groundwater storage is available for abstraction, but the estimated volume is more than 100 times estimates of annual renewable freshwater resources on Africa. Groundwater resources are unevenly distributed: the largest groundwater volumes are found in the large sedimentary aquifers in the North African countries Libya, Algeria, Egypt and Sudan. Nevertheless, for many African countries appropriately sited and constructed boreholes can support handpump abstraction (yields of 0.1-0.3 l s-1), and contain sufficient storage to sustain abstraction through inter-annual variations in recharge. The maps show further that the potential for higher yielding boreholes ( > 5 l s-1) is much more limited. Therefore, strategies for increasing irrigation or supplying water to rapidly urbanizing cities that are predicated on the widespread drilling of high yielding boreholes are likely to be unsuccessful. As groundwater is the largest and most widely distributed store of freshwater in Africa, the quantitative maps are intended to lead to more realistic assessments of water security and water stress, and to promote a more quantitative approach to mapping of groundwater resources at national and regional level.

  16. Children in Africa: Key Statistics on Child Survival, Protection and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    UNICEF, 2014

    2014-01-01

    This report presents key statistics relating to: (1) child malnutrition in Africa; (2) HIV/AIDS and Malaria in Africa; (3) child marriage, birth registration and Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting (FGM/C); (4) education in Africa; (5) child mortality in Africa; (6) Drinking water and sanitation in Africa; and (7) maternal health in Africa.…

  17. Unprecedented Fires in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The fires that raged across southern Africa this August and September produced a thick 'river of smoke' over the region. NASA-supported studies currently underway on the event will contribute to improved air pollution policies in the region and a better understanding of its impact on climate change. This year the southern African fire season peaked in early September. The region is subject to some of the highest levels of biomass burning in the world. The heaviest burning was in western Zambia, southern Angola, northern Namibia, and northern Botswana. Some of the blazes had fire fronts 20 miles long that lasted for days. In this animation, multiple fires are burning across the southern part of the African continent in September 2000. The fires, indicated in red, were observed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 satellite. The fires generated large amounts of heat-absorbing aerosols (the dark haze), which were observed with the Earth Probe Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instrument. These observations were collected as part of a NASA-supported field campaign called SAFARI 2000 (Southern African Regional Science Initiative). The recent six-week 'dry-season' portion of this experiment was planned to coincide with the annual fires. SAFARI 2000 planners tracked the changing location of fires with daily satellite maps provided by researchers at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. 'Every year African biomass burning greatly exceeds the scale of the fires seen this year in the western United States,' says Robert Swap of the University of Virginia, one of the campaign organizers. 'But the southern African fire season we just observed may turn out to be an extreme one even by African standards. It was amazing how quickly this region went up in flames.' The thick haze layer from these fires was heavier than campaign participants had seen in previous field studies in the Amazon Basin and during the Kuwati oil fires

  18. SERVIR-Africa: Developing an Integrated Platform for Floods Disaster Management in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macharia, Daniel; Korme, Tesfaye; Policelli, Fritz; Irwin, Dan; Adler, Bob; Hong, Yang

    2010-01-01

    SERVIR-Africa is an ambitious regional visualization and monitoring system that integrates remotely sensed data with predictive models and field-based data to monitor ecological processes and respond to natural disasters. It aims addressing societal benefits including floods and turning data into actionable information for decision-makers. Floods are exogenous disasters that affect many parts of Africa, probably second only to drought in terms of social-economic losses. This paper looks at SERVIR-Africa's approach to floods disaster management through establishment of an integrated platform, floods prediction models, post-event flood mapping and monitoring as well as flood maps dissemination in support of flood disaster management.

  19. Connecting Food Staples and Input Markets in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maur, Jean-Christophe; Shepherd, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The report Africa Can Help Feed Africa (World Bank 2012) showed that increasing food staples1 supply can be met by better connecting African markets to each other. That report called for a stronger focus on removing trade barriers and building on the forces of regional integration. This report builds on the lessons of Africa Can Help Feed Africa by looking into the specific circum¬stances ...

  20. Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Filmer, Deon; Fox, Louise

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa has just experienced one of the best decades of growth since the 1960s. Between 2000 and 2012, gross domestic product (GDP) grew more than 4.5 percent a year on average, compared to around 2 percent in the prior 20 years (World Bank various years). In 2012, the region's GDP growth was estimated at 4.7 percent- 5.8 percent if South Africa is excluded (World Bank 2013). About one-quarter of countries in the region grew at 7 percent or better, and several African countries are...

  1. Tropical North Africa hydro climate variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NCEP/NCAR data are used to study the modulating circulations of the hydro climate of tropical North Africa. Wavelet analysis is used to identify modes of variability of stream flows within the region. Ocean-atmosphere circulation composites are considered to unravel the mechanisms for swing of stream flows. The one of the main finding of the study reveals that hydro climate variability swings within ENSO and decadal timescale. Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperatures control the hydro climate mode of variability. Associated to Pacific sea surface temperature, the Atlantic Walker Circulation modulates the hydro climate swing of tropical North Africa. The detail result will be discussed.(Author)

  2. Plants Africa gave to the World

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkel, G

    1983-01-01

    Although the flora of Africa is rather poor in plant species when compared to the floras of Tropical America or South-east Asia, this vast continent is the home of a wide range of plants useful to Man. Many of these have become famous in cultivation around the world. Coffee now provides an important source of income for certain countries, and the Yams yield one of the world’s staple foods. The Oil Palm and Cola trees are widely cultivated in Africa itself and elsewhere. African Mahoganies and...

  3. Project Coast: eugenics in apartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jerome Amir

    2008-03-01

    It is a decade since the exposure of Project Coast, apartheid South Africa's covert chemical and biological warfare program. In that time, attention has been focused on several aspects of the program, particularly the production of narcotics and poisons for use against anti-apartheid activists and the proliferation of both chemical and biological weapons. The eugenic dimension of Project Coast has, by contrast, received scant attention. It is time to revisit the testimony that brought the suggestion of eugenic motives to light, reflect on some of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's findings and search for lessons that can be taken from this troubled chapter in South Africa's history.

  4. South Africa: poised for economic growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuma, J. (African National Congress (South Africa))

    1993-01-01

    South Africa is now emerging from the period of Apartheid. Elections will be held soon, but the economic damage caused by Apartheid has to be rectified. Partly this will be through an industrial strategy, and the minerals industry will play its part. The coal mining industry provides a large proportion of South Africa's exports and 90% of electricity. It is also the basis of a synfuels industry. The coal industry will continue to be an important source of exports, either directly, or as the provider of power to energy intensive industries such as aluminium production.

  5. Investor perception towards small medium enterprises investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aboah, J.; White, B.; Meuwissen, M.P.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to examine investor perceptions towards investing in SMEs in Africa. Data was collected via an online survey sent to investors on the Venture Capital for Africa (VC4Africa) platform. The Kendall’s coefficient of concordance was used to determine the degree of agreement among investo

  6. Africa Soil Profiles Database (version 1.1)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2013-01-01

    ISRIC World Soil Information is compiling legacy soil profile data of Sub Saharan Africa, as a project activity of the AfSIS project (Globally integrated Africa Soil Information Service). http://www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile The Africa Soil Profiles database, version. 1.1 (March 2013) holds

  7. Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenaars, J.G.B.

    2012-01-01

    The Africa Soil Profiles Database, Version 1.0, was compiled by ISRIC - World Soil Information as a project activity for the Globally integrated- Africa Soil Information Service (AfSIS) project (www.africasoils.net/data/legacyprofile). The Africa Soil Profiles Database is a compilation of georeferen

  8. Africa's middle class women bring entrepreneurial opportunities in breast care medical tourism to South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwireng-Obeng, Frederick; van Loggerenberg, Charl

    2011-01-01

    Africa's distribution of specialized private health services is severely disproportionate. Mismatch between South Africa's excess supply and a huge demand potential in an under-serviced continent represents an entrepreneurial opportunity to attract patients to South Africa for treatment and recuperative holidays. However, effective demand for intra-African medical tourism could be constrained by sub-Saharan poverty. Results from interviewing 320 patients and five staff at the Johannesburg Breast care Centre of Excellence, however, reject this proposition, Africa's middle class women being the target market estimated to grow annually by one million while breast cancer incidence increases with middle-class lifestyles. Uncovering this potential involves an extensive marketing strategy. PMID:22392794

  9. Invest in Africa!——2007 Africa Business and Investment Forum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei; Gong Liming

    2007-01-01

    @@ Since the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation (FOCAC) was held in November last year, Africa, this beautiful and amazing land has attracted more and more attention and interests from the Chinese people and enterprises.That vast and fertile continent does not only boast of breath-holding natural sightseeing, mysterious and historical ventures and legends, but also is a virgin land full of opportunities with investment and cooperation.

  10. Investment in Africa`s manufacturing sector: a four-country panel data analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Francis Teal; Stefan Dercon; Måns Söderbom

    1997-01-01

    Firm-level data for the manufacturing sector in Africa, presented in this paper, shows very low levels of investment. A positive effect from profits onto investment is identified in a flexible accelerator specification of the investment function controlling for firm fixed effects. There is evidence that this effect is confined to smaller firms. A comparison with other studies shows that, for such firms, the profit effect is much smaller in Africa than in other countries. Reasons for the relat...

  11. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AFRICA: SECURING CHINESE INVESTMENT FOR LASTING DEVELOPMENT, THE CASE OF WEST AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Paulin Houanye; Sibao Shen

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, when investors were actively seeking a favorable and secure place for their capital investment, the African continent rarely crossed their minds. Recent misgivings experienced by financial markets around the world and the increased demand of natural supplies forced investors to focus on Africa. This circumstance, for over a decade, has put all Africa, including both developed and industrialized countries in an embarrassing position with very low foreign investm...

  12. The Politics of Testing in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm, Linda; Wildeman, Russell

    2013-01-01

    This article considers the politics of adoption of a testing regime in South Africa. While the broad features of this regime are similar to those in developed countries, there are features specific to the South African context. These emerge from a combination of external and internal pressures. External pressures derive from international testing…

  13. Competing jurisdictions : settling land claims in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, Sandra; Spierenburg, M.; Wels, H.

    2005-01-01

    The papers included in this volume were earlier presented at a conference on the settlement of land claims in Africa, which was held in Amsterdam in September 2003. The papers are written primarily from an anthropological perspective. Contributions: Introduction: competing jurisdictions: settling la

  14. Skin diseases among schoolchildren in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogewoning, Adriaan Anne

    2012-01-01

    Many skin diseases among schoolchildren in sub-Sahara Africa cause disturbing complaints like itch and pain and several of them are contagious.This high prevalence causes a major public health problem.Although in several countries and also in our studies skin diseases present in large numbers, they

  15. Preferential Trade Between China and Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Instability has been always harassing African cotton textile industry.According to the statistics form ITMF (International Textile Manufacturers Federation),there were 5.565 million ring spinnings,170 thousand rotor spinnings,15 thousand shuttleless looms,and 61 thousand shuttlelooms in Africa in 2008.

  16. A vegetation map for eastern Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Paulo; Graudal, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    for the right place' and potential distribution maps of the useful woody species that occur in eastern Africa. To navigate this site, please use the menu on the left. For the latest news and updates, check out our Google+ page. And if you want to contact us for questions, comments or any other reason, please...

  17. Regionalizing Telecommunications Reform in West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This report assesses the potential gains from regionalized telecommunications policy in West Africa. The report seeks to assist officials in the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), the West African Telecommunications Regulators Assembly (WATRA) and member states in designing an effective regional regulatory process. To this end, the report: (i) discusses how regional coop...

  18. South Africa Economic Update, February 2016

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank Group

    2016-01-01

    Promoting faster growth and poverty alleviation through competition is particularly important for South Africa, which is facing weak economic growth and limited fiscal resources and has to look to avenues outside the fiscal space to stimulate faster sustainable growth and progress towards its ultimate goal of eliminating poverty, outlined in the 2030 National Development Plan (NDP). The up...

  19. Africa and China : a strategic partnership?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Looy, van de J.; Haan, de L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Relations between Africa and China have increased over the years and become more dominated by China's economic interests. With an annual growth rate of 8-9 per cent, and a booming economy, China's dependency on accessing natural resources is a top priority and has accordingly expanded its horizons.

  20. Africa and China: a strategic partnership?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. van de Looy (Judith); L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractRelations between Africa and China have increased over the years and become more dominated by China's economic interests. With an annual growth rate of 8-9 per cent, and a booming economy, China's dependency on accessing natural resources is a top priority and has accordingly expanded it

  1. Soil degradation in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.; Keulen, van H.

    2005-01-01

    Soil degradation in Sub-Sahara Africa has been much debated in the past decades. Although there are many different views, at the extremes there are those who are of the opinion that the problem is very serious and the main cause for the poverty and food crises and those that are convinced that it is

  2. A Sense of Water. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy-Tabor, Michelle

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers, World Wise Schools (WWS) classroom teachers, and WWS staff members. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning…

  3. Water-Borne Illnesses. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Water-Borne…

  4. Narrative vs. Expository Texts. Water in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Carly Sporer

    The Water in Africa Project was realized over a 2-year period by a team of Peace Corps volunteers. As part of an expanded, detailed design, resources were collected from over 90 volunteers serving in African countries, photos and stories were prepared, and standards-based learning units were created for K-12 students. This unit, "Narrative vs.…

  5. Evaluating Health Care Financing Reforms in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.E.J. Bonfrer (Igna)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Africa is on a steady economic growth path. Over the last decade, most Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries outperformed European and North-American countries’ growth rates, as shown in Figure 1. A number of SSA countries are among the fastest growing economies in the wo

  6. China's Outward Direct Investment in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, Yin-Wong; de Haan, Jakob; Qian, Xingwang; Yu, Shu

    2012-01-01

    The empirical determinants of China's outward direct investment (ODI) in Africa are examined using an officially approved ODI dataset and a relatively new OECDIMF format ODI dataset. China's ODI is found responding to the canonical economic determinants that include the market seeking motive, the ri

  7. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  8. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  9. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa Fever, West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kan, Stéphane Kouassi; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-01-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans. PMID:17326956

  10. Food and environmental policies in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, M R; Biswas, A K

    1986-08-01

    Not only is Africa experiencing severe food production and nutrition problems, but environmental conditions, on which agricultural production ultimately depends, are deteriorating. A meeting of the African Ministers of Environment was held in Cairo last December, and an African solution to an African problem was put forth. The proposed program is examined in this paper. The usable extent of the pastoral area in the arid and semi-arid regions of Africa nas been reduced by 25% since 1968. At present only about 35% of the former area of slightly productive savannah is left. Africa's rich fishing grounds are being overfished and coastal regions are threatened by pollution. Africa's problems are linked with very high rates of population growth, rapid rates of urbanization, inappropriate development policies that have neglected the agricultural sector, and nonavailability of skilled manpower. The Cairo Program of African Cooperation included the following proposals: 8 continent-wide networks of institutions are to be established or strenghened in the fields of climatology, soils and fertilizers, water resources, energy, genetic resources, environmental monitoring, science and technology, and education and training; all available African skills and experience are to be applied to seek economically feasible, environmentally sound and socially acceptable solutions in certain regions; subregional cooperation is to be strenghened in terms of implementation of priority activities; 4 committees were established in areas of priority concerns; and a formula to provide US$32.5 million to finance the follow-up activities was approved.

  11. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  12. On-Line Training in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossouw, S. F.

    The background of online information retrieval at the Institute for Medical Literature (IML), South Africa's center for providing such services to the country's biomedical community, is briefly sketched as an introduction to this description of IML's program to train medical librarians in online searching techniques. Materials used in the training…

  13. Quality Assurance in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materu, Peter; Righetti, Petra

    2010-01-01

    This article assesses the status and practice of higher education quality assurance in sub-Saharan Africa, focusing on degree-granting tertiary institutions. A main finding is that structured national-level quality assurance processes in African higher education are a very recent phenomenon and that most countries face major capacity constraints.…

  14. Seismotectonics and crustal deformation in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayadi, Abdelhakim

    2016-04-01

    We present the Seismotectonic Map of Africa based on a geological, geophysical and geodetic database including the instrumental seismicity and re-appraisal of large historical events, and harmonization and homogenization of earthquake parameters in catalogues. Although the seismotectonic framework of the African continent is a difficult task, several previous and ongoing projects provide a wealth of data and outstanding results. The database of large and moderate earthquakes in different geological domains includes the coseismic and Quaternary faulting that reveals the complex nature of the active tectonics in Africa. The map benefits from previous works on local and regional seismotectonic maps that needed to be integrated with the lithospheric and upper mantle structures, seismic anisotropy tomography and gravity anomaly, into a continental framework. The synthesis of earthquake and volcanic studies obtained from the analysis of late Quaternary faulting and geodetic data will serve as a basis for hazard calculations and the reduction of seismic risks. The map will be useful for the seismic hazard assessment and earthquake risk mitigation for significant infrastructures and their socio-economic implications in Africa. The constant population increase and infrastructure growth in the continent that exacerbate the earthquake risk justify the necessity for a continuous updating of this map. The database and related map are prepared in the framework of the IGC Project-601 "Seismotectonics and Seismic Hazards in Africa" of UNESCO-IUGS, funded by the Swedish International Development Agency and UNESCO-Nairobi for a period of 4 years (2011 - 2014, now extended to 2016).

  15. Challenges and opportunities for chemistry in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abegaz, Berhanu

    2016-06-01

    Chemistry education and research in Africa is challenging -- a fact that is clearly reflected by publication metrics. Yet this is far from the full story on a continent that has youth on its side, a cultural link to chemistry through its strong interest in plants and indigenous medicine, and an increasing number of ways forward.

  16. Slavery, migration and contemporary bondage in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Quirk; D. Vigneswaran

    2013-01-01

    Slavery in Africa is commonly associated with the distant past: images of maritime slavery in the Gold Coast, Biafra, Angola and Zanzibar together with the horrors of the 'Middle Passage' to the Americas. However, widespread evidence of human trafficking, wartime enslavement and other forms of bonda

  17. Africa's elephants and rhinos: Flagships in crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western, D

    1987-11-01

    Despite extensive conservation measures over the last two decades, populations of elephants and rhinos in Africa continue to decline. The plight of the black rhino is especially acute. Poaching for rhino horn and ivory, rather than habitat loss, remains the principal threat to these species. The only long-term hope may lie in the effective protection of small, isolated populations.

  18. Malarone-donation programme in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloland, P B; Kazembe, P N; Watkins, W M; Doumbo, O K; Nwanyanwu, O C; Ruebush, T K

    1997-11-29

    Glaxo Wellcome announced in November 1996 its intent to donate up to 1 million treatment courses per year of its new antimalarial drug, Malarone, to countries in Africa, Southeast Asia, and South America, where malaria is endemic. Because the effectiveness of the small number of available antimalarial drugs is threatened by the emergence of drug resistance, the advantages of introduction of this new drug to a given area should be given careful consideration. Chloroquine, for example, is nearing the end of its effectiveness as a first-line drug for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in many areas of East and Central Africa. The lifespan of its replacement, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, is likely to be even shorter given its long half-life and the ease with which resistance-conferring mutations occur. In Southeast Asia and the Amazon basin of South America, where multidrug-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria is a serious problem, the advantages of Malarone introduction clearly outweigh any disadvantages. In sub-Saharan Africa, the premature distribution and increasing use of artemisinins may jeopardize their long-term effectiveness, however. Another factor complicating decisions to introduce Malarone is its required 3-day course of treatment, necessitating hospitalization if compliance is to be ensured. The donation project gives patients in developing countries access to an expensive drug that would otherwise be unavailable. Time must be taken, however, to fully debate the project's pros and cons, resolve inherent logistic problems, and establish guidelines for Malarone use in sub-Saharan Africa.

  19. South Africa, 2004: Power, Passion, Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruckner, Martha

    2005-01-01

    Although the education system in post-apartheid South Africa has its share of serious challenges, the accompanying reforms carried out are inspiring as the ASCD Board of Directors and staff discovered when they visited the country in October 2004. The visit was organized around the theme of the 2005 ASCD Annual Conference: "Voices of Education:…

  20. Teaching Community Psychology in Postapartheid South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Aaronette M.; Potgieter, Cheryl A.

    1996-01-01

    Examines a community psychology course that stresses community empowerment, the myth of neutrality and objectivity in community psychology, and democratic accountability to the community. The course includes a brief history of race, class, and gender oppression in South Africa and concludes with a unit on converting social theory into practice.…

  1. Science Education as South Africa's Trojan Horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogan, John M.; Gray, Brian V.

    1999-01-01

    Presents the story of one nongovernmental organization (NGO) and the role it played in reconceptualizing science education in South Africa. Describes the success of the Science Education Project (SEP) in confronting authoritarian practices of government organizations and those within its own ranks. Science education can become the Trojan horse of…

  2. The Image of Africa in Elementary Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Angene H.

    1980-01-01

    To support the hypothesis that much misinformation and many stereotypic attitudes are presented about Africa to elementary school pupils, the article analyzes 10 readers for African content and assesses effects of an African content intervention strategy on elementary school students. (DB)

  3. Avoiding the Fragility Trap in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Andrimihaja, Noro Aina; Cinyabuguma, Matthias; Devarajan, Shantayanan

    2011-01-01

    Not only do Africa's fragile states grow more slowly than non-fragile states, but they seem to be caught in a "fragility trap". For instance, the probability that a fragile state in 2001 was still fragile in 2009 was 0.95. This paper presents an economic model where three features -- political instability and violence, insecure property rights and unenforceable contracts, and corruption --...

  4. Land reform in Africa : lessons from Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Naerssen, A.L.; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' pa

  5. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Boele van Hensbroek; F. Jonker; I. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of

  6. Developmental Regimes in Africa synthesis report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Booth, D.; Dietz, A.J.; Golooba-Mutebi, F.; Fuady, A.H.; Henley, D.; Kelsall, T.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Donge, van J.K.

    2015-01-01

    Many African countries have experienced sustained economic growth, but few have achieved the type of structural change, driven by rising productivity, that has transformed mass living standards in parts of Asia. In the Developmental Regimes in Africa Synthesis Report, editor David Booth examines how

  7. South Africa in African an in the International System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandrup, Thomas

    in terms of values and norms. This paper focuses on South Africa as member of the BRICS. It is the newest member of the BRICS, accepted December 2010, and is dwarfed by the other BRICS countries both in terms of size of its population and its economy to an extent that it can be questioned why it has been...... accepted into the BRICS. This paper will argue that the explanation has to be found at the political level, where South Africa claims to be representing Africa in BRICS. The paper examines South Africa’s role in Africa and scrutinises to what extent South Africa has got the backing of the Sub...

  8. [Inequalities in access to care in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livinec, Bertrand; Milleliri, Jean-Marie; Rey, Jean-Loup; Saliou, Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Social inequalities in health are increasingly in the news in Africa. While appeals, international declarations and new strategies for health in Africa have succeeded one another over the years, we must admit that the health inequalities are increasing. It is perhaps time to take health out of its compartment and understand that it is one of the components of overall development and that we cannot act effectively against these health inequalities unless we also act on the pressing need to see all States (in the North and South) finally meet their financial commitments, demand of African leaders that they provide good government and fight against corruption, the leaders of African good government and a fight against corruption, and finally ensure that the strategies proposed in Africa focus on the health priorities of each country. If we mention the Scandinavian example, we must admit that the Nordic countries have demonstrated their capacity to obtain excellent results in health, to narrow social inequalities, and provide public transparency and aid to development. They constitute today an excellent example for most Western countries and for African countries - and also for African and western civil societies, which can be inspired by the concrete measures of transparency and strong public activity, which promote improvement in the overall statistics of their societies, in particular, in health. Accordingly we propose a new approach that looks at health statistics in the light of inequalities (especially via the Gini coefficient) and public transparency (especially via the benchmarks of perceived corruption). A New Deal for health in Africa is needed, and all the organization involved should be asked to act together for a holistic public health vision that will benefit the populations of Africa. Health cannot be separated from a political, ethical and equitable vision of society.

  9. Astronomy Education & Outreach in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Throop, Henry B.

    2015-11-01

    Although South Africa has evolved greatly in the 20 years since the end of apartheid, it remains a very divided country. The highest-performing students are comparable in ability to those in the US and Europe, but nearly all of these students are from priveleged Afrikaaner (European) backgrounds. The vast majority of students in the country are native African, and school standards remain very low across the country. It is common that students have no textbooks, teachers have only a high school education, and schools have no telephones and no toilets. By high school graduation, the majority of students have never used a web browser -- even students in the capital of Johannesburg. And while a few students are inspired by home-grown world-class projects such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA) and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), most remain unaware of their existence.Despite the poor state of education in the country, students work hard, are curious, and desire information from the outside world. Astronomy is one subject in which students in rural Africa often show exceptional interest. Perhaps astronomy serves as a 'gateway science,' linking the physically observable world with the exotic and unknown.Here I report on many visits I have made to both rural and urban schools in South Africa during the 2013-2015 period. I have interacted with thousands of grade 7-12 students at dozens of schools, as well as taught students who graduated from this system and enrolled in local universities. I will present an assessment of the state of science education in South Africa, as well as a few broader suggestions for how scientists and educators in developed countries can best make an impact in Southern Africa.

  10. Marketing of irradiated commodities in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du Plessis, TA; Stevens, RCB

    Although the industrial exploitation of radiation processing in the medical and allied fields has been successfully marketed and applied for the past two decades in South Africa, the introduction of food radurisation on an industrial level adds a completely new dimension to the marketing of this processing technique. Extensive research into the use of radiation for the treatment of various foodstuffs has been carried out by the Nuclear Development Corporation of South Africa for more than a decade, resulting in South Africa being one of the first countries where a commercial irradiator dedicated to this branch of radiation processing, was established. The marketing of this process is especially difficult due to the emotive aspects associated with radiation and man's sensitive reaction to anything pertaining to his food. This situation was made even more difficult by the general public's apprehension towards nuclear activities throughout the world. In an attempt to transform the unfavourable public image associated with this process, an important first step was to form a National Steering Committee for the Marketing of Radurised Food, the members of which were drawn from various agricultural controlling bodies, the Department of Health, and other controlling bodies held in high esteem by the public, such as the Consumer Council and representatives from commerce and industry. This approach proved to be very successful and greatly assisted in creating a climate whereby the public in South Africa today generally has a favourable attitude towards the radurisation of foodstuffs. The development of this marketing strategy for food radurisation in South Africa is discussed in detail.

  11. [The role of female veterinarians in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogh, K K

    2000-01-01

    While the number of female veterinary students has reached figures as over 80% in the Netherlands and other European countries, the number of female veterinary students in Africa is also changing but still at a slower pace. Still nowadays, according to UNICEF, two-thirds of primary school age children, denied their right to basic education, are girls. In addition, especially in rural areas in Africa, there are only few secondary schools, so that children, either have to travel over large distances on a daily basis or have to live away from their families. As girls, already from an early age play an important role in the daily household routine, they are often not allowed to leave for schooling. There used to be less than 10 veterinary faculties in Africa during the first half of the 20th century. These faculties were located in South Africa, Sudan, Egypt and Nigeria. For many years, African veterinarians were also trained in western countries (UK, France, USA) or in former communist countries (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Hungary Eastern Germany, Cuba) depending on the existence of historic or political links. A long stay abroad made it more difficult for female students, especially for those with children. Still nowadays, female veterinarians in Africa are mostly working for the veterinary departments mainly in the urban areas. Another area where many female veterinarians can be found are governmental diagnostic and research laboratories as well as training institutions such as veterinary faculties or agricultural colleges. Generally the salaries at these institutions are very low and therefore their male colleagues have gradually shifted to work in the private sector with more competitive salaries (private clinics, sector pharmaceutical companies, development projects, (agricultural) banks, etc). As still in most societies, women tend to follow their husbands, most female veterinarians are bound to find employment where their husbands are based. In addition, as most

  12. Orf in South Africa: Endemic but neglected

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Scagliarini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey amongst sheep and goat producers and veterinarians was undertaken to collect epidemiological data on orf in South Africa. Previous epidemiological studies on the presence of the disease in the country have not been documented and this report is the first descriptive epidemiological study of orf in South Africa. A seven-month investigation, realised by direct and indirect interviews and field observation, enabled us to outline incidence and risk factors of this disease and to better understand how the local farmers in rural areas relate to it. The results may contribute to better management of the disease in rural areas. By means of molecular analyses the phylogenetic relationships between field isolates from different areas have been identified. The findings gave a first important contribution to the general assessment of the economic impact of orf virus infections and the extent of the risk to human health.

  13. Adapting to climate change in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intersection of present vulnerability and the prospect of climate change in Africa warrants proactive action now to reduce the risk of large-scale, adverse impacts. The process of planning adaptive strategies requires a systematic evaluation of priorities and constraints, and the involvement of stakeholders. An overview of climate change in Africa and case studies of impacts for agriculture and water underlie discussion of a typology of adaptive responses that may be most effective for different stakeholders. The most effective strategies are likely to be to reduce present vulnerability and to enhance a broad spectrum of capacity in responding to environmental, resource and economic perturbations. In some cases, such as design of water systems, an added risk factor should be considered. 2 figs., 7 tabs., 48 refs

  14. AIDS in Africa: misinformation and disinformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konotey-Ahulu, F I

    1987-07-25

    Relying on his tour of 16 sub-Saharan countries, the author judges the extent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Africa on a scale from grade I (not much of a problem) to grade V (a catastrophe). In his assessment, AIDS is a problem (grade II) in only 5, possibly 6, countries where it has occurred. In no country is the AIDS problem consistently grade III (a great problem), nor ever grade IV (an extremely great problem), and in none can it be called a catastrophe (grade V). In Kenya, for instance, contrary to widespread rumors, the author rates AIDS in 1987 as grade I. Journalistic hyperbole has proved very expensive in that Africans overseas have experienced racial abuse and tourism has unjustly suffered. Tension seems to have developed between white doctors working in Africa, with externally funded research in danger of being halted in several countries. PMID:2885651

  15. GMO foods and crops: Africa's choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paarlberg, Robert

    2010-11-30

    There is a scientific consensus, even in Europe, that the GMO foods and crops currently on the market have brought no documented new risks either to human health or to the environment. Europe has decided to stifle the use of this new technology, not because of the presence of risks, but because of the absence so far of direct benefits to most Europeans. Farmers in Europe are few in number, and they are highly productive even without GMOs. In Africa, by contrast, 60% of all citizens are still farmers and they are not yet highly productive. For Africa, the choice to stifle new technology with European-style regulations carries a much higher cost. PMID:20637906

  16. THE CONSEQUENCES OF HUMANITARIAN PEACEKEEPING IN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rialize Ferreira

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Owing to the changing nature of international conflict, the 1990s witnessed agrowing need for humanitarian peacekeeping operations, especially in Africa. Thereluctance of the United Nations to be involved in peacekeeping operations in Africacompelled South Africa to take part in peacekeeping to assist neighbouring conflictriddenstates. There is, however, a discrepancy between the conceptualisation andapplication of peacekeeping and peace-enforcement operations. This notion ismanifest in the changing nature of post-Cold War conflicts and requisite strategies,doctrines and operational procedures to execute these operations. A shift in SouthAfrican defence policy was necessary to accommodate an expanded mandate tomake provision for African peacekeeping missions. These humanitarian missionsunfortunately also have unintended, latent consequences for the host populations,which can harm the peace operations as such.The aim of this article is to investigate traditional peacekeeping shifting topeace-building as a manifest, intended consequence and the way in whichunintended, latent consequences of peacekeeping come about.

  17. Solvent Extraction Developments in Southern Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The largest solvent-extraction plant in the world at the time, the Nchanga Copper Operation, was in Zambia. The first commercial process using solvent extraction for the refining of the platinum-group metals was in South Africa. More recently, the Southern African region has seen the implementation of solvent extraction for other base metals, precious metals, and specialty metals. These include the world firsts of primary production of zinc at Skorpion Zinc in Namibia and the large-scale refining of gold by Harmony Gold in South Africa. Several other flowsheets that use solvent-extraction technology are currently under commissioning, development, or feasibility study for implementation in this part of the world, including those for the recovery of copper, cobalt, nickel, tantalum, and niobium.

  18. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  19. The foreign debt problem of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Decoodt

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The foreign debt problem of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA, although an important obstacle against economic growth, is not the region's major economic problem. The creditors are less concerned about the relative small debt figures of SSA because of the lower risks for the equilibrium of the financial system. But from the debtors' viewpoint, the debt situation is possibly even more critical in low-income Africa than in the richer major debtor countries. SSA has a predominance of official creditors with the best obtainable credit terms. Notwithstanding these good terms, SSA is so poor that it has difficulties with fulfilling its debt service. There is no single solution for the African debt crisis. Anyway the official creditors have to adopt a more flexible attitude. The debtor countries have also to accept their own responsibility in the solutions of the problem.

  20. Central Africa: prospects for a cultural emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Arsène Yao

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent decades, biennials and festivals have multiplied across Africa, proof of the growing dynamism of the cultural sector, to which private actors and governments take a special interest, for several reasons. Cultural reasons related to the preservation of diversity with the threat of globalization seen as potential factor of standardization. But also economics reasons on having turned the African creators into conquerors of markets. Based on the case of the countries of Central Africa –considered to be the Cradle of Humankind, as the oldest hominid fossil was found in 2001 in Chad–, the aim of this article is to determine cultural policies in this region. Also it highlights the challenges and the opportunities to carry out development mechanisms of the cultural industry from policies that generate wealth, jobs and, above all, to return dignity to peoples.

  1. Climate Warming: Is There Evidence in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Carcel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have examined the temperature time series across several locations in Africa. In particular, we focus on three countries, South Africa, Kenya, and Côte d’Ivoire, examining the monthly averaged temperatures from three weather stations at different locations in each country. We examine the presence of deterministic trends in the series in order to check if the hypothesis of warming trends for these countries holds; however, instead of using conventional approaches based on stationary I(0 errors, we allow for fractional integration, which seems to be a more plausible approach in this context. Our results indicate that temperatures have only significantly increased during the last 30 years for the case of Kenya.

  2. Chinese Investment BuoysAfrica's Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to Xinhua News Agency,athough Africa is a diverse continent,containing a variety of countries and cultures,the representatives of African countries do have one thing in common:their desire to attract Chinese investment.“We look forward to Chinese enterprises'investments.Chinese investment helps us to fund the construction of transportation and medical infrastructure,” Bernadette Artivor,executive director of the Namibia Investment Center,said on September 8.Artivor made the remark at the High-Level Symposium for China-Africa Investment and Cooperation,an event held as part of the 15th China International Fair for Investment and Trade (CIFIT) which opened in southeast Chinas coastal city of Xiamen.

  3. Africa's Megafans and Their Tectonic Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Burke, K.

    2016-01-01

    Megafans are a really extensive continental sediment bodies, fluvially derived, and fan-shaped in planform. Only those >80 km long were included in this study. Africa's megafans were mapped for purposes of both comprehensive geomorphic description and as a method of mapping by remote sensing large probable fluvial sediment bodies (we exclude sediment bodies deposited in well defined, modern floodplains and coastal deltas). Our criteria included a length dimension of >80 km and maximum width >40 km, partial cone morphology, and a radial drainage pattern. Visible and especially IR imagery were used to identify the features, combined with topographic SRTM data. We identified 99 megafans most of which are unstudied thus far. Their feeder rivers responsible for depositing megafan sediments rise on, and are consequent drainages oriented down the slopes of the swells that have dominated African landscapes since approximately 34 Ma (the high points in Africa's so-called basin-and-swell topography [1]). Most megafans (66%) have developed along these consequent rivers relatively near the swell cores, oriented radially away from the swells. The vast basins between the swells provide accommodation for megafan sediment wedges. Although clearly visible remotely, most megafans are inactive as a result of incision by the feeder river (which then no longer operates on the fan surface). Two tectonic settings control the location of Africa's megafans, 66% on swell flanks, and 33% related to rifts. (i) Swell flanks Most megafans are apexed relatively near the core of the parent swell, and are often clustered in groups: e.g., six on the west and north flanks of the Hoggar Swell (Algeria), seven on the north and south flanks of the Tibesti Swell (Libya-Chad borderlands), twelve on the west flank of the Ethiopian Swell, four on the east flank of the East African Swell (Kenya), Africa's largest, and eight around Angola's Bié Swell (western Zambia, northern Namibia). A cluster of possible

  4. Asia in the New Distribution of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis María Mora

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The relations between sub-Saharan Africa and east Asia have developed at a considerable rate over the recent decades. The economic figures and political interests are testimony to a new distribution of influences on the Dark Continent, insomuch as the powerful nations along the Asiatic shore are now competing with both the former colonial mother counties and the United States. Indeed, if the economic weight of Africa’s market is weak world-wide, this does not make it unattractive from a strategic point of view for those Asiatic countries looking for international prestige or resources for their growing economies. This rapprochement, motivated by political reasons also, seems exemplified by the growing presence of major economies like Japan and China - as well as those aspirations of the middle-sized powers like South Korea and Malaysia - in the international issues concerning sub-Saharan Africa.

  5. ORGANIC AGRICULTURE FOR IMPROVEDFOOD SECURITY IN AFRICA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaarst, Mette; Ssekyewa, Charles; Halberg, Niels;

    . This was concluded in an UNEP-UNCTAD CBTF report from 2008 exploring the potentials of organic farming in Africa. In this report, it was furthermore concluded that organic and near-organic agricultural methods and technologies are ideally suited for many poor, marginalized smallholder farmers in Africa, that organic...... farming builds on and stimulates the formation of human, social, financial, natural and physical capital, and that the recent rise in food and fuel prices highlight the importance of making agricultural production less energy and external input dependent. Since organic farming is not directly...... and specifically supported by agricultural policy in most African countries, and sometimes actively hindered, an effort to establish and support an enabling policy environment must be done. At a one-day workshop on the 22nd May 2009 in Kampala in relation to the First African organic conference, the findings...

  6. Aims of education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Walter Eugene

    1990-06-01

    The first part of this paper gives a historical account of the aims of education under Apartheid, and discusses the ideological success of Apartheid education. The second part argues that a significant discussion — that is one which could have some purchase on schooling policy and educational practice — of aims of education in South Africa is not possible at present because the historical preconditions for such a discussion are not satisfied. It is argued that Apartheid has generated a political perspective which is unsympathetic to a discussion of aims of education; that the dominance of a social engineering model of schooling distorts a discussion of aims of education; and that a shared moral discourse, which is a necessary condition for a significant discussion of aims of education, does not yet exist in South Africa.

  7. N2AFRICA: Putting Nitrogen Fixation to Work for Smallholder Farmers in Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capturing free nitrogen from the atmosphere, also called nitrogen fixation, through the use of legumes as a rotation crop is a step forward in feeding the soil and improving farmers' incomes. Nitrogen fixation as measured by the stable nitrogen-15 isotope is a potentially important technique in the following project N2AFRICA, lead by Ken Giller from Wageningen University. N2AFRICA is a large scale research project focused on 'Putting nitrogen fixation to work for smallholder farmers in Africa'. N2AFRICA is funded by 'The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation' through a grant to Plant Production Systems, Wageningen University, in the Netherlands. It is led by Wageningen University together with CIAT-TSBF, IITA and has many partners in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Rwanda and Zimbabwe. Goals: At the end of the 4-year project we will have: identified niches for targeting nitrogen fixing legumes; tested multi-purpose legumes to provide food, animal feed, and improved soil fertility; promoted the adoption of improved legume varieties; supported the development of inoculum production capacity through collaboration with private sector partners; developed and strengthened capacity for legumes research and technology dissemination; delivered improved varieties of legumes and inoculant technologies to more than 225,000 smallholder farmers in eight countries of sub-Saharan Africa

  8. Malaria vaccine offers hope. International / Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The World Health Organization (WHO) may soon sign an agreement with the Colombian government to build a plant in Colombia for the mass production of the malaria vaccine SPf66. SPf66 consists of a combination of synthetic peptides. It will eventually be available in Africa, where 90% of all recorded malaria cases occur each year. 1 million of the 1.5-3 million malaria-related deaths each year also occur in Africa. Many of these deaths take place in children. The indirect costs of malaria in Africa is expected to increase from $800 million to $1.8 billion between 1987 and the end of 1995. Based on findings from the various clinical trials in Colombia, Thailand, The Gambia, and Tanzania, WHO's director of Training in Tropical Diseases (TDR) claims that, if SPf66 can reduce the malaria incidence rate by 50% and thereby also the malaria-related death rate, the lives of 500,000 children in Africa would be spared. TDR will meet in mid-1996 to sort through all the SPf66 findings and then develop a policy for further development or production and use of SPf66. The price of each SPf66 vaccination should be around $5, comparable with the higher range of costs of other vaccines provided by WHO's Expanded Program of Immunization and UNICEF. At the 1992 WHO summit in Amsterdam, the president of the Congo called for the international community to join forces to eliminate malaria. When it was first tested on humans, in Colombia, the protection rate of SPf66 ranged from 22% to 77%, with the best results among the young and the very old. It has not caused any harmful side effects.

  9. Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Calderon, Cesar; Nguyen, Ha

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines whether domestic output growth helps attract capital inflows and, in turn, capital inflows help boost output growth in a set of 38 Sub-Saharan African countries. Using a two-step approach to address reverse causality and omitted variable issues, the paper finds that output growth in countries in Sub-Saharan Africa does not attract capital inflows. However, aid and forei...

  10. Democratic consolidation in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ángel Pérez González

    2001-01-01

    The contributions made by theory on democratic consolidation in Eastern Europe are also pertinent to analysis of processes of democratization and democratic consolidation in other areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa. The parameters of analysis highlight the importance of a strong state (organized, with legitimated institutions) and a structured society (whether multiethnic or not) as necessary conditions for democratization. On the assumption that the colonizing powers basically used two models...

  11. China's Automobile:Walk into Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The press conference and flag presentation ceremony of the 6th China Auto International fAlgeria & Egypt)Exhibition Tour was held on November 3,2008 at China Council for the Promotion of International Trade (CCPIT),Beijing.An international exhibition automobile team,which is composed of China's independent brands and represents the independent research,development and manufacturing level of Chinese automobile industry,is ready to set out for Africa.

  12. The developmental effectiveness of aid to Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Killick, Tony

    1991-01-01

    The principal aim of this paper is to examine the developmental effectiveness of aid to Sub-saharan Africa (SSA). The author uses an informal analytical framework to accomplish this. The framework provides a production-type equation for determining income growth and conveys that : 1) there are many influences besides aid on country economic performance; 2) domestic policies have a pervasive influence on the whole system; and 3) aid has an important influence in raising import and investment c...

  13. Determinants of Health Professionals’ Migration in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu

    2012-01-01

    How do economic prosperity, health expenditure, savings, price-stability, demographic change, democracy, corruption-control, press-freedom, government effectiveness, human development, foreign-aid, physical security, trade openness and financial liberalization play-out in the fight against health-worker crisis when existing emigration levels matter? Despite the acute concern of health-worker crisis in Africa owing to emigration, lack of relevant data has made the subject matter empirically vo...

  14. Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from urban Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Willi Faling

    2010-01-01

    Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the ...

  15. Aggression, anger and violence in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    M.J. Masango

    2004-01-01

    This article traces the roots of aggression, anger and violence in South Africa and the rest of the world. The paper is divided into four parts: Aggression, Anger, Catharsis and Violence. As a result of violence against other human beings, especially women and children, a profound respect for human dignity has been lost. People have become extremely aggressive. The last few decades have created a culture of violence because of the suppression or oppression of feelings. The article argues that...

  16. Transcending culture : developing Africa's technical managers

    OpenAIRE

    Lawley, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    This thesis explains the background to the shortage of indigenous black technical management in Sub Saharan Africa by focusing on a number of countries in the Southern African region. It explains the implications of this shortage particularly for Zimbabwe and its mining industry which at independence in 1980 had no black technical managers. Having looked at management development worldwide and the experience of leading developed countries, the thesis goes on to consider the views and theories...

  17. Court Supervised Institutional Transformation in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Deon Erasmus; Angus Lloyd Hornigold

    2015-01-01

    The traditional adversarial model of litigation in South Africa operates on the basis that two or more parties approach the court, each with its own desired outcome. The court is then obliged to decide in favour of one of the parties. A different model of litigation is emerging in South African law. This model involves actions against public institutions that are failing to comply with their constitutional mandate. In this type of litigation there is seldom a dispute regarding the eventu...

  18. Intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Gibbs Russell

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of plant collecting in southern Africa is mapped using records from the Pretoria National Herbarium Computerized Information System (PRECIS, For the entire area, over 85% of the quarter degree grid squares have fewer than 100 specimens recorded. Collecting intensities are compared for different countries, biomes and climatic zones. Future field work from the National Herbarium will be concentrated in areas most seriously under-collected.

  19. INFORMATION-BASED CONFLICT IN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Brett Van Niekerk; Manoj S. Maharaj

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the African continent was regarded as the ‘Dark Continent’. The rapid assimilation of information technologies into the African economies has placed Africa firmly on a trajectory that will see it compete and integrate with the developed world. As nations and organisations become more information-centric, it is natural that conflicts and competition amongst the various nations or organisations will become increasingly information-based. In this article, the auth...

  20. Mental health policy: Options for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Y.G. Pillay

    1993-01-01

    This paper emphasizes the need for mental health professionals to become involved in developing mental health policies in South Africa. In particular, it examines three options that are currently the focus of attention with respect to national health options, i.e. a free market system, a national health service (NHS) and a national health insurance system (NHIS). While the paper does not provide support for any one of these options it does attempt to investigate some of the implications of ea...

  1. Virtual water trade and development in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Konar, M.; K. K. Caylor

    2013-01-01

    A debate has long existed on the relationships between human population, natural resources, and development. Recent research has expanded this debate to include the impacts of trade; specifically, virtual water trade, or the water footprint of traded commodities. We conduct an empirical analysis of the relationships between virtual water trade, population, and development in Africa. We find that increases in virtual water imports do not lead to increases in population growth nor do they dimin...

  2. ENVIRONMENT, INCOME, AND DEVELOPMENT IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Duane

    1993-01-01

    It is widely believed that rural forest and agricultural resources in Southern Africa are overused, in the sense that both biomass and harvest levels are significantly below levels of maximum sustainable yield. However, economic theory suggests that high interest and time preference rates cause the economic optimum to coincide with generally-observed patterns. In addition, low income may be the driving factor behind high interest and time preference rates. In macro-economic terms, Southern Af...

  3. Significant Drivers of Growth in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Badunenko; Daniel J. Henderson; Romain Houssa

    2012-01-01

    We employ bootstrap techniques in a production frontier framework to provide statistical inference for each component in the decomposition of labor productivity growth, which has essentially been ignored in this literature. We show that only two of the four components have significantly contributed to growth in Africa. Although physical capital accumulation is the largest force, it is not statistically significant. Thus, ignoring statistical inference would falsely identify physical capital a...

  4. MINIMUM WAGE VIOLATION IN SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat; Ravi Kanbur; Natasha Mayet

    2011-01-01

    Minimum wage legislation is central in South African policy discourse, with both strong support and strong opposition. The validity of either position depends, however, on the effectiveness of minimum wage enforcement. Using detailed matching of occupational, sectoral and locational codes in the 2007 Labour Force Survey to the gazetted minimum wages, this paper presents, we believe for the first time, estimates of minimum wage violation in South Africa. Our results give considerable cause for...

  5. Malaria in Africa Can Be Eliminated

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Carlos C.; Richard W Steketee

    2011-01-01

    A concerted effort to control malaria in Africa has produced dramatic reductions in childhood death in the past decade. This early success has prompted the global community to commit to eradication of malaria deaths and eventually all transmission. Evidence suggests that this is a feasible goal using currently available interventions, augmented with newer tools such as vaccines, which are in development. Malaria deaths are entirely preventable now, and our sustained political and financial co...

  6. The Dilemma of Food in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklyn R. Kaloko

    2013-07-01

    The need therefore is most urgent for African governments to reexamine their food and agricultural policies to tumble them provide more food for their growing population. Encouragement of large and Medium scale commercial farming, land reform, environmental management, reduction of population growth, improvement in storage and transport facilities as well as pursue political stability and a cessation of the violent conflicts that have characterized the continent, will reduce the food problem in Africa.

  7. Language teaching for the New South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Stanley G M Ridge

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some of the challenges facing the language teacher as South Africa moves into a new era. The discussion is structured around three areas of change: change in the country, changes brought about by the official language policy, and changes in the school system itself. It explores the implications for language teaching of jour key words of the new era: inclusive, non-racial, democracy, and empowerment. In relation to the 11 official languages policy, it examines the status o...

  8. A Chinese Kungfu Master in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    For over 20 years,Di Guoyong has taught daily martial arts classes in Beijing’s Zizhuyuan (Purple Bamboo) Park.This wellknown figure in the city’s martial arts circles also introduced wushu (literally meaning martial arts) to Cameroon in the late 1980s. Recently,Di sat down with ChinAfrica reporter to talk about his experiences teaching Chinese martial arts in Cameroon.

  9. Paediatric challenges in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Hilliard

    2016-01-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) project is coming to an end in 2015 and is being replaced by ambitious and aspirational Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although the MDGs have been nearly achieved, this is not true in Sub-Saharan Africa where there is still unnecessarily high infant and childhood mortality and where there are many challenges to providing modern child health care. To achieve the SDGs in the next fifteen years, in low-income countries, national minis...

  10. What happens when Trypanosoma brucei leaves Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Robert E.; Simpson, Larry; Englund, Paul T.

    2008-01-01

    Julius Lukeš and co-workers evaluated the evolutionary origin of Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi, parasites that cause horse and camel diseases. Although similar to T. brucei, the sleeping-sickness parasite, these trypanosomes do not cycle through the tsetse fly and have been able to spread beyond Africa. Transmission occurs sexually, or via blood-sucking flies or vampire bats. They concluded that these parasites, which resemble yeast petite mutants, are T. brucei sub-species, w...

  11. Astronomy in post-apartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelock, Patricia Ann

    2011-06-01

    Astronomy was one of the sciences earmarked for major support by South Africa's first democratically elected government in 1994. This was a very remarkable decision for a country with serious challenges in poverty, health and unemployment, but shows something of the long term vision of the new government. In this paper I give one astronomer's perception of the reasons behind the decision and some of its consequences.

  12. South Africa: productivity increases have a price

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motlatsi, J. [National Union of Mineworkers (South Africa)

    1995-12-31

    Presents the views of the South African National Union of Mineworkers on the role of coal mining in South Africa and future prospects for the industry. Coal is considered to be a vital component of the country`s post-apartheid economic and social reconstruction programme, being a major fuel for industry and power generation and a raw material for the chemical industry. The author calls for education and training for miners and improvements in health and safety.

  13. Land reform in Africa: lessons from Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Naerssen, A.L. van; Rutten, M.M.E.M.; Zoomers, A.

    1997-01-01

    Access to land is increasingly becoming a problem in Africa as a result both of population growth and tenure reforms. The standard argument for tenure reform centres on the role of uncertainty in discouraging investment on land held without long-term security. The rationale for this 'replacement' paradigm, however, can be questioned on economic, ecological and social grounds. The history of land tenure reform in Kenya, especially that of group titles in the semiarid areas, is a case in point....

  14. Population growth and forest sustainability in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Simplice A, Asongu; Brian A., Jingwa

    2011-01-01

    Recent distressing trends in climate change, population explosion and deforestation inspired this paper, which completes existing literature by providing empirical justification to hypothetical initiatives on the impact of population growth on forest sustainability in Africa. Using three instruments of forest exploitation, the study shows how rural, agricultural and national population growths affect forest-area and agricultural-land. In this particular study the findings indicate that instru...

  15. China, South Africa and the Lewis Model

    OpenAIRE

    John B. Knight

    2007-01-01

    The paper uses the Lewis model as a framework for examining the labour market progress of two labour-abundant countries, China and South Africa, towards labour shortage and generally rising labour real incomes. In the acuteness of their rural-urban divides, forms of migrant labour, rapid rural-urban migration, and high and rising real wages in the formal sector, the two economies are surprisingly similar. They differ, however, in the dynamism of their formal sector growth of output and employ...

  16. Growth, Employment and Unemployment in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan Hodge

    2009-01-01

    The high rate of unemployment in South Africa stands out in an otherwise vastly improved set of macroeconomic fundamentals compared to the situation in the early 1990s. One might be tempted to argue that by this single indicator alone, government policies such as GEAR have been a failure. This paper explains why jumping to such a conclusion would be a mistake and focuses on the relationship between economic growth and employment and shows how estimates of the employment coefficient have chang...

  17. Youth, Waithood, and Protest Movements in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Honwana, Alcinda

    2014-01-01

    Africa is the world’s youngest continent, with the majority of its population under the age of 24. Although during the past decade the continent has experienced considerable economic growth, this has not translated into job creation and greater equity. Soaring unemployment rates have severely affected the younger generation especially; young people find it difficult to carve out a decent future. Most young Africans are living in a period of suspension between childhood and adul...

  18. Rain rituals and hybridity in Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    R M�ller

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses the persistence and transformation of rain rituals in contemporary African Christianity. It argues that the concept �hybridity� might be a useful addition to the vocabulary of scholars studying contemporary global Christianity. The use of hybridity could replace ideologically loaded terms, such as syncretism, while still describing the interaction between different religious traditions on the phenomenological level. In Africa, as elsewhere, there are ongoing internal di...

  19. Migration, Refugees, and Racism in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Handmaker, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    textabstractThe paper looks at South Africa’s complex history and policies of racism, social separation and control and the impact that this has had on the nature of migration and refugee policy. The paper argues that this legacy has resulted in policy and implementation that is highly racialized, coupled with a society expressing growing levels of xenophobia. Some causes and manifestations of xenophobia in South Africa are explored. It further examines how actions of police and civil servant...

  20. Social policies and redistribution in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Leubolt, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims at analyzing the effects of social policies on income inequalities in South Africa since the 1990s. Based on a framework of historical institutionalism, the heritage of a distributional regime based on institutional racism is highlighted. This had lasting effects on social policies which also had both liberal and conservative characteristics. Democratisation at the beginning of the 1990s led to the abolishing of institutional racism and conservative features, while the new fra...

  1. The Truth About the Chinese in Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charlie Pistorius

    2011-01-01

    I work in the socio-political and economic space in dealing with BRICS and other frontier and emerging markets' engagement in Africa.My focus is on large commercial and industrial.deals,especially high-level dialogue,as well as small-and-medium trading initiatives … in all,capturing the opportunity and growth story that is Africa today.I find I have to constantly defend the fundamentals that underpin the Chinese deals,their trade and political interactions.Yet as I am by no means an apologist,I do however want to briefly untangle just a modicum of the blatantly false and baseless arguments against the Chinese in Africa.This debate would require a book in itself,and there is no better one than the acclaimed Professor Brautigam's The Dragon's Gift in which expertly and stoically debunks the many myths so liberally and limply salted with hot-blooded ire by the masses against the emerging giant.

  2. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  3. Occupational exposure to NORM in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa has a very large mining and minerals processing industry exploiting a variety of ores and minerals containing elevated levels of NORM. The industry employs more than 300,000 persons. Doses have been assessed to workers in the mining industry in South Africa. In the gold mining industry radon measurements have been performed since the early 1970s. Regulations have been in force since 1990. The mean annual dose to underground gold mine workers, mostly from radon progeny, is about 5 mSv with maximum doses exceeding 20 mSv. The maximum annual dose to surface workers in gold mines is 5 mSv. In South African coal mines the mean annual dose from inhalation of radon decay products has been estimated from limited radon concentration measurements to be about 0.6 mSv. In the phosphoric acid and fertilizer production industry the doses to the workers do not exceed 6 mSv/y. There are 3 mineral sands operations in South Africa, for which the maximum annual dose to workers is 3 mSv. One open pit copper mine contains elevated levels of U, which is extracted as a by-product. The maximum annual doses to workers are 5 mSv for workers in the mine and 20 mSv for workers in the metallurgical plant. Worker doses in the metallurgical plant have since been reduced with the introduction of radiation protection measures

  4. Energy Security and Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Meierding

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Published by Palgrave MacmillanOver the last decade the topic of energy security has reappeared on global policy agendas. Most analyses of international energy geopolitics examine the interests and behaviour of powerful energy-importing countries like the US and China. This chapter begins by examining foreign powers’ expanded exploitation of oil and uranium resources in Sub-Saharan Africa. It goes on to examine how energy importers’ efforts to enhance their energy security through Africa are impacting energy security within Africa. It assesses Sub-Saharan states’ attempts to increase consumption of local oil and uranium reserves. Observing the constraints on these efforts, it then outlines some alternative strategies that have been employed to enhance African energy security. It concludes that, while local community-based development projects have improved the well-being of many households, they are not a sufficient guarantor of energy security. Inadequate petroleum access, in particular, remains a development challenge. Foreign powers’ efforts to increase their oil security are undermining the energy security of Sub-Saharan African citizens.

  5. Sub-Saharan Africa's media and neocolonialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domatob, J K

    1988-01-01

    Given the heavy Western metropolitan bias of the media in sub-Saharan Africa, the ideology of neocolonialism continues to exert a dominant influence on economic, social, political, and cultural life. This neocolonial influence is further reinforced by advertising that champions a consumerist culture centered around Western goods. The capital of multinational firms plays a crucial role in the strategy of media imperialism. The dramatic growth of monopolies and the creation of military-industrial-information conglomerates in the 1970s and 1980s have been reflected in the international exchange of information and the interlinkage of mass communication systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Another media strategy that reinforces neocolonialism is the use of satellite communication. If cultural autonomy is defined as sub-Saharan Africa's capacity to decide on the allocation of its environmental resources, then cultural synchronization is a massive threat to that autonomy. Few African nations have the resources or expertise necessary to design, establish, or maintain communication systems that could accurately reflect their own culture. Nonetheless, there are some policy options. Personnel can be trained to respect African values and to recognize the dangers of neocolonial domination. The production of indigenous programs could reduce the media's foreign content. The incorporation of traditional drama and dance in the media could enhance this process. Above all, a high degree of planning is necessary if sub-Saharan African states intend to tackle the media and its domination by neocolonialist ideology. PMID:12281808

  6. Mapping Africa Biomass with MODIS Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laporte, N.; Baccini, A.; Houghton, R.

    2006-12-01

    Central Africa contains the second largest block of tropical forest remaining in the world, and is one of the largest carbon reservoirs on Earth. The carbon dynamics of the region differ substantially from other tropical forests because most deforestation and land use is associated with selective logging and small-scale landholders practicing traditional "slash-and-burn" agriculture. Despite estimates of 1-2 PgC/yr released to the atmosphere from tropical deforestation, the amount released from Central Africa is highly uncertain relative to the amounts released from other tropical forest areas. The uncertainty in carbon fluxes results from inadequate estimates of both rates of deforestation and standing stocks of carbon (forest biomass). Here we present new results mapping above-ground forest biomass for tropical Africa using machine learning techniques to integrate MODIS 1km spectral reflectance with forest inventory measurements to calibrate an empirical relationship. The derived forest biomass at each MODIS pixel shows the spatial distribution of forest biomass over the entire tropical forest region. The model has been tested in Uganda, Mali and part of Republic of Congo where field data were available. The regression tree model based on MODIS NBAR surface reflectance for Uganda, Mali and Republic of Congo explains 94 percent of the variance in above-ground biomass with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 27 Tons/ha. The approach shows promise for use of optical remote sensing data in mapping the spatial distribution of forest biomass across the region.

  7. Antigenic characterisation of lyssaviruses in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Ngoepe

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available There are at least six Lyssavirus species that have been isolated in Africa, which include classical rabies virus, Lagos bat virus, Mokola virus, Duvenhage virus, Shimoni bat virus and Ikoma lyssavirus. In this retrospective study, an analysis of the antigenic reactivity patterns of lyssaviruses in South Africa against a panel of 15 anti-nucleoprotein monoclonal antibodies was undertaken. A total of 624 brain specimens, collected between 2005 and 2009, confirmed as containing lyssavirus antigen by direct fluorescent antibody test, were subjected to antigenic differentiation. The lyssaviruses were differentiated into two species, namely rabies virus (99.5% and Mokola virus (0.5%. Furthermore, rabies virus was further delineated into two common rabies biotypes in South Africa: canid and mongoose. Initially, it was found that the canid rabies biotype had two reactivity patterns; differential staining was observed with just one monoclonal antibody. This difference was likely to have been an artefact related to sample quality, as passage in cell culture restored staining. Mongoose rabies viruses were more heterogeneous, with seven antigenic reactivity patterns detected. Although Mokola viruses were identified in this study, prevalence and reservoir host species are yet to be established. These data demonstrate the usefulness of monoclonal antibody typing panels in lyssavirus surveillance with reference to emergence of new species or spread of rabies biotypes to new geographic zones.

  8. Google's Long-term Dominance Doubted

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Matt Hines; 张永红

    2004-01-01

    @@ Like Netscape①, Google could lose its market dominance as rivals increasingly adopt its tactics. When it comes to search engines, people overwhelmingly prefer Googlebut increasing competition from a number of rivals could eventually threaten the company's top spot, a study has shown.

  9. Timeline for particle collider in doubt

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    "The world's most ambitious particle collider - which scientists hope could reveal what matter is made of - might not be fully functional until next year, months after its scheduled startup date, officials at the European Organization for Nuclear Research said Thursday." (2 pages)

  10. Timeline for particle collider in doubt

    CERN Multimedia

    Klapper, Bradley S

    2007-01-01

    "The world's most ambitious particle collider - which scientists hope could reveal what matter is made of - might not be fully functional until next year, months after its scheduled startup date, officiels at the European Organization for Nuclear Reserach said Thursday." (1 page)

  11. The benefit and the doubt : why monogamy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    2003-01-01

    Monogamy - a bond between two partners of opposite sex - is a relatively rare phenomenon in mammals (3-5%, from a total of 4000 mammalian species). The duration of the bond may vary from one breeding period to life-long. Monogamy does not exclude 'genetic promiscuity', i.e., extra-pair mating. In fa

  12. Evaluating Liberal Learning: Doubts and Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    In current evaluation practice, the implicit philosophy of value, appraisal, and action is seen as a form of Benthamite utilitarianism. A domain of value called "educational worth" is described. Ways of detecting the presence of educational worth in liberal learning programs are identified. (MLW)

  13. Leaping ''out of the doubt''- nutrition advice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folker, Anna Paldam; Sandøe, Peter

    2008-01-01

    that scientific advisers will provide clear public guidance. In the first part of the paper the tension is illustrated by the presentation of results from a recent interview study with nutrition scientists in Denmark. According to the study, nutrition scientists feel their roles as ''public advisers...

  14. Teenage pregnancy: doubts, uncertainties and psychiatric disturbance.

    OpenAIRE

    S. Maskey

    1991-01-01

    Fifty-two pregnant teenagers were assessed at 'booking' using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ 28), a locus of control scale, and five visual analogue 'attitude scales'. Thirty-eight were in the antenatal and 14 in the termination clinic. One quarter had probable psychiatric disorder on the GHQ. The GHQ scores correlated outcome of pregnancy (whether about the planned outcome of pregnancy (whether termination or full term). Locus of control correlated with the Depression scale of the GHQ...

  15. Radiation irradiation effects: knowledge and doubts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    People are ever submitted to natural ionizing radiations. But nuclear power plant workers have this natural exposure and one complementary irradiation, in case of nuclear installation serious accident. In normal running, people, people, particularly those in neighbourhood of the installation, are exposed permanently to liquid and gaseous disposal. In case of accident, exposure increases mainly according to usual state. Only the accident states may induce for people or one worker exposure to high dose ionizing radiations. 1 tab

  16. Linoleic acid: between doubts and certainties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choque, Benjamin; Catheline, Daniel; Rioux, Vincent; Legrand, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Linoleic acid is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in human nutrition and represents about 14 g per day in the US diet. Following the discovery of its essential functions in animals and humans in the early 1920's, studies are currently questioning the real requirement of linoleic acid. It seems now overestimated and creates controversy: how much linoleic acid should be consumed in a healthy diet? Beyond the necessity to redefine the dietary requirement of linoleic acid, many questions concerning the consequences of its excessive consumption on human health arise. Linoleic acid is a direct precursor of the bioactive oxidized linoleic acid metabolites. It is also a precursor of arachidonic acid, which produces pro-inflammatory eicosanoids and endocannabinoids. A majority of the studies on linoleic acid and its derivatives show a direct/indirect link with inflammation and metabolic diseases. Many authors claim that a high linoleic acid intake may promote inflammation in humans. This review tries to (i) highlight the importance of reconsidering the actual requirement of linoleic acid (ii) point out the lack of knowledge between dietary levels of linoleic acid and the molecular mechanisms explaining its physiological roles (iii) demonstrate the relevance of carrying out further human studies on the single variable linoleic acid.

  17. Doubts about oestrogen therapy in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    In postmenopausal women, the predominate steroid is estrone, and data have indicated that conversion of androgen to estrone is 2-3 times greater in women with endometrial cancer than in others. 2 studies of exogenous estrogens in postmenopausal women are summarized. In the 1st, 317 patients with adenocarcinoma were compared with matched controls with cervical, ovarian, and vulval neoplasms. 152 patients had estrogen therapy as compared with 54 controls, and calculations revealed the cancer risk as 4.5 times greater among patients than controls. The 2nd study concerned the use of conjugated estrogens. 94 patients with endometrial cancer and double that number of matched controls were examined. Conjugated estrogens had been used by 57% of patients and only 15% of controls. The data revealed an increased risk of 5.6 times in patients using estrogen for between 1 and 5 years, rising to 13.9 times greater risk after 7 or more years; and this relationship could not be explained by factors such as age, parity, obesity, or menopausal age. The chance of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women not using estrogens is 1/100,000/year. In estrogen users, the level increases to between 4 and 8/100,000/year. More information is needed on effects of estrogens; they are valuable in relieving psychological symptoms, vasomotor instability, and, perhaps, mortality, osteoporosis, fractures, and vascular diseases after oophorectomy. These advantages have to be weighed against thromboembolism, coronary diease, strokes, and possible cancer; the benefits and risks are not easily calculated. PMID:12258712

  18. Doubts and Dogmatism in Conflict Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Gordon, Sidartha; Riboni, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    Conflicts are likely less violent if individuals entertain the possibility that the opponent may be right. Why is it so difficult to observe this attitude? In this paper, we consider a game of conflict where two opponents fight in order to impose their preferred policy. Before entering the conflict, one opponent (the agent) trusts the information received by his principal. The principal wants to a↵ect the agent’s e↵ort, but he also cares that the agent selects the correct policy and that he h...

  19. Doubts and Dogmatism in Conflict Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Riboni

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies a game of conflict where two individuals fight in order to choose a policy. Intuitively, conflicts will be less violent if individuals entertain the possibility that their opponent may be right. Why is it so difficult to observe this attitude? To answer this question, this paper considers a model of indoctrination where altruistic advisors (such as, preachers or parents), after receiving signals from Nature, send messages to the participants in the conflict. In some cases, ...

  20. Manufacturing doubt about endocrine disrupter science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergman, Åke; Becher, Georg; Blumberg, Bruce;

    2015-01-01

    We present a detailed response to the critique of "State of the Science of Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals 2012" (UNEP/WHO, 2013) by financial stakeholders, authored by Lamb et al. (2014). Lamb et al.'s claim that UNEP/WHO (2013) does not provide a balanced perspective on endocrine disruption......) report is not particularly erudite and that their critique is not intended to be convincing to the scientific community, but to confuse the scientific data. Consequently, it promotes misinterpretation of the UNEP/WHO (2013) report by non-specialists, bureaucrats, politicians and other decision makers...