WorldWideScience

Sample records for africa case studies

  1. Cancer Advocacy in Africa: case studies of innovative practices

    OpenAIRE

    Odedina, Folakemi T; Rodrigues, Belmira

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present six case studies describing innovative cancer advocacy programs in Africa. For each case study, an example of an advocacy activity, list of factors contributing to the success of the organization, and an example of an obstacle addressed by the organization are described.

  2. Timbali Technology Incubator : South Africa Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Timbali technology incubator in the Mpumalanga region of South Africa seeks to help rural farmers whose livelihood has been undercut by high-volume large farms. Supported by government financing and fee-based services, Timbali is largely based on a franchise model. Its clients supply cut flowers to Amablom, Timbali's commercial arm. Individual clients can begin generating revenue almost im...

  3. A Case Study from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casazza, Martha

    2000-01-01

    Presents the case study success story of a University of Port Elizabeth Advancement Program student named Elroy Africander. Underscores two significant components of student transition programs: the need for support for students' personal and emotional growth, and that practitioners should regularly assess the strengths and weaknesses of programs…

  4. A Career Advice Helpline: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flederman, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    This case study presents the new career guidance helpline managed by the South African Qualifications Authority in South Africa, a middle-income country. The National Qualifications Framework and Career Advice Helpline represent a national equity-driven initiative using technology to expand access. The model has drawn on contemporary international…

  5. Biomass energy policy in Africa: selected case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The majority of the population in the continent of Africa depend on biomass as a source of energy. Woodfuel (charcoal and fuelwood), the most important source of energy, is a subject of major concern in developing countries mainly because of its increasing scarcity, and recently because of its importance to the debate on climate change as its use is associated with emission on the greenhouse gases (GHG's). The book discusses the biomass energy problem and the policy options for addressing it in Botswana and Rwanda. Though the studies mainly draw their material from the surveys undertaken in these countries, extensive use is made of the existing general literature on this subject. The two case studies on Botswana address the nature, extent, and policy implications of the fuelwood problem, including the extent to which it contributes to deforestation. The Rwanda case studies examine the seasonal and spatial variation of the consumption of biomass energy (woodfuel and residues) and the evolution of the energy policy process with particular reference to biomass energy. A number of policy recommendations are made which may not only be relevant to Botswana and Rwanda, but also to other developing countries in a similar situation. The book thus makes a valuable contribution to the scarce literature on energy and environment in Africa. The multi-disciplinarity of the book makes it more valuable to a large number of readers. It will be an important reference material for policy makers and researchers in Africa as well as other developing countries. AFREPREN The African Energy Policy Research Network (AFREPREN) promotes research on energy issues relevant to the formulation and implementation of policy by African governments. It also aims to build research capability as well as mobilize existing expertise to address both near- and long-term challenges faced by the energy sector in Africa. (UK)

  6. Food Scarcity in Africa - Case Study of Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Brtníková, Petra

    2011-01-01

    Aim of this thesis is to critically look at various indicators that play a key role in food scarcity in Africa. These indicators are applied on a case of Ethiopia, a selected country in Africa. Consequently, a multidimensional Index of Sustenance of Ethiopia is created using all relevant indicators. Comparison of researched indicators that contribute to food scarcity is based on data from official sources. In the created Index both economic and non-economic indicators are merged while, based ...

  7. Trade liberalisation in Sub-Saharan Africa: case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Jenkins

    1995-01-01

    A striking feature of South Africa`s trade liberalisation is that, until 1995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation was the reduction of anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalent tariffs and other duties. This distinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happened in other African liberalisations. A second distinction (and the two are in all likelihood connected) is that South Africa was not p...

  8. Trade liberalisation in sub-Saharan Africa: case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carolyn Jenkins; Michael Bleaney; Merle Holden

    1996-01-01

    A striking feature of South Africa's trade liberalisation is that, until 2995, it did not involve any import liberalisation. The focus of earlier liberalisation wsa the reduction of the anti-export bias, and, on the import side, the replacement of QRs with equivalnet tariffs and other duties. This ditinguishes the process in South Africa from that which has happended in other African liberalisations. A seconddistinction (an the two are in in all liklihood conected) is that South Africa was no...

  9. Implementing RDA Data Citation Recommendations: Case Study in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2016-04-01

    SAEON operates a shared research data infrastructure for its own data sets and for clients and end users in the Earth and Environmental Sciences domain. SAEON has a license to issue Digital Object Identifiers via DataCite on behalf of third parties, and have recently concluded development work to make a universal data deposit, description, and DOI minting facility available. This facility will be used to develop a number of end user gateways, including DataCite South Africa (in collaboration with National Research Foundation and addressing all grant-funded research in the country), DIRISA (Data-intensive Research Infrastructure for South Africa - in collaboration with Meraka Institute and Department of Science and Technology), and SASDI (South African Spatial Data Infrastructure). The RDA recently published Data Citation Recommendations [1], and this was used as a basis for specification of Digital Object Identifier implementation, raising two significant challenges: 1. Synchronisation of frequently harvested meta-data sets where version management practice did not align with the RDA recommendations, and 2. Handling sub-sets of and queries on large, continuously updated data sets. In the first case, we have developed a set of tests that determine the logical course of action when discrepancies are found during synchronization, and we have incorporated these into meta-data harvester configurations. Additionally, we have developed a state diagram and attendant workflow for meta-data that includes problem states emanating from DOI management, reporting services for data depositors, and feedback to end users in respect of synchronisation issues. In the second case, in the absence of firm guidelines from DataCite, we are seeking community consensus and feedback on an approach that caches all queries performed and subsets derived from data, and provide these with anchor-style extensions linked to the dataset's original DOI. This allows extended DOIs to resolve to a meta

  10. Blood pressure change in Africa: case study from Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, J S; Owoaje, E E; Rotimi, C N; Cooper, R S

    1999-08-01

    Studies of migrants and comparisons of rural versus urban communities are potentially informative study designs because they allow examination of genetically similar population subgroups exposed to diverse environmental conditions. These designs have been underused in Africa, where recent urbanization has created many situations in which nearby communities of common ethnicity and culture live under different social and economic circumstances. The International Study of Hypertension in Blacks (ICSHIB) conducted several overlapping surveys in Nigeria starting in 1993. These surveys were based primarily in the rural village of Idere and the urban community of Idikan, both inhabited by people defined ethnically as Oyo Yoruba and sharing a common language and culture. Survey teams collected standardized blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and some study participants provided 24-hr urine samples and questionnaire data on psychosocial stress and social integration. Rural and urban groups differed substantially in blood pressure and related characteristics. Age-adjusted prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure > or = 140/90 mm Hg) for participants aged 25 years and older was 7-8% in Idere and 24-27% in Idikan. The distributions of overweight, sodium/potassium ratio, perceived stress, and social integration scores all contributed to lower hypertension risk in Idere. The effects and interactions of these identified risk factors remain poorly understood, even among people who share a common genetic background, similar diet, and many other lifestyle features. Nonetheless, the rural-urban distinction is sufficiently salient to engender a nearly threefold difference in hypertension prevalence. This disparity in disease prevalence demonstrates the sensitivity of human beings to the environmental determinants of disease and provides a sobering example of the difficulty in identifying subtle genetic effects, which can be easily overwhelmed by small differences in

  11. Undertaking Individual Transdisciplinary PhD Research for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, John; Musango, Josephine; Brent, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to improve the understanding of individual transdisciplinary PhD research in a developing country context, focusing on three individual PhD case studies in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple-case method was used, and three completed transdisciplinary PhD research efforts undertaken at the Stellenbosch…

  12. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  13. Establishing and sustaining research partnerships in Africa: a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Graft Aikins Ama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north–south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to bring together multidisciplinary chronic disease researchers based in the UK and Africa to collaborate on research, inform policymaking, train and support postgraduates and create a platform for research dissemination. We review the partnership’s achievements and challenges, applying established criteria for developing successful partnerships. During the funded period we achieved major success in creating a platform for research dissemination through international meetings and publications. Other goals, such as engaging in collaborative research and training postgraduates, were not as successfully realised. Enabling factors included trust and respect between core working group members, a shared commitment to achieving partnership goals, and the collective ability to develop creative strategies to overcome funding challenges. Barriers included limited funding, administrative support, and framework for monitoring and evaluating some goals. Chronic disease research partnerships in low-income regions operate within health research, practice, funding and policy environments that prioritise infectious diseases and other pressing public health and developmental challenges. Their long-term sustainability will therefore depend on integrated funding systems that provide a crucial capacity building bridge. Beyond the specific challenges of chronic disease research, we identify social capital, measurable goals, administrative support, creativity and innovation and funding as five key ingredients that are essential for sustaining research partnerships.

  14. Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

  15. The rise of injecting drug use in east Africa: a case study from Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telfer Maggie

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on injecting drug use in East Africa are reviewed. The existingstudies document the spread of heroin injection in Kenya and Tanzania, both countries where HIV rates are high. No data from Uganda on injecting drug use was found by the authors. A case study of the growth of heroin injection in a Kenyan coastal town is presented. The need for needle-exchange programmes and other prevention services is discussed.

  16. Evolution of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa - from Nkruma To Mutharika The 2nd: Case Study Of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Since Sub-Saharan Africa's first independence in Ghana, the region has experienced massive and costly political and bureaucratic corruption within public service and administration. The causes of the corruption, its nature and form are wide and intertwined. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to curb corruption have failed to discard it. The paper focused on the period from Nkruma in Ghana to Mutharika the 2nd in Malawi. This paper reviewed existing literature on political and bureaucratic corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa while on the other hand the paper employed key informant interviews to gather the required data to investigate, analyse and profile the genesis and evolution of corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa. The key informant interviews were employed to solicit public views and opinion from nineteen key informant participants (n=19 selected from 11 countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper found that corruption is legendary; has entrenched itself to becoming some sort of culture in the region, and has become the most difficult socio-economic challenge to resolve in the region despite the various anti-corruption efforts employed by stakeholders to curb it. It emerged through the study that law-enforcement efforts against corruption need some reinforcement in order to be effective and eficient in uprooting corruption in the region. If Sub-Saharan Africa fails to address its corruption challenge, its development prospects would seriously curtailed.

  17. Land use change and carbon stock dynamics in Sub-Saharan Africa - Case study of Western Africa - Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grieco, E.; Chiti, T.; Valentini, R.

    2012-04-01

    Among different regions of the world, Africa and particularly sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has contributed less than any other to the greenhouse gas emissions, but it is also the region most vulnerable and the least well equipped to the consequences. In SSA the role of land use change in controlling CO2 emissions may be more critical than in any other regions and perhaps the most uncertain component of the global carbon cycle. The most typical example of incomplete estimates will arise from the lack of reliable data for carbon pools. Three factors account for much of the rest of the uncertainty: (1) initial stocks of carbon in ecosystems affected by land-use change, (2) per hectare changes in carbon stocks in response to different types of land-use change, and (3) legacy effects; that is, the time it takes for carbon stocks to equilibrate following a change in land use. Considering the source of uncertainty and the lack of field data for SSA, the study has been located in Ghana (Jomoro district, Western Region) where forest is the only source of wood for domestic uses and deforestation annual rate was 2.2% for the period 2005-2010. This study analyze the above mentioned gaps by assessing: 1) initial carbon stocks (tropical rain forest), 2) per hectare changes in carbon stocks as consequence of deforestation followed by six different main land uses [tree plantations (rubber, coconut, cocoa, oil palm, mixed plantations) and a secondary forest], 3) dynamics of soil carbon stocks through the time considering chronosequences. When accounting changes in carbon stocks in the UNFCCC framework, it is required to consider 5 carbon pools that are: aboveground biomass, belowground biomass, litter, dead wood and soil. Within REDD+ mechanism it is clear that only aboveground pool has to be always considered, belowground biomass is recommended and the others are facultative. Evidence from official UNFCCC reports suggests that only a very small fraction of developing countries

  18. Electricity supply options, sustainable development and climate change priorities. Case studies for South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of the project Projecting future energy demand: Balancing development, energy and climate priorities in large developing economies, which has been managed by UNEP Risoe Centre on behalf of UNEP DTIE. The report argues that starting from development objectives is critical to mitigation efforts in developing countries. Instead of defining local benefits as ancillary to mitigation, reductions of GHG emissions should be seen as the co-benefits of policies that drive local sustainable development. A development-focused approach seems more likely to be implemented than the imposition of GHG targets by the international community - especially as South Africa has adopted development targets such as the Millennium Development Goals and promoted the Johannesburg Plan of Action. The case studies presented take as their starting point development objectives, rather than climate change targets. The form of climate action which it investigates is sustainable development policies and measures. (BA)

  19. Evolution of Corruption in Sub-Saharan Africa - from Nkruma to Mutharika The 2nd: Case Study Of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mavhungu Abel Mafukata

    2016-01-01

    Since Sub-Saharan Africa's first independence in Ghana, the region has experienced massive and costly political and bureaucratic corruption within public service and administration. The causes of the corruption, its nature and form are wide and intertwined. In Sub-Saharan Africa, efforts to curb corruption have failed to discard it. The paper focused on the period from Nkruma in Ghana to Mutharika the 2nd in Malawi. This paper reviewed existing literature on political and bureaucratic corrupt...

  20. Maternal and congenital syphilis programmes: case studies in Bolivia, Kenya and South Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Deperthes, Bidia D.; Meheus, André; O'Reilly, Kevin; Broutet, Nathalie

    2004-01-01

    Preventing congenital syphilis is not technically difficult, however operational difficulties limit the effectiveness of programmes in many settings. This paper reports on programmes in Bolivia, Kenya, and South Africa. All three countries have established antenatal syphilis control programmes. Early antenatal syphilis screening and management of positive cases were difficult to implement since most women presented for their first antenatal clinic visit after 6 months of pregnancy. Most women...

  1. A journey towards inclusive education; a case study from a ‘township’ in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Luger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement – or ‘township’ – in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals’ goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD centre for both of them, and then on to (a a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN for one child and (b a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.

  2. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  3. The Effectiveness of Human Resource Management Strategies in Organization : A Case Study of United Bank for Africa PLC

    OpenAIRE

    Nnamani, Nnamdi Hezekiah

    2013-01-01

    Having effective human resources management strategies and practically applying it in an organization has a great impact on how competitive they will be in the business environment. The study titled “Effectiveness of Human Resources Management Strategies in the Organization; A case study on United Bank For Africa PLC”, was conducted to determine the success of the human resources management strategies of the UBA PLC and to also find out the relationship between these strategies and the overal...

  4. Aftercare of inward foreign direct investment: A case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Benjamin Manasoe; Ronald Mears

    2011-01-01

    Attraction of new inward foreign direct investment (FDI) globally, especially in the developing countries, is problematic. Economic development practitioners have recently started to prioritise the retention and growing of existing investments to enhance their economic development agenda. The purpose of this paper is to analyse and investigate the relationship between inward FDI and investment aftercare in South Africa (SA). Only a few studies have been carried out on the topic at the global ...

  5. Creating Sustainable Lives: A case study of youth in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kousiakis, Sophia Alexandrina

    2015-01-01

    At a time when youth unemployment is on the rise and the needs of youth are moving up on the agenda, the research aims to explore in particular the experiences of marginalized youth in South Africa. Through comparatively exploring the life-worlds of youth from rural, township and urban backgrounds and their participation in a youth employability programme, the study hopes to better understand the significance of special post-school training and approaches and youths perceptions four years af...

  6. Including women in the policy responses to high oil prices: a case study of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fofana, Ismaël

    2012-01-01

    The recent surge in oil prices has created concern about its impacts on poor people in South Africa. The strong economic performance recorded over the period 1995-05 has not contributed to a substantial reduction in poverty in this country, particularly among women that tend to be overrepresented among poor households. Government management of an oil shock is important in reducing its adverse impacts in oil-importing countries. Thus, this study examines alternative policy responses to the rec...

  7. Building partnerships to support community-led HIV/AIDS management: a case study from rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of...

  8. The 500 Windows Campaign: A Case Study of a Youth Movement for Educational Resources in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Angara, Harini

    2011-01-01

    This case study seeks to examine what organizing methods and ethos helped Equal Education (EE), a community-based youth organization, convince government officials to repair 500 broken windows at Luhlaza School in Khayelitsha, an impoverished township near Cape Town, South Africa. Through various methods, including petitions, op-ed articles, and a rally, the group succeeded in its campaign. EE takes inspiration from apartheid-era youth movements. In the burgeoning democracy of the "New" South...

  9. Two worlds in agricultural policy making in Africa? Case studies from Ghana, Kenya, Senegal and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Mockshell, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    There has been a renewed interest among donors and domestic policy makers in promoting agricultural development in Africa. Such renewed interest is evident in initiatives, such as the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP), the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA), the New Alliance for Food Security and Nutrition, and TerrAfrica. Yet, the choice of policy instruments that are most suitable to promote agricultural development in Africa remains subject to a co...

  10. Efficient and equitable HIV prevention: A case study of male circumcision in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verguet Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determine efficient, equitable and mixed efficient-equitable allocations of a male circumcision (MC intervention reducing female to male HIV transmission in South Africa (SA, as a case study of an efficiency-equity framework for resource allocation in HIV prevention. Methods We present a mathematical model developed with epidemiological and cost data from the nine provinces of SA. The hypothetical one-year-long MC intervention with a budget of US$ 10 million targeted adult men 15–49 years of age in SA. The intervention was evaluated according to two criteria: an efficiency criterion, which focused on maximizing the number of HIV infections averted by the intervention, and an equity criterion (defined geographically, which focused on maximizing the chance that each male adult individual had access to the intervention regardless of his province. Results A purely efficient intervention would prevent 4,008 HIV infections over a year. In the meantime, a purely equitable intervention would avert 3,198 infections, which represents a 20% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. A half efficient-half equitable scenario would prevent 3,749 infections, that is, a 6% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. Conclusions This paper provides a framework for resource allocation in the health sector which incorporates a simple equity metric in addition to efficiency. In the specific context of SA with a MC intervention for the prevention of HIV, incorporation of geographical equity only slightly reduces the overall efficiency of the intervention.

  11. Understanding gaps between student and staff perceptions of university study in South Africa: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Faeeqa Jaffer; James Garraway

    2016-01-01

    “Under-preparedness” of students entering higher education is an issue that many academic institutions in South Africa are currently trying to address. Such students are seen as disadvantaged, lacking the skills, knowledge and/or language proficiency to navigate their way to success in higher education. This paper seeks to identify students’ understanding of the behaviour they should display in higher education and how this clashes with the expectations of academics, through the l...

  12. The Transformation of National Identity and the Remembrance during Post-Authoritarian Transitions: case studies of Spain and South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patryk WAWRZYNSKI

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses a role of the remembrance policy in the reconstruction of national identity during the democratization. It includes unique theoretical consideration of this phenomenon and two case studies: post-authoritarian Spain and post-apartheid South Africa. Presented conclusions are a result of qualitative study of transitional politics of memory which focused on the use of remembrance narratives and interpretations of the past to support an establishment of new, democratic and inclusive identity. Considering these two cases, the paper offers an observation of the domination of future-oriented politics over the remembrance and dealing with the past during the transition.

  13. Cr(VI) and conductivity as Indicators of surface water pollution from ferrochrome production in South Africa: four case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Loock-Hattingh, M.M.; J. P. Beukes; van Zyl, P. G.; L. R. Tiedt

    2015-01-01

    South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface w...

  14. The Challenges of ICT Graduate Un-Employment in Developing Economies in Africa - Case Study: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Edward Danso Ansong; Emmanuel A. Affum; Hayfron-Acquah, James B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper seeks to elucidate the various challenges ofInformation & Communication Technology (I.C.T) graduate unemploymentin the sub-Saharan Africa, and the remedies that canbe used to address those issues. This research postulates somefour modules of I.C.T graduates and categorized graduates ofI.C.T in one of such modules. The study again went further toanalyze the calibre of each category of I.C.T graduates who passout of the various tertiary institutions and their job prospects. Thepaper ...

  15. The importance of context in delivering effective EIA: Case studies from East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reviews and compares the condition of the environmental impact assessment (EIA) system in three countries in the East Africa region: Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania. The criteria used for the evaluation and the comparison of each system are based on the elements of the legal, administrative and procedural frameworks, as well as the context in which they operate. These criteria are adapted from the evaluation and quality control criteria derived from a number of literature sources. The study reveals that the EIA systems of Kenya and Tanzania are at a similar stage in their development. The two countries, the first to introduce the EIA concept into their jurisdiction in this part of Africa, therefore have more experience than Rwanda in the practice of environmental impact assessment, where the legislation and process requires more time to mature both from the governmental and societal perspective. The analysis of the administrative and procedural frameworks highlights the weakness in the autonomy of the competent authority, in all three countries. Finally a major finding of this study is that the contextual set up i.e. the socio-economic and political situation plays an important role in the performance of an EIA system. The context in developing countries is very different from developed countries where the EIA concept originates. Interpreting EIA conditions in countries like Kenya, Rwanda and Tanzania requires that the analysis for determining the effectiveness of their systems should be undertaken within a relevant framework, taking into account the specific requirements of those countries.

  16. Temporal Changes in Lead Depositions in East Africa: A Case Study of Lake Tanganyika

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odigie, K. O.; Flegal, A. R.

    2011-12-01

    Environmental changes (e.g., increasing rates of soil erosion) in East Africa have been attributed to local human activities and global climate change. However, reports on the impacts of these changes on the remobilization and transport of heavy metals, such as lead, in the environment are presently limited in literature. Therefore, this study was designed to chronicle the historic transport and deposition of lead in East Africa as recorded in the sediments of Lake Tanganyika. Sediment cores collected from regions with varying anthropogenic impacts of Lake Tanganyika were divided into sections, dated using excess lead-210, and analyzed for lead concentrations and isotopic composition. The results show that the amount of lead deposited in some regions of the lake increased recently (e.g., by more than 25% over the past two decades preceding 2000) which is consistent with regional changes in sediment accumulation rates in Lake Tanganyika. Temporal changes in the sources of that lead are being characterized by their isotopic compositions.

  17. Case study: apparel industry waste management: a focus on recycling in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larney, M; van Aardt, A M

    2010-01-01

    The need for effective apparel waste management is motivated by the increasing cost and decreasing availability of landfill space and the dwindling of natural resources. The aim of this study was to identify the current solid waste disposal and recycling practices of the apparel industry in South Africa and to determine their attitude and willingness towards recycling, their perception of the feasibility thereof, barriers to recycling and marketing strategies that would be appropriate for products made from recycled materials. A structured questionnaire was mailed to apparel manufacturers in South Africa. The results indicated that most apparel manufacturers use landfills to dispose of their waste, while approximately half recycle some of the waste. They are fairly positive towards recycling, with consideration of economical feasibility. Phi-coefficients show no practically significant relationship between company size and the use of recycled materials. The most important barriers to recycling are lack of equipment and technology, lack of material to recycle and lack of consumer awareness. Marketing strategies for recycled products are recommended. It is concluded that consumer awareness and knowledge regarding recycled apparel products should be developed in order to ensure a market and that apparel manufacturers should be encouraged to recycle more extensively, in order to ensure that resources will not be exhausted unnecessarily and the environment will be preserved optimally. PMID:19710119

  18. The Challenges of ICT Graduate Un-Employment in Developing Economies in Africa - Case Study: Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Danso Ansong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to elucidate the various challenges ofInformation & Communication Technology (I.C.T graduate unemploymentin the sub-Saharan Africa, and the remedies that canbe used to address those issues. This research postulates somefour modules of I.C.T graduates and categorized graduates ofI.C.T in one of such modules. The study again went further toanalyze the calibre of each category of I.C.T graduates who passout of the various tertiary institutions and their job prospects. Thepaper concludes by identifying the major causes of the growingconcern on these challenges and measures that can address thegrowing phenomenon of I.C.T graduate un-employment acrossdeveloping countries.

  19. Lithospheric mantle evolution monitored by overlapping large igneous provinces: Case study in southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourdan, F.; Bertrand, H.; Féraud, G.; Le Gall, B.; Watkeys, M. K.

    2009-02-01

    Most of the studies on the large igneous provinces (LIPs) focus on Phanerozoic times, and in particular, those related to the disruption of Pangea (e.g. CAMP, Karoo, Parana-Etendeka) while Precambrian LIPs (e.g. Ventersdorpf, Fortescue) remain less studied. Although the investigation of Precambrian LIPs is difficult because they are relatively poorly preserved, assessment of their geochemical characteristics in parallel with younger overlapping LIP is fundamental for monitoring the evolution of the mantle composition through time. Recent 40Ar/ 39Ar dating of the Okavango giant dyke swarm (and related sills) in southern Africa showed that ~ 90% of the dykes were emplaced at 179 ± 1 Ma and belong to the Karoo large igneous province whereas ~ 10% of dykes yielded Proterozoic ages (~ 1-1.1 Ga). Here, we provide new major, trace and rare earth elements analyses of the low-Ti Proterozoic Okavango dyke swarm (PODS) that suggest, combined with age data, a cognate origin with the 1.1 Ga Umkondo large igneous province (UIP), southern Africa. The geochemical characteristics of the PODS and UIP basalts are comparable to those of overlapping low-Ti Karoo basalts, and suggest that both LIPs were derived from similar enriched mantle sources. A mantle plume origin for these LIPs is not easily reconciled with the geochemical dataset and the coincidence of two compositionally similar mantle plumes acting 900 Myr apart is unlikely. Instead, we propose that the Umkondo and Karoo large igneous provinces monitored the slight evolution of a shallow enriched lithospheric mantle from Proterozoic to Jurassic.

  20. Transition States in Africa : A Comparative Study: The Case of Ghana & Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Gustafsson, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Background & Problem The author believes that there are important lessons to be learned from the states in Africa that have managed to achieve successful transitions from one-party regimes to multy-party regimes. However, Africa today displays countries that suffer from enormous problems and many of them are mired in political and economical development. A main theme of this thesis is the search for the differences, how can we explain the transitions and the outcomes of them? Purpose The ...

  1. Transition States in Africa : A Comparative Study: The Case of Ghana and Zambia

    OpenAIRE

    Ekdahl, Oscar

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background & Problem The author believes that there are important lessons to be learned from the states in Africa that have managed to achieve successful transitions from one-party regimes to multy-party regimes. However, Africa today displays countries that suffer from enormous problems and many of them are mired in political and economical development. A main theme of this thesis is the search for the differences, how can we explain the transitions and the outcomes of them? Pur...

  2. How to Establish a Bioinformatics Postgraduate Degree Programme: A Case Study from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Machanick, Philip; Bishop, Ozlem Tastan

    2014-01-01

    The Research Unit in Bioinformatics at Rhodes University (RUBi), South Africa offers a Masters of Science in Bioinformatics. Growing demand for Bioinformatics qualifications results in applications from across Africa. Courses aim to bridge gaps in the diverse backgrounds of students who range from biologists with no prior computing exposure to computer scientists with no biology background. The programme is evenly split between coursework and research, with diverse modules from a range of dep...

  3. Gender equality, the state and civil society: A comparative case study of Rwanda and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Carlson, Katie

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the evolution of gender equality as manifested and protected by the state in both Rwanda and South Africa since 1994. As a liberal democracy, South Africa should, in theory, allow for the influence of citizens in policy making and be held accountable for its shortcomings regarding its commitment to gender equality and ending violence against women. Evidence reveals that the South African state falls far short of these ideals, particularly in its relationships with women’s ...

  4. Comparing Teachers' Non-Teaching Roles in Curriculum Reforms from an Organization Studies Perspective: Cases from Botswana and South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addy, Nii Antiaye

    2012-01-01

    In Sub-Saharan Africa, the academic aims of curriculum reforms and the teaching roles related to them are similar, but non-teaching roles are likely to vary across countries. Taking an organization studies perspective, this article compares teachers' roles in reform along the Botswana-South Africa border. Though these teachers share language and…

  5. Geopotential field anomalies and regional tectonic features - two case studies: southern Africa and Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korte, Monika; Mandea, Mioara

    2016-05-01

    Maps of magnetic and gravity field anomalies provide information about physical properties of the Earth's crust and upper mantle, helpful in understanding geological conditions and tectonic structures. Depending on data availability, whether from the ground, airborne, or from satellites, potential field anomaly maps contain information on different ranges of spatial wavelengths, roughly corresponding to sources at different depths. Focussing on magnetic data, we compare amplitudes and characteristics of anomalies from maps based on various available data and as measured at geomagnetic repeat stations. Two cases are investigated: southern Africa, characterized by geologically old cratons and strong magnetic anomalies, and the smaller region of Germany with much younger crust and weaker anomalies. Estimating lithospheric magnetic anomaly values from the ground stations' time series (repeat station crustal biases) reveals magnetospheric field contributions causing time-varying offsets of several nT in the results. Similar influences might be one source of discrepancy when merging anomaly maps from different epochs. Moreover, we take advantage of recently developed satellite potential field models and compare magnetic and gravity gradient anomalies of ˜ 200 km resolution. Density and magnetization represent independent rock properties and thus provide complementary information on compositional and structural changes. Comparing short- and long-wavelength anomalies and the correlation of rather large-scale magnetic and gravity anomalies, and relating them to known lithospheric structures, we generally find a better agreement in the southern African region than the German region. This probably indicates stronger concordance between near-surface (down to at most a few km) and deeper (several kilometres down to Curie depth) structures in the former area, which can be seen to agree with a thicker lithosphere and a lower heat flux reported in the literature for the southern

  6. The transfer of agricultural technology and the development of small-scale farming in rural Africa: Case studies from Ghana, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lado, C.

    1998-01-01

    Metadata only record This paper examines the situation of agricultural development in African countries, specifically cases in Ghana, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, and South Africa. The author asserts that inadequate institutional support and a lack of farmer involvement have contributed to low levels of improved technologies and technology adoption among small-scale farmers. The author also cites structural constraints and the process of agricultural development as significant components to cons...

  7. Scaling Up Access to Electricity : The Case of Lighting Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Daniel; Sharma, Arsh

    2014-01-01

    This knowledge note is the first of three case studies that concerns scaling up access to electricity in Africa, Bangladesh, and Rwanda. Lighting Africa, a joint IFC and World Bank program launched in 2007, was the first private-sector-oriented effort to leverage new LED lighting technologies to build sustainable markets that provide safe, affordable, and modern off-grid lighting to commun...

  8. Cr(VI) and Conductivity as Indicators of Surface Water Pollution from Ferrochrome Production in South Africa: Four Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loock-Hattingh, M. M.; Beukes, J. P.; van Zyl, P. G.; Tiedt, L. R.

    2015-10-01

    South Africa is one of the largest ferrochromium (FeCr) producers. Most FeCr is exported to developed countries. Therefore the impact of this industry is of national and international importance. Cr(VI) and conductivity of surface water in four case study areas, near five FeCr smelters were monitored for approximately 1 year. Results indicated that FeCr production in three case study areas had a negative influence on the Cr(VI) concentration and/or the conductivity of surface waters. In the remaining case study areas, drinking water, originating from groundwater, was severely polluted with Cr(VI). The main factors causing pollution were surface run-off and/or seepage, while atmospheric deposition did not seem to contribute significantly. The extinction of diatoms during a severe Cr(VI) surface water pollution event (concentrations up to 216 µg/L) in one of the case study areas was also observed, which clearly indicates the ecological impact of such surface water pollution events.

  9. Transformative Adult Learning in New Social Movement – a Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čubajevaitė Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New social movements in South Africa could play a prominent role in mobilizing the communities to reflect critically and address the repercussions of the neo-liberal agenda which manifests itself in perpetual exclusion of under-educated adults and provision of poor quality education.

  10. Organizing in the informal economy : a case study of the clothing industry in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    BENNETT, M.

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the clothing industry in South Africa and examines the activities of the South African Clothing and Textile Workers Union (SACTWU) and the Self Employed Women's Union (SEWU), highlighting their achievements and failures in representing and empowering workers in the informal economy.

  11. Storytelling as a Means of Peacemaking: A Case Study of Christian Education in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haitch, Russell; Miller, Donald

    2006-01-01

    This article explores how storytelling can help create a space for transformational learning. In particular it looks at the role of storytelling in education for peace in Africa. It also touches on related issues, including the role of historic peace churches, the role of women, and the role of faith convictions, in the process of moving from…

  12. Organizing in the informal economy : a case study of street trading in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Motala, Shirin

    2002-01-01

    Provides an overview of the street trading sector in South Africa, examines organizational issues and investigates the strategies of three organizations: the Informal Trade Management Board, the Gauteng Hawkers Association and the Self Employed Women's Union. Discusses how to strengthen the representation and voice of street traders.

  13. Data Networks and Sustainability Education in African Universities: A Case Study for Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bothun, Gregory D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to provide a case study report of the development of data networks and initial connectivity in the Sub-Saharan African (SSA) region and how that development evolved into the formation of research and education (R&E) networks that enable new collaborations and curriculum potential.…

  14. Waste management behaviour : a case study of school children in Mpumalanga, South Africa / Ignatius Michael van Niekerk

    OpenAIRE

    Van Niekerk, Ignatius Michael

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the level of awareness, knowledge and practices of primary and secondary schools students with regard to waste management. Only a limited number of studies were found to evaluate school student’s awareness, knowledge and practice of waste management in South Africa. Literature was reviewed dealing with waste management awareness, knowledge and practices of school students and discussed at the hand of the principles, objectives and targets of the South Africa...

  15. Why does corruption havedifferent effects on economicgrowth? : – A case study of Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt Hjertstedt, Amalia; Cetina, Hana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine and analyse how corruption can have different outcome on economic growth. A clear  division can be seen in Sub-Saharan Africa and Southeast Asia where corruption have different economic outcomes. The countries in this study are the following: Botswana,  Nigeria, Kenya, South Africa, South Korea, Thailand, Vietnam and Indonesia. The thesis composes of data over corruption indexes, annual growth in GDP, and socio-economic indicators such as political stab...

  16. Impact of Disruptive Innovation in the Mobile Industry : Case Study Mobile Money Transfer in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Nyarega, Samuel Osoro

    2014-01-01

    Research Background: In the current era of technological revolution, business firm is seeking for innovation in the technologies to enhance the business and ensure long term growth. Disruptive innovation in the mobile industry has brought a revolution of mobile money transfer, which has increased growth of mobile industry drastically. Purpose: The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of disruptive innovation in the mobile industry through a case study of mobile money trans...

  17. Principals’ involvement in the career development of female teachers: a case study in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Fourie, Anna W.; Van der Westhuizen, Philip C.; Mentz, Elsa

    2014-01-01

    Career planning is an important aspect of Human Resource Development and Management. This research is centered on the question as to whether school principals in South Africa fulfill their management role with respect to the career development of female teachers. The results indicate that principals rated their involvement in the career development of female educators relatively high, whereas female educators do not experience the principals to be supportive in terms of the identi...

  18. Organizing in the informal economy : a case study of the minibus taxi industry in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Provides an overview of the minibus taxi industry in South Africa and outlines the process of formalization that the industry has undergone since the mid-1990s. Investigates conditions of employment and examines the strategies of the South African National Taxi Council (SANTACO) and the South African Transport and Allied Worker's Union (SATAWU) in organizing and catering for informal workers and owners in the industry.

  19. SUSTAINABLE MILLENNIUM FRAMEWORK FOR MANAGING ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN AFRICA (ZIMBABWE CASE STUDY)

    OpenAIRE

    Tawanda Mudamburi

    2012-01-01

    This research sets out sustainable millennium framework for managing entrepreneurship in developing countries. Research and conceptualizations which suggest that small businesses are key for economic growth and development may not be sufficient in fully explaining the construct. The research expounds a variety of concepts that attempt to put the millennium framework for managing entrepreneurship in perspective. Research has shown that Africa has more than 40% of the world’s natural resources ...

  20. THE DEVELOPMENT, GROWTH AND EXPANSION OF LOCALLY-OWNED BUSINESSES IN AFRICA : Case Study: Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Amoako, Shirley

    2016-01-01

    The need to develop locally-owned businesses in Africa has become an arguable necessity. This is apparent in the knowledge that the creation of an efficient and operable environment for enterprises and business is definitely in the interest of all in the society. An enabling environment for entrepreneurs can improve living standards, create a fair distribution of income, provide employment and promote growth. Africa’s business sector is largely made up of small, micro and medium scale enterpr...

  1. The Value of Decentralisation in Wastewater Management: Gauteng Province Case Study, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelius Chris Reynders; Harmony Musiyarira; Prvoslav Marjanovic

    2012-01-01

    In a semi-arid water scarce country like South Africa, the efficient use of limited water resources and measures to extend the service value of these resources is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. The conventional supply-sided management approach to water supply causes increased wastewater generation with accompanied increased pollution loads requiring higher levels of mitigation environmental pollution. Where disposal of wastewater treatment effluent takes place in r...

  2. Medical education and the quality improvement spiral: A case study from Mpumalanga, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Bac; Anne-Marie Bergh; Etsane, Mama E.; Jannie Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The short timeframe of medical students’ rotations is not always conducive to successful, in-depth quality-improvement projects requiring a more longitudinal approach.Aim: To describe the process of inducting students into a longitudinal quality-improvement project,using the topic of the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative as a case study; and to explore the possible contribution of a quality-improvement project to the development of student competencies.Setting: Mpumalanga clini...

  3. A procedure for global flood hazard mapping - the Africa case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dottori, Francesco; Salamon, Peter; Feyen, Luc; Barbosa, Paulo

    2015-04-01

    River floods are recognized as one of the major causes of economic damages and loss of human lives worldwide, and their impact in the next decades could be dramatically increased by socio-economic and climatic changes. In Africa, the availability of tools and models for predicting, mapping and analysing flood hazard and risk is still limited. Consistent, high-resolution (1km or less), continental-scale hazard maps are extremely valuable for local authorities and water managers to mitigate flood risk and to reduce catastrophic impacts on population and assets. The present work describes the development of a procedure for global flood hazard mapping, which is tested and applied over Africa to derive continental flood hazard maps. We derive a long-term dataset of daily river discharges from global hydrological simulations to design flood hydrographs for different return periods for the major African river network. We then apply a hydrodynamic model to identify flood-prone areas in major river catchments, which are merged to create pan-African flood hazard maps at 900m resolution. The flood map designed for a return period of 20 years is compared with a mosaic of satellite images showing all flooded areas in the period 2000-2014. We discuss strengths and limitations emerging from the comparison and present potential future applications and developments of the methodology.

  4. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  5. Analysis of the Behaviour of Prices of Major Staple Foods in West Africa: A Case Study of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Ayinde

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study analyzed the price behavior of major staple foods in West Africa taking Nigeria as a case study (1966 – 2011. It described the trend of the major staple food prices and examined the linear relationship and interdependence of the major staple food prices in Nigeria. Secondary data were used for this study. The sources were; Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO, and National Bureau of Statistics (NBS. These data were transformed from their nominal value to real value and analyzed using descriptive statistics, unit root test, Pearson correlation coefficient, granger-causality test and structural equation model. The study revealed that the prices of most of the major staple foods were at the maximum value between 1991 and 1993 while their prices were at the minimum value between 1978 and 1983. The study observed that the price of cowpea is most volatile seconded by maize. The results of the unit root test showed that all the variables studied were stationary. The prices of the major staple foods were linearly correlated; some were positively correlated while some were negatively correlated. Granger-causality test on the major staple foods prices showed that the prices of most staple foods were unidirectional while only few were bi-directional. The study further revealed that the prices of staple foods were interdependent. The study recommends political stability in the country as the major staple food prices reached maximum level during the period of 1993 presidential election crisis.

  6. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  7. Developing Biosensors in Developing Countries: South Africa as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice

    2016-03-01

    A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental research into the signal transduction method, using model biorecognition elements, in line with international trends. Other research in this field is spread across several areas including: the application of nanotechnology; the identification and validation of biomarkers; development and testing of biorecognition agents (antibodies and aptamers) and design of electro-catalysts, most notably metallophthalocyanine. Biosensor targets commonly featured were pesticides and metals. Areas of regional import to sub-Saharan Africa, such as HIV/AIDs and tuberculosis diagnosis, are also apparent in a review of the available literature. Irrespective of the targets, the challenge to the effective deployment of such sensors remains shaped by social and economic realities such that the requirements thereof are for low-cost and universally easy to operate devices for field settings. While it is difficult to disentangle the intertwined roles of national policy, grant funding availability and, certainly, of global trends in shaping areas of emphasis in research, most notable is the strong role that nanotechnology, and to a certain extent biotechnology, plays in research regarding biosensor construction. Stronger emphasis on collaboration between scientists in theoretical modelling, nanomaterials application and or relevant stakeholders in the specific field (e.g., food or health monitoring) and researchers in biosensor design may help evolve focused research efforts towards development and deployment of low-cost biosensors. PMID:26848700

  8. Developing Biosensors in Developing Countries: South Africa as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Fogel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental research into the signal transduction method, using model biorecognition elements, in line with international trends. Other research in this field is spread across several areas including: the application of nanotechnology; the identification and validation of biomarkers; development and testing of biorecognition agents (antibodies and aptamers and design of electro-catalysts, most notably metallophthalocyanine. Biosensor targets commonly featured were pesticides and metals. Areas  of regional import to sub-Saharan Africa, such as HIV/AIDs and tuberculosis diagnosis, are also apparent in a review of the available literature. Irrespective of the targets, the challenge to the effective deployment of such sensors remains shaped by social and economic realities such that the requirements thereof are for low-cost and universally easy to operate devices for field settings. While it is difficult to disentangle the intertwined roles of national policy, grant funding availability and, certainly, of global trends in shaping areas of emphasis in research, most notable is the strong role that nanotechnology, and to a certain extent biotechnology, plays in research regarding biosensor construction. Stronger emphasis on collaboration between scientists in theoretical modelling, nanomaterials application and or relevant stakeholders in the specific field (e.g., food or health monitoring and researchers in biosensor design may help evolve focused research efforts towards development and deployment of low-cost biosensors.

  9. Decision Factors for Domestic Package Tours – Case Study of a Region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerine Bresler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that perceived risk is an inhibitor for the emerging domestic market to develop a culture of going on holiday, which is necessary for the sustainable development of tourism in South Africa. Entrenching a culture of travel can be expedited through appropriate package tours in the same way as it stimulated domestic travel in former Eastern European societies. Packaged tours provide convenience, and both psychological and financial security in a single transaction which can be considered a surrogate for the benefit of risk avoidance when visiting friends and relatives. A survey was conducted in the most promising region, namely the province Gauteng, among the potential market to identify the importance of decision factors for domestic packaged tours. The most important perceived decision criteria were cancellation possibility, affordability, and safety whilst on tour and the three least important were radio promotion, train transport and proximity. The results may be used by the National Department of Tourism to promote domestic tourism, as well as by new and small tour operators to improve decision-making and render competition more knowledge-based. It would thus serve the needs of both tourist buyers and tourism sellers and contribute to sustainable development.

  10. Neural network and wavelets in prediction of cosmic ray variability: The North Africa as study case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrouk, Neïla; Bennaceur, Raouf

    2010-04-01

    Since the Earth is permanently bombarded with energetic cosmic rays particles, cosmic ray flux has been monitored by ground based neutron monitors for decades. In this work an attempt is made to investigate the decomposition and reconstructions provided by Morlet wavelet technique, using data series of cosmic rays variabilities, then to constitute from this wavelet analysis an input data base for the neural network system with which we can then predict decomposition coefficients and all related parameters for other points. Thus the latter are used for the recomposition step in which the plots and curves describing the relative cosmic rays intensities are obtained in any points on the earth in which we do not have any information about cosmic rays intensities. Although neural network associated with wavelets are not frequently used for cosmic rays time series, they seems very suitable and are a good choice to obtain these results. In fact we have succeeded to derive a very useful tool to obtain the decomposition coefficients, the main periods for each point on the Earth and on another hand we have now a kind of virtual NM for these locations like North Africa countries, Maroc, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Cairo. We have found the aspect of very known 11-years cycle: T1, we have also revealed the variation type of T2 and especially T3 cycles which seem to be induced by particular Earth's phenomena.

  11. Medical education and the quality improvement spiral: A case study from Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The short timeframe of medical students’ rotations is not always conducive to successful, in-depth quality-improvement projects requiring a more longitudinal approach.Aim: To describe the process of inducting students into a longitudinal quality-improvement project,using the topic of the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative as a case study; and to explore the possible contribution of a quality-improvement project to the development of student competencies.Setting: Mpumalanga clinical learning centres, where University of Pretoria medical students did their district health rotations.Method: Consecutive student groups had to engage with a hospital’s compliance with specific steps of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding that form the standards for the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative. Primary data sources included an on-site PowerPoint group presentation (n = 42, a written group report (n = 42 and notes of individual interviews in an end-of-rotation objectively structured clinical examination station (n = 139.Results: Activities in each rotation varied according to the needs identified through the application of the quality-improvement cycle in consultation with the local health team. The development of student competencies is described according to the roles of a medical expert in the CanMEDS framework: collaborator, health advocate, scholar, communicator, manager and professional. The exposure to the real-life situation in South African public hospitals had a great influence on many students, who also acted as catalysts for transforming practice.Conclusion: Service learning and quality-improvement projects can be successfully integrated in one rotation and can contribute to the development of the different roles of a medical expert. More studies could provide insight into the potential of this approach in transforming institutions and student learning.

  12. The Value of Decentralisation in Wastewater Management: Gauteng Province Case Study, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelius Chris Reynders

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In a semi-arid water scarce country like South Africa, the efficient use of limited water resources and measures to extend the service value of these resources is a prerequisite for achieving sustainable development. The conventional supply-sided management approach to water supply causes increased wastewater generation with accompanied increased pollution loads requiring higher levels of mitigation environmental pollution. Where disposal of wastewater treatment effluent takes place in rivers and natural water bodies, the lack of adequate natural compensating capacity of such water bodies typically result in severe ecological damage of the aquatic environment. With a shift of emphasis to a sustainable demand side management approach (as opposed to a supply side one, the avoidance of water wastage and high wastewater generation represents both resource conservation and environmental protection friendly approaches and contribute to overall sustainability. The integrated nature of water supply and wastewater management systems require an approach that considers these systems holistically. A new paradigm for water management is therefore needed to ensure that the issues of waste disposal and pollution are dealt with in a sustainable manner taking into account the emerging objectives of modern society for resource conservation and environmental protection. A balance therefore has to be found between the uses of additional fresh water resources as a means of satisfying en ever increasing water demand on the one hand and alternative unconventional resource exploration and employment, without the risk of depletion of natural available fresh water resource flow, irreversible harm to the environment and social and economic constraints. This paper explores wastewater and grey water reuse as unconventional resources in a qualitative manner within this balancing equation. It further proposes a methodology for deriving monetary indicator values for wastewater

  13. Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

    1998-11-01

    The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly

  14. Analyzing Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in Success of Football (Case Study: South Africa World Cup 2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Shafiee Shahram; Divband Milad; Alimardani Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n) and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed w...

  15. Aligning Further Education And Training With The Advanced Manufacturing Technology Strategy: South Africa Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dube Partson; Muyengwa Goodwell; Battle Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Academic institutions need to exhibit the appropriate flexibility to meet the demands of industry. This descriptive study seeks to identify the problems both in the private sector and in the education sector with regards to engineer training and to utilise the strengths of both to provide a solution. The study highlights the current growth of the manufacturing sector and the continuing skills gap. It identifies the problems faced by the manufacturing industry and also changes that can be made...

  16. EFFECTS OF CORRUPTION AND REGULATORY ENVIRONMENT ON FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT: A CASE STUDY OF AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Rahim M. Quazi

    2014-01-01

    The impact of corruption on foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows has been analyzed by many recent studies. Corruption can either reduce FDI as a grabbing hand by raising uncertainty and transaction costs or facilitate FDI as a helping hand by "greasing" the wheels of commerce in the presence of a weak regulatory environment. Using the Feasible Generalized Least Squares (FGLS) methodology on 1995- 2011 panel data from 53 African countries, this study finds that corruption facilitates FDI in...

  17. Constructing Self as Leader: Case Studies of Women Who Are Change Agents in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogadime, Dolana; Mentz, P. J.; Armstrong, Denise E.; Holtam, Beryl

    2010-01-01

    The present article draws from the biographical narratives of three South African high school female principals which are part of a larger research study in which 26 aspiring and practicing women school leaders were interviewed. Narratives were constructed from in-depth interviews with each participant and analyzed for themes that provided…

  18. Developing national obesity policy in middle-income countries: a case study from North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Holdsworth, Michelle; El Ati, Jalila; Bour, Abdellatif; Kameli, Yves; Derouiche, Abdelfettah; Millstone, Erik; Delpeuch, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Background The prevalence of overweight and obesity is a rapidly growing threat to public health in both Morocco and Tunisia, where it is reaching similar proportions to high-income countries. Despite this, a national strategy for obesity does not exist in either country. The aim of this study was to explore the views of key stakeholders towards a range of policies to prevent obesity, and thus guide policy makers in their decision making on a national level. Methods Using Multicriteria Mappin...

  19. Agricultural innovation in Africa : from soil fertility to market integration. A case study from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Jeannin, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    In Benin, in response to the declining soil fertility and its effects on food insecurity and natural resources, farmers supported by external agents such as researchers, extension services and NGOs have developed new soil fertility management practices. In this study, we trace the history of the development of Integrated Soil Fertility Management (ISFM) initiatives in three different agro-ecological zones of Benin and highlight the different development phases and outcomes...

  20. Excellent in-house journals in South Africa : case studies of five leading publications / E. Wood

    OpenAIRE

    Wood, Elvira

    2006-01-01

    Although companies and organisations worldwide publish in-house journals, there is no comprehensive theory (including technical and normative dimensions) available on this important public relations instrument. In particular, no research is available on what the characteristics of excellent South African in-house journals are or ought to be. In this study a number of dimensions are thus introduced in order to help create a comprehensive framework for analysing in-house journals...

  1. DDT exposure of frogs: A case study from Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; Bornman, Riana; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2016-09-01

    Amphibians are globally under pressure with environmental contaminants contributing to this. Despite caution aired more than 80 years ago of threats posed to amphibians by DDT spraying for disease vector control, no data have been published on concentrations or effects of DDT contamination in frogs from areas where DDT is actively sprayed to control the insect vectors of malaria. In this study, we sampled fat bodies of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus muelleri naturally occurring in an area where indoor residual spraying of DDT is employed and from adjacent, non-sprayed, areas. ΣDDT concentrations ranged between study from the same area found very high concentrations of DDT in the eggs of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. This suggests that the DDT we found in frogs may have contributed to DDT loadings higher in the food web. These findings, combined with other studies from this area, support the need to reduce and eventually move away from DDT in malaria control safely and sustainably. PMID:27317939

  2. New patterns of structural change and effects on inclusive development: A case study of South Africa and Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Greenstein, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the question of structural change and inclusive development in South Africa and Brazil. Using Census data from the two countries, the analysis combines a household level multidimensional indicator of well-being with the applications of growth incidence curves and a sectoral decomposition of change to provide insight into the relationship between the place of households in the economy as reflected by employment sector and geographical location, and the extent to which the r...

  3. Child-focused state cash transfers and adolescent risk of HIV infection in South Africa: a propensity-score-matched case-control study.

    OpenAIRE

    Cluver, L.; Boyes, M.; Orkin, M.; Pantelic, M; Molwena, T; Sherr, L.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effective and scalable HIV prevention for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is needed. Cash transfers can reduce HIV incidence through reducing risk behaviours. However, questions remain about their effectiveness within national poverty-alleviation programmes, and their effects on different behaviours in boys and girls. METHODS: In this case-control study, we interviewed South African adolescents (aged 10-18 years) between 2009 and 2012. We randomly selected census areas in two ur...

  4. Child-focused state cash transfers and adolescent risk of HIV infection in South Africa: a propensity-score-matched case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Lucie Cluver, PhD; Mark Boyes, PhD; Mark Orkin, PhD; Marija Pantelic, MSc; Thembela Molwena; Lorraine Sherr, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Background: Effective and scalable HIV prevention for adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa is needed. Cash transfers can reduce HIV incidence through reducing risk behaviours. However, questions remain about their effectiveness within national poverty-alleviation programmes, and their effects on different behaviours in boys and girls. Methods: In this case-control study, we interviewed South African adolescents (aged 10–18 years) between 2009 and 2012. We randomly selected census areas in two...

  5. Building partnerships to support community-led HIV/AIDS management: a case study from rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Yugi; Campbell, Catherine

    2008-05-01

    The importance of partnerships between marginalised communities and support agencies (from the public sector, private sector and civil society) is a pillar of HIV/AIDS management policy. Such alliances are notoriously difficult to promote and sustain. We present a case study focusing on the first stage of a project seeking to build partnerships to facilitate local responses to HIV/AIDS in a remote rural community in South Africa. To date the Entabeni project has been successful in its goal of training volunteer health workers in home-based care, peer education, project management and procedures for accessing grants and services. The paper focuses on the project's other goal - to create external support structures for these volunteers (drawing on government departments, local NGOs and private-sector philanthropists). The partnership aims to empower volunteers to lead HIV-prevention and AIDS-care efforts, and to make public services more responsive to local needs. We illustrate how features of the local public-sector environment have actively worked against effective community empowerment. These include a rigid hierarchy, poor communication between senior and junior health professionals, lack of social development skills and the demoralisation and/or exhaustion of public servants dealing with multiple social problems in under-resourced settings. We outline the obstacles that have prevented private-sector involvement, suggesting a degree of scepticism about the potential for private-sector contributions to development in remote areas. We discuss how the project's most effective partners have been two small under-funded NGOs - run by highly committed individuals with a keen understanding of social-development principles, flexible working styles and a willingness to work hard for small gains. Despite many challenges, the partnership formation process has seen some positive achievements; we outline these and discuss the essential role played by an external change agent

  6. Happy in the Informal Economy? A Case Study of Well-Being Among Day Labourers in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    PF Blaauw, I Botha, R Schenck and C Schoeman

    2013-01-01

    Past research provided evidence of the negative effect that individual unemployment can have on subjective well-being. The persistent high levels of unemployment and poverty in South Africa have been well documented. Many people are forced into the informal economy, where they engage in a variety of survivalist activities such as day labouring. As no previous study has been conducted on the well-being of day labourers, the aim of this paper is to investigate the determinants of the well-being...

  7. A Complex Systems Approach to Energy Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidebell Emordi, Chukwunonso

    Energy poverty is pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan West Africa, is the world's seventh largest oil exporting country and is a resource-rich nation. It however experiences the same levels of energy poverty as most of its neighboring countries. Attributing this paradox only to corruption or the "Dutch Disease", where one sector booms at the expense of other sectors of the economy, is simplistic and enervates attempts at reform. In addition, data on energy consumption is aggregated at the national level via estimates, disaggregated data is virtually non-existent. Finally, the wave of decentralization of vertically integrated national utilities sweeping the developing world has caught on in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known of the economic and social implications of these transitions within the unique socio-technical system of the region's electricity sector, especially as it applies to energy poverty. This dissertation proposes a complex systems approach to measuring and mitigating energy poverty in Nigeria due to its multi-dimensional nature. This is done via a three-fold approach: the first section of the study delves into causation by examining the governance institutions that create and perpetuate energy poverty; the next section proposes a context-specific minimum energy poverty line based on field data collected on energy consumption; and the paper concludes with an indicator-based transition management framework encompassing institutional, economic, social, and environmental themes of sustainable transition within the electricity sector. This work contributes to intellectual discourse on systems-based mitigation strategies for energy poverty that are widely applicable within the sub-Saharan region, as well as adds to the knowledge-base of decision-support tools for addressing energy poverty in its complexity.

  8. Everyday hazards and vulnerabilities amongst backyard dwellers: A case study of Vredendal North, Matzikama Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Zweig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.

  9. Violence as an Under-Recognized Barrier to Women's Realization of Their Right to Adequate Food and Nutrition: Case Studies From Georgia and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellows, Anne C; Lemke, Stefanie; Jenderedjian, Anna; Scherbaum, Veronika

    2015-10-01

    This article addresses under-acknowledged barriers of structural violence and discrimination that interfere with women's capacity to realize their human rights generally, and their right to adequate food and nutrition in particular. Case studies from Georgia and South Africa illustrate the need for a human rights-based approach to food and nutrition security that prioritizes non-discrimination, public participation, and self-determination. These principles are frustrated by different types of structural violence that, if not seriously addressed, pose multiple barriers to women's economic, public, and social engagement. PMID:26139694

  10. Multi-Institutional Partnerships for Higher Education in Africa: A Case Study of Assumptions of International Academic Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semali, Ladislaus M.; Baker, Rose; Freer, Rob

    2013-01-01

    Public and private universities in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa, and elsewhere in Africa, were experiencing all time high enrollments since the late 1990s. To address these demands, university administrators sought partnerships with universities of the global North to facilitate the necessary educational reform and curriculum…

  11. Informal Labour Markets As A Solution For Unemployment In South Africa – A Case Study Of Car Guards In Bloemfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Blaauw

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The car guard industry in South Africa evolved out of the plight of the unemployed. Very little research has been done on the industry in South Africa. The first objective of this article is to address the lack of research and the second is to determine whether the car guard industry can provide a solution to the problem of unemployment. Car guards involved in this study were found to be generally low skilled, earning low income and working under harsh conditions for long hours. The majority of them held formal sector employment before becoming unemployed. Car guarding is not a solution to the plight of the unemployed. Training and skill development supplemented by accelerated economic growth are vital to bridge the gap between the formal and informal sectors. OpsommingDie motorwag-industrie in Suid Afrika het onstaan uit die lot van die massa werkloses in die land. Weinig navorsing is al oor die industrie gedoen. Die doelwit van die artikel is eerstens om die gebrek aan navorsing aan te vul en tweedens om te bepaal of die motorwagindustrie ’n oplossing vir die probleem van werkloosheid kan bied. Motorwagte in die studie is oor die algemeen laag geskoold, swak besoldig en werksaam vir lang ure onder moeilike omstandighede. Die meeste het ’n werk in die formele sektor van die ekonomie gehad voordat hulle werkloos geword het. Om ’n motorwag te wees kan nooit ’n oplossing vir werkloosheid wees nie. Opleiding en die ontwikkeling van noodsaaklike vaardighede teen ’n agtergrond van versnelde ekonomiese groei, is uiters noodsaaklik om die gaping tussen die informele en formele sektor te oorbrug.

  12. Inner interreligious dialogue in global Christianity – a consideration of case studies from Korea and Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Retief Müller

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the issue of plurality in world Christianity. Considering two contemporary contexts, South Korea and Southern Africa, this article claims that the interreligious pluralities as evidenced in much of contemporary Christianity are tobe understood in continuity with some of the foundational experiences of the early church, especially in the city of Antioch. This plurality, which can also be described as hybridity, acquires intercultural theological significance when understood as inner interreligious dialogue. This is further described as a mostly subconscious process by which contemporary Christians continue to engage with their pre-Christian traditions. From a phenomenological point of view this process is demonstrable in Christian history. Theologically speaking it has the potential to debunk myths of Christian ‘purity’ and to expose fundamentalists’ assertions of their own ‘orthodoxy’ astantamount to wishful thinking. Finally, this article makes the case that this process of inner interreligious dialogue, when brought to the surface may positively enhance the quality of real outward dialogue with representatives of other faiths or systems of belief and value.

  13. The United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (UCCSA) - A case study of a united and ecumenical church

    OpenAIRE

    D van der Water

    2001-01-01

    In this article, the ecumenical heritage of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa is described by the General Secretary of that church. The early history of the UCCSA, related to the London Missionary Society, created a sense of self-awareness that led to the unification of racially divided congregational churches during 1967. This set the ground for the active involvement of the UCCSA in the political liberation processes in Southern Africa. In addition, the UCCSA 's continued ...

  14. Analyzing Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in Success of Football (Case Study: South Africa World Cup 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiee Shahram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed with SPSS.18 software and indices of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics tests such as binomial and chi square were analyzed. Results showed that there was significant difference between two halves of competitions in terms of the number of scored goals. Increase of attack in the second 45 min led to more goals for teams. No significant difference was found between the scored goals and every 15 min and teams competed with opponents until the final minutes of competition. There was significant difference between positive results for the teams which scored the first goal and the teams which scored the first goal had more chance of victory. On the other hand, all teams which were ahead of the opponent in one goal in the final 30 min won at the end (P≤0/05.

  15. Testing the applicability of morphometric characterisation in discordant catchments to ancient landscapes: A case study from southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J. C.; Hodgson, D. M.; Wilson, A.; Carrivick, J. L.; Lang, A.

    2016-05-01

    The ancient landscapes south of the Great Escarpment in southern Africa preserve large-scale geomorphological features despite their antiquity. This study applies and evaluates morphometric indices (such as hypsometry, long profile analysis, stream gradient index, and linear/areal catchment characteristics) to the Gouritz catchment, a large discordant catchment in the Western Cape. Spatial variation of morphometric indices were assessed across catchment (trunk rivers) and subcatchment scales. The hypsometric curve of the catchment is sinusoidal, and a range of curve profiles are evident at subcatchment scale. Hypsometric integrals do not correlate to catchment properties such as area, circularity, relief, and dissection; and stream length gradients do not follow expected patterns, with the highest values seen in the mid-catchment areas. Rock type variation is interpreted to be the key control on morphometric indices within the Gouritz catchment, especially hypsometry and stream length gradient. External controls, such as tectonics and climate, were likely diminished because of the long duration of catchment development in this location. While morphometric indices can be a useful procedure in the evaluation of landscape evolution, this study shows that care must be taken in the application of morphometric indices to constrain tectonic or climatic variation in ancient landscapes because of inherited tectonic structures and signal shredding. More widely, we consider that ancient landscapes offer a valuable insight into long-term environmental change, but refinements to geomorphometric approaches are needed.

  16. Intense predation cannot always be detected experimentally: A case study of shorebird predation on nereid polychaetes in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejta, B.

    The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.

  17. Desegregation, Racial Conflict and Education for Democracy in the New South Africa: A Case Study of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    1998-09-01

    Education under apartheid in South Africa was characterised by racism and segregation. Since the first democratic election in 1994 a process of racial desegregation has begun in South African schools. However, desegregation is not the same as integration. Given the historical context of South Africa, simply mixing students from different racial groups in one school is likely to result in racial conflict and violence unless the structure and processes of schooling are changed at the same time. This article examines the experience of one school in South Africa which has not only desegregated its intake but has also attempted to democratise its management structures in order to teach democratic values through experience and in particular to foster a climate of mutual respect among students so as to decrease racial distrust. So far, the changes appear to be successful but there are a number of important lessons to be learned.

  18. The United Congregational Church of Southern Africa (UCCSA - A case study of a united and ecumenical church

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D van der Water

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the ecumenical heritage of the United Congregational Church of Southern Africa is described by the General Secretary of that church. The early history of the UCCSA, related to the London Missionary Society, created a sense of self-awareness that led to the unification of racially divided congregational churches during 1967. This set the ground for the active involvement of the UCCSA in the political liberation processes in Southern Africa. In addition, the UCCSA 's continued exploration of further ecumenical endeavours is traced. The covenental theology of the UCCSA forms a unifying thread throughout these processes.

  19. Gender and Transport in the Middle East and North Africa Region : Case Studies from the West Bank and Yemen

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2011-01-01

    Mobility is a major factor of access to economic resources, education, health, and other key elements influencing women's empowerment. In the Middle East and North Africa's countries, like in many other developing economies, women's mobility is constrained not only by the limited, sometimes unaffordable transport supply but also by social and cultural factors that frame women's access to t...

  20. Support to Teachers in a Context of Educational Change and Poverty: A Case Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Sissel-Tove

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study aimed at describing and exploring the needs for--and provision of--formal support in South African primary schools, examining, in particular, the significance of organisational development in addressing the needs of teachers. Educational projects are often focused on the needs of learners and learner well-being…

  1. Popular Pedagogy and the Changing Political Landscape: A Case Study of a Women's Housing Movement in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Salma

    2009-01-01

    This paper sets out to explore the relationship between popular education and the changing South African political landscape through case study research of the Victoria Mxenge Housing Development Association. The research took place over an extended period of time from 1992-2003 and discusses how popular education was advocated by the South…

  2. Teaching Africa and international studies: Forum introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, J.; Death, C.; Sabaratnam, Meera; Smith, K.

    2016-01-01

    Africa has often been defined and represented by outsiders. In International Studies, the continent is frequently viewed as peripheral and uninteresting. This is clearly a problem, and an increasingly apparent one as the number of courses on Africa and IS grow, both in Africa and beyond. Many academics who run these courses are keen to challenge the continent’s traditional marginalisation and perceived dependency, but they are limited by the resources available to them, and the fact that many...

  3. Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination of Surface Water and Sediment: A Case Study of Mvudi River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals contamination of rivers and sediments remains a global threat to biodiversity and humans. This study was carried out to assess the variation pattern in trace metals contamination in Mvudi River water and sediments for the period of January–June 2014. Metal concentrations were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after nitric acid digestion. A compliance study for the water samples was performed using the guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF of South Africa and the World Health Organization (WHO. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine sediments and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment guidelines (CCME for freshwater sediments were used to determine the possible toxic effects of the metals on aquatic organisms. pH (7.2–7.7 and conductivity (10.5–16.1 mS/m values complied with DWAF and WHO standards for domestic water use. Turbidity values in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU were in the range of 1.9–429 and exceeded the guideline values. The monthly average levels of trace metals in the water and sediments of Mvudi River were in the range of: Al (1.01–9.644 mg/L and 4296–5557 mg/kg, Cd (0.0003–0.002 mg/L and from below the detection limit to 2.19 mg/kg, Cr (0.015–0.357 mg/L and 44.23–149.52 mg/kg, Cu (0.024–0.185 mg/L and 13.22–1027 mg/kg, Fe (0.702–2.645 mg/L and 3840–6982 mg/kg, Mn (0.081–0.521 mg/L and 279–1638 mg/kg, Pb (0.002–0.042 mg/L and 1.775-4.157 mg/kg and Zn (0.031–0.261 mg/L and 14.481–39.88 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the water samples exceeded the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in the sediment samples. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Cu in the sediments exceeded the corresponding effect range low

  4. An investigation of mine closure : gold mine case studies on the East Rand in South Africa / J.H. Nel

    OpenAIRE

    Nel, Johannes Hendrik

    2008-01-01

    This research is on mines that struggle to obtain closure from the state departments. The closure process at the footprints of five Tailings Storage Facilities (TSFs) of a South African gold mine was investigated. They are situated in the Germiston, Brakpan, Springs and Nigel suburbs of the East Rand region of Johannesburg. Very limited scientific research has been done in South Africa on the management of mine closure. The most recent performed research was completed at Coal mines and on...

  5. Linking biodiversity conservation to market-led development: a case study of the Right Rooibos Initiative, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Douma, M.; Hawkins, H.S.; Vellema, S.

    2010-01-01

    This series of Working Papers is a result of the Partnership Programme between the Netherlands’ Ministry of Foreign Affairs Government and Wageningen UR. The project ‘Inclusive Chains for Agro biodiversity IChA’ collaborated with partners in 5 countries: Colombia, Ghana, Namibia, South Africa and Thailand Two questions are pertinent to facilitate better practice and eventually better the market access within the Rooibos industry: 1) Is Right Rooibos effective economically, socially and enviro...

  6. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION TO INCREASE FARMERS' REVENUE: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL SCALE FARMING IN SHEEP: TRANSKEI REGION, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Verbeke, Wim; Huylenbroeck, Guido Van; Kirsten, Johann F.; D'Haese, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for th...

  7. E-Government and Public Service Delivery: Enabling ICT to put "People First" – A Case Study from South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Wikus Visser; Hossana Twinomurinzi

    2008-01-01

    The literature on the effectiveness of e-government in developing countries towards improving public service delivery is littered with failure stories. Notwithstanding, the failures have not stopped most governments in developing countries from increasingly turning to ICT, most notably internet based models, as the preferred channel for citizen-centered service delivery. This paper investigated e-government within the developing country context of South Africa. We used the interpretive paradi...

  8. Challenges for fruitful participation of smallholders in large-scale water resource management organisations: Selected case studies in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Faysse, Nicolas

    2004-01-01

    In South Africa, the 1998 National Water Act has created two user-driven water resource management organisations, namely the Water User Association at the local level and the Catchment Management Agency at a larger catchment level. The paper investigates some challenges concerning the participation of smallholders in water resource management organisations involving also large-scale users. Specifically, the paper analyses the possible discrepancies between the needs of smallholders with regar...

  9. Waste Reclaiming in Ekurhuleni : a case study of Holomisa and Villa Lisa informal settlements in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Moipone Rakolojane

    2014-01-01

    This paper is about waste reclaiming in the Ekurhuleni Municipality, Gauteng Province, South Africa. It is about the role of informal settlements or shanty towns in waste management, particularly in prolonging the life of a landfill. It documents how government and local community partnerships contribute to waste minimization, in the short term and zero waste management, in the long run. This partnership, it is argued in the paper, contributes also to poverty alleviation for the communities w...

  10. Reforming Urban Water Utilities in Western and Central Africa : Experiences with Public-Private Partnerships, Volume 2. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Fall, Matar; Marin, Philippe; Locussol, Alain; Verspyck, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The Western and Central Africa has one of the longest experiences with public-private partnerships (PPPs) in the developing world, both for water supply and for combined power and water supply utilities. Cote d'Ivoire has a successful partnership dating from 1959, and over the last two decades as many as 15 countries (out of 23 in the region) have experimented with PPPs: eight for water su...

  11. Modelling agricultural production of small-scale farmers in sub-Saharan Africa: A case study in western Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Odulaja, Adedapo; Kiros, Fassil G.

    1996-01-01

    Small-scale farmers are known to produce the greater proportion of food consumed in the Third World, especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The various national and international agricultural research centres located in these parts of the world have developed agricultural packages which have been proven, at experimental levels, to be highly productive. However, small-scale farmers in these areas continue to produce at levels far below the capacities of these packages as predicted from experimental...

  12. Inner interreligious dialogue in global Christianity – a consideration of case studies from Korea and Southern Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Retief Müller

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the issue of plurality in world Christianity. Considering two contemporary contexts, South Korea and Southern Africa, this article claims that the interreligious pluralities as evidenced in much of contemporary Christianity are tobe understood in continuity with some of the foundational experiences of the early church, especially in the city of Antioch. This plurality, which can also be described as hybridity, acquires intercultural theological significance when underst...

  13. E-Government and Public Service Delivery: Enabling ICT to put "People First" – A Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wikus Visser

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the effectiveness of e-government in developing countries towards improving public service delivery is littered with failure stories. Notwithstanding, the failures have not stopped most governments in developing countries from increasingly turning to ICT, most notably internet based models, as the preferred channel for citizen-centered service delivery. This paper investigated e-government within the developing country context of South Africa. We used the interpretive paradigm primarily because we wanted to increase our understanding of the phenomenon of e-government for public service delivery within the local South African context. The investigation focused on one of the governments primary service delivery programmes – social grants. The analysis of findings suggest that egovernment in South Africa is not aligned to the service delivery philosophy, Batho Pele, and is hence not effective in delivering on the public service delivery mandate. Batho Pele which literally means "people first" is similar to the UNDP Human Development Indicators for development. The contribution of this research can be extended to both practice and IS theory. The research highlights the need for ICT4D, particularly e-government in developing contexts, to firstly be aligned to the current over-arching government philosophies if they are to have any effective impact on service delivery. The practical contribution of the research is a possible framework that could be used to align e-government in South Africa to the government philosophy of service delivery.

  14. THE DUAL BURDEN OF NUTRITION TRANSITION AMONG WOMEN IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA: A CASE STUDY OF UNDERWEIGHT IN NIGERIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Emina, Jacques B O

    2016-08-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, nutrition research has primarily focused on under-nutrition, particularly among vulnerable children. However, there is increasing evidence of an emerging nutrition transition with extremely high rates of obesity, and malnutrition in women may be a problem that is insufficiently recognized and inadequately documented. This analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS), which included 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual-level data were collected for socio-demographic characteristics and aggregated to the country's 37 states. A Bayesian geo-additive mixed model was used to map the geographic distribution of under-nutrition at the state level, accounting for individual-level risk factors. The results reveal that 12.0% of the population were underweight, while 20.9% were either overweight or obese, based on BMI. The northern states of Sokoto and Yobe/Borno and the southern state of Delta had the highest prevalence of underweight, while states in the centre had the lowest underweight prevalence. Underweight women were more likely to be from poorer households compared with their counterparts from the richest wealth index, which were consistently associated with lower odds of being underweight (posterior odds ratio (POR) and 95% credible region (CR): 0.56 [0.46, 0.70]). On the other hand Muslim women (1.61 [1.10, 2.23]), those of traditional religion (2.12 [1.44, 3.00]), those from the Fulani ethnic group (2.90 [1.64, 5.55]) and those living in Yobe state were all consistently associated with higher odds of being underweight. This study demonstrates that underweight is a major public health problem in Nigeria affecting adult females in the northern states of Nigeria. Identifying risk factors and the need to account for sex, spatial and socio-cultural issues are crucial to develop and implement evidence-informed strategies and interventions for lifestyle health promotion. PMID:26448573

  15. Lessons from case studies of integrating mental health into primary health care in South Africa and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhana Arvin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration sites. The foci and form of the services developed differed across the country sites depending on the service gaps and resources available. South Africa focused on reducing the service gap for common mental disorders and Uganda, for severe mental disorders. Method A qualitative post-intervention process evaluation using focus group and individual interviews with key stakeholders was undertaken in both sites. The emergent data was analyzed using framework analysis. Results Sensitization of district management authorities and the establishment of community collaborative multi-sectoral forums assisted in improving political will to strengthen mental health services in both countries. Task shifting using community health workers emerged as a promising strategy for improving access to services and help seeking behaviour in both countries. However, in Uganda, limited application of task shifting to identification and referral, as well as limited availability of psychotropic medication and specialist mental health personnel, resulted in a referral bottleneck. To varying degrees, community-based self-help groups showed potential for empowering service users and carers to become more self sufficient and less dependent on overstretched healthcare systems. They also showed potential for promoting social inclusion and addressing stigma, discrimination and human rights abuses of people with mental disorders in both country sites. Conclusions A common implementation framework incorporating a community collaborative multi-sectoral, task shifting

  16. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods: Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices. Results: In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million. The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467 and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874, thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion

  17. Social Work in a Developing Continent: The Case of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chitereka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Social work is a professional approach to ameliorating social problems. It is generally understood as a helping profession that utilizes professionally qualified personnel who use its knowledge base to help people tackle their social problems (Mupedziswa, 2005. Nevertheless, in developing countries, social work is a relatively young profession which was influenced by colonialism in its formation. The type of social work practiced in these countries largely mirrors the one that is being practiced in Britain, France and Portugal among others. Utilizing the continent of Africa as a case study, this article argues that social work practice in Africa tends to be curative or remedial in nature and is not adequately addressing people’s problems. It therefore proposes a paradigm shift from remedial to a social development paradigm if it is to make an impact in the 21st century.

  18. Integrated Source Case Investigation for Tuberculosis (TB and HIV in the Caregivers and Household Contacts of Hospitalised Young Children Diagnosed with TB in South Africa: An Observational Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay G Lala

    Full Text Available Contact tracing, to identify source cases with untreated tuberculosis (TB, is rarely performed in high disease burden settings when the index case is a young child with TB. As TB is strongly associated with HIV infection in these settings, we used source case investigation to determine the prevalence of undiagnosed TB and HIV in the caregivers and household contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB in South Africa.Caregivers and household contacts of 576 young children (age ≤7 years with TB diagnosed between May 2010 and August 2012 were screened for TB and HIV. The primary outcome was the detection of laboratory-confirmed, newly-diagnosed TB disease and/or HIV-infection in close contacts.Of 576 caregivers, 301 (52·3% self-reported HIV-positivity. Newly-diagnosed HIV infection was detected in 63 (22·9% of the remaining 275 caregivers who self-reported an unknown or negative HIV status. Screening identified 133 (23·1% caregivers eligible for immediate anti-retroviral therapy (ART. Newly-diagnosed TB disease was detected in 23 (4·0% caregivers. In non-caregiver household contacts (n = 1341, the prevalence of newly-diagnosed HIV infection and TB disease was 10·0% and 3·2% respectively. On average, screening contacts of every nine children with TB resulted in the identification of one case of newly-diagnosed TB disease, three cases of newly diagnosed HIV-infection, and three HIV-infected persons eligible for ART.In high burden countries, source case investigation yields high rates of previously undiagnosed HIV and TB infection in the close contacts of hospitalised young children diagnosed with TB. Furthermore, integrated screening identifies many individuals who are eligible for immediate ART. Similar studies, with costing analyses, should be undertaken in other high burden settings-integrated source case investigation for TB and HIV should be routinely undertaken if our findings are confirmed.

  19. Occupational and Environmental Health Risks Associated with Informal Sector Activities-Selected Case Studies from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Ayelo, Paul Ahoumènou; Djogbénou, Luc S; Kedoté, Marius; Lawin, Herve; Tohon, Honesty; Oloruntoba, Elizabeth O; Adebisi, Nurudeen A; Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius; Robins, Thomas; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Most in the Economic Community of West African States region are employed in the informal sector. While the informal sector plays a significant role in the region's economy, policymakers and the scientific community have long neglected it. To better understand informal-sector work conditions, the goal here is to bring together researchers to exchange findings and catalyze dialogue. The article showcases research studies on several economic systems, namely agriculture, resource extraction, transportation, and trade/commerce. Site-specific cases are provided concerning occupational health risks within artisanal and small-scale gold mining, aggregate mining, gasoline trade, farming and pesticide applications, and electronic waste recycling. These cases emphasize the vastness of the informal sector and that the majority of work activities across the region remain poorly documented, and thus no data or knowledge is available to help improve conditions and formulate policies and programs to promote and ensure decent work conditions. PMID:27231011

  20. Comparison of soil moisture fields estimated by catchment modelling and remote sensing: a case study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Vischel

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper compares two independent approaches to estimate soil moisture at the regional scale over a 4625 km2 catchment (Liebenbergsvlei, South Africa. The first estimate is derived from a physically-based hydrological model (TOPKAPI. The second estimate is derived from the scatterometer on board on the European Remote Sensing satellite (ERS. Results show a very good correspondence between the modelled and remotely sensed soil moisture, illustrated over two selected seasons of 8 months by regression R2 coefficients lying between 0.78 and 0.92. Such a close similarity between these two different, independent approaches is very promising for (i remote sensing in general (ii the use of hydrological models to back-calculate and disaggregate the satellite soil moisture estimate and (iii for hydrological models to assimilate the remotely sensed soil moisture.

  1. Corporate social responsibility in public health: A case-study on HIV/AIDS epidemic by Johnson & Johnson company in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattu, Vijay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    HIV/AIDS has claimed millions of lives in the global workforce and continues to remain a threat to many businesses. An estimated 36.5 million of working people are living with HIV; the global workforce has lost 28 million people from AIDS since the beginning of the epidemic. In the absence of access to treatment, this number could grow to 74 million by 2015. The epidemic continues to affect the working population through absenteeism, sickness and death. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is an obligation that corporates have toward their employees, community and society. A review and documentation of one such CSR by Johnson & Johnson (a multinational company) for HIV/AIDS in Africa is presented here. Johnson & Johnson Company is involved in numerous projects around the world to combat the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The company is working to fight the spread of the disease and improve the quality of life for those living with the illness through various donations of its products and sponsorship of local programs. This case study also highlights different categories of CSR activities such as Cause Promotion, Cause related Marketing, Corporate Philanthropy, Corporate Social Marketing, Corporate Volunteering and Socially responsible business practices, which are discussed with specific examples from different countries in Africa. Conclusions: CSR of any business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical & discretionary expectation placed on the organization by society at a given point of time. CSR is therefore the obligation that corporations have toward their stakeholders and society in general which horizons beyond what is prescribed by law or union contracts. Johnson & Johnson has a proved history of being committed to caring for people and a good example of a company with a long history of citizenship and sustainability. PMID:25810667

  2. Landscapes and their relation to hominin habitats: case studies from Australopithecus sites in eastern and southern Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sally C; Bailey, Geoff N; King, Geoffrey C P

    2011-03-01

    We examine the links between geomorphological processes, specific landscape features, surface water drainage, and the creation of suitable habitats for hominins. The existence of mosaic (i.e., heterogeneous) habitats within hominin site landscape reconstructions is typically explained using models of the riverine and gallery forest settings, or the pan or lake setting. We propose a different model: the Tectonic Landscape Model (TLM), where tectonic faulting and volcanism disrupts existing pan or river settings at small-scales (∼10-25 km). Our model encompasses the interpretation of the landscape features, the role of tectonics in creating these landscapes, and the implications for hominins. In particular, the model explains the underlying mechanism for the creation and maintenance of heterogeneous habitats in regions of active tectonics. We illustrate how areas with faulting and disturbed drainage patterns would have been attractive habitats for hominins, such as Australopithecus, and other fauna. Wetland areas are an important characteristic of surface water disturbance by fault activity; therefore we examine the tectonically-controlled Okavango Delta (Botswana) and the Nylsvley wetland (South Africa) as modern examples of how tectonics in a riverine setting significantly enhance the faunal and floral biodiversity. While tectonic landscapes may not have been the only type of attractive habitats to hominins, we propose a suite of landscape, faunal, and floral indicators, which when recovered together suggest that site environments may have been influenced by tectonic and/or volcanic activity while hominins were present. For the fossil sites, we interpret the faulting and landscapes around australopithecine-bearing sites of the Middle Awash (Ethiopia) and Makapansgat, Taung, and Sterkfontein (South Africa) to illustrate these relationships between landscape features and surface water bodies. Exploitation of tectonically active landscapes may explain why the

  3. Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: a case study on the occupation-specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD, a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. Objective: First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines ‘perfect implementation’ pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. Methods: A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. Results: The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. Conclusion: The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.

  4. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  5. Effectiveness of 7-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine Against Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in HIV-Infected and -Uninfected Children in South Africa: A Matched Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Fortuin-de Smit, Melony; Madhi, Shabir A.; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Zell, Elizabeth R; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Moore, David; Verwey, Charl; Varughese, Sheeba; Archary, Moherndran; Naby, Fathima; Dawood, Khathija; Naidoo, Ramola; Elliott, Gene; Hallbauer, Ute; Eley, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Background.  South Africa introduced 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in April 2009 using a 2 + 1 schedule (6 and 14 weeks and 9 months). We estimated the effectiveness of ≥2 PCV7 doses against invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–infected and -uninfected children. Methods.  IPD (pneumococcus identified from a normally sterile site) cases were identified through national laboratory-based surveillance. Specimens were serotyped by Quellung or p...

  6. Population dynamics throughout the urban context: A case study in sub-Saharan Africa utilizing remotely sensed imagery and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Magdalena

    The characteristics of places where people live and work play an important role in explaining complex social, political, economic and demographic processes. In sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments inhabited by people with a wide variety of lifestyles. This research examines how spatial patterns of land cover in a southern portion of the West African country of Ghana are associated with particular characteristics of family organization and reproduction decisions. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to estimate fertility levels and household structure, and the association between urban context, household composition and fertility levels is modeled through OLS regression, spatial autoregressive models and geographically weighted regression. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility levels between different urban contexts, with below average fertility levels found in the most urbanized end of the urban context definition and above average fertility levels found on the opposite end. The spatial patterns identified in the association between urban context and fertility levels indicate that, within the city areas with lower fertility have significant impacts on the reproductive levels of adjacent neighborhoods. Findings also indicate that there are clear patterns that link urban context to living arrangements and fertility levels. Female- and single-headed households are associated with below average fertility levels, a result that connects dropping fertility levels with the spread of smaller nuclear households in developing countries. At the same time, larger extended family households are linked to below average fertility levels for highly clustered areas, a finding that points to the prevalence of extended family housing in the West African city.

  7. Informing international UNFCCC technology mechanisms from the ground up: Using biogas technology in South Africa as a case study to evaluate the usefulness of potential elements of an international technology agreement in the UNFCCC negotiations process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transfer of low carbon technologies to developing countries is 1 approach for tackling rising global emissions. An international technology transfer mechanism has been proposed under the UNFCCC; however, it remains unclear how this international mechanism would translate into local level technology implementation. This study uses biogas technology in South Africa to obtain empirical data inductively related to technology transfer. Observations and activities specific to the biogas sector in South Africa are put forward based on site visits and stakeholder discussions in South Africa, the UK, Germany and Sweden. This paper presents empirical findings on technology transfer in the biogas sector in South Africa and analyses the role of an international technology mechanism in supporting the uptake of biogas. Many of the barriers to biogas technology in South Africa are national level constraints such as lack of supportive policy environment, financial incentives and information sharing. This case study supports the argument that it will be unrealistic for international technology mechanisms to capture the necessary specificities of individual technologies at a country level. Therefore, as demonstrated through the example of biogas technology in South Africa, there is a need for both effective national and international engagement to support technology implementation. - Highlights: ► The UNFCCC technology mechanism aims to increase low carbon technology deployment. ► The interface of global technology frameworks and national implementation is unclear. ► Biogas is a widely used technology yet its uptake in South Africa (SA) is minimal. ► Empirical data is gathered from biogas sites in SA, UK, Germany and Sweden. ► Findings show biogas uptake in SA requires national and international support

  8. The adoption of energy efficiency measures by firms in Africa: case studies of cassava processing in Nigeria and maize milling in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ndichu, J.; Blohmke, J.; Kemp, R.; Adeoti, J.; Obayelu, A.E.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the uptake of energy efficiency (EE) measures in two important agro-industrial sectors in Sub-Saharan Africa, the cassava- and maize-processing industries in Nigeria and Kenya. These two countries represent regions with a weak environmental policy regime and rather weak innov

  9. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  10. An assessment of the effectiveness of EEA policy in managing gender diversity at the workplace in South Africa, using Cederberg municipality as a case study / Armstrong Sibongiseni Terence Nxumalo

    OpenAIRE

    Nxumalo, Armstrong Sibongiseni Terence

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of EEA policy as a tool to manage gender diversity at the workplace. The research was based on a case study using Cederberg Municipality that is located in Western Cape Province in South Africa. The primary data was sourced from employees of the municipality using questionnaire, individual interviews and focus group discursions. The study showed that EEA policy was not so effective in achieving its intended objectiv...

  11. Biowaste separate collection and composting in a Small Island Developing State: The case study of São Tomé and Principe, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, João M; Ferreira, José S; Dias-Ferreira, Celia

    2015-12-01

    São Tomé and Principe archipelago in West Africa is a Small Island Developing State facing acute waste management problems. This article describes the implementation of selective collection of biowaste combined with composting in São Tomé, as a case-study of an innovative action in the framework of a Small Island Developing State. Collection was designed to gather 225 t y(-1), targeting non-domestic biowaste producers, namely local businesses, municipal markets and municipal green waste. A municipal composting plant was built using basic facilities and windrow composting. The total investment amounted to €50,000, mainly supported by external aid. Biowaste producers reacted very positively, source segregating enthusiastically. Irregular service - collection collapsed each time the old vehicle was repaired - together with political disengagement and unmotivated work force were the major constrains. Biowaste was intermittently delivered to the composting plant and yielded 2 t of compost from July to December 2013 and 10 t during 2014. Compost was sold as organic fertiliser to a touristic resource, to small farmers and to gardeners, at a market price slightly below production costs, meaning the process is not economically sustainable without support. Nevertheless, biowaste is one of the few waste fractions (other than glass) that can be turned into a product that has both market value and a real demand, showing the enormous potential of composting source-separated biowaste in this part of the world. PMID:26526021

  12. Improving Computer-Mediated Synchronous Communication of Doctors in Rural Communities Through Cloud Computing: A Case Study of Rural Hospitals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Coleman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated how doctors in remote rural hospitals in South Africa use computer-mediated toolto communicate with experienced and specialist doctors for professional advice to improve on their clinicalpractices. A case study approach was used. Ten doctors were purposively selected from ten hospitals in theNorth West Province. Data was collected using semi-structured open ended interview questions. Theinterviewees were asked to tell in their own words the average number of patients served per week,processes used in consultation with other doctors, communication practices using computer-mediated tool,transmission speed of the computer-mediated tool and satisfaction in using the computer-mediatedcommunication tool. The findings revealed that an average of 15 consultations per doctor to a specialistdoctor per week was done through face to face or through telephone conversation instead of using acomputer-mediated tool. Participants cited reasons for not using computer-mediated tool forcommunication due to slow transmission speed of the Internet and regular down turn of the Internetconnectivity, constant electricity power outages and lack of e-health application software to support realtime computer-mediated communication. The results led to the recommendation of a hybrid cloudcomputing architecture for improving communication between doctors in hospitals.

  13. Disaster Risk Reduction: Cases from urban Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Willi Faling

    2010-01-01

    Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the ...

  14. A new approach for the assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation: a case study of the Korba Coastal Aquifer (Tunisia, Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayni, Foued; Cherif, Semia; Jrad, Amel; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water in Mediterranean, water-scarce, semiarid regions of Tunisia, Africa. In this study of the Korba coastal aquifer, 17 water wells were studied to assess their suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes. Assessment parameters include pH, salinity, specific ion toxicity, sodium adsorption ratio, nutrients, trace metals pollutants, and fecal indicators and pathogens. Results indicate that salinity of groundwater varied between 0.36 dS/m and 17.4 dS/m; in addition, its degree of restriction is defined as "none", "slight to moderate", and "severe" for 18, 23, and 59% of the studied wells, respectively. To control salts brought in by irrigation waters, the question arises as to how much water should be used to reach crop and soil requirements. To answer this question, a new approach that calculates the optimum amount of irrigation water considering the electrical conductivity of well water (ECw), field crops, and the semiarid meteorological local conditions for evapotranspiration and rainfall is developed. This is applied to the authors' case study area; barley and lettuce were selected among the commonly grown crops because they are high- and low-salinity tolerant, respectively. Leaching requirements were found to be independent of the crop selected, and depend only on the season, that is, 250 to 260 mm/month in the driest season, with a minimum of 47 mm/month though all seasons. A high bacteriological contamination appears in almost all samples. However, if disinfected and corrected for pH, all the well waters can be used for animal farming (including livestock and poultry), although only 29% could be used for human consumption. PMID:22953452

  15. Environmental Control in Oil & Gas Exploration & Production : A Case Study of the Niger Delta Region of Nigeria, West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ibem-Ezera, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the environmental impacts of oil and gas exploration and production (E&P), the roles of legislation, and the environmental management strategies in the petroleum industry with respect to the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. The study seeks to suggest sustainable solutions to the endemic economic, social, and environmental problems associated with oil and gas E&P in the region. The focus is on the environmental control in the upstream (E&P) operat...

  16. Shrouds of Silence: A Case Study of Sexual Abuse in Schools in the Limpopo Province in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masehela, Boledi; Pillay, Venitha

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to understand the reasons that allow a parent, a principal and a teacher to maintain silence when young girls under their care are sexually abused. Put another way, it attempts to explain what it is about sexual abuse that makes these parties relinquish their role as protectors of innocent children. This paper, based on a larger…

  17. Lessons from case studies of integrating mental health into primary health care in South Africa and Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Bhana Arvin; Ssebunnya Joshua; Petersen Inge; Baillie Kim

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration sites. The foci and form of the services developed differed across the coun...

  18. Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi

    2013-01-01

    In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, te...

  19. Influence of corporate responsibility on financial return in forest plantations: case studies from South America, South East Asia and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Brotto, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    Investments in planted forests in emerging markets are increasing and investors are looking for Sustainable and Responsible Investments (SRI) to integrate Environmental, Social And Governance (ESG) into the investment process. This study is presenting a first attempt to develop a framework to evaluate the ESG performance of investments in planted forests and to identify relations between the use of SRI tools and the financial performance of investments in planted forests. The analysi...

  20. Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, testing the hypothesis that the possession of social capital improves household welfare. The result shows that social capital endowments have a statistically significant positive effect on household welfare, in addition to the some household’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study concluded that, access to social capital among other factors, is very crucial for improved rural household welfare and poverty reduction. It is therefore important for government to have knowledge of existing social groups and networks as this will improve the effectiveness of the present strategies aimed at reducing poverty.

  1. Investigating the Impacts of Intraregional Trade and Aid on Per Capita Income in Africa: Case Study of the ECOWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assandé Désiré Adom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past 50 years, a striking stylized fact has been the downward—or flat—trend of intra-African trade as a share of Africa’s total trade, while official development assistance (ODA has experienced a noticeable expansion. During the same period, economic growth performances have not been consistent and robust enough to put a dent in the poverty level across the African continent in general and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS in particular. Using a two-stage least square (TSLS estimation technique, this paper finds out that intra-ECOWAS trade stimulates per capita income growth substantially more than foreign aid, which rather constitutes an impediment to that growth in most specifications. Additionally, comparable results are obtained when the scope of the study is expanded to include trade of ECOWAS members with the rest of the world. As a result, it becomes appropriate to suggest policy recommendations encouraging increased cooperation among member states in an attempt to (i expand and build new cross-states infrastructures, aimed at boosting communications and telecommunications networks, (ii accelerate the trade facilitation process by addressing administrative red tapes that balloon both transaction costs and delays in the flows of goods across borders, seaports, and airports, and (iii develop and diversify the industrial base in member states.

  2. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  3. Why study higher education and capacity building in Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    The chapter begins by arguing why it is interesting to study higher education and capacity building in Africa. Without essentialising Africa, we wish to contribute to a better understanding of the multi-faceted and dynamic development of contemporary universities in Africa. Then we explain our...... change in Africa – whose reality counts? And Part III: Creating and using academic knowledge in Africa – decolonising research?...

  4. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa. PMID:12295438

  5. Case-control studies of the effect of environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity: methodological implications of field studies in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, J; Baltazar, J; Young, B

    1988-06-01

    The problems and prospects in the use of case-control studies to assess the effects of improvements in environmental sanitation on diarrhoea morbidity are discussed on the basis of two field studies. It is concluded that an adequate design is available for assessing the effects of a single improvement on diarrhoeal disease. The estimates of effect appear to be valid and sufficiently precise. For addressing more complex questions of interactions, sample sizes would have to be increased substantially. The experience with two field studies suggests that there is hope that a simpler protocol may be feasible, in which only limited information is collected, in which few home visits are made, and in which analytical techniques are simple. Until more field studies have been conducted definitive conclusions cannot be reached on the applicability of such a simple, rapid and inexpensive approach. PMID:3403140

  6. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  7. Tracking Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Cloud Prone Areas Using Moderate Resolution Satellite Data: A Case Study in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Basnet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.

  8. Extreme weather events in the Sneeuberg, Karoo, South Africa: a case study of the floods of 9 and 12 February 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Fox

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Two destructive flood events occurred in rapid succession in the semi-arid Sneeuberg Mountains of the Karoo, South Africa in February 2011. The temporal and spatial characteristics of these two extreme events are examined in this paper through analysis of data from an unusually dense, and reliable, network of farm rain gauges. These analyses add to our understanding derived from existing rain gauge information. Comparisons are then made with patterns from a range of modeled products derived from remote sensed information: the Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA, the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS. We found that the first flood event was widespread and precipitation was related strongly to altitude. The second was highly localised, with no relationship to altitude. Both had very sharply peaked rainfall intensities. These findings are of significance to the studies of flooding and landscape change in the area as such events have become more pronounced over the past 50 yr and it is likely that this trend will accelerate. The modeled patterns are derived largely from remote sensing and we found that they are reliable for drawing out monthly and annual variations but they make noticeable underestimates. They are poor estimates, however, both for the spatial distribution of precipitation, and the short term trends as they struggle to estimate the impact of topography and other local forcing factors. This finding corroborates information derived from other analyses at broader spatial scales using more widely spread, established rain gauge stations. Ten percent of southern Africa has been classified as mountainous and these areas provide much of our water resources so our findings are significant to water managers throughout this and similar mountainous regions.

  9. Case Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proven options available to Sri Lanka for large scale electricity generation in the future are coal-fired thermal, oil-fired thermal and Nuclear. Four case studies for groups participated are indicated. Case study for group 1 is comparison of the three options by taking into consideration the capital and recurrent expenditure involved. Environmental effects of the three options are also given. Case study for group 2 is economic comparison of three renewable energy based power generation system. Case study for group 3 is based on energy conservation, efficiency, improvement and demand management. Assuming that a continuous saving of 20 MW of demand from 1996 onwards is effective two projects are suggested to achieve this result. Case study for group 4 is a feasibility study for hydro power development of the Kukule Ganga (river) in Sri Lanka. Participants are required to evaluate one of the three optional development concepts which are technically feasible

  10. Agricultural Statistics in Sub-Saharan Africa: Differences in Institutional Arrangements and their Impacts on Agricultural Statistics Systems. A Synthesis of Four Country Case Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Valerie A.; Donovan, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    A major push supporting improved data collection and analysis is required if African countries are to successfully design and implement results- based Poverty Reduction Strategy Programs (PRSP) and the Comprehensive Africa Agricultural Development Program (CAADP) being promoted by the New Partnership for African Development (NEPAD). Over the years there have been many initiatives to build statistical capacity in Africa. Many problems have plagued these efforts, including inadequate funding an...

  11. Climatology of the African Easterly Jet and Subtropical Highs over North Africa and Arabian Peninsula and a Numerical Case Study of an Intense African Easterly Wave

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, James D.

    North African climate is analyzed between 1979 and 2010 with an emphasis on August using the European Center for Medium Range Weather Forecast (ECMWF) global dataset to investigate the effects of the subtropical anticyclones over North Africa and the Arabian Peninsula on the Africa easterly jet (AEJ). It was found that the AEJ encloses a core with a local wind maximum (LWM) in both West and East Africa, in which the west LWM core has a higher zonal wind speed. The strength of both cores is distinctly different by way of thermal wind balance. The variability of these synoptic weather features is higher in East Africa. The most noticeable variability of intensity occurred with easterly waves. Maintenance of easterly waves from the Arabian Peninsula into East Africa is dependent on strong zonal gradients from the AEJ. These zonal gradients were induced by the strengthening of the subtropical highs and the presence of a westerly jet in Central Africa and south of the Arabian Peninsula. During positive ENSO periods, these systems are generally weaker while in negative periods are stronger. The origins of an intense African easterly wave (AEW) and mesoscale convective system (MCS) in August 2004 (A04) were traced back to the southern Arabian Peninsula, Asir Mountains, and Ethiopian Highlands using gridded satellite (GridSat) data, ERA-I, and the WRF-ARW model. A vorticity budget was developed to investigate the dynamics and mechanisms that contribute to the formation of A04's vorticity perturbation.

  12. The area-wide epidemiology of bovine trypanosomosis and its impact on mixed farming in subhumid West Africa; a case study in Togo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, G; Napala, A; Dao, B; Batawui, K; Bastiaensen, P; De Deken, R; Vermeilen, A; Vercruysse, J; Slingenbergh, J H

    1999-07-01

    This paper reports on an area wide study of all major variables determining the expression of trypanosomosis in cattle in the subhumid eco-zone of West Africa, taking Togo as an example. To enable systematic area-wide sampling, the country was divided in 311 grid-squares of 0.125 x 0.125 sides. Cross-sectional surveys were then conducted to generate maps or digital layers on cattle density, herd structure, ownership and breed. These data layers, except for the breed data, were subjected to a cluster analysis in order to define spatial patterns in animal husbandry systems. This analysis revealed two main systems: one is oriented towards integration with crop-agriculture and a second towards investment in cattle. These two systems could be further characterised by incorporating breed data. Zebu cattle and their crossbreeds are more favoured in the second system. The breed distribution map shows the actual situation but also serves to predict the outcome of progressive crossbreeding. An area wide trypanosomosis survey allowed the production of prevalence maps for Trypanosoma congolense, T. vivax and the associated packed cell volume (PCV) values. A simple curvi-linear relationship was established between vector density and disease prevalence. The regression between disease prevalence and PCV for taurine and zebu plus crossbreeds separately, revealed that taurine cattle maintain a comparatively high PCV level particularly in high prevalence scenarios. The relationship between the average herd PCV and cattle density suggests that herd PCV value may provide a mirror for the number of animals not kept because of the prevailing risk. The regression between agricultural intensity and cattle density subsequently in areas with decreasing herd PCV values reveals that the level of integration of cattle in crop production decreases with a decreasing PCV. Thus, despite the presence of taurine animals in Togo, the omnipresence of tsetse in particular Glossina tachinoides, remains

  13. Monitoring Cloud-prone Complex Landscapes At Multiple Spatial Scales Using Medium And High Resolution Optical Data: A Case Study In Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basnet, Bikash

    with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988--2001 and 2001--2011 periods was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. While useful on a regional scale, Landsat data can be inadequate for more detailed studies of land cover change. Based on an increasing availability of high resolution imagery and light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data from manned and unmanned aerial platforms (analysis techniques. The classification framework was tested for a scene with both natural and cultural features and was found to be more than 90 percent accurate, sufficient for detailed land cover change studies.

  14. Groundwater and climate change in Africa : review of recharge studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, H. C.; A M. Macdonald

    2010-01-01

    The review of recharge studies was conducted as part of a one year DFID-funded research programme, aimed at improving understanding of the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and local livelihoods – see http://www.bgs.ac.uk/GWResilience/. The review is one of a series of components within the project. The overall outputs of the project are: Two hydrogeological case studies in West and East Africa – which assess the storage and availability of groundwater in different aquifers a...

  15. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayen, P.; Sop, T. K.; Lykke, A. M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-05-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental design with three replicates per restoration technique. A total of 174 seedlings were planted in each study site. The results showed that the soil water content varied according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that J. curcas may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  16. Numerical modeling and environmental isotope methods in integrated mine-water management: a case study from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili

    2015-05-01

    Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using environmental stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a numerical groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and numerical modelling.

  17. An Economic Valuation Of The Water Footprint: A Case Study Of The Citrus Sector In The Lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, S. A.; Fraser, G. C. G.; Snowball, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    With the implementation of the South African National Water Act (NWA) currently underway, water intensive sectors, such as the irrigated agriculture sector, can expect reduced water allocations and an increase in water prices. Water footprints (WFs) are increasingly being recognised as a meaningful way by which to represent human appropriation of water resources. This study examines the green and blue WFs of a variety of citrus cultivars in the lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa. WFs were calculated across dry, humid and long-term average climates and comparisons were made to available global average benchmark WFs. An number of indicators were also explored including; water productivity (ton/m3), economic land productivity (R/ha) and economic water productivity (R/m3) across all three climatic years. Most applications of WF sustainability assessments have focused on examining physical water scarcity as a measure for determining environmental hotspots. This study, therefore, also calculates the marginal product value for the irrigation water using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Marginal product value of irrigation water is not only useful in assisting with water-allocation decision making, but also useful in demonstrating the effects of resource depletion and degradation, and is therefore a useful measure for determining economic water scarcity. The study highlights that both farmers and governments could reduce blue WF's through adopting measures to increase water efficiency and considering economic water and land productivity. It also demonstrates the importance of including both environmental and economic scarcity indicators into water management and planning strategies, and the importance of conducting WF assessments using more accurate, site specific data.

  18. The New Philanthropy, Poverty Reduction and Rural Development: A Case Study of Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila I. Asuru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to explore the significant contributions of the new philanthropy towards improving the conditions of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan African, smallholder farmers’ understanding of philanthropy and to investigate the relationship that exists between philanthropy and smallholder farmers. The research is designed to uncover the needs and drivers of both philanthropy and smallholder farmers in relation to their interaction and the fulfilment of the philanthropic contract they have entered into. The main objective of the thesis is to consider the potential of philanthropy to rural transformation for poverty reduction. It focus is the involvement of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in rural development and poverty reduction in Ghana. Since 2006 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Gates Foundation has dedicated $1.7 billion to assisting smallholder farmers. The bulk of this investment has been delivered through programmes associated with the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA, which is also supported by the Rockefeller Foundation(Thompson, 2012. This study observed an inherent discrepancies and organisational miscalculations that have adverse influence on the effective collaboration and implementation of philanthropic support to the selected farmers. Untimely release of farming inputs as well as exceedingly unfavourable conditions for the attractions of loans makes it difficult for smooth farming. This exercise also established that both men and women intercrop their farms to ensure household food security and income. Household decisions on which medium of farming to pursue and on use of the income from farming are generally taken by men. Due to these, this research emphasise that philanthropic offering in Ghana should be looked at dispassionately bearing in mind the socio-culturally diverse nature of the country itself as well as key environmental factors that hugely contribute to poverty.

  19. Child-focused state cash transfers and adolescent risk of HIV infection in South Africa: a propensity-score-matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cluver, PhD

    2013-12-01

    Funding: UK Economic and Social Research Council, South African National Research Foundation, Health Economics and AIDS Research Division at University of KwaZulu-Natal, South African National Department of Social Development, Claude Leon Foundation, John Fell Fund, Nuffield Foundation, and Regional Interagency Task Team for Children affected by AIDS—Eastern and Southern Africa.

  20. Detecting and quantifying the extent of desertification and its impact in the semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa: A case study of the Upper East Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Alex B.

    The semi-arid Sub-Saharan region of Africa is in a state of permanent instability at a variety of spatio-temporal momentum. Efforts at sustaining and managing this fragile but all-important ecosystem and its processes require collecting, storing and analyzing multispatial and temporal data that are accurate and continuously updated in terms of changes (degradation), types and magnitude of change. Remote sensing techniques based on multispectral satellite-acquired data (AVHRR, Landsat TM and ETM+) have demonstrated an immense potential as a means to detect, quantify, monitor and map these changes. However, much of what satellite sensors can detect and capture, especially in the form of vegetation index (NDVI), do not tell the entire story about land degradation. This research used multispectral remote sensing data from three sensors (AVHRR, Landsat TM, and ETM+ and IKONOS) to detect and quantify the spatio-temporal land degradation (desertification) to validate the local observation and perception of desertification. The study also analyzes data on crop production in search of evidence proving or disproving degradation in the semi-arid sahel-sudan savannah transitional vegetation zone of the UER, Ghana. Multispectral satellite-acquired NDVI, from AVHRR, Landsat TM & ETM+, show that vegetation greenness is on the ascendancy, although there are pockets (localized degradation) signs of severe land degradation; field evidence suggests that the increasing NDVI is caused by vegetation succession where locally adapted horsetail grasses have been displaced by environmentally efficient, short-lived, quick maturing and dense grasses due to excessive burning, rapid population growth and inappropriate development policies. Local people's perceptions, supported by crop production data, suggest extensive land degradation. Other evidence includes food insecurity, diseases, rainfall variability and land extensification to marginal lands. Convergence of evidence suggests that

  1. STUDYING GXE INTERACTION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND YIELD LEVEL USING LINEAR-BILINEAR MODELS: THE CASE OF CIMMYT INTERMEDIATE TO LATE HYBRIDS TRAILS IN EASTERN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Taye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CIMMYT, with national programs, conducts selection of stress-tolerant genotypes under managed stress conditions; this investigation is expected to add information to the existing knowledge. Data sets used in this study comes from Intermediate to Late Hybrid Trails (ILHT conducted in five Eastern and Central Africa (ECA countries from 2008 to 2011. Trials, ranging from 18 in 2009 to 29 in 2010 were used. Trials are categorized into four management systems and two yield levels. Variance Components, broad sense heritability (H, Site Regression (SREG, Genotypic Regression (GREG, Completely Multiplicative Model (COMM and Factor Analytic (FA models were fitted. Results are discussed and compared with those stated in literature. We argue that it is preferable to first fit the fixed effect models before proceeding to the mixed effect model, as the former shows the level of complexity of the GE component and number of Axis required to explain it. The fixed effect model, SREG2, is preferable for trails targeting to compare hybrids with checks. From the GGE biplots it was noted that the first two PC did not account for sufficient percentage of variation for all years which witnessed complexity in the GE component for this data. Nevertheless, since PC1 accounted for large percentage of variation than PC2, the plot still gives some idea of which hybrids are favored and where. Most importantly, location of genotypes along PC1 can serve for judging yielding potential of the genotypes to guide in selection decision. Equivalence between Finlay – Wilkinson and GREG was established. The few environmental covariables obtained for 2009 was used to fit Partial Least Square (PLS regression. The result indicated complexity in the GE component, as PLS latent factors accounted for small percentage of variation. It was recommended to use information from SREG2, GREG2 and FA(1 models in order to identify stable genotype.

  2. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers.Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples 

  3. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatji, Dikeledi P; Tsotetsi, Anna M; Van Marle-Koster, Este; Muchadeyi, Farai C

    2016-01-01

    The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39) and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48) provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%), Heterakis gallinarum (15.56%) and Capillaria spp. (4.00%); tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10%) and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00%) and Eimeria spp. (29.46%). Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90%) samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49%) from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers. PMID:27247063

  4. Crop yield risk analysis and mitigation of smallholder farmers at quaternary catchment level: Case study of B72A in Olifants river basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.

    Currently, Sub-Sahara is experiencing increased frequency of disasters either as floods or droughts which depletes the scarce resources available to sustain increasing populations. Success in preventing food shortages in the African continent can only be achieved by understanding the vulnerability and risk of the majority of smallholder farmers under rainfed and supplementary irrigation coupled with appropriate interventions. Increased frequency of floods, droughts and dry spells pose an increasing threat to the smallholder farmers’ food security and water resources availability in B72A quaternary catchment of the Olifants river basin in South Africa. This paper links maize crop yield risk and smallholder farmer vulnerability arising from droughts by applying a set of interdisciplinary indicators (physical and socio-economic) encompassing gender and institutional vulnerabilities. For the study area, the return period of droughts and dry spells was 2 years. The growing season for maize crop was 121 days on average. Soil water deficit during critical growth stages may reduce potential yields by up to 62%, depending on the length and severity of the moisture deficit. To minimize grain yield loss and avoid total crop failures from intra-seasonal dry spells, farmers applied supplementary irrigation either from river water or rainwater harvested into small reservoirs. Institutional vulnerability was evidenced by disjointed water management institutions with lack of comprehension of roles of higher level institutions by lower level ones. Women are most hit by droughts as they derived more than 90% of their family income from agriculture activities. An enhanced understanding of the vulnerability and risk exposure will assist in developing technologies and policies that conform to the current livelihood strategies of smallholder, resource-constrained farmers. Development of such knowledge base for a catchment opens avenues for computational modeling of the impacts of

  5. A case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma in East Africa: are local health facilities an appropriate source of representative controls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Sonya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the feasibility and appropriateness of enrolling controls for Burkitt lymphoma (BL from local health facilities in two regions in Uganda. Methods BL case data were compiled from two local hospitals with capacity to diagnose and treat BL in North-west and North-central regions of Uganda during 1997 to 2009. Local health facility data were compiled from children attending four representative local health facilities in the two regions over a two week period in May/June 2010. Age and sex patterns of BL cases and children at local facilities were compared and contrasted using frequency tables. Results There were 999 BL cases diagnosed in the study area (92% of all BL cases treated at the hospitals: 64% were from North-central and 36% from North-west region. The mean age of BL cases was 7.0 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.0. Boys were younger than girls (6.6 years versus 7.2 years, P = 0.004 and cases from North-central region were younger than cases from North-west region (6.8 years versus 7.3 years, P = 0.014. There were 1012 children recorded at the four local health facilities: 91% at facilities in North-central region and 9% from facilities in North-west region. Daily attendance varied between 1 to 75 children per day. The mean age of children at health facilities was 2.2 years (SD 2.8; it did not differ by sex. Children at North-central region facilities were younger than children at North-west region facilities (1.8 years versus 6.6 years, P Conclusions While many children attend local health facilities, confirming feasibility of obtaining controls, their mean age is much lower than BL cases. Health facilities may be suitable for obtaining young, but not older, controls.

  6. Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics thr

  7. Systematic review of birth cohort studies in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Campbell; Igor Rudan

    2011-01-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, unacceptably high rates of mortality amongst women and children continue to persist. The emergence of research employing new genomic technologies is advancing knowledge on cause of disease. This review aims to identify birth cohort studies conducted in sub-Saharan Africa and to consider their suitability as a platform to support genetic epidemiological studies.

  8. Sustainable Development in Northern Africa: The Argan Forest Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dom Guillaume

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.

  9. Implications of Biodiesel-Induced Land-Use Changes for CO2 Emissions: Case Studies in Tropical America, Africa, and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis V. Verchot

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are receiving growing negative attention. Direct and/or indirect land-use changes that result from their cultivation can cause emissions due to carbon losses in soils and biomass and could negate any eventual greenhouse gas (GHG reduction benefit. This paper evaluates the implications of land-use change emission on the climate-change mitigation potential of different biofuel production systems in 12 case studies in six countries. We calculated carbon debts created by conversion of different land-use types, ranging from annual cropland to primary forest. We evaluated case studies using three different biofuel crops: oil palm, Jatropha, and soybean. The time needed for each biofuel production system to pay back its carbon debt was calculated based on a life-cycle assessment of the GHG reduction potentials of the system. Carbon debts range from 39 to 1743.7 Mg C02 ha-1. The oil palm case studies created the largest carbon debts (472.8–1743.7 t C02 ha-1 because most of the area expansion came at the expense of dense tropical forest. The highest debt was associated with plantation on peatland. For all cases evaluated, only soybean in Guarantã do Norte and Alta Floresta, Brazil needed less than one human generation (30 years to repay the initial carbon debt. Highest repayment times were found for Jatropha (76–310 years and oil palm (59–220 years case studies. Oil palm established in peatlands had the greatest repayment times (206–220 years. High repayment times for Jatropha resulted from the combined effects of land-cover change and low CO2 emission reduction rate. These outcomes raise serious questions about the sustainability of biofuel production. The carbon implications of conversion of (semi-natural systems with medium to high biomass indicate that, in order to generate climate benefits, cultivation of biofuel feedstocks should be restricted to areas that already have low carbon content.

  10. INTER-SECTORAL COMPETITION FOR WATER ALLOCATION IN RURAL SOUTH AFRICA: ANALYSING A CASE STUDY THROUGH A STANDARD ENVIRONMENTAL ECONOMICS APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Farolfi, Stefano; Perret, Sylvain R.

    2002-01-01

    South Africa has adopted an ambitious new water legislation that promotes equity, sustainability, representativity and economic performance through water management decentralization, new local and regional management institutions, water users' licensing, and the possible emergence of water rights' markets. This paper addresses the diversity of water users and uses that currently exists in rural areas, and especially focuses on the competition for water that may result from such a diversity in...

  11. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bayen; T. K. Sop; Lykke, A.M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-01-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-sylvo-pastoral productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented an experimental d...

  12. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    OpenAIRE

    P. Bayen; T. K. Sop; Lykke, A.M.; Thiombiano, A.

    2015-01-01

    Land degradation is an environmental problem which weakens agro-silvo-pastoral productivity in Sub-Saharan Africa. The most common manifestation of land degradation is the appearance of denuded land. We carried out an experiment to test the effect of three soil and water conservation techniques on survival and growth of Jatropha curcas seedlings transplanted onto two completely denuded lands in the Sahelian and Sudanian zones of Burkina Faso. We implemented ...

  13. The protection of workers in the case of business transfers : a comparative study of the law in the USA, UK and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ver Loren van Themaat, A. A. H.

    1994-01-01

    Business transfers and accompanying business changes are a focal point for the tension between the protection of rights of employees, including their property rights in the job and their "right" to meaningful participation, and the interests of management in achieving its economic objectives effectively. A comparison of the law in the United States, South Africa and the United Kingdom can cast the divergent interests, which become conspicuous during corporate reorganisations, i...

  14. Building mature churches in Africa : a practical-theological study / Timothy Wendell Cantrell

    OpenAIRE

    Cantrell, Timothy Wendell

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis the researcher argues that churches in Africa are being planted rapidly but are not growing to maturity, which produces troubling consequences. The Baptist Union of Southern Africa (BUSA) is then given as a representative case study of church planting in Afiica, because from 1990 they have seen as many as 413 new churches started. Yet there is growing concern over the stability of many of these young churches and their leaders. Key leaders in the BUSA are calling fo...

  15. Unconsummated marriage in sub-Saharan Africa: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Valentino M

    2014-09-01

    Unconsummated marriage is a condition where newly married couples are unable to achieve penile-vaginal intercourse for variable periods despite desire and several attempts to do so. Its exact cause(s) is/are unknown, but performance anxiety resulting from or leading to other conditions is reportedly the major etiological factor. It is thought to be more prevalent in traditional and conservative religious communities where premarital sexual exposure is strictly prohibited. Most publications on unconsummated marriage have originated from North America, European and Middle Eastern countries. There have not been any such reports from sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to diverse cultures and traditions regarding premarital sex and marriage. This paper presents a sample of four cases with unconsummated marriage managed by the author in his private clinic based in the city of Nairobi Kenya, over the past five years. Possible etiological factors and management approaches are discussed, with a review of relevant literature. PMID:25508052

  16. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  17. Implications of biodiesel-induced land-use changes for CO 2 emissions: Case studies in tropical America, Africa, and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Verchot, Louis V.; Wouter M. J. Achten

    2011-01-01

    Biofuels are receiving growing negative attention. Direct and/or indirect land-use changes that result from their cultivation can cause emissions due to carbon losses in soils and biomass and could negate any eventual greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction benefit. This paper evaluates the implications of land-use change emission on the climate-change mitigation potential of different biofuel production systems in 12 case studies in six countries. We calculated carbon debts created by conversion of d...

  18. Economic Growth in the Euro-Med Area through Trade Integration: Focus on Agriculture and Food. North Africa case studies - Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia

    OpenAIRE

    Ben Abdallah, Mohamed; AIT EL MEKKI Abdelkader; SIAM Gamal

    2013-01-01

    This report presents the macro-effects of further trade integration between the European Union and respectively Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia in the horizon 2020. It put together three case studies which adopt a similar methodology based on both Computable General Equilibrium (CGE) model and Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) analyses. Overall, the simulation results show that trade liberalisation leads to a general gain for the countries under review, with the effect being more pronounced when comb...

  19. Medium-range mid-tropospheric transport of ozone and precursors over Africa: two numerical case-studies in dry and wet seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Sauvage, B.; F. Gheusi; V. Thouret; Cammas, J.-P.; Duron, J.; J. Escobar; Mari, C.; P. Mascart; Pont, V.

    2007-01-01

    A meso-scale model was used to understand and describe the processes driving high ozone concentrations observed during both dry and monsoon seasons in monthly climatologies profiles over Lagos (Nigeria, 6.6° N, 3.3° E), obtained with the MOZAIC airborne measurements (ozone and carbon monoxide). This study focuses on ozone enhancements observed in the upper-part of the lower troposphere, around 3000 m. Two individual cases have been selected in the MOZAIC dataset as being repre...

  20. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. PMID:16968967

  1. A revision of communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction: A case study of the South Durban basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Skinner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.

  2. Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chirwa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub

  3. Tourists’ perceptions and willingness to pay for the control of Opuntia stricta invasion in protected areas: A case study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nikodinoska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants have a long history of establishment in the national parks of South Africa.In particular, Opuntia stricta (sour prickly pear has invaded several protected areas in thecountry, threatening the biodiversity conservation mandate of these conservation areas. Thisarticle focuses on the economic estimation of O. stricta’s negative impacts in protected areas byusing Contingent Valuation surveys conducted amongst a sample of tourists in the PilanesbergNational Park (North West Parks and Tourism Board, South Africa. Tourists’ familiarity andawareness of selected invasive alien plants and their willingness to pay for the implementationof a control programme for O. stricta were assessed. The results show that many tourists arefamiliar with invasive alien plants and their (positive and negative impacts and, in particular,perceived the presence of O. stricta to be negative, due to the impacts on aesthetics and recreation.Socio-demographic characteristics, as well as individual attitudes and biocentric beliefs, have aninfluence on the willingness to contribute financially to a control programme for O. stricta. Theindividual willingness to pay assessment found that the majority of respondents (78% werewilling to pay a higher entrance fee (an additional R57.30 or $7.00 per day for a hypotheticalprogramme to control the invasion of O. stricta in the Pilanesberg National Park.Conservation implications: The willingness of tourists to pay for O. stricta managementprovides useful insights in the decision-making process of park management. The resultsare encouraging, since, in general, tourists are aware of the problem and are in support ofproviding additional economic input for preventing future alien plant invasions.

  4. FOREIGN DIRECT INVESTMENT IN AFRICA: SECURING CHINESE INVESTMENT FOR LASTING DEVELOPMENT, THE CASE OF WEST AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Paulin Houanye; Sibao Shen

    2012-01-01

    At the end of the 20th century, when investors were actively seeking a favorable and secure place for their capital investment, the African continent rarely crossed their minds. Recent misgivings experienced by financial markets around the world and the increased demand of natural supplies forced investors to focus on Africa. This circumstance, for over a decade, has put all Africa, including both developed and industrialized countries in an embarrassing position with very low foreign investm...

  5. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  6. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region. PMID:24513405

  7. Supporting Teacher Professional Development to Use Tablets in Resource Constrained Schools: A Case Study of Cofimvaba Schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Botha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.

  8. Sharptooth catfish shows its metal: a case study of metal contamination at two impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo river system, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jooste, Antoinette; Marr, Sean M; Addo-Bediako, Abraham; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J

    2015-02-01

    Clarias gariepinus is increasing in importance as a global aquaculture species with a 100 fold increase in production over the past decade but this species still remains one of the most important wild harvested freshwater food fish throughout rural Africa. However, this species has been shown to accumulate metals from contaminated inland waters. In this paper, the metal concentrations in muscle tissue of C. gariepinus from two main-stem impoundments in the Olifants River, Limpopo Basin, were measured and a desktop risk assessment based on the US-EPA methodology completed to evaluate whether long-term consumption of C. gariepinus from these impoundments may pose a health risk to rural communities. Our results show that metals are accumulating in the muscle tissue of C. gariepinus and have appeared to have increased in the last two decades. Risk assessment generated Hazard quotients (HQ) greater than 1 indicate that long term consumption of fish from these impoundments may cause adverse health impacts. We found that lead (HQ=9), antimony (HQ=14), cobalt (HQ=2) and chromium (HQ=1) at one impoundment and lead (HQ=2) at the other impoundment were above acceptable levels for weekly consumption of 150 g C. gariepinus muscle tissue. PMID:25463859

  9. Open access: are we there yet? - the case of Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reggie Raju

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is often acknowledged that African and other developing countries have a desperate need for quality scholarly information to advance their research output and to make a contribution to the world of scholarly communication. In terms of Africa, South Africa is the most significant producer of research output in sub-Saharan Africa and has, therefore by default, become a beacon of hope for Africa in the area of research production. This case study focuses on the contribution of Stellenbosch University (SU to the African research agenda through making its research output available via two different publishing models. The first model is the hosting and preservation of its research output via an institutional repository (the green route to open access. The second model is hosting and publishing open access journals, following one of two ‘streams’ in the gold route. In this paper, the authors contextualize open access.  The two publishing models in support of the Strategic Plan for the Environment of the Vice Rector (Research are discussed as it applies to SU. The Library’s adoption of the role of ‘publisher’ is also examined. In the case of SU, Open Journal Systems (OJS is the software of choice for hosting open access online journals. The paper provides background on OJS, and also discusses the significance of OJS publishing for the University and its researchers. It concludes with the view that despite the perceived success of the Library and Information Service in making available research output in open access format, there are still many challenges that need to be overcome, and that this process is a continuous one and should remain so in order to continuously take advantage of opportunities offered by evolving technology.

  10. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primus Che Chi

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services.This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach.The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of EmONC facilities

  11. Medium-range mid-tropospheric transport of ozone and precursors over Africa: two numerical case-studies in dry and wet seasons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Sauvage

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A meso-scale model was used to understand and describe the processes driving high ozone concentrations observed during both dry and monsoon seasons in monthly climatologies profiles over Lagos (Nigeria, 6.6° N, 3.3° E, obtained with the MOZAIC airborne measurements (ozone and carbon monoxide. This study focuses on ozone enhancements observed in the upper-part of the lower troposphere, around 3000 m. Two individual cases have been selected in the MOZAIC dataset as being representative of the climatological ozone enhancements, to be simulated and analyzed with on-line Lagrangian backtracking of airmasses.

    This study points out the role of baroclinic low-level circulations present in the Inter Tropical Front (ITF area. Two low-level thermal cells around a zonal axis and below 2000 m, in mirror symmetry to eachother with respect to equator, form near 20° E and around 5° N and 5° S during the (northern hemisphere dry and wet seasons respectively. They are caused by surface gradients – the warm dry surface being located poleward of the ITF and the cooler wet surface equatorward of the ITF.

    A convergence line exists between the poleward low-level branch of each thermal cell and the equatorward low-level branch of the Hadley cell. Our main conclusion is to point out this line as a preferred location for fire products – among them ozone precursors – to be uplifted and injected into the lower free troposphere.

    The free tropospheric transport that occurs then depends on the hemisphere and season. In the NH dry season, the African Easterly Jet allows transport of ozone and precursors westward to Lagos. In the NH monsoon (wet season, fire products are transported from the southern hemisphere to Lagos by the southeasterly trade that surmounts the monsoon layer. Additionally ozone precursors uplifted by wet convection in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone can also mix to the ones uplifted by the baroclinic cell and be

  12. Excess co-movement in asset prices: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ocran, Mathew; Mlambo, Chipo

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates excess co-movement in asset prices in South Africa between 1995 and 2005 using the definition of excess comovement as correlation between two asset prices beyond what could be explained by key economic fundamentals. The results of the study suggest that there is excess co-movement between returns on equities and bonds in South Africa. The findings suggest that there are considerable noise traders on the financial market in South Africa. The result of this behaviour woul...

  13. Translating research into maternal health care policy: a qualitative case study of the use of evidence in policies for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few empirical studies of research utilisation have been conducted in low and middle income countries. This paper explores how research information, in particular findings from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews, informed policy making and clinical guideline development for the use of magnesium sulphate in the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in South Africa. Methods A qualitative case-study approach was used to examine the policy process. This included a literature review, a policy document review, a timeline of key events and the collection and analysis of 15 interviews with policy makers and academic clinicians involved in these policy processes and sampled using a purposive approach. The data was analysed thematically and explored theoretically through the literature on agenda setting and the policy making process. Results Prior to 1994 there was no national maternal care policy in South Africa. Consequently each tertiary level institution developed its own care guidelines and these recommended a range of approaches to the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. The subsequent emergence of new national policies for maternal care, including for the treatment of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, was informed by evidence from randomised controlled trials and systematic reviews. This outcome was influenced by a number of factors. The change to a democratic government in the mid 1990s, and the health reforms that followed, created opportunities for maternal health care policy development. The new government was open to academic involvement in policy making and recruited academics from local networks into key policy making positions in the National Department of Health. The local academic obstetric network, which placed high value on evidence-based practice, brought these values into the policy process and was also linked strongly to international evidence based medicine networks. Within this context of

  14. Institutions, market constellations and growth: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Arne Heise

    2007-01-01

    Post-apartheid South Africa is facing three major economic problems: (1) slack economic growth, (2) high and growing unemployment and (3) among the world¡¯s highest income inequality and poverty indices. South Africa is currently caught in a macro-economic straight-jacket of tight monetary, restrictive fiscal and a wage policy stance that raises NAIRU. The persistence of a sub-optimal ¡®market constellation¡¯ is created by an institutional setting of a non-accommodative Reserve Bank, a sector...

  15. Maternal mortality in rural South Africa: the impact of case definition on levels and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garenne M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michel Garenne,1–3 Kathleen Kahn,1,4,5 Mark A Collinson,1,4,5 F Xavier Gómez-Olivé,1,5 Stephen Tollman1,4,51MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Institut Pasteur, Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Paris, France; 3Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMI Résiliences, Centre Ile de France, Bondy, France; 4Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 5INDEPTH Network, East Legon, Accra, GhanaBackground: Uncertainty in the levels of global maternal mortality reflects data deficiencies, as well as differences in methods and definitions. This study presents levels and trends in maternal mortality in Agincourt, a rural subdistrict of South Africa, under long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance.Methods: All deaths of women aged 15 years–49 years occurring in the study area between 1992 and 2010 were investigated, and causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy. Two case definitions were used: “obstetrical” (direct causes, defined as deaths caused by conditions listed under O00-O95 in International Classification of Diseases-10; and “pregnancy-related deaths”, defined as any death occurring during the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, 6 weeks postpartum, irrespective of cause.Results: The case definition had a major impact on levels and trends in maternal mortality. The obstetric mortality ratio averaged 185 per 100,000 live births over the period (60 deaths, whereas the pregnancy-related mortality ratio averaged 423 per 100,000 live births (137 deaths. Results from both calculations increased over the period, with a peak around 2006, followed by a decline coincident with the national roll-out of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and antiretroviral treatment programs. Mortality increase from direct causes was

  16. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  17. Sustainability, trans-boundary protection of resources and mining : the coal of Africa case / Chiedza Lucia Amanda Machaka

    OpenAIRE

    Machaka, Chiedza Lucia Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the sustainability, trans-boundary protection of resources and mining with particular emphasis on the Coal of Africa case example. It explores the issues pertaining to the sustainability and trans-boundary protection of resources that were taken into account as part of the decision- making process with regard to mining by Coal of Africa in the Greater Mapungubwe area in South Africa. At the centre of the dispute was the mining of coal by Coal of Africa without obtainin...

  18. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Agina Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  19. Skills training through hands-on practical activities in civil technology – a case study of three technical schools in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Maeko, Mogale S A; Makgato, Moses

    2014-01-01

    Skills training for Civil Technology learners in South African schools, is an aspect entrenched in the Civil Technology policy document in order to produce skilled personnel for a sustainable economy. Practical activities through the Practical Assessment Task (PAT) are national requirements for all practical-based subjects from grades 10–12 in South African schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of Civil Technology practical activities in three South A...

  20. The New Philanthropy, Poverty Reduction and Rural Development: A Case Study of Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA) in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Sumaila I. Asuru

    2015-01-01

    This study seeks to explore the significant contributions of the new philanthropy towards improving the conditions of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan African, smallholder farmers’ understanding of philanthropy and to investigate the relationship that exists between philanthropy and smallholder farmers. The research is designed to uncover the needs and drivers of both philanthropy and smallholder farmers in relation to their interaction and the fulfilment of the philanthropic contract they ...

  1. Impacts of fire and grazing management on South Africa’s moist highland grasslands: A case study of the Steenkampsberg Plateau, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Little

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grasslands are heavily utilised for livestock agriculture and the resultant degradation through mismanagement contributes to an estimated 60% of this biome being permanently transformed. This study focused on the impact of fire and grazing in moist highland grasslands.Objectives: To determine the contribution of burning frequency and grazing intensity combined (for domestic livestock and indigenous ungulates on vegetation structure heterogeneity and species diversity.Methods: Eight study sites under different management regimes were sampled over two summers. Vegetation structure characteristics and diversity data were collected monthly within multiple replicates in each study site. A disc pasture meter was used to assess standing biomass. Differences in vegetation structure characteristics, plant community composition and plant species assemblage structure across sites were statistically analysed using analyses of variance, indicator species analyses, multidimensional scaling ordinations and two-way cluster analyses.Results: The combination of heavy grazing and annual burning leads to a distinct plant community dominated by disturbance specialist species. Selective grazing by indigenous herbivores promotes a community of unpalatable species. This study illustrates that fenced indigenous herbivores, even at moderate stocking densities, have a greater detrimental impact on plant diversity and structure than do domestic livestock.Conclusion: Intensive grazing and burning have a detrimental impact on plant species diversity and structure. This also affects resultant palatability for grazing livestock and fenced game. To promote both grazing quality and ecological integrity we recommend a minimum sustainable ‘fodder capacity’ or standing phytomass of 5000 kg per large-animal unit per hectare for domestic livestock in moist highland grasslands.

  2. Socio-economic factors influencing the spread of drinking water diseases in rural Africa: case study of Bondo sub-county, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anthony Joachim; Oyoo, Wandiga Shem; Odundo, Francis O; Wambu, Enos W

    2015-06-01

    Socio-economic and medical information on Bondo sub-county community was studied to help establish the relationship between the water quality challenges, community health and water rights conditions. Health challenges have been linked to water quality and household income. A total of 1,510 households/respondents were studied by means of a questionnaire. About 69% of the households have no access to treated water. Although 92% of the respondents appear to be aware that treatment of water prevents waterborne diseases, the lowest income group and children share a high burden of waterborne diseases requiring hospitalization and causing mortality. Open defecation (12.3%) in these study areas contributes to a high incidence of waterborne diseases. The community's constitutional rights to quality water in adequate quantities are greatly infringed. The source of low-quality water is not a significant determinant of waterborne disease. The differences in poverty level in the sub-county are statistically insignificant and contribute less than other factors. Increased investment in water provision across regions, improved sanitation and availability of affordable point-of-use water purification systems will have major positive impacts on the health and economic well-being of the community. PMID:26042981

  3. Evaluation of carbon stocks in above- and below-ground biomass in Central Africa: case study of Lesio-louna tropical rainforest of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Ekoungoulou, R.; Loumeto, J. J.; Ifo, S. A.; Bocko, Y. E.; Koula, F. E.

    2014-07-01

    The study was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above- and below-ground biomass in Lesio-louna forest of Congo. The methodology of allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stocks of Lesio-louna natural forest. We are based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stocks. While there has been use of parameters such as the DBH and wood density. The research was done with 22 circular plots each 1256 m2. In the 22 plots studied, 19 plots are in the gallery forest and three plots in the secondary forest. Also, 22 circular plots were distributed in 5 sites studies of Lesio-louna forest, including: Inkou forest island, Iboubikro, Ngoyili, Blue lake and Ngambali. So, there are two forest types (secondary forest and gallery forest) in this forest ecosystem. In the 5 sites studied, we made measurements on a total of 347 trees with 197 trees for the class of 10-30 cm diameter, 131 trees for the class of 30-60 cm diameter and 19 trees in the diameter class > 60 cm. The results show that in the whole forest, average carbon stock for the 22 plots of the study was 168.601 t C ha-1 for AGB, or 81% and 39.551 t C ha-1 for BGB, or 19%. The total carbon stocks in all the biomass was 3395.365 t C for AGB, which is 3.395365 × 10-6 Gt C and 909.689934 t C for BGB, which was 9.09689934 × 10-7 Gt C. In this forest, the carbon stock was more important in AGB compared to BGB with respectively 3395.365 t C against 909.689934 t C. Plot10 (AGB = 363.899 t C ha-1 and BGB = 85.516 t C ha-1) was the most dominant in terms of carbon quantification in Lesio-louna.

  4. Evaluation of carbon stocks in above- and below-ground biomass in Central Africa: case study of Lesio-louna tropical rainforest of Congo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. Liu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above- and below-ground biomass in Lesio-louna forest of Congo. The methodology of allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stocks of Lesio-louna natural forest. We are based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stocks. While there has been use of parameters such as the DBH and wood density. The research was done with 22 circular plots each 1256 m2. In the 22 plots studied, 19 plots are in the gallery forest and three plots in the secondary forest. Also, 22 circular plots were distributed in 5 sites studies of Lesio-louna forest, including: Inkou forest island, Iboubikro, Ngoyili, Blue lake and Ngambali. So, there are two forest types (secondary forest and gallery forest in this forest ecosystem. In the 5 sites studied, we made measurements on a total of 347 trees with 197 trees for the class of 10–30 cm diameter, 131 trees for the class of 30–60 cm diameter and 19 trees in the diameter class > 60 cm. The results show that in the whole forest, average carbon stock for the 22 plots of the study was 168.601 t C ha−1 for AGB, or 81% and 39.551 t C ha−1 for BGB, or 19%. The total carbon stocks in all the biomass was 3395.365 t C for AGB, which is 3.395365 × 10–6 Gt C and 909.689934 t C for BGB, which was 9.09689934 × 10–7 Gt C. In this forest, the carbon stock was more important in AGB compared to BGB with respectively 3395.365 t C against 909.689934 t C. Plot10 (AGB = 363.899 t C ha−1 and BGB = 85.516 t C ha−1 was the most dominant in terms of carbon quantification in Lesio-louna.

  5. Does Jatropha curcas L. show resistance to drought in the Sahelian zone of West Africa? A case study from Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bayen

    2015-02-01

    according to the restoration technique used (df = 2; F = 53.21; p F = 74.48; p F = 8.91; p = 0.000 and study site (df = 1; F = 9.74; p = 0.003. Survival rate, diameter and seedling height were highest at the Sudanian site. At the Sahelian site, all seedlings died two years after establishment. These results suggest that Jatropha curcas is unsuited to denuded land in the Sahelian zone. Most of the plants died in the Sahel between April and May, which is the peak of the dry season; this may be an indication that Jatropha may not be as drought-resistant as suggested by the prolific literature which has reported on diverse claims surrounding this plant.

  6. Assessment of the groundwater chemistry of a complex aquifer system in the context of urbanization in Sub-Saharan Africa: case study in semiarid southwest Niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubakar Hassane, A.; Favreau, G.; Leduc, C.; Ousmane, B.; Soumaila, A.

    2010-12-01

    The groundwater chemistry in the local vicinity of the city of Niamey was investigated in order to identify the origin of the groundwater mineralization and, in particular, to elucidate the impact of urbanization on the groundwater resources. Sources of pollution of concern in the urban area are solid waste and material deposited on the ground and latrines. Contaminants from these sources are mobilized and transported by recharge and lixiviation from rising groundwater levels. Piezometric data monitoring at 70 sites was conducted monthly from March 2004 to February 2005 to evaluate the seasonal variability of groundwater levels. Groundwater samples for chemical data were collected from the major aquifers in 74 dug wells, 14 boreholes and 1 spring for 2 years (232 samples in 4 campaigns). Data were also compiled from previous studies on groundwater, rain water, surface waters, latrines and soils. Geochemical data (major ions) are used to define groundwater groups, to map their distribution in the study area, and to evaluate their origin. We combined multivariate statistical methods, scatter diagrams, ionic ratios, and Piper diagrams to decipher the processes affecting the water chemistry at large (Niamey) and local (wells) scale. The piezometric time series revealed seasonal variability in all wells indicating that the study area is a recharge zone, which enhances the transfer of contaminants from the surface. The geochemical monitoring revealed high spatial and temporal variability in chemical parameters. Processes controlling the groundwater chemistry at large scales in the aquifers include atmospheric inputs (rainfall and dust) in the poorly mineralized formations, evapotranspiration in the soil layers, and alteration of silicates. Processes specific to individual wells are production of weak acids (H2CO3) and bases (HCO3-) in soil layers near pollutant sources, leaching of ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, NH4+, NO3-, Cl-, HCO3-, SO42-) from pollutants, ion exchange

  7. Quantifying and Predicting the Water Quality Associated with Land Cover Change: A Case Study of the Blesbok Spruit Catchment, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja du Plessis

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The integrity of the Blesbok Spruit catchment has been significantly compromised over the past decades, mainly due to the discharge of mining effluent and sewage. This research investigated the hydrological responses, in terms of water quality, in the event of land cover change within the catchment to make predictions on the future sustainability of the region’s water resources with the application of Partial Least Squares (PLS regression analysis. The quantification of hydrological responses in terms of water quality towards land cover changes has not been completed by previous research studies within the catchment. This research established the catchment’s present state of water quality and formulated PLS model equations to enable the prediction of future concentrations of specific water quality parameters in association with future land cover change. A change in land cover was found to have various negative influences. The retransformation of land cover into natural areas is accompanied with unintended and undesirable effects due to the degradation of the catchment’s buffering capabilities and the absence of the enforcement of the decommissioning of mining operations. For the Blesbok Spruit catchment to avoid a future water predicament, systematic and interdisciplinary measures need to be implemented according to these and other related findings, to ensure the future sustainability of the catchment and the region as a whole.

  8. Evaluation of the onset and length of growing season to define planting date—`a case study for Mali (West Africa)'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinseye, F. M.; Agele, S. O.; Traore, P. C. S.; Adam, M.; Whitbread, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    The agroecological zones (AEZ) of Mali fall within the semi-arid climate, the ability to determine efficiently or predict accurately the onset of growing season (OGS), and length of growing season (LGS) cannot be over-emphasized due to highly variable rainfall pattern and the dependence of smallholder farmers practising on rainfed farming agriculture. In this study, we determined the most suitable method for predicting the onset date of rainfall across AEZ that fitted with the planting windows of major cereal crops (maize, millet, and sorghum). Using long-term daily rainfall records from 22 meteorological stations spread across AEZ of Mali, four (4) known methods were applied to determine the onset dates of the rain. The mean onset dates were statistically compared with the farmer's planting window for the selected weather stations to determine the suitable dates of OGS and LGS. The hypothesis considered a time lag minimum of 7 days between the mean onset date and traditional farmer sowing dates for the crops. Then, the preferred method was used to estimate OGS based on early, normal and late dates respectively across the stations. Also, the estimated LGS according to each zone was evaluated using probability distribution chart with duration to maturity for varieties of the same crops. The results showed that Def_4 was found appropriate for Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian zones; Def_3 satisfied the criteria and exhibited superior capacity into farmer's average planting date over Sudanian and Guinea Savannah zones. These results have an important application in cropping systems in order to prevent crop failure and ensure a better choice of crop variety according to LGS under climate variability and change being experienced across Mali.

  9. DECOLONIZATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH: THE CASE OF AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin Sylwester

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines growth rates of real GDP per capita during decolonization in sub-Saharan Africa. For each period considered, I divide the sample between those countries that gained independence during the period and those that either remained colonies or were already independent. These newly independent countries grew slower than the control group. However, a more refined categorization shows that decolonizers grew slower than those that received their independence previously but did not ...

  10. Disaster risk reduction: cases from urban Africa [Review

    OpenAIRE

    Faling, Willi

    2010-01-01

    Very little has been written on the growing number of urban disaster risk hotspots, or the integration of disaster risk reduction and human settlement planning in Africa aside from publications by the World Bank, United Nations and a few other international organisations. This book aspires to fill these gaps, and I recommend it as essential reading for any urban development or disaster management practitioner or academic concerned with risk reduction in African cities. I also recommended the ...

  11. Radio astronomy in Africa: the case of Ghana

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, Bernard Duah; Horellou, Cathy; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has played a leading role in radio astronomy in Africa with the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). It continues to make strides with the current seven-dish MeerKAT precursor array (KAT-7), leading to the 64-dish MeerKAT and the giant Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be used for transformational radio astronomy research. Ghana, an African partner to the SKA, has been mentored by South Africa over the past six years and will soon emerge in the field of radio astronomy. The country will soon have a science-quality 32m dish converted from a redundant satellite communication antenna. Initially, it will be fitted with 5 GHz and 6.7 GHz receivers to be followed later by a 1.4 - 1.7 GHz receiver. The telescope is being designed for use as a single dish observatory and for participation in the developing African Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN) and the European VLBI Network. Ghana is earmarked to host a remote station during a possible SKA Phase 2. The loca...

  12. The hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa with special reference to studies in the South African Institute for Medical Research.

    OpenAIRE

    Gear, J H

    1982-01-01

    In this review of studies on the hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa carried out in the South African Institute for Medical Research, attention has been called to occurrence of meningococcal septicemia in recruits to the mining industry and South African Army, to cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal septicemia with hemorrhagic manifestations, and to the occurrence of plague which, in its septicemic form, may cause a hemorrhagic state. "Onyalai," a bleeding disease in tropical Africa, o...

  13. A second wave of gentrification: The case of Parkhurst, Johannesburg, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Tsietsi Monare

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As in many other countries, gentrification and urban regeneration occurs across South Africa. Despite this, geographical research on gentrification in South Africa is limited. This study adds to the literature by presenting the case of Parkhurst, a Johannesburg surburb. The study found that Parkhurst displays numerous characteristics of gentrification. The housing stock has undergone extensive physical improvement, with almost one third renovated or under renovation. Property values have increased and the original residents have been displaced. Parkhurst has a demographic and a socio-economic profile typical of a gentrified suburb. It is populated by young, white, educated, weathy professionals people. In addition, gentrification has resulted in the conversion of residential into commercial space, with some residences converted into business premises. The result is a distinct linear commerical zone within the neigbourhood. Gentrification is also associated with a change in housing tenure from rentals to ownership, it was found that ownership was a common feature of Parkhurst. Overall, it was concluded that gentrification of the suburb has occurred over an extensive period of time and is now in a super-gentrification stage.

  14. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  15. [The cases of teratology in Mallophaga of South Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Złotorzycka, J; Modrzejewska, M

    2001-01-01

    The following types ofteratology were found in the collection of 1278 individuals of Mallophaga coming from the birds of South Africa origin: deformity clypeus in Quadraceps kilimandjarensis (KELL.) from Stephanibyx coronatus (BURCH.), partial atrophy of one of the antennae of two males Q. kilimandjarensis and abdomen plates deformity of two females Q. kilimandjarensis, in male and female Quadraceps chorleyi TIMM. from Hoplopterus armatus (BURCH.), in female Saemundssonia africana TIMM. from Stephanibyx coronatus (BODD.) and male Plegadiphilus threskiornis (BEDF.) from Threskiornis aethiopicus (LATH.) the only representative of Amblycera (the other teratology belonged to Ischnocera suborder). Generally teratology was found in 0.70% of the collection. PMID:16888959

  16. Strategies for building trust with farmers: the case of Bt maize in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, South Africa became the first African country to approve commercial production of subsistence genetically modified (GM maize. The introduction of GM crop technology is often met with skepticism by stakeholders including farmers. The involvement of the private sector in this process can further breed mistrust or misperceptions. To examine these issues more closely, the objective of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the public-private partnership (PPP arrangement involved in the development of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize in South Africa. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech PPPs. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, documents, reports and research articles was conducted to generate insights into the challenges to, and practices for, building trust among the partners and with the public. Results The findings of this study are organized into four main lessons on trust building. First, as the end users of GM technology, farmers must be engaged from the start of the project through field demonstrations and educational activities. Second, an effective technology (i.e., the seed is key to the success of an agbiotech PPP. Third, open communication and full disclosure between private sector companies and government regulatory bodies will build trust and facilitate the regulatory processes. Fourth, enforcing good agronomic practices, including appropriate management of the refuge areas, will serve the interests of both the farmers and the seed companies. Conclusions Trust has proven to be a critical factor determining the success of the Bt maize project in South Africa. Distrust of the private sector and of GM technology were cited as major barriers to building trust. The trust-building practices described in this case study have often

  17. Challenges to disaster risk reduction: a study of stakeholders’ perspectives in Imizamo Yethu, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Ann-Sofie Roth; Per Becker

    2011-01-01

    South Africa is a complex and dynamic society, with overwhelming and increasing problems with disaster risk in the vulnerable urban communities in and around its rapidly growing metropolitan centres. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the challenges for disaster risk reduction in such communities. It focuses on the case of Imizamo Yethu, in the Western Cape, in order to build theory that is grounded in the empirical realities of stakeholders involved in disaster risk...

  18. Shaping Participation: The Case of Meadowlands Environmental Group, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Eghoff, Christian; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This paper analyses the shaping of citizens’ efforts to influence the environmental conditions in the local community based on a case study with a community-based organisation (CBO), whom is active in a South African township. The aim of the paper is - To show how this type of participation can be...... analysed by a social construction approach with focus on social-technical processes involving actors and their interpretation of the environmental problem and solutions - To discuss the outcome of this type of processes within the concept of ‘capacity development in environment’ (CDE) In relation to the...... concept of ‘participation’ we see such efforts of citizens as participation in the shaping of the local environment in the township. That is, we are not only focusing on the participation in well-defined projects, hearings etc., but also in the shaping of what is seen as problems and what is seen as...

  19. The first reported case of equine nocardioform placentitis in South Africa : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.H. Volkmann

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the late 1980s a distinct form of focally-extensive mucoid to mucopurulent uterine body chronic placentitis, caused by nocardioformorganisms, has been recognised in horses in the USA state of Kentucky and possibly in other areas. This disease has led to increasing numbers of foal losses from late abortions, still-births, prematurity, or early neonatal deaths. The foals are usually not infected, but may be small or emaciated. Modes of infection and transmission are as yet unknown. Nocardia spp. and related nocardioformbacteria as causes of equine infertility, endometritis and foal death are briefly reviewed. A case of near full-term abortion involving a Friesian mare in the Pretoria district of Gauteng Province in South Africa during February 2000, with the same placental lesion as described in the Kentucky cases, is presented. Nocardioform organisms were visualised on impression smears and histological sections of affected foetal membranes, and were also cultured. The organism has been identified at the Livestock Disease Diagnostic Center of the University of Kentucky as an Amycolatopsis sp. of the less-commonly diagnosed group of nocardioforms causing placentitis in the USA. The organism was cultured from the uterus of the mare 18 days post-foaling, but after a 2-week course of oral trimethoprim and sulphamethoxazole, based on antibiogram sensitivity testing, a uterine flush yielded no growth. A semen sample from the sire of the aborted foal did not yield any Gram-positive filamentous branching bacteria. The mare subsequently conceived to a single insemination.

  20. Progress with vegetation studies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Scheepers

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation studies at various levels of detail and using various methods are briefly reviewed. The approach and procedures of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology as a standard methodology for regional studies has become increasingly recognized. Progress has been made in regional studies in the fynbos and woodland biomes. but grassland, forest and karoo vegetation have been much neglected. There have also been marked increases in activity over a wide range of additional vegetation studies including new fields of research, particularly ecosystem studies. However, there are still vast gaps in our knowledge of the basic vegetationa! resources of the country. A systematic regional-study programme is being launched to remedy these deficiencies in fundamental knowledge.

  1. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  2. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via a case-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age, working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  3. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  4. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via acase-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age,working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  5. Contrasting petrogenesis of Mg-K and Fe-K granitoids and implications for post-collisional magmatism: Case study from the Late-Archean Matok pluton (Pietersburg block, South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, O.; Rapopo, M.; Stevens, G.; Moyen, J. F.; Martin, H.; Doucelance, R.; Bosq, C.

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the origin of the 2.69 Ga-old Matok pluton, emplaced in the Pietersburg block, northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa), forthwith after a major tectono-metamorphic event ascribed to continent-continent collision. The Matok pluton consists of diorites, granodiorites and monzogranites. Petrography and whole-rock major- and trace element compositions of the Matok samples are similar to those of post-collisional Fe-K suites, which are very common in Proterozoic terranes. These granitoids are particularly rich in FeOt, TiO2, P2O5, span a wide range of SiO2 contents and display elevated concentrations in K2O, Ba, HFSE and REE, with moderately fractionated REE patterns.

  6. Status of Seismotectonic and seismic hazard studies in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midzi, V.

    2012-04-01

    Though South Africa is considered to lie in a stable continental region, earthquakes are recorded and located daily. Large events have been recorded that resulted in severe damage to infrastructure in nearby towns, farms, underground mines and even death in some circumstances. Therefore, it is necessary that we consider the effects of these events in the design of our infrastructure. This mitigation is done by carrying out reliable seismic hazard and risk studies of our regions using state of the art methodologies. In South Africa, several regional seismic hazard studies have been carried out and published. Continental wide studies that include the South African region were also published by various scientists from the continent (e.g. GSHAP). However, to ensure that we conform to international best practice in such studies, more studies need and are being done to improve data, knowledge and methodologies used in the assessments. We continue to collect and improve collection methods of historical and instrumental seismicity data. Available geological information is being used to identify and characterize active or capable faults.

  7. Stable isotope study of Lake Turkana, East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The water level of Lake Turkana, East Africa, has fluctuated widely since measurements began in the late 1880s. Lake level has ranged from 15 meters above to 5 meters below the 1968 datum over the last 105 years. This study was initiated to compare the historic record of lake level for Lake Turkana to several records of the isotopic composition of carbonates found in the lake sediments. The ubiquitous presence of inorganic carbonates in Lake Turkana sediments, both spatially and temporally, allows for an evaluation of the use of the isotopic composition of carbonates as a proxy for paleo-lake level. (author)

  8. Biofuels and Food (In)Security in Africa. The Case of Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Ingólfur Pálsson 1980

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is examining the drivers and effects of biofuel production in the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. More precisely, the thesis is concerned with the efficiency of the biofuel production as a development tool: can such projects respond to the needs of the population? On the case of Mozambique, the research conducted in course of writing this thesis examines the biofuel policies and processes against one of the fundamental rights of individuals – food security. As this is a resource ...

  9. Rumination Syndrome in Ethiopia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Bruni, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Eating disorders are commonly believed to be rare or nonexistent in Africa. However, due to exposure to Western culture, a rise in eating disorders among African women is reported in the literature. This case study describes a 17-year-old Ethiopian girl who meets the DSM-IV-TR and DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for bulimia nervosa and the Rome III Diagnostic Criteria for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders criteria for rumination syndrome. The article discusses the diagnostic delays, the difficu...

  10. Concessioning of the Ifrikya Railway : A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Budin, Karim-Jacques

    2003-01-01

    The case study of the concessioning of the Ifrikya railway is based in part on several recent actual case studies on railway concessioning in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, several features of the general context and data have been changed for pedagogical purposes. The Republic of Ifrikya should therefore be considered an entirely fictitious country and the description of conditions there sh...

  11. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...

  12. What drives farmers to make top-down or bottom-up adaptation to climate change and fluctuations? A comparative study on 3 cases of apple farming in Japan and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers' characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers' cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers' cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy.

  13. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  14. Biogeographv of Oxalis (Oxalidaceae in South Africa: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. C. Oberlander

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis L ,  commonly called sorrel,is a large and cosmopolitan taxon that has undergone spectacular speciation within southern Africa (± 270 taxa. and more specifically within the winter rainfall regions of the western Cape Region (CR. The main objective of this study w as to analyse the geographical distribution of Oxalis in South Africa in relation to currently defined phytogeographic units. The observed patterns of biodiversity and endemism within South African members of the genus show interesting disjunctions and concentrations of species.  Oxalis is one of the few CR taxa that is shared between the core Fynbos and Succulent Karoo Biomes, and this study therefore provides a novel insight into evolutionary trends across, and not only w ithin. these phvtogeographic units. The major centre for diversity for Oxalis is situated on Table Mountain and the northern areas o f the Cape Peninsula (grid square 3318CD. Subsidiary centres are located in the Clanwilliam/Niewoudtville and Kamiesberg regions. The reported patterns in Western Cape suggest that  Oxalis species richness has been generated and retained in areas w hich have been identified as core Fynbos (Table Mountain, Fynbos refugia during interglacials (Kamiesberg. and an ecotonal region which might switch between the two biome types (Clanwilliam/ Niewoudtville. Presumably these three types of areas would provide interesting material for DNA-based phylogenetic work, and a test of the climate change 'species-pump' hypothesis proposed by Midgley et al. (2001.

  15. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    This study focuses on the accessibility of electricity to the poor in South Africa and Zimbabwe as a means to improve understanding of the various factors that affect the provision of modern energy to the poor in these countries. The study examines the impact on the poor of power sector reforms. Specifically, it makes an assessment of the impact of the electrification programmes in the two countries. The situation in the two countries is discussed separately, followed by a comparative analysis. South Africa is the most industrialised country in Africa and it is endowed with a wide variety of natural resources. It is currently going through major changes in many spheres of its economy, including energy, following the democratic elections in 1994. An important consideration that is directing all aspects of government policy is the need to address the enormous disparities in income levels and living conditions betaveen the different racial groups, a result of apartheid. The rural areas are even more impoverished than urban ones. Alter the 1994 democratic elections, the South African Government launched the first phase of the National Electrification Programme (1994-99), aimed at increasing electrification from 36 per cent to about 66 per cent nationally by 2001 - 46 per cent rural and 80 per cent urban. By the end of 2001, 66.1 per cent of households were electrified, with more than 3.4 million connections made since 1994. Since then, several polities have been introduced in the electricity sector that are of direct relevance to this work. The most important of these concern the restructuring of the electricity supply industry and direct subsidies for the poor and disadvantaged. The South African Government established a National Electrification Fund to subsidise a portion of the capital costs of new electricity connections under the National Electrifcation Programme. The Fund derives its income not only from the electricity industry, but also from fiscal allocations

  16. Using Africa's protected area network to estimate the global population of a threatened and declining species: a case study of the Critically Endangered White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Munir Z; Borello, Wendy D; Holloway, Graham J; Thiollay, Jean-Marc

    2016-02-01

    The White-headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub-Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White-headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km(2) using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to calculate the number of WhV nests within identified PAs and from there extrapolated to estimate the global population. Across a fragmented range, 400 PAs are estimated to contain 1893 WhV nests. Eastern Africa is estimated to contain 721 nests, Central Africa 548 nests, Southern Africa 468 nests, and West Africa 156 nests. Including immature and nonbreeding birds, and accounting for data deficient PAs, the estimated global population is 5475 - 5493 birds. The identified distribution highlights are alarming: over 78% (n = 313) of identified PAs contain fewer than five nests. A further 17% (n = 68) of PAs contain 5 - 20 nests and 4% (n = 14) of identified PAs are estimated to contain >20 nests. Just 1% (n = 5) of PAs are estimated to contain >40 nests; none is located in West Africa. Whilst ranging behavior of WhVs is currently unknown, 35% of PAs large enough to hold >20 nests are isolated by more than 100 km from other PAs. Spatially discrete and unpredictable mortality events such as poisoning pose major threats to small localized vulture populations and will accelerate ongoing local extinctions. Apart from reducing the threat of poisoning events, conservation actions promoting linkages between protected areas should be pursued. Identifying potential areas for assisted re-establishment via translocation offers the potential to expand the range of this species and alleviate risk. PMID:26941945

  17. Vulnerability of children to gunshot trauma in violence-prone environment: The case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo Sudeshni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidemic of firearm-related injuries and deaths among children and adolescents in Cape Town, like in many other parts of the world, calls for concern. Further research is needed to understand firearm-related injuries among children and adolescents in South Africa, and to develop policies and programmes for effective prevention of situations such as this.

  18. Unfulfilled farmer expectations: the case of the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA project in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabeya Justin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is the most important staple food in Kenya; any reduction in production and yield therefore often becomes a national food security concern. To address the challenge posed by the maize stem borer, the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP project was launched in 1999. There were, however, pre-existing concerns regarding the use of genetic engineering in crop production and skepticism about private sector involvement. The purpose of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the IRMA partnership by identifying the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the project. Methods Data were collected by conducting face-to-face, semi-structured interviews; reviewing publicly available project documents; and direct observations. The data were analyzed to generate recurring and emergent themes on how trust is understood and built among the partners in the IRMA project and between the project and the community. Results Clear and continued communication with stakeholders is of paramount importance to building trust, especially regarding competition among partners about project management positions; a lack of clarity on ownership of intellectual property rights (IPRs; and the influence of anti-genetic modification (GM organizations. Awareness creation about IRMA’s anticipated products raised the end users’ expectations, which were unfulfilled due to failure to deliver Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based products, thereby leading to diminished trust between the project and the community. Conclusions Four key issues have been identified from the results of the study. First, the inability to deliver the intended products to the end user diminished stakeholders’ trust and interest in the project. Second, full and honest disclosure of information by partners when entering into project agreements is crucial to ensuring progress in a project. Third

  19. Solar electricity for Africa: The case of Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plas, R.J. van der

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of two recent World Bank efforts made in Kenya, Niger, and Cameroon to study the impact of two different renewable projects, one a Micro-Lights program involving about 500 lanterns and the second a survey of 410 households using solar electricity systems. The Micro-Lights program showed that users have distinct preferences in the style of the lamps, that they are willing to spend cash, and that they demand good quality. They may be initially satisfied, but rapidly want more from their purchases. The photoelectric system survey touched less than 1% of such households, and looked at user education, system size, satisfaction, expectations, age of system, appliances, and expectations.

  20. Using Africa's protected area network to estimate the global population of a threatened and declining species: a case study of the Critically Endangered White‐headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis

    OpenAIRE

    Murn, Campbell; Mundy, Peter; Virani, Manir Z.; Borello, Wendy D.; Holloway, Graham J.; Thiollay, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The White‐headed Vulture Trigonoceps occipitalis (WhV) is uncommon and largely restricted to protected areas across its range in sub‐Saharan Africa. We used the World Database on Protected Areas to identify protected areas (PAs) likely to contain White‐headed Vultures. Vulture occurrence on road transects in Southern, East, and West Africa was adjusted to nests per km2 using data from areas with known numbers of nests and corresponding road transect data. Nest density was used to cal...

  1. Deaths from bee stings: a report of three cases from Pretoria, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Toit-Prinsloo, Lorraine; Morris, Neil Kennith; Meyer, Pieter; Saayman, Gert

    2016-03-01

    In South Africa bee stings are most commonly caused by either Apis mellifera capensis or A. mellifera scutellata, indigenous species which are notoriously aggressive when compared to European honey bees. According to Statistics South Africa, 109 deaths were documented for the period 2001-2011 as having been caused by hornets, wasps, and bees (ICD10-X26). This appears to be a small number but, as was reported in Australia, these statistics might be inaccurate due to either over- or underreporting of cases. We report 3 cases of fatalities due to bee stings, including one with postmortem features of diffuse intravascular coagulopathy. A brief overview of the venom of the honey bee, reactions following a bee sting and possible mechanisms of death are presented. Confirming the diagnosis in these cases may be very problematic for the forensic pathologist, as in many cases minimal history is available and both external and internal examination could fail to reveal any specific signs of bee sting or other obvious morphologic abnormalities. Thus, there is a need for reliable confirmatory or supportive diagnostic tests. PMID:26759134

  2. Security sector reform and peacebuilding in Africa with special reference to the case of the Democratic Republic of the Congo

    OpenAIRE

    Shinoda, Hideaki

    2006-01-01

    This essay is a preliminary research note on “Security Sector Reform (SSR)" as part of peacebuilding in African countries. It looks at the cases of UN peacekeeping missions in Africa and identifies elements of SSR in them. First of all, this essay starts with recalling UN Secretary-General, Kofi Annan's Report in 1998 on conflict causes in Africa, while arguing that the theoretical foundation of SSR in Africa was prepared in the Report. Next, the essay summarizes the record of SSR related UN ...

  3. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Cobelens, F.G.J.; Joloba, M.L.; Lukoye, D

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reports findings of six studies including two tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance surveys, a comparative study of HIV infection rates among patients enrolled in the survey and those under routine TB/HIV surveillance, two TB molecular epidemiological analyses and a systematic review and meta-analysis of drug-resistant TB in sub-Saharan Africa. It provides a general introduction to anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in the world and associated risk factors. Results from the drug resist...

  4. Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Kakai, R.G.; Bongers, F.; Andel, van T.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims – Bitter and sweet African bush mango trees belong to the family Irvingiaceae and produce valuable non-timber forest products in humid lowland areas of West and Central Africa. The bitter and sweet types are treated as distinct taxa at the variety or species level. They have not

  5. Vulnerability of children to gunshot trauma in violence-prone environment: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Naidoo Sudeshni; Van As A

    2011-01-01

    South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidem...

  6. An analysis of anti poaching techniques in Africa: A case of rhino poaching.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the African continent has been facing a number of incidences on Rhino Poaching and we may be heading to Rhino extinction. A number of strategies have been tried and tested to protect the rhinos in Africa. Based on previous strategies to protect rhinos very little has been achieved in combating rhino poaching. Using extensive literature review this study investigates whether the current conservation methods are still useful in addressing poaching. Literature reveals that mos...

  7. Smallholder farming styles and development policy in South Africa: The case of Dzindi Irrigation Scheme

    OpenAIRE

    van Averbeke, W.; Mohamed, S. S.

    2006-01-01

    Diversity among smallholders farming 1.28ha plots at Dzindi Irrigation Scheme in the Thulamela Local Municipality of Limpopo Province, South Africa is investigated by applying farming style theory. Farming styles refer to specific farming strategies, which are conscious responses of farmers to the prevailing ecological and socio-economic conditions. The specific objectives of the study were to identify and characterize styles of farming in the Dzindi community of smallholders, to provide an u...

  8. In Search of Land and Housing in the New South Africa : The Case of Ethembalethu

    OpenAIRE

    Berrisford, Stephen; DeGroot, Dave; Kihato, Michael; Marrengane, Ntombini; Mhlanga, Zimkhitha; van den Brink, Rogier

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzes the difficulties a poor community experienced in accessing peri-urban land in South Africa. This community, composed largely of laid-off farm workers, wanted to buy their own farm in a peri-urban area west of Johannesburg to establish a mixed-use settlement. The Ethembalethu 250 families started their own savings scheme to make their dream a reality. Millions of black ...

  9. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  10. The implementation of selected technologies to enhance the restoration of indigenous tree species in the deforested riparian areas in the Mapungubwe National Park, South Africa : a case study / Yolandi Els

    OpenAIRE

    Els, Yolandi

    2010-01-01

    Stretches of forest along the Limpopo and Shashe Rivers have been classified as a unique forest type in the vegetation of South Africa and are considered as being "critically endangered" by the South African Biodiversity Institute. Roughly 400 hectares of this riverine forest area inside the western section of the Mapungubwe National Park (MNP), a UNESCO World Heritage site, were deforested and therefore degraded due to previous agricultural cultivation practices. Given the extent...

  11. A modeling study of climate variability over western and eastern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liqiang

    1997-09-01

    This dissertation is composed of six separate papers linked by a common purpose: to investigate the physical mechanisms associated with the climate variability over western and eastern Africa. This study is carried out on both monthly and seasonal time-scales. In Chapter 2, the NASA GEOS-1 GCM was adopted to investigate the role of orography in determining the western African climate. The moist southwesterlies emanating from the Atlas-Ahaggar orographic trough and the dry hot northeasterlies originating from the corresponding orographic windward ridge tend to converge thus re-enforcing the ITCZ over the Sahel. A zonal orographic ridge is generated along the coastal region of West Africa. Thus a permanent orographic induced rainfall dipole pattern over western Africa is produced. A weaker orographic induced rainfall dipole pattern across West Africa is simulated in response to the 1973 SST anomaly pattern. Consequently, wetter conditions along the coastal region and rainfall deficits over the Sahel are produced, which are consistent with observations. In Chapter 3, we customized the NCAR Regional Climate Model (RegCM2) for eastern Africa. The physics of RegCM2 has been improved. In Chapter 4, the model simulated both large-scale and mesoscale features during the autumn rains of 1988. In Chapter 5, we simulated the interannual variability of precipitation during autumn rains between 1982 and 1993. The stronger Arabian High appears to be responsible for earlier onset of rains, and the enhanced St. Helena and weaker Mascarene Highs lead to positive precipitation anomalies over Tanzania. The enhanced St. Helena High also leads to positive precipitation anomalies over Angola plateau. Strong connection between precipitation anomalies over Lake Victoria and ENSO exists. El Nino events usually lead to positive precipitation anomalies over the Turkana Channel. Precipitation over western Kenya Highlands is significantly affected by Lake Victoria and the Arabian High. The

  12. Systematic review of the magnitude and case fatality ratio for severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa between 1995 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kaye, Dan K; Kakaire, Othman; Osinde, Michael O

    2011-01-01

    Background Analysis of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses) provides information on the quality of care. We assessed the prevalence/incidence of maternal near miss, maternal mortality and case fatality ratio through systematic review of studies on severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We examined studies that reported prevalence/incidence of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses) during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period between 1996 and 2010....

  13. Systematic review of the magnitude and case fatality ratio for severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa between 1995 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Kakaire Othman; Kaye Dan K; Osinde Michael O

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Analysis of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses) provides information on the quality of care. We assessed the prevalence/incidence of maternal near miss, maternal mortality and case fatality ratio through systematic review of studies on severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We examined studies that reported prevalence/incidence of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses) during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period between 1996 ...

  14. Study and application of calculation model of safe drilling fluid density window: a case study of AKPO oilfield, West Africa%深水钻井安全钻井液密度窗口计算模型的建立与应用——以西非AKPO深水油田为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔚宝华; 闫传梁; 邓金根; 周建良; 刘书杰; 邢希金; 谭强

    2012-01-01

    以西非AKPO油田为例,对深水浅层和深层的井壁稳定性分别采用塑性力学和弹性力学理论进行了研究,建立了深水钻井安全钻井液密度窗口计算模型.该模型在AKPO深水油田钻井实践中得到了验证,对类似深水油田井壁稳定性分析有借鉴意义.%Using the AKPO oilfield in West Africa as a case, the wellbore stabilities in shallow and deep formations during deep water drilling were studied with plastic mechanics and elastic mechanics respectively, and a calculation model of safe drilling fluid density window was obtained for deep water drilling. The model has been verified in drilling practice in AKPO deep water oilfield and it provides a reference for wellbore stability analysis in other deep water oilfield.

  15. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  16. Addressing South Africa's Engineering Skills Gaps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jonathan; Sandelands, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to provide a case study of how engineering skills gaps are being addressed by Murray & Roberts in South Africa. Design/methodology/approach: The paper focuses on skills challenges in South Africa from a reflective practitioner perspective, exploring a case example from an industry leader. Findings: The paper explores how…

  17. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma in Southern Africa: review of 487 cases from The International Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Classification Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Anamarija M; Perner, Yvonne; Diebold, Jacques; Nathwani, Bharat N; MacLennan, Kenneth A; Müller-Hermelink, Hans K; Bast, Martin; Boilesen, Eugene; Armitage, James O; Weisenburger, Dennis D

    2016-03-01

    Comparative data on the distribution of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) subtypes in Southern Africa (SAF) is scarce. In this study, five expert haematopathologists classified 487 consecutive cases of NHL from SAF using the World Health Organization classification, and compared the results to North America (NA) and Western Europe (WEU). Southern Africa had a significantly lower proportion of low-grade (LG) B-NHL (34·3%) and a higher proportion of high-grade (HG) B-NHL (51·5%) compared to WEU (54·5% and 36·4%) and NA (56·1% and 34·3%). High-grade Burkitt-like lymphoma was significantly more common in SAF (8·2%) than in WEU (2·4%) and NA (2·5%), most likely due to human immunodeficiency virus infection. When SAF patients were divided by race, whites had a significantly higher frequency of LG B-NHL (60·4%) and a lower frequency of HG B-NHL (32·7%) compared to blacks (22·5% and 62·6%), whereas the other races were intermediate. Whites and other races had a significantly higher frequency of follicular lymphoma and a lower frequency of Burkitt-like lymphoma compared to blacks. The median ages of whites with LG B-NHL, HG B-NHL and T-NHL (64, 56 and 67 years) were significantly higher than those of blacks (55, 41 and 34 years). Epidemiological studies are needed to better understand these differences. PMID:26898194

  18. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  19. Reflecting on a Leadership Development Programme: A Case Study in South African Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louw, Ina; Zuber-Skeritt, Ortrun

    2009-01-01

    Leadership development in higher education is of vital importance to South Africa's future. We present a case study that focuses on a leadership development programme (LDP) through action learning and action research (ALAR) for women academics in South Africa during 2000 and 2001. It identifies the effects of the LDP on participants five years…

  20. A prospective ascertainment of cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Kaposi sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey; Wenger, Megan; Busakhala, Naftali; Buziba, Nathan; Bwana, Mwebesa; Muyindike, Winnie; Amerson, Erin; Maurer, Toby; McCalmont, Timothy; LeBoit, Philip; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin; Lukande, Robert; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Laker-Oketta, Miriam; Kambugu, Andrew; Glidden, David; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, problems in accurate cancer case ascertainment and enumeration of the at-risk population make it difficult to estimate cancer incidence. We took advantage of a large well-enumerated healthcare system to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a cancer which has become prominent in the HIV era and whose incidence may be changing with the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To achieve this, we evaluated HIV-infected adults receiving care between 2007 and 2012 at any of three medical centers in Kenya and Uganda that participate in the East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium. Through IeDEA, clinicians received training in KS recognition and biopsy equipment. We found that the overall prevalence of KS among 102,945 HIV-infected adults upon clinic enrollment was 1.4%; it declined over time at the largest site. Among 140,552 patients followed for 319,632 person-years, the age-standardized incidence rate was 334/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 314-354/100,000 person-years). Incidence decreased over time and was lower in women, persons on ART, and those with higher CD4 counts. The incidence rate among patients on ART with a CD4 count >350 cells/mm(3) was 32/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 14-70/100,000 person-years). Despite reductions over time coincident with the expansion of ART, KS incidence among HIV-infected adults in East Africa equals or exceeds the most common cancers in resource-replete settings. In resource-limited settings, strategic efforts to improve cancer diagnosis in combination with already well-enumerated at-risk denominators can make healthcare systems attractive platforms for estimating cancer incidence. PMID:26823008

  1. Patterns and attitudes towards breastfeeding in the era of HIV/AIDS : a case study of Greater Mafikeng District in the North West Province in the Republic of South Africa / Shirley M. Malakane

    OpenAIRE

    Malakane, Shirley M

    2004-01-01

    HN/AIDS in South Africa has grown to very serious proportions. An estimated number of 5.3million South Africans are infected with HIV and the majority of these infections are in the reproductive age group. Based on Annual Antenatal survey 2002,of the total 2.95 million were women aged 15-49, with an estimation of 91271 babies infected through mother to child transmission. Breastfeeding is said to be an ideal food for growth and development of a child. Given that HIV is transmis...

  2. Factors determining retail banks performance : case study Ubank / Buhle Mdakane

    OpenAIRE

    Mdakane, Buhle

    2012-01-01

    The study is a case study and it investigates the factors that determine the performance of retail banks in South Africa, and follows a case study approach in which Ubank is the focus. The purpose is to rank the identified factors in their order of importance for management's focus on improving the bank's performance. Performance is examined in terms of the bank's profitability and growth. This research utilizes secondary data analysis. The quantitative method is used by critic...

  3. Being authentic is the new image : A qualitative study on the authenticity constructions and self-images of Christian millennials in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The article is a qualitative study that focuses on the authenticity and self-constructions of Christian millennials in Africa. While exploring how 15 respondents manifested their authentic self-behaviours using a case study design, the hallmark of the study was to observe the common coping mechanism

  4. A study of the iron status in Dikgale, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Introduction This study investigated the iron status of the Dikgale population. Dikgale is a village situated in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Materials and methods We analysed a data file which is part of the Dikgale Demographic and Health Study. This study is a collaboration between the University of the North in South Africa and the Norwegian Universities Committee for Development Research and Education. We divided iron status into five different groups: normal iron statu...

  5. Policy co-ordination and growth traps in a middle-income country setting: The case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Bhorat, Haroon; Cassim, Aalia; Hirsch, Alan

    2014-01-01

    South Africa has exhibited tepid economic growth over the past twenty years as well as high levels of income inequality characteristic of a middle income country growth trap. This paper compares and contrasts South Africa's growth trap relative to middle-income peer economies. In addition, we study the policies and structures of the South African economy that have indeed perpetuated the persistently low levels of growth observed. In particular we consider the capital-intensive nature of manuf...

  6. Preliminary study on employment status and fertility in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, B.; Kielkowski, D.; Heederik, D.; Wilson, K.; Vundle, Z.; Kruger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of occupational exposures in the declining fertility rate in South Africa is not known. Data on time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and important risk factors including employment was obtained from 166 African women of reproductive age by trained community interviewers. For analysis, unplanned pregnanc

  7. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    In order to comprehend the impact of music therapy or music therapy processes, a researcher might look for an approach where the topic under investigation can be understood within a broader context. This calls for a rich inclusion of data and consequently a limited number of participants and may be...... achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  8. Nesidioblastosis: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starbuck, A L

    1997-09-01

    Hypoglycemia is a common problem among neonates. Transient in nature, it usually resolves with an increase in glucose intake. However, as clinicians, we must recognize that prolonged hypoglycemia may be caused by increased insulin production. Nesidioblastosis is one cause of persistent hyperinsulinism of the newborn. This case study reviews fetal physiology, neonatal presentation, and treatment. PMID:9325879

  9. : Case studies: France

    OpenAIRE

    Bonerandi, Emmanuelle; Santamaria, Frédéric

    2005-01-01

    Case studies on territorial governance : urban region of Lyon (France) and the "Pays" policy (France) in the framework of the ESPON 2.3.2 project Études de cas sur la gouvernance territoriale : région urbaine de Lyon et politique des pays

  10. [Vesicovaginal fistula. Still a daily reality in Africa. Apropos of 89 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L; Vergos, M; Barthe, B L; Ribault, A

    1989-05-01

    Vesico-vaginal fistulae (VVF) are still a daily occurrence in Africa. Obstetrical causes are the most frequent. This severe disability requires that everything be implemented to obtain a leak-free closure of the pathological opening. The authors report their experience with 89 cured cases of VVF. Except for 2 cases cured with an abdominal approach, the Moir technique gave good results in 78 cases, for midline, moderate size, fistulae. In 3 instances, closure of the vagina alone was satisfactory. There were 10 recurrences, cured 9 times at the second operation and once at the third. 3 recurrences came from other institutions and were cured after 4 and 5 successive procedures. In 6 instances, for fistulae close to 5 cm or larger and located in areas difficult to reach, the authors have developed a technique of vaginal closure alone using a turned-over, undetermined vaginal flap creating a leak-free diverticulum. No recurrences have been observed with this technique. PMID:2544977

  11. Rotordynamic Stability Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Choudhury Pranabesh

    2004-01-01

    In this article case studies are presented involving rotordynamic instability of modern high-speed turbomachinery relating the field data to analytical methods. The studies include oil seal related field problems, instability caused by aerodynamic cross-coupling in high-pressure, high-speed compressors, and hydrodynamic bearing instability resulting in subsynchronous vibration of a high-speed turbocharger. It has been shown that the analytical tools not only help in problem diagnostics, bu...

  12. Prague Case Study Report

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kostelecký, Tomáš; Patočková, Věra; Illner, Michal; Vobecká, Jana; Čermák, Daniel

    Aarau: Centre for Democracy Studies Aarau (ZDA), 2014 - (Widmer, C.; Kübler, D.), s. 131-177 ISBN 978-3-9524228-2-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA700280802 Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : urban neighbourhods * regeneration * Prague Subject RIV: AD - Politology ; Political Sciences http://www.zdaarau.ch/dokumente/en/ZDA_Working-Papers/No3_RUN_case-studies_2014.pdf

  13. MIDAS case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusger, E.C.; Farber, M.A.; Sharpe Hayes, M.M.

    1989-07-01

    This series of three case studies illustrates the validity and usefulness of MIDAS, a microcomputer-based tool for integrated resource planning under uncertainty. The first, at Union Electric, serves to test and validate the model and to illustrate its use for demand/supply option evaluation. Focusing on nuclear plant life extension, the Virginia Power case demonstrates the model's extensive detail, particularly in the production cost and financial areas, as well as its flexibility in addressing approximately 70 uncertainty scenarios. Puget Sound Power Light, the third case, used MIDAS for the preparation of its integrated resource plan. A 108-endpoint decision tree illustrates the full power of the decision analysis capability.

  14. Geochemical framework for water quality studies in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Edmunds, W.M.

    1996-01-01

    The scope for using hydrogeochemical techniques in water quality studies in Africa is reviewed as a background to a set of thematic papers. Water quality problems are emerging as a key issue in Africa either: 1. i) in view of the pressures of man-made pollution on finite resources; or 2. ii) the existence of regions with naturally induced geological problems, for example fluoride endemic areas. Such natural problems are the focus of this paper and the following topics were emphas...

  15. South Africa: Overview of activities on Neutron Imaging (NI) and Cultural Heritage (CH) studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    South Africa has a rich cultural history with ample opportunities for Neutron Imaging to be applied in Archaeological and Palaeontological studies as depicted in the references. Through this collaboration the NI and CH communities are united to introduce neutron induced Autoradiography of paintings as new analytical technique to South Africa. The outcome is foreseen to be a database on NI techniques and applications in CH as well as and exhibition at a museum to showcase the scientific collaborations

  16. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  17. The challenges of developing computational physics: the case of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most modern scientific research problems are complex and interdisciplinary in nature. It is impossible to study such problems in detail without the use of computation in addition to theory and experiment. Although it is widely agreed that students should be introduced to computational methods at the undergraduate level, it remains a challenge to do this in a full traditional undergraduate curriculum. In this paper, we report on a survey that we conducted of undergraduate physics curricula in South Africa to determine the content and the approach taken in the teaching of computational physics. We also considered the pedagogy of computational physics at the postgraduate and research levels at various South African universities, research facilities and institutions. We conclude that the state of computational physics training in South Africa, especially at the undergraduate teaching level, is generally weak and needs to be given more attention at all universities. Failure to do so will impact negatively on the countrys capacity to grow its endeavours generally in the field of computational sciences, with negative impacts on research, and in commerce and industry

  18. A study about Securitization Processes in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Løvenstein, Kasper Bruun; Rasmussen, Tone Louise; Iversen, Lone; Szpisjak, Aron

    2013-01-01

    The focus of this project is on the private security industry in contemporary society of South Africa, with comparative elements of the societal aspects in England. With the industry experiencing an increase in the available market in Western society the question of its legitimacy as provider of law enforcement rises. The project bases its theoretical framework on the theory of Securitization by the Copenhagen School to describe the change in the need for security, Ontological Security by Ant...

  19. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca Kormos; Kormos, Cyril F.; Tatyana Humle; Annette Lanjouw; Helga Rainer; Ray Victurine; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate fo...

  20. Rotavirus disease in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: a review of longitudinal community and hospital studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Aaby, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre; Rodrigues, Amabélia

    Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of childhood diarrheal disease and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article reviews community- and hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Here, rotavirus infections exhibit a seasonal pattern, with annual...... epidemics occurring during the relatively dry and cooler months, from January to April, and few cases registered from May to December. Most children (74%) experience their first infection before the age of 2 years, and rotavirus has been identified as the most pathogenic of all diarrheal agents during 2...

  1. Corporate Governance. Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    This paper pretends to do a theoretical approach of Corporate Governance, having as support some case studies about companies like Coca-Cola, Nokia, Microsoft, and Amazon.com. The methodology adopted for this work is based in information from these companies available in their websites and annual reports. I concluded that both companies show the corporate governance components according to their core business and their environmental business.

  2. Case study - Czechoslovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the lecture Case Study - Czechoslovakia with the sub-title 'Unified System of Personnel Preparation for Nuclear Programme in Czechoslovakia' the actual status and the current experience of NPP personnel training and preparation in Czechoslovakia are introduced. The above mentioned training system is presented and demonstrated by the story of a proxy person who is going to become shift engineer in a nuclear power plant in Czechoslovakia. (orig./HP)

  3. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  4. Association of spiders and lichen on Robben Island, South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mukherjee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a firstrecord of spider occurrence on Robben Island, South Africa. Some habitats were rich in lichens. As we know, lichens enhance wildlife habitat in less direct ways. The objective of the study was to examine the potential importance of lichens in enriching spider diversity and abundance. A total of 260 spiders (170 from lichens and 90 from bush were collected following the visual search method over one year. Seasonal trends in overall species richness and abundance indicated that the relative density of spiders was greater in lichens than in bushes. The result suggests that habitat structure, such as branch size and epiphytic lichen abundance, can be an explanation for the greater number of spiders in lichen-rich patches of the island.

  5. Attacking Africa's Poverty : Experience from the Ground

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Louise M.; Liebenthal, Robert B.

    2006-01-01

    By all measures, poverty in Africa as a whole has increased and deepened. But in fact, Africa contains a number of undocumented success stories of poverty reduction. This book presents case studies of thirteen of these success stories, giving grounds for some real hope, and providing useful learning for all policymakers, governments, businesses, service providers, non-governmental organiza...

  6. 3d Anisotropic Post Stack Imaging on an Offshore Africa Case Study Étude de la migration anisotrope en 3D des traces sismiques sur un champ pétrolier offshore d'Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Rousseau J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Seismic anisotropy may degrade the quality of seismic images and cause the mispositioning of events within them. Shales have often been observed to be significantly anisotropic, usually with approximately hexagonal symmetry (transverse isotropy with axis normal to the bedding plane. We investigate the effect of anisotropy on imaging a real data set from offshore Africa, where there are thick shale sequences. We perform, in parallel, isotropic and anisotropic velocity model building and 3D post-stack migration of the same stack volume. We observe that the anisotropic processing improves the focussing of dipping events and that the assumption of isotropy may cause lateral and vertical displacement of the reservoir boundaries, of around 100 and 200 meters respectively, relative to the positions obtained with the anisotropic processing. L'anisotropie sismique peut altérer la qualité des images sismiques et provoquer ainsi un mauvais positionnement. Les argiles se sont souvent révélées avoir des propriétés anisotropes, avec une symétrie presque hexagonale (isotropie transversale sur un axe normal par rapport au plan de stratification. Nous étudions ici l'effet de l'anisotropie sur la migration d'un ensemble de données réelles d'un gisement offshore africain possédant d'épaisses couches d'argile. Nous réalisons en parallèle la création des modèles de vitesse isotrope et anisotrope et la migration du même volume des données stacken utilisant les deux modèles. Nous observons que la méthode anisotrope améliore la mise au point en profondeur et que l'augmentation de l'isotropie peut provoquer un décalage latéral et vertical des limites du réservoir, respectivement de 100 et 200 mètres, par rapport aux positions obtenues avec la méthode anisotrope.

  7. Social capital and premarital sexual activity in Africa: the case of Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djamba, Yanyi K

    2003-08-01

    Prior research has pointed to several factors that may affect sexual behavior in Africa, but much of the work has been atheoretical or descriptive, thus reducing the explanatory value of some findings. In this study, the influence of individual characteristics and family background were examined in a sample of 2,000 women aged 14-24 interviewed in Kinshasa in 1995. The analysis was guided by the social capital framework and the discussion focused on three theoretical perspectives: rational adaptation, social disorganization, and patrilineal bias. The results from the event history analysis showed that poverty, exposure to mass media, patrilinearity, and AIDS awareness greatly reduce the risk of premarital sexual activity. In contrast, social capital, as measured by the number of siblings, was positively associated with sexual permissiveness, suggesting a dilution of adults' attention to children in larger families. PMID:12856894

  8. NOx trade. Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some of the questions with respect to the trade of nitrogen oxides that businesses in the Netherlands have to deal with are dealt with: should a business buy or sell rights for NOx emission; which measures must be taken to reduce NOx emission; how much must be invested; and how to deal with uncertainties with regard to prices. Simulations were carried out with the MOSES model to find the answers to those questions. Results of some case studies are presented, focusing on the chemical sector in the Netherlands. Finally, the financial (dis)advantages of NOx trade and the related uncertainties for a single enterprise are discussed

  9. Contrasting petrogenesis of Mg-K and Fe-K granitoids and implications for post-collisional magmatism: case study from the late-Archaean Matok pluton (South Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurent, Oscar; Rapopo, Mafusi; Stevens, Gary; Moyen, Jean-François; Martin, Hervé; Zeh, Armin; Doucelance, Régis

    2014-05-01

    Post-collisional, metaluminous high-K calc-alkaline granitoids emplaced throughout the last 3.0 Ga are compositionally diverse, ranging from Mg-rich (e.g. sanukitoids) to Fe-rich compositions, both being intimately associated locally. While the origin of Mg-K suites is fairly well understood, that of Fe-K magmas is much less constrained. In addition, no model accounts for the post-collisional nature of both granitoid types, in one hand, and their geochemical differences, on the other hand. This work addresses these issues investigating the petrography and geochemistry (major-, trace elements and Sm-Nd isotope data on whole rocks, trace element and in situ Sr-Hf-Nd isotopes on accessory phases) of the 2.69 Ga-old Matok pluton, emplaced in the northern Kaapvaal Craton (South Africa). It consists of diorites, granodiorites and monzogranites, which show clear petrographic and compositional affinities with other post-collisional Fe-K suites. In spite of unradionegic Hf-Nd isotope compositions (ɛNd(WR) = -2.7 to -4.6; ɛHf(Zrn) = -3.2 to -3.6) and radiogneic Sr ones (Sr(i) > 0.702), most of the Matok pluton derives from neither reworking of local continental crust, nor crustal contamination of basaltic melt. Whole-rock as well as accessory mineral geochemistry indicate that the whole suite fractionated from a common mafic parent, either by partial melting or crystallization. Geochemical modelling shows that this parent magma or source rock derives itself from the involvement of two distinct mantle sources: (1) enriched, subcontinental lithospheric mantle, which was metasomatized by sedimentary (or sediment-derived) material derived from local crust of the Pietersburg block; and (2) asthenospheric mantle. Mantle enrichment took place less than 0.3 Ga prior to the pluton emplacement, and explains the 'crustal' isotope signature of the Matok pluton. Involvement of both sources is the only relevant way to explain the differences between Fe-K suites, such as the Matok pluton

  10. Perception-based analysis of climate change effect on forest-based livelihood: The case of Vhembe District in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Ofoegbu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are vulnerable to climate change and are also major sources of livelihood for many rural households in Africa. This study examines rural people’s perceptions of climate change impacts on forest-based livelihoods using rural communities of Vhembe District in South Africa as a case study. The study was based on the principles of perceived impact-based assessment, and sustainable livelihoods framework. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling procedure in combination with weighted Enumeration Area for the selected communities, 366 households were chosen and interviewed. Data analysis involved computing frequencies and conducting the Chi-square, binomial tests and binary logistic regression analysis. The respondents identified erratic rainfall, extreme temperature, extreme drought and flooding as key climatic events in their community. But not all identified key climatic events were perceived to constitute risk to forest products and forest-based livelihood. Only extreme drought was indicated to constitute risk to availability of forest products. In addition, the binary logistic regression showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the perceived risk of climate change to the availability of essential forest products across the three municipalities. Hence the need for forest development initiatives that target vulnerable forest products per community as a means of enhancing resilience of forest-based livelihood to climate change impacts in rural community development in South Africa.

  11. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Marlene M; Joubert, Belinda; Cloete, Marise; Roux, Sumien; Baca, Beth A; Hasken, Julie M; Barnard, Ronel; Buckley, David; Kalberg, Wendy O; Snell, Cudore L; Marais, Anna-Susan; Seedat, Soraya; Parry, Charles D H; May, Philip A

    2016-01-01

    In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA) a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM) was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI) techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA). Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD. PMID:26703708

  12. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  13. [Volvulus of the pelvic colon. Apropos of 59 cases in the western Africa savannah area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L; Gournier, J P; Barthe, B L

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe their experience after treatment of 59 cases of volvulus of the pelvic colon. This disorder is frequent in West Africa and affects the protein deficient malnourished population. A definite predominance of volvulus occurred during the dry season between December and April, perhaps related to a diet richer in cellulose or deficient in water. There was a delay in presentation at the Hospital Center; necrosis of the twisted loop, the age of the patient and multiple associated conditions all contributed to the severity of this condition. Treatment had three aims: removal of the obstruction, reestablishment of continuity and avoidance of recurrence. Indications were dictated by the patient's general condition and the vascular status of the loop of bowel. It is reasonable to attempt reduction via intubation if the loop of bowel appears viable. Success enables a colectomy to be performed after a preparation, while failure necessitates surgical correction of ideally colectomy in a one stage procedure. On the other hand, a gangrenous loop necessitates colectomy without untwisting, with closure of the distal end using the Hartmann technique and with reestablishment of continuity 3 weeks later. PMID:2805924

  14. CSR and Sustainable Development: Multinationals are they Socially Responsible in Sub-Saharan Africa? The case of Areva in Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Daouda, Youssoufou Hamadou

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute in understanding issues related to Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Sub-Saharan Africa. The paper demonstrates that even though multinationals strategies participate with economic and social development, there still is much to do given environmental, social and economic expectations. The case of Areva discussed here illustrates the discrepancy that exists between such companies’ CSR strategies and the local conditions in which they evolve (ar...

  15. A Political Economy Analysis of China's Investments in Africa A Case Study on CNMC's Investments in Zambia%中国企业对非投资的政治经济学分析——以中国有色集团在赞比亚投资为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    过宣帆; 刘宏松

    2013-01-01

    在中国企业对非投资过程中,如何应对投资风险、把握政府参与程度、承担相应社会责任成为亟待思考和解决的重要问题.本文通过对赞比亚谦比希铜矿罢工案例的破析,反映出我国矿产企业在赞比亚投资过程中对劳资关系、员工工作环境及环境保护等问题尚未引起足够重视,也折射出中外企业制度差异、中国企业的“本土化”、复合型人才短缺等主要问题.劳资纠纷与领导人更迭从经济和政治两方面促使罢工屡次发生,凸显出东道国整体投资环境对中国企业对非投资的影响,为中国企业“走出去”战略的进一步发展具有重要参考意义.%During the process of Chinese enterprises'investments in Africa, how to deal with the risk, to grasp the extent of government involvement, and to take the social responsibility have already become the urgent problems to be thought about and solved. The case study of the strikes happened in Zambia Chambishi copper mine shows that Chinese mineral enterprises haven't paid sufficient attention to issues like labor relations, working condition and environmental protection, meanwhile, reflects other problems such as the differences between Chinese and foreign enterprise system, the "localization" of Chinese enterprises, the shortage of complex talents. Labor disputes and the changes of leaders cause the repeated occurrences of the strike, aslo highlight the influence of the overall investment environment of the host country on Chinese enterprises' investments in Africa, and have important significance for the further development of "going out" strategy.

  16. Correlating Pap Smear Results and Colposcopy-Directed Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone Histopathology in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women: A Case-Control Study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-J. van Bogaert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In low-resource settings (LRS with high HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer rates, new screening strategies face many logistic hurdles. Since cytology is there to stay, at least in the median-term future, it is important to assess to what extent HIV-HPV coinfection impacts the accuracy of screening methods and strategies. Methods. We audited the correlation between cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality (CIN1, CIN2+, or cancer and the histological diagnosis of colposcopy-directed large loop excision of the transformation zone of 399 HIV-uninfected controls and 389 HIV-infected cases. Results. The average age at diagnosis of CIN2+ of the cases was 4.2 years younger than controls (. The endpoint used to assess the accuracy of cytology was minimal cytological abnormality (≤CIN1/LGSIL. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were 92.7, 18.5, 45.1, and 77.9%, respectively. The overall ratio of discordance/concordance between cytology and histology was similar in both groups. Conclusion. In LRS, where rapid-HPV testing is not yet part of screening algorithms, a cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality requires visual inspection and treatment of visualized lesions especially in HIV-infected women aged 30 years. The cytological endpoint of accuracy should be set low to avoid false negative smears.

  17. Vertebral Angiosarcoma. Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Bone angiosarcomas, especially vertebral angiosarcomas, are very rare. There are no studies based on large clinical samples in the literature, and only a few single case reports can be found. The symptoms of the disease are not specific. It is usually detected incidentally or at a late stage when pathological vertebral fractures or neurological complications occur. Diagnostic imaging and history help to recognize the tumour behind the symptoms, but do not allow accurate clinical diagnosis. The basis for a diagnosis is the histopathological examination supported by immunohistochemistry (IHC) assays. The case of a 26-year-old woman with an angiosarcoma involving the eighth thoracic vertebra we report reflects diagnostic problems adversely affecting the efficacy and accuracy of treatment offered to patients. The patient underwent three surgeries of the spine, including two biopsies. A needle biopsy did not provide sufficient information for the diagnosis. An open excisional biopsy, which at the same time temporarily reduced neurological deficits in the patient, was the only chance to obtain an accurate diagnosis. The third surgery was posterior decompression of the spinal cord due to the rapidly escalating paraparesis. It was not until 8 weeks later that the final diagnosis was established. At that time, the patient could not be qualified for any supplementary treatment. The patient died in hospital 6 months after the onset of disease. PMID:26468177

  18. Refugee Problem in Europe – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Varga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed state of Libya are aiming to reach European soil, but Italy, Greece or Turkey is not ready to handle the amount of refugees. The cooperation of the Mediterranean countries and Europe has not been able to slow down the flow of refugees, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas have become dangerous routes for the desperate migrants who attempt the sea-crossing. In my analysis I would like to highlight the role of the so-called elements of ‘soft power’ in the way of dealing with the refugee problem. According to my hypothesis, the issue can’t be successfully addressed using only the means of the ‘soft power’. No real solution for the crisis has been offered yet, and I would like to give case studies of the different ways of dealing with the problem – inside (Greece, Italy and outside (Turkey of the European Union.

  19. The Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: The Case of a University of Technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study was executed from a realist’s ontological perspective and its epistemological leaning is towards that of an empiricist. The study essentially sought to determine the existence or otherwise of entrepreneurial intentions among the students. Ample emphasis needs to be placed on entrepreneurship education and practical entrepreneurship schemes (such as mentorship programmes if developing countries are to realise the goal of having a productive and virile youth population, which would represent a significant shift from today’s yawning youth unemployment position. The study collected data in a cross-sectional manner from a random sample of 150 students drawn from a leading South African University of Technology. In analyzing the data, there was recourse to the use of descriptive as well as inferential statistics. Interestingly, results show no statistically significant relationships between students’ entrepreneurial intention and selected sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, culture, etc. While we acknowledge that the results of this study emerged from a sample of 150 students of a particular university and therefore betray the concept of generalization, we are equally confident that the findings have significant implications for developing economies around the world including South Africa.

  20. The Investment Climate for the Informal Economy : A Case of Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lund, Francie; Skinner, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    This investment climate of South Africa's informal economy is investigated with special focus on the regulatory environment (taxes and laws), institutions, services (training, financial services and insurance, access to markets), and access to infrastructure and protection from crime. Durban, South Africa's third largest city, is ahead of other cities in responding to the growth of informal work and has been proactive in seeking out ways of creatively supporting informal enterprises.

  1. Adapting EUROMOD for use in a developing country - the case of South Africa and SAMOD

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, Kate

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the construction of a microsimulation model for South Africa (SAMOD), which is based upon the EUROMOD platform. The paper discusses the need for a new microsimulation model in South Africa, the reasons why EUROMOD was a particularly suitable candidate as a basis for the new model and the challenges encountered in building the model. The intention of this paper is to provide necessary background material on the construction of the model to anyone wishing to work with SAMOD...

  2. A TRANSNATIONAL APPROACH IN RESOLVING DEVELOPMENT PROBLEMS IN CENTRAL AFRICA: THE CASE OF INICA

    OpenAIRE

    NKENGFACK HILAIRE; VIOLETA PUSCASU

    2010-01-01

    In Central Africa we often see delays and / or failures of initiatives with supranational character (CEMAC CEFDHAC, ECCAS, etc) referring to the implementation of development projects and in the resolution of various conflicts. Thus a new tool for the resolution of transnational dispute has been devised and implemented in 2004 to mark the regional dimension in the resolution of many common conflicts between Central African populations: it is the Initiative for Central Africa (INICA).

  3. The Paradox of Corporate Social Responsibility in Africa: Case of French Multinational Corporations

    OpenAIRE

    Ollong, Kingsly Awang

    2014-01-01

    In the context of globalisation Africa requires investment by multinational corporations (MNCs) to improve its competitiveness and to facilitate micro-level structural changes required for alleviating poverty and reducing its riskiness for investment. Economic theory recognises that MNCs can contribute to economic growth in developing countries through generating positive externalities. However, the extent to which Africa benefits from spill-over effects of MNCs remains to be empirically inve...

  4. Improving unsustainable environmental governance in South Africa: the case for holistic governance

    OpenAIRE

    LJ Kotze

    2006-01-01

    Environmental law in South Africa has developed in a rapid fashion since the inception of the new constitutional dispensation in 1994. This development is evident from, inter alia, the constitutionalisation of the environmental right in section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 24 contains amongst other provisions, directive principles that impose duties on government to protect the environment for present and future generations through reasonable legislati...

  5. Awareness Towards Chain of Custody Certification in Africa: the Case of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Alhassan ATTAH; Florin IORAS; Jegatheswaran RATNASINGAM; Ioan Vasile ABRUDAN

    2010-01-01

    Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM). To date about 126,000 ha of forests have been certified by the different certification schemes in Africa, despite Africa accounting for 17% of the World�s forest co...

  6. Trade, Danish development aid and Africa: A case of Symbolic Politics?

    OpenAIRE

    Kjeldtoft, Sebastian Stryhn

    2014-01-01

    This project critically examines how the Danish government throughout 2013 has attempted to create a new discourse on Africa's economic growth in relation to the purpose of Danish development aid. Through a discourse analysis of relevant texts in Danish national media in the period 9.12.2012-9.12.2013, the project finds that the Government has attempted to instill development aid with a new priority; to increase Danish exports to Africa and spur job creation in Denmark. Surprisingly, this 'sp...

  7. Muscular Christianity in contemporary South Africa: The case of the Mighty Men Conference

    OpenAIRE

    Siphiwe Dube

    2015-01-01

    Drawing on key aspects of Muscular Christianity identified through this movement’s literature, this article ventures that the major contemporary Evangelical Christian men’s movement in South Africa, the Mighty Men Conference (MMC), draws on and harkens back to the concerns of the Victorian era of Muscular Christianity. Moreover, the article argues that this reversion should be of concern in the context of a post-apartheid and postcolonial South Africa where both women’s rights and human ri...

  8. [An approach to food consumption in an urban environment. The case of west Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ag Bendech, M; Gerbouin-Rerolle, P; Chauliac, M; Malvy, D

    1996-01-01

    West Africa has undergone rapid economic and political changes during the last 20 years. After the failure of economic policies implemented since independence, programs for structural adjustment have strongly influenced the economy. Food problems affect each country differently. The Sahel has experienced food shortages and starvation whereas in forested countries the food supply has remained stable. Nevertheless, food policies have not succeeded in contributing to urban and rural development. The rate of urbanization in west Africa is generally low but the rate of urban population growth is particularly high, much more than the growth rates of industry and infrastructure. Although metropolitan areas are affected by poverty, they offer more hope and opportunities than rural areas. Urban markets have expanded and diversified as social differences have also increased and contributed to changes in consumption structure. Urban growth has contributed to the increase of imported food: this is indicated by both the strong dependency and the change of food habits towards western food patterns. Recently however, west African urban dwellers are still preferring local items if they are affordable. When imported products are used, they are integrated within a stable meal plan consisting of a single dish with a base and a sauce, which is typical of African food preparation. Surveys of consumption-budgets are still only available on a national scale. These can provide accurate information about food consumption patterns of families, particularly for significant trends. However, they do not provide information about the dynamics of food consumption, neither for urban areas or the individual. Now a significant proportion of individual food consumption occurs outside of the home, mainly with food provided by street vendors. This new consumption habit is a response to the urban food crisis. Consumption of street-vendor-food comprises one component but this cannot be dissociated from

  9. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    OpenAIRE

    B. Gummow; J.G. Myburgh; P. N. Thompson; J.J. Van der Lugt; B.T. Spencer

    1999-01-01

    Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows...

  10. Empirical Analysis of China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation for Good or Bad: A Case of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansein Ladislaus Rutaihwa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated China-Africa Economic and Trade ties taking Tanzania as the case study and the prime objective was to identify the main drivers for the bilateral trade and the benefits of the ties. The study draws theoretical framework from Realism, Dependency and Marxist theories of Imperialism. The dependency theory explains underdevelopment while the Marxist explains dominant state expansion. This study mainly employs descriptive research approach to asses China-Tanzania economic and trade ties. Data is drawn from industrial annual reports, previous research, journals, magazines, documentation and websites. Other sources are Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC and Business Registration and Licensing Agency of Tanzania (BRELA. The scope of the study is limited to 1990-2010. The findings of the study show that engagement of China in Tanzania poses both opportunities and challenges. The nature of China`s investment in Tanzania has been capital intensive and been mostly directed to strategic industries, particularly manufacturing sector the leading sector in which Chinese investors have injected more projects, followed by construction, agricultural, tourism and services sectors among others. Similarly, the study finds that the imported commodities and goods from China have been affordable to most of low-income earners hence increases consumers choice and contribution to Tanzania Economic growth. However, the negative effects cannot be neglected; the investments have led into the influx of low quality products that do not meet market standards. Therefore, this study recommends that the government should ensure that the partnership with China is for a win-win situation.

  11. Collaborative Studies for Mercury Characterization in Coal and Coal Combustion Products, Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; van Alphen, Chris

    2016-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were obtained for 42 samples of feed coal provided by Eskom, the national electric utility of South Africa, representing all 13 coal-fired power stations operated by Eskom in South Africa. This sampling includes results for three older power stations returned to service starting in the late 2000s. These stations were not sampled in the most recent previous study. Mercury concentrations determined in the present study are similar to or slightly lower than those previously reported, and input Hg for the three stations returned to service is comparable to that for the other 10 power stations. Determination of halogen contents of the 42 feed coals confirms that chlorine contents are generally low, and as such, the extent of Hg self-capture by particulate control devices (PCDs) is rather limited. Eight density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal were also provided by Eskom, and these show a strong mineralogical association of Hg (and arsenic) with pyrite. The density separates were used to predict Hg and ash contents of coal products used in South Africa or exported. A suite of 48 paired samples of pulverization-mill feed coal and fly ash collected in a previous (2010) United Nations Environment Programme-sponsored study of emissions from the Duvha and Kendal power stations was obtained for further investigation in the present study. These samples show that in each station, Hg capture varies by boiler unit and confirms that units equipped with fabric filters for air pollution control are much more effective in capturing Hg than those equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Apart from tracking the performance of PCDs individually, changes resulting in improved mercury capture of the Eskom fleet are discussed. These include Hg reduction through coal selection and washing, as well as through optimization of equipment and operational parameters. Operational changes leading to increased mercury capture include increasing mercury

  12. Goiania incident case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reasons for wanting to document this case study and present the findings are simple. According to USDOE technical risk assessments (and our own initial work on the Hanford socioeconomic study), the likelihood of a major accident involving exposure to radioactive materials in the process of site characterization, construction, operation, and closure of a high-level waste repository is extremely remote. Most would agree, however, that there is a relatively high probability that a minor accident involving radiological contamination will occur sometime during the lifetime of the repository -- for example, during transport, at an MRS site or at the permanent site itself during repacking and deposition. Thus, one of the major concerns of the Yucca Mountain Socioeconomic Study is the potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential impact of a relatively minor radiation-related accident. A large number of potential accident scenarios have been under consideration (such as a transportation or other surface accident which results in a significant decline in tourism, the number of conventions, or the selection of Nevada as a retirement residence). The results of the work in Goiania make it clear, however, that such a significant shift in established social patterns and trends is not likely to occur as a direct outcome of a single nuclear-related accident (even, perhaps, a relatively major one), but rather, are likely to occur as a result of the enduring social interpretations of such an accident -- that is, as a result of the process of understanding, communicating, and socially sustaining a particular set of associations with respect to the initial incident

  13. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  14. FMCT verification: Case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: How to manage the trade-off between the need for transparency and the concern about the disclosure of sensitive information would be a key issue during the negotiations of FMCT verification provision. This paper will explore the general concerns on FMCT verification; and demonstrate what verification measures might be applied to those reprocessing and enrichment plants. A primary goal of an FMCT will be to have the five declared nuclear weapon states and the three that operate unsafeguarded nuclear facilities become parties. One focus in negotiating the FMCT will be verification. Appropriate verification measures should be applied in each case. Most importantly, FMCT verification would focus, in the first instance, on these states' fissile material production facilities. After the FMCT enters into force, all these facilities should be declared. Some would continue operating to produce civil nuclear power or to produce fissile material for non- explosive military uses. The verification measures necessary for these operating facilities would be essentially IAEA safeguards, as currently being applied to non-nuclear weapon states under the NPT. However, some production facilities would be declared and shut down. Thus, one important task of the FMCT verifications will be to confirm the status of these closed facilities. As case studies, this paper will focus on the verification of those shutdown facilities. The FMCT verification system for former military facilities would have to differ in some ways from traditional IAEA safeguards. For example, there could be concerns about the potential loss of sensitive information at these facilities or at collocated facilities. Eventually, some safeguards measures such as environmental sampling might be seen as too intrusive. Thus, effective but less intrusive verification measures may be needed. Some sensitive nuclear facilities would be subject for the first time to international inspections, which could raise concerns

  15. Ancient vicariance and climate-driven extinction continental-wide disjunctions in Africa: the case of the Rand Flora genus Canarina (Campanulaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairal, M; Pokorny, L; Aldasoro, J J; Alarcón, M; Sanmartín, I

    2015-03-01

    Transoceanic distributions have attracted the interest of scientists for centuries. Less attention has been paid to the evolutionary origins of 'continent-wide' disjunctions, in which related taxa are distributed across isolated regions within the same continent. A prime example is the 'Rand Flora' pattern, which shows sister taxa disjunctly distributed in the continental margins of Africa. Here, we explore the evolutionary origins of this pattern using the genus Canarina, with three species: C. canariensis, associated with the Canarian laurisilva, and C. eminii and C. abyssinica, endemic to the Afromontane region in East Africa, as case study. We infer phylogenetic relationships, divergence times and the history of migration events within Canarina using Bayesian inference on a large sample of chloroplast and nuclear sequences. Ecological niche modelling was employed to infer the climatic niche of Canarina through time. Dating was performed with a novel nested approach to solve the problem of using deep time calibration points within a molecular dataset comprising both above-species and population-level sampling. Results show C. abyssinica as sister to a clade formed by disjunct C. eminii and C. canariensis. Miocene divergences were inferred among species, whereas infraspecific divergences fell within the Pleistocene-Holocene periods. Although C. eminii and C. canariensis showed a strong genetic geographic structure, among-population divergences were older in the former than in the latter. Our results suggest that Canarina originated in East Africa and later migrated across North Africa, with vicariance and aridification-driven extinction explaining the 7000 km/7 million year divergence between the Canarian and East African endemics. PMID:25688489

  16. Termination: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Ahron L

    2015-12-01

    In this article I posit and examine certain criteria and qualities for ending an analysis. The case study describes the end phase of a four-year psychoanalysis in which the patient's decision to move to another area forced the end of his analysis. We continued to explore and work through his core neurotic conflicts that included issues of competitive rivalry, dominance and submission, control, and anxiety about birth and death. A shift in the transference from me as a negative father to me as a supportive but competitive older brother was also examined in the context of ending treatment as well as other aspects of the transference. In addition, we analyzed the meaning of his ending treatment based on an extra-analytic circumstance. In discussing this phase of treatment, the definition and history of the term "termination" and its connotations are reviewed. Various criteria for completing an analysis are examined, and technical observations about this phase of treatment are investigated. It was found that while a significant shift in the transference occurred in this phase of the patient's analysis, conflicts related to the transference were not "resolved" in the classical sense. Terminating treatment was considered as a practical matter in which the patient's autonomy and sense of choice were respected and analyzed. PMID:26583444

  17. South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that South Africa's main reason for entering the international nuclear market is, and always has been, to sell its uranium abroad. From 1939-45 South Africa took part in the war against Nazi Germany, and the South African government of the time sought to help the Allied war effort in all ways that were practical. Later, during the Cold War, it tried to help build up the West's nuclear arsenal. In 1944, the British government secretly asked General Smuts---prime minister of South Africa since 1939 and a member of Churchill's War Cabinet---to survey South Africa's deposits of uranium. The survey, carried out with U.S. and British help, showed that the deposits were large, generally low-grade, but, in most cases, associated with gold and therefore could be profitably mined. In 1951, South Africa became a significant producer, with lucrative contracts for the sale of all its output to the U.S.-U.K.-Canada Joint Development Agency and one of the three main suppliers to the U.S. nuclear weapons program. In time, government controls eased and uranium production and marketing became a purely commercial operation

  18. Determinants of Rural Poverty in Africa: The Case of Small Holder Farmers in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owuor, G.; Ngigi, M.; Ouma, A. S.; Birachi, E. A.

    Sub-Saharan Africa is likely to hold large numbers of very poor rural people in the near future unless sustainable intervention measures are undertaken. Although both history and theory point to the important role of agriculture in poverty reduction, such growth today faces even more difficulties. This study uses a probit model on a sample of 600 smallholder farmers to establish factors that influence probability of households= escaping chronic poverty. Results show that access to micro-credit, education, participation in agricultural seminars, livestock assets and location in high potential areas significantly influence the probability of households exiting chronic poverty. On the other hand, female gender and distance to the market increases the probability of persistence in chronic poverty. Present findings reveal that micro-credit access, gender, education and market access are key determinants of exit from rural poverty. Therefore through intensified micro-credit provision, education, women empowerment via legal rights to property and improvement of rural access roads, the poverty status could be ameliorated.

  19. Perspectives on African Studies and Development in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. de Haan (Leo)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: In this farewell lecture on the occasion of his departure as Professor of Development in sub-Saharan Africa at Leiden University and Director of the African Studies Centre (ASC), Leiden, the author starts with the vuvuzela issue as an illustration of the lack of confidence the

  20. Study Abroad in West Africa: An Interdisciplinary Program of International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Tony B.; Dozier, Cheryl D.; Hunt-Hurst, Patricia; Smith, Bettye P.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes development of an interdisciplinary study abroad program to West Africa at the University of Georgia to help students gain a global perspective. The program is interdisciplinary with several disciplines including social work, clothing and textile, history, and teacher education. This article discusses/highlights a need for a…

  1. Teacher Unionism and School Management: A Study of (Eastern Cape) Schools in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msila, Vuyisile

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a study that was conducted in 10 urban schools, situated in the city of Port Elizabeth in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The research explored the perceptions of school stakeholders with regard to the effects of power relations between teacher unions and school managers. It is assumed, within the context of this…

  2. Teaching Gender Studies via Open and Distance Learning in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Jessica; Byrne, Deirdre; Koenig-Visagie, Leandra

    2013-01-01

    The University of South Africa (UNISA) has recently redesigned its honors degree in Gender Studies. The course design team members have been mindful of three key factors while redesigning this degree. First, we are aligning our course design with the demands of open and distance learning (ODL) and UNISA's institutional move to online delivery…

  3. Is South Africa using trade remedies as a protectionist measure? Reflections on a court case: International Trade Administration Commission v. SCAW South Africa (2010 ZACC 6 (9 March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Beltrán Gómez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent decision of the South African Constitutional Court raises great concern on whether the leading economy of the continent and the role model country in Legal developments is taking a healthy route in deciding their international trade policy. As many other countries, South Africa might be experiencing problems with having two parallel regulations with moderately similar aims, but both with a different scope of reach. On the one hand, South Africa is an enthusiastic producer and enforcer of competition laws and policies that apply only locally, and gladly agrees to the international commitments of free trade. On the other hand, inside institutions are using the WTO agreements (more specifically the anti-dumping agreement to prevent competition from international economic rivals by hindering their access to the South African market. The importance of establishing whether South Africa uses trade remedies anti-competitively is also pertinent to the global debate. The way the biggest economy in Africa deals with the situation is useful in trying to find a response to the problem of anti-competitive trade remedies that suits the interests of Africa and that is globally feasible. This paper will explore these issues from the perspective of the constitutional court rulings in International Trade Administration Commission v SCAW South Africa, and it will try to find a way to reconcile competition and anti-dumping in this particular case with the final aim to use it as a possible tool in the construction of a harmonized system of international trade.

  4. Bringing ‘Light, Life and Happiness’:1 British American Tobacco and musicsponsorship in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Preeti; Okechukwu, Cassandra A; Collin, Jeff; HUGHES, BELINDA

    2009-01-01

    This article aims to provide a review of music sponsorship to market cigarettes in sub-Saharan Africa. Using analysis of previously secret corporate documents from British American Tobacco (BAT) and focusing on two separate case studies of sponsorship in Africa, Nigeria and South Africa, the paper illustrates how tobacco companies have sought to undermine health legislation from 1990 to 2001. Both case studies suggest that music is an important marketing tool in Africa because it can effectiv...

  5. Teaching Pharmacology by Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Sue

    1997-01-01

    Using pharmacology case studies with nursing students encourages theory-practice links and infuses real-life content. Cases provide rich qualitative data for evaluating curriculum. However, they are not a substitute for evidence-based practice. (SK)

  6. [Benign tumors of the ovary in young girls. Apropos of 3 cases in Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribault, L; Barthe, B L

    1989-05-01

    From three cases of benign ovarian tumors in young African girls, the authors study the diagnostic means, among which ultrasonography is currently predominant. They finally discuss therapeutic means, with surgery permitting a histological diagnosis. Follicular cysts require a more nuanced approach; because of possible regression, one may consider repeated taps during laparoscopy, as surgery is not indicated just in the case of complications. PMID:2740713

  7. High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Beylis Natalie C; Fairlie Lee; Reubenson Gary; Moore David P; Madhi Shabir A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and h...

  8. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  9. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kormos

    Full Text Available The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1 takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2 identifies priority offset sites, (3 promotes aggregated offsets, and (4 integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  10. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  11. Professional Development for Outcomes-Based Education Curriculum Implementation: The Case of UNIVEMALASHI, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwu, Gilbert O. M.; Mogari, David

    2004-01-01

    Following the implementation of the new Curriculum 2005, outcomes-based education, professional development is one of South Africa's national goals in the continuing reform of its education system. Most school teachers are not familiar with teaching outcomes-based education and need training to be able to do so. Project UNIVEMALASHI, a…

  12. Great Apes and Biodiversity Offset Projects in Africa: The Case for National Offset Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F.; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A.; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Rylands, Anthony B.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering “biodiversity offsets” as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available. PMID:25372894

  13. Competing Methods for Teaching and Researching Africa: Interdisciplinarity and the Field of African Studies

    OpenAIRE

    De Ycaza, Carla

    2015-01-01

    African Studies has evolved as an academic initiative dealing with research and scholarship on the cultures and societies of Africa. Many academic programs focusing on African Studies emerged in the 1960s on the heels of the first wave of African independence movements. Over time, African Studies has expanded to include a wide range of approaches to various disciplines, including history, anthropology, political science, sociology, economics, linguistics, religion and law, among others. Much ...

  14. Tuberculosis Case Fatality and Other Causes of Death among Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis Patients in a High HIV Prevalence Setting, 2000-2008, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Martie van der Walt; Joey Lancaster; Karen Shean

    2016-01-01

    Introduction South Africa has the highest reported rates of multi-drug resistant TB in Africa, typified by poor treatment outcomes, attributable mainly to high default and death rates. Concomitant HIV has become the strongest predictor of death among MDR-TB patients, while anti-retroviral therapy (ART) has dramatically reduced mortality. TB Case fatality rate (CFR) is an indicator that specifically reports on deaths due to TB. Aim The aim of this paper was to investigate causes of death among...

  15. A disseminated case of Buruli ulcer at Macenta in the forest region of Guinea in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bafende Aombe Eric; Strahm Stefan; Loua Richard.; Beavogui Galada Daniel; Kolie Valentin; Guilavogui Raphael; Keita Samba

    2012-01-01

    The author report a confirmed case of Buruli ulcer at Macenta in the forest region of Guinea in West Africa. An 8 years old girl came to the general hospital of Macenta located in the forest region of Guinea at 800km south-west of Conakry. Her story reveals that she used to swim in the local river of Man region in Ivory Coast. There is no notion of trauma or insect bite .The disease started 2 years ago by a nodule of the skin in her right leg which had ulcerated; she received various traditional treatments.

  16. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  17. Customs Modernization Initiatives : Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    De Wulf, Luc; José B. Sokol

    2004-01-01

    This volume presents case studies of customs modernization initiatives in eight developing countries: Bolivia, Ghana, Morocco, Mozambique, Peru, the Philippines, Turkey, and Uganda. The purpose of these case studies was to obtain a firsthand view of how these countries undertook customs reforms and to assess their success. The overall lessons learned from these studies are presented in cha...

  18. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different...

  19. Foreign ownership, sales to multinationals, and firm efficiency: The Case of Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda, Tidiane

    2009-01-01

    Using a one-step stochastic frontier model for five developing countries (Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam), we show that foreign firms benefit from a better investment climate, which significantly explains why they are more efficient than local firms. Unlike former studies, this paper uses the share of each firm’s sales to multinationals located in the country to assess the importance of vertical spillovers, and it controls for the direct impact of the investment climate ...

  20. Pattern of non-obstetric infectious recto-vaginal fistula: a case series and literature review in Cameroon, Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre Marie Tebeu; Roger Guy Michel Ekono; Jovanny Tsuala Fouogue; Gregory Ekane Halle; Joel Domgue Fokom; Charles Henry Rochat

    2016-01-01

    Background: Perineal infection is an uncommon cause of non-obstetrical recto-vaginal fistula (RVF) which is associated with HIV infection. Cameroon (Central Africa) is in the fistula belt but infectious RVFs have not yet been deeply studied in the country. We therefore sought to determine the pattern of non-obstetric infectious RVF in Cameroon. Methods: We carried out a cross-sectional and descriptive review of non-obstetric infectious RVFs managed at the Yaound and eacute; University Teac...

  1. Patterns of co-movement between a developed and emerging market economy: The case of South Africa and Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Alain Kabundi; Elsabé Loots

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the co-movement between a leading first-world economy (Germany) and an emerging market economy (South Africa) by applying a dynamic factor model. These countries have been chosen as proxies to analyse the channels of transmission of positive supply and demand shocks in developed economies and the effects of these on emerging market economies. The study concludes that supply and demand shocks in developed economies do not necessarily have similar effects in emerging marke...

  2. A Qualitative Study of Patient Motivation to Adhere to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    van Loggerenberg, F; Gray, D.; Gengiah, S; Kunene, P; Gengiah, TN; Naidoo, K.; Grant, AD

    2015-01-01

    Taken as prescribed, that is, with high adherence, combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) has changed HIV infection and disease from being a sure predictor of death to a manageable chronic illness. Adherence, however, is difficult to achieve and maintain. The CAPRISA 058 study was conducted between 2007 and 2009 to test the efficacy of individualized motivational counselling to enhance ART adherence in South Africa. As part of the overall trial, a qualitative sub-study was conducted, includ...

  3. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sam O. Wajuihian; Rekha Hansraj

    2014-01-01

    Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive p...

  4. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Snyman, Maritha E

    2016-01-01

    The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading pr...

  5. An overview of industrial and organisational psychology research in South Africa: A preliminary study

    OpenAIRE

    Dries Schreuder; Melinde Coetzee

    2010-01-01

    Orientation: The generation and development of knowledge for the benefit of the discipline of industrial and organisational psychology by means of research is a core academic focus.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore general research trends in the field of industrial and organisational psychology in South Africa from 1950 to 2008.Motivation for study: Research in the field tends to be influenced by either the changing needs of business or the occupational or personal fi...

  6. Theorizing Social Justice Ambiguities in an Era of Neoliberalism: The Case of Postapartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subreenduth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Sharon Subreenduth explores how social justice policies have both global-local and historical dynamics and maintains that, as a result, dominant Western models of social justice limit engagement with alternative modes of understanding social justice in non-Western locations. She uses the South African experience as a case study for…

  7. Reproductive health and AIDS prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case for increased male participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbizvo, M T; Bassett, M T

    1996-03-01

    Reproduction is a dual commitment, but so often in much of the world, it is seen as wholly the woman's responsibility. She bears the burden not only of pregnancy and childbirth but also the threats from excessive child bearing, some responsibility for contraception, infertility investigation and often undiagnosed sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) including AIDS. Failure to target men in reproductive health interventions has weakened the impact of reproductive health care programmes. The paper proposes that sophisticated and dynamic strategies in Africa and elsewhere which target women's reproductive health and research (such as control of STDs including AIDS, family planning, infertility investigation) require complementary linkage to the study and education of men. Men's perceptions, as well as determinants of sexual behavioural change and the socioeconomic context in which STDs, including AIDS, become rife, should be reviewed. There is a need to study and foster change to reduce or prevent poor reproductive health outcomes; to identify behaviours which could be adversely affecting women's reproductive health. Issues of gender, identity and tolerance as expressed through sexuality and procreation need to be amplified in the context of present risks in reproductive health. Researchers and providers often ignore the social significance of men. This paper reviews the impact of male dominance, as manifested through reproductive health and sexual decisions, against the background of present reproductive health problems. A research agenda should define factors at both macro and micro levels that interact to adversely impinge on reproductive health outcomes. This should be followed up by well-developed causal models of the determinants of positive reproductive health-promoting behaviours. Behaviour specific influences in sexual partnership include the degree of interpersonal support towards prevention, for example, of STDs, unwanted pregnancy or maternal deaths

  8. Bank Privatization in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Uganda Commercial Bank

    OpenAIRE

    Clarke, George R. G.; Cull, Robert; Fuchs, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Because large state-owned banks are often the only financial service providers in remote areas of low-income countries, policymakers worry that even if privatization improves performance, it might reduce access. We study this issue through a case study: the privatization of Uganda Commercial Bank (UCB) to the South African bank Stanbic. Though market segmentation remains a concern since Stanbic faces little or no direct competition in many remote areas, some innovative aspects of the sales ag...

  9. Systematic review of the magnitude and case fatality ratio for severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa between 1995 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakaire Othman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses provides information on the quality of care. We assessed the prevalence/incidence of maternal near miss, maternal mortality and case fatality ratio through systematic review of studies on severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We examined studies that reported prevalence/incidence of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period between 1996 and 2010. We evaluated the quality of studies (objectives, study design, population studied, setting and context, definition of severe acute obstetric morbidity and data collection instruments. We extracted data, using a pre-defined protocol and criteria, and estimated the prevalence or incidence of maternal near miss. The case-fatality ratios for reported maternal complications were estimated. Results We identified 12 studies: six were cross-sectional, five were prospective and one was a retrospective review of medical records. There was variation in the setting: while some studies were health facility-based (at the national referral hospital, regional hospital or various district hospitals, others were community-based studies. The sample size varied from 557 women to 23,026. Different definitions and terminologies for maternal near miss included acute obstetric complications, severe life threatening obstetric complications and severe obstetric complications. The incidence/prevalence ratio and case-fatality ratio for maternal near misses ranged from 1.1%-10.1% and 3.1%-37.4% respectively. Ruptured uterus, sepsis, obstructed labor and hemorrhage were the commonest morbidities that were analyzed. The incidence/prevalence ratio of hemorrhage ranged from 0.06% to 3.05%, while the case fatality ratio for hemorrhage ranged from 2.8% to 27.3%. The prevalence/incidence ratio for sepsis ranged from 0.03% to 0.7%, while the case fatality ratio ranged from 0.0% to 72

  10. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus on...... the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications...... for research design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes...

  11. The reemergence of state-centred power sector reform: the case of South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power sector in South Africa is dominated by the state-owned, vertically integrated utility, Eskom. An Energy Policy White Paper and subsequent Cabinet decisions laid out a path of managed liberalisation. However, government still experiences ambivalence and doubts around restructuring. The 'standard' model of power sector reform of the past decade - vertical and horizontal unbundling, wholesale and retail competition and privatisation - has, in effect, been abandoned by South Africa, and increasingly by many other developing countries. This does not mean that governments will accept inefficient utilities. There is a still a commitment to ensure improved performance by state-owned enterprises through appropriate governance and regulation. Capital constrained countries will also open up space for private investments - mostly within the framework of a 'hybrid market' where the state utility remains dominant. What remains to be seen is whether the investment mistakes of the past can be obviated and whether security of supply can be achieved at an acceptable price. (Author)

  12. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  13. SMME MODEL FOR ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AN EMPIRICAL CASE FOR THE NORTHERN CAPE PROVINCE OF SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Venditto

    2004-01-01

    South Africa has been facing the double challenge of integrating into global markets as a competitive economy and of overcoming the internal problems created and constantly reinforced by the previous regime. To realize the objective of economic growth through competitiveness on the one hand and employment generation and income distribution on the other, the small business sector assumes a critical role. In order to be conducive to economic growth and employment creation, small business develo...

  14. Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Hesseling Anneke C; Whitelaw Andrew; Marais Ben J; Schaaf H Simon; Eley Brian; Hussey Gregory D; Donald Peter R

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described. Methods Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from children less than 13 years of age at Tygerberg and Red Cross Children's Hospitals, Cape Town, South Africa, were collected from March 2003 through February 2005. Folder review and chest radiography were performed and drug susceptibility tests done. Results Of 596 children ...

  15. Estimating the Causal Effect of Enforcement on Minimum Wage Compliance : The Case of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon Bhorat; Ravi Kanbur; Natasha Mayet

    2011-01-01

    This paper attempts to estimate the causal effect of government enforcement on compliance with minimum wages in South Africa, a country where considerable non-compliance exists. The number of labour inspectors per capita is used as a proxy for enforcement, whilst non-compliance is measured using an index of violation that measures both the proportion of individuals violated, as well as the average depth of individual violation. Due to the potential simultaneity between enforcement and complia...

  16. Does multinationals socially responsible in Sub-Sahara Africa? Case of AREVA in Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Youssoufou, Hamadou Daouda

    2014-01-01

    Societal actions in terms of CSR of the French nuclear group in Niger contrast with stakeholders charges against him (pollution, degradation of the environment, groundwater contamination, etc.) and certain realities observed on the field (armed conflict, poverty, social inequalities, disintegration of the local economy). This paper proposes to shed light on the issues and controversies related to the practice of CSR in Africa in general, those related to Areva group in Niger in...

  17. Household Formation, Poverty and Unemployment – The Case of Rural Households in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sonja Keller

    2004-01-01

    The paper examines household formation and composition decisions within the context of risk reduction and risk mitigation strategies of the poor in South Africa. A multi-level heckprobit estimator is employed in order to capture the influence of various factors at the individual, household and regional level, and we focus on the implications of the presence of pensioners and the unemployment on household composition and structure. Results are consistent with earlier findings that pensions are...

  18. The price of corporate social responsibility: The case of black economic empowerment transactions in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jackson, William E.; Todd M Alessandri; Black, Sylvia Sloan

    2005-01-01

    Since the demise of apartheid in South Africa, corporations have been encouraged to participate in the governmental goal of increasing corporate ownership by the black majority population. One vehicle that has arisen to help facilitate an increase in corporate ownership has been black economic empowerment (BEE) transactions. BEE transactions are essentially private placements of equity. Firms that have taken this socially activist position of selling portions of their equity, usually at a sub...

  19. Improving Unsustainable Environmental Governance in South Africa: the Case for Holistic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Kotze

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law in South Africa has developed in a rapid fashion since the inception of the new constitutional dispensation in 1994. This development is evident from, inter alia, the constitutionalisation of the environmental right in section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 24 contains amongst other provisions, directive principles that impose duties on government to protect the environment for present and future generations through reasonable legislative and other measures. It is apparent from section 24 that these measures should ensure environmental governance practices that are aimed at the achievement of sustainable results. The South African environmental governance regime is, however, characterised by fragmentation that may negate the achievement of sustainable environmental governance. It is argued in this article that, for environmental governance to become sustainable, it is necessary to integrate environmental governance efforts, possibly by way of a holistic approach to environmental governance. In light of the above, this article: investigates the nature and extent of fragmentation; explores reasons for fragmentation; discusses disadvantages of fragmented governance efforts in South Africa; investigates the concept of integration and holistic governance as means to achieve sustainable environmental governance results; and makes recommendations regarding the eventual achievement of integrated, holistic and sustainable environmental governance.

  20. African horse sickness surveillance systems and regionalisation/zoning: the case of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosman, P; Brückner, G K; Faul, A

    1995-09-01

    Central and Southern Africa are generally regarded as being endemic areas for African horse sickness (AHS). With the advent of the concepts of risk analysis and regionalisation/zoning, however, the possibility has now arisen of establishing 'zones' within South Africa for AHS surveillance purposes. In 1993, a protocol was submitted to the European Community (now European Union: EU), proposing the establishment of an AHS-free zone in the Cape peninsula. The proposal is based on historical evidence that AHS virus overwinters (in zebra) only in the Kruger National Park, from where it spreads westwards and southwards every year. The infection only extends to the Western Cape Province once every fifteen years. A ban on vaccination in the proposed AHS-free zone has been suggested, together with strict control of the movement of horses into and through this zone. The entire equine population of this zone (some 8,000 animals) would serve as sentinels. All equine mortalities would be notifiable, with mandatory post-mortem examinations. The establishment of an insect-free quarantine station in this zone would enable the movement of certified AHS virus-free horses from South Africa to the EU and the rest of the world. PMID:8593398

  1. Climate change mitigation by carbon stock - the case of semi-arid West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykke, A. M.; Barfod, A. S.; Tinggaard Svendsen, G.; Greve, M.; Svenning, J.-C.

    2009-11-01

    Semi-arid West Africa has not been integrated into the afforestation/reforestation (AR) carbon market. Most projects implemented under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have focused on carbon emission reductions from industry and energy consumption, whereas only few (only one in West Africa) have been certified for AR carbon sequestration. A proposed mechanism, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) to be discussed under COP15 aims to reduce emissions by conserving already existing forests. REDD has high potential for carbon stocking at low costs, but focuses primarily on rain forest countries and excludes semi-arid West Africa from the preliminary setup. African savannas have potential to store carbon in the present situation with degrading ecosystems and relatively low revenues from crops and cattle, especially if it is possible to combine carbon stocking with promotion of secondary crops such as food resources and traditional medicines harvested on a sustainable basis. Methods for modelling and mapping of potential carbon biomass are being developed, but are still in a preliminary state. Although economic benefits from the sale of carbon credits are likely to be limited, carbon stocking is an interesting option if additional benefits are considered such as improved food security and protection of biodiversity.

  2. Climate change mitigation by carbon stock - the case of semi-arid West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semi-arid West Africa has not been integrated into the afforestation/reforestation (AR) carbon market. Most projects implemented under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) have focused on carbon emission reductions from industry and energy consumption, whereas only few (only one in West Africa) have been certified for AR carbon sequestration. A proposed mechanism, Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) to be discussed under COP15 aims to reduce emissions by conserving already existing forests. REDD has high potential for carbon stocking at low costs, but focuses primarily on rain forest countries and excludes semi-arid West Africa from the preliminary setup. African savannas have potential to store carbon in the present situation with degrading ecosystems and relatively low revenues from crops and cattle, especially if it is possible to combine carbon stocking with promotion of secondary crops such as food resources and traditional medicines harvested on a sustainable basis. Methods for modelling and mapping of potential carbon biomass are being developed, but are still in a preliminary state. Although economic benefits from the sale of carbon credits are likely to be limited, carbon stocking is an interesting option if additional benefits are considered such as improved food security and protection of biodiversity.

  3. Case Studies on Sustainable Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, Sam CM

    2005-01-01

    This web site is developed with the aim to promote sustainable design and planning of buildings. A knowledge base of case studies and resources has been established to illustrate the sustainable design strategies and features in realistic building projects all over the world. The database of case studies can be searched by project names, locations, design strategies and design features.

  4. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  5. The Big Read: Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Endowment for the Arts, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Big Read evaluation included a series of 35 case studies designed to gather more in-depth information on the program's implementation and impact. The case studies gave readers a valuable first-hand look at The Big Read in context. Both formal and informal interviews, focus groups, attendance at a wide range of events--all showed how…

  6. Modern food retailing buying behaviour in Africa: the case of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where the...... buying task involves balancing the retailer’s commercial interests with more stringent government regulations that shape food business in the region. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study approach was used for the study. The researcher used semi-structured interviews with retailers for...... data collection and corroborated them with secondary data. Data were thematically analysed. Findings – The study shows that the criteria used by modern food retailers in the selection of local food suppliers are reliability, quality, trade credit and legal certification. The task is further complicated...

  7. Performance Analysis of Science Education Undergraduates: A Case Study of Biology Education Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochonogor, Chukunoye Enunuwe

    2011-01-01

    The problem of the study was to analyze the results of university biology education students as a case study against gender and performance and empirically determine the implications of the findings to countries, such as Nigeria, South Africa and the rest of the world. The study made use of all the 344 students in the levels from 100 to 400 of…

  8. Kickstarter - A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Willumsen, Ea Christina; Byg-Fabritius, Edith Ursula Tvede

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an investigation of the online crowdfunding platform Kickstarter, and discusses what makes a Kickstarter campaign successful. Two previous Kickstarter campaigns have been debated in focus groups interviews, as the basis of the study is a reception analysis of two focus group interviews. Ee apply theories from Schrøder (2000) and Batey (2008) to our analysis to study how the campaigns appeal to their backers. By drawing on ideas from Rogers (2003) and Pine & Gilmore (1998), we fu...

  9. Qualitative study exploring healthy eating practices and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sedibe, Heather M; Kahn, Kathleen; Edin, Kerstin; Gitau, Tabitha; Ivarsson, Anneli; Norris, Shane A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary behaviours and physical activity are modifiable risk factors to address increasing levels of obesity among children and adolescents, and consequently to reduce later cardiovascular and metabolic disease. This paper explores perceptions, attitudes, barriers, and facilitators related to healthy eating and physical activity among adolescent girls in rural South Africa. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted in the rural Agincourt subdistrict, covered by a health and socio...

  10. Retrospective study on the incidence of Salmonella isolations in animals in South Africa, 1996 to 2006

    OpenAIRE

    A. Kidanemariam; Engelbrecht, M.; Picard, J

    2010-01-01

    A retrospective study that involves the analysis of laboratory diagnostic data collected during the period 1996-2006 was conducted. A total of 3417 Salmonella isolations involving 183 different serotypes was recorded from 1999-2006, inclusive, at the Onderstepoort Veterinary Institute, Agricultural Research Council, South Africa. The most common serotypes were Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium (917 incidents), Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Dublin (2...

  11. Community and research staff collaboration for development of materials to inform microbicide study participants in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Cynthia Woodsong; John Michael Mutsambi; Smangalisa Ntshele; Peggy Modikoe

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Clinical trials of new vaginal products require careful communication with participants about trial requirements. Most microbicide trials have been multi-site studies conducted among women in sub-Saharan Africa, where literacy levels and understanding of scientific methods differ from those designing and conducting the trials. Microbicide trials require women to insert objects in their vagina and ensure they are present in the vagina during sex. For many women, this is a novel b...

  12. Third-line antiretroviral therapy in Africa: effectiveness in a Southern African retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Meintjes, Graeme; Dunn, Liezl; Coetsee, Marla; Hislop, Michael; Leisegang, Rory; Regensberg, Leon; Maartens, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Background An increasing number of patients in Africa are experiencing virologic failure on second-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) and those who develop resistance to protease inhibitors (PI) will require third-line ART, but no data on the outcomes of third-line are available from the region. We assessed the virologic outcomes and survival of patients started on salvage ART in a Southern African private sector disease management programme. Methods Retrospective observational cohort study wi...

  13. Healer shopping in Africa: new evidence from rural-urban qualitative study of diabetes experiences

    OpenAIRE

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To provide counterevidence to existing literature on healer shopping in Africa through a systematic analysis of illness practices by Ghanaians with diabetes; to outline approaches towards improving patient centred health care and policy development regarding diabetes in Ghana. Design Longitudinal qualitative study with individual interviews, group interviews, and ethnographies. Settings Two urban towns (Accra, Tema) and two rural towns (Nkoranza and Kintampo) in Ghana...

  14. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Blaauw, Duane; Ditlopo, Prudence; Rispel, Laetitia C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013.Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qual...

  15. Case study - Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antecedents and experience of nuclear activities in Argentina; the Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA). First development and research activities. Research reactors and radioisotopes plants. Health physics and safety regulations. - Feasibility studies for the first nuclear power plant. Awarding the first plant CNA I (Atucha I). Relevant data related to the different project stages. Plant performance. - Feasibility study for the second nuclear power plant. Awarding the second plant CNE (Central Nuclear Embalse). Relevant data related to established targets. Differences compared with the first station targets. Local participation. Plant performance. (orig./GL)

  16. Meta-Analysis of a Multi-Ethnic, Breast Cancer Case-Control Targeted Sequencing Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ablorh, Akweley

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer, the most commonly diagnosed cancer in American women, is a heritable disease with nearly one hundred known genetic risk factors. Using next generation sequencing, we explored the contribution of genetics at 12 GWAS-identified loci to breast cancer susceptibility in a multi-ethnic breast cancer case-control study. Methods: The study population consists of 4,611 breast cancer cases and controls (2,316 cases and 2,295 controls) from four mutually exclusive ethnicities: Africa...

  17. UN Peacekeeping (determining a success in the selected cases of peacekeeping operations in Africa)

    OpenAIRE

    Bundzíková, Iveta

    2012-01-01

    Master's Thesis aims to determine a success of UN peacekeeping operations in case studies of Namibia and Somalia. Literature dealing with evaluation of multidimensional peacekeeping operations is still developing and presents a dynamic field that requires further research. Definition of a success is crucial in planning and evaluation of peacekeeping operations. Challenge of such evaluation is caused by complexity of multidimensional peacekeeping, myriad definitions of a success, as well as su...

  18. Community perspectives on HIV, violence and health surveillance in rural South Africa: a participatory pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitya Hullur 1

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available South Africa faces a complex burden of disease consisting of infectious and non–communicable conditions, injury and interpersonal violence, and maternal and child mortality. Inequalities in income and opportunity push disease burdens towards vulnerable populations, a situation to which the health system struggles to respond. There is an urgent need for health planning to account for the needs of marginalized groups in this context. The study objectives were to develop a process to elicit the perspectives of local communities in the established Agincourt health and socio-demographic surveillance site (HDSS in rural north–east South Africa on two leading causes of death: HIV/AIDS and violent assault, and on health surveillance as a means to generate information on health in the locality.

  19. Causes of death on antiretroviral therapy: a post-mortem study from South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily B Wong

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mortality in the first months of antiretroviral therapy (ART is a significant clinical problem in sub-Saharan Africa. To date, no post-mortem study has investigated the causes of mortality in these patients. METHODS: HIV-positive adults who died as in-patients at a Johannesburg academic hospital underwent chart-review and ultrasound-guided needle autopsy for histological and microbiological examination of lung, liver, spleen, kidney, bone marrow, lymph node, skin and cerebrospinal fluid. A clinico-pathologic committee considered all available data and adjudicated immediate and contributing causes of death. RESULTS: Thirty-nine adults were enrolled: 14 pre-ART, 15 early-ART (7-90 days, and 10 late-ART (>90 days. Needle sampling yielded adequate specimen in 100% of kidney, skin, heart and cerebrospinal fluid samples, 97% of livers and lungs, 92% of bone marrows, 87% of spleens and 68% of lymph nodes. Mycobacterial infections were implicated in 69% of deaths (26 of 27 of these due to M. tuberculosis, bacterial infections in 33%, fungal infections in 21%, neoplasm in 26%, and non-infectious organ failure in 26%. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS was implicated in 73% of early-ART deaths. Post-mortem investigations revealed previously undiagnosed causes of death in 49% of cases. Multiple pathologies were common with 62% of subjects with mycobacterial infection also having at least one other infectious or neoplastic cause of death. CONCLUSIONS: Needle biopsy was efficient and yielded excellent pathology. The large majority of deaths in all three groups were caused by M. tuberculosis suggesting an urgent need for improved diagnosis and expedited treatment prior to and throughout the course of antiretroviral therapy. Complex, unrecognized co-morbidities pose an additional challenge.

  20. Geostatistical case studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this volume of contributed chapters is to present a series of applications of geostatistics. These range from a careful variographic analysis on uranium data, through detailed studies on geologically complex deposits, right up to the latest nonlinear methods applied to deposits with highly skewed data contributions. Applications of new techniques such as the external drift method for combining well data with seismic information have also been included. The volume emphasizes geostatistics in practice. Notation has been kept to a minimum and mathematical details have been relegated to annexes

  1. [Retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in West Africa from 1970 to 2003].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couacy-Hymann, E; Aplogan, G L; Sangaré, O; Compaoré, Z; Karimu, J; Awoueme, K A; Seini, A; Martin, V; Valarcher, J F

    2006-12-01

    A retrospective study of foot and mouth disease in seven West African countries was conducted for the period 1970 to 2003. The study included three cattle-exporting Sahel countries (Burkina-Faso, Mali and Niger) and four cattle-importing coastal countries (Benin, Côte d'lvoire, Ghana and Togo). Foot and mouth disease has been enzootic in these countries since 1990/1991. Four of the seven serotypes are regularly notified (O, A, SAT 1 and SAT 2). In the seven countries as a whole, 198 biological samples from identified foot and mouth disease outbreaks confirmed the involvement of the following serotypes: O (62 outbreaks); A (32 outbreaks); SAT 1 (18 outbreaks); SAT 2 (86 outbreaks). This result, which is largely underestimated, clearly demonstrates the seriousness of foot and mouth disease in West Africa, whose livestock production system characterised by continual uncontrolled animal movements facilitates the spread of the disease. Unlike in Southern Africa, for foot and mouth disease to be controlled in West Africa it is necessary immediately to introduce a regional strategy involving all countries which takes into account the real situation in the field: transhumance, nomadism and live-animal imports by coastal countries. PMID:17361767

  2. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999. We validated our epidemic projections using antenatal clinic data on HIV prevalence. We simulated annual praziquantel administration to school-age children. We then used these model predictions to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of annual administration of praziquantel as a potential measure to reduce the burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. FINDINGS: We showed that for a variation of efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the enhanced risk of HIV transmission per sexual act due to FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children in Zimbabwe could result in net savings of US$16-101 million compared with no mass treatment of schistosomiasis over a ten-year period. For a variation in efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the acquisition of FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children could result in net savings of US$36-92 million over a ten-year period. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to reducing schistosomiasis burden, mass praziquantel administration may be a highly cost-effective way of reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Program costs per case of HIV averted are similar to, and under some conditions much better than, other interventions that are currently implemented in Africa to reduce HIV transmission. As a cost-saving strategy, mass

  3. [Louse-borne-relapsing-fever in refugees from the Horn of Africa; a case series of 25 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seilmaier, M; Guggemos, W; Wieser, A; Fingerle, V; Balzer, L; Fenzl, T; Hoch, M; von Both, U; Schmidt, H U; Wendtner, C M; Strobel, E

    2016-07-01

    Background | Relapsing fever is divided into tick borne relapsing fever (TBRF) and louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF). This report describes 25 refugees from East Africa who were diagnosed to suffer from LBRF within a period of 6 month only at a single hospital in Munich / Germany. Material & Methods | The aim was to point out common clinical features as well as laboratory findings and clinical symptoms before and after initiation of treatment in 25 patients with louse borne relapsing fever (LBRF) who were diagnosed and treated at Klinikum München Schwabing from August 2015 to January 2016. To the best of our knowledge this is the largest case series of LBRF in the western world for decades. Main focus of the investigation was put on clinical aspects. Results | All 25 patients suffered from acute onset of high fever with chills, headache and severe prostration. Laboratory analysis showed high CRP and a marked thrombocytopenia. A Giemsa blood stain was procured immediately in order to look for malaria. In the blood smear spirochetes with typical shape and aspect of borrelia species could be detected.The further PCR analysis confirmed infection with Borrelia recurrentis. Treatment with Doxycycline was started forthwith. The condition improved already on the second day after treatment was started and all were restored to health in less than a week. Apart from a mild to moderate Jarisch-Herxheimer-reaction we didn`t see any side effects of the therapy. Conclusion | LBRF has to be taken into account in feverish patients who come as refugees from East-Africa. It seems that our patients belong to a cluster which probably has its origin in Libya and more patients are to be expected in the near future. As LBRF might cause outbreaks in refugee camps it is pivotal to be aware of this emerging infectious disease in refugees from East-Africa. PMID:27404939

  4. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  5. Nursing education reform in South Africa – lessons from a policy analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nursing education reform is identified as an important strategy for enhancing health workforce performance, and thereby improving the functioning of health systems. Globally, a predominant trend in such reform is towards greater professionalisation and university-based education. Related nursing education reform in South Africa culminated in a new Framework for Nursing Qualifications in 2013. Objective: We undertook a policy analysis study of the development of the new Nursing Qualifications Framework in South Africa. Design: We used a policy analysis framework derived from Walt and Gilson that interrogated the context, content, actors, and processes of policy development and implementation. Following informed consent, in-depth interviews were conducted with 28 key informants from national and provincial government; the South African Nursing Council; the national nursing association; nursing academics, managers, and educators; and other nursing organisations. The interviews were complemented with a review of relevant legislation and policy documents. Documents and interview transcripts were coded thematically using Atlas-ti software. Results: The revision of nursing qualifications was part of the post-apartheid transformation of nursing, but was also influenced by changes in the education sector. The policy process took more than 10 years to complete and the final Regulations were promulgated in 2013. The two most important changes are the requirement for a baccalaureate degree to qualify as a professional nurse and abolishing the enrolled nurse with 2 years training in favour of a staff nurse with a 3-year college diploma. Respondents criticised slow progress, weak governance by the Nursing Council and the Department of Health, limited planning for implementation, and the inappropriateness of the proposals for South Africa. Conclusions: The study found significant weaknesses in the policy capacity of the main institutions

  6. An Exploratory Descriptive Study on Task Shifting in East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spies, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of nurse leaders in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda who have taken on expanded roles through task shifting. Understanding how nurses perceive task shifting directs education and training to more effectively meet population health needs in their communities. Participants were nurse leaders in countries with complex health care systems and few resources. Participants identified conflicting roles and expectations that were not consistent with their role preparation or scope of practice. PMID:27149234

  7. Studies on Otter in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rowe-Rowe

    1994-10-01

    Full Text Available The first stage of a project on South African otters in the mountainous Natal Drakensberg Park has been completed. The basic aim was to obtain indications of area requirements and relative abundance along three rivers within the park, as well as on farmland immediately outside the park. The two species involved were Cape clawless otter Aonyx capensis and spotted-necked otter Lutra maculicollis. Caterina Carugati, who completed the first stage of the project (one year of fieldwork, has now been joined by Ilaria D'lnzillo Carranza. They are limiting their study area to one of the rivers surveyed by Caterina, the Mooi River in the Kamberg area of the Drakensberg. More refined techniques will be employed, such as radio telemetry and the injection of isotopes, and the study has been expanded to include the water mongoose Atilax paludinosus. The aims are to obtain data on area requirements, social organisation, and niche overlap of the three amphibious carnivores. To date three spotted necked otters have been captured and fitted with radio transmitters. As far as is known, this is the first telemetry study on this species.

  8. Development or Underdevelopment: The Case of Non-Governmental Organizations in Neoliberal Sub-Saharan Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maureen Kihika

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of persistent development crisis, there is anexplosive growth in the presence of multi-lateral Western NonGovernmental Organizations (NGOS and other privately fundedcharitable organizations in the developing world, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Although the objective of the various developmentagencies is to reduce poverty and foster development for marginalpopulations, the effectiveness of their mission is ultimately dependent on thenderlying framework of neoliberalism. Essentially, the global conomic system of neoliberalism is not equipped as an all inclusivesystem that seeks to bridge social-economic inequality but is instead, abiased system which Porter and Craig (2004 describe as geneticallyoriented to protecting existing property rights and providing for theirexpansion. Given the prejudicial nature of the economic system therefore,it is difficult to see the work of NGOS as anything more than temporaryand ineffective band-aid solutions to Africa’s recurring nightmare ofpoverty and underdevelopment. In this vain, this paper argues that it isimperative to question whether the recent upsurge of developmentinitiatives is a genuine call for development, or just another tacticalmaneuver that favors the propertied and the powerful at the expense of thepoor. The Poverty Reduction Strategy Papers (PRSPS and theMillennium Development Goals (MDGS have hereby been used as themost recent frames of reference for multi-lateral developmentinterventions in Africa. I question whether these development policies,infused with apoliticized language that everyone agrees with, will offerany real hope for a different world free from poverty. Overall, this papergives a short historical account of neoliberalism in Africa as auniversalizing discourse whose fundamentals have historically taken forgranted socio-economic and cultural diversities. It also discusses recentneoliberal social engineering as a carefully organized system that istaking place

  9. Constitutional Design and Conflict Management in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kuperman Alan J.

    2013-01-01

    The CDCM project explores whether and how constitutional reform could reduce political instability and violence in Africa, by addressing the question in three steps. First, case studies of seven African countries identify how at key turning points the domestic political institutions either mitigated – or exacerbated – violent outcomes. Second, an unprecedented database of constitutional design in all of Africa reveals that most countries on the continent have highly centralized political inst...

  10. Teaching astronomy with case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Timothy F.

    2015-11-01

    Breaking the students into small, collaborative learning groups to solve a meaningful task together is one of the most successful and fully evaluated teaching techniques implemented over the last century. Although there are many ways to accomplish small group learning, a long-standing and consistently successful collaborative class activity is to use the case study teaching strategy. The use of case studies is common in medical schools and law schools, but not so common in the teaching of astronomy. Case studies create meaningful conversations among students and with the professor by focusing on life-like dilemmas to be solved. Case study tasks ask audience members to synthesize several ideas or evaluate scenarios that have not been explicitly presented to them in the lecture or in available readings.

  11. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  12. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (CHICAGO, IL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  13. HYDROGEOLOGIC CASE STUDIES (DENVER PRESENTATION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  14. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  15. After Marikana: Rethinking Conflict Resolution in Africa: The South African Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin John Bradshaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Analytical Conflict Resolution School approach to achieve a deeper understanding of South Africa’s post-apartheid era. It argues that South Africa is an example of ‘protracted social conflict,’ because it displays a fundamental communal aspect, evinces a strong ‘human needs’ element, its pre-settlement condition had resulted in strongly authoritarian government, and it displayed a dependency in its foreign relations. While South Africa transcended traditional conflict resolution methodology with its National Peace Accord and Truth and Reconciliation Commission, neither of these processes was seen through to its end and, as a result, the South African conflict resolution process remains in limbo. This is coupled with a rising internal level of strain expressed in racial tension, violence, migration and economic frustration. A way out of this current malaise is the institutionalization of conflict management through its inclusion in the school curricula, the establishment of conflict management systems to deal with lower-level conflicts, and the building of needs-satisfying institutional arrangements throughout the society, enabling government to be more sensitive to the needs of the people.

  16. The Future of the Food System: Cases Involving the Private Sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The food system is facing unprecedented pressure from environmental change exacerbated by the expansion of agri-food corporations that are consolidating their power in the global food chain. Although Africa missed the Green Revolution and the wave of supermarket expansion that hit the West and then spread to Asia and Latin America, this is unlikely to continue. With a large proportion of sub-Saharan African countries’ GDP still heavily reliant on agriculture, global trends in agri-food business are having an increasing impact on African countries. South Africa, a leader in agribusiness on the continent, has a well-established agri-food sector that is facing increasing pressure from various social and environmental sources. This paper uses interview data with corporate executives from South African food businesses to explore how they are adapting to the dual pressures of environmental change and globalisation. It shows that companies now have to adapt to macro-trends both within and outside the formal food sector and how this in turn has repercussions for building sustainable farming systems—both small and large-scale. It concludes with the recognition that building a sustainable food system is a complex process involving a diversity of actors, however changes are already being seen. Businesses have strategically recognised the need to align the economic bottom line with social and environmental factors, but real sustainability will only happen when all stakeholders are included in food governance.

  17. Awareness Towards Chain of Custody Certification in Africa: the Case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan ATTAH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM. To date about 126,000 ha of forests have been certified by the different certification schemes in Africa, despite Africa accounting for 17% of the World�s forest cover. This has been due to the lack of awareness on forest certification and the low standards of forest management in the tropics. The authors conducted a survey of representative stakeholders, in particular export timber firms in Ghana to identify why Chain of Custody certification in the Ghana Timber sector remains undeveloped. A number of 103 stakeholders were consulted. Results collated indicate that the readiness to adopt chain of custody certification among the sector was low. The lack of a national scheme was cited as the primary reasons deterring the sector from adopting certification.

  18. The Digital Board in a University Setting: Two Real Cases in Europe and East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertarelli, Fabio; Corradini, Matteo; Guaraldi, Giacomo; Genovese, Elisabetta; Kilwake, Juma; Mutua, Stephen

    Usually the digital board is thought of as a tool that can only be used beneficially in the context of primary school, secondary school or in a situation of learning handicap. In this case study we want to highlight how the new tools can be used in more broad settings such as teaching in scientific and technical universities. The easy adoption of all useful software on the market to the use of these tools makes them an innovative element in the teaching techniques of the future.

  19. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardon, Anita; Desclaux, Alice; Egrot, Marc; Simon, Emmanuelle; Micollier, Evelyne; Kyakuwa, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1) identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2) explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3) reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4) define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia) that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not) with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels. PMID:18616794

  20. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Emmanuelle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1 identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2 explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3 reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4 define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels.

  1. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gummow

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farmand serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  2. Meeting information needs of patients with incurable progressive disease and their families in South Africa and Uganda: multicentre qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Selman, Lucy; Higginson, Irene J; Agupio, Godfrey; Dinat, Natalya; Downing, Julia; Gwyther, Liz; Mashao, Thandi; Mmoledi, Keletso; Moll, Anthony P.; Sebuyira, Lydia Mpanga; Panajatovic, Barbara; Harding, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To explore the information needs of patients with progressive, life limiting disease and their family caregivers in South Africa and Uganda and to inform clinical practice and policy in this emerging field. Design Semistructured qualitative interview study. Setting Four palliative care services in South Africa and one in Uganda, covering rural, urban, and peri-urban locations. Participants 90 patients and 38 family caregivers enrolled in palliative care services; 28 patients had ca...

  3. Ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis of Dorper sheep in South Africa : a study on its aetiology and clinical features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kidanemariam

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovine ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis in sheep of the Dorper breed has been observed in South Africa since 1979. Its aetiology has not been conclusively resolved, and there is some discrepancy in descriptions of its clinical features. In order to identify the pathogenic microorganism / s that contribute to the occurrence of the disease, the microflora in the genital tracts of both clinically healthy and affected sheep were isolated and compared. Bacteriological examination of materials from affected and unaffected sheep resulted in the isolation of Arcanobacterium pyogenes from 44.2 % and 17.2 % of them respectively. This difference is statistically significant (P < 0.01. Seventy-four per cent of the isolates originated from severe clinical cases. Mycoplasmas were isolated from 49.3 % of 116 clinically normal sheep and 78.2%of 104 affected sheep. There were significant differences in their rates of isolation in clinical groups (P < 0.05. Of all the mycoplasma isolates, Mycoplasma mycoides mycoides large colony variant (MmmLC was isolated from 61.5 % of clinically diseased sheep while 6.0 % of the isolates were from apparently healthy animals (P < 0.05. The study threw light on the prevalence of mycoplasmas in the genital tract of apparently healthy sheep and, at the same time the identity of the mycoplasma pathogen associated with ulcerative balanitis and vulvitis was revealed. The findings of this investigation therefore confirmed the involvement of mycoplasma, particularly that of MmmLC large colony, in the disease in Dorper sheep in South Africa, and it was concluded that this microorganism is an important pathogen of balanitis and vulvitis in them. The study furthermore demonstrated a probable synergism between A. pyogenes and MmmLC. Finding these 2 organisms together occurred 53.4 times more frequently in the affected sheep than in the unaffected, which emphasises the probable multifactorial nature of the disease. The association between

  4. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE SINO-AFRICA COOPERATION A special case of Zhejiang province and Ghana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Kwame Agbanyo

    2014-01-01

    The goal for economic policy thus became the emulation of the economic structure found in Venice and in Holland, the bringing together of as many diverse professions as possible, all subject to increasing returns and technology change. Development strategy became one of the benchmarking and emulation. (Erik s. Reinert: How countries got rich and how poor countries stay poor, 2007, p95).The purpose of this study is to gain deep understanding of the impact of economic development on the China-Africa cooperation.

  5. An epizoological study of wastage in Thoroughbred racehorses in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastage is the term used to describe the phenomenon of the loss of racehorses from conception to adulthood due to death or injuries (i.e. they never reach a race-track, or the days lost by racehorses due to not training or being withdrawn from a race. This epizoological study was conducted to investigate wastage in Thoroughbred horses used for flat racing in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Data from 6 racing stables were recorded from 1 March 1993 to 28 February 1994. Each trainer completed a daily training record of the horses in his stable. This questionnaire included reasons why a horse failed to train on a specific day, or was withdrawn from a race. During the year, 8480 days (8.1 % of the 105 108 total potential training days were lost by horses in the stables investigated. Of the days lost, 72.1 % were due to lameness, 8.6 % to respiratory problems, and 19.3 % to other causes. The lost training days for the individual trainers ranged from 5.4 to 12.6 %. Of the 579 horses included in the study, 291 horses (50.3 % lost one or more training days; 541 problems resulting in wastage were found in these 291 horses; 263 (48.6 % cases were due to lameness and 49 (9.0 % were caused by coughing. The balance were caused by poor weather conditions (11.3 %, vaccinations (7.2 %, wounds (4.6 %, abnormal haematology results (1.8 %, inappetence (2.2 %, nasal discharge (2.0 %, epistaxis (1.8 %, babesiosis (1.8 %, miscellaneous other conditions (7.9 % and unknown causes (1.8 %. An attempt was made to continue the study for a 2nd year but too few questionnaires were returned. However, it was evident that the percentage of lost training days (8.2 % was similar to that of the previous year. The training days lost due to lameness (66.9 % and respiratory problems (8.4 % were also similar to those of the previous year. From the findings of the present study, it was concluded that lameness and respiratory disorders were the major causes of wastage in

  6. Green Resources: win-win or land grabbing : a case study from Niassa, Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Solberg, Kenneth Lia

    2012-01-01

    The last decade the world has seen a sharp rise in the number of large-scale land acquisitions in developing countries, and particularly in Africa. This study investigates one particular case: The Sanga plantation in Mozambique, which was initiated by and is operated by the Norwegian company Green Resources. The study applies a case study design to examine the local social and economic effects of the plantation that came into operation in 2007. Based on mainly qualitative me...

  7. In-service teacher training : a case study of primary school's untrained teachers in Northern Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    This thesis analyzes a case study on untrained teacher in-service education located in northern Ghana, Africa. The purpose of the thesis is to explore the in-service teacher training phenomenon as it occurs in a national socio-economic context. The research ambition is accomplished in an exploratory field study design. I collected empirical data at different societal levels in Ghana’s education system, although the main contribution is drawn from a single case study, labeled School A. This ...

  8. Control and non-progression of HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa: A case and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Patel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite and viraemic controllers represent unique subsets of HIV-infected patients who may also be long-term non-progressors (LTNPs. LNTPs constitute an estimated 1 - 15% of the total HIV-positive population in the USA and Europe, but less is known about their epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. Though the exact mechanisms for long-term non-progression appear to be numerous and are still under investigation, research on elite controllers may hold the key to new therapeutics and vaccine development. The clinical management of such patients can be challenging, as there are no standard guidelines for treatment, particularly in resource-limited settings. We describe the case of an HIV-infected Botswanan man who is likely an elite or viraemic controller.

  9. How to the likelihood of CDM approval? Institutional shortcomings and the case of West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Urs Steiner; Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard

    2014-01-01

    How can the likelihood of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) approval be improved in the face of institutional shortcomings? To answer this question, we focus on the three institutional shortcomings of income sharing, risk sharing and corruption prevention concerning afforestation/reforestation (A....../R). Furthermore, three main stakeholders are identified, namely investors, governments and agents in a principal-agent model regarding monitoring and enforcement capacity. Developing countries such as West Africa have, despite huge potentials, not been integrated in A/R CDM projects yet. Remote sensing, however......, appears to be an effective tool to overcome the three institutional shortcomings. Thus, a pilot project should be considered in near future to develop a best practice system....

  10. Border Effects on Spatial Price Transmission between Fresh Tomato Markets in Ghana and Burkina-Faso: Any Case for Promoting Trans-border Trade in West Africa?

    OpenAIRE

    Amikuzuno, Joseph; Donkor, Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Cross-border trade in food commodities within sub-regional economic blocks in Sub-Sahara Africa (SSA) is believed to be faster, cheaper, more convenient and welfare-enhancing than overseas trade between SSA countries and the USA, EU or the BRIC countries. The difficulty of commodity arbitrage across international borders in SSA is however a fundamental constraint to price transmission, market integration and realization of the welfare-enhancing role of cross-border trade in Africa. This study...

  11. Trade networks in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    , this exploratory paper investigates two main issues related to regional trade. We start by discussing how recent developments in regional trade in West Africa have contributed to challenging the social structure of traders. We then discuss the changes that have affected the spatiality of regional trade......To date, most of the literature on trade networks in West Africa has considered networks in a metaphorical way. The aim of this paper is to go one step further by showing how social network analysis may be applied to the study of regional trade in West Africa. After a brief review of the literature...... by looking at the influence of spatial location and geographic scale on traders’ abilities to trade. In both cases, we argue that the value of social network analysis in exploring how traders have progressively adapted to social and spatial changes in economic activities has been greatly...

  12. Sternocleidomastoid syndrome: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Missaghi, Babak

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a case study of a patient diagnosed with dysfunction of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscle, a condition which can result in head and face pain, nausea, dizziness, coryza, and lacrimation. In this particular case, the SCM muscle had developed tightness and weakness with presence of multiple trigger points within both heads. A combination of passive and active treatments were utilized to successfully treat this condition.

  13. Traditional Knowledge and Benefit Sharing After the Nagoya Protocol: Three Cases from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chennells

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD has finally produced a negotiated framework intended to significantly advance the achievement of its core objectives, chief amongst them benefit sharing with indigenous and local communities who are holders of traditional knowledge related to genetic resources. The interpretation, in particular of central concepts contained in the Protocol, namely traditional knowledge (TK, community, and ownership of TK, and the practical application thereof by governments, are key to the success of the emerging access and benefit sharing regime. This article examines the manner in which the South African Biodiversity Act deals with these concepts. Three recent case studies are described, namely the Hoodia, Sceletium and Pelargonium cases, in which a range of issues relating to holders of TK were resolved, including the question of who the indigenous knowledge holders are. Moreover the debate on the question as to whether the intellectual property rights of TK holders are property rights as such, leads to the author’s suggestion that TK rights are a sui generis form of property rights, and that the legal principles contained in the law of equity provide useful and accessible guidance towards resolution of potentially competing claims of TK rights by indigenous peoples.

  14. Job Satisfaction among Pharmaceutical Sales force in South Africa – A Case with Special Reference to Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar SINGH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is an attitude that employees have about their work and is based on numerous factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individual. Job satisfaction is important from the perspective of maintaining and retaining the appropriate employees within the organization, it is about fitting the right person to the right job in the right culture and keeping them satisfied. Job satisfaction at salesforce level has become a topic of growing concern since significant proportion of marketing budgets, especially in harmaceutical industry of South Africa, is spent on them to achieve the assigned targets in the circular market. Although a large number of studies have been conducted to investigate job satisfaction in diverse range of the cultures, subjects and occupations yet none has attempted to explore the impact of job content and context factors on the job satisfaction among pharmaceutical salespersons in South Africa. Thus, the current study intends to determine the variance in salespersons’ overall job satisfaction through job content and context factors as a whole. This study also extends the total repercussion on the sales persons and their satisfaction level that cement the good will of the company and personal upliftment.

  15. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...

  16. Kenya Groundwater Governance Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Mumma, Albert; Lane, Michael; Kairu, Edward; Tuinhof, Albert; Hirji, Rafik

    2011-01-01

    This report presents a case study on groundwater governance in Kenya. The objectives of the study were to: (a) describe groundwater resource and socioeconomic settings for four selected aquifers; (b) describe governance arrangements for groundwater management in Kenya; and (c) identify the relevance of these arrangements for planning and implementing climate change mitigation measures. The ...

  17. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Sorooshian, Shahryar; Jambulingam, Manimekalai; Dodangeh, Javad

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, i...

  18. Hybrid Discursive Practices in a South African Multilingual Primary Classroom: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Pinky; McKinney, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The data discussed in this paper is drawn from research conducted in a multilingual urban primary school in Johannesburg, South Africa, where the official language of instruction is English and the majority of learners are African language speakers, frequently with very limited English proficiency. The paper presents a case study of one child who…

  19. An Emerging Donor in Education and Development: A Case Study of China in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordtveit, Bjorn H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes China's new approaches of education aid to Africa through a case study of Cameroon. China's cooperation has been characterized by different discourses and different historic relationships with recipient countries than those of traditional donors. Sino-African policies have gone through different stages, each connected to wider…

  20. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  1. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  2. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  3. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  4. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Zethu Nkosi; Padmini Pillay; Nokes, Kathleen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via acase-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based meth...

  5. The development and climate nexus. The case of sub-Saharan Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper explores an alternative approach to future climate policies in developing countries. Although climate change seems marginal compared to the pressing issues of poverty alleviation and economic development, it is becoming clear that the realisation of development goals may be hampered by climate change. However, development can be shaped in such a way as to achieve its goals and at the same time reduce vulnerability to climate change, thereby facilitating sustainable development that realises economic, social, local and global environmental goals. This approach has been coined the 'development first approach', in which a future climate regime should focus on development strategies with ancillary climate benefits and increase the capability of developing countries to implement these. This is anticipated to offer a possible positive way out of the current deadlock between North and South in the climate negotiations. First, elements are presented for an integrated approach to development and climate; second, the approach is elaborated for food and energy security in sub-Saharan Africa; and third, possibilities are outlined for international mechanisms to support such integrated development and climate strategies

  6. A case for critical ethnography: rethinking the early years of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2013-12-01

    The epidemic of AIDS in South Africa has been characterized not only by its rapid progression but also its impassioned controversies. Retrospectively examining a long-term anthropological project and discussing some reactions it elicited, the paper proposes a defense and illustration of a critical ethnography at three moments of the research. Ethnography is first discussed as fieldworks, proposing an alternative to the horizontal multi-sited approach via a vertical multi-layered method using various scales and locations, and thus connecting the disease endured by patients in townships and former homelands with the heated debates in scientific and political forums: this procedure substitutes a political economy of the disease for its cultural and behavioral interpretations. Ethnography is then discussed as writing, suggesting acknowledgment of the social intelligence of the agents as well as the need for a scientific distance: this principle allows the articulation of the objective historical condition of the individuals and their subjective experience of history, both revealed in the development of the epidemic. Ultimately ethnography is considered from the perspective of its afterlife, that is, the continuous process of its translation by readers and commentators, on the one hand, by the author trying to reach beyond the boundaries of the academic realm, on the other, the work of anthropology appearing as a living object open to public conversation and consequently a resource for knowledge and action. PMID:23973002

  7. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012. PMID:25107992

  8. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Valentín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

  9. Explaining adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa: an ethnographic study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma C Ware

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Individuals living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa generally take more than 90% of prescribed doses of antiretroviral therapy (ART. This number exceeds the levels of adherence observed in North America and dispels early scale-up concerns that adherence would be inadequate in settings of extreme poverty. This paper offers an explanation and theoretical model of ART adherence success based on the results of an ethnographic study in three sub-Saharan African countries. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Determinants of ART adherence for HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa were examined with ethnographic research methods. 414 in-person interviews were carried out with 252 persons taking ART, their treatment partners, and health care professionals at HIV treatment sites in Jos, Nigeria; Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; and Mbarara, Uganda. 136 field observations of clinic activities were also conducted. Data were examined using category construction and interpretive approaches to analysis. Findings indicate that individuals taking ART routinely overcome economic obstacles to ART adherence through a number of deliberate strategies aimed at prioritizing adherence: borrowing and "begging" transport funds, making "impossible choices" to allocate resources in favor of treatment, and "doing without." Prioritization of adherence is accomplished through resources and help made available by treatment partners, other family members and friends, and health care providers. Helpers expect adherence and make their expectations known, creating a responsibility on the part of patients to adhere. Patients adhere to promote good will on the part of helpers, thereby ensuring help will be available when future needs arise. CONCLUSION: Adherence success in sub-Saharan Africa can be explained as a means of fulfilling social responsibilities and thus preserving social capital in essential relationships.

  10. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  11. Towards climatological study on the characteristics of aerosols in Central Africa and Mediterranean sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhalifa, Jamel; Chaabane, Mabrouk

    2016-02-01

    The atmosphere contains molecules, clouds and aerosols that are sub-millimeter particles having a large variability in size, shape, chemical composition, lifetime and contents. The aerosols concentration depends greatly on the geographical situation, meteorological and environmental conditions, which makes aerosol climatology difficult to assess. Setting up a solar photometer (automatic, autonomous and portable instrument) on a given site allows carrying out the necessary measurements for aerosol characterization. The particle microphysical and optical properties are obtained from photometric measurements. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial variability of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in several Mediterranean regions and Central Africa, we considered a set of simultaneous data in the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from six sites, two of which are located in Central Africa (Banizoumbou and Zinder Airport) and the rest are Mediterranean sites (Barcelona, Malaga, Lampedusa, and Forth Crete). The results have shown that the physical properties of aerosols are closely linked to the climate nature of the studied site. The optical thickness, single scattering albedo and aerosols size distribution can be due to the aging of the dust aerosol as they are transported over the Mediterranean basin.

  12. "Nothing Is Free": A Qualitative Study of Sex Trading Among Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Kimani, Stephen M; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-05-01

    South Africa is facing an established epidemic of methamphetamine, known locally as "tik." Globally, methamphetamine has been linked to high rates of sexual risk behaviors, including sex trading. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine the experiences of sex trading among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (17 men and 13 women) recruited from the community. Interviews were conducted in local languages using a semi-structured guide that included questions on sex trading experiences and perceptions of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using analytic memos and coding with constant comparison techniques. The data revealed that in a setting of high levels of addiction and poverty, sex was an important commodity for acquiring methamphetamine. Women were more likely to use sex to acquire methamphetamine, but men reported opportunistic cases of trading sex for methamphetamine. Four models of sex trading emerged: negotiated exchange, implicit exchange, relationships based on resources, and facilitating sex exchange for others. The expectation of sex trading created a context in which sexual violence against female methamphetamine users was common. Multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use in acts of sex trading put methamphetamine users at high risk of HIV. Interventions in this setting should address addiction, which is the primary driver of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Harm reduction interventions may include education about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, availability of condoms and HIV testing, and sexual violence prevention. PMID:25567071

  13. Modern food retailing buying behaviour in Africa: the case of Tanzania

    OpenAIRE

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developingeconomies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-makingpractice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, wherethe buying task involves balancing the retailer’s commercial interests with more stringent governmentregulations that shape food business in the region.Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case stu...

  14. USING THE INTERNET FOR DEMOCRACY: A STUDY OF SOUTH AFRICA, KENYA AND ZAMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aletta H. Janse van Rensburg

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available For the first time since democracy in the classical Greek sense became practically impossible, the Internet’s networking possibilities are creating opportunities for all citizens to be active engaging participants in democracy. Open communication channels to government and fellow citizens can now be a reality that allows people at all levels of society to form part of a vibrant public sphere by exchanging ideas, sharing experiences, spreading ideologies and news, and comparing agendas. For African countries dealing with unique and increasingly complicated political and socio-economic issues, the Internet provides a platform from which citizens can now address these issues themselves and, in doing so, contribute to a public sphere that strengthens the democratic fibre of their countries. This research posits that the Internet has significant potential to stimulate democratic culture through public discourse and citizen participation. The focus of this study is on finding evidence-based information about the current influence of information and communication technology (ICT usage in South Africa, Kenya and Zambia as representatives of sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific focus on Internet usage through computers and mobile phones. The research also investigates the capacity and opportunity citizens have to successfully integrate ICTs into the accomplishment of self and mutually identified political goals in order to strengthen a broader democratic culture.

  15. Sustainable valorisation of organic urban wastes : insights from African case studies

    OpenAIRE

    Scheinberg, A.; Agathos, N.; Gachugi, J.W.; Kirai, P.; Alumasa, V.; Shah, B; Woods, M.; Waarts, Y.R.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the problems and potentials of the organic waste stream is perhaps the single most important step that city authorities in Africa could take in moving towards sustainable, affordable, effective and efficient waste management. This publication presents four examples of recent attempts to manage organic waste sustainably in the African context. The participants in the ‘Nairobi organic urban waste’ project have structured this case exercise in order to use the case studies as objec...

  16. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nenene Qekwana

    Full Text Available Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa.Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates.The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95. Significantly (p0.05 association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services.Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified need to be collected to help better estimate risk to consumers. This study provides useful baseline data to guide future studies, surveillance and control efforts.

  17. Baseline Study of Women in South Africa with Postgraduate Physics Degrees (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Diane J.

    2009-04-01

    A baseline study was conducted of women in South Africa who obtained BSc (Honours), MSc, or PhD degrees in physics and astronomy between 1995 and 2005. The first step involved identifying and contacting the women, using snowball sampling. These women were then asked to complete a questionnaire by e-mail. Responses to the questionnaire yielded information about the types of schools they attended, attitudes of their teachers, family history of studying science, influences on choosing to study physics, role models and mentors, employment history and aspects of a job that are important to them, experiences of gender bias, and suggestions for improving the situation for women in physics. This information is very valuable in designing programs, projects, and advocacy to encourage and retain women in physics, from school level to senior management. The methodology and questions developed can be useful to participants interested in obtaining similar information for their own countries.

  18. Aid Effectiveness Revisited: Comparative Studies of Modalities of Aid to Asia and Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroyuki Hino; Atsushi Iimi

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides a variety of evidence that shows that in Asia, aid leveraged private investment in the long run, while in Africa the correlation between aid and domestic investment was at best ambiguous. Aid in Africa was diametrically opposite to that of Asia in terms of the amounts the countries received, the sector compositions, the size of individual projects, and the intensity of donor involvement. The sharp contrast in aid effectiveness between Asia and Africa could be attributed at...

  19. The Impact of International Teacher Migration on Schooling in Developing Countries--The Case of Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleton, Simon; Sives, Amanda; Morgan, W. John

    2006-01-01

    Whilst the migration of teachers has been a phenomenon for hundreds of years, the advent of "globalisation" has seen such migration return to prominence. This article focuses on the experiences of two developing countries in Southern Africa which have been on different ends of the process: South Africa as a net sender of teachers and Botswana as a…

  20. Culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis in Cape Town, South Africa: a review of 596 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesseling Anneke C

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The clinical, radiological and microbiological features of culture-confirmed childhood tuberculosis diagnosed at two referral hospitals are described. Methods Cultures of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from children less than 13 years of age at Tygerberg and Red Cross Children's Hospitals, Cape Town, South Africa, were collected from March 2003 through February 2005. Folder review and chest radiography were performed and drug susceptibility tests done. Results Of 596 children (median age 31 months, 330 (55.4% were males. Of all children, 281 (47.1% were HIV-uninfected, 133 (22.3% HIV-infected and 182 (30.5% not tested. Contact with infectious tuberculosis adults was recorded in 295 (49.5% children. Missed opportunities for chemoprophylaxis were present in 117/182 (64.3% children less than 5 years of age. Extrathoracic TB was less common in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected children (49/133 vs. 156/281; odds ratio 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.32–0.78. Alveolar opacification (84/126 vs. 128/274; OR 1.85, 95%CI 1.08–3.19 and cavitation (33/126 vs. 44/274; OR 2.28, 95%CI 1.44–3.63 were more common in HIV-infected than in HIV-uninfected children. Microscopy for acid-fast bacilli on gastric aspirates and sputum was positive in 29/142 (20.4% and 40/125 (32.0% children, respectively. Sixty-seven of 592 (11.3% children's isolates showed resistance to isoniazid and/or rifampicin; 43 (7.3% were isoniazid-monoresistant, 2 (0.3% rifampicin-monoresistant and 22 (3.7% multidrug-resistant. Death in 41 children (6.9% was more common in HIV-infected children and very young infants. Conclusion HIV infection and missed opportunities for chemoprophylaxis were common in children with culture-confirmed TB. With cavitating disease and sputum or gastric aspirates positive for acid-fast bacilli, children may be infectious. Transmission of drug-resistant TB is high in this setting.

  1. AMMA-CATCH studies in the Sahelian region of West-Africa: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, Thierry; Cappelaere, Bernard; Galle, Sylvie; Hanan, Niall; Kergoat, Laurent; Levis, Samuel; Vieux, Baxter; Descroix, Luc; Gosset, Marielle; Mougin, Eric; Peugeot, Christophe; Seguis, Luc

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) is an international and interdisciplinary experiment designed to investigate the interactions between atmospheric, oceanic and terrestrial systems and their joint controls on tropical monsoon dynamics in West Africa. This special issue reports results from a group of AMMA studies regrouped in the component " Couplage de l'Atmosphère Tropicale et du Cycle Hydrologique" (CATCH). AMMA-CATCH studies focus on measuring and understanding land surface properties and processes in West Africa, the role of terrestrial systems in altering boundary layer dynamics, and thus the potential that surface hydrology and biology, and human land use practices, may directly or indirectly affect monsoon dynamics and rainfall in the region. AMMA-CATCH studies focus on three intensively instrumented mesoscale sites in Mali, Niger and Benin that sample across the 100-1300 mm/annum rainfall gradient of the Sahel, Sudan and North-Guinean bioclimatic zones. Studies report on: (i) surface-boundary layer interactions that may influence atmospheric convergence and convective processes and thus rainfall type, timing and amount; (ii) vegetation dynamics at seasonal to decadal time-scales that may respond to, and alter, atmospheric processes; (iii) surface-atmosphere fluxes of heat, water and carbon dioxide that directly influence the atmosphere; (iv) soil moisture variability in space and time that provide the proximate control on vegetation activity, evapotranspiration and energy balance; and (v) local and mesoscale modeling of hydrology and land surface-atmosphere exchanges to assess their role in the hydrological, atmospheric and rainfall dynamics of West Africa. The AMMA-CATCH research reported in this issue will be extended in future years as measurements and analysis continue and are concluded within the context of both CATCH and the wider AMMA study. This body of research will contribute to an improved understanding of the

  2. Analysing cross-sectional data with time-dependent covariates: the case of age at first birth in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoateng, Acheampong Yaw; Kalule-Sabiti, I; Ditlopo, Prudence

    2003-07-01

    Analysing time-dependent independent variables requires the use of process-oriented statistical models. Yet social scientists--especially those in poor countries--have often had to use data collected at a single point in time, making their task difficult. Making several assumptions about the covariates, the present study uses survival analysis and other statistical techniques to analyse the 1996 South African population census data and examine the effects of selected independent variables on the timing of parenthood in the country. It was found that the onset of parenthood occurs late in South Africa compared with the pattern in most other African societies. While education plays a role in the postponement of parenthood within racial groups, it fails to explain the differences between African and Coloured women on the one hand, and White and Asian women on the other hand, a finding that suggests the existence of two regimes of family formation in South African society. PMID:12887218

  3. Case Studies on Crossborder Ecotrade

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank

    2012-01-01

    This compilation of four country case studies provides a comprehensive understanding of challenges, good practices, and lessons learnt under different situations. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, a cross-border vegetable trade agreement with its neighboring, Thailand, aided in stabilizing market prices and provided financial benefits to local contract farmers. Similarly, organic certification and geographic indication of sugar palm in Cambodia linked local farmers to the global market...

  4. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  5. Are adaptive randomised trials or non-randomised studies the best way to address the Ebola outbreak in west Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanini, Simone; Zumla, Alimuddin; Ioannidis, John P A; Di Caro, Antonino; Krishna, Sanjeev; Gostin, Lawrence; Girardi, Enrico; Pletschette, Michel; Strada, Gino; Baritussio, Aldo; Portella, Gina; Apolone, Giovanni; Cavuto, Silvio; Satolli, Roberto; Kremsner, Peter; Vairo, Francesco; Ippolito, Giuseppe

    2015-06-01

    The Ebola outbreak that has devastated parts of west Africa represents an unprecedented challenge for research and ethics. Estimates from the past three decades emphasise that the present effort to contain the epidemic in the three most affected countries (Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone) has been insufficient, with more than 24,900 cases and about 10,300 deaths, as of March 25, 2015. Faced with such an exceptional event and the urgent response it demands, the use of randomised controlled trials (RCT) for Ebola-related research might be both unethical and infeasible and that potential interventions should be assessed in non-randomised studies on the basis of compassionate use. However, non-randomised studies might not yield valid conclusions, leading to large residual uncertainty about how to interpret the results, and can also waste scarce intervention-related resources, making them profoundly unethical. Scientifically sound and rigorous study designs, such as adaptive RCTs, could provide the best way to reduce the time needed to develop new interventions and to obtain valid results on their efficacy and safety while preserving the application of ethical precepts. We present an overview of clinical studies registered at present at the four main international trial registries and provide a simulation on how adaptive RCTs can behave in this context, when mortality varies simultaneously in either the control or the experimental group. PMID:25881871

  6. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  7. Suggested Safeguards and Limitations for Effective and Permissible Parenting Coordination (Facilitation or Case Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene (Leentjie de Jong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Children's Act 38 of 2005 greater emphasis was placed on the importance of both parents' involvement in their children's day-to-day lives. An unintended negative consequence of an otherwise laudable shift in social policy which supported a shared parental involvement was that the courts became the forum for co-parents to dispute a lot of day-to-day issues in respect of their children. To alleviate the negative effects of high-conflict co-parenting cases on our court system and the children of divorce, a new alternative dispute resolution process, namely parenting coordination, was introduced. The new process was not labelled as such, but became known as facilitation in the Western Cape, and as case management in Gauteng. Parenting coordination is a legal-psychological hybrid intervention that derives from the practice of the courts. It has the potential to provide substantial benefits for divorcing or separating parties, their children and the court system. Since its inception a few years ago, parenting coordination has steadily grown in popularity as an alternative dispute resolution tool in South Africa. Overhasty implementation of parenting coordination without considering certain concerns could, however, damage the "brand" and lead to confusion about the process. In the first place the difference in nomenclature is a real problem. Secondly, the training and qualifications of parenting coordinators are problematic and even non-existent in most provinces. Thirdly, it is argued by sceptics that parenting coordination is impermissible and constitutes an improper delegation of judicial authority in circumstances where the parenting coordinator is appointed in a court order and not in terms of an Act or court rule or by agreement between the parties. It is further observed that parenting coordination amounts to arbitration in contravention of section 2 of the Arbitration Act 42 of 1965, which currently prohibits the use of

  8. A longitudinal study of a reading project in the Northern Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maritha E. Snyman

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The topic of this longitudinal study was reading promotion and its perceived benefits. The aim was to determine if reading promotion can lead to reader development and if reader development can lead to self-development, as is often claimed in the literature. A reading promotion project in the Northern Cape, South Africa, was monitored over a period of five years by using a selection of qualitative and quantitative data collection methods. The outcome of the study indicates that the reading promotion project was responsible for positive changes in the lives of the beneficiaries of the intervention. It especially points to the positive role access to appropriate reading material and prolonged and enthusiastic reading motivation can play in the lives of a developing community with little means.Keywords: reading; reading promotion; reader development; longitudinal

  9. Sensation Seeking and Alcohol Use Predict HIV Transmission Risks: Prospective Study of Sexually Transmitted Infection Clinic Patients, Cape Town, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Kalichman, Seth C.; Simbayi, Leickness; Jooste, Sean; Vermaak, Redwaan; Cain, Demetria

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol is related to HIV risk behaviors in southern Africa and these behaviors are correlated with sensation seeking personality and alcohol outcome expectancies. Here we report for the first time the associations among sensation seeking, substance use, and sexual risks in a prospective study in Africa. Sexually transmitted infection clinic patients in Cape Town South Africa (157 men and 64 women) completed (a) baseline measures of sensation seeking, sexual enhancement alcohol outcome expect...

  10. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  11. Cross-sectional study of patients with type 2 diabetes in OR Tambo district, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yogeswaran, Parimalaranie; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Ter Goon, Daniel; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu

    2016-01-01

    Objectives South Africa has pledged to the sustainable development goal of promoting good health and well-being to all residents. While this is laudable, paucity of reliable epidemiological data for different regions on diabetes and treatment outcomes may further widen the inequalities of access and quality of healthcare services across the country. This study examines the sociodemographic and clinical determinants of uncontrolled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in individuals attending primary healthcare in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Design A cross-sectional analytical study. Setting Primary healthcare setting in OR Tambo district, South Africa. Participants Patients treated for T2DM for 1 or more years (n=327). Primary outcome measure Prevalence of uncontrolled T2DM. Secondary outcome measure Determinants of uncontrolled T2DM (glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) ≥7%). Results Out of the 327 participants, 274 had HbA1c≥7% (83.8%). Female sex (95% CI 1.3 to 4.2), overweight/obesity (95% CI 1.9 to 261.2), elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (95% CI 4.4 to 23.8), sedentary habits (95% CI 7.2 to 61.3), lower monthly income (95% CI 1.3 to 6.5), longer duration of T2DM (95% CI 4.4 to 294.2) and diabetes information from non-health workers (95% CI 1.4 to 7.0) were the significant determinants of uncontrolled T2DM. There was a significant positive correlation of uncontrolled T2DM with increasing duration of T2DM, estimated glomerular filtration rate and body mass index. However, a significant negative correlation exists between monthly income and increasing HbA1c. Conclusions We found a significantly high prevalence (83.8%) of uncontrolled T2DM among the patients, possibly attributable to overweight/obesity, sedentary living, lower income and lack of information on diabetes. Addressing these determinants will require re-engineering of primary healthcare in the district. PMID:27473948

  12. Sanfilippo's syndrome type C - the first known case in South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The clinical, radiological and biochemical findings in a black girl with a rare, inherited mucopolysaccharide storage disease, Sanfilippo's syndrome (mucopoly-saccharidosis (MPS) III) type C, are described. Practical points concerning the biochemical diagnosis of this condition, arising from unusual characteristics of the deficient enzyme acetyl CoA: α-glucosaminide N-acetyltransherase, are discussed. Some information also occurs about the abnormal uptake of radiolabelled sulphur (35SO4). Because phenotypic manifestations of mucopolysaccharidosis are mild in all four types of Sanfilippo's syndrome and screening tests for mucopolysacchariduria in these patients may be negative, many cases may be passed unrecognized or simply labelled as cases of nonspecific mental retardation. It is suggested that Sanfilippo's syndrome is grossly underdiagnosed in the RSA and clinicians are urged to develop a greater awareness of the existence, and often subtle presentation, of the condition

  13. African tick-bite fever: a new entity in the differential diagnosis of multiple eschars in travelers. Description of five cases imported from South Africa to Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althaus, Fabrice; Greub, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier; Genton, Blaise

    2010-09-01

    African tick-bite fever (ATBF) is a newly described spotted fever rickettsiosis that frequently presents with multiple eschars in travelers returning from sub-Saharan Africa and, to a lesser extent, from the West Indies. It is caused by the bite of an infected Amblyomma tick, whose hunting habits explain the typical presence of multiple inoculation skin lesions and the occurrence of clustered cases. The etiological agent of ATBF is Rickettsia africae, an emerging tick-borne pathogenic bacterium. We describe herein a cluster of five cases of ATBF occurring in Swiss travelers returning from South Africa. The co-incidental infections in these five patients and the presence of multiple inoculation eschars, two features pathognomonic of this rickettsial disease, suggested the diagnosis of ATBF. Indeed, the presence of at least one inoculation eschar is observed in 53-100% of cases and multiple eschars in 21-54%. Two patients presented regional lymphadenitis and one a mild local lymphangitis. Though a cutaneous rash is described in 15-46% of cases, no rash was observed in our series. ATBF was confirmed by serology. Thus, ATBF has recently emerged as one of the most important causes of flu-like illness in travelers returning from Southern Africa. The presence of one or multiple eschars of inoculation is an important clinical clue to the diagnosis. It can be confirmed by serology or by PCR of a biopsy of the eschar. Culture can also be done in reference laboratories. Dermatologists and primary care physicians should know this clinical entity, since an inexpensive and efficient treatment is available. PMID:20233665

  14. Rapid assessment response (RAR study: drug use and health risk - Pretoria, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trautmann Franz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within a ten year period South Africa has developed a substantial illicit drug market. Data on HIV risk among drug using populations clearly indicate high levels of HIV risk behaviour due to the sharing of injecting equipment and/or drug-related unprotected sex. While there is international evidence on and experience with adequate responses, limited responses addressing drug use and drug-use-related HIV and other health risks are witnessed in South Africa. This study aimed to explore the emerging problem of drug-related HIV transmission and to stimulate the development of adequate health services for the drug users, by linking international expertise and local research. Methods A Rapid Assessment and Response (RAR methodology was adopted for the study. For individual and focus group interviews a semi-structured questionnaire was utilised that addressed key issues. Interviews were conducted with a total of 84 key informant (KI participants, 63 drug user KI participants (49 males, 14 females and 21 KI service providers (8 male, 13 female. Results and Discussion Adverse living conditions and poor education levels were cited as making access to treatment harder, especially for those living in disadvantaged areas. Heroin was found to be the substance most available and used in a problematic way within the Pretoria area. Participants were not fully aware of the concrete health risks involved in drug use, and the vague ideas held appear not to allow for concrete measures to protect themselves. Knowledge with regards to substance related HIV/AIDS transmission is not yet widespread, with some information sources disseminating incorrect or unspecific information. Conclusions The implementation of pragmatic harm-reduction and other evidence-based public health care policies that are designed to reduce the harmful consequences associated with substance use and HIV/AIDS should be considered. HIV testing and treatment services also need to

  15. Case studies in canonical stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cafardi, N P; Hite, J

    1985-11-01

    In facing the challenges that confront Catholic health care today, it is important to know which civil law forms will assist in preserving the Church's ministry. The proper meshing of civil law and canon law thus provides a vehicle to strengthen the apostolate's work. The case studies presented here suggest several means of applying the principles in the new Code of Canon Law to three potentially problematic situations: the merger of a Catholic and non-Catholic hospital, the leasing of a Catholic hospital to an operating company, and the use of the multicorporate format. PMID:10274590

  16. A Cost Benefits Analysis of International Education: A Case of Zimbabwean Students in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimucheka, Tendai

    2012-01-01

    The study investigated the costs and benefits of international education to Zimbabwean students studying in South African Universities. The objectives of the study were to investigate the actual and perceived benefits of international education to students. The study also investigated the impact of international education on the lives of students,…

  17. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Serrano Ocaña

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.

  18. Knowledge management and cognitive theory: An African case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Misch

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this paper is to report on research into whether knowledge can be managed more effectively by taking into consideration the nature and complexity of information being received by members of an organisation; the cognitive abilities of those members; and finally the nature and composition of the hierarchical structure of the organisation within which those members operate. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research reported on in this paper was carried out using a case study approach, with the focus on a single organisation to which the authors had special access. Data was gathered using a combination of interviews and a focus group, with participants drawn from a cross-section of members of the case study organisation. Analysis was conducted within the framework associated with the primary theoretical model (Jaques & Clement, 1991 that underpins this research. Findings: This research helps to further an understanding of how individual and organisational performance may be influenced by issues such as cognitive processes and the relationship to information complexity. The research findings support the work of Jaques and Clement (1991. Implications: This research had important implications for the organisation in the case study investigation. Other organisations would need to evaluate the research findings in terms of their applicability to other organisations in the same industry, in the same country (South Africa or elsewhere in other industries or in other countries on the African continent. Originality/Value: This research is original in terms of the application of cognitive theory in conjunction with knowledge management principles in the context of the legal profession in South Africa. It has potential value in many other industries and countries.

  19. Gender Repetition: School Access, Transitions and Equity in the "Birth-to-Twenty" Cohort Panel Study in Urban South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleisch, Brahm; Shindler, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Using data collected by the Birth-to-Twenty child cohort study in urban South Africa, this paper describes the patterns of schooling of a population of children born in the Greater Johannesburg area in April to June 1990. This paper examines the patterns of initial enrolment in Grade 1, transitions through grades, and trends in primary school…

  20. A parathyroid scintigraphy case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Leary, Desiree [UCD School of Diagnostic Imaging, St Anthony' s Campus, Herbert Avenue, Dublin 4 (Ireland)]. E-mail: desiree.oleary@ucd.ie

    2005-05-01

    Background: There has been much debate concerning the most suitable protocol for parathyroid scintigraphy; the merits of various radiopharmaceuticals versus the correct imaging protocol to visualise both ectopic and anatomically placed adenomas against the various equipment choices have been debated. Aim: To demonstrate, through the use of a case study, the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion. Method: Use is made of Tc99mMIBI, full field chest scintigraphy, a clearly defined imaging protocol and SPECT imaging to locate ectopic parathyroid tissue in a female patient with significant symptoms of parathyroid hyperfunction. Results: A single hyperfunctioning adenoma is located in the pre-carinal area of the mediastinum. Using a radioguided surgical technique the hyperfunctioning tissue is excised and confirmed by histopathology. Conclusion: Whilst a dramatic reduction in patient symptoms was not seen immediately in this patient, the symptoms of the illness have been subsiding since January 2003. This case study demonstrates the necessity of changing imaging protocols for parathyroid scintigraphy where a definitive imaging diagnosis is absent in the face of strong clinical suspicion.

  1. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

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    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  2. Multispecimen and temper archeomagnetic studies: Application to Iron Age sites from southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Watkeys, M. K.; Huffman, T. N.

    2008-12-01

    Here we compare methods of paleointensity analysis as applied to pottery shards. We prefer the Thellier technique because of its foundation in basic rock physics and its associated reliability checks. Nevertheless, we recognize that additional techniques may be useful on problematic samples. We start with multiple specimen techniques. These are attractive because they can potentially address the presence of multidomain magnetic carriers. In addition, pottery shards can often be cut into multiple samples with nearly identical physical properties, and the magnetic component structure is often simple. Nevertheless, grain size effects appear to be present in synthetic samples used to test multi-specimen methods, and selection/rejection criteria are not fully developed. Irrespective of these issues, we find that results from multi- specimen experiments which yield linear results over a broad range of applied fields tend to agree well with results from Thellier runs. The results of other samples are more difficult to interpret, with apparent non- linear behavior at high and low-field values. We also introduce a new paleointensity approach: analysis of temper from pottery shards. This method is an extension of single crystal techniques, and relies on the addition of grains to the pot matrix prior to firing. As is the case in the analysis of lavas, careful separation and selection of grains is needed as temper is diverse between archeological areas. We apply these methods to a new collection of pottery shards from southern Africa, in hopes of constructing a Southern Hemisphere paleointensity record.

  3. Radiative forcing associated with a springtime case of Bodélé and Sudan dust transport over West Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Lemaître, C; C. Flamant; Cuesta, J.; J.-C. Raut; Chazette, P.; P. Formenti; Pelon, J

    2010-01-01

    The radiative forcing due to mineral dust over West Africa is investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as remote sensing and in situ observations gathered during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period (AMMA SOP). We focus on two days (13 and 14 June 2006) of an intense and long-lasting episode of dust being lifted in remote sources in Chad and Sudan and transported across West Africa in the African easterly jet region, during which airborne oper...

  4. Decentralisation in Africa: a pathway out of poverty and conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Grounded in empirically-based country case studies, this new study provides a sober assessment of what decentralisation can achieve. The current momentum for decentralisation of government in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world is unparalleled, but are the benefits claimed by its advocates being realised? Focusing on two claims in particular, this book questions whether decentralisation does offer a significant pathway out of poverty and conflict in Africa. Issues of poverty reductio...

  5. Decentralisation in Africa : A Pathway out of Poverty and Conflict?

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Grounded in empirically-based country case studies, this new study provides a sober assessment of what decentralisation can achieve. The current momentum for decentralisation of government in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world is unparalleled, but are the benefits claimed by its advocates being realised? Focusing on two claims in particular, this book questions whether decentralisation does offer a significant pathway out of poverty and conflict in Africa. Issues of poverty reductio...

  6. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Neumonia varicelosa. Presentacion de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilen Ochoa Tamayo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.La varicela es una infección exantemática producida por el virus Varicela zoster (VZV que comúnmente ocurre en la infancia. Se reporta el 90 % de los casos en niños menores de 12 años, el 10 % de la población mayor de 15 años es susceptible a padecerla. La enfermedad se adquiere por inhalación de partículas que contienen el virus y que son expulsadas por la nasofaringe de individuos infectados. Esto causa una infección inicial en el epitelio respiratorio. El virus se disemina a células distantes del sistema retículo endotelial y, finalmente, se produce un estado de viremia con manifestaciones en la piel, aunque la diseminación también se puede extender a las vísceras. El deterioro de la inmunidad celular ocasionado por enfermedades coexistentes, infección por VIH, cáncer, enfermedad hemato-oncológica, uso de esteroides, así como, la edad avanzada, el hábito de fumar

  7. Study of the genetic heterogeneity of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan Africa with specific focus on East Africa

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    M. Sahle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of serotype SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-Saharan Africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1D gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. Fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to East Africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. The genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between East, southern and south-western Africa. One lineage was unique to West Africa. These results established numerous incursions across country borders in East Africa and long term conservation of sequences for periods up to 41 years. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have all experienced outbreaks from more than one unrelated strain, demonstrating the potential for new introductions. The amount of variation observed within this serotype nearly equalled that which was found between serotypes; this has severe implications for disease control using vaccination.

  8. The entrepreneurs' role at arts festivals : the case study of Aardklop National Arts Festival / Miranda Smith

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Miranda

    2009-01-01

    Entrepreneurs are found globally in all industries. In the tourism industry, entrepreneurs feature strongly in the events sector. The purpose of this study is to determine the entrepreneurs' role at festivals and in this case a national arts festival. The literature revealed that this type of study has not previously been conducted in South Africa. The literature review indicates that arts festivals as income generating events can be seen as an entrepreneurial opportunity to maximise economic...

  9. The Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: The Case of a University of Technology in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chux Gervase Iwu; Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji; Chuks Eresia-Eke; Robertson Tengeh

    2016-01-01

    This quantitative study was executed from a realist’s ontological perspective and its epistemological leaning is towards that of an empiricist. The study essentially sought to determine the existence or otherwise of entrepreneurial intentions among the students. Ample emphasis needs to be placed on entrepreneurship education and practical entrepreneurship schemes (such as mentorship programmes) if developing countries are to realise the goal of having a productive and virile youth...

  10. High prevalence of childhood multi-drug resistant tuberculosis in Johannesburg, South Africa: a cross sectional study

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    Beylis Natalie C

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are limited data on the prevalence of multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB, estimated at 0.6-6.7%, in African children with tuberculosis. We undertook a retrospective analysis of the prevalence of MDR-TB in children with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB at two hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa. Methods Culture-confirmed cases of MTB in children under 14 years, attending two academic hospitals in Johannesburg, South Africa during 2008 were identified and hospital records of children diagnosed with drug-resistant TB were reviewed, including clinical and radiological outcomes at 6 and 12 months post-diagnosis. Culture of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTB was performed using the automated liquid broth MGIT™ 960 method. Drug susceptibility testing (DST was performed using the MGIT™ 960 method for both first and second-line anti-TB drugs. Results 1317 children were treated for tuberculosis in 2008 between the two hospitals where the study was conducted. Drug susceptibility testing was undertaken in 148 (72.5% of the 204 children who had culture-confirmed tuberculosis. The prevalence of isoniazid-resistance was 14.2% (n = 21 (95%CI, 9.0-20.9% and the prevalence of MDR-TB 8.8% (n = 13 (95%CI, 4.8-14.6%. The prevalence of HIV co-infection was 52.1% in children with drug susceptible-TB and 53.9% in children with MDR-TB. Ten (76.9% of the 13 children with MDR-TB received appropriate treatment and four (30.8% died at a median of 2.8 months (range 0.1-4.0 months after the date of tuberculosis investigation. Conclusions There is a high prevalence of drug-resistant tuberculosis in children in Johannesburg in a setting with a high prevalence of HIV co-infection, although no association between HIV infection and MDR-TB was found in this study. Routine HIV and drug-susceptibility testing is warranted to optimize the management of childhood tuberculosis in settings such as ours.

  11. KAIZEN – A case study

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    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  12. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  13. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

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    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  14. Transnational Private Authority in Education Policy in Jordan and South Africa: The Case of Microsoft Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore Microsoft Corporation as a new international actor shaping educational reforms and practices. This study examines how the implementation of Microsoft's global Partners in Learning (PiL) program varied and was mediated by national politics and national institutional practices in two different contexts,…

  15. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

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    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  16. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Rosalind E; Reiner, Robert C; Battle, Katherine E; Longbottom, Joshua; Mappin, Bonnie; Ordanovich, Dariya; Tatem, Andrew J; Drakeley, Chris; Gething, Peter W; Zimmerman, Peter A; Smith, David L; Hay, Simon I

    2015-11-01

    Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf). Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv) transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health significance of Pv, as well

  17. Factors Influencing Household Food Security in West Africa: The Case of Southern Niger

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    Seydou Zakari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is a major challenge for Niger and for many African countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting household food security in Niger. Based on survey data covering 500 households, drought, high food prices, poverty, soil infertility, disease and insect attacks are reported by the respondents to be the main causes of food insecurity. The empirical results from logistic regression revealed that the gender of the head of household, diseases and pests, labor supply, flooding, poverty, access to market, the distance away from the main road and food aid are significant factors influencing the odds ratio of a household having enough daily rations. Another important finding is that female headed households are more vulnerable to food insecurity compared to male headed households. The findings of this study provide evidence that food insecurity continues to affect the Nigerien population.

  18. Gender Inequality in Multidimensional Welfare Deprivation in West Africa : The Case of Burkina Faso and Togo

    OpenAIRE

    Agbodji, Akoété Ega; Batana, Yélé Maweki; Ouedraogo, Dénis

    2013-01-01

    The importance of gender equality is reflected not only in the Millennium Development Goals, but also in the World Bank's Gender Action Plan launched in 2007 as well as in other treaties and actions undertaken at regional and international levels. Unlike other work on gender and poverty, which is mostly based on monetary measurement, the present study makes use of a counting approach to ex...

  19. A re-examination of the relation between democracy and international trade: The case of Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Balding, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Scholars and policy makers believe that democracy will bring prosperity through integration into the global economy via increased international trade. This study tests two theories as to why democracies might trade more. First, political freedom may be correlated with economic freedom, thus prompting higher levels of economic activity, thereby driving states to trade more. Second, democracy implies higher quality governance either through institutions or policy-making procedures. I utilize a ...

  20. Factors Influencing Household Food Security in West Africa: The Case of Southern Niger

    OpenAIRE

    Seydou Zakari; Liu Ying; Baohui Song

    2014-01-01

    Food insecurity is a major challenge for Niger and for many African countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting household food security in Niger. Based on survey data covering 500 households, drought, high food prices, poverty, soil infertility, disease and insect attacks are reported by the respondents to be the main causes of food insecurity. The empirical results from logistic regression revealed that the gender of the head of household, diseases and pests,...

  1. Vulnerability of livestock farmers in Southern Kalahari : the case of Mier in Rietfontein, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Munjoma, Timothy Zviripi

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vulnerability is now highlighted globally. Poverty has been identified as a key contributor to vulnerability but asset building increases resilience and adaptive capacity. This study examines the root causes of vulnerability and adaptive capacity of Mier pastoralists by utilizing the ‘sustainable livelihood framework’ and ‘pressure and release’ model. The Mier community fled British rule in 1865 and migrated from Cape Town to Northern Cape Province in Rietfontein, s...

  2. Using Case Studies To Teach Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Connie

    Using case studies in science instruction develops problem solving and enhances listening and cooperative learning skills. Unlike other disciplines such as law and medicine, the case study method is rarely used in science education to enrich the curriculum. This study investigates the use of content-based case studies as a means of developing…

  3. Youth, mobility and mobile phones in Africa : findings from a three-country study.

    OpenAIRE

    Porter, G.; Hampshire, K; Abane, A.; Munthali, A; Robson, E.; Mashiri, M.; Tanle, A.

    2012-01-01

    he penetration of mobile phones into sub-Saharan Africa has occurred with amazing rapidity: for many young people, they now represent a very significant element of their daily life. This paper explores usage and perceived impacts among young people aged c. 9–18 years in three countries: Ghana, Malawi and South Africa. Our evidence comes from intensive qualitative research with young people, their parents, teachers and other key informants (in-depth interviews, focus groups and school essays) ...

  4. A study of contract types used by the Armament Corporation of South Africa (ARMSCOR)

    OpenAIRE

    Lebelo, Kopano Peter.

    2001-01-01

    Defense acquisition in the Republic of South Africa is performed by the defense procurement agency called the Armament Corporation of South Africa (Armscor). The agency is faced with the challenge to acquire products and services effectively and efficiently and within a limited budget. One of the elements that contribute to increased efficiency in procurement is the reduction of contract risk. The agency's regulations presently allow the use of fixed- price contracts that limits its capabilit...

  5. Assessment of the ARW-WRF model over complex terrain: the case of the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Iman; Bonnardot, Valérie; Sturman, Andrew; Quénol, Hervé; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has implications for thermal stress for grapevines during ripening, so that wine producers need to adapt their viticultural practices to ensure optimum physiological response to environmental conditions in order to maintain wine quality. The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to accurately represent atmospheric processes at high resolution (500 m) during two events during the grapevine ripening period in the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa. Two case studies were selected to identify areas of potentially high daytime heat stress when grapevine photosynthesis and grape composition were expected to be affected. The results of high-resolution atmospheric model simulations were compared to observations obtained from an automatic weather station (AWS) network in the vineyard region. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the ability of the WRF model to reproduce spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters at 500-m resolution. The model represented the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological variables very well, with an average model air temperature bias of 0.1 °C, while that for relative humidity was -5.0 % and that for wind speed 0.6 m s-1. Variation in model performance varied between AWS and with time of day, as WRF was not always able to accurately represent effects of nocturnal cooling within the complex terrain. Variations in performance between the two case studies resulted from effects of atmospheric boundary layer processes in complex terrain under the influence of the different synoptic conditions prevailing during the two periods.

  6. Mortality in sickle cell anemia in Africa: a prospective cohort study in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Makani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA a public health priority. There are 300,000 births/year, over 75% in Africa, with estimates suggesting that 6 million Africans will be living with SCA if average survival reaches half the African norm. Countries such as United States of America and United Kingdom have reduced SCA mortality from 3 to 0.13 per 100 person years of observation (PYO, with interventions such as newborn screening, prevention of infections and comprehensive care, but implementation of interventions in African countries has been hindered by lack of locally appropriate information. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with death from SCA in Dar-es-Salaam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based cohort study was conducted, with prospective surveillance of 1,725 SCA patients recruited from 2004 to 2009, with 209 (12% lost to follow up, while 86 died. The mortality rate was 1.9 (95%CI 1.5, 2.9 per 100 PYO, highest under 5-years old [7.3 (4.8-11.0], adjusting for dates of birth and study enrollment. Independent risk factors, at enrollment to the cohort, predicting death were low hemoglobin (<5 g/dL [3.8 (1.8-8.2; p = 0.001] and high total bilirubin (≥102 µmol/L [1.7 (1.0-2.9; p = 0.044] as determined by logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in SCA in Africa is high, with the most vulnerable period being under 5-years old. This is most likely an underestimate, as this was a hospital cohort and may not have captured SCA individuals with severe disease who died in early childhood, those with mild disease who are undiagnosed or do not utilize services at health facilities. Prompt and effective treatment for anemia in SCA is recommended as it is likely to improve survival. Further research is required to determine the etiology, pathophysiology and the most appropriate strategies for management of anemia in SCA.

  7. Disability, gender, and employment relationships in Africa: The case of Ghana

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    Augustina Naami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The exploratory quantitative study sought to develop an understanding about the relationships among disability, gender and employment in Northern Ghana. A total of 110 individuals with disabilities (20–60 years from various disability groups participated in the study. The results indicate that many persons with disabilities are unemployed, the majority being women. Discrimination is cited as the greatest barrier to the employment of persons with disabilities, particularly women. The majority of persons with disabilities, typically women, live in poverty; given that some are unemployed and those who are employed worked mostly in marginal, seasonal and menial jobs. Persons with disabilities also experience several challenges on the job, including negative perceptions about their capabilities, discrimination and exclusion, irrespective of the employment sector and disability type. Educational interventions such as workshops, documenting and showcasing success stories of persons with disabilities could be helpful to reduce negative perceptions about their capabilities as well as discrimination against them. Government intervention to support persons with disabilities with start-up capital and funding for formal education is also recommended as these two elements were identified respectively as barriers to self-employment and employment in the public/private sectors. Government interventions to create educational opportunities for persons with disabilities are essential given that lower educational attainment affect their employment.

  8. Long Run Relationship between Macroeconomic Indicators and Stock Price: The Case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawtari FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term equilibrium between South Africa’s stock index and selected macroeconomic variables using vector error-correction models (VECM. Upon testing for co-integration, long run structural equation modelling (LRSM and VECM, the results indicate that industrial production is the most important determinant of stock market prices. This suggests that South Africa’s stock market is highly sensitive to the country’s industrial production. Money supply, inflation, and exchange rates are other determinants of South Africa’s stock index but to a lesser extent than industrial production. The study found that the macroeconomic variables comprising industrial production, inflation, money supply, and exchange rate are co-integrated on the long run with stock market prices. These findings have implications for policy makers in the sense that any changes in the macroeconomic policy should take into consideration the impact of such changes on the stock market.

  9. Expert team theory and goal oriented rehearsal strategies for a new music ensemble : a case study / Pieter Andreas Oosthuizen

    OpenAIRE

    Oosthuizen, Pieter Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this intrinsic case study was to show how Expert Team Theory can explain the application of goal orientated rehearsal strategies which were designed for this study for an ad hoc ensemble at the School of Music of the North-West University, Potchefstroom, South Africa. The case study was considered as the most suitable research method to investigate the ways in which goal-orientated rehearsal strategies influence dynamics during rehearsals of a new music ensemble,...

  10. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  11. Development through Business: What Do American Business Students Know about Emerging Markets and Opportunities in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelli N.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how Africa is taught in business and examines African and American student perspectives on business in Africa. Conclusions find that African students, business students or not, had more knowledge about business and economic structures than American business students; however, learning about successful case studies on…

  12. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  13. Using verbal autopsy to track epidemic dynamics: the case of HIV-related mortality in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mee Paul

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Verbal autopsy (VA has often been used for point estimates of cause-specific mortality, but seldom to characterize long-term changes in epidemic patterns. Monitoring emerging causes of death involves practitioners' developing perceptions of diseases and demands consistent methods and practices. Here we retrospectively analyze HIV-related mortality in South Africa, using physician and modeled interpretation. Methods Between 1992 and 2005, 94% of 6,153 deaths which occurred in the Agincourt subdistrict had VAs completed, and coded by two physicians and the InterVA model. The physician causes of death were consolidated into a single consensus underlying cause per case, with an additional physician arbitrating where different diagnoses persisted. HIV-related mortality rates and proportions of deaths coded as HIV-related by individual physicians, physician consensus, and the InterVA model were compared over time. Results Approximately 20% of deaths were HIV-related, ranging from early low levels to tenfold-higher later population rates (2.5 per 1,000 person-years. Rates were higher among children under 5 years and adults 20 to 64 years. Adult mortality shifted to older ages as the epidemic progressed, with a noticeable number of HIV-related deaths in the over-65 year age group latterly. Early InterVA results suggested slightly higher initial HIV-related mortality than physician consensus found. Overall, physician consensus and InterVA results characterized the epidemic very similarly. Individual physicians showed marked interobserver variation, with consensus findings generally reflecting slightly lower proportions of HIV-related deaths. Aggregated findings for first versus second physician did not differ appreciably. Conclusions VA effectively detected a very significant epidemic of HIV-related mortality. Using either physicians or InterVA gave closely comparable findings regarding the epidemic. The consistency between two

  14. Humanitarian logistics: Review and case study of Zimbabwean experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.

  15. Perception of risks in renewable energy projects: The case of concentrated solar power in North Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The world needs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to prevent climate change, while meeting the energy needs of developed and developing economies. Recent studies suggest that generation of electricity from concentrated solar power in North African countries and its transmission to Europe could provide European and North African partners with low-carbon electricity.The private capital will be likely required to achieve the scale of new investment and yet the North African region experience difficulties with sustaining high levels of foreign direct investment from the private sector. The literature identifies a number of risks as barriers to investment, and we examine these in the particular context of renewable energy development. We conducted three stages of interviews with stakeholders to learn their perceptions of the risks most likely to affect renewable energy projects. Three class of risks—regulatory, political, and force majeure (which includes terrorism)—stand out as being of high concern. Of these, regulatory risks are perceived as being the most consequential, and the most likely to occur. This suggests that attention to building the capacities of North African countries to develop, implement, and enforce sound regulations in a transparent manner could be an important step in promoting renewable energy cooperation with Europe.

  16. Feasibility of a large cohort study in sub-Saharan Africa assessed through a four-country study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Dalal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large prospective epidemiologic studies are vital in determining disease etiology and forming national health policy. Yet, such studies do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA notwithstanding the growing burden of chronic diseases. Objective: We explored the feasibility of establishing a large-scale multicountry prospective study at five sites in four sub-Saharan countries. Design: Based on country-specific considerations of feasibility, Nigeria enrolled health care professionals, South Africa and Tanzania enrolled teachers, and Uganda enrolled village residents at one rural and one periurban site each. All sites used a 6-month follow-up period but different approaches for data collection, namely standardized questionnaires filled out by participants or face-to-face interviews. Results: We enrolled 1415 participants from five sites (range 200–489 with a median age of 41 years. Approximately half had access to clean-burning cooking fuel and 70% to piped drinking water, yet 92% had access to a mobile phone. The prevalence of chronic diseases was 49% among 45- to 54-year-olds and was dominated by hypertension (21.7% overall – ranging from 4.5 to 31.2% across sites – and a serious injury in the past 12 months (12.4% overall. About 80% of participants indicated willingness to provide blood samples. At 6-month follow-up, 68% completed a questionnaire (45 to 96% across sites with evidence that mobile phones were particularly useful. Conclusions: Our pilot study indicates that a large-scale prospective study in SSA is feasible, and the burden of chronic disease in SSA may already be substantial necessitating urgent etiologic research and primary prevention.

  17. From "A school to Africa" to "Women are like cars": Analyzing successful and unsuccessful crisis communication cases

    OpenAIRE

    Tulonen, Suvi-Maria

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what characterizes successful and unsuccessful crisis communication. This study focuses on five characteristics derived from crisis management and crisis communication literature: context, responsibility, actors, crisis communication strategy, and ethical apologia. The study was motivated by the lack of multi-case studies in the field of crisis communication research. In addition, this study wanted to emphasise the complex nature of crises. This st...

  18. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade; Tantareanu, Cristian; Caldes-Gomez, Natalia; Santamaria-Belda, Marta

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented, hi...

  19. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  20. Ethical codes for training staff in South African collieries : a case study / F.W. Kemp

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Frederick Willem

    2009-01-01

    The title of the research is "Ethical codes for training staff in South African Collieries -a case study". The research was conducted in coal mining training centres in the Free State, Gauteng and the Mpumulanga provinces of South Africa. The objective of the research was to examine ethical codes currently in place internationally and locally. Based on this research the research was then focused on its contribution to the human resource development arena. South African coal mining train...