WorldWideScience

Sample records for africa case studies

  1. Regional case studies--Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  2. Implementing RDA Data Citation Recommendations: Case Study in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Wim

    2016-04-01

    SAEON operates a shared research data infrastructure for its own data sets and for clients and end users in the Earth and Environmental Sciences domain. SAEON has a license to issue Digital Object Identifiers via DataCite on behalf of third parties, and have recently concluded development work to make a universal data deposit, description, and DOI minting facility available. This facility will be used to develop a number of end user gateways, including DataCite South Africa (in collaboration with National Research Foundation and addressing all grant-funded research in the country), DIRISA (Data-intensive Research Infrastructure for South Africa - in collaboration with Meraka Institute and Department of Science and Technology), and SASDI (South African Spatial Data Infrastructure). The RDA recently published Data Citation Recommendations [1], and this was used as a basis for specification of Digital Object Identifier implementation, raising two significant challenges: 1. Synchronisation of frequently harvested meta-data sets where version management practice did not align with the RDA recommendations, and 2. Handling sub-sets of and queries on large, continuously updated data sets. In the first case, we have developed a set of tests that determine the logical course of action when discrepancies are found during synchronization, and we have incorporated these into meta-data harvester configurations. Additionally, we have developed a state diagram and attendant workflow for meta-data that includes problem states emanating from DOI management, reporting services for data depositors, and feedback to end users in respect of synchronisation issues. In the second case, in the absence of firm guidelines from DataCite, we are seeking community consensus and feedback on an approach that caches all queries performed and subsets derived from data, and provide these with anchor-style extensions linked to the dataset's original DOI. This allows extended DOIs to resolve to a meta

  3. Undertaking Individual Transdisciplinary PhD Research for Sustainable Development: Case Studies from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Breda, John; Musango, Josephine; Brent, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to improve the understanding of individual transdisciplinary PhD research in a developing country context, focusing on three individual PhD case studies in South Africa. Design/Methodology/Approach: Multiple-case method was used, and three completed transdisciplinary PhD research efforts undertaken at the Stellenbosch…

  4. Establishing and sustaining research partnerships in Africa: a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de-Graft Aikins Ama

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north–south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to bring together multidisciplinary chronic disease researchers based in the UK and Africa to collaborate on research, inform policymaking, train and support postgraduates and create a platform for research dissemination. We review the partnership’s achievements and challenges, applying established criteria for developing successful partnerships. During the funded period we achieved major success in creating a platform for research dissemination through international meetings and publications. Other goals, such as engaging in collaborative research and training postgraduates, were not as successfully realised. Enabling factors included trust and respect between core working group members, a shared commitment to achieving partnership goals, and the collective ability to develop creative strategies to overcome funding challenges. Barriers included limited funding, administrative support, and framework for monitoring and evaluating some goals. Chronic disease research partnerships in low-income regions operate within health research, practice, funding and policy environments that prioritise infectious diseases and other pressing public health and developmental challenges. Their long-term sustainability will therefore depend on integrated funding systems that provide a crucial capacity building bridge. Beyond the specific challenges of chronic disease research, we identify social capital, measurable goals, administrative support, creativity and innovation and funding as five key ingredients that are essential for sustaining research partnerships.

  5. Development Impact Assessment (DIA) Case Study. South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, Sadie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nawaz, Kathleen [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sandor, Debra [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-05-19

    This case study reviews South Africa’s experience in considering the impacts of climate change action on development goals, focusing on the South African energy sector and development impact assessments (DIAs) that have and could be used to influence energy policy or inform the selection of energy activities. It includes a review of assessments—conducted by government ministries, technical partners, and academic institutes and non-governmental organizations (NGOs)—that consider employment, health, and water implications of possible energy sector actions, as well as multi-criteria impact assessments.

  6. Library Automation in Sub Saharan Africa: Case Study of the University of Botswana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen Mudogo

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This article aims to present experiences and the lessons learned from the University of Botswana (UB) library automation project. The implications of the project for similar libraries planning automation in sub Saharan Africa and beyond are adduced. Design/methodology/approach: The article is a case study of library automation at the…

  7. Constraints to the Development of Commodity Exchanges in Africa: A Case Study of ZAMACE

    OpenAIRE

    Sitko, Nicholas J.; Jayne, Thomas S.

    2011-01-01

    The development of agricultural commodity exchanges in Africa has become an increasingly popular strategy for addressing some of the ills plaguing African food markets, including poorly developed risk management systems, high transaction costs, and limited price discovery. However, despite substantial support from donors and, in some cases, national governments, commodity exchanges in most African countries are having difficulties getting off the ground. While previous studies (Rashid, Winter...

  8. Factors Affecting the Success of Conserving Biodiversity in National Parks: A Review of Case Studies from Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moses Muhumuza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available National Parks are a cornerstone for biodiversity conservation in Africa. Two approaches are commonly used to sustain biodiversity in National Parks. Past and current studies show that both approaches are generally ineffective in conserving biodiversity in National Parks in Africa. However, there are a handful of cases where these approaches have been successful at conserving biodiversity in National Parks. The question this paper attempts to answer is why in some cases these approaches have been successful and in other cases they have failed. A metadata analysis of 123 documents on case studies about conservation of biodiversity in National Parks in Africa was conducted. A series of search engines were used to find papers for review. Results showed that all factors responsible for both the success and failure of conserving biodiversity in National Parks in various contexts were socioeconomic and cultural in nature. The highest percentage in both successful case studies (66% and unsuccessful cases studies (55% was associated with the creation and management of the park. These results suggest that future conservation approaches in National Parks in Africa should place more emphasis on the human dimension of biodiversity conservation than purely scientific studies of species and habitats in National Parks.

  9. Pandemic Flu Planning in Africa: Thoughts from a Nigerian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Virulent H5N1 Avian Influenza in Africa Our early research on pandemic influenza planning took place in Nigeria. Highly pathogenic H5N1 was first...most pervasively, the human immunodeficiency virus ( HIV /AIDS). The emergence of H5N1 avian flu in 1996, coupled with the recent declaration of an...with mild cases of the flu appearing sporadically around the globe. Beginning in August 1918, near the end of World War I, a second, more virulent

  10. Hospital solid waste management practices in Limpopo Province, South Africa: a case study of two hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemathaga, Felicia; Maringa, Sally; Chimuka, Luke

    2008-01-01

    The shortcomings in the management practices of hospital solid waste in Limpopo Province of South Africa were studied by looking at two hospitals as case studies. Apart from field surveys, the generated hospital waste was weighed to compute the generation rates and was followed through various management practices to the final disposal. The findings revealed a major policy implementation gap between the national government and the hospitals. While modern practices such as landfill and incineration are used, their daily operations were not carried according to minimum standards. Incinerator ash is openly dumped and wastes are burned on landfills instead of being covered with soil. The incinerators used are also not environmentally friendly as they use old technology. The findings further revealed that there is no proper separation of wastes according to their classification as demanded by the national government. The mean percentage composition of the waste was found in the following decreasing order: general waste (60.74%)>medical waste (30.32%)>sharps (8.94%). The mean generation rates were found to be 0.60kg per patient per day.

  11. Private Higher Education in Africa: The Case of Monash South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setswe, G.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the contribution of private institutions to higher education in Africa and use Monash South Africa as a case study. A literature search was conducted to gain perspective on the current situation with respect to private higher education institutions in Africa and how they are perceived in relation to public…

  12. Drivers of routine immunization coverage improvement in Africa: findings from district-level case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaFond, Anne; Kanagat, Natasha; Steinglass, Robert; Fields, Rebecca; Sequeira, Jenny; Mookherji, Sangeeta

    2015-04-01

    There is limited understanding of why routine immunization (RI) coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted in-depth case studies to understand pathways to coverage improvement by comparing immunization programme experience in 12 districts in three countries (Ethiopia, Cameroon and Ghana). Drawing on positive deviance or assets model techniques we compared the experience of districts where diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis (DTP3)/pentavalent3 (Penta3) coverage improved with districts where DTP3/Penta3 coverage remained unchanged (or steady) over the same period, focusing on basic readiness to deliver immunization services and drivers of coverage improvement. The results informed a model for immunization coverage improvement that emphasizes the dynamics of immunization systems at district level. In all districts, whether improving or steady, we found that a set of basic RI system resources were in place from 2006 to 2010 and did not observe major differences in infrastructure. We found that the differences in coverage trends were due to factors other than basic RI system capacity or service readiness. We identified six common drivers of RI coverage performance improvement-four direct drivers and two enabling drivers-that were present in well-performing districts and weaker or absent in steady coverage districts, and map the pathways from driver to improved supply, demand and coverage. Findings emphasize the critical role of implementation strategies and the need for locally skilled managers that are capable of tailoring strategies to specific settings and community needs. The case studies are unique in their focus on the positive drivers of change and the identification of pathways to coverage improvement, an approach that should be considered in future studies and routine assessments of district-level immunization system performance.

  13. A journey towards inclusive education; a case study from a ‘township’ in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Luger

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this case study was to relate part of the journey to appropriate education for two young children with physical disabilities in a low socio-economic peri-urban informal settlement – or ‘township’ – in South Africa. The part of the on-going journey described here spanned four-and-a-half years and included the two children, their families, their teachers, their community and a small team of rehabilitation professionals working for a non-profit organisation in the area. The rehabilitation professionals’ goals were to provide support for the children, their families, their current special care centre and the school(s they would attend in the future. The steps from the special care centre, to a mainstream early childhood development (ECD centre for both of them, and then on to (a a school for learners with special educational needs (LSEN for one child and (b a mainstream primary school for the other, are described. Challenges encountered on the way included parental fears, community attitudes and physical accessibility. Practical outcomes included different placements for the two children with implications and recommendations for prioritised parent involvement, individual approaches, interdisciplinary and community-based collaborations. Recommendations are given for clinical contexts, curricula and policy matters; for research and for scaling up such a programme through community workers.

  14. Questioning the Pace and Pathway of E-Government Development in Africa: A Case Study of South Africa's Cape Gateway Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maumbe, Blessing Mukabeta; Owei, Vesper; Alexander, Helen

    2008-01-01

    The paper examines e-government development in Africa. This study is based on the Cape Gateway project in South Africa, a leading e-government initiative on the continent. We observe that African countries have jumped on the e-government band wagon by looking mostly at the benefits without a clear risk assessment. We argue that African countries…

  15. The Management of Parental Involvement in Multicultural Schools in South Africa: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sathiapama Michael

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the management of parental involvement in three multicultural schools in the Umlazi District in Durban, South Africa. A literature survey resulting in a theoretical framework on parental involvement in schools, multicultural schools, and the managing of parental involvement in schools has been done. The contextual background of schools in contemporary South Africa is depicted. A qualitative research design has been used. Focus group discussions have been conducted, with a total of thirty-three principals, teachers and parents. It has found that there is a low level of meaningful contact between school and parents. Apathy exists on the side of parents, low expectations on the side of principals and teachers, and an organisational structure facilitating parent-school interaction is lacking. In managing parental involvement in multicultural schools, school managers display a lack of intercultural sensitivity.

  16. How to Establish a Bioinformatics Postgraduate Degree Programme: A Case Study from South Africa

    CERN Document Server

    Machanick, Philip

    2014-01-01

    The Research Unit in Bioinformatics at Rhodes University (RUBi), South Africa offers a Masters of Science in Bioinformatics. Growing demand for Bioinformatics qualifications results in applications from across Africa. Courses aim to bridge gaps in the diverse backgrounds of students who range from biologists with no prior computing exposure to computer scientists with no biology background. The programme is evenly split between coursework and research, with diverse modules from a range of departments covering mathematics, statistics, computer science and biology, with emphasis on application to bioinformatics research. The early focus on research helps bring students up to speed with working as a researcher. We measure success of the programme by the high rate of subsequent entry to PhD study: 10 out of 14 students who completed in the years 2011-2013.

  17. Efficient and equitable HIV prevention: A case study of male circumcision in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verguet Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We determine efficient, equitable and mixed efficient-equitable allocations of a male circumcision (MC intervention reducing female to male HIV transmission in South Africa (SA, as a case study of an efficiency-equity framework for resource allocation in HIV prevention. Methods We present a mathematical model developed with epidemiological and cost data from the nine provinces of SA. The hypothetical one-year-long MC intervention with a budget of US$ 10 million targeted adult men 15–49 years of age in SA. The intervention was evaluated according to two criteria: an efficiency criterion, which focused on maximizing the number of HIV infections averted by the intervention, and an equity criterion (defined geographically, which focused on maximizing the chance that each male adult individual had access to the intervention regardless of his province. Results A purely efficient intervention would prevent 4,008 HIV infections over a year. In the meantime, a purely equitable intervention would avert 3,198 infections, which represents a 20% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. A half efficient-half equitable scenario would prevent 3,749 infections, that is, a 6% reduction in infection outcome as compared to the purely efficient scenario. Conclusions This paper provides a framework for resource allocation in the health sector which incorporates a simple equity metric in addition to efficiency. In the specific context of SA with a MC intervention for the prevention of HIV, incorporation of geographical equity only slightly reduces the overall efficiency of the intervention.

  18. A Perspective on Sea Level Rise and Coastal Storm Surge from Southern and Eastern Africa: A Case Study Near Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek D. Stretch

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent coastal storms in southern Africa have highlighted the need for more proactive management of the coastline. Within the southern and eastern African region the availability of coastal information is poor. The greatest gap in information is the likely effects of a combination of severe sea storms and future sea level rise (SLR on the shoreline. This lack of information creates a barrier to informed decision making. This research outlines a practical localized approach to this problem, which can be applied as a first order assessment within the region. In so doing it provides a cost effective and simple decision support tool for the built environment and disaster professionals in development and disaster assessments. In a South African context the newly promulgated Integrated Coastal Management Act requires that all proposed coastal developments take into consideration future SLR, however such information currently does not exist, despite it being vital for informed planning in the coastal zone. This practical approach has been applied to the coastline of Durban, South Africa as a case study. The outputs are presented in a Geographic Information System (GIS based freeware viewer tool enabling ease of access to both professionals and laypersons. This demonstrates that a simple approach can provide valuable information about the current and future risk of flooding and coastal erosion under climate change to buildings, infrastructure as well as natural features along the coast.

  19. Towards building equitable health systems in Sub-Saharan Africa: lessons from case studies on operational research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolhurst Rachel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Published practical examples of how to bridge gaps between research, policy and practice in health systems research in Sub Saharan Africa are scarce. The aim of our study was to use a case study approach to analyse how and why different operational health research projects in Africa have contributed to health systems strengthening and promoted equity in health service provision. Methods Using case studies we have collated and analysed practical examples of operational research projects on health in Sub-Saharan Africa which demonstrate how the links between research, policy and action can be strengthened to build effective and pro-poor health systems. To ensure rigour, we selected the case studies using pre-defined criteria, mapped their characteristics systematically using a case study development framework, and analysed the research impact process of each case study using the RAPID framework for research-policy links. This process enabled analysis of common themes, successes and weaknesses. Results 3 operational research projects met our case study criteria: HIV counselling and testing services in Kenya; provision of TB services in grocery stores in Malawi; and community diagnostics for anaemia, TB and malaria in Nigeria. Political context and external influences: in each case study context there was a need for new knowledge and approaches to meet policy requirements for equitable service delivery. Collaboration between researchers and key policy players began at the inception of operational research cycles. Links: critical in these operational research projects was the development of partnerships for capacity building to support new services or new players in service delivery. Evidence: evidence was used to promote policy dialogue around equity in different ways throughout the research cycle, such as in determining the topic area and in development of indicators. Conclusion Building equitable health systems means

  20. An evaluation of soil erosion hazard: A case study in Southern Africa using geomatics technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eiswerth, Barbara Alice

    Accelerated soil erosion in Malawi, Southern Africa, increasingly threatens agricultural productivity, given current and projected population growth trends. Previous attempts to document soil erosion potential have had limited success, lacking appropriate information and diagnostic tools. This study utilized geomatics technologies and the latest available information from topography, soils, climate, vegetation, and land use of a watershed in southern Malawi. The Soil Loss Estimation Model for Southern Africa (SLEMSA), developed for conditions in Zimbabwe, was evaluated and used to create a soil erosion hazard map for the watershed under Malawi conditions. The SLEMSA sub-models of cover, soil loss, and topography were computed from energy interception, rainfall energy, and soil erodibility, and slope length and steepness, respectively. Geomatics technologies including remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provided the tools with which land cover/land use, a digital elevation model, and slope length and steepness were extracted and integrated with rainfall and soils spatial information. Geomatics technologies enable rapid update of the model as new and better data sets become available. Sensitivity analyses of the SLEMSA model revealed that rainfall energy and slope steepness have the greatest influence on soil erosion hazard estimates in this watershed. Energy interception was intermediate in sensitivity level, whereas slope length and soil erodibility ranked lowest. Energy interception and soil erodibility were shown by parameter behavior analysis to behave in a linear fashion with respect to soil erosion hazard, whereas rainfall energy, slope steepness, and slope length exhibit non-linear behavior. When SLEMSA input parameters and results were compared to alternative methods of soil erosion assessment, such as drainage density and drainage texture, the model provided more spatially explicit information using 30 meter grid cells. Results of this

  1. Observation of Dust Aging Processes During Transport from Africa into the Caribbean - A Lagrangian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinzierl, B.; Sauer, D. N.; Walser, A.; Dollner, M.; Reitebuch, O.; Gross, S.; Chouza, F.; Ansmann, A.; Toledano, C.; Freudenthaler, V.; Kandler, K.; Schäfler, A.; Baumann, R.; Tegen, I.; Heinold, B.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles are regularly transported over long distances impacting air quality, health, weather and climate thousands of kilometers downwind of the source. During transport, particle properties are modified thereby changing the associated impact on the radiation budget. Although mineral dust is of key importance for the climate system many questions such as the change of the dust size distribution during long-range transport, the role of wet and dry removal mechanisms, and the complex interaction between mineral dust and clouds remain open. In June/July 2013, the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace) was conducted to study the transport and transformation of Saharan mineral dust. Besides ground-based lidar and in-situ instruments deployed on Cape Verde, Barbados and Puerto Rico, the DLR research aircraft Falcon was equipped with an extended aerosol in-situ instrumentation, a nadir-looking 2-μm wind lidar and instruments for standard meteorological parameters. During SALTRACE, five large dust outbreaks were studied by ground-based, airborne and satellite measurements between Senegal, Cape Verde, the Caribbean, and Florida. Highlights included the Lagrangian sampling of a dust plume in the Cape Verde area on 17 June which was again measured with the same instrumentation on 21 and 22 June 2013 near Barbados. Between Cape Verde and Barbados, the aerosol optical thickness (500 nm) decreased from 0.54 to 0.26 and the stratification of the dust layers changed significantly from a rather homogenous structure near Africa to a 3-layer structure with embedded cumulus clouds in the Caribbean. In the upper part of the dust layers in the Caribbean, the aerosol properties were similar to the observations near Africa. In contrast, much more variability in the dust properties was observed between 0.7 and 2.5 km altitude probably due to interaction of the mineral dust with clouds. In our

  2. The Balkanization of Nigeria's Federal System: A Case Study in the Political Geography of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogge, John R.

    1977-01-01

    By means of a case study of Nigeria, this paper examines the issue of national unity and identity in the face of tribally based regionalism, diversity, and suspicion. Maps and tables accompany the article. (Author/AV)

  3. Getting Books to School Pupils in Africa: Case Studies from Ghana and Tanzania, Mali, South Africa, Mozambique, and Kenya. Education Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Diana, Ed.

    One of the fundamental requirements of all educational systems is the adequate provision of relevant and appropriate reading and other instructional and learning materials for use by teachers and their pupils. A study examined some of the modalities through which the school population in Africa gains access to supplementary reading materials and…

  4. Sources, transport and deposition of terrestrial organic material: A case study from southwestern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, Nicole; Boom, Arnoud; Carr, Andrew S.; Chase, Brian M.; Granger, Robyn; Hahn, Annette; Zabel, Matthias; Schefuß, Enno

    2016-10-01

    Southwestern Africa's coastal marine mudbelt, a prominent Holocene sediment package, provides a valuable archive for reconstructing terrestrial palaeoclimates on the adjacent continent. While the origin of terrestrial inorganic material has been intensively studied, the sources of terrigenous organic material deposited in the mudbelt are yet unclear. In this study, plant wax derived n-alkanes and their compound-specific δ13C in soils, flood deposits and suspension loads from regional fluvial systems and marine sediments are analysed to characterize the origin of terrestrial organic material in the southwest African mudbelt. Soils from different biomes in the catchments of the Orange River and small west coast rivers show on average distinct n-alkane distributions and compound-specific δ13C values reflecting biome-specific vegetation types, most notably the winter rainfall associated Fynbos Biome of the southwestern Cape. In the fluvial sediment samples from the Orange River, changes in the n-alkane distributions and compound-specific δ13C compositions reveal an overprint by local vegetation along the river's course. The smaller west coast rivers show distinct signals, reflecting their small catchment areas and particular vegetation communities. Marine surface sediments spanning a transect from the northern mudbelt (29°S) to St. Helena Bay (33°S) reveal subtle, but spatially coherent, changes in n-alkane distributions and compound-specific δ13C, indicating the influence of Orange River sediments in the northern mudbelt, the increasing importance of terrigenous input from the adjacent western coastal biomes in the central mudbelt, and contributions from the Fynbos Biome to the southern mudbelt. These findings indicate the different sources of terrestrial organic material deposited in the mudbelt, and highlight the potential the mudbelt has to preserve evidence of environmental change from the adjacent continent.

  5. Dust aerosol radiative effect and forcing over West Africa : A case study from the AMMA SOP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaître, C.; Flamant, C.; Pelon, J.; Cuesta, J.; Chazette, P.; Raut, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The massive transport of arid dust by the African easterly jet (AEJ) can impact the dynamic of the AEJ and modify the development of westerly African waves through modifications of horizontal temperature gradient. Hence, it is important to evaluate the radiative impact of dust and their effect on thermodynamical properties of the AEJ. In this presentation, the impact of aerosol on solar and infra-red fluxes and the heating rate due to dust over West Africa are investigated using the radiative code STREAMER, as well as space-borne and airborne lidars (CALIPSO and LEANDRE 2, respectively) as well as dropsonde observations acquired during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observing Period. Aircraft operations were conducted on 13 and 14 June 2006, over Benin and Niger. On these days the dust observed over Benin and Niger originated from the Bodélé depression and from West Sudan. In this study, we use aerosol extinction coefficient derived from lidar, as well as temperature, pressure and water vapour profiles derived from dropsondes as inputs to STREAMER. The surface albedo is obtained with MODIS. A series of runs was carried out on 13 and 14 June 2006, around mid-day, to investigate the dust radiative forcing as a function of latitude, from 6°N to 15°N, i.e. between the vegetated coast of the Guinea Gulf and the arid Sahel. In the solar spectrum, the maximum heating rate associated with the dust plume on these days was comprised between 1.5 K/day and 3 K/day, depending on the aerosol load, over the entire Sudanian and Sahel regions as inferred from CALIPSO. Sensitivity studies to surface albedo, aerosol backscatter-to-extinction ratio, temperature and water vapor mixing ratio profiles were also conducted.

  6. Transformative Adult Learning in New Social Movement – a Case Study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čubajevaitė Marta

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available New social movements in South Africa could play a prominent role in mobilizing the communities to reflect critically and address the repercussions of the neo-liberal agenda which manifests itself in perpetual exclusion of under-educated adults and provision of poor quality education.

  7. Responding to Outreach and Training Challenges in Health Information: A Case Study from Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimalizeni, Michael; Chimwaza, Gracian; Chataira, Blessing; Msengezi, Chipo

    2014-01-01

    This article shares the experience and lessons learned by Information Training and Outreach Center for Africa (ITOCA) in rolling out an on-line distance learning course. Key objectives were to explore the efficacy of online courses in increasing skills and awareness of electronic resources access initiatives. This is in the context of responding…

  8. Mandated Change Gone Wrong? A Case Study of Law-Based School Reform in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisschoff, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore and describe the limits of recent law-based school reform in South Africa from an education management perspective. Design/methodology/approach: The research design consists of a qualitative, investigative, descriptive and contextual design which Merriam would classify as a basic or generic design type.…

  9. Joint implementation initiatives in South Africa: A case study of two energy-efficiency projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Horen, C.; Simmonds, G.; Parker, G.

    1998-11-01

    This paper explores the issues pertinent to Joint Implementation (JI) in South Africa by examining two prototype potential projects on energy efficiency with the potential for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The first is an energy-efficient lighting project based on the public electricity utility, Eskom's plan for a compact fluorescent lighting program in the residential sector. The analysis indicates that the CFL program could avoid emissions of up to 243 thousand tons of carbon over the first five years, at negative cost (that is, with a positive economic return). The second project involves the delivery of passive solar, energy-efficient housing to a low-income township in the Western Cape Province, at an incremental capital cost of approximately $2.5m for the 6000 houses. In this case, the avoided GHG emissions over the first five years amount to between 14 and 20 tons of carbon, and over the 50 year life-span of the project it will result to 140 to 200 thousand tons of avoided emissions at a cost of $13 to $17 per ton. The housing project has significant non-GHG benefits such as savings on energy bills and health, which accrue to the low-income dwellers. A number of important JI-specific issues and concerns emerge with respect to the two projects, which can also be applied to other potential JI opportunities in the country generally. These include the issues of carbon credit sharing, for which a number of scenarios are suggested, as well as estimating unknown macroeconomic impacts, such as the effects of CFLs on the country's incandescent lighting industry. Findings from an examination of both potential projects conclude that capacity-building within the country is critical to ensure that the technology being transferred balances efficiency, cost and quality appropriate to the South African context. Finally, assessment and evaluation, monitoring and verification criteria and institutions are called for to guarantee measurable long

  10. Ecological risk assessment of trace elements in sediment: A case study from Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahms, S; Baker, N J; Greenfield, R

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the ecological risk posed by metals, in sediments from the Nyl River system in Limpopo, South Africa. Metals were extracted from sediment samples by aqua regia microwave digestion and were analysed using standard ICP-OES techniques. The ecological risk indices applied to the data included Contamination Factor, Pollution Load Index, Geo-accumulation Index and Enrichment Factor. The results showed that the levels of Ni at STW and NYL in the HF period exceeded the Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines by a factor of 1.36 and 1.83 respectively whereas NYL and MDD had 2.57 and 1.32 times the allowed limit of Ni in the LF period. During the HF period, the GC site exceeded the allowed limit of Zn by a factor of 1.04 and NYL had 1.21 times the allowed Zn in the LF period. The levels of metals are generally low near the origin of the river and increase moving downstream. The levels of metals in the Nyl River floodplain, a Ramsar accredited wetland, were high with CF scores ranging between 0.905 and 5.82, Igeo values with a range of -0.541 to 2.441 and EF scores ranging from 0.959 to 6.171. and posed a greater risk than the other sites. This indicated that the wetland is performing its ecological function by trapping and removing toxins from the water body. The Pollution Load Index determined that the Golf Course (PLI=4.586) and STW (PLI=2.617) sites were polluted only in the low flow period whereas the Nyl River floodplain (HF PLI=79.845; LF PLI=30378.768) and Moorddrift Dam (HF PLI=1.903; LF PLI=9.256) sites were polluted in high flow and low flow periods.

  11. Characteristics of Droughts in South Africa: A Case Study of Free State and North West Provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina M. Botai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Free State (FS and North West (NW Provinces are often hard hit by droughts with impacts on water availability, farm production and livestock holdings. The South African government declared the two Provinces drought disaster areas in the 2015/2016 hydrological year. This is a major drawback, since both the Provinces play an important role to South African economy as they are a haven to agricultural production and have major water reservoirs in South Africa. This study was undertaken to investigate the historical evolution of drought within the FS and NW Provinces over the past 30 years. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI calculated based on monthly meteorological data from 14 weather/climate stations within the FS and NW Provinces were used to explore and characterize variation in drought intensity, duration, frequency and severity in FS and NW Provinces during 1985–2015. Results indicate that there exist localized positive and negative trends with spatial dependence across the selected stations. In particular, about 60% of the weather stations exhibiting a decreasing trend are located in FS Province, suggesting that FS has being experiencing increasing drought during the analyzed period compared to NW Province. Results from the analysis of drought evaluation indicators (DEIs calculated from SPEI suggest that drought severity and frequency was more pronounced in FS while the intensity of the drought was more in NW Province during 1985–2015. In addition, based on SPEI calculations, moderate drought occurrences increased during 1985–1994 and 1995–2004 periods and decreased thereafter (2005–2015 in both Provinces. Drought classification based on parameters derived from SPEI produced similar results for mild drought occurrences during the same time scales.

  12. The Challenge of Inclusive Schooling in Africa: A Ghanaian Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefa Dei, George J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores how African learners and educators work with difference and diversity in schooling populations. Using a Ghanaian case study the paper offers lessons on/about how local discourses relating to "inclusivity and nation building", "minority" and "difference" can inform debates about educational change and guide broad policy…

  13. Political Change, Social Integration and Curriculum: A South Africa Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedekind, Volker; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Reports on a case study of the perceptions of principles of traditional South African schools on social change. The principal's essential conservatism suggests that meaningful curriculum change will not be easily achieved. Reveals a deep dichotomy between progressive educational rhetoric and actual school practices. (MJP)

  14. The growth of a culture of evidence-based obstetrics in South Africa: a qualitative case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lewin Simon

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the past two decades have seen a shift towards evidence-based obstetrics and midwifery, the process through which a culture of evidence-based practice develops and is sustained within particular fields of clinical practice has not been well documented, particularly in LMICs (low- and middle-income countries. Forming part of a broader qualitative study of evidence-based policy making, this paper describes the development of a culture of evidence-based practice amongst maternal health policy makers and senior academic obstetricians in South Africa Methods A qualitative case-study approach was used. This included a literature review, a policy document review, a timeline of key events and the collection and analysis of 15 interviews with policy makers and academic clinicians involved in these policy processes and sampled using a purposive approach. The data was analysed thematically. Results The concept of evidence-based medicine became embedded in South African academic obstetrics at a very early stage in relation to the development of the concept internationally. The diffusion of this concept into local academic obstetrics was facilitated by contact and exchange between local academic obstetricians, opinion leaders in international research and structures promoting evidence-based practice. Furthermore the growing acceptance of the concept was stimulated locally through the use of existing professional networks and meetings to share ideas and the contribution of local researchers to building the evidence base for obstetrics both locally and internationally. As a testimony to the extent of the diffusion of evidence-based medicine, South Africa has strongly evidence-based policies for maternal health. Conclusion This case study shows that the combined efforts of local and international researchers can create a culture of evidence-based medicine within one country. It also shows that doing so required time and perseverance

  15. Organic sedimentation in modern lacustrine systems: A case study from Lake Malawi, East Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Barry J. Katz,; Christopher A. Scholz,; Peter K. Swart,

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between depositional environment and sedimentary organic geochemistry in Lake Malawi, East Africa, and evaluates the relative significance of the various processes that control sedimentary organic matter (OM) in lacustrine systems. Total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations in recent sediments from Lake Malawi range from 0.01 to 8.80 wt% and average 2.83 wt% for surface sediments and 2.35 wt% for shallow core sediments. Hydrogen index (HI) values as determined by Rock-Eval pyrolysis range from 0 to 756 mg HC g−1 TOC and average 205 mg HC g−1 TOC for surface sediments and 228 mg HC g−1 TOC for shallow core samples. On average, variations in primary productivity throughout the lake may account for ~33% of the TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (as much as 1 wt% TOC), and have little or no impact on sedimentary HI values. Similarly, ~33% to 66% of the variation in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments appears to be controlled by anoxic preservation of OM (~1–2 wt% TOC), although some component of the water depth–TOC relationship may be due to physical sediment transport processes. Furthermore, anoxic preservation has a minimal effect on HI values in Lake Malawi sediments. Dilution of OM by inorganic sediment may account for ~16% of variability in TOC content in Lake Malawi sediments (~0.5 wt% TOC). The effect of inputs of terrestrial sediment on the organic character of surface sediments in these lakes is highly variable, and appears to be more closely related to the local depositional environment than the regional flux of terrestrial OM. Total nitrogen and TOC content in surface sediments collected throughout the lake are found to be highly correlated (r2 = 0.95), indicating a well-homogenized source of OM to the lake bottom. The recurring suspension and deposition of terrestrial sediment may account for significant amounts of OM deposited in offshore regions of the lake. This process effectively separates denser

  16. Agricultural chemical exposures and birth defects in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa A case – control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyler Joanne

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background South Africa is one of the major users of pesticides on the African continent. The Eastern Cape is the second largest province in South Africa. There has been growing concern about the occurrence of certain birth defects which seemed to have increased in the past few years. In this paper we investigate associations between exposure to agricultural chemicals and certain birth defects. Few such studies have been undertaken in the developing world previously. Methods Between September 2000 and March 2001 a case – control study was conducted among rural women in the area of the Eastern cape to investigate the association between women's exposure to pesticides and the occurrence of birth defects. Information on birth defects was obtained from the register of the Paediatrics Department at the Cecilia Makiwane Hospital in Mdantsane, one of the largest referral hospitals in the province. The cases were children who were diagnosed with selected birth defects. The controls were children born in the same areas as the cases. Exposure information on the mothers was obtained by interview concerning from their activities in gardens and fields. Data were analysed using conditional logistic regression. Results A total of 89 case mothers and 178 control mothers was interviewed. Babies with birth defects were seven times more likely to be born to women exposed to chemicals used in gardens and fields compared to no reported exposure (Odds Ratio 7.18, 95% CI 3.99, 13.25; and were almost twice as likely to be born to women who were involved in dipping livestock used to prevent ticks (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.15, 3.14. They were also 6.5 times more likely to be born to women who were using plastic containers for fetching water (OR 6.5, 95% CI 2.2, 27.9. Some of these containers had previously contained pesticides (OR 1.87, 95% CI 1.06, 3.31. Conclusions These findings suggest a link between exposure to pesticides and certain birth defects among the

  17. Probabilistic Impact Assessment of Domestic Rainwater Harvesting in Urban Slums: West Africa Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowden, J. R.; Watkins, D. W.; Mihelcic, J. R.; Fry, L. M.

    2007-12-01

    Urban populations now exceed rural populations worldwide, creating unique challenges in providing basic services, especially in developing countries where informal or illegal settlements grow in peri-urban areas. West Africa is an acute example of the problems created by rapid urban growth, with high levels of urban poverty and low water and sanitation access rates. Although considerable effort has been made in providing improved water access and urban services to slum communities, research indicates that clean water access rates are not keeping up with urbanization rates in several areas of the world and that rapidly growing slum communities are beginning to overwhelm many prior water improvements projects. In the face of these challenges, domestic rainwater harvesting is proposed as a technologically appropriate and economically viable option for enhancing water supplies to urban slum households. However, assessing the reliability, potential health impacts, and overall cost-effectiveness of these systems on a regional level is difficult for several reasons. First, long daily rainfall records are not readily available in much of the developing world, including many regions of sub-Saharan Africa. Second, significant uncertainties exist in the relevant cost, water use, and health data. Third, to estimate the potential future impacts at the regional scale, various global change scenarios should be investigated. Finally, in addition to these technical challenges, there is also a need to develop relatively simple and transparent assessment methods for informing policy makers. A procedure is presented for assessment of domestic rainwater harvesting systems using a combination of scenario, sensitivity, and trade-off analyses. Using data from West Africa, simple stochastic weather models are developed to generate rainfall sequences for the region, which are then used to estimate the reliability of providing a range of per capita water supplies. Next, a procedure is

  18. Developing Biosensors in Developing Countries: South Africa as a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Ronen; Limson, Janice

    2016-02-02

    A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental research into the signal transduction method, using model biorecognition elements, in line with international trends. Other research in this field is spread across several areas including: the application of nanotechnology; the identification and validation of biomarkers; development and testing of biorecognition agents (antibodies and aptamers) and design of electro-catalysts, most notably metallophthalocyanine. Biosensor targets commonly featured were pesticides and metals. Areas of regional import to sub-Saharan Africa, such as HIV/AIDs and tuberculosis diagnosis, are also apparent in a review of the available literature. Irrespective of the targets, the challenge to the effective deployment of such sensors remains shaped by social and economic realities such that the requirements thereof are for low-cost and universally easy to operate devices for field settings. While it is difficult to disentangle the intertwined roles of national policy, grant funding availability and, certainly, of global trends in shaping areas of emphasis in research, most notable is the strong role that nanotechnology, and to a certain extent biotechnology, plays in research regarding biosensor construction. Stronger emphasis on collaboration between scientists in theoretical modelling, nanomaterials application and or relevant stakeholders in the specific field (e.g., food or health monitoring) and researchers in biosensor design may help evolve focused research efforts towards development and deployment of low-cost biosensors.

  19. Developing Biosensors in Developing Countries: South Africa as a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronen Fogel

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available A mini-review of the reported biosensor research occurring in South Africa evidences a strong emphasis on electrochemical sensor research, guided by the opportunities this transduction platform holds for low-cost and robust sensing of numerous targets. Many of the reported publications centre on fundamental research into the signal transduction method, using model biorecognition elements, in line with international trends. Other research in this field is spread across several areas including: the application of nanotechnology; the identification and validation of biomarkers; development and testing of biorecognition agents (antibodies and aptamers and design of electro-catalysts, most notably metallophthalocyanine. Biosensor targets commonly featured were pesticides and metals. Areas  of regional import to sub-Saharan Africa, such as HIV/AIDs and tuberculosis diagnosis, are also apparent in a review of the available literature. Irrespective of the targets, the challenge to the effective deployment of such sensors remains shaped by social and economic realities such that the requirements thereof are for low-cost and universally easy to operate devices for field settings. While it is difficult to disentangle the intertwined roles of national policy, grant funding availability and, certainly, of global trends in shaping areas of emphasis in research, most notable is the strong role that nanotechnology, and to a certain extent biotechnology, plays in research regarding biosensor construction. Stronger emphasis on collaboration between scientists in theoretical modelling, nanomaterials application and or relevant stakeholders in the specific field (e.g., food or health monitoring and researchers in biosensor design may help evolve focused research efforts towards development and deployment of low-cost biosensors.

  20. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    The energy demand in building sectors for summer air-conditioning is growing exponentially due to thermal loads, increased living standards and occupant comfort demands throughout the last decades. This increasing consumption of primary energy is contributing significantly to emission of greenhouse gases and therefore to global warming. Moreover, fossil fuels, current main sources of energy used for electricity generation, are being depleted at an alarming rate despite continued warning. In addition, most air-conditioning equipment still utilise CFCs, promoting further destruction of our planet's protective ozone layer. Concerns over these environmental changes, have begun shifting the emphasis from current cooling methods, to 'sustainable strategies' of achieving equally comfortable conditions in building interiors. Study of ancient strategies applied by vernacular architecture shows how the indigenously clean energies to satisfy the cooling need were used. One of the most important influences on vernacular architecture is the macro-climate of the area in which the building is constructed. Mediterranean vernacular architecture, as well as that of much of the Middle East, often includes a courtyard with a fountain or pond; air cooled by water mist and evaporation is drawn through the building by the natural ventilation set up by the building form, and in many cases also includes wind-catchers to draw air through the internal spaces. Similarly, Northern African vernacular designs often have very high thermal mass and small windows to keep the occupants cool. Not only vernacular structure but also the recent development in solar and geothermal cooling technologies could be used to the needs for environmental control. Intelligent coupling of these methods as alternative design strategies could help developing countries such as South Africa toward sustainable development in airconditioning of building. In this paper, the possible strategies for

  1. Decision Factors for Domestic Package Tours – Case Study of a Region in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nerine Bresler

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that perceived risk is an inhibitor for the emerging domestic market to develop a culture of going on holiday, which is necessary for the sustainable development of tourism in South Africa. Entrenching a culture of travel can be expedited through appropriate package tours in the same way as it stimulated domestic travel in former Eastern European societies. Packaged tours provide convenience, and both psychological and financial security in a single transaction which can be considered a surrogate for the benefit of risk avoidance when visiting friends and relatives. A survey was conducted in the most promising region, namely the province Gauteng, among the potential market to identify the importance of decision factors for domestic packaged tours. The most important perceived decision criteria were cancellation possibility, affordability, and safety whilst on tour and the three least important were radio promotion, train transport and proximity. The results may be used by the National Department of Tourism to promote domestic tourism, as well as by new and small tour operators to improve decision-making and render competition more knowledge-based. It would thus serve the needs of both tourist buyers and tourism sellers and contribute to sustainable development.

  2. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Municipal Sewage Sludge: A Case Study of Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudakwashe K. Shamuyarira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Heavy metals in high concentrations can cause health and environmental damage. Nanosilver is an emerging heavy metal which has a bright future of use in many applications. Here we report on the levels of silver and other heavy metals in municipal sewage sludge. Five towns in Limpopo province of South Africa were selected and the sludge from their wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs was collected and analysed. The acid digested sewage sludge samples were analysed using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS methods. The concentrations of silver found were low, but significant, in the range 0.22 to 21.93 mg/kg dry mass. The highest concentration of silver was found in Louis Trichardt town with a concentration of 21.93 ± 0.38 mg/kg dry mass while the lowest was Thohoyandou with a concentration of 6.13 ± 0.12 mg/kg dry mass. A control sludge sample from a pit latrine had trace levels of silver at 0.22 ± 0.01 mg/kg dry mass. The result showed that silver was indeed present in the wastewater sewage sludge and at present there is no DWAF guideline standard. The average Cd concentration was 3.10 mg/kg dry mass for Polokwane municipality. Polokwane and Louis Trichardt municipalities exhibited high levels of Pb, in excess DWAF guidelines, in sludge at 102.83 and 171.87 mg/kg respectfully. In all the WWTPs the zinc and copper concentrations were in excess of DWAF guidelines. The presence of heavy metals in the sewage sludge in excess of DWAF guidelines presents environmental hazards should the sludge be applied as a soil ameliorant.

  3. Medical education and the quality improvement spiral: A case study from Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bac

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The short timeframe of medical students’ rotations is not always conducive to successful, in-depth quality-improvement projects requiring a more longitudinal approach.Aim: To describe the process of inducting students into a longitudinal quality-improvement project,using the topic of the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative as a case study; and to explore the possible contribution of a quality-improvement project to the development of student competencies.Setting: Mpumalanga clinical learning centres, where University of Pretoria medical students did their district health rotations.Method: Consecutive student groups had to engage with a hospital’s compliance with specific steps of the Ten Steps to Successful Breastfeeding that form the standards for the Mother- and Baby-Friendly Initiative. Primary data sources included an on-site PowerPoint group presentation (n = 42, a written group report (n = 42 and notes of individual interviews in an end-of-rotation objectively structured clinical examination station (n = 139.Results: Activities in each rotation varied according to the needs identified through the application of the quality-improvement cycle in consultation with the local health team. The development of student competencies is described according to the roles of a medical expert in the CanMEDS framework: collaborator, health advocate, scholar, communicator, manager and professional. The exposure to the real-life situation in South African public hospitals had a great influence on many students, who also acted as catalysts for transforming practice.Conclusion: Service learning and quality-improvement projects can be successfully integrated in one rotation and can contribute to the development of the different roles of a medical expert. More studies could provide insight into the potential of this approach in transforming institutions and student learning.

  4. Systems development in agricultural mechanization with special reference to soil tillage and weed control. A case study for West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curfs, H.P.F.

    1976-01-01

    IntroductionMechanization in West Africa has been of limited importance and influence for farming and manual labour is the dominant power input. At present only about 0.07 kW per ha is applied, while at least about 0.37 kW is desirable to obtain high yield levels.In this mechanization study a review

  5. Informal care for people with chronic psychotic symptoms: four case studies in a San community in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    den Hertog, Thijs N; Gilmoor, Andrew R

    2017-03-01

    Despite the internationally recognised importance of informal care, especially in settings with limited services, few studies focus on the informal care for people with mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Making informal care visible is important for understanding the challenges and identifying the needs to be addressed. This ethnographic case study explored the dynamics of informal care for people with chronic psychotic symptoms in a group of San living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in a township near Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. Data were collected in 2013 and 2014 and included semi-structured interviews, informal conversations and observations. Using local terminology, four individuals with chronic psychotic symptoms were identified and selected during the research process. A total of 33 semi-structured interviews took place with their caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive, interpretive and pattern coding to identify core themes and interrelations across the four cases. Results indicate that informal care is characterised by shared and fragmented care structures. Care was shared among family members from various households and unrelated community members. This allowed for an adaptive process that responded to local dynamics and the care recipients' needs. However, informal care was fragmented as it was generally uncoordinated, which increased the recipients' vulnerability as caregivers could redirect care-giving responsibility and withdraw care. Specific challenges for providing care were related to poverty and care resistance. To improve the living conditions of people suffering from psychosis-related mental health problems, community-based mental healthcare should broaden its scope and incorporate local strengths and challenges.

  6. Concerns About Climate Change Mitigation Projects: Summary of Findings from Case Studies in Brazil, India, Mexico, and South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathaye, Jayant A.; Andrasko, Kenneth; Makundi, Willy; La Rovere, Emilio Lebre; Ravinandranath, N.H.; Melli, Anandi; Rangachari, Anita; Amaz, Mireya; Gay, Carlos; Friedmann, Rafael; Goldberg, Beth; van Horen, Clive; Simmonds, Gillina; Parker, Gretchen

    1998-11-01

    The concept of joint implementation as a way to implement climate change mitigation projects in another country has been controversial ever since its inception. Developing countries have raised numerous issues at the project-specific technical level, and broader concerns having to do with equity and burden sharing. This paper summarizes the findings of studies for Brazil, India, Mexico and South Africa, four countries that have large greenhouse gas emissions and are heavily engaged in the debate on climate change projects under the Kyoto Protocol. The studies examine potential or current projects/programs to determine whether eight technical concerns about joint implementation can be adequately addressed. They conclude that about half the concerns were minor or well managed by project developers, but concerns about additionality of funds, host country institutions and guarantees of performance (including the issues of baselines and possible leakage) need much more effort to be adequately addressed. All the papers agree on the need to develop institutional arrangements for approving and monitoring such projects in each of the countries represented. The case studies illustrate that these projects have the potential to bring new technology, investment, employment and ancillary socioeconomic and environmental benefits to developing countries. These benefits are consistent with the goal of sustainable development in the four study countries. At a policy level, the studies' authors note that in their view, the Annex I countries should consider limits on the use of jointly implemented projects as a way to get credits against their own emissions at home, and stress the importance of industrialized countries developing new technologies that will benefit all countries. The authors also observe that if all countries accepted caps on their emissions (with a longer time period allowed for developing countries to do so) project-based GHG mitigation would be significantly

  7. Uncertainties in using remote sensing for water use determination: a case study in a heterogeneous study area in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Gibson

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a water scarce country where it is important for water managers to have accurate information on water resource occurrence and use. A remote sensing project highlighted many uncertainties in using complex remote sensing models to determine water use in a heterogeneous study area. The severity of the uncertainties was confirmed as the results across the catchment showed a higher total evapotranspiration than precipitation. This paper illustrates some of the uncertainties and limitations using the evapotranspiration component of the water balance as calculated by the Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS model, as an example.

    The introduction of uncertainties in the derivation of evapotranspiration were identified as: (1 sensitivity to land surface and air temperature gradient; (2 the choice of fractional vegetation cover formula; (3 height of wind speed measurement in relation to displacement height indicating a maximum canopy height at which the SEBS model should be used; and (4 study area heterogeneity.

    Uncertainties and errors are compounded when considering that the SEBS model is a complex model, requiring several image processing sequences that are combined to produce the final result. It was shown how the production and propagation of errors in the SEBS model can contribute to uncertainties in flux estimation and ultimately to uncertainties in the estimation of actual evapotranspiration.

  8. Coastal adaptation to climate change: A case study in Durban, South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Geldenhuys, M.A.; Jonkman, S.N.; Mather, A.A.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ledden, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research done the IPCC (2007) working groups and other organizations has sparked global concern over the possible impacts of climate change and corresponding sea level rise (SLR) upon coastal communities. In reaction studies were done (for example by Nicholls et al., 2008) to assess the vulnerability of coastal regions and get an indication of the magnitude of the potential global impacts. However, most of these studies did not address the development of climate change adaptation desig...

  9. Cleaner Production and Workplace Health and Safety: A combined approach. A case study from South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedlund, Frank Huess

    , integration of management systems is an option. A study on the South African Nosa 5-Star system refutes earlier criticism of dismal performance of top-down systems. It is argued that integration at this level is viable. For small companies, less formalistic approaches are required. ILO's network concept WISE...

  10. Hydrological effects of buried palaeosols in eroding landscapes: A case study in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Schaap, J.D.; Sonneveld, M.P.W.; Botha, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Palaeosols have long been studied as valuable records of past climate and landscape changes. The influence of palaeosols on the functioning of present-day landscapes is receiving closer attention due to the relevance of palaeosols on long-term hydrological processes and the future hydrological and e

  11. Coastal adaptation to climate change: A case study in Durban, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geldenhuys, M.A.; Jonkman, S.N.; Mather, A.A.; Ranasinghe, R.W.M.R.J.B.; Stive, M.J.F.; Van Ledden, M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research done the IPCC (2007) working groups and other organizations has sparked global concern over the possible impacts of climate change and corresponding sea level rise (SLR) upon coastal communities. In reaction studies were done (for example by Nicholls et al., 2008) to assess the vulne

  12. DDT exposure of frogs: A case study from Limpopo Province, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Ignatius M; Bornman, Riana; Bouwman, Hindrik

    2016-09-01

    Amphibians are globally under pressure with environmental contaminants contributing to this. Despite caution aired more than 80 years ago of threats posed to amphibians by DDT spraying for disease vector control, no data have been published on concentrations or effects of DDT contamination in frogs from areas where DDT is actively sprayed to control the insect vectors of malaria. In this study, we sampled fat bodies of Xenopus laevis and Xenopus muelleri naturally occurring in an area where indoor residual spraying of DDT is employed and from adjacent, non-sprayed, areas. ΣDDT concentrations ranged between DDT in the eggs of the Grey Heron Ardea cinerea. This suggests that the DDT we found in frogs may have contributed to DDT loadings higher in the food web. These findings, combined with other studies from this area, support the need to reduce and eventually move away from DDT in malaria control safely and sustainably.

  13. Observation of Clouds Using the CSIR Transportable LIDAR: A Case Study over Durban, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lerato Shikwambana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR transportable Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR was used to collect data over Durban (29.9°S, 30.9°E during 20–23 November 2012. Aerosol measurements have been carried out in the past over Durban; however, no cloud measurements using LIDAR have ever been performed. Therefore, this study further motivates the continuation of LIDAR for atmospheric research over Durban. Low level clouds were observed on 20–22 November 2012 and high level clouds were observed on 23 November 2012. The low level cloud could be classified as stratocumulus clouds, whereas the high level clouds could be classified as cirrus clouds. Low level cloud layers showed high extinction coefficients values ranging between 0.0009 and 0.0044 m−1, whereas low extinction coefficients for high level clouds were observed at values ranging between 0.000001 and 0.000002 m−1. Optical depth showed a high variability for 20 and 21 November 2012. This indicates a change in the composition and/or thickness of the cloud. For 22 and 23 November 2012, almost similar values of optical depth were observed. Cloud-Aerosol LIDAR and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO revealed high level clouds while the CSIR LIDAR could not. However, the two instruments complement each other well to describe the cloudy condition.

  14. Language and Development in Multilingual Settings: A Case Study of Knowledge Exchange and Teacher Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassool, Naz; Edwards, Viv; Bloch, Carole

    2006-12-01

    The quality of a country's human-resource base can be said to determine its level of success in social and economic development. This study focuses on some␣of the major human-resource development issues that surround the implementation of South Africa's policy of multilingualism in education. It begins by discussing the relationship between knowledge, language, and human-resource, social and economic development within the global cultural economy. It then considers the situation in South Africa and, in particular, the implications of that country's colonial and neo-colonial past for attempts to implement the new policy. Drawing on the linguistic-diversity-in-education debate in the United Kingdom of the past three decades, it assesses the first phase of an in-service teacher-education programme that was carried out at the Project for Alternative Education in South Africa (PRAESA) based at the University of Cape Town. The authors identify key short- and long-term issues related to knowledge exchange in education in multilingual societies, especially concerning the use of African languages as mediums for teaching and learning.

  15. The status of dengue fever virus in South Africa--serological studies and diagnosis of a case of dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, N K; Meenehan, G; Aldridge, N

    1987-01-01

    To assess the possibility of a dengue epidemic occurring in South Africa 3 groups of survey sera and 2 groups of patients' sera, from a dengue high risk area of South Africa, were tested for antibodies to several flaviviruses. 3.8% (75/1951) of the survey sera and 9.2% (26/282) of the patients' sera had haemagglutination inhibition antibodies to one or more of the flaviviruses tested. One of 1951 survey sera had a spectrum of complement fixation antibody consistent with a primary dengue infection, and 5 of 282 patients' sera also had complement fixation antibodies to flavivirus antigens. These 5 positive patients had recently travelled to India but in only one was there an antibody spectrum unequivocably consistent with a primary dengue infection. Dengue virus type 1 was successfully isolated from this patient's acute serum. The susceptibility of the population to dengue virus infection, the presence of the main vector of dengue virus and the occurrence of imported cases of dengue fever emphasize the need for continuous vigilance.

  16. Clinical and social determinants of diarrhoeal disease in a rural HIV/AIDS clinic, South Africa: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshabela, M; MacPherson, P; Ezard, N; Frean, E; Mashimbye, L; Elliott, J H; Oldenburg, B

    2012-05-01

    Diarrhoeal diseases are a common cause of morbidity and are associated with mortality in HIV-infected populations. Little is known about the contribution of clinical and socio-environmental factors to the risk of diarrhoea in these populations in rural sub-Saharan Africa. We conducted a case-control study of people attending a rural HIV clinic with an episode of diarrhoea in Bushbuckridge, South Africa. Cases were defined as HIV-positive adults with symptoms of diarrhoea before or after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Controls without diarrhoea were randomly selected from clinic attendees. Structured questionnaires and case-file reviews were undertaken to describe clinical and socioenvironmental risk factors. We recruited 103 cases of diarrhoea from 121 patients meeting case definitions. Cases were more likely to be women (P = 0.013), aged over 45 years (P = 0.002), divorced or separated (P = 0.006), have limited formal education (P = 0.003), have inadequate access to sanitation facilities (P = 0.045), have water access limited to less than three days per week (P = 0.032) and not yet initiated on ART (P analysis, diarrhoea remained associated with female gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.02, 95% CI 1.10-3.73), older age (aOR: 6.31, 95% CI 1.50-26.50), limited access to water (aOR: 2.66, 95% CI 1.32-5.35) and pre-ART status (aOR: 5.87, 95% CI 3.05-11.27). Clinical and socio-environmental factors are associated with occurrence of diarrhoeal disease among rural HIV patients in South Africa. Further intervention research is urgently needed, combining community- and clinic-based approaches, to improve access to water, sanitation and ART for rural areas with high HIV prevalence, along with structural interventions to address gender inequities.

  17. A Complex Systems Approach to Energy Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa: Nigeria as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidebell Emordi, Chukwunonso

    Energy poverty is pervasive in sub-Saharan Africa. Nigeria, located in sub-Saharan West Africa, is the world's seventh largest oil exporting country and is a resource-rich nation. It however experiences the same levels of energy poverty as most of its neighboring countries. Attributing this paradox only to corruption or the "Dutch Disease", where one sector booms at the expense of other sectors of the economy, is simplistic and enervates attempts at reform. In addition, data on energy consumption is aggregated at the national level via estimates, disaggregated data is virtually non-existent. Finally, the wave of decentralization of vertically integrated national utilities sweeping the developing world has caught on in sub-Saharan Africa. However, little is known of the economic and social implications of these transitions within the unique socio-technical system of the region's electricity sector, especially as it applies to energy poverty. This dissertation proposes a complex systems approach to measuring and mitigating energy poverty in Nigeria due to its multi-dimensional nature. This is done via a three-fold approach: the first section of the study delves into causation by examining the governance institutions that create and perpetuate energy poverty; the next section proposes a context-specific minimum energy poverty line based on field data collected on energy consumption; and the paper concludes with an indicator-based transition management framework encompassing institutional, economic, social, and environmental themes of sustainable transition within the electricity sector. This work contributes to intellectual discourse on systems-based mitigation strategies for energy poverty that are widely applicable within the sub-Saharan region, as well as adds to the knowledge-base of decision-support tools for addressing energy poverty in its complexity.

  18. [Cost estimation of an epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Central Africa: a case study of the Chad network].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouagal, M; Berkvens, D; Hendrikx, P; Fecher-Bourgeois, F; Saegerman, C

    2012-12-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, most epidemiological surveillance networks for animal diseases were temporarily funded by foreign aid. It should be possible for national public funds to ensure the sustainability of such decision support tools. Taking the epidemiological surveillance network for animal diseases in Chad (REPIMAT) as an example, this study aims to estimate the network's cost by identifying the various costs and expenditures for each level of intervention. The network cost was estimated on the basis of an analysis of the operational organisation of REPIMAT, additional data collected in surveys and interviews with network field workers and a market price listing for Chad. These costs were then compared with those of other epidemiological surveillance networks in West Africa. The study results indicate that REPIMAT costs account for 3% of the State budget allocated to the Ministry of Livestock. In Chad in general, as in other West African countries, fixed costs outweigh variable costs at every level of intervention. The cost of surveillance principally depends on what is needed for surveillance at the local level (monitoring stations) and at the intermediate level (official livestock sectors and regional livestock delegations) and on the cost of the necessary equipment. In African countries, the cost of surveillance per square kilometre depends on livestock density.

  19. Everyday hazards and vulnerabilities amongst backyard dwellers: A case study of Vredendal North, Matzikama Municipality, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia J. Zweig

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The populations of many small towns in South Africa continue to expand unmatched by parallel economic growth, entrenching high levels of poverty. The town of Vredendal, located close to the national route between Namibia and Cape Town in South Africa, is a West Coast development node and an emergent industrial and processing area that continues to attract an influx of people seeking economic opportunities. This is challenging the capacity of the local municipality, which has a waiting list for state-provided low-cost housing units, whilst the provision of adequate infrastructure to meet growing local need is also a developmental concern. In the suburb of Vredendal North this has resulted in the proliferation of unplanned informal dwellings in the backyards of formalised low-cost housing areas. Largely overlooked by urban researchers, little is known or understood about small town backyard populations. This prompted a brief study of Vredendal North backyard dwellers commissioned by the local municipality to identify their everyday hazards and livelihood vulnerabilities to inform future development planning. A community workshop identified critical development needs and suggested that backyard dwellers in small towns experience similar living conditions and hazards to those in the cities, although underlain by some unique differences.

  20. THE ROLE OF REMOTE SENSING FOR SUSTAINABLE ELEPHANT MANAGEMENT IN SOUTH AFRICA. FOUR MEDIUM SIZED GAME RESERVES AS CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jordaan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Loxodonta africana (African Elephant are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  1. The Role of Remote Sensing for Sustainable Elephant Management in South Africa. Four Medium Sized Game Reserves as Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordaan, M.

    2012-07-01

    Loxodonta africana (African Elephant) are running out of living space so the protection of what space they have is essential. Existing areas of suitable elephant habitat need to be protected not only from human development but from the elephants themselves. As most elephant populations in South Africa are enclosed and multiplying, there is some increasing cause for concern as the damage caused will escalate and could reach unsustainable proportions. This study examined the utilization of satellite images for the detection of elephant induced ecosystem modification. A pilot study was conducted on four medium sized Game Reserves (each ±30 000 ha) in South Africa. The aim was to ascertain the feasibility of using image analysis as instrument by which Game Reserve managers could assess biodiversity richness, habitat loss, and population-habitat viability. NDVI as indicator of primary production in vegetation is one of the instruments used to evaluate whether the carrying capacity for elephants of each Game Reserve has been reached and to compare the current biomass with those of previous years. The study also looked at the use of the woody canopy cover as target for change detection analysis. Spectral characteristics of specific trees species which are known for being preferred by elephants were used to conduct a temporal analysis on satellite images starting from the period when the elephants were re-introduced into each Game Reserve, thus attempting to identify possible impact on the biodiversity of the respective Game Reserves. Images from satellites such as Landsat, SPOT, Quickbird and SumbandilaSAT provided the needed data and maps.

  2. Informal Labour Markets As A Solution For Unemployment In South Africa – A Case Study Of Car Guards In Bloemfontein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. F. Blaauw

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available The car guard industry in South Africa evolved out of the plight of the unemployed. Very little research has been done on the industry in South Africa. The first objective of this article is to address the lack of research and the second is to determine whether the car guard industry can provide a solution to the problem of unemployment. Car guards involved in this study were found to be generally low skilled, earning low income and working under harsh conditions for long hours. The majority of them held formal sector employment before becoming unemployed. Car guarding is not a solution to the plight of the unemployed. Training and skill development supplemented by accelerated economic growth are vital to bridge the gap between the formal and informal sectors. OpsommingDie motorwag-industrie in Suid Afrika het onstaan uit die lot van die massa werkloses in die land. Weinig navorsing is al oor die industrie gedoen. Die doelwit van die artikel is eerstens om die gebrek aan navorsing aan te vul en tweedens om te bepaal of die motorwagindustrie ’n oplossing vir die probleem van werkloosheid kan bied. Motorwagte in die studie is oor die algemeen laag geskoold, swak besoldig en werksaam vir lang ure onder moeilike omstandighede. Die meeste het ’n werk in die formele sektor van die ekonomie gehad voordat hulle werkloos geword het. Om ’n motorwag te wees kan nooit ’n oplossing vir werkloosheid wees nie. Opleiding en die ontwikkeling van noodsaaklike vaardighede teen ’n agtergrond van versnelde ekonomiese groei, is uiters noodsaaklik om die gaping tussen die informele en formele sektor te oorbrug.

  3. Aligning vertical interventions to health systems: a case study of the HIV monitoring and evaluation system in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kawonga Mary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Like many low- and middle-income countries, South Africa established a dedicated HIV monitoring and evaluation (M&E system to track the national response to HIV/AIDS. Its implementation in the public health sector has however not been assessed. Since responsibility for health services management lies at the district (sub-national level, this study aimed to assess the extent to which the HIV M&E system is integrated with the overall health system M&E function at district level. This study describes implementation of the HIV M&E system, determines the extent to which it is integrated with the district health information system (DHIS, and evaluates factors influencing HIV M&E integration. Methods The study was conducted in one health district in South Africa. Data were collected through key informant interviews with programme and health facility managers and review of M&E records at health facilities providing HIV services. Data analysis assessed the extent to which processes for HIV data collection, collation, analysis and reporting were integrated with the DHIS. Results The HIV M&E system is top-down, over-sized, and captures a significant amount of energy and resources to primarily generate antiretroviral treatment (ART indicators. Processes for producing HIV prevention indicators are integrated with the DHIS. However processes for the production of HIV treatment indicators by-pass the DHIS and ART indicators are not disseminated to district health managers. Specific reporting requirements linked to ear-marked funding, politically-driven imperatives, and mistrust of DHIS capacity are key drivers of this silo approach. Conclusions Parallel systems that bypass the DHIS represent a missed opportunity to strengthen system-wide M&E capacity. Integrating HIV M&E (staff, systems and process into the health system M&E function would mobilise ear-marked HIV funding towards improving DHIS capacity to produce quality and timely HIV

  4. Analyzing Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in Success of Football (Case Study: South Africa World Cup 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafiee Shahram

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Goal of this research is to study Factor of Time of Scoring Goal in South Africa World Cup 2010 and its relationship with successful results for teams participating in this tournament. Research method is descriptive-analytical and its information was collected observationally and with a VCD, a 32-inch television set and datasheet. Statistical population and sample were considered equal to each other (N=n and included study of 64 competitions held during tournament. Information was analyzed with SPSS.18 software and indices of descriptive statistics and inferential statistics tests such as binomial and chi square were analyzed. Results showed that there was significant difference between two halves of competitions in terms of the number of scored goals. Increase of attack in the second 45 min led to more goals for teams. No significant difference was found between the scored goals and every 15 min and teams competed with opponents until the final minutes of competition. There was significant difference between positive results for the teams which scored the first goal and the teams which scored the first goal had more chance of victory. On the other hand, all teams which were ahead of the opponent in one goal in the final 30 min won at the end (P≤0/05.

  5. Assessment of Stand-Alone Residential Solar Photovoltaic Application in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of Gambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sambu Kanteh Sakiliba

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this paper is the design and implementation of solar PV deployment option, which is economical and easy to maintain for remote locations in less developed countries in Sub-Saharan Africa. The feasibility of stand-alone solar PV systems as a solution to the unstable electricity supply and as an alternative to the conventional resource, “diesel generators,” is presented. Moreover, a design of a system is carried out, such that the electrical demand and site meteorological data of a typical household in the capital, Banjul, is simulated. Likewise, the life cycle cost analysis to assess the economic viability of the system, along with the solar home performance, is also presented. Such system will be beneficial to the inhabitants of Gambia by ensuring savings in fuel costs and by reducing carbon emissions produced by generators. The selection of appropriate-sized components is crucial, as they affect the lifetime, reliability, and initial costs. The design presented in this study represents a solution for domestic houses to adopt the system according to the location and environment, in order to meet electricity demand.

  6. Intense predation cannot always be detected experimentally: A case study of shorebird predation on nereid polychaetes in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalejta, B.

    The effect of predation by curlew sandpipers Calidris ferruginea L. and grey plovers Pluvialis squatarola (L.) on populations of nereid worms Ceratonereis keiskama (Day) and C. erythraeensis (Fauvel) was studied at the Berg River estuary, South Africa, by comparing observations of shorebird-foraging intensity with the results of a population study of two species of nereid worms within and outside bird exclosures. The study was carried out during the four-month period prior to northward migration of shorebirds. Population structure of the two nereid species differed considerably. Ceratonereis keiskama reproduced earlier than C. erythraeensis and only young individuals were present during the study. By contrast, old C. erythraeensis were available to the birds at the start of the experiment and young animals entered the population during the experiment. Despite selective predation on certain size classes of nereids by the birds, no significant changes in the population structure of either nereid were detected by the cage experiment. Numbers and biomass of both Ceratonereis spp. in paired controls and cages tracked each other and did not diverge as predicted. A consistent difference in the depth stratification of the two nereids may, however, have been due to predation pressure. Curlew sandpipers were calculated to remove 3112 nereids per m 2 during the three months, equivalent to 4.4. g (dry weight) per m 2. This represents 58% of the initial numbers and 77% of the initial biomass of nereids. Although predation on nereids by waders was exceptionally high at the Berg River estuary, any depletion in numbers or biomass of nereids caused by these predators was masked by the reproduction of the nereids. The fact that the predators' high energy requirements prior to northward migration coincide with the period of peak production of invertebrate prey makes the Berg River estuary an exceptionally favourable wintering area.

  7. Desegregation, Racial Conflict and Education for Democracy in the New South Africa: A Case Study of Institutional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    1998-09-01

    Education under apartheid in South Africa was characterised by racism and segregation. Since the first democratic election in 1994 a process of racial desegregation has begun in South African schools. However, desegregation is not the same as integration. Given the historical context of South Africa, simply mixing students from different racial groups in one school is likely to result in racial conflict and violence unless the structure and processes of schooling are changed at the same time. This article examines the experience of one school in South Africa which has not only desegregated its intake but has also attempted to democratise its management structures in order to teach democratic values through experience and in particular to foster a climate of mutual respect among students so as to decrease racial distrust. So far, the changes appear to be successful but there are a number of important lessons to be learned.

  8. Sensibility of GPS measurements and estimates during extreme meteorological events: the case study of mesoscale convective systems in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmani, S.; Bock, O.

    2013-12-01

    Six permanent GPS stations have been deployed in West Africa within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project in order to monitor precipitable water vapor (PWV). This quantity is indeed widely employed to compute water budgets and study atmospheric processes. But in Sahel, 90% of annual rainfalls are produced by Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs) and PWV estimates tend to be less accurate during these extreme meteorological conditions: temperatures fall, GPS PWV estimates reach a local maximum and GPS phase residuals show strong variations that are spatially and temporally correlated. We observed that GPS phase residuals, which give insight into anomalies of the air refractivity, clearly reveal the passage of MCSs similarly as reflectivity measurements from C-band Doppler radar. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of the GPS PWV estimates during these events and possibly improve their estimation process. We carried out methodological and sensitivity tests on the parameterization of atmospheric delays and especially on the Gauss-Markov process which constrains the temporal variability of the GPS PWV estimates. During MCSs events, differences between GPS PWV estimates from GAMIT (2 cm.h-1/2 random walk for zenith tropospheric delays) and GIPSY (5 mm.h-1/2 random walk for zenith tropospheric delays) standard processing can for instance reach +/- 3.8 kg.m-2 . Standard GPS PWV estimates are thus subject to caution during these intense events. We therefore investigate an improved PWV estimation process which considers both zenith tropospheric delays and GPS phase residuals in order to account for the asymmetry of the air refractivity. This method leads to high-frequency PWV estimates for each GPS satellite which we compare with PWV estimates from a collocated microwave radiometer.

  9. Strengthening Agricultural Education and Training in Sub-Saharan Africa from an Innovation Systems Perspective: A Case Study of Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Kristin E.; Ekboir, Javier; Spielman, David J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines how post-secondary agricultural education and training (AET) in sub-Saharan Africa can contribute to agricultural development by strengthening the capacity to innovate--to introduce new products and processes that are socially or economically relevant to smallholder farmers and other agents. Using the AET system in Mozambique…

  10. The Provision of School Library Resources in a Changing Environment: A Case Study from Gauteng Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dlamini, Busi; Brown, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Before 1994 education in South Africa was divided along racial lines. There were separate departments of education for whites, coloureds (people of mixed decent), Indians (people of East Indian decent), and blacks (black Africans). Education for white children was much better funded than any of the others. The quality of the education that white…

  11. The Situation of Students in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Case Study of St Augustine University of Tanzania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bernadette; Haller, Max

    2012-01-01

    It is widely recognised that higher education is crucial for socio-economic growth in developing countries. Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is lagging behind in this regard in spite of a strong expansion of universities in the last decades. However, this growth may have led to a deterioration of the quality of higher education. There is no dearth of…

  12. Addressing Gender-Based Violence at Schools for Learners with Intellectual Disability in Gauteng, South Africa: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phasha, T. N.; Nyokangi, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports part of the findings of the study which investigated sexual violence at two schools catering specifically for learners with mild intellectual disability in Gauteng Province. It looks particularly on participants' suggestions for addressing sexual violence in such school. A multiple case study within the qualitative research…

  13. Variability of extreme weather events over the equatorial East Africa, a case study of rainfall in Kenya and Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongoma, Victor; Chen, Haishan; Omony, George William

    2016-10-01

    This study investigates the variability of extreme rainfall events over East Africa (EA), using indices from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI). The analysis was based on observed daily rainfall from 23 weather stations, with length varying within 1961 and 2010. The indices considered are: wet days (R ≥1 mm), annual total precipitation in wet days (PRCPTOT), simple daily intensity index (SDII), heavy precipitation days (R ≥ 10 mm), very heavy precipitation days (R ≥ 20 mm), and severe precipitation (R ≥ 50 mm). The non-parametric Mann-Kendall statistical analysis was carried out to identify trends in the data. Temporal precipitation distribution was different from station to station. Almost all indices considered are decreasing with time. The analysis shows that the PRCPTOT, very heavy precipitation, and severe precipitation are generally declining insignificantly at 5 % significant level. The PRCPTOT is evidently decreasing over Arid and Semi-Arid Land (ASAL) as compared to other parts of EA. The number of days that recorded heavy rainfall is generally decreasing but starts to rise in the last decade although the changes are insignificant. Both PRCPTOT and heavy precipitation show a recovery in trend starting in the 1990s. The SDII shows a reduction in most areas, especially the in ASAL. The changes give a possible indication of the ongoing climate variability and change which modify the rainfall regime of EA. The results form a basis for further research, utilizing longer datasets over the entire region to reduce the generalizations made herein. Continuous monitoring of extreme events in EA is critical, given that rainfall is projected to increase in the twenty-first century.

  14. Performance of the WRF model to simulate the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in East Africa: a case study for the Tana River basin in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah Misati; Laux, Patrick; Arnault, Joel; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-08-01

    This study investigates the ability of the regional climate model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) in simulating the seasonal and interannual variability of hydrometeorological variables in the Tana River basin (TRB) in Kenya, East Africa. The impact of two different land use classifications, i.e., the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the US Geological Survey (USGS) at two horizontal resolutions (50 and 25 km) is investigated. Simulated precipitation and temperature for the period 2011-2014 are compared with Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Climate Research Unit (CRU), and station data. The ability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and Climate Research Unit (CRU) data in reproducing in situ observation in the TRB is analyzed. All considered WRF simulations capture well the annual as well as the interannual and spatial distribution of precipitation in the TRB according to station data and the TRMM estimates. Our results demonstrate that the increase of horizontal resolution from 50 to 25 km, together with the use of the MODIS land use classification, significantly improves the precipitation results. In the case of temperature, spatial patterns and seasonal cycle are well reproduced, although there is a systematic cold bias with respect to both station and CRU data. Our results contribute to the identification of suitable and regionally adapted regional climate models (RCMs) for East Africa.

  15. Assessment of Trace Metals Contamination of Surface Water and Sediment: A Case Study of Mvudi River, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua N. Edokpayi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Trace metals contamination of rivers and sediments remains a global threat to biodiversity and humans. This study was carried out to assess the variation pattern in trace metals contamination in Mvudi River water and sediments for the period of January–June 2014. Metal concentrations were analyzed using an inductively-coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer after nitric acid digestion. A compliance study for the water samples was performed using the guidelines of the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry (DWAF of South Africa and the World Health Organization (WHO. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA sediment quality guidelines for marine and estuarine sediments and the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment sediment guidelines (CCME for freshwater sediments were used to determine the possible toxic effects of the metals on aquatic organisms. pH (7.2–7.7 and conductivity (10.5–16.1 mS/m values complied with DWAF and WHO standards for domestic water use. Turbidity values in nephelometric turbidity units (NTU were in the range of 1.9–429 and exceeded the guideline values. The monthly average levels of trace metals in the water and sediments of Mvudi River were in the range of: Al (1.01–9.644 mg/L and 4296–5557 mg/kg, Cd (0.0003–0.002 mg/L and from below the detection limit to 2.19 mg/kg, Cr (0.015–0.357 mg/L and 44.23–149.52 mg/kg, Cu (0.024–0.185 mg/L and 13.22–1027 mg/kg, Fe (0.702–2.645 mg/L and 3840–6982 mg/kg, Mn (0.081–0.521 mg/L and 279–1638 mg/kg, Pb (0.002–0.042 mg/L and 1.775-4.157 mg/kg and Zn (0.031–0.261 mg/L and 14.481–39.88 mg/kg. The average concentrations of Al, Cr, Fe, Mn and Pb in the water samples exceeded the recommended guidelines of DWAF and WHO for domestic water use. High concentrations of Al and Fe were determined in the sediment samples. Generally, the concentrations of Cd, Cr and Cu in the sediments exceeded the corresponding effect range low

  16. Fungi in housefly (Musca domestica L.) as a disease risk indicator-A case study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phoku, J Z; Barnard, T G; Potgieter, N; Dutton, M F

    2014-12-01

    Houseflies are the commonest insects which have increasingly overcrowded human dwellings, particularly in rural areas and constitute a health hazard. In the environment they move back and forth by feeding and breeding on food commodities and filth. This may lead to the spread of diseases and also mycotoxin-producing fungi. Thus frequent exposure to the activity of such houseflies will have an impact on the welfare of humans. The study investigated the natural occurrence of fungal contamination in housefly samples captured from different households and pit toilets from a rural community in South Africa. Fungal contamination data were based on the prevalence, contamination level and morphological characteristics of the different identified species. A total of 497 fungal isolates of 15 genera including Aspergillus (37%), Fusarium (17%), Penicillium (21%), Alternaria (1.4%), Chrysosporium (2%), Cladosporium (0.2%), Curvularia (0.4%), Epicoccum (1%), Eupenicillium (1%), Moniliella (9%), Mucor (2%), Nigrospora (1%), Rhizopus (2%), Scopulariopsis (2%) and Yeasts (3%) were identified from the external surfaces of both female and male houseflies. The range of fungal contamination per total fungal count isolated from female and male houseflies were recorded with mean fungal load of 4.1×10(6), 8.4×10(6), 4.4×10(6), 3.3×10(5), 9.8×10(6), 2.2×10(4), 5.6×10(4), 2.9×10(6), 5.2×10(6), 4.7×10(6), 4.5×10(7), 4.6×10(6), 2.3×10(6), 4.9×10(7) and 6.4×10(6)CFU/ml, respectively. However, the range from The most dominant fungal isolates of the female housefly samples were Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium verticillioides, Penicillium verrucosum and Moniliella suaveolens, while A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, F. verticillioides, Fusarium proliferatum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum were most prevalent in male samples. The study proves that housefly is a vector for fungal spores. Therefore, it is crucial to implement housefly-control measures to curb the spread of diseases.

  17. INSTITUTIONAL INNOVATION TO INCREASE FARMERS' REVENUE: A CASE STUDY OF SMALL SCALE FARMING IN SHEEP: TRANSKEI REGION, SOUTH AFRICA

    OpenAIRE

    D'Haese, Marijke F.C.; Verbeke, Wim; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido; Kirsten, Johann F.; D'Haese, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Commercial producers, brokers, exporters and spinners dominate the wool supply chain in South Africa. Until recently smallholder farmers in the Transkei region had limited access to a profitable market outlet for their wool. In response, the South African wool industry has taken the initiative to help local farmers by building shearing sheds, under which the local association can bulk the wool and trade directly with the brokers. More direct access to the wool brokers is a prerequisite for th...

  18. The indirect costs of agency nurses in South Africa: a case study in two public sector hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia C. Rispel

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Globally, flexible work arrangements – through the use of temporary nursing staff – are an important strategy for dealing with nursing shortages in hospitals. Objective: The objective of the study was to determine the direct and indirect costs of agency nurses, as well as the advantages and the problems associated with agency nurse utilisation in two public sector hospitals in South Africa. Methods: Following ethical approval, two South African public sector hospitals were selected purposively. Direct costs were determined through an analysis of hospital expenditure information for a 5-year period from 2005 until 2010, obtained from the national transversal Basic Accounting System database. At each hospital, semi-structured interviews were conducted with the chief executive officer, executive nursing services manager, the maternity or critical care unit nursing manager, the human resource manager, and the finance manager. Indirect costs measured were the time spent on pre-employment checks, and nurse recruitment, orientation, and supervision. All expenditure is expressed in South African Rands (R: 1 USD=R7, 2010 prices. Results: In the 2009/10 financial year, Hospital 1 spent R38.86 million (US$5.55 million on nursing agencies, whereas Hospital 2 spent R10.40 million (US$1.49 million. The total estimated time spent per week on indirect cost activities at Hospital 1 was 51.5 hours, and 60 hours at Hospital 2. The estimated monetary value of this time at Hospital 1 was R962,267 (US$137,467 and at Hospital 2 the value was R300,121 (US$42,874, thus exceeding the weekly direct costs of nursing agencies. Agency nurses assisted the selected hospitals in dealing with problems of nurse recruitment, absenteeism, shortages, and skills gaps in specialised clinical areas. The problems experienced with agency nurses included their perceived lack of commitment, unreliability, and providing sub-optimal quality of patient care. Conclusion

  19. Lessons from case studies of integrating mental health into primary health care in South Africa and Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhana Arvin

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While decentralized and integrated primary mental healthcare forms the core of mental health policies in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs, implementation remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to understand how the use of a common implementation framework could assist in the integration of mental health into primary healthcare in Ugandan and South African district demonstration sites. The foci and form of the services developed differed across the country sites depending on the service gaps and resources available. South Africa focused on reducing the service gap for common mental disorders and Uganda, for severe mental disorders. Method A qualitative post-intervention process evaluation using focus group and individual interviews with key stakeholders was undertaken in both sites. The emergent data was analyzed using framework analysis. Results Sensitization of district management authorities and the establishment of community collaborative multi-sectoral forums assisted in improving political will to strengthen mental health services in both countries. Task shifting using community health workers emerged as a promising strategy for improving access to services and help seeking behaviour in both countries. However, in Uganda, limited application of task shifting to identification and referral, as well as limited availability of psychotropic medication and specialist mental health personnel, resulted in a referral bottleneck. To varying degrees, community-based self-help groups showed potential for empowering service users and carers to become more self sufficient and less dependent on overstretched healthcare systems. They also showed potential for promoting social inclusion and addressing stigma, discrimination and human rights abuses of people with mental disorders in both country sites. Conclusions A common implementation framework incorporating a community collaborative multi-sectoral, task shifting

  20. Social Work in a Developing Continent: The Case of Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Chitereka

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Social work is a professional approach to ameliorating social problems. It is generally understood as a helping profession that utilizes professionally qualified personnel who use its knowledge base to help people tackle their social problems (Mupedziswa, 2005. Nevertheless, in developing countries, social work is a relatively young profession which was influenced by colonialism in its formation. The type of social work practiced in these countries largely mirrors the one that is being practiced in Britain, France and Portugal among others. Utilizing the continent of Africa as a case study, this article argues that social work practice in Africa tends to be curative or remedial in nature and is not adequately addressing people’s problems. It therefore proposes a paradigm shift from remedial to a social development paradigm if it is to make an impact in the 21st century.

  1. Occupational and Environmental Health Risks Associated with Informal Sector Activities-Selected Case Studies from West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Niladri; Ayelo, Paul Ahoumènou; Djogbénou, Luc S; Kedoté, Marius; Lawin, Herve; Tohon, Honesty; Oloruntoba, Elizabeth O; Adebisi, Nurudeen A; Cazabon, Danielle; Fobil, Julius; Robins, Thomas; Fayomi, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Most in the Economic Community of West African States region are employed in the informal sector. While the informal sector plays a significant role in the region's economy, policymakers and the scientific community have long neglected it. To better understand informal-sector work conditions, the goal here is to bring together researchers to exchange findings and catalyze dialogue. The article showcases research studies on several economic systems, namely agriculture, resource extraction, transportation, and trade/commerce. Site-specific cases are provided concerning occupational health risks within artisanal and small-scale gold mining, aggregate mining, gasoline trade, farming and pesticide applications, and electronic waste recycling. These cases emphasize the vastness of the informal sector and that the majority of work activities across the region remain poorly documented, and thus no data or knowledge is available to help improve conditions and formulate policies and programs to promote and ensure decent work conditions.

  2. Implementation of triple helix clusters procedure in the sub-Sahara Africa energy sector. Case study: Academia - CREEC Photovoltaic Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Da Silva, Izael [Makerere Univ., Kampala (UG). Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC)

    2011-07-01

    Penetration of decentralized power supply for households and commercial enterprises is low in Sub-Sahara Africa. Solar Home Systems (SHS), despite their widespread use in other continents have failed to attain much success in Africa. One of the reasons is the high rate of failure of existing implementations. Data shows earlier failure rates of 50%. This is largely attributed to poor quality of products used, inefficient installation, mismanagement and lack of maintenance. To address this problem, the Centre for Research in Energy and Energy Conservation (CREEC) is setting up a Solar PV test laboratory in Uganda. This paper describes the installation process and how to sustain the laboratory after implementation. The lab is intended to provide a forum for training, research and consultancy under CREEC. It is intended as a tool to implement the triple helix and clusters procedure in the PV industry in particular and the energy sector in a more general scope. This paper offers details covering the current situation of the energy sector in Uganda and how the lab supports capacity building in the university to support the upcoming demand. (orig.)

  3. Teachers’ Perceptions on the Use of African Languages in the Curriculum: A Case Study of Schools in Kenya, East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin C. Njoroge

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to revitalize African languages and advocate for their use as media of instruction in Kenyan schools, it is important to investigate and document the teachers’ attitude towards the use of these languages in teaching. The research on which this paper is based set forth to explore teachers’ perceptions on the use of the mother tongue as the language of instruction in Kenya, East Africa. Six schools out of 54 public schools in the Gatundu district were randomly sampled. 32 teachers of Grades 1-3 were interviewed to find out the actual practices in their classrooms, the challenges they faced, and the perceptions they held in relation to the use of the mother tongue in their teaching. The data were qualitatively analyzed and the emergent findings support the claim that the use of learners’ mother tongue is beneficial to learners. In addition, the paper discusses the findings and proposes recommendations for pedagogy.

  4. The diagnostic plot analysis of artesian aquifers with case studies in Table Mountain Group of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaobin; Xu, Yongxin; Lin, Lixiang

    2015-05-01

    Parameter estimates of artesian aquifers where piezometric head is above ground level are largely made through free-flowing and recovery tests. The straight-line method proposed by Jacob-Lohman is often used for interpretation of flow rate measured at flowing artesian boreholes. However, the approach fails to interpret the free-flowing test data from two artesian boreholes in the fractured-rock aquifer in Table Mountain Group (TMG) of South Africa. The diagnostic plot method using the reciprocal rate derivative is adapted to evaluate the artesian aquifer properties. The variation of the derivative helps not only identify flow regimes and discern the boundary conditions, but also facilitates conceptualization of the aquifer system and selection of an appropriate model for data interpretation later on. Test data from two free-flowing tests conducted in different sites in TMG are analysed using the diagnostic plot method. Based on the results, conceptual models and appropriate approaches are developed to evaluate the aquifer properties. The advantages and limitations of using the diagnostic plot method on free-flowing test data are discussed.

  5. Policy implementation and financial incentives for nurses in South Africa: a case study on the occupation-specific dispensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duane Blaauw

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2007, the South African government introduced the occupation-specific dispensation (OSD, a financial incentive strategy, to attract, motivate, and retain health professionals in the public sector. Implementation commenced with the nursing sector, but there have been unintended negative consequences. Objective: First, to examine implementation of the OSD for nurses using Hogwood and Gunn's framework that outlines ‘perfect implementation’ pre-conditions. Second, to highlight the conditions for the successful implementation of financial incentives. Methods: A qualitative case study design using a combination of a document review and in-depth interviews with 42 key informants. Results: The study found that there were several implementation weaknesses. Only a few of the pre-conditions were met for OSD policy implementation. The information systems required for successful policy implementation, such as the public sector human resource data base and the South African Nursing Council register of specialised nurses were incomplete and inaccurate, thus undermining the process. Insufficient attention was paid to time and resources, dependency relationships, task specification, and communication and coordination. Conclusion: The implementation of financial incentives requires careful planning and management in order to avoid loss of morale and staff grievances.

  6. Population dynamics throughout the urban context: A case study in sub-Saharan Africa utilizing remotely sensed imagery and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benza, Magdalena

    The characteristics of places where people live and work play an important role in explaining complex social, political, economic and demographic processes. In sub-Saharan Africa rapid urban growth combined with rising poverty is creating diverse urban environments inhabited by people with a wide variety of lifestyles. This research examines how spatial patterns of land cover in a southern portion of the West African country of Ghana are associated with particular characteristics of family organization and reproduction decisions. Satellite imagery and landscape metrics are used to create an urban context definition based on landscape patterns using a gradient approach. Census data are used to estimate fertility levels and household structure, and the association between urban context, household composition and fertility levels is modeled through OLS regression, spatial autoregressive models and geographically weighted regression. Results indicate that there are significant differences in fertility levels between different urban contexts, with below average fertility levels found in the most urbanized end of the urban context definition and above average fertility levels found on the opposite end. The spatial patterns identified in the association between urban context and fertility levels indicate that, within the city areas with lower fertility have significant impacts on the reproductive levels of adjacent neighborhoods. Findings also indicate that there are clear patterns that link urban context to living arrangements and fertility levels. Female- and single-headed households are associated with below average fertility levels, a result that connects dropping fertility levels with the spread of smaller nuclear households in developing countries. At the same time, larger extended family households are linked to below average fertility levels for highly clustered areas, a finding that points to the prevalence of extended family housing in the West African city.

  7. Ecosystem productivity and water stress in tropical East Africa: A Case Study of the 2010-11 drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, E. S.; Yang, X.; Lee, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    The characterization of changes in ecosystem productivity as a consequence of water stress and changing precipitation regimes is critical in defining the response of tropical ecosystems to water stress and projecting future land cover transitions in the East African tropics. Through the analysis of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF), soil moisture, rainfall and reanalysis data, this paper characterizes the 2010-11 drought in tropical East Africa. We demonstrated that SIF, a proxy of ecosystem productivity, varied with water availability during the 2010-11 drought. A comparison of the 2010-11 drought to previous regional droughts revealed that the consecutive failure of rainy seasons in fall 2010 and spring 2011 yielded a drought that is distinguished not only in intensity, but also in spatial and temporal extent as compared to an average of previous regional droughts: the 2010-11 event extended further east and with greater intensity in the southern hemisphere. Anomalously low SIF values during the 2010-11 drought are strongly correlated with those of soil moisture and precipitation. SIF also demonstrated a stronger temporal sensitivity to accumulated water deficit as compared to the conventional Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), which approximates photosynthetic potential (chlorophyll content and leaf mass), from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Anomalously high rainfall during the dry seasons preceding failed rainy seasons suggest that the seasonality of East African rainfall may be transitioning from a regime characterized by biannual monsoons to one with increasing convective rainfall. Rising boundary layer height during the dry season further substantiates this conclusion by suggesting a transition towards increased deep convection during the summers. This work demonstrated the unique characteristics of the 2010-11 East African drought, and the ability of SIF to track the levels of water stress during the

  8. Feasibility, yield, and cost of active tuberculosis case finding linked to a mobile HIV service in Cape Town, South Africa: a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Kranzer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization is currently developing guidelines on screening for tuberculosis disease to inform national screening strategies. This process is complicated by significant gaps in knowledge regarding mass screening. This study aimed to assess feasibility, uptake, yield, treatment outcomes, and costs of adding an active tuberculosis case-finding program to an existing mobile HIV testing service. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The study was conducted at a mobile HIV testing service operating in deprived communities in Cape Town, South Africa. All HIV-negative individuals with symptoms suggestive of tuberculosis, and all HIV-positive individuals regardless of symptoms were eligible for participation and referred for sputum induction. Samples were examined by microscopy and culture. Active tuberculosis case finding was conducted on 181 days at 58 different sites. Of the 6,309 adults who accessed the mobile clinic, 1,385 were eligible and 1,130 (81.6% were enrolled. The prevalence of smear-positive tuberculosis was 2.2% (95% CI 1.1-4.0, 3.3% (95% CI 1.4-6.4, and 0.4% (95% CI 1.4 015-6.4 in HIV-negative individuals, individuals newly diagnosed with HIV, and known HIV, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of culture-positive tuberculosis was 5.3% (95% CI 3.5-7.7, 7.4% (95% CI 4.5-11.5, 4.3% (95% CI 2.3-7.4, respectively. Of the 56 new tuberculosis cases detected, 42 started tuberculosis treatment and 34 (81.0% completed treatment. The cost of the intervention was US$1,117 per tuberculosis case detected and US$2,458 per tuberculosis case cured. The generalisability of the study is limited to similar settings with comparable levels of deprivation and TB and HIV prevalence. CONCLUSIONS: Mobile active tuberculosis case finding in deprived populations with a high burden of HIV and tuberculosis is feasible, has a high uptake, yield, and treatment success. Further work is now required to examine cost-effectiveness and affordability and

  9. Monitoring Algal Blooms in Inland Waters From Space-Borne Observation; A Case Study From Northern Africa, Lake Nasser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultan, M.; Becker, R.

    2004-05-01

    A preliminary study was conducted to explore techniques and to develop and calibrate methodologies that combine inferences from field and remote sensing data to quantify temporal and spatial variations in lake physical parameters, and to examine their effects on primary productivity, and carbon sequestration rates in artificial lakes. The Case II waters of Lake Nasser (6000 km2) in southern Egypt were used as a test site. The construction of the Aswan High Dam in the 1960's has had major impacts on the landscape in southern Egypt. It gave rise to Lake Nasser, an extensive (capacity: 1.6 x 1011 m3, length: 500 km, average width: 12 km, average depth 30m) reservoir in southern Egypt and northern Sudan. In this study, we analyzed temporal (1980-2004) satellite images acquired over Lake Nasser to investigate spatial and temporal variations in aquatic parameters (e.g., chlorophyll and suspended matter) across the lake, and to test the usefulness of a variety of sensors and algorithms typically used for studies of larger water systems for this specific site. The investigated datasets include Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The following patterns were identified. First, we detected a general enrichment in chlorophyll and in suspended matter upstream compared to the downstream and in the tributaries (Khors) compared to the main channel. This observation is consistent with the reported variations in sediment thickness along the length of the Lake. Thick deposits of up to 25 m were reported at the 2nd Cataract some 350 km south of the Aswan High Dam compared to 1m thick deposits in the vicinity of the Dam. Second, we observed a general and progressive increase in suspended matter and chlorophyll content in the autumn consistent with patterns of annual flooding which carry excess silt, clay, and nutrients. Future work will focus on 1) characterizing trends in carbon

  10. The influence of tillage on field scale water fluxes and maize yields in semi-arid environments: A case study of Potshini catchment, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosgei, J. R.; Jewitt, G. P. W.; Kongo, V. M.; Lorentz, S. A.

    Water is a limiting resource to crop production in arid and semi-arid lands (ASALs) and is responsible for substantial yield losses annually. These lands are often occupied by resource poor smallholder rainfed farmers who have little capacity to establish conventional irrigation infrastructure to mitigate recurrent droughts and dry spells. In situ water harvesting techniques in the form of conservation agriculture practices have been identified and promoted as measures that can improve soil water availability and thus enhance crop yields. Land use practices e.g. tillage influences mechanisms of lateral flow, infiltration, storage, redistribution and residence times of water at field scale. Such alterations in flow paths have not been adequately studied in ASALs where small perturbations at field scale upstream of a catchment may have significant effects downstream. Quantifying these fluxes enables better understanding of productive and non-productive water transition processes and thus to evaluate cropping and management systems. On this study the effects of tillage on water fluxes, soil physical properties and maize ( Zea mays L.) yields were examined at three sites in the Potshini catchment, South Africa. Measurements were made on plots under no-till ( NT) and conventional till ( CT) practices. Seasonal analysis indicated that nearly twice as much runoff was generated from CT treatments when compared to NT plots. However, this was not the case at the beginning of the season. The moisture content in the root zone was significantly higher in NT treatments. Maize yield was also higher in NT compared to CT plots.

  11. An Approach to Developing a Prediction Model of Fertility Intent Among HIV-Positive Women and Men in Cape Town, South Africa: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Dan; Leu, Cheng-Shiun; Mantell, Joanne E; Exner, Theresa M; Cooper, Diane; Hoffman, Susie; Kelvin, Elizabeth A; Myer, Landon; Constant, Debbie; Moodley, Jennifer

    2017-02-01

    As a 'case-study' to demonstrate an approach to establishing a fertility-intent prediction model, we used data collected from recently diagnosed HIV-positive women (N = 69) and men (N = 55) who reported inconsistent condom use and were enrolled in a sexual and reproductive health intervention in public sector HIV care clinics in Cape Town, South Africa. Three theoretically-driven prediction models showed reasonable sensitivity (0.70-1.00), specificity (0.66-0.94), and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (0.79-0.89) for predicting fertility intent at the 6-month visit. A k-fold cross-validation approach was employed to reduce bias due to over-fitting of data in estimating sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve. We discuss how the methods presented might be used in future studies to develop a clinical screening tool to identify HIV-positive individuals likely to have future fertility intent and who could therefore benefit from sexual and reproductive health counseling around fertility options.

  12. Climate change induced heat wave hazard in eastern Africa: Dar Es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia) case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capuano, Paolo; Sellerino, Mariangela; Di Ruocco, Angela; Kombe, Wilbard; Yeshitela, Kumelachew

    2013-04-01

    Last decades, new records were set in the world for tornadoes, drought, wind, floods, wildfires and hot temperatures, testifying unusual weather and climate patterns with increasing frequency and intensity of extreme weather events. Extreme heat events are natural hazards affecting many regions in the world, nevertheless limited work has been done on the analysis and effects of extreme heat events in Africa, that is considered a continent particularly vulnerable to the effects of climate change. In fact, the increase of temperature expected in the African continent during the 21st century is larger than the global mean warming, being about 3° to 4° C, about 1.5 times the global temperature increase (Christensen et al., 2007; Gualdi et al., 2012), with the subtropical regions projected to warm more than the tropical regions. Observations and downscaled model simulations (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 IPCC scenarios) are analyzed to describe heat wave characteristics in Dar es Salaam (Tanzania) and Addis Ababa (Ethiopia), spanning the last five decades as well as that projected for the 21st century. Observed data are daily maximum and minimum temperature collected in the period 1961-2011; downscaled model simulations span up to 2050. Heat waves are defined following a peak over threshold approach by statistical comparison to historical meteorological baselines (site dependent), using a fixed absolute threshold. Projected future warming in the Dar es Salaam and Addis Ababa shows a further increase in the heat waves parameters. Heat wave duration and hot days number are strictly correlated showing that the temperature rise could generate not only an increase of heat waves number but mainly a longer average duration, that can strongly affect the resilience capacity of the population, particularly the elder people. In fact, the impacts of heat waves on the society are determined also by temporal duration (Stephenson, 2008), in addition to their frequency, in fact the capacity of

  13. Improving Computer-Mediated Synchronous Communication of Doctors in Rural Communities Through Cloud Computing: A Case Study of Rural Hospitals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Coleman

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigated how doctors in remote rural hospitals in South Africa use computer-mediated toolto communicate with experienced and specialist doctors for professional advice to improve on their clinicalpractices. A case study approach was used. Ten doctors were purposively selected from ten hospitals in theNorth West Province. Data was collected using semi-structured open ended interview questions. Theinterviewees were asked to tell in their own words the average number of patients served per week,processes used in consultation with other doctors, communication practices using computer-mediated tool,transmission speed of the computer-mediated tool and satisfaction in using the computer-mediatedcommunication tool. The findings revealed that an average of 15 consultations per doctor to a specialistdoctor per week was done through face to face or through telephone conversation instead of using acomputer-mediated tool. Participants cited reasons for not using computer-mediated tool forcommunication due to slow transmission speed of the Internet and regular down turn of the Internetconnectivity, constant electricity power outages and lack of e-health application software to support realtime computer-mediated communication. The results led to the recommendation of a hybrid cloudcomputing architecture for improving communication between doctors in hospitals.

  14. A new approach for the assessment of groundwater quality and its suitability for irrigation: a case study of the Korba Coastal Aquifer (Tunisia, Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ayni, Foued; Cherif, Semia; Jrad, Amel; Trabelsi-Ayadi, Malika

    2012-08-01

    Groundwater is the main source of water in Mediterranean, water-scarce, semiarid regions of Tunisia, Africa. In this study of the Korba coastal aquifer, 17 water wells were studied to assess their suitability for irrigation and drinking purposes. Assessment parameters include pH, salinity, specific ion toxicity, sodium adsorption ratio, nutrients, trace metals pollutants, and fecal indicators and pathogens. Results indicate that salinity of groundwater varied between 0.36 dS/m and 17.4 dS/m; in addition, its degree of restriction is defined as "none", "slight to moderate", and "severe" for 18, 23, and 59% of the studied wells, respectively. To control salts brought in by irrigation waters, the question arises as to how much water should be used to reach crop and soil requirements. To answer this question, a new approach that calculates the optimum amount of irrigation water considering the electrical conductivity of well water (ECw), field crops, and the semiarid meteorological local conditions for evapotranspiration and rainfall is developed. This is applied to the authors' case study area; barley and lettuce were selected among the commonly grown crops because they are high- and low-salinity tolerant, respectively. Leaching requirements were found to be independent of the crop selected, and depend only on the season, that is, 250 to 260 mm/month in the driest season, with a minimum of 47 mm/month though all seasons. A high bacteriological contamination appears in almost all samples. However, if disinfected and corrected for pH, all the well waters can be used for animal farming (including livestock and poultry), although only 29% could be used for human consumption.

  15. Credibility of Hydrologic Models in the Context of Climate Change Impact Studies - A Case Study in the Olifants Basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, Thorsten; van Werkhoven, Kathryn; Singh, Riddhi

    2010-05-01

    A major challenge for hydrologic research in the coming years will be the assessment of climate change impacts on regional water resources. While more and more impact studies are being performed, the assessment of hydrologic changes across a region, particularly in less developed countries, is often severely limited by the lack of streamflow gauges to calibrate watershed models and hence large uncertainties of model predictions. Further, one has to ask the general question of how we can increase the credibility of watershed models in the context of climate change studies, where, by definition, the model's credibility cannot simply be derived from its performance in reproducing historical observations. The study region is the Olifants basin in South Africa, a UNESCO HELP basin that is characterized by severe water insecurity and regular hydrologic extreme events. We will demonstrate how we can trade space-for-time by using spatial gradients as first order approximation of temporal changes in watershed behavior to derive ensemble predictions at both gauged and ungauged sites. In general, there is an urgent need to re-think how we identify, use and evaluate hydrological models under non-stationary conditions to increase the value of studies such as this one for water resource planning and decision making.

  16. Optimized reservoir operation model of regional wind and hydro power integration. Case study: Zambezi Basin and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Gebretsadik, Yohannes; Fant, Chas; Strzepek, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    The present study develops a reliability assessment method of wind resource using optimum reservoir target power operations that maximizes the firm generation of integrated wind and hydro power. A combined water resources model for a system of reservoirs that implements a priority based linear programing algorithm and a single node power grid system model is implemented on an hourly time step. This model was then accompanied by a genetic algorithm solver to determine optimum operation targets...

  17. Rural households’ social capital and welfare: A case study of Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lloyd James Segun Baiyegunhi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a household or nations production system, social capital has been recognized as an input having major implications for project design as well as policy development. Using a structured questionnaire, household level data was obtained from a representative sample of 300 rural households in Msinga, KwaZulu-Natal. This study employed the conventional household economic behaviour model under constrained utility maximisation to examine the effect of social capital on the welfare of household, testing the hypothesis that the possession of social capital improves household welfare. The result shows that social capital endowments have a statistically significant positive effect on household welfare, in addition to the some household’s demographic and socio-economic characteristics. The study concluded that, access to social capital among other factors, is very crucial for improved rural household welfare and poverty reduction. It is therefore important for government to have knowledge of existing social groups and networks as this will improve the effectiveness of the present strategies aimed at reducing poverty.

  18. Investigating the Impacts of Intraregional Trade and Aid on Per Capita Income in Africa: Case Study of the ECOWAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assandé Désiré Adom

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past 50 years, a striking stylized fact has been the downward—or flat—trend of intra-African trade as a share of Africa’s total trade, while official development assistance (ODA has experienced a noticeable expansion. During the same period, economic growth performances have not been consistent and robust enough to put a dent in the poverty level across the African continent in general and the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS in particular. Using a two-stage least square (TSLS estimation technique, this paper finds out that intra-ECOWAS trade stimulates per capita income growth substantially more than foreign aid, which rather constitutes an impediment to that growth in most specifications. Additionally, comparable results are obtained when the scope of the study is expanded to include trade of ECOWAS members with the rest of the world. As a result, it becomes appropriate to suggest policy recommendations encouraging increased cooperation among member states in an attempt to (i expand and build new cross-states infrastructures, aimed at boosting communications and telecommunications networks, (ii accelerate the trade facilitation process by addressing administrative red tapes that balloon both transaction costs and delays in the flows of goods across borders, seaports, and airports, and (iii develop and diversify the industrial base in member states.

  19. Administrative integration of vertical HIV monitoring and evaluation into health systems: a case study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Kawonga

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In light of an increasing global focus on health system strengthening and integration of vertical programmes within health systems, methods and tools are required to examine whether general health service managers exercise administrative authority over vertical programmes. Objective: To measure the extent to which general health service (horizontal managers, exercise authority over the HIV programme's monitoring and evaluation (M&E function, and to explore factors that may influence this exercise of authority. Methods: This cross-sectional survey involved interviews with 51 managers. We drew ideas from the concept of ‘exercised decision-space’ – traditionally used to measure local level managers’ exercise of authority over health system functions following decentralisation. Our main outcome measure was the degree of exercised authority – classified as ‘low’, ‘medium’ or ‘high’ – over four M&E domains (HIV data collection, collation, analysis, and use. We applied ordinal logistic regression to assess whether actor type (horizontal or vertical was predictive of a higher degree of exercised authority, independent of management capacity (training and experience, and M&E knowledge. Results: Relative to vertical managers, horizontal managers had lower HIV M&E knowledge, were more likely to exercise a higher degree of authority over HIV data collation (OR 7.26; CI: 1.9, 27.4, and less likely to do so over HIV data use (OR 0.19; CI: 0.05, 0.84. A higher HIV M&E knowledge score was predictive of a higher exercised authority over HIV data use (OR 1.22; CI: 0.99, 1.49. There was no association between management capacity and degree of authority. Conclusions: This study demonstrates a HIV M&E model that is neither fully vertical nor integrated. The HIV M&E is characterised by horizontal managers producing HIV information while vertical managers use it. This may undermine policies to strengthen integrated health system

  20. Can Climate Information be relevant to decision making for Agriculture on the 1-10 year timescale? Case studies from southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko

    2016-04-01

    Climate forecasts have been developed to assist decision making in sectors averse to, and affected by, climate risks, and agriculture is one of those. In agriculture and food security, climate information is now used on a range of timescales, from days (weather), months (seasonal outlooks) to decades (climate change scenarios). Former researchers have shown that when seasonal climate forecast information was provided to farmers prior to decision making, farmers adapted by changing their choice of planting seeds and timing or area planted. However, it is not always clear that the end-users' needs for climate information are met and there might be a large gap between information supplied and needed. It has been pointed out that even when forecasts were available, they were often not utilized by farmers and extension services because of lack of trust in the forecast or the forecasts did not reach the targeted farmers. Many studies have focused on the use of either seasonal forecasts or longer term climate change prediction, but little research has been done on the medium term, that is, 1 to 10 year future climate information. The agriculture and food system sector is one potential user of medium term information, as land use policy and cropping systems selection may fall into this time scale and may affect farmers' decision making process. Assuming that reliable information is provided and it is utilized by farmers for decision making, it might contribute to resilient farming and indeed to longer term food security. To this end, we try to determine the effect of medium term climate information on farmers' strategic decision making process. We explored the end-users' needs for climate information and especially the possible role of medium term information in agricultural system, by conducting interview surveys with farmers and agricultural experts. In this study, the cases of apple production in South Africa, maize production in Malawi and rice production in Tanzania

  1. Is Climate Chang Responsible to Recent Urban Flooding in Devloping Cities in Africa? A Case study of Addis Ababa City, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moges, Semu; Raschid-Sally, Liqa; Gebremichael, Mekonnen

    2013-04-01

    Cities in Africa show extraordinary expansion of the built environment and imperviousness of the surface condition. Addis Ababa is a case in point, where over the priod of 1984 to 2002, the city asphalted area has increased from 4.72 sq.km (1984) to 27.7 sq.km (2002). Similarly the paved area has expanded five fold from the original 11.1 sq.km, whilst the built environment expanded from 60.1 to 212.7 sq.km. Using hydrological modeling, we demonstrated due to the surface condition change, runoff generation potential has shown significant increase from 28% (in 1984) to 45% (in 2002), showing over 60% change in the runoff volume. The changing condition of the surface is increasing anabtedly, worsening the flooding condition. Similarly, climate change study shows likely increase of precipitation in and around Addis Ababa by about 13 to 17% and comparative increase in flooding. Unlike many cities in Europe, cities in developing countries are confronted with impact emanating from climate change as well as surface condition change. The impact of flooding caused due to the expansion of built environment is found to be more significant in the short term that the climate change, however, the climate change may dominate the long term future of flooding pattern as cities mature towards 2050. Therefore, It is important to view the impacts expansion of built environment and climate change in tandem in future time horizon since the dominance of the impact is different in different temporal scale. In the case of Addis Ababa, we strongly present the following four suggesions: i) the city adminstration re-estabilish the abandoned flood and drainage department of the city as the main flood regulatory and management body working in tandem with Addis Ababa Roads Authority, Water Supply and Sanitation Authority and Urban Planning Authority; ii) The old design guidlines for palnning and design of urban drainage system is not working any more (assumed stationarity condition), we suggest

  2. Centering the Peripheral: A Case for Poetry in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Muleka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper grapples with a frequently asked question: Is there a case for poetry in Africa? Though not necessarily a polemical rooting for recognition of African oral poetry, the paper stands in contention with assertions that have tended to dismiss the said artworks as non-poetry, while at the same time attempting to confer superiority of the written poetry over the oral. In particular, the paper contests the arguments by some pioneer researchers into African literature that posited that what was usually touted as poetry in Africa did not qualify as true poetry, but rather, simply songs and chants. In an attempt to address the nitty-gritty of this subject the paper tackles the crucial question of what constitutes poetry and whether there is a significant difference between a song and a poem. The paper employs the theory of ethno-poetics which takes interest in the aesthetic components and poetic structuring of oral poems. Ethnopoetics gives guidelines on how to organize an oral text in lines to render its fullest charge of texture: rhythm, nuance, phrasing and other components that allow full poetic meaning. It is intended that the poetic restructuring will particularly help realize the poetic qualities in African poetic works. Besides, the paper also tries to popularize “narrato-centric” approach, an application we used earlier during a discussion on theory in the study of oral literature. The approach encourages the study of oral literature material that puts emphasis on performance and the dynamics dictating the performer and his role in the performance.

  3. Case-control study to determine whether river water can spread tetracycline resistance to unexposed impala (Aepyceros melampus) in Kruger National Park (South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariano, V; McCrindle, C M E; Cenci-Goga, B; Picard, J A

    2009-01-01

    A case-control study was performed in the Kruger National Park (KNP), South Africa, to find out whether impala (Aepyceros melampus) were more likely to harbor tetracycline-resistant Escherichia coli (TREC) in their feces when they drank from rivers that contained these bacteria than when they drank from rivers that were uncontaminated with TREC. The following five perennial rivers were selected: the Crocodile, the Letaba, the Olifants, the Sabie, and the Sand. Samples of river water (n = 33) and feces (n = 209), collected at 11 different sites, were cultured for E. coli. The resulting colonies were screened for tetracycline resistance by use of the Lederberg replica plating method (breakpoint, 4 mg/liter). A resistant and/or a susceptible isolate was then selected from each sample and subjected to the CLSI MIC broth microdilution test for tetracyclines. Among the 21 water specimens contaminated by E. coli, 19.05% (n = 4) were found to be resistant by the MIC method (breakpoint, >/=8 mg/liter). This led to the Crocodile, Olifants, and Letaba rivers being classified as TREC positive. Among the 209 impala feces sampled, 191 were positive for the presence of E. coli (91.38%). Within these (n = 191), 9.95% (n = 19) of the isolates were shown to be TREC by the MIC method. It was found that 1.11% (n = 1) of the E. coli isolates cultured from the feces of the control group (n = 90) were TREC, in comparison with 17.82% (n = 18) of those in feces from the exposed group (n = 101). The calculation of the odds ratio showed that impala drinking from TREC-contaminated rivers were 19.3 (2.63 to 141.69) times more likely to be infected with TREC than were unexposed impala. This is a significant finding, indicating that surface water could be a possible source of antimicrobial resistance in naïve animal populations and that impala could act as sentinels for antimicrobial resistance.

  4. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa.

  5. Joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances for East Africa: a WRF-Hydro case study for the upper Tana River basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerandi, Noah; Arnault, Joel; Laux, Patrick; Wagner, Sven; Kitheka, Johnson; Kunstmann, Harald

    2017-02-01

    For an improved understanding of the hydrometeorological conditions of the Tana River basin of Kenya, East Africa, its joint atmospheric-terrestrial water balances are investigated. This is achieved through the application of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the fully coupled WRF-Hydro modeling system over the Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment (3279 km2) and its surroundings in the upper Tana River basin for 4 years (2011-2014). The model setup consists of an outer domain at 25 km (East Africa) and an inner one at 5-km (Mathioya-Sagana subcatchment) horizontal resolution. The WRF-Hydro inner domain is enhanced with hydrological routing at 500-m horizontal resolution. The results from the fully coupled modeling system are compared to those of the WRF-only model. The coupled WRF-Hydro slightly reduces precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the soil water storage but increases runoff. The total precipitation from March to May and October to December for WRF-only (974 mm/year) and coupled WRF-Hydro (940 mm/year) is closer to that derived from the Climate Hazards Group Infrared Precipitation with Stations (CHIRPS) data (989 mm/year) than from the TRMM (795 mm/year) precipitation product. The coupled WRF-Hydro-accumulated discharge (323 mm/year) is close to that observed (333 mm/year). However, the coupled WRF-Hydro underestimates the observed peak flows registering low but acceptable NSE (0.02) and RSR (0.99) at daily time step. The precipitation recycling and efficiency measures between WRF-only and coupled WRF-Hydro are very close and small. This suggests that most of precipitation in the region comes from moisture advection from the outside of the analysis domain, indicating a minor impact of potential land-precipitation feedback mechanisms in this case. The coupled WRF-Hydro nonetheless serves as a tool in quantifying the atmospheric-terrestrial water balance in this region.

  6. The Study on Energy Efficiency in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinduo

    This paper is dedicated to explore the dynamic performance of energy efficiency in Africa, with panel data in country level, taking energy yield, power consumption, electricity transmission and distribution losses into account, the paper employ stochastic frontier mode,highlighting a dummy variable in energy output in terms of net imports of energy and power, which minify the deviation of estimated variables. The results show that returns of scale did not appear in energy and power industry in Africa, electricity transmission and distribution losses contribute most to GDP per unit of energy. In country level, Republic of Congo and Botswana suggest an obvious energy efficiency advantage. Energy efficiency in Mozambique and Democratic Republic of Congo are not very satisfying during the studying year

  7. Tracking Land Use/Land Cover Dynamics in Cloud Prone Areas Using Moderate Resolution Satellite Data: A Case Study in Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bikash Basnet

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracking land surface dynamics over cloud prone areas with complex mountainous terrain is an important challenge facing the Earth Science community. One such region is the Lake Kivu region in Central Africa. We developed a processing chain to systematically monitor the spatio-temporal land use/land cover dynamics of this region over the years 1988, 2001, and 2011 using Landsat data, complemented by ancillary data. Topographic compensation was performed on Landsat reflectances to avoid the strong illumination angle impacts and image compositing was used to compensate for frequent cloud cover and thus incomplete annual data availability in the archive. A systematic supervised classification was applied to the composite Landsat imagery to obtain land cover thematic maps with overall accuracies of 90% and higher. Subsequent change analysis between these years found extensive conversions of the natural environment as a result of human related activities. The gross forest cover loss for 1988–2001 and 2001–2011 period was 216.4 and 130.5 thousand hectares, respectively, signifying significant deforestation in the period of civil war and a relatively stable and lower deforestation rate later, possibly due to conservation and reforestation efforts in the region. The other dominant land cover changes in the region were aggressive subsistence farming and urban expansion displacing natural vegetation and arable lands. Despite limited data availability, this study fills the gap of much needed detailed and updated land cover change information for this biologically important region of Central Africa. These multi-temporal datasets will be a valuable baseline for land use managers in the region interested in developing ecologically sustainable land management strategies and measuring the impacts of biodiversity conservation efforts.

  8. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt; Canagarajah, Sudharshan

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  9. Child Labor in Africa: A Comparative Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the determinants of child labor in Africa as inferred from recent empirical studies. The empirical analysis is based upon five country studies undertaken in three different African countries, namely Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, and Zambia. Some support is found for the popular belief...... of poverty as a determinant of child labor, however other determinants are of similar importance. Among school costs, transportation costs have the greatest effect on child labor and school attendance, whereas the hypothesis of imperfect capital markets and that of household composition generally find some...

  10. Rethinking the Poverty-disease Nexus: the Case of HIV/AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pienaar, Kiran

    2015-12-19

    While it is well-established that poverty and disease are intimately connected, the nature of this connection and the role of poverty in disease causation remains contested in scientific and social studies of disease. Using the case of HIV/AIDS in South Africa and drawing on a theoretically grounded analysis, this paper reconceptualises disease and poverty as ontologically entangled. In the context of the South African HIV epidemic, this rethinking of the poverty-disease dynamic enables an account of how social forces such as poverty become embodied in the very substance of disease to produce ontologies of HIV/AIDS unique to South Africa.

  11. Groundwater and climate change in Africa : review of recharge studies

    OpenAIRE

    Bonsor, H. C.; MacDonald, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    The review of recharge studies was conducted as part of a one year DFID-funded research programme, aimed at improving understanding of the impacts of climate change on groundwater resources and local livelihoods – see http://www.bgs.ac.uk/GWResilience/. The review is one of a series of components within the project. The overall outputs of the project are: Two hydrogeological case studies in West and East Africa – which assess the storage and availability of groundwater in different aquifers a...

  12. Impact of off-road vehicles (ORVs) on ghost crabs of sandy beaches with traffic restrictions: a case study of Sodwana Bay, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucrezi, Serena; Saayman, Melville; van der Merwe, Peet

    2014-03-01

    Off-road vehicles (ORVs) are popular in coastal recreation, although they have negative impacts on sandy shores. In South Africa, ORVs are banned from most coastal areas, while some areas are designated for restricted ORV use, providing an opportunity to assess whether ORV traffic restrictions translate into biological returns. In Sodwana Bay, the impact of ORVs on ghost crab populations was investigated. During Easter 2012, ghost crab burrows were counted on beach sections open and closed to traffic. Burrow density in the Impact section was less than a third that of the Reference section, and by the end of the study burrow size in the Impact section was half that of the Reference section. ORV traffic caused a shift in burrow distribution to the Lower beach. However, differences in burrow densities between sections were 14 times smaller than differences obtained at a time when ORV use in Sodwana Bay was not controlled. While confirming the well-established detrimental effects of ORV use on sandy beach ecosystems, results demonstrated that traffic restrictions on beaches measurably minimize impacts to the fauna, thus translating into clear-cut biological returns.

  13. Numerical modeling and environmental isotope methods in integrated mine-water management: a case study from the Witwatersrand basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu, Haile; Tessema, Abera; Abiye, Tamiru; Demlie, Molla; Lin, Haili

    2015-05-01

    Improved groundwater flow conceptualization was achieved using environmental stable isotope (ESI) and hydrochemical information to complete a numerical groundwater flow model with reasonable certainty. The study aimed to assess the source of excess water at a pumping shaft located near the town of Stilfontein, North West Province, South Africa. The results indicate that the water intercepted at Margaret Shaft comes largely from seepage of a nearby mine tailings dam (Dam 5) and from the upper dolomite aquifer. If pumping at the shaft continues at the current rate and Dam 5 is decommissioned, neighbouring shallow farm boreholes would dry up within approximately 10 years. Stable isotope data of shaft water indicate that up to 50 % of the pumped water from Margaret Shaft is recirculated, mainly from Dam 5. The results are supplemented by tritium data, demonstrating that recent recharge is taking place through open fractures as well as man-made underground workings, whereas hydrochemical data of fissure water samples from roughly 950 m below ground level exhibit mine-water signatures. Pumping at the shaft, which captures shallow groundwater as well as seepage from surface dams, is a highly recommended option for preventing flooding of downstream mines. The results of this research highlight the importance of additional methods (ESI and hydrochemical analyses) to improve flow conceptualization and numerical modelling.

  14. Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mol, Michael J.; Stadler, Christian; Ariño, Africa

    2017-01-01

    Context matters in the global strategy literature. We discuss how Africa, as a setting that received limited attention in the past, offers opportunity to challenge existing theory and develop new insights. The overall goal is to ask: What will the field of global strategic management look like once...... we have engaged with Africa in a similar manner as we have done with other emerging economies? We also introduce the papers published in this special issue and highlight directions for future research....

  15. TRADE POLICY CHANGE AND PRICE VOLATILITY SPILLOVER IN A CUSTOMS UNION: A CASE STUDY OF LAMB TRADE BETWEEN NAMIBIA AND SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakhal Sarker

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Namibia introduced the “Small Stock Marketing Scheme” (SSMS in 2004 which replaced 15% export duty on live sheep exports to South Africa with progressively demanding quantitative restrictions. This policy increased price volatility in the Namibian sheep market. We used relevant monthly price data and employed EGARCH modeling to determine if price volatility spilled-over from the sheep market in Namibia to South African sheep market. About 71 percent of the volatility in the Namibian sheep market is transmitted to the retail market in South Africa and the transmitted volatility remains persistent.

  16. An Economic Valuation Of The Water Footprint: A Case Study Of The Citrus Sector In The Lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, S. A.; Fraser, G. C. G.; Snowball, J. D.

    2014-12-01

    With the implementation of the South African National Water Act (NWA) currently underway, water intensive sectors, such as the irrigated agriculture sector, can expect reduced water allocations and an increase in water prices. Water footprints (WFs) are increasingly being recognised as a meaningful way by which to represent human appropriation of water resources. This study examines the green and blue WFs of a variety of citrus cultivars in the lower Sundays River Valley, Eastern Cape, South Africa. WFs were calculated across dry, humid and long-term average climates and comparisons were made to available global average benchmark WFs. An number of indicators were also explored including; water productivity (ton/m3), economic land productivity (R/ha) and economic water productivity (R/m3) across all three climatic years. Most applications of WF sustainability assessments have focused on examining physical water scarcity as a measure for determining environmental hotspots. This study, therefore, also calculates the marginal product value for the irrigation water using a non-parametric linear programming approach. Marginal product value of irrigation water is not only useful in assisting with water-allocation decision making, but also useful in demonstrating the effects of resource depletion and degradation, and is therefore a useful measure for determining economic water scarcity. The study highlights that both farmers and governments could reduce blue WF's through adopting measures to increase water efficiency and considering economic water and land productivity. It also demonstrates the importance of including both environmental and economic scarcity indicators into water management and planning strategies, and the importance of conducting WF assessments using more accurate, site specific data.

  17. The New Philanthropy, Poverty Reduction and Rural Development: A Case Study of Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumaila I. Asuru

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study seeks to explore the significant contributions of the new philanthropy towards improving the conditions of smallholder farmers in Sub-Saharan African, smallholder farmers’ understanding of philanthropy and to investigate the relationship that exists between philanthropy and smallholder farmers. The research is designed to uncover the needs and drivers of both philanthropy and smallholder farmers in relation to their interaction and the fulfilment of the philanthropic contract they have entered into. The main objective of the thesis is to consider the potential of philanthropy to rural transformation for poverty reduction. It focus is the involvement of the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation in rural development and poverty reduction in Ghana. Since 2006 the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (Gates Foundation has dedicated $1.7 billion to assisting smallholder farmers. The bulk of this investment has been delivered through programmes associated with the Alliance for a Green Revolution in Africa (AGRA, which is also supported by the Rockefeller Foundation(Thompson, 2012. This study observed an inherent discrepancies and organisational miscalculations that have adverse influence on the effective collaboration and implementation of philanthropic support to the selected farmers. Untimely release of farming inputs as well as exceedingly unfavourable conditions for the attractions of loans makes it difficult for smooth farming. This exercise also established that both men and women intercrop their farms to ensure household food security and income. Household decisions on which medium of farming to pursue and on use of the income from farming are generally taken by men. Due to these, this research emphasise that philanthropic offering in Ghana should be looked at dispassionately bearing in mind the socio-culturally diverse nature of the country itself as well as key environmental factors that hugely contribute to poverty.

  18. Child-focused state cash transfers and adolescent risk of HIV infection in South Africa: a propensity-score-matched case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Cluver, PhD

    2013-12-01

    Funding: UK Economic and Social Research Council, South African National Research Foundation, Health Economics and AIDS Research Division at University of KwaZulu-Natal, South African National Department of Social Development, Claude Leon Foundation, John Fell Fund, Nuffield Foundation, and Regional Interagency Task Team for Children affected by AIDS—Eastern and Southern Africa.

  19. The effects of restrictive South African migrant labor policy on the survival of rural households in southern Africa : a case study from rural Swaziland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leliveld, A.H.M.

    1997-01-01

    Confronted with high unemployment figures and widespread poverty among the black population, one of the priorities of the first postapartheid government of South Africa has been to combat poverty among its population by enlarging employment opportunities. It is generally accepted that this policy wi

  20. STUDYING GXE INTERACTION UNDER DIFFERENT MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AND YIELD LEVEL USING LINEAR-BILINEAR MODELS: THE CASE OF CIMMYT INTERMEDIATE TO LATE HYBRIDS TRAILS IN EASTERN AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girma Taye

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available CIMMYT, with national programs, conducts selection of stress-tolerant genotypes under managed stress conditions; this investigation is expected to add information to the existing knowledge. Data sets used in this study comes from Intermediate to Late Hybrid Trails (ILHT conducted in five Eastern and Central Africa (ECA countries from 2008 to 2011. Trials, ranging from 18 in 2009 to 29 in 2010 were used. Trials are categorized into four management systems and two yield levels. Variance Components, broad sense heritability (H, Site Regression (SREG, Genotypic Regression (GREG, Completely Multiplicative Model (COMM and Factor Analytic (FA models were fitted. Results are discussed and compared with those stated in literature. We argue that it is preferable to first fit the fixed effect models before proceeding to the mixed effect model, as the former shows the level of complexity of the GE component and number of Axis required to explain it. The fixed effect model, SREG2, is preferable for trails targeting to compare hybrids with checks. From the GGE biplots it was noted that the first two PC did not account for sufficient percentage of variation for all years which witnessed complexity in the GE component for this data. Nevertheless, since PC1 accounted for large percentage of variation than PC2, the plot still gives some idea of which hybrids are favored and where. Most importantly, location of genotypes along PC1 can serve for judging yielding potential of the genotypes to guide in selection decision. Equivalence between Finlay – Wilkinson and GREG was established. The few environmental covariables obtained for 2009 was used to fit Partial Least Square (PLS regression. The result indicated complexity in the GE component, as PLS latent factors accounted for small percentage of variation. It was recommended to use information from SREG2, GREG2 and FA(1 models in order to identify stable genotype.

  1. A description of village chicken production systems and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites: Case studies in Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dikeledi P. Malatji

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of rural households in developing countries own village chickens that are reared under traditional scavenging systems with few inputs and exposure to various parasitic infestations. Understanding of the village chicken farming system and its influence on helminth infestation is a prerequisite for optimal prevention and control strategies. This study investigated the village chicken production system and associated gastrointestinal parasites in 87 households from Limpopo (n = 39 and KwaZulu-Natal (n = 48 provinces of South Africa. A total of 191 village chicken faecal samples and 145 intestines were collected to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in villages of Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces, respectively. The faecal floatation analysis of samples from Limpopo and KwaZulu-Natal provinces indicated infestations by Ascaridia galli (18.77%, Heterakis gallinarum (15.56% and Capillaria spp. (4.00%; tapeworms Choanotaenia infundibulum (2.10% and Raillietina cesticillus (6.00% and Eimeria spp. (29.46%. Mixed infestations were observed in five (4.90% samples from Limpopo province and in only four (4.49% from KwaZulu-Natal province, of which 1.12% were a mixture of C. infundibulum and Eimeria spp. and 3.37% a combination of H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp. In Limpopo, 2.94% of the chickens were positive for H. gallinarum and Eimeria spp., whilst 0.98% had A. galli and Capillaria spp. infestations. Further investigation is needed to understand the impact of gastrointestinal parasites on village chicken health and production and develop appropriate intervention and control strategies feasible for smallholder farmers.Keywords: Helminthes; Village chickens; Smallholder farming systems; Faecal samples 

  2. Crop yield risk analysis and mitigation of smallholder farmers at quaternary catchment level: Case study of B72A in Olifants river basin, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magombeyi, Manuel S.; Taigbenu, Akpofure E.

    Currently, Sub-Sahara is experiencing increased frequency of disasters either as floods or droughts which depletes the scarce resources available to sustain increasing populations. Success in preventing food shortages in the African continent can only be achieved by understanding the vulnerability and risk of the majority of smallholder farmers under rainfed and supplementary irrigation coupled with appropriate interventions. Increased frequency of floods, droughts and dry spells pose an increasing threat to the smallholder farmers’ food security and water resources availability in B72A quaternary catchment of the Olifants river basin in South Africa. This paper links maize crop yield risk and smallholder farmer vulnerability arising from droughts by applying a set of interdisciplinary indicators (physical and socio-economic) encompassing gender and institutional vulnerabilities. For the study area, the return period of droughts and dry spells was 2 years. The growing season for maize crop was 121 days on average. Soil water deficit during critical growth stages may reduce potential yields by up to 62%, depending on the length and severity of the moisture deficit. To minimize grain yield loss and avoid total crop failures from intra-seasonal dry spells, farmers applied supplementary irrigation either from river water or rainwater harvested into small reservoirs. Institutional vulnerability was evidenced by disjointed water management institutions with lack of comprehension of roles of higher level institutions by lower level ones. Women are most hit by droughts as they derived more than 90% of their family income from agriculture activities. An enhanced understanding of the vulnerability and risk exposure will assist in developing technologies and policies that conform to the current livelihood strategies of smallholder, resource-constrained farmers. Development of such knowledge base for a catchment opens avenues for computational modeling of the impacts of

  3. Sustainable Development in Northern Africa: The Argan Forest Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dom Guillaume

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The argan tree is a slow growing tree exclusively endemic in the dry lowlands of Southwest Morocco. The argan forest constitutes a long time ignored specific biotope that has been declared a Biosphere Reserve by UNESCO in 1998. The argan forest is particularly fragile to climate change. Forecasts show annual precipitation levels and prolonged drought periods that could severely threaten the future of the argan forest. In some places, the argan forest is already damaged, resulting in the retreat of the argan tree and the subsequent desert encroachment. An acceleration of this trend would have devastating consequences. In response, some twenty years ago, an ambitious, unique in Northern-Africa, and government-supported program was initiated in Morocco to rescue the argan tree via the sustainable development of the argan forest. Because in the late 1980s, sustainable development in developing countries was often considered as a utopia, the argan forest case represents a sign of progress, as it is also an interesting and unique experience in Africa. This review analyses the process followed, the measures taken, the pitfalls encountered, and the results obtained during the last two decades. It also points out the measures that still need to be taken before declaring the argan forest rescue mission is accomplished.

  4. A case-control study of Burkitt lymphoma in East Africa: are local health facilities an appropriate source of representative controls?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baik Sonya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We investigated the feasibility and appropriateness of enrolling controls for Burkitt lymphoma (BL from local health facilities in two regions in Uganda. Methods BL case data were compiled from two local hospitals with capacity to diagnose and treat BL in North-west and North-central regions of Uganda during 1997 to 2009. Local health facility data were compiled from children attending four representative local health facilities in the two regions over a two week period in May/June 2010. Age and sex patterns of BL cases and children at local facilities were compared and contrasted using frequency tables. Results There were 999 BL cases diagnosed in the study area (92% of all BL cases treated at the hospitals: 64% were from North-central and 36% from North-west region. The mean age of BL cases was 7.0 years (standard deviation [SD] 3.0. Boys were younger than girls (6.6 years versus 7.2 years, P = 0.004 and cases from North-central region were younger than cases from North-west region (6.8 years versus 7.3 years, P = 0.014. There were 1012 children recorded at the four local health facilities: 91% at facilities in North-central region and 9% from facilities in North-west region. Daily attendance varied between 1 to 75 children per day. The mean age of children at health facilities was 2.2 years (SD 2.8; it did not differ by sex. Children at North-central region facilities were younger than children at North-west region facilities (1.8 years versus 6.6 years, P Conclusions While many children attend local health facilities, confirming feasibility of obtaining controls, their mean age is much lower than BL cases. Health facilities may be suitable for obtaining young, but not older, controls.

  5. Understanding landscape dynamics over thousand years : combining field and model work : with case study in the Drakensberg foothill, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    The title of this thesis is “Understanding landscape dynamics over thousands of years : combining field and model work, with a case study in the Drakensberg Foothills, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa”. As the title clearly states, the overall objective is an increased knowledge of landscape dynamics thr

  6. Human Responses to Climate Variability: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, M.; Licker, R.; Mastrorillo, M.; Bohra-Mishra, P.; Estes, L. D.; Cai, R.

    2014-12-01

    Climate variability has been associated with a range of societal and individual outcomes including migration, violent conflict, changes in labor productivity, and health impacts. Some of these may be direct responses to changes in mean temperature or precipitation or extreme events, such as displacement of human populations by tropical cyclones. Others may be mediated by a variety of biological, social, or ecological factors such as migration in response to long-term changes in crops yields. Research is beginning to elucidate and distinguish the many channels through which climate variability may influence human behavior (ranging from the individual to the collective, societal level) in order to better understand how to improve resilience in the face of current variability as well as future climate change. Using a variety of data sets from South Africa, we show how climate variability has influenced internal (within country) migration in recent history. We focus on South Africa as it is a country with high levels of internal migration and dramatic temperature and precipitation changes projected for the 21st century. High poverty rates and significant levels of rain-fed, smallholder agriculture leave large portions of South Africa's population base vulnerable to future climate change. In this study, we utilize two complementary statistical models - one micro-level model, driven by individual and household level survey data, and one macro-level model, driven by national census statistics. In both models, we consider the effect of climate on migration both directly (with gridded climate reanalysis data) and indirectly (with agricultural production statistics). With our historical analyses of climate variability, we gain insights into how the migration decisions of South Africans may be influenced by future climate change. We also offer perspective on the utility of micro and macro level approaches in the study of climate change and human migration.

  7. Unconsummated marriage in sub-Saharan Africa: case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lema, Valentino M

    2014-09-01

    Unconsummated marriage is a condition where newly married couples are unable to achieve penile-vaginal intercourse for variable periods despite desire and several attempts to do so. Its exact cause(s) is/are unknown, but performance anxiety resulting from or leading to other conditions is reportedly the major etiological factor. It is thought to be more prevalent in traditional and conservative religious communities where premarital sexual exposure is strictly prohibited. Most publications on unconsummated marriage have originated from North America, European and Middle Eastern countries. There have not been any such reports from sub-Saharan Africa, which is home to diverse cultures and traditions regarding premarital sex and marriage. This paper presents a sample of four cases with unconsummated marriage managed by the author in his private clinic based in the city of Nairobi Kenya, over the past five years. Possible etiological factors and management approaches are discussed, with a review of relevant literature.

  8. Implications of Biodiesel-Induced Land-Use Changes for CO2 Emissions: Case Studies in Tropical America, Africa, and Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter M. J. Achten

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels are receiving growing negative attention. Direct and/or indirect land-use changes that result from their cultivation can cause emissions due to carbon losses in soils and biomass and could negate any eventual greenhouse gas (GHG reduction benefit. This paper evaluates the implications of land-use change emission on the climate-change mitigation potential of different biofuel production systems in 12 case studies in six countries. We calculated carbon debts created by conversion of different land-use types, ranging from annual cropland to primary forest. We evaluated case studies using three different biofuel crops: oil palm, Jatropha, and soybean. The time needed for each biofuel production system to pay back its carbon debt was calculated based on a life-cycle assessment of the GHG reduction potentials of the system. Carbon debts range from 39 to 1743.7 Mg C02 ha-1. The oil palm case studies created the largest carbon debts (472.8-1743.7 t C02 ha-1 because most of the area expansion came at the expense of dense tropical forest. The highest debt was associated with plantation on peatland. For all cases evaluated, only soybean in Guarantã do Norte and Alta Floresta, Brazil needed less than one human generation (30 years to repay the initial carbon debt. Highest repayment times were found for Jatropha (76-310 years and oil palm (59-220 years case studies. Oil palm established in peatlands had the greatest repayment times (206-220 years. High repayment times for Jatropha resulted from the combined effects of land-cover change and low CO2 emission reduction rate. These outcomes raise serious questions about the sustainability of biofuel production. The carbon implications of conversion of (semi-natural systems with medium to high biomass indicate that, in order to generate climate benefits, cultivation of biofuel feedstocks should be restricted to areas that already have low carbon content.

  9. Health inequities, environmental insecurity and the attainment of the millennium development goals in sub-Saharan Africa: the case study of Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyangwe, Stella C E; Mtonga, Chipayeni; Chirwa, Ben

    2006-09-01

    The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia's MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia's systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource "brain drain", among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or "quick wins" that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub-Saharan Africa if they are to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

  10. The ‘trickle down’ of IWRM: A case study of local-level realities in the Inkomati Water Management Area, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristi Denby

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The historical legacy in South Africa of apartheid and the resulting discriminatory policies and power imbalances are critical to understanding how water is managed and allocated, and how people participate in designated water governance structures. The progressive post-apartheid National Water Act (NWA is the principal legal instrument related to water governance which has broadly embraced the principles of Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM. This translation of IWRM into the South African context and, in particular, the integration of institutions related to land and water have faced many challenges due to the political nature of water and land reforms, and the tendency of governmental departments to work in silos. The paper explores the dynamics surrounding the implementation of IWRM in the Inkomati Water Management Area, and the degree of integration between the parallel land and water reform processes. It also looks at what these reforms mean to black farmers’ access to water for their sugar cane crops at the regional (basin and local levels. The empirical material highlights the discrepancies between a progressive IWRM-influenced policy on paper and the actual realities on the ground. The paper argues that the decentralisation and integration aspects of IWRM in South Africa have somewhat failed to take off in the country and what 'integrated' actually entails is unclear. Furthermore, efforts to implement the NWA and IWRM in South Africa have been fraught with challenges in practice, because the progressive policy did not fully recognise the complex historical context, and the underlying inequalities in knowledge, power and resource access.

  11. Teaching About Africa South of the Sahara; A Guide and Resource Packet for Ninth Grade Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coburn, Barbara; And Others

    This guide provides a sampling of reference materials which are pertinent for two ninth grade units: Africa South of the Sahara: Land and People, and Africa South of the Sahara: Historic Trends. The effect of urbanization upon traditional tribalistic cultures is the focus. A case study is used to encourage an inductive approach to the learning…

  12. A revision of communication strategies for effective disaster risk reduction: A case study of the South Durban basin, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Skinner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The study examined how effective forms of communication are, or could be, impacting themore traditional forms of emergency and disaster management communication throughthe print and electronic media and how an integrated communication strategy involving allstakeholders could prove to be successful. This study was of an exploratory and descriptivenature, using a case study of the South Durban basin to demonstrate how media analysis,community discussions and internal and external evaluations of current practices in use bymajor industrial players in the basin has thus far failed to reach its full potential for effectivedisaster risk reduction. Strongly emerging from this study was the finding that, as a resultof these evaluations, new systems are now being planned to incorporate social media as anintegral part of an overall communication strategy, which could have far-reaching implicationsfor corporate communicators and strategic planners.

  13. The Case for an Underground Neutrino Facility in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilakazi, Zeblon

    2017-01-01

    Experiments in physics, Astro-particle physics and cosmology that require careful shielding against cosmic rays includes dark matter searches, studies of radioactive decays, and neutrino detection experiments. The need for such shielding has motivated the construction of laboratory caverns in mines and adjacent to tunnels under mountains. There are currently about a dozen such laboratories, in existence or under construction, all in the Northern Hemisphere. A motivation has been made for the establishment of a Southern Hemisphere facility. In this paper a feasibility study of measurements of radon in air (using electret ion chambers and alpha spectroscopy), background gamma ray measurements (inside/outside) the tunnel using scintillator (inorganic) detectors, cosmic ray measurements using organic scintillators and radiometric analyses of representative rock samplesfor the establishment of such a facility in the South Africa is presented. Keywords: Underground laboratory, Neutrinos, Gamma ray, Radon, Dark matter, Background.

  14. Health Inequities, Environmental Insecurity and the Attainment of the Millennium Development Goals in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case Study of Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Chirwa

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs are a series of 8 goals and 18 targets aimed at ending extreme poverty by 2015, and there are 48 quantifiable indicators for monitoring the process. Most of the MDGs are health or health-related goals. Though the MDGs might sound ambitious, it is imperative that the world, and sub-Saharan Africa in particular, wake up to the persistent and unacceptably high rates of extreme poverty that populations live in, and find lasting solutions to age-old problems. Extreme poverty is a cause and consequence of low income, food insecurity and hunger, education and gender inequities, high disease burden, environmental degradation, insecure shelter, and lack of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. It is also directly linked to unsound governance and inequitable distribution of public wealth. While many regions in the world will strive to attain the MDGs by 2015, most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa, with major human development challenges associated with socio-economic disparities, will not. Zambia’s MDG progress reports of 2003 and 2005 show that despite laudable political commitment and some advances made towards achieving universal primary education, gender equality, improvement of child health and management of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, it is not likely that Zambia will achieve even half of the goals. Zambia’s systems have been weakened by high disease burden and excess mortality, natural and man-made environmental threats and some negative effects of globalization such as huge external debt, low world prices for commodities and the human resource “brain drain”, among others. Urgent action must follow political will, and some tried and tested strategies or “quick wins” that have been proven to produce high positive impact in the short term, need to be rapidly embarked upon by Zambia and other countries in sub

  15. Tourists’ perceptions and willingness to pay for the control of Opuntia stricta invasion in protected areas: A case study from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Nikodinoska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Invasive alien plants have a long history of establishment in the national parks of South Africa.In particular, Opuntia stricta (sour prickly pear has invaded several protected areas in thecountry, threatening the biodiversity conservation mandate of these conservation areas. Thisarticle focuses on the economic estimation of O. stricta’s negative impacts in protected areas byusing Contingent Valuation surveys conducted amongst a sample of tourists in the PilanesbergNational Park (North West Parks and Tourism Board, South Africa. Tourists’ familiarity andawareness of selected invasive alien plants and their willingness to pay for the implementationof a control programme for O. stricta were assessed. The results show that many tourists arefamiliar with invasive alien plants and their (positive and negative impacts and, in particular,perceived the presence of O. stricta to be negative, due to the impacts on aesthetics and recreation.Socio-demographic characteristics, as well as individual attitudes and biocentric beliefs, have aninfluence on the willingness to contribute financially to a control programme for O. stricta. Theindividual willingness to pay assessment found that the majority of respondents (78% werewilling to pay a higher entrance fee (an additional R57.30 or $7.00 per day for a hypotheticalprogramme to control the invasion of O. stricta in the Pilanesberg National Park.Conservation implications: The willingness of tourists to pay for O. stricta managementprovides useful insights in the decision-making process of park management. The resultsare encouraging, since, in general, tourists are aware of the problem and are in support ofproviding additional economic input for preventing future alien plant invasions.

  16. Climate change, security risks and conflict reduction in Africa. A case study of farmer-herder conflicts over natural resources in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana and Burkina Faso 1960-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabot, Charlene

    2017-02-01

    Millions of people are already affected by weather-related shocks every year in West Africa and climate change is highly likely to increase these threats. In the wake of climate change, rising temperatures, increasingly irregular rainfall and more frequent natural hazards will endanger the ways of life of vulnerable population groups in this region and destabilize their human security. A surge in violence and conflicts could take place. One of the conflict constellations could be between farmers and herders. These groups are highly vulnerable to climate change due to their dependence on natural resources Millions of people are already affected by weather-related shocks every year in West Africa and climate change is highly likely to increase these threats. In the wake of climate change, rising temperatures, increasingly irregular rainfall and more frequent natural hazards will endanger the ways of life of vulnerable population groups in this region and destabilize their human security. A surge in violence and conflicts could take place. One of the conflict constellations could be between farmers and herders. These groups are highly vulnerable to climate change due to their dependence on natural resources for their subsistence. Furthermore, they are historically prone to enter into conflict over issues of access to natural resources. However, social, economic and political circumstances fundamentally influence environmental conflicts. There might thus be opportunities to face the societal challenges of climate change in a peaceful way and the political and institutional framework could play an important role in reducing conflict and violence. In order to explore such a path, this study analyses the potential of political factors (policies and institutions) for the reduction of climate-change-induced or aggravated conflicts between farmers and herders. After a theoretical demonstration, a case study of agro-pastoral conflicts in Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, and

  17. How can small hydro energy and other renewable energy mitigate impact of climate change in remote Central Africa: Cameroon case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenfack, Joseph; Bignom, Blaise

    2015-04-01

    Central Africa owns important renewable energy potential, namely hydro, solar and biomass. This important potential is still suffering from poor development up to the point where the sub region is still abundantly using the fossil energy and biomass as main power source. This is harmful to the climate and the situation is still ongoing. The main cause of the poor use of renewable energy is the poor management of resources by governments who have not taken the necessary measures to boost the renewable energy sector. Since the region is experiencing power shortage, thermal plants are among other solutions planned or under construction. Firewood is heavily used in remote areas without a sustainability program behind. This solution is not environment friendly and hence is not a long term solution. Given the fact that the region has the highest hydro potential of the continent, up to one-quarter of the world's tropical forest, important oil production with poor purchase power, the aim of this paper is to identify actions for improved access to sustainable, friendly, affordable energy services to users as well as a significant improvement of energy infrastructure in Central Africa and the promotion of small hydro and other renewable energy. The work will show at first the potential for the three primary energy sources which are solar, biomass and hydro while showing where available the level of development, with an emphasis on small hydro. Then identified obstacles for the promotion of clean energy will be targeted. From lessons learned, suggestions will be made to help the countries develop an approach aiming at developing good clean energy policy to increase the status of renewable energy and better contribute to fight against climate change. Cameroon has a great renewable energy potential and some data are available on energy. From the overview of institutional structure reform of the Cameroon power sector and assessments, specific suggestions based on the weaknesses

  18. Open access: are we there yet? - the case of Stellenbosch University, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reggie Raju

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available It is often acknowledged that African and other developing countries have a desperate need for quality scholarly information to advance their research output and to make a contribution to the world of scholarly communication. In terms of Africa, South Africa is the most significant producer of research output in sub-Saharan Africa and has, therefore by default, become a beacon of hope for Africa in the area of research production. This case study focuses on the contribution of Stellenbosch University (SU to the African research agenda through making its research output available via two different publishing models. The first model is the hosting and preservation of its research output via an institutional repository (the green route to open access. The second model is hosting and publishing open access journals, following one of two ‘streams’ in the gold route. In this paper, the authors contextualize open access.  The two publishing models in support of the Strategic Plan for the Environment of the Vice Rector (Research are discussed as it applies to SU. The Library’s adoption of the role of ‘publisher’ is also examined. In the case of SU, Open Journal Systems (OJS is the software of choice for hosting open access online journals. The paper provides background on OJS, and also discusses the significance of OJS publishing for the University and its researchers. It concludes with the view that despite the perceived success of the Library and Information Service in making available research output in open access format, there are still many challenges that need to be overcome, and that this process is a continuous one and should remain so in order to continuously take advantage of opportunities offered by evolving technology.

  19. Why study higher education and capacity building in Africa?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adriansen, Hanne Kirstine; Madsen, Lene Møller; Jensen, Stig

    2015-01-01

    innovative approach to higher education and capacity building, namely by studying this through ‘geographies of knowledge’. This is an interdisciplinary field that pays attention to the ways scientific knowledge is produced and consumed with a special focus on geography. By using a geographical approach...... for exploring the current and future development of teaching and knowledge production in Africa, we want to explore how scientific knowledge is negotiated and contested in parallel to societal changes in general and capacity building in particular, and thus how scientific knowledge becomes local. Then we......The chapter begins by arguing why it is interesting to study higher education and capacity building in Africa. Without essentialising Africa, we wish to contribute to a better understanding of the multi-faceted and dynamic development of contemporary universities in Africa. Then we explain our...

  20. Supporting Teacher Professional Development to Use Tablets in Resource Constrained Schools: A Case Study of Cofimvaba Schools, Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Botha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Over a period of three years, 360 teachers at 26 resource constrained schools in Cofimvaba, which lies in the Nciba district of the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa, have received training on how to integrate mobile tablets in their classrooms to support teaching and learning. The training modules combined the use of teaching strategies and fun with practical hands-on exercises which can be used in any type of subject for any grade when training teachers. Teachers embarked on a learning path attached to badges to reward their efforts and evidence of how they have applied their training in their classrooms. The purpose of this paper is to share this novel approach to teacher training in a unique context where schools are deprived of resources but still managed to successfully integrate mobile tablets in their classroom practices. These practices have changed the way teachers teach from standing with a textbook and chalk in front of a class sitting in rows, to standing with a tablet and learners are engaged in group work and using the tablets as a resource in a disconnected environment. The success of these training modules lies in the application of an approach of teach with and not to, earn as you learn and not just give technology, respect and humility, flexibility, innovation, creativity and co-creation.

  1. Assessment of occupational exposure to BTEX compounds at a bus diesel-refueling bay: A case study in Johannesburg, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moolla, Raeesa; Curtis, Christopher J; Knight, Jasper

    2015-12-15

    Of increasing concern is pollution by volatile organic compounds, with particular reference to five aromatic hydrocarbons (benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and two isomeric xylenes; BTEX). These pollutants are classified as hazardous air pollutants. Due to the potential health risks associated with these pollutants, BTEX concentrations were monitored at a bus diesel-refueling bay, in Johannesburg, South Africa, using gas chromatography, coupled with a photo-ionization detector. Results indicate that o-xylene (29-50%) and benzene (13-33%) were found to be the most abundant species of total BTEX at the site. Benzene was within South African occupational limits, but above international occupational exposure limits. On the other hand, occupational concentrations of toluene, ethyl-benzene and xylenes were within national and international occupational limits throughout the monitoring period, based on 8-hour workday weighted averages. Ethyl-benzene and p-xylene concentrations, during winter, correspond to activity at the site, and thus idling of buses during refueling may elevate results. Overall, occupational air quality at the refueling bay is a matter of health concern, especially with regards to benzene exposure, and future reduction strategies are crucial. Discrepancies between national and international limit values merit further investigation to determine whether South African guidelines for benzene are sufficiently precautionary.

  2. Understanding farmers' intention and behavior regarding water conservation in the Middle-East and North Africa: a case study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanpanah, Masoud; Hayati, Dariush; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Zamani, Gholam Hosein

    2014-03-15

    There is a high risk of serious water shortages in Middle-East and North African countries. To decrease this threat water conservation strategies are gaining overall importance and one main focus is now on farmer's behavior. Among other dimensions it is assumed that normative issues play an important role in predicting environmental oriented intentions and actual actions. To empirically test the possible interactions the Theory of Planned Behavior was used, revised and expanded for the specific case on water management issues and applied to Iranian farmers. The results could not validate the TPB framework which emphasizes the importance of perceived behavioral control for intention and actual behavior and findings are much more in line with the Theory of Reasoned Action. Normative inclinations as well as perception of risk are found to be important for intention as well as actual water conservation behavior. Additionally, the importance and linkages of the dimensions are found to be different between sub-groups of farmers, especially between traditional water management farmers and those who already using advanced water management strategies. This raises the question if one-fits-all behavioral models are adequate for practical studies where sub-groups may very much differ in their actions. Still, our study suggests that in the context of water conservation, normative inclination is a key dimension and it may be useful to consider the role of positive, self-rewarding feelings for farmers when setting up policy measures in the region.

  3. Africa and International Corruption : the Strange Case of South Africa and Seychelles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.D.K.

    1996-01-01

    This article traces the development of corruption in one part of Africa - Seychelles - in a global context. It demonstrates how the ease with which capital can be transferred and commodities bought and sold and the speed of modern communication in general have been given considerable impetus to the

  4. Barriers in the Delivery of Emergency Obstetric and Neonatal Care in Post-Conflict Africa: Qualitative Case Studies of Burundi and Northern Uganda.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primus Che Chi

    Full Text Available Maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity rates are particularly grim in conflict, post-conflict and other crisis settings, a situation partly blamed on non-availability and/or poor quality of emergency obstetric and neonatal care (EmONC services. The aim of this study was to explore the barriers to effective delivery of EmONC services in post-conflict Burundi and Northern Uganda, in order to provide policy makers and other relevant stakeholders context-relevant data on improving the delivery of these lifesaving services.This was a qualitative comparative case study that used 42 face-to-face semi-structured in-depth interviews and 4 focus group discussions for data collection. Participants were 32 local health providers and 37 staff of NGOs working in the area of maternal health. Data was analysed using the framework approach.The availability, quality and distribution of EmONC services were major challenges across the sites. The barriers in the delivery of quality EmONC services were categorised into two major themes; human resources-related challenges, and systemic and institutional failures. While some of the barriers were similar, others were unique to specific sites. The common barriers included shortage of qualified staff; lack of essential installations, supplies and medications; increasing workload, burn-out and turnover; and poor data collection and monitoring systems. Barriers unique to Northern Uganda were demoralised personnel and lack of recognition; poor referral system; inefficient drug supply system; staff absenteeism in rural areas; and poor coordination among key personnel. In Burundi, weak curriculum; poor harmonisation and coordination of training; and inefficient allocation of resources were the unique challenges. To improve the situation across the sites, efforts are ongoing to improve the training and recruitment of more staff; harmonise and strengthen the curriculum and training; increase the number of EmONC facilities

  5. A network control theory approach to modeling and optimal control of zoonoses: case study of brucellosis transmission in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Roy

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing control policies for zoonotic diseases is challenging, both because of the complex spread dynamics exhibited by these diseases, and because of the need for implementing complex multi-species surveillance and control efforts using limited resources. Mathematical models, and in particular network models, of disease spread are promising as tools for control-policy design, because they can provide comprehensive quantitative representations of disease transmission. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A layered dynamical network model for the transmission and control of zoonotic diseases is introduced as a tool for analyzing disease spread and designing cost-effective surveillance and control. The model development is achieved using brucellosis transmission among wildlife, cattle herds, and human sub-populations in an agricultural system as a case study. Precisely, a model that tracks infection counts in interacting animal herds of multiple species (e.g., cattle herds and groups of wildlife for brucellosis and in human subpopulations is introduced. The model is then abstracted to a form that permits comprehensive targeted design of multiple control capabilities as well as model identification from data. Next, techniques are developed for such quantitative design of control policies (that are directed to both the animal and human populations, and for model identification from snapshot and time-course data, by drawing on recent results in the network control community. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The modeling approach is shown to provide quantitative insight into comprehensive control policies for zoonotic diseases, and in turn to permit policy design for mitigation of these diseases. For the brucellosis-transmission example in particular, numerous insights are obtained regarding the optimal distribution of resources among available control capabilities (e.g., vaccination, surveillance and culling, pasteurization of milk and points in

  6. Maternal mortality in rural South Africa: the impact of case definition on levels and trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garenne M

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Michel Garenne,1–3 Kathleen Kahn,1,4,5 Mark A Collinson,1,4,5 F Xavier Gómez-Olivé,1,5 Stephen Tollman1,4,51MRC/Wits Rural Public Health and Health Transitions Research Unit (Agincourt, School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa; 2Institut Pasteur, Epidémiologie des Maladies Emergentes, Paris, France; 3Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, UMI Résiliences, Centre Ile de France, Bondy, France; 4Centre for Global Health Research, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden; 5INDEPTH Network, East Legon, Accra, GhanaBackground: Uncertainty in the levels of global maternal mortality reflects data deficiencies, as well as differences in methods and definitions. This study presents levels and trends in maternal mortality in Agincourt, a rural subdistrict of South Africa, under long-term health and sociodemographic surveillance.Methods: All deaths of women aged 15 years–49 years occurring in the study area between 1992 and 2010 were investigated, and causes of death were assessed by verbal autopsy. Two case definitions were used: “obstetrical” (direct causes, defined as deaths caused by conditions listed under O00-O95 in International Classification of Diseases-10; and “pregnancy-related deaths”, defined as any death occurring during the maternal risk period (pregnancy, delivery, 6 weeks postpartum, irrespective of cause.Results: The case definition had a major impact on levels and trends in maternal mortality. The obstetric mortality ratio averaged 185 per 100,000 live births over the period (60 deaths, whereas the pregnancy-related mortality ratio averaged 423 per 100,000 live births (137 deaths. Results from both calculations increased over the period, with a peak around 2006, followed by a decline coincident with the national roll-out of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV and antiretroviral treatment programs. Mortality increase from direct causes was

  7. Regional, Continental, and Global Mobility to an Emerging Economy: The Case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jenny J.; Sehoole, Chika

    2015-01-01

    This study examined mobility within the understudied region of southern Africa and particularly, the factors that drive and shape educational migration toward South Africa as a regional, continental, and global destination. Based on a survey administered to international students across seven South African universities, the findings revealed…

  8. Global media and violence in Africa : The case of Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Binsbergen, van W.M.J.; Dijk, van R.A.; Gewald, J.B.

    2004-01-01

    It has been argued that Africa has been sidelined in the global ICT revolution and that African societies appear to be cut off from global flows of information. Nevertheless, the manner in which war was waged in Somalia between 1991 and 1994 indicates that this global revolution has affected the man

  9. Perception-based analysis of climate change effect on forest-based livelihood: The case of Vhembe District in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Chidiebere Ofoegbu; Paxie W. Chirwa; Joseph Francis; Folarannmi D. Babalola

    2016-01-01

    Forests are vulnerable to climate change and are also major sources of livelihood for many rural households in Africa. This study examines rural people’s perceptions of climate change impacts on forest-based livelihoods using rural communities of Vhembe District in South Africa as a case study. The study was based on the principles of perceived impact-based assessment, and sustainable livelihoods framework. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling procedure in combination with weigh...

  10. Case Study: Testing with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2015-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses using case studies to test for knowledge or lessons learned.

  11. God as an Attachment Figure : A Case Study of the God Attachment Language and God Concepts of Anxiously Attached Christian Youths in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the role of the Christian God as an attachment figure, using the attachment language criteria of a strong and enduring affectionate bond. Respondents were 15 anxiously attached Christian youths, purposefully selected for in-depth interviews to explore their God attachment languag

  12. Impacts of fire and grazing management on South Africa’s moist highland grasslands: A case study of the Steenkampsberg Plateau, Mpumalanga, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian T. Little

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Grasslands are heavily utilised for livestock agriculture and the resultant degradation through mismanagement contributes to an estimated 60% of this biome being permanently transformed. This study focused on the impact of fire and grazing in moist highland grasslands.Objectives: To determine the contribution of burning frequency and grazing intensity combined (for domestic livestock and indigenous ungulates on vegetation structure heterogeneity and species diversity.Methods: Eight study sites under different management regimes were sampled over two summers. Vegetation structure characteristics and diversity data were collected monthly within multiple replicates in each study site. A disc pasture meter was used to assess standing biomass. Differences in vegetation structure characteristics, plant community composition and plant species assemblage structure across sites were statistically analysed using analyses of variance, indicator species analyses, multidimensional scaling ordinations and two-way cluster analyses.Results: The combination of heavy grazing and annual burning leads to a distinct plant community dominated by disturbance specialist species. Selective grazing by indigenous herbivores promotes a community of unpalatable species. This study illustrates that fenced indigenous herbivores, even at moderate stocking densities, have a greater detrimental impact on plant diversity and structure than do domestic livestock.Conclusion: Intensive grazing and burning have a detrimental impact on plant species diversity and structure. This also affects resultant palatability for grazing livestock and fenced game. To promote both grazing quality and ecological integrity we recommend a minimum sustainable ‘fodder capacity’ or standing phytomass of 5000 kg per large-animal unit per hectare for domestic livestock in moist highland grasslands.

  13. An investigation into the challenges of food security policy implementation : a case study of the Barolong Boora Tshidi people of the North West Province (South Africa) / Kego Lorathu.

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    The study found that there is marked poverty in Lekoko village, and that food security is lacking. Purchasing power of household commodities and consumables is observed to be non-existent. Agriculture as a form of food security has eluded many because of drought. All those who practised subsistence fanning are unable to do so. Food security is greatly impaired; the people cannot access sufficient aid and nutritious food. This includes the problem of food production, preserva...

  14. Evaluation of carbon stocks in above- and below-ground biomass in Central Africa: case study of Lesio-louna tropical rainforest of Congo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Ekoungoulou, R.; Loumeto, J. J.; Ifo, S. A.; Bocko, Y. E.; Koula, F. E.

    2014-07-01

    The study was aimed to estimate the carbon stocks of above- and below-ground biomass in Lesio-louna forest of Congo. The methodology of allometric equations was used to measure the carbon stocks of Lesio-louna natural forest. We are based precisely on the model II which is also called non-destructive method or indirect method of measuring carbon stocks. While there has been use of parameters such as the DBH and wood density. The research was done with 22 circular plots each 1256 m2. In the 22 plots studied, 19 plots are in the gallery forest and three plots in the secondary forest. Also, 22 circular plots were distributed in 5 sites studies of Lesio-louna forest, including: Inkou forest island, Iboubikro, Ngoyili, Blue lake and Ngambali. So, there are two forest types (secondary forest and gallery forest) in this forest ecosystem. In the 5 sites studied, we made measurements on a total of 347 trees with 197 trees for the class of 10-30 cm diameter, 131 trees for the class of 30-60 cm diameter and 19 trees in the diameter class > 60 cm. The results show that in the whole forest, average carbon stock for the 22 plots of the study was 168.601 t C ha-1 for AGB, or 81% and 39.551 t C ha-1 for BGB, or 19%. The total carbon stocks in all the biomass was 3395.365 t C for AGB, which is 3.395365 × 10-6 Gt C and 909.689934 t C for BGB, which was 9.09689934 × 10-7 Gt C. In this forest, the carbon stock was more important in AGB compared to BGB with respectively 3395.365 t C against 909.689934 t C. Plot10 (AGB = 363.899 t C ha-1 and BGB = 85.516 t C ha-1) was the most dominant in terms of carbon quantification in Lesio-louna.

  15. Radio astronomy in Africa: the case of Ghana

    CERN Document Server

    Asabere, Bernard Duah; Horellou, Cathy; Winkler, Hartmut; Jarrett, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    South Africa has played a leading role in radio astronomy in Africa with the Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory (HartRAO). It continues to make strides with the current seven-dish MeerKAT precursor array (KAT-7), leading to the 64-dish MeerKAT and the giant Square Kilometer Array (SKA), which will be used for transformational radio astronomy research. Ghana, an African partner to the SKA, has been mentored by South Africa over the past six years and will soon emerge in the field of radio astronomy. The country will soon have a science-quality 32m dish converted from a redundant satellite communication antenna. Initially, it will be fitted with 5 GHz and 6.7 GHz receivers to be followed later by a 1.4 - 1.7 GHz receiver. The telescope is being designed for use as a single dish observatory and for participation in the developing African Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Network (AVN) and the European VLBI Network. Ghana is earmarked to host a remote station during a possible SKA Phase 2. The loca...

  16. Case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella; Bernt Sørensen, Tore

    of several DHSs. Furthermore ?Udspil? was chosen for being a non-formal learning activity based on individual participation, even though linked to institutionalized learning practices, which were carried out in cooperation between several local institutions.Last but not least, the project represents...... that time Roskilde University Centre and Learning Lab Denmark, DK)3. The case here presented is based on results from research activity carried out over a 1 year period (spring 2006 - spring 2007). Detailed information concerning participation in the project was collected in two DHSs only: the Sports Day......Learning for democratic citizenship is embedded in the general popular education ideal(folkeoplysning), which is the primary source of inspiration for the Day High Schools (DHSs). DHSs are private institutions supported by local authorities, that host primarily low educated and unemployed young...

  17. Evaluation of the onset and length of growing season to define planting date—`a case study for Mali (West Africa)'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinseye, F. M.; Agele, S. O.; Traore, P. C. S.; Adam, M.; Whitbread, A. M.

    2016-05-01

    The agroecological zones (AEZ) of Mali fall within the semi-arid climate, the ability to determine efficiently or predict accurately the onset of growing season (OGS), and length of growing season (LGS) cannot be over-emphasized due to highly variable rainfall pattern and the dependence of smallholder farmers practising on rainfed farming agriculture. In this study, we determined the most suitable method for predicting the onset date of rainfall across AEZ that fitted with the planting windows of major cereal crops (maize, millet, and sorghum). Using long-term daily rainfall records from 22 meteorological stations spread across AEZ of Mali, four (4) known methods were applied to determine the onset dates of the rain. The mean onset dates were statistically compared with the farmer's planting window for the selected weather stations to determine the suitable dates of OGS and LGS. The hypothesis considered a time lag minimum of 7 days between the mean onset date and traditional farmer sowing dates for the crops. Then, the preferred method was used to estimate OGS based on early, normal and late dates respectively across the stations. Also, the estimated LGS according to each zone was evaluated using probability distribution chart with duration to maturity for varieties of the same crops. The results showed that Def_4 was found appropriate for Sahelian and Sudano-Sahelian zones; Def_3 satisfied the criteria and exhibited superior capacity into farmer's average planting date over Sudanian and Guinea Savannah zones. These results have an important application in cropping systems in order to prevent crop failure and ensure a better choice of crop variety according to LGS under climate variability and change being experienced across Mali.

  18. Governmentality and the Study of Education Policy in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikly, Leon

    2003-01-01

    Applies Foucault's idea of governmentality to an understanding of education policy in South Africa. Argues that studying policy through the lens of governmentality theory allows for the consideration of the autonomous effects of rationalities of government on shaping the possibilities of policy. Also argues that educational change can be…

  19. The hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa with special reference to studies in the South African Institute for Medical Research.

    OpenAIRE

    1982-01-01

    In this review of studies on the hemorrhagic fevers of Southern Africa carried out in the South African Institute for Medical Research, attention has been called to occurrence of meningococcal septicemia in recruits to the mining industry and South African Army, to cases of staphylococcal and streptococcal septicemia with hemorrhagic manifestations, and to the occurrence of plague which, in its septicemic form, may cause a hemorrhagic state. "Onyalai," a bleeding disease in tropical Africa, o...

  20. A Systematic Review of the Incidence, Risk Factors and Case Fatality Rates of Invasive Nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) Disease in Africa (1966 to 2014)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uche, Ifeanyi Valentine; MacLennan, Calman A.

    2017-01-01

    This study systematically reviews the literature on the occurrence, incidence and case fatality rate (CFR) of invasive nontyphoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease in Africa from 1966 to 2014. Data on the burden of iNTS disease in Africa are sparse and generally have not been aggregated, making it difficult to describe the epidemiology that is needed to inform the development and implementation of effective prevention and control policies. This study involved a comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase databases. It documents the geographical spread of iNTS disease over time in Africa, and describes its reported incidence, risk factors and CFR. We found that Nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) have been reported as a cause of bacteraemia in 33 out of 54 African countries, spanning the five geographical regions of Africa, and especially in sub-Saharan Africa since 1966. Our review indicates that NTS have been responsible for up to 39% of community acquired blood stream infections in sub-Saharan Africa with an average CFR of 19%. Salmonella Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the major serovars implicated and together have been responsible for 91%% of the cases of iNTS disease, (where serotype was determined), reported in Africa. The study confirms that iNTS disease is more prevalent amongst Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals, infants, and young children with malaria, anaemia and malnutrition. In conclusion, iNTS disease is a substantial cause of community-acquired bacteraemia in Africa. Given the high morbidity and mortality of iNTS disease in Africa, it is important to develop effective prevention and control strategies including vaccination. PMID:28056035

  1. Strategies for building trust with farmers: the case of Bt maize in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezezika Obidimma C

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In 1999, South Africa became the first African country to approve commercial production of subsistence genetically modified (GM maize. The introduction of GM crop technology is often met with skepticism by stakeholders including farmers. The involvement of the private sector in this process can further breed mistrust or misperceptions. To examine these issues more closely, the objective of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the public-private partnership (PPP arrangement involved in the development of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt maize in South Africa. Methods We conducted semi-structured, face-to-face interviews to obtain stakeholders’ understanding of trust in general as well as in the context of agricultural biotechnology (agbiotech PPPs. A thematic analysis of the interview transcripts, documents, reports and research articles was conducted to generate insights into the challenges to, and practices for, building trust among the partners and with the public. Results The findings of this study are organized into four main lessons on trust building. First, as the end users of GM technology, farmers must be engaged from the start of the project through field demonstrations and educational activities. Second, an effective technology (i.e., the seed is key to the success of an agbiotech PPP. Third, open communication and full disclosure between private sector companies and government regulatory bodies will build trust and facilitate the regulatory processes. Fourth, enforcing good agronomic practices, including appropriate management of the refuge areas, will serve the interests of both the farmers and the seed companies. Conclusions Trust has proven to be a critical factor determining the success of the Bt maize project in South Africa. Distrust of the private sector and of GM technology were cited as major barriers to building trust. The trust-building practices described in this case study have often

  2. THE ODA DIMENSION OF CHINA: THE CASE OF AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei R. DELEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available With the recent developments in the past decade new international actors that have benefited from a flourishing economic stability and a liberalization of global trade have emerged. China stands out as one of the most important new actors that have emerged, a “rising power”. These new found global and regional self-perception have led to an intensification of its international engagement. International development aid is one area that has seen a rapid increase in importance for the Chinese government. Recipient countries from Africa or Asia welcome China as a new donor even though its methods differ from the OECD standards. As a result a series of questions and challanges rise up when it comes to Chinese foreign aid. First there is the issue in understanding what China defines as aid. The second issue is observing the impact that these policies have and to whom are they intended, a special attention being paid to the African Continent.

  3. MANAGING RAPID DIFFUSION: THE CASE OF CELLULAR COMMUNICATIONS IN SOUTH AFRICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.J. Buys

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: TSouth Africa has experienced extraordinarily rapid growth in the cellular communications industry, with subscriber numbers growing from zero to 5,3 million in the first six years since its introduction in 1994. Research was conducted to investigate the way in which the industry managed this rapid diffusion. The study highlighted the way in which the diffusion of cellular communication was managed, particularly through networks and linkages between hardware suppliers, network operators and service providers. The study has found that industry cooperation is the most important factor that drives rapid diffusion of new technology in a non-integrated industry such as the cellular communications industry in South Africa. The findings of this single-case study support propositions based on the innovation network theory.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Suid-Afrika het buitengewoon vinnige groei in die sellulêre kommunikasiebedryf ervaar, en intekenaarsyfers het van nul tot 5,3 miljoen in die eerste ses jaar sedert die bekendstelling daarvan in 1994 opgeskiet. Navorsing om vas te stel op watter wyse die bedryf hierdie snelle verspreiding bestuur het is, gedoen. Die studie het gekonsentreer op die manier waarop die verspreiding van sellulêre kommunikasie bestuur is, veral deur middel van netwerke en skakeling tussen apparatuurverskaffers, netwerkoperateurs en diensverskaffers. Die studie het bevind dat industriesamewerking die belangrikste faktor is wat vinnige verspreiding van nuwe tegnologie dryf in ʼn nie-geintegreerde nywerheid soos die sellulêre kommunikasiebedryf in Suid-Afrika. Die bevindinge van hierdie enkel-gevalstudie ondersteun proposisies gebaseer op die innovasie-netwerkteorie.

  4. Progress with vegetation studies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Scheepers

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation studies at various levels of detail and using various methods are briefly reviewed. The approach and procedures of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology as a standard methodology for regional studies has become increasingly recognized. Progress has been made in regional studies in the fynbos and woodland biomes. but grassland, forest and karoo vegetation have been much neglected. There have also been marked increases in activity over a wide range of additional vegetation studies including new fields of research, particularly ecosystem studies. However, there are still vast gaps in our knowledge of the basic vegetationa! resources of the country. A systematic regional-study programme is being launched to remedy these deficiencies in fundamental knowledge.

  5. Shaping Participation: The Case of Meadowlands Environmental Group, South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Eghoff, Christian; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    This paper analyses the shaping of citizens’ efforts to influence the environmental conditions in the local community based on a case study with a community-based organisation (CBO), whom is active in a South African township. The aim of the paper is - To show how this type of participation can...... to the concept of ‘participation’ we see such efforts of citizens as participation in the shaping of the local environment in the township. That is, we are not only focusing on the participation in well-defined projects, hearings etc., but also in the shaping of what is seen as problems and what is seen...... as solutions in relation to the environmental conditions. We are of course also interested in formal procedures for participation, but see such procedures (or lack hereof) just as one of the structures involved in the shaping of the efforts of the citizens....

  6. Case Study: Writing a Journal Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prud'homme-Genereux, Annie

    2016-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue describes incorporating a journal article into the classroom by first converting it into a case study.

  7. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via a case-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age, working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  8. Implementing case-based teaching strategies in a decentralised nursing management programme in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zethu Nkosi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case-based education has a long history in the disciplines of education, business, law and the health professions. Research suggests that students who learn via acase-based method have advanced critical thinking skills and a greater ability for application of knowledge in practice. In medical education, case-based methodology is widely used to facilitate knowledge transfer from theoretical knowledge to application in patient care. Nursing education has also adopted case-based methodology to enhance learner outcomes and critical thinking.Objectives: The objectives of the study was to describe a decentralised nursing management education programme located in Durban, South Africa and describe the perceptions of nursing faculty facilitators regarding implementation of this teaching method.Method: Data was collected through the use of one-on-one interviews and also focus groups amongst the fifteen facilitators who were using a case-based curriculum to teach the programme content. The average facilitator was female, between 41 and 50 years of age,working part-time, educated with a baccalaureate degree, working as a professional nurse for between 11 and 20 years; slightly more than half had worked as a facilitator for three or more years.Results: The facilitators identified themes related to the student learners, the learning environment, and strengths and challenges of using facilitation to teach the content through cases. Decentralised nursing management educational programmes can meet the needs of nurses who are located in remote areas which are characterised by poor transportation patterns and limited resources and have great need for quality healthcare services.Conclusion: Nursing faculty facilitators need knowledgeable and accessible contact with centrally based full-time nursing faculty in order to promote high quality educational programmes.

  9. Interracial families in South Africa : an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    D.Litt. et Phil. Interracial marriage can be viewed as a barometer of social change. South Africa has historically been a country of racial tension with legislation seeking to keep the races apart. However, during April 1994 the country's first democratic elections took place, thus ending the reign of white minority rule. It is against this backdrop that the present study took place. The aim of the study is to seek a deeper understanding of the experiences of mixed: race families living in...

  10. Case Study Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes the history of case study teaching, types of cases, and experimental data supporting their effectiveness. It also describes a model for comparing the efficacy of the various case study methods. (Contains 1 figure.)

  11. Biofuels and Food (In)Security in Africa. The Case of Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Ingólfur Pálsson 1980

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is examining the drivers and effects of biofuel production in the countries of Sub Saharan Africa. More precisely, the thesis is concerned with the efficiency of the biofuel production as a development tool: can such projects respond to the needs of the population? On the case of Mozambique, the research conducted in course of writing this thesis examines the biofuel policies and processes against one of the fundamental rights of individuals – food security. As this is a resource ...

  12. Feasibibility study - cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Hvelplund, Frede Kloster; Sukkumnoed, Decharut

    2004-01-01

    The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation.......The chapter presents two case studies to show the tools of feasibiliy studies within the context of technological innovation....

  13. Project management case studies

    CERN Document Server

    Kerzner, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    A new edition of the most popular book of project management case studies, expanded to include more than 100 cases plus a ""super case"" on the Iridium Project Case studies are an important part of project management education and training. This Fourth Edition of Harold Kerzner''s Project Management Case Studies features a number of new cases covering value measurement in project management. Also included is the well-received ""super case,"" which covers all aspects of project management and may be used as a capstone for a course. This new edition:Contains 100-plus case studies drawn from re

  14. A Top to Bottom Lithospheric Study of Africa and Arabia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M

    2006-10-31

    We study the lithospheric structure of Africa, Arabia and adjacent oceanic regions with fundamental-mode surface waves over a wide period range. Including short period group velocities allows us to examine shallower features than previous studies of the whole continent. In the process, we have developed a crustal thickness map of Africa. Main features include crustal thickness increases under the West African, Congo, and Kalahari cratons. We find crustal thinning under Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifts, including the Benue Trough, Red Sea, and East, Central, and West African rift systems. Crustal shear wave velocities are generally faster in oceanic regions and cratons, and slower in more recent crust and in active and formerly active orogenic regions. Deeper structure, related to the thickness of cratons and modern rifting, is generally consistent with previous work. Under cratons we find thick lithosphere and fast upper mantle velocities, while under rifts we find thinned lithosphere and slower upper mantle velocities. There are no consistent effects in areas classified as hotspots, indicating that there seem to be numerous origins for these features. Finally, it appears that the African Superswell has had a significantly different impact in the north and the south, indicating specifics of the feature (temperature, time of influence, etc.) to be dissimilar between the two regions. Factoring in other information, it is likely that the southern portion has been active in the past, but that shallow activity is currently limited to the northern portion of the superswell.

  15. Electricity access. Southern Africa sub-regional study: South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, O.R.; Mwakasonda, S.A.

    2004-07-01

    This study focuses on the accessibility of electricity to the poor in South Africa and Zimbabwe as a means to improve understanding of the various factors that affect the provision of modern energy to the poor in these countries. The study examines the impact on the poor of power sector reforms. Specifically, it makes an assessment of the impact of the electrification programmes in the two countries. The situation in the two countries is discussed separately, followed by a comparative analysis. South Africa is the most industrialised country in Africa and it is endowed with a wide variety of natural resources. It is currently going through major changes in many spheres of its economy, including energy, following the democratic elections in 1994. An important consideration that is directing all aspects of government policy is the need to address the enormous disparities in income levels and living conditions betaveen the different racial groups, a result of apartheid. The rural areas are even more impoverished than urban ones. Alter the 1994 democratic elections, the South African Government launched the first phase of the National Electrification Programme (1994-99), aimed at increasing electrification from 36 per cent to about 66 per cent nationally by 2001 - 46 per cent rural and 80 per cent urban. By the end of 2001, 66.1 per cent of households were electrified, with more than 3.4 million connections made since 1994. Since then, several polities have been introduced in the electricity sector that are of direct relevance to this work. The most important of these concern the restructuring of the electricity supply industry and direct subsidies for the poor and disadvantaged. The South African Government established a National Electrification Fund to subsidise a portion of the capital costs of new electricity connections under the National Electrifcation Programme. The Fund derives its income not only from the electricity industry, but also from fiscal allocations

  16. What drives farmers to make top-down or bottom-up adaptation to climate change and fluctuations? A comparative study on 3 cases of apple farming in Japan and South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujisawa, Mariko; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko; Johnston, Peter; New, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers' characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers' cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers' cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy.

  17. What drives farmers to make top-down or bottom-up adaptation to climate change and fluctuations? A comparative study on 3 cases of apple farming in Japan and South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariko Fujisawa

    Full Text Available Agriculture is one of the most vulnerable sectors to climate change. Farmers have been exposed to multiple stressors including climate change, and they have managed to adapt to those risks. The adaptation actions undertaken by farmers and their decision making are, however, only poorly understood. By studying adaptation practices undertaken by apple farmers in three regions: Nagano and Kazuno in Japan and Elgin in South Africa, we categorize the adaptation actions into two types: farmer initiated bottom-up adaptation and institution led top-down adaptation. We found that the driver which differentiates the type of adaptation likely adopted was strongly related to the farmers' characteristics, particularly their dependence on the institutions, e.g. the farmers' cooperative, in selling their products. The farmers who rely on the farmers' cooperative for their sales are likely to adopt the institution-led adaptation, whereas the farmers who have established their own sales channels tend to start innovative actions by bottom-up. We further argue that even though the two types have contrasting features, the combinations of the both types of adaptations could lead to more successful adaptation particularly in agriculture. This study also emphasizes that more farm-level studies for various crops and regions are warranted to provide substantial feedbacks to adaptation policy.

  18. Vulnerability of children to gunshot trauma in violence-prone environment: The case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naidoo Sudeshni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa has a high level of violence, as more people are killed by gunfire each year than in motor vehicle accidents, and the numbers are increasing. Regrettably, children are affected most by this epidemic. During 1997, a total of 142 children aged less than 14 years died from gunshot injuries while many more were injured. Here we present the case of an 11-year-old male street child who sustained a gunshot to the face, and illustrate the magnitude of the problem. The escalating epidemic of firearm-related injuries and deaths among children and adolescents in Cape Town, like in many other parts of the world, calls for concern. Further research is needed to understand firearm-related injuries among children and adolescents in South Africa, and to develop policies and programmes for effective prevention of situations such as this.

  19. New modalities for scientific engagement in Africa - the case for computational physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, N.

    2011-09-01

    Computational physics as a mode of studying the mathematical and physical sciences has grown world-wide over the past two decades, but this trend is yet to fully develop in Africa. The essential ingredients are there for this to happen: increasing internet connectivity, cheaper computing resources and the widespread availability of open source and freeware. The missing ingredients centre on intellectual isolation and the low levels of quality international collaborations. Low level of funding for research from local governments remains a critical issue. This paper gives a motivation for the importance of developing computational physics at the university undergraduate level, graduate level and research levels and gives suggestions on how this may be achieved within the African context. It is argued that students develop a more intuitive feel for the mathematical and physical sciences, that they learn useful, transferable skills that make our graduates well-sought after in the industrial and commercial environments, and that such graduates are better prepared to tackle research problems at the masters and doctoral levels. At the research level, the case of the African School Series on Electronic Structure Methods and Applications (ASESMA) is presented as a new multi-national modality for engaging with African scientists. There are many novel aspects to this School series, which are discussed.

  20. Brand Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    a. Lisa Ann Richey, Roskilde University and Stefano Ponte, Danish Institute for International Studies - Brand Aid and Africa b. Fantu Cheru, Nordic Africa Institute - The Right to Consume: Compassion and the Intricate New Phase of Capitalism and Africa c. Rita Abrahamsen, University of Ottawa...... - Africa in a Global Political Economy of Symbolic Goods d. Graham Harrison, University of Sheffield - Images and Representations of Africa: Old, New and Beyond e. Claire Mercer, London School of Economics and Political Science - The Privatisation of Aid? f. Dan Brockington, University of Manchester...

  1. Unfulfilled farmer expectations: the case of the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA project in Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mabeya Justin

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maize is the most important staple food in Kenya; any reduction in production and yield therefore often becomes a national food security concern. To address the challenge posed by the maize stem borer, the Insect Resistant Maize for Africa (IRMA agricultural biotechnology public-private partnership (PPP project was launched in 1999. There were, however, pre-existing concerns regarding the use of genetic engineering in crop production and skepticism about private sector involvement. The purpose of this case study was to understand the role of trust in the IRMA partnership by identifying the challenges to, and practices for, building trust in the project. Methods Data were collected by conducting face-to-face, semi-structured interviews; reviewing publicly available project documents; and direct observations. The data were analyzed to generate recurring and emergent themes on how trust is understood and built among the partners in the IRMA project and between the project and the community. Results Clear and continued communication with stakeholders is of paramount importance to building trust, especially regarding competition among partners about project management positions; a lack of clarity on ownership of intellectual property rights (IPRs; and the influence of anti-genetic modification (GM organizations. Awareness creation about IRMA’s anticipated products raised the end users’ expectations, which were unfulfilled due to failure to deliver Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt-based products, thereby leading to diminished trust between the project and the community. Conclusions Four key issues have been identified from the results of the study. First, the inability to deliver the intended products to the end user diminished stakeholders’ trust and interest in the project. Second, full and honest disclosure of information by partners when entering into project agreements is crucial to ensuring progress in a project. Third

  2. Exploring the seasonality of reported treated malaria cases in Mpumalanga, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheetal Prakash Silal

    Full Text Available South Africa, having met the World Health Organisation's pre-elimination criteria, has set a goal to achieve malaria elimination by 2018. Mpumalanga, one of three provinces where malaria transmission still occurs, has a malaria season subject to unstable transmission that is prone to sporadic outbreaks. As South Africa prepares to intensify efforts towards malaria elimination, there is a need to understand patterns in malaria transmission so that efforts may be targeted appropriately. This paper describes the seasonality of transmission by exploring the relationship between malaria cases and three potential drivers: rainfall, geography (physical location and the source of infection (local/imported. Seasonal decomposition of the time series by Locally estimated scatterplot smoothing is applied to the case data for the geographical and source of infection sub-groups. The relationship between cases and rainfall is assessed using a cross-correlation analysis. The malaria season was found to have a short period of no/low level of reported cases and a triple peak in reported cases between September and May; the three peaks occurring in October, January and May. The seasonal pattern of locally-sourced infection mimics the triple-peak characteristic of the total series while imported infections contribute mostly to the second and third peak of the season (Christmas and Easter respectively. Geographically, Bushbuckridge municipality, which exhibits a different pattern of cases, contributed mostly to the first and second peaks in cases while Maputo province (Mozambique experienced a similar pattern in transmission to the imported cases. Though rainfall lagged at 4 weeks was significantly correlated with malaria cases, this effect was dampened due to the growing proportion of imported cases since 2006. These findings may be useful as they enhance the understanding of the current incidence pattern and may inform mathematical models that enable one to

  3. Solar electricity for Africa: The case of Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plas, R.J. van der

    1997-12-01

    This paper presents results of two recent World Bank efforts made in Kenya, Niger, and Cameroon to study the impact of two different renewable projects, one a Micro-Lights program involving about 500 lanterns and the second a survey of 410 households using solar electricity systems. The Micro-Lights program showed that users have distinct preferences in the style of the lamps, that they are willing to spend cash, and that they demand good quality. They may be initially satisfied, but rapidly want more from their purchases. The photoelectric system survey touched less than 1% of such households, and looked at user education, system size, satisfaction, expectations, age of system, appliances, and expectations.

  4. Taxonomic-linguistic study of plantain in Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossel, G.

    1998-01-01

    Plantain is a cooking banana (Musa spp. AAB group (Musaceae)) that is grown as a major food crop in many parts of Africa, especially in the Central-African and West-African rain forest areas. The crop originated in Asia, but its greatest diversity is to be found in Africa.We are dealing here with an

  5. Role of runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks: A case-study with the WRF-Hydro coupled modeling system for West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnault, Joel; Wagner, Seven; Rummler, Thomas; Fersch, Benjamin; Bliefernicht, Jan; Andresen, Sabine; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of land-atmosphere feedbacks requires detailed representation of land processes in atmospheric models. Our focus here is on runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow. In the standard version of WRF, runoff-infiltration partitioning is described as a purely vertical process. In WRF-Hydro, runoff is enhanced with lateral water flows. The study region is the Sissili catchment (12800 km2) in West Africa and the study period March 2003 - February 2004. Our WRF setup includes an outer and inner domain at 10 and 2 km resolution covering the West African and Sissili region, respectively. In our WRF-Hydro setup the inner domain is coupled with a sub-grid at 500 m resolution to compute overland and river flow. Model results are compared with TRMM precipitation, MTE evapotranspiration, CCI soil moisture, CRU temperature, and streamflow observation. The role of runoff infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks is addressed with a sensitivity analysis of WRF results to the runoff-infiltration partitioning parameter and a comparison between WRF and WRF-Hydro results, respectively. In the outer domain, precipitation is sensitive to runoff-infiltration partitioning at the scale of the Sissili area (~100x100 km2), but not of area A (500x2500 km2). In the inner domain, where precipitation patterns are mainly prescribed by lateral boundary conditions, sensitivity is small, but additionally resolved overland flow here clearly increases infiltration and evapotranspiration at the beginning of the wet season when soils are still dry. Our WRF-Hydro setup shows potential for joint atmospheric and terrestrial water balance studies, and reproduces observed daily discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.43.

  6. Case study research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ruth; Thomas-Gregory, Annette

    2015-06-10

    This article describes case study research for nursing and healthcare practice. Case study research offers the researcher an approach by which a phenomenon can be investigated from multiple perspectives within a bounded context, allowing the researcher to provide a 'thick' description of the phenomenon. Although case study research is a flexible approach for the investigation of complex nursing and healthcare issues, it has methodological challenges, often associated with the multiple methods used in individual studies. These are explored through examples of case study research carried out in practice and education settings. An overview of what constitutes 'good' case study research is proposed.

  7. A Regional Model Study of Synoptic Features Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Fulakeza, Matthew; Lonergan, Patrick; Saloum, Mahaman; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Synoptic weather features over West Africa were studied in simulations by the regional simulation model (RM) at the NASA/Goddard Institute for Space Studies. These pioneering simulations represent the beginning of an effort to adapt regional models for weather and climate prediction over West Africa. The RM uses a cartesian grid with 50 km horizontal resolution and fifteen vertical levels. An ensemble of four simulations was forced with lateral boundary conditions from ECMWF global analyses for the period 8-22 August 1988. The simulated mid-tropospheric circulation includes the skillful development and movement of several African wave disturbances. Wavelet analysis of mid-tropospheric winds detected a dominant periodicity of about 4 days and a secondary periodicity of 5-8 days. Spatial distributions of RM precipitation and precipitation time series were validated against daily rain gauge measurements and ISCCP satellite infrared cloud imagery. The time-space distribution of simulated precipitation was made more realistic by combining the ECMWR initial conditions with a 24-hr spin-up of the moisture field and also by damping high frequency gravity waves by dynamic initialization. Model precipitation "forecasts" over the Central Sahel were correlated with observations for about three days, but reinitializing with observed data on day 5 resulted in a dramatic improvement in the precipitation validation over the remaining 9 days. Results imply that information via the lateral boundary conditions is not always sufficient to minimize departures between simulated and actual precipitation patterns for more than several days. In addition, there was some evidence that the new initialization may increase the simulations' sensitivity to the quality of lateral boundary conditions.

  8. Impacts of the diversity of traditional uses and potential economic value on food tree species conservation status: case study of African bush mango trees (Irvingiaceae) in the Dahomey Gap (West Africa).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vihotogbé, R.; Kakai, R.G.; Bongers, F.; Andel, van T.; Berg, van den R.G.; Sinsin, B.; Sosef, M.S.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims – Bitter and sweet African bush mango trees belong to the family Irvingiaceae and produce valuable non-timber forest products in humid lowland areas of West and Central Africa. The bitter and sweet types are treated as distinct taxa at the variety or species level. They have not

  9. An analysis of anti poaching techniques in Africa: A case of rhino poaching.

    OpenAIRE

    Cheteni, Priviledge

    2014-01-01

    In the last decade the African continent has been facing a number of incidences on Rhino Poaching and we may be heading to Rhino extinction. A number of strategies have been tried and tested to protect the rhinos in Africa. Based on previous strategies to protect rhinos very little has been achieved in combating rhino poaching. Using extensive literature review this study investigates whether the current conservation methods are still useful in addressing poaching. Literature reveals that mos...

  10. Drought preparedness, impact and response: A case of the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makala J. Ngaka

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a major disaster in South Africa in terms of total economic loss and number of people affected. This study investigated and analysed the preparedness, impact of and response by the farming community to the 2007/2008 drought using the Eastern Cape and Free State provinces of South Africa as case studies. Both qualitative and quantitative approaches were used in this study. Primary data were collected through face-to-face interviews with sampled recipients of the 2007/2008 drought relief scheme. These were analysed using MedCalc® software and various statistical tests and correlations were performed to test for statistical differences on key variables. Major findings of this study included inadequacy of the extension support service, particularly as a vehicle for disseminating early-warning information. The most significant impact was livestock losses, and t-test results supported the hypothesis that there was a significant difference in terms of drought impact for the three categories of farmers (i.e. small, medium and large scale, particularly with regard to the proportion of livestock lost. A Logit analysis showed that the decision to reduce livestock during drought was influenced by access to land and race. The main constraint to the drought relief scheme, as perceived by the respondents, was the turnaround time − they felt that the relief was provided long after the disaster had occurred.

  11. Comparative Advantage of Value-Added Services: The Case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grater

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Global supply chains have changed the way in which products are produced internationally. The inputs into a final product include both intermediate goods and services, which adds value to the final product. Gross trade data is misleading and includes some double counting. This study questions whether traditional revealed comparative advantage (RCA calculations for gross exports of services would offer different results from value-added services. RCA calculation was done for South Africa and the bric countries for both gross exports and value added services. The analysis showed that some countries performed stronger in terms of gross exports than in value added terms for some sectors, but others showed higher comparative advantage in value added terms. For South Africa, most services had a higher comparative advantage in terms of value added than for gross exports. The results indicated the importance of including value added data in international trade data analysis.

  12. High prevalence of tuberculosis and insufficient case detection in two communities in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareli Claassens

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In South Africa the estimated incidence of all forms of tuberculosis (TB for 2008 was 960/100000. It was reported that all South Africans lived in districts with Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course. However, the 2011 WHO report indicated South Africa as the only country in the world where the TB incidence is still rising. AIMS: To report the results of a TB prevalence survey and to determine the speed of TB case detection in the study communities. METHODS: In 2005 a TB prevalence survey was done to inform the sample size calculation for the ZAMSTAR (Zambia South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction trial. It was a cluster survey with clustering by enumeration area; all households were visited within enumeration areas and informed consent obtained from eligible adults. A questionnaire was completed and a sputum sample collected from each adult. Samples were inoculated on both liquid mycobacterium growth indicator tube (MGIT and Löwenstein-Jensen media. A follow-up HIV prevalence survey was done in 2007. RESULTS: In Community A, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 32/1000 (95%CI 25-41/1000 and of smear positive TB 8/1000 (95%CI 5-13/1000. In Community B, the adjusted prevalence of culture positive TB was 24/1000 (95%CI 17-32/1000 and of smear positive TB 9/1000 (95%CI 6-15/1000. In Community A the patient diagnostic rate was 0.38/person-year while in community B it was 0.30/person-year. In both communities the adjusted HIV prevalence was 25% (19-30%. DISCUSSION: In both communities a higher TB prevalence than national estimates and a low patient diagnostic rate was calculated, suggesting that cases are not detected at a sufficient rate to interrupt transmission. These findings may contribute to the rising TB incidence in South Africa. The TB epidemic should therefore be addressed rapidly and effectively, especially in the presence of the concurrently high HIV prevalence.

  13. Physiotherapy postgraduate studies in South Africa: Facilitators and barriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saul Cobbing

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To investigate the facilitators and barriers to attaining a postgraduate physiotherapy degree in South Africa.Methods: A quantitative, cross-sectional design using an internet-based survey was employed. The population of the study included all qualified physiotherapists who had completed community service and who were on the South African Society of Physiotherapy e-mailing list at the time of the study. Results: In all, 425 valid responses were received. The study participants were predominantly white women with a mean age of 36.9 and the majority were working in private practice. A total of 20.5% of respondents had completed a master’s or doctoral degree in physiotherapy, while a further 13% of respondents were registered for a postgraduate degree in physiotherapy at the time of the study. Study participants who had obtained a postgraduate degree identified the same main barriers (namely cost/lack of financial support, family commitments and lack of time and the same main facilitators (namely gaining of expertise, fulfilment of a personal goal and improvement of patient care as participants who had not obtained a postgraduate degree. Participants who had not obtained a postgraduate degree were significantly more likely (p < 0.05 to report concerns regarding their own ability and a lack of motivation as barriers to further study.Conclusion: South African physiotherapists with and without a postgraduate degree reported common facilitators and barriers to pursuing postgraduate studies. In order to ensure that a greater number and diversity of physiotherapists see postgraduate studies as a worthwhile career option, stakeholders in health and education in both the South African public and private sectors need to be engaged to limit the barriers to postgraduate study and seek novel methods of making postgraduate study a more attractive option from a personal development and career perspective.

  14. A study of the impact of mesoscale convective systems on GPS measurements in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahmani, S.; Bock, O.

    2012-12-01

    Six permanent GPS stations have been deployed in West Africa within the framework of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA) project in order to monitor precipitable water vapor (PWV) estimates. This quantity turns out to be relevant for computing water budgets to study atmospheric processes associated with the monsoon precipitations. 90% of annual rainfalls in Sahel are produced by Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCSs). During these extreme meteorological conditions, the residuals of GPS phase measurements show strong variations that are spatially and temporally correlated. To understand the behavior of these GPS measurements, we investigated the case of MCS over Niamey (Niger) on August 11, 2006. This is a strong weather event which has already been studied by several authors but without using GPS estimates. We analyzed this event using GPS PWV estimates and phase residuals, and in-situ observations of pressure, temperature and humidity, brightness temperatures from Meteosat and measurements of reflectivity from MIT C-band Doppler radar. The residuals of GPS phase measurements, which give insight into anomalies in the refractivity of the air, revealed clearly the passage of the MCS. We analyzed also the GPS measurements from other stations for the same event which reveal the displacement of the MCS over several thousands of kilometers. The study was completed with a systematic analysis of GPS phase residuals during the whole rainy season of 2006 over West Africa.

  15. A prospective ascertainment of cancer incidence in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Kaposi sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semeere, Aggrey; Wenger, Megan; Busakhala, Naftali; Buziba, Nathan; Bwana, Mwebesa; Muyindike, Winnie; Amerson, Erin; Maurer, Toby; McCalmont, Timothy; LeBoit, Philip; Musick, Beverly; Yiannoutsos, Constantin; Lukande, Robert; Castelnuovo, Barbara; Laker-Oketta, Miriam; Kambugu, Andrew; Glidden, David; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Martin, Jeffrey

    2016-05-01

    In resource-limited areas, such as sub-Saharan Africa, problems in accurate cancer case ascertainment and enumeration of the at-risk population make it difficult to estimate cancer incidence. We took advantage of a large well-enumerated healthcare system to estimate the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS), a cancer which has become prominent in the HIV era and whose incidence may be changing with the rollout of antiretroviral therapy (ART). To achieve this, we evaluated HIV-infected adults receiving care between 2007 and 2012 at any of three medical centers in Kenya and Uganda that participate in the East Africa International Epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS (IeDEA) Consortium. Through IeDEA, clinicians received training in KS recognition and biopsy equipment. We found that the overall prevalence of KS among 102,945 HIV-infected adults upon clinic enrollment was 1.4%; it declined over time at the largest site. Among 140,552 patients followed for 319,632 person-years, the age-standardized incidence rate was 334/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 314-354/100,000 person-years). Incidence decreased over time and was lower in women, persons on ART, and those with higher CD4 counts. The incidence rate among patients on ART with a CD4 count >350 cells/mm(3) was 32/100,000 person-years (95% CI: 14-70/100,000 person-years). Despite reductions over time coincident with the expansion of ART, KS incidence among HIV-infected adults in East Africa equals or exceeds the most common cancers in resource-replete settings. In resource-limited settings, strategic efforts to improve cancer diagnosis in combination with already well-enumerated at-risk denominators can make healthcare systems attractive platforms for estimating cancer incidence.

  16. [Clinical studies of shang ring male circumcision in China and Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Feng; Lü, Nian-Qing; Xu, Hao-Qin; Barone, Mark A; Lee, Richard; Goldstein, Marc; Li, Philip S

    2014-04-01

    HIV/STIs remain a major global public health problem. One of the global strategies for the prevention and control of HIV/STIs is to interrupt their transmission, which requires the public health methods based on scientific evidence and cost-effectiveness. The scale-up of male circumcision services in the priority countries of the HIV-prevention project in sub-Saharan Africa has been hampered by the scarcity of trained providers and relative technical difficulty of male circumcision techniques recommended by WHO and UNAIDS. Shang Ring is an innovative and disposable device for male circumcision, which has been safely used for over 600 000 males in China since 2006. Clinical studies of more than 3 000 cases of Shang Ring circumcision in China, Kenya, Zambia, and Uganda have demonstrated its safety, effectiveness, acceptability and ease of use. The most obvious advantages of Shang Ring include short procedure time (3-6 min), excellent postoperative cosmesis, low rate of complications, high acceptance by clients and providers, ease of use, and standardization for reliable performance. As an innovative technique, Shang Ring has a great potential for facilitating the safe and effective scale-up of circumcision services. This article comprehensively reviews the clinical studies of Shang Ring male circumcision in China and Africa.

  17. Sexual abuse of boys in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: a hospital-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Steven J

    2005-01-01

    Objective - The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and factors associated with child sexual abuse in a total sample of boys referred for medico-legal assessment in a peri-urban area of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Method - A retrospective analysis was undertaken of clinical and social work records for sexually abused boys presenting for medico-legal assessment at the Mahatma Gandhi Memorial Hospital (Phoenix, KwaZulu-Natal) during the period January 2001 to December 2003. Results - In the period reviewed, 131 boys reported an incident of sexual abuse with temporal trends indicating a significant increase in the incidence of reported abuse over the three year period. Most victims fell in the 4-11 year age category, anal penetration constituted the most common form of abuse (86% of cases), and perpetrators were predominantly persons who were known to the child. Conclusion - Study findings indicate that the sexual abuse of boys constitutes a sizeable and emerging problem in peri-urban communities in South Africa. Evidence suggests that increased rates of victimisation are associated with a breakdown in family support networks in the context of rapid urbanisation.

  18. Taxonomic-linguistic study of plantain in Africa.

    OpenAIRE

    Rossel, G.

    1998-01-01

    Plantain is a cooking banana (Musa spp. AAB group (Musaceae)) that is grown as a major food crop in many parts of Africa, especially in the Central-African and West-African rain forest areas. The crop originated in Asia, but its greatest diversity is to be found in Africa.We are dealing here with an interspecific, triploid hybrid of Musa balbisiana and one or more sub-species of M. acuminata, with the genome formula AAB. The plant is sterile and can only be multiplied clonally, which is why b...

  19. Being authentic is the new image : A qualitative study on the authenticity constructions and self-images of Christian millennials in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Counted, Victor

    2016-01-01

    The article is a qualitative study that focuses on the authenticity and self-constructions of Christian millennials in Africa. While exploring how 15 respondents manifested their authentic self-behaviours using a case study design, the hallmark of the study was to observe the common coping mechanism

  20. Modeling for transboundary water resources planning and allocation: the case of Southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Juízo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available International water resources agreements for transboundary rivers in southern Africa are generally founded in system analysis models for water planning and allocation. The Water Resources Yield Model (WRYM developed in South Africa has so far been the only model applied in official joint water resources studies aimed to form water-sharing agreements. The continuous discussion around the model performance and growing distress over it being South African, where it was originally developed, while South Africa is one of the interested parties in the process, results in an increased controversy over the system analysis results that are often only meant to guide in selecting the options for water resources management in a given set of scenarios. The objective of this study was therefore to assess the model performance of two other models; WAFLEX and WEAP21 in the Umbeluzi River Basin system where the WRYM was previously applied as part of a Joint River Basin Study. A set of basin development scenarios was equally tested in the three models and the results compared. The results show that the three models all are possible tools for system analysis of river basins in southern Africa, although the structure and complexity of the models are different. The obtained level of satisfaction for specific water users could, however, vary depending on which model was used, which causes uncertainties. The reason for the diverse results is the structurally different ways of describing allocation and prioritization of water in the three models. However, the large degrees of freedom in all system models cause even larger uncertainty in the results since the model developer can, intentionally or unintentionally, direct the results to favor certain water user. The conclusion of this study is therefore that the choice of model does not per se affect the decision of best water allocation and infrastructure layout of a shared river basin. The chosen allocation and

  1. Preliminary study on employment status and fertility in South Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bello, B.; Kielkowski, D.; Heederik, D.; Wilson, K.; Vundle, Z.; Kruger, A.

    2009-01-01

    The role of occupational exposures in the declining fertility rate in South Africa is not known. Data on time-to-pregnancy (TTP) and important risk factors including employment was obtained from 166 African women of reproductive age by trained community interviewers. For analysis, unplanned pregnanc

  2. Towards Integrated Pest Management in East Africa : a feasibility study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Bremmer, J.; Kerklaan, E.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide risk reduction through registration of less hazardous pesticides and the promotion of nonchemical pest and disease control approaches such as Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is essential for a more sustainable plant production in East Africa in order to enhance both export market access a

  3. Shark attacks on the Transkei Coast of South Africa: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banwari L. Meel

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Shark attacks are relatively uncommon, but can be fatal in nature. It is diffcult to understand the behaviour and motivation of this predator.In the summer of 1998 a 28-year-old male, who was an experienced, enthusiastic surfer, was attacked by a shark near Hole-in-the Wall on the Wild Coast in the Transkei region of South Africa. His right lower limb was severed, with profuse bleeding from the torn femoral artery. Sharp broken ends of the femur and torn muscles were noticed at autopsy. The viscera were extremely pale. The lungs, in addition to being pale, were shrunken and dry, and there was no fluid that oozed out upon squeezing the cut surface. The case history, physical findings, and medico-legal implications are discussed in this report. Preventive and safety measures related to shark attacks are suggested.

  4. Venomic study on cone snails (Conus spp.) from South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauferstein, Silke; Porth, Christine; Kendel, Yvonne; Wunder, Cora; Nicke, Annette; Kordis, Dusan; Favreau, Philippe; Koua, Dominique; Stöcklin, Reto; Mebs, Dietrich

    2011-01-01

    From six Conus species (Conus coronatus, Conus lividus, Conus mozambicus f. lautus, Conus pictus, Conus sazanka, Conus tinianus) collected off the eastern coast of South Africa the venoms were analyzed using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Between 56 and 151 molecular masses most in a range of 1000 to 2500 Da, were identified. Among the six venoms, between 0 and 27% (C. coronatus versus C. sazanka) of the peptide masses were found to be similar. In a study on venoms from 6 Conus species collected in the Philippines, the percentage of identical masses was between none and 9% only. The venoms from the South African Conus species antagonized the rat neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) α3β2, α4β2, and α7, except for C. coronatus venom that blocked the α4β2 and α7 nAChRs only. HPLC-fractionation of C. tinianus venom led to the isolation of a peptide that is active on all three receptor subtypes. It consists of 16 amino acid residues cross-linked by two disulfide bridges as revealed by de novo sequencing using tandem mass spectrometry: GGCCSHPACQNNPDYC. Posttranslational modifications include C-terminal amidation and tyrosine sulfation. The new peptide is a member of the α-conotoxin family that are competitive antagonists of nAChRs. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S RNA from numerous Conus species has clarified the evolutionary position of endemic South African Conus species and provided the first evidence for their close genetic relationships.

  5. Forensic medicine in South Africa: associations between medical practice and legal case progression and outcomes in female murders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeemah Abrahams

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Forensic medicine has been largely by-passed by the tide of health systems research and evidence based medicine. Murder victims form a central part of forensic medical examiners' case load, and women murdered by intimate partners are an important subgroup, representing the most severe form and consequence of intimate partner violence. Our aim was to describe the epidemiology of female murder in South Africa (by intimate and non-intimate partners; and to describe and compare autopsy findings, forensic medical management of cases and the contribution of these to legal outcomes. METHODS: We did a retrospective national study in a proportionate random sample of 25 medico-legal laboratories to identify all homicides in 1999 of women aged 14 years and over. Data were abstracted from the mortuary file and autopsy report, and collected from a police interview. FINDINGS: In 21.5% of cases the perpetrator was convicted. Factors associated with a conviction for the female murders included having a history of intimate partner violence 1.18 (95%CI: 0.16-2.20, weapon recovered 1.36 (95% CI:0.58-2.15 and a detective visiting the crime scene 1.57 (95% CI:0.14-3.00. None of the forensic medical activities increased the likelihood of a conviction. CONCLUSION: The findings raise important questions about the role of forensic medicine in these cases.

  6. Objectivist case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ridder, Hanne Mette Ochsner; Fachner, Jörg

    2016-01-01

    be achieved through the use of objectivist case study research. The strength of the case study design is that it allows for uncovering or suggesting causal relationships in real-life settings through an intensive and rich collection of data. According to Hilliard (1993), the opposite applies for extensive...... designs, in which a small amount of data is gathered on a large number of subjects. With the richness of data, the intensive design is ―the primary pragmatic reason for engaging in single-case or small N research‖ (p. 374) and for working from an idiographic rather than a nomothetic perspective....

  7. Challenges to disaster risk reduction: A study of stakeholders’ perspectives in Imizamo Yethu, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann-Sofie Roth

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available South Africa is a complex and dynamic society, with overwhelming and increasing problems with disaster risk in the vulnerable urban communities in and around its rapidly growing metropolitan centres. The purpose of this study is to improve the understanding of the challenges for disaster risk reduction in such communities. It focuses on the case of Imizamo Yethu, in the Western Cape, in order to build theory that is grounded in the empirical realities of stakeholders involved in disaster risk reduction there. The result points towards five interrelated key challenges, which must be concurrently addressed through large-scale development efforts. Without such investments, it is unlikely that disaster risks can be reduced to tolerable levels.

  8. [A case of malaria with uveitis, hyperglycemia, and rasha in a Turkish radiologist who went to Africa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altun, Şerife; Koçak Tufan, Zeliha; Kaçar, Mahmut; Ataman Hatipoğlu, Çiğdem; Kınıklı, Sami; Demiröz, Ali Pekcan

    2014-12-01

    Malaria is still an important health problem worldwide, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. In Turkey, the most common type of malaria is Plasmodium vivax, and endemic regions are South-Eastern Anatolia and Çukurova. Due to globalization and tourism, travel-associated infection due to P. falciparum is also seen more frequently in Turkey. P. falciparum malaria can be highly fatal despite optimal antimalarial treatment. We present a case of falciparum malaria in a Turkish radiologist who went to Africa for occupational reasons and come back with malaria accompanied by uveitis, hyperglycemia, and purpuric rash.

  9. A case of Distributed Continental Collision: Late Cretaceous Intraplate Shortening from Central Europe to North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kley, J.; Voigt, T.; Jaehne, F.

    2008-12-01

    Intraplate thrusting and basin inversion affected west-central Europe in Late Cretaceous time. The timing of this event is fairly well constrained between c. 90 and 65 Ma. The dominantly NW-trending European intraplate structures were often interpreted to have been dextrally transpressive, reflecting a northward push induced by the early collision of the Adria microplate with Europe's southern margin. However, many fault kinematic and other structural data from central Europe indicate dip-slip contraction essentially perpendicular to the main faults, suggesting a push from the southwest. In addition, recent plate reconstructions of the Mediterranean around 85 Ma place Adria far to the southeast and roughly along strike of the central European intraplate structures. The early Alpine nappe stack on Adria's leading edge was still separated from Europe by subducting oceanic lithosphere and had entered a phase of extension after the first orogenic event. All this makes Alpine collision an unlikely cause for intraplate thrusting in Europe. Rather, the timing, kinematics and location of structures suggest that intraplate shortening in Europe was a direct effect of convergence with the Iberian and African plates, with stresses transmitted across the Azores-Gibraltar fracture zone. This hypothesis is supported by structures of Late Cretaceous age indicating SW-NE to S-N shortening in France, Spain (particularly the onset of convergence in the Pyrenees) and northwestern Africa. In contrast to other examples such as the Laramides, intraplate thrusting in this case was not a foreland phenomenon related to a coeval orogen. It does not reflect a transition from subduction to continental collision, but the beginning of convergence across two former transform boundaries. This system which included no strongly thickened and weakened crust was mostly governed by far-field stresses and therefore responded rapidly to plate reorganizations. Specifically, the onset of thrusting

  10. Productivity and openness in North Africa: an empirical study

    OpenAIRE

    Bouoiyour, Jamal

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines, within the framework of a panel data model's, the relation between the commercial opening, the foreign direct investment and the growth of the productivity of the North African countries (Algeria, Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia) from 1970 to 2001. The results suggest a significant effect of the human capital, foreign investment and research-development on the productivity of North Africa, but a negative effect of the imports.

  11. First secondary case of Ebola outside Africa: epidemiological characteristics and contact monitoring, Spain, September to November 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaz, M A; Amela, C; Ordobas, M; Dominguez-Berjon, M F; Alvarez, C; Martinez, M; Sierra, M J; Simon, F; Jansa, J M; Plachouras, D; Astray, J

    2015-01-08

    On 6 October 2014, a case of Ebola virus disease (EVD) acquired outside Africa was detected in Madrid in a healthcare worker who had attended to a repatriated Spanish missionary and used proper personal protective equipment. The patient presented with fever <38.6 °C without other EVD-compatible symptoms in the days before diagnosis. No case of EVD was identified in the 232 contacts investigated. The experience has led to the modification of national protocols.

  12. Making the case for biodiversity in South Africa: Re-framing biodiversity communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristal Maze

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biodiversity education and public awareness do not always contain the motivational messages that inspire action amongst decision-makers. Traditional messages from the biodiversity sector are often framed around threat, with a generally pessimistic tone. Aspects of social marketing can be used to support positive messaging that is more likely to inspire action amongst the target audience.Objectives: The South African biodiversity sector embarked on a market research process to better understand the target audiences for its messages and develop a communications strategy that would reposition biodiversity as integral to the development trajectory of South Africa.Method: The market research process combined stakeholder analysis, market research, engagement and facilitated dialogue. Eight concept messages were developed that framed biodiversity communications in different ways. These messages were tested with the target audience to assess which were most relevant in a developing-world context.Results: The communications message that received the highest ranking in the market research process was the concept of biodiversity as a ‘national asset’. This frame places biodiversity as an equivalent national priority to other economic and social imperatives. Other messages that ranked highly were the emotional message of biodiversity as ‘our children’s legacy’ and the action-based ‘practical solutions’.Conclusion: Based on the findings, a communications strategy known as ‘Making the case for biodiversity’ was developed that re-framed the economic, emotional and practical value propositions for biodiversity. The communications strategy has already resulted in greater political and economic attention towards biodiversity in South Africa.

  13. Study of the climatic change impact on vector-borne diseases in West Africa: the case of tick-borne borreliosis and malaria; Etude de l'impact du changement climatique sur les maladies a transmission vectorielle en Afrique de l'Ouest: le cas de la borreliose a tiques et du paludisme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trape, J.F

    2005-04-15

    Malaria and tick-borne borreliosis are the two first causes of morbidity due to vector-borne diseases in a large part of Sudan-sahelian West Africa. They are also the two tropical diseases which have been the most affected by climatic change in recent years. In the case of tick-borne borreliosis it has been shown in Senegal that the persistence of drought since the years 70 has been associated with a considerable extension of the geographic range of diseases and the vector tick A-sonrai, a species that was in the past limited to the Sahara and Sahel. In the case of malaria, drought has strongly reduced in these same regions of Africa the distribution, abundance and infection rate of Anopheline mosquitoes, but without any significant reduction of the burden of malaria for most populations concerned. The emergence and spread of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to antimalarial drugs only explain part of this phenomenon. (A.L.B.)

  14. Rotavirus disease in Guinea-Bissau, West Africa: a review of longitudinal community and hospital studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Thea Kølsen; Aaby, Peter; Mølbak, Kåre;

    2010-01-01

    Rotavirus is one of the most common causes of childhood diarrheal disease and deaths in sub-Saharan Africa. This article reviews community- and hospital-based surveillance of rotavirus disease in Bissau, Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Here, rotavirus infections exhibit a seasonal pattern, with annual...... epidemics occurring during the relatively dry and cooler months, from January to April, and few cases registered from May to December. Most children (74%) experience their first infection before the age of 2 years, and rotavirus has been identified as the most pathogenic of all diarrheal agents during 2...

  15. Deciphering Dynamics of Recent Epidemic Spread and Outbreak in West Africa: The Case of Ebola Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, Ranjit Kumar; Roy, Parimita

    Recently, the 2014 Ebola virus (EBOV) outbreak in West Africa was the largest outbreak to date. In this paper, an attempt has been made for modeling the virus dynamics using an SEIR model to better understand and characterize the transmission trajectories of the Ebola outbreak. We compare the simulated results with the most recent reported data of Ebola infected cases in the three most affected countries Guinea, Liberia and Sierra Leone. The epidemic model exhibits two equilibria, namely, the disease-free and unique endemic equilibria. Existence and local stability of these equilibria are explored. Using central manifold theory, it is established that the transcritical bifurcation occurs when basic reproduction number passes through unity. The proposed Ebola epidemic model provides an estimate to the potential number of future cases. The model indicates that the disease will decline after peaking if multisectorial and multinational efforts to control the spread of infection are maintained. Possible implication of the results for disease eradication and its control are discussed which suggests that proper control strategies like: (i) transmission precautions, (ii) isolation and care of infectious Ebola patients, (iii) safe burial, (iv) contact tracing with follow-up and quarantine, and (v) early diagnosis are needed to stop the recurrent outbreak.

  16. Association of spiders and lichen on Robben Island, South Africa: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mukherjee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study is a firstrecord of spider occurrence on Robben Island, South Africa. Some habitats were rich in lichens. As we know, lichens enhance wildlife habitat in less direct ways. The objective of the study was to examine the potential importance of lichens in enriching spider diversity and abundance. A total of 260 spiders (170 from lichens and 90 from bush were collected following the visual search method over one year. Seasonal trends in overall species richness and abundance indicated that the relative density of spiders was greater in lichens than in bushes. The result suggests that habitat structure, such as branch size and epiphytic lichen abundance, can be an explanation for the greater number of spiders in lichen-rich patches of the island.

  17. Measles outbreak in South Africa: epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed measles cases and assessment of intervention, 2009-2011.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Genevie M Ntshoe

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Since 1995, measles vaccination at nine and 18 months has been routine in South Africa; however, coverage seldom reached >95%. We describe the epidemiology of laboratory-confirmed measles case-patients and assess the impact of the nationwide mass vaccination campaign during the 2009 to 2011 measles outbreak in South Africa. METHODS: Serum specimens collected from patients with suspected-measles were tested for measles-specific IgM antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and genotypes of a subset were determined. To estimate the impact of the nationwide mass vaccination campaign, we compared incidence in the seven months pre- (1 September 2009-11 April 2010 and seven months post-vaccination campaign (24 May 2010-31 December 2010 periods in seven provinces of South Africa. RESULTS: A total of 18,431 laboratory-confirmed measles case-patients were reported from all nine provinces of South Africa (cumulative incidence 37 per 100,000 population. The highest cumulative incidence per 100,000 population was in children aged 5 years.

  18. Case Studies in Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeakes, Samuel J.

    1989-01-01

    A case study writing exercise used in a course on parasitology was found to be a powerful learning experience for students because it involved discipline-based technical writing and terminology, brought the students in as evaluators, applied current learning, caused interaction among all students, and simulated real professional activities. (MSE)

  19. Students' Engagement with Engagement: The Case of Teacher Education Students in Higher Education in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Ruksana; Petersen, Nadine

    2010-01-01

    Public engagement is one of the three legs which support and underpin a restructured and transformed post-apartheid higher education system in South Africa (along with teaching and research). This third sector role of higher education is widely implemented in South Africa and is described differently by different institutions and entails a diverse…

  20. 3d Anisotropic Post Stack Imaging on an Offshore Africa Case Study Étude de la migration anisotrope en 3D des traces sismiques sur un champ pétrolier offshore d'Afrique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Rousseau J.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Seismic anisotropy may degrade the quality of seismic images and cause the mispositioning of events within them. Shales have often been observed to be significantly anisotropic, usually with approximately hexagonal symmetry (transverse isotropy with axis normal to the bedding plane. We investigate the effect of anisotropy on imaging a real data set from offshore Africa, where there are thick shale sequences. We perform, in parallel, isotropic and anisotropic velocity model building and 3D post-stack migration of the same stack volume. We observe that the anisotropic processing improves the focussing of dipping events and that the assumption of isotropy may cause lateral and vertical displacement of the reservoir boundaries, of around 100 and 200 meters respectively, relative to the positions obtained with the anisotropic processing. L'anisotropie sismique peut altérer la qualité des images sismiques et provoquer ainsi un mauvais positionnement. Les argiles se sont souvent révélées avoir des propriétés anisotropes, avec une symétrie presque hexagonale (isotropie transversale sur un axe normal par rapport au plan de stratification. Nous étudions ici l'effet de l'anisotropie sur la migration d'un ensemble de données réelles d'un gisement offshore africain possédant d'épaisses couches d'argile. Nous réalisons en parallèle la création des modèles de vitesse isotrope et anisotrope et la migration du même volume des données stacken utilisant les deux modèles. Nous observons que la méthode anisotrope améliore la mise au point en profondeur et que l'augmentation de l'isotropie peut provoquer un décalage latéral et vertical des limites du réservoir, respectivement de 100 et 200 mètres, par rapport aux positions obtenues avec la méthode anisotrope.

  1. The carbon balance of Africa: synthesis of recent research studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciais, P; Bombelli, A; Williams, M; Piao, S L; Chave, J; Ryan, C M; Henry, M; Brender, P; Valentini, R

    2011-05-28

    The African continent contributes one of the largest uncertainties to the global CO(2) budget, because very few long-term measurements are carried out in this region. The contribution of Africa to the global carbon cycle is characterized by its low fossil fuel emissions, a rapidly increasing population causing cropland expansion, and degradation and deforestation risk to extensive dryland and savannah ecosystems and to tropical forests in Central Africa. A synthesis of the carbon balance of African ecosystems is provided at different scales, including observations of land-atmosphere CO(2) flux and soil carbon and biomass carbon stocks. A review of the most recent estimates of the net long-term carbon balance of African ecosystems is provided, including losses from fire disturbance, based upon observations, giving a sink of the order of 0.2 Pg C yr(-1) with a large uncertainty around this number. By comparison, fossil fuel emissions are only of the order of 0.2 Pg C yr(-1) and land-use emissions are of the order of 0.24 Pg C yr(-1). The sources of year-to-year variations in the ecosystem carbon-balance are also discussed. Recommendations for the deployment of a coordinated carbon-monitoring system for African ecosystems are given.

  2. Perception-based analysis of climate change effect on forest-based livelihood: The case of Vhembe District in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Ofoegbu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Forests are vulnerable to climate change and are also major sources of livelihood for many rural households in Africa. This study examines rural people’s perceptions of climate change impacts on forest-based livelihoods using rural communities of Vhembe District in South Africa as a case study. The study was based on the principles of perceived impact-based assessment, and sustainable livelihoods framework. Using the stratified proportionate random sampling procedure in combination with weighted Enumeration Area for the selected communities, 366 households were chosen and interviewed. Data analysis involved computing frequencies and conducting the Chi-square, binomial tests and binary logistic regression analysis. The respondents identified erratic rainfall, extreme temperature, extreme drought and flooding as key climatic events in their community. But not all identified key climatic events were perceived to constitute risk to forest products and forest-based livelihood. Only extreme drought was indicated to constitute risk to availability of forest products. In addition, the binary logistic regression showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in the perceived risk of climate change to the availability of essential forest products across the three municipalities. Hence the need for forest development initiatives that target vulnerable forest products per community as a means of enhancing resilience of forest-based livelihood to climate change impacts in rural community development in South Africa.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS IN THE AUTOMOTIVE SUPPLY CHAIN IN SOUTH AFRICA: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Brent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Automobile Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs have implemented formal Environmental Management Systems (EMSs globally that require the OEMs to consider the environmental performance and potential liabilities in the supply chain. However, in South Africa, OEMs typically experience resistance from suppliers to focus on environmental issues, compliance with regulations, and OEM requirements. Although the responses from many OEMs have been an attempt to enforce the formal EMS certification and accreditation of suppliers, a case study reveals that such certification and accreditation does not necessarily imply good environmental performance, nor indeed environmental compliance with the national legislation. Apart from general environmental management and compliance information, basic cleaner production process parameters, i.e. water and energy usage, and waste generated, were used to compare the environmental performances of different sized suppliers, with and without formal EMSs, and with variance of financial dependency on an OEM. In order to improve the environmental performance of the entire supply chain, a conceptual model is introduced, which is currently under investigation in the automotive sector of South Africa.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING:Oorspronklike Toerusting Vervaardigers (OTVs in die motorbedryf het internasionaal formele Omgewingsbestuursisteme (OBS geïmplementeer wat vereis dat die omgewingsprestasie en potensiële aanspreeklikhede van die verskaffingsketting in ag geneem moet word. Nieteenstaande ondervind OTVs in Suid-Afrika weerstand van verskaffers wanneer gefokus word op omgewingsaspekte, voldoening aan regulasies en OTV-verwagtinge. Alhoewel die meerderheid OTVs formele OBS akkreditering probeer afdwing, toon ’n gevallestudie dat dit nie noodwendig omgewingsprestasie, en voldoening aan nasionale omgewingswetgewing, impliseer nie. Afgesien van algemene omgewingsbestuur en regsvoldoening, was

  4. Indicated Prevention of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in South Africa: Effectiveness of Case Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene M. de Vries

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Western Cape Province of South Africa (ZA a subculture of binge drinking produces the highest global documented prevalence of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD. FASD prevention research activities in ZA use the Comprehensive Prevention approach from the United States Institute of Medicine. Case management (CM was delivered as a method of indicated prevention to empower heavy drinking pregnant women to achieve cessation or a reduction in drinking. CM activities incorporated life management, Motivational Interviewing (MI techniques and the Community Reinforcement Approach (CRA. Data were collected at baseline, 6, 12 and 18 months. Mean drinking decreases 6 months into CM; but overall alcohol consumption rose significantly over time to levels higher than baseline at 12 and 18 months. Alcohol consumption drops significantly from before pregnancy to the second and third trimesters. AUDIT scores indicate that problematic drinking decreases significantly even after the vulnerable fetus/baby was born. CM significantly increases client happiness, which correlates with reduced weekend drinking. CM was successful for women with high-risk drinking behaviour, and was effective in helping women stop drinking, or drink less, while pregnant, reducing the risk of FASD.

  5. Case Studies - Cervical Cancer

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-15

    Dr. Alan Waxman, a professor of obstetrics and gynecology at the University of New Mexico and chair of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) committee for the underserved, talks about several case studies for cervical cancer screening and management.  Created: 10/15/2010 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Cancer Prevention and Control (DCPC).   Date Released: 6/9/2010.

  6. Overcoming SMEs Challenges through Critical Success Factors: A Case of SMEs in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takalani Ramukumba

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available SMEs comprise over 90% of African business operations and contribute to over 50% of African employment and Growth Domestic Product (GDP. SMEs sector has shown positive signs in South Africa, Mauritius and North Africa. In South Africa, SMEs constitute 55% of all jobs. Research of Bowler, Dawood and Page (2007 reveal that 40% of new business ventures fail in their first year, 60% in their second year, and 90% in their first 10 years of existence. It seems that a number of challenges have been identified as contributing to the failure of SMEs in South Africa and worldwide. The purpose of this paper is to identify some of the critical success factors for the SMEs to improve their performance in order to overcome the challenges they are faced within the competitive market environment. The research problem of this study emanates from the current high business failure rate. The research investigates what are the critical success factors that can help these SMEs to be sustainable and have positive growth so to limit the high business failure rate in South Africa. The research established that attracting repeat customers and the performance of the product are the critical success factors that can lead to the sustenance of these SMEs. The study concluded that the resource-constraint SMEs need to focus on critical success factors to build competitive advantage to stay competitive amidst the challenges from globalisation and liberalisation. This study will make further contribution on understanding these critical success factors as they are central to business success, especially in South Africa where it is estimated that the failure rate of small, medium and micro enterprises (SMEs is between 70% and 80% (Brink and Cant, 2009.

  7. Treatment-seeking behaviour and social health insurance in Africa: the case of Ghana under the National Health Insurance Scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenny, Ama P; Asante, Felix A; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian S

    2014-10-27

    Health insurance is attracting more and more attention as a means for improving health care utilization and protecting households against impoverishment from out-of-pocket expenditures. Currently about 52 percent of the resources for financing health care services come from out of pocket sources or user fees in Africa. Therefore, Ghana serves as in interesting case study as it has successfully expanded coverage of the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS). The study aims to establish the treatment-seeking behaviour of households in Ghana under the NHI policy. The study relies on household data collected from three districts in Ghana covering the 3 ecological zones namely the coastal, forest and savannah.Out of the 1013 who sought care in the previous 4 weeks, 60% were insured and 71% of them sought care from a formal health facility. The results from the multinomial logit estimations show that health insurance and travel time to health facility are significant determinants of health care demand. Overall, compared to the uninsured, the insured are more likely to choose formal health facilities than informal care including self-medication when ill. We discuss the implications of these results as the concept of the NHIS grows widely in Ghana and serves as a good model for other African countries.

  8. Correlating Pap Smear Results and Colposcopy-Directed Large Loop Excision of the Transformation Zone Histopathology in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women: A Case-Control Study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis-J. van Bogaert

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In low-resource settings (LRS with high HIV/AIDS and cervical cancer rates, new screening strategies face many logistic hurdles. Since cytology is there to stay, at least in the median-term future, it is important to assess to what extent HIV-HPV coinfection impacts the accuracy of screening methods and strategies. Methods. We audited the correlation between cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality (CIN1, CIN2+, or cancer and the histological diagnosis of colposcopy-directed large loop excision of the transformation zone of 399 HIV-uninfected controls and 389 HIV-infected cases. Results. The average age at diagnosis of CIN2+ of the cases was 4.2 years younger than controls (. The endpoint used to assess the accuracy of cytology was minimal cytological abnormality (≤CIN1/LGSIL. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were 92.7, 18.5, 45.1, and 77.9%, respectively. The overall ratio of discordance/concordance between cytology and histology was similar in both groups. Conclusion. In LRS, where rapid-HPV testing is not yet part of screening algorithms, a cytological diagnosis of minimal abnormality requires visual inspection and treatment of visualized lesions especially in HIV-infected women aged 30 years. The cytological endpoint of accuracy should be set low to avoid false negative smears.

  9. The Entrepreneurial Intention of University Students: The Case of a University of Technology in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chux Gervase Iwu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This quantitative study was executed from a realist’s ontological perspective and its epistemological leaning is towards that of an empiricist. The study essentially sought to determine the existence or otherwise of entrepreneurial intentions among the students. Ample emphasis needs to be placed on entrepreneurship education and practical entrepreneurship schemes (such as mentorship programmes if developing countries are to realise the goal of having a productive and virile youth population, which would represent a significant shift from today’s yawning youth unemployment position. The study collected data in a cross-sectional manner from a random sample of 150 students drawn from a leading South African University of Technology. In analyzing the data, there was recourse to the use of descriptive as well as inferential statistics. Interestingly, results show no statistically significant relationships between students’ entrepreneurial intention and selected sociodemographic variables such as age, gender, culture, etc. While we acknowledge that the results of this study emerged from a sample of 150 students of a particular university and therefore betray the concept of generalization, we are equally confident that the findings have significant implications for developing economies around the world including South Africa.

  10. Case series on testicular torsion: an educational emergency for sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Baruga, Evarist; Guyton Munabi, Ian

    2013-01-01

    Testicular torsion remains a common surgical emergency of adolescent males presenting with sudden onset of intense scrotal pain in Africa. While the magnitude of testicular torsion is not known it has been identified as a cause of male infertility. Testicular loss in Africa is directly related to delay in surgery and the referral patterns at the point of first contact with health workers. This paper sets out to demonstrate the importance of the patient's age in the diagnosis of testicular tor...

  11. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  12. Collaborative Studies for Mercury Characterization in Coal and Coal Combustion Products, Republic of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolker, Allan; Senior, Constance L.; van Alphen, Chris

    2014-12-15

    Mercury (Hg) analyses were obtained for 42 samples of feed coal provided by Eskom, the national electric utility of South Africa, representing all 13 coal-fired power stations operated by Eskom in South Africa. This sampling includes results for three older power stations returned to service starting in the late 2000s. These stations were not sampled in the most recent previous study. Mercury concentrations determined in the present study are similar to or slightly lower than those previously reported, and input Hg for the three stations returned to service is comparable to that for the other 10 power stations. Determination of halogen contents of the 42 feed coals confirms that chlorine contents are generally low, and as such, the extent of Hg self-capture by particulate control devices (PCDs) is rather limited. Eight density separates of a South African Highveld (#4) coal were also provided by Eskom, and these show a strong mineralogical association of Hg (and arsenic) with pyrite. The density separates were used to predict Hg and ash contents of coal products used in South Africa or exported. A suite of 48 paired samples of pulverization-mill feed coal and fly ash collected in a previous (2010) United Nations Environment Programme-sponsored study of emissions from the Duvha and Kendal power stations was obtained for further investigation in the present study. These samples show that in each station, Hg capture varies by boiler unit and confirms that units equipped with fabric filters for air pollution control are much more effective in capturing Hg than those equipped with electrostatic precipitators. Apart from tracking the performance of PCDs individually, changes resulting in improved mercury capture of the Eskom fleet are discussed. These include Hg reduction through coal selection and washing, as well as through optimization of equipment and operational parameters. Operational changes leading to increased mercury capture include increasing mercury

  13. Engaging diverse communities participating in clinical trials: case examples from across Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doumbo Ogobara

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the advent of increasing international collaborative research involving participants drawn from populations with diverse cultural backgrounds, community engagement becomes very critical for the smooth conduction of the research. The African Malaria Network Trust (AMANET is a pan-African non-governmental organization that sponsors and technically supports malaria vaccine trials in various African countries. Case description AMANET sponsored phase Ib or IIb clinical trials of several malaria vaccine candidates in various Africa countries. In Burkina Faso, Mali and Tanzania trials of the merozoite surface protein 3 -- in its Long Synthetic Peptide configuration (MSP3 LSP -- were conducted. In Mali, the apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1 was tested, while a hybrid of glutamate rich protein (GLURP and MSP3 (GMZ2 was tested in Gabon. AMANET recognizes the importance of engaging with the communities from which trial participants are drawn, hence community engagement was given priority in all project activities conducted in the various countries. Discussion and evaluation Existing local social systems were used to engage the communities from which clinical trial participants were drawn. This article focuses on community engagement activities employed at various AMANET-supported clinical trial sites in different countries, highlighting subtle differences in the approaches used. The paper also gives some general pros and cons of community engagement. Conclusions Community engagement enables two-way sharing of accurate information and ideas between researchers and researched communities, which helps to create an environment conducive to smooth research activities with enhanced sense of research ownership by the communities.

  14. Empirical Analysis of China-Africa Economic and Trade Cooperation for Good or Bad: A Case of Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansein Ladislaus Rutaihwa

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated China-Africa Economic and Trade ties taking Tanzania as the case study and the prime objective was to identify the main drivers for the bilateral trade and the benefits of the ties. The study draws theoretical framework from Realism, Dependency and Marxist theories of Imperialism. The dependency theory explains underdevelopment while the Marxist explains dominant state expansion. This study mainly employs descriptive research approach to asses China-Tanzania economic and trade ties. Data is drawn from industrial annual reports, previous research, journals, magazines, documentation and websites. Other sources are Tanzania Investment Centre (TIC and Business Registration and Licensing Agency of Tanzania (BRELA. The scope of the study is limited to 1990-2010. The findings of the study show that engagement of China in Tanzania poses both opportunities and challenges. The nature of China`s investment in Tanzania has been capital intensive and been mostly directed to strategic industries, particularly manufacturing sector the leading sector in which Chinese investors have injected more projects, followed by construction, agricultural, tourism and services sectors among others. Similarly, the study finds that the imported commodities and goods from China have been affordable to most of low-income earners hence increases consumers choice and contribution to Tanzania Economic growth. However, the negative effects cannot be neglected; the investments have led into the influx of low quality products that do not meet market standards. Therefore, this study recommends that the government should ensure that the partnership with China is for a win-win situation.

  15. A Review of the Impact of Militarisation: The Case of Rhino Poaching in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wendy Annecke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is addressed to academics, conservation agencies and governments primarily in developing countries, faced with the need to protect species from poaching by global syndicates or local groups that threaten the survival of species. The argument of this paper is that while military intervention may provide short to medium terms gains, these have to be weighed against the likely medium to long term financial and socio-economic costs of military activity on people, including the military themselves, and conservation. These costs are likely to be significant and may even threaten the sustainability of conservation areas. While the analysis is developed in relation to the military intervention to inhibit rhino poaching in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, the literature review reveals that similar challenges occur internationally and the South African case study may be applicable to a wide range of anti-poaching conservation efforts and military options throughout the developing world. A multi-pronged approach, where all components are strongly implemented, is necessary to combat poaching.

  16. Refugee Problem in Europe – Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esztella Varga

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The European refugee problem has grown dramatically in the last few months, putting a considerable amount of pressure on the European countries. Not only are they facing migrants from North Africa, but from the Middle East as well.In March 2011 the Arab Spring has reached Syria, causing a huge number of Syrians to flee their country and seek asylum in Turkey, and possibly going further to the EU. The refugees who fled Syria as well as those who are leaving North Africa (mostly the failed state of Libya are aiming to reach European soil, but Italy, Greece or Turkey is not ready to handle the amount of refugees. The cooperation of the Mediterranean countries and Europe has not been able to slow down the flow of refugees, and the Mediterranean and Aegean seas have become dangerous routes for the desperate migrants who attempt the sea-crossing. In my analysis I would like to highlight the role of the so-called elements of ‘soft power’ in the way of dealing with the refugee problem. According to my hypothesis, the issue can’t be successfully addressed using only the means of the ‘soft power’. No real solution for the crisis has been offered yet, and I would like to give case studies of the different ways of dealing with the problem – inside (Greece, Italy and outside (Turkey of the European Union.

  17. Study Abroad in West Africa: An Interdisciplinary Program of International Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Tony B.; Dozier, Cheryl D.; Hunt-Hurst, Patricia; Smith, Bettye P.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes development of an interdisciplinary study abroad program to West Africa at the University of Georgia to help students gain a global perspective. The program is interdisciplinary with several disciplines including social work, clothing and textile, history, and teacher education. This article discusses/highlights a need for a…

  18. The church and paediatric HIV care in rural South Africa : A qualitative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.A.J. Norder (Wilma); R.P.H. Peters (Remco); M. Kok (Maarten); S.L. van Elsland (Sabine); H.E. Struthers (Helen); M.A. Tutu (Mpho); A.M. van Furth (Marceline)

    2015-01-01

    markdownabstractReligion has substantial – positive and negative – influence on South Africa’s HIV context. This qualitative study explored possibilities for positive church engagement in paediatric HIV care in a rural district in Limpopo Province, South Africa. Opinions, attitudes and experiences

  19. The Case for Adolescent HIV Vaccination in South Africa: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Nishila; Gray, Glenda; Bertram, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    Despite comprising 0.7% of the world population, South Africa is home to 18% of the global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence. Unyielding HIV subepidemics among adolescents threaten national attempts to curtail the disease burden. Should an HIV vaccine become available, establishing its point of entry into the health system becomes a priority. This study assesses the impact of school-based HIV vaccination and explores how variations in vaccine characteristics affect cost-effectiveness. The cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained associated with school-based adolescent HIV vaccination services was assessed using Markov modeling that simulated annual cycles based on national costing data. The estimation was based on a life expectancy of 70 years and employs the health care provider perspective. The simultaneous implementation of HIV vaccination services with current HIV management programs would be cost-effective, even at relatively higher vaccine cost. At base vaccine cost of US$ 12, the incremental cost effectiveness ratio (ICER) was US$ 43 per QALY gained, with improved ICER values yielded at lower vaccine costs. The ICER was sensitive to duration of vaccine mediated protection and variations in vaccine efficacy. Data from this work demonstrate that vaccines offering longer duration of protection and at lower cost would result in improved ICER values. School-based HIV vaccine services of adolescents, in addition to current HIV prevention and treatment health services delivered, would be cost-effective.

  20. Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cline Gregory B

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation.

  1. Information technology systems in public sector health facilities in developing countries: the case of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The public healthcare sector in developing countries faces many challenges including weak healthcare systems and under-resourced facilities that deliver poor outcomes relative to total healthcare expenditure. Global references demonstrate that information technology has the ability to assist in this regard through the automation of processes, thus reducing the inefficiencies of manually driven processes and lowering transaction costs. This study examines the impact of hospital information systems implementation on service delivery, user adoption and organisational culture within two hospital settings in South Africa. Methods Ninety-four interviews with doctors, nurses and hospital administrators were conducted in two public sector tertiary healthcare facilities (in two provinces) to record end-user perceptions. Structured questionnaires were used to conduct the interviews with both qualitative and quantitative information. Results Noteworthy differences were observed among the three sample groups of doctors, nurses and administrators as well as between our two hospital groups. The impact of automation in terms of cost and strategic value in public sector hospitals is shown to have yielded positive outcomes with regard to patient experience, hospital staff workflow enhancements, and overall morale in the workplace. Conclusion The research provides insight into the reasons for investing in system automation, the associated outcomes, and organisational factors that impact the successful adoption of IT systems. In addition, it finds that sustainable success in these initiatives is as much a function of the technology as it is of the change management function that must accompany the system implementation. PMID:23347433

  2. Is South Africa using trade remedies as a protectionist measure? Reflections on a court case: International Trade Administration Commission v. SCAW South Africa (2010 ZACC 6 (9 March 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Helena Beltrán Gómez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The recent decision of the South African Constitutional Court raises great concern on whether the leading economy of the continent and the role model country in Legal developments is taking a healthy route in deciding their international trade policy. As many other countries, South Africa might be experiencing problems with having two parallel regulations with moderately similar aims, but both with a different scope of reach. On the one hand, South Africa is an enthusiastic producer and enforcer of competition laws and policies that apply only locally, and gladly agrees to the international commitments of free trade. On the other hand, inside institutions are using the WTO agreements (more specifically the anti-dumping agreement to prevent competition from international economic rivals by hindering their access to the South African market. The importance of establishing whether South Africa uses trade remedies anti-competitively is also pertinent to the global debate. The way the biggest economy in Africa deals with the situation is useful in trying to find a response to the problem of anti-competitive trade remedies that suits the interests of Africa and that is globally feasible. This paper will explore these issues from the perspective of the constitutional court rulings in International Trade Administration Commission v SCAW South Africa, and it will try to find a way to reconcile competition and anti-dumping in this particular case with the final aim to use it as a possible tool in the construction of a harmonized system of international trade.

  3. Pharmacovigilance for antiretroviral drugs in Africa, lessons from a study in Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaquet, Antoine; Djima, Mariam Mama; Coffie, Patrick; Kacou, Henri Die; Eholie, Serge P.; Messou, Eugene; Minga, Albert; Guehi, Calixte; Yavo, Jean Claude; Bissagnene, Emmanuel; Dabis, Francois; Ekouevi, Didier K.

    2011-01-01

    Background While antiretroviral treatment (ART)-related adverse drug reactions (ADR) are documented in industrialized countries, there is no pre-existing surveillance system dedicated to ADR monitoring in most African countries. We assessed knowledge towards pharmacovigilance among ART prescribers and available capacity of HIV clinics to conduct ADR monitoring in Abidjan, Côte d’Ivoire. Methods A questionnaire was administered to ART prescribers, to assess their knowledge towards the occurrence of ADRs. A retrospective ADR survey was also conducted, based on a data query of treatment modification/interruptions in three HIV clinics. Clinical monitors went back to medical charts to review and validate the reasons of the treatment modification/interruptions. Results Of the 81 ART prescribers interviewed, 25 (31%) declared not grading ADRs and 12 (14.8%) declared notifying ADRs to the national regulatory authorities. Among 5,252 adult ART-treated patients who attended the participating clinics in 2008, 599 treatment modifications were identified. Reasons for treatment modification/interruptions identified in the electronic database were documented in the medical charts in 554 (92.5%) cases, ADR accounting for 273 (45.5%) cases. Toxicity related to ART was graded in only 58 (21%) cases in the medical charts. Discussion This study describes challenges limiting the implementation of reliable pharmacovigilance activities in HIV clinics in Côte d’Ivoire. The lack of knowledge of ART prescribers concerning ADR grading does not support the spontaneous reporting of ADRs. Using treatment modification/interruptions for ADR monitoring appears feasible but improvements are needed to respond to key questions related to drug toxicities in the context of ART scale up in Africa. PMID:21735508

  4. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, Rebecca; Kormos, Cyril F; Humle, Tatyana; Lanjouw, Annette; Rainer, Helga; Victurine, Ray; Mittermeier, Russell A; Diallo, Mamadou S; Rylands, Anthony B; Williamson, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1) takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2) identifies priority offset sites, (3) promotes aggregated offsets, and (4) integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  5. Great apes and biodiversity offset projects in Africa: the case for national offset strategies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Kormos

    Full Text Available The development and private sectors are increasingly considering "biodiversity offsets" as a strategy to compensate for their negative impacts on biodiversity, including impacts on great apes and their habitats in Africa. In the absence of national offset policies in sub-Saharan Africa, offset design and implementation are guided by company internal standards, lending bank standards or international best practice principles. We examine four projects in Africa that are seeking to compensate for their negative impacts on great ape populations. Our assessment of these projects reveals that not all apply or implement best practices, and that there is little standardization in the methods used to measure losses and gains in species numbers. Even if they were to follow currently accepted best-practice principles, we find that these actions may still fail to contribute to conservation objectives over the long term. We advocate for an alternative approach in which biodiversity offset and compensation projects are designed and implemented as part of a National Offset Strategy that (1 takes into account the cumulative impacts of development in individual countries, (2 identifies priority offset sites, (3 promotes aggregated offsets, and (4 integrates biodiversity offset and compensation projects with national biodiversity conservation objectives. We also propose supplementary principles necessary for biodiversity offsets to contribute to great ape conservation in Africa. Caution should still be exercised, however, with regard to offsets until further field-based evidence of their effectiveness is available.

  6. The Case for Investing in Secondary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA): Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Birger; Fossberg, Camilla Helgø

    2014-01-01

    Over the next two decades, sub-Saharan Africa will face substantial pressure to expand its secondary education system. This is driven by the current low development of secondary education compared to other world regions, continued rapid population growth, the increase in the enrollment and completion rates at the primary education level, and the…

  7. Program evaluation and case study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, S

    2009-01-01

    This entry looks at the convergence of case study methodology and program evaluation. An early insight of some educational evaluation theorists was of the convergence of case study and program evaluation – the fusion of method with purpose. Program evaluation and case study came to be mutually-bracketed. In the educational evaluation field 'Responsive', 'Democratic', 'Illuminative' methodologies were developed in parallel with case study methods - the same authors contributing freely to both ...

  8. Examples and Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asbach, C.; Aguerre, O.; Bressot, C.; Brouwer, D.H.; Gommel, U.; Gorbunov, B.; Bihan, O. le; Jensen, K.A.; Kaminski, H.; Keller, M.; Koponen, I.K.; Kuhlbusch, T.A.J.; Lecloux, A.; Morgeneyer, M.; Muir, R.; Shandilya, N.; Stahlmecke, B.; Todea, A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Release of nanomaterials may occur during any stage of the life-cycle and can eventually lead to exposure to humans, the environment or products. Due to the large number of combinations of release processes and nanomaterials, release scenarios can currently only be tested on a case-by-case basis. Th

  9. Final report on case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljungberg, Daniel; McKelvey, Maureen; Lassen, Astrid Heidemann

    2012-01-01

    Case study as a research design means investigating a single or multiple instance(s) or setting(s) (i.e. a case) and its entire context to explain a phenomenon and its processes. This is achieved through detailed understanding, usually comprised of multiple sources of information. In this way, case...... studies attempt to provide as a complete an understanding of a (complex) phenomenon as possible. Within the AEGIS project, survey and case study research are complementary. They are complementary in the sense that the former can provide more generalizable evidence on a phenomenon in terms of cross......-sectional data, while the latter can provide more in-depth (qualitative) understanding on specific issues. In systematically examining the case studies, however, this report goes beyond a typical single case study. Here we provide a synthesis of 86 case studies. Multiple case studies, following similar focus...

  10. Natural Learning Case Study Archives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Robert W.

    2015-01-01

    Natural Learning Case Study Archives (NLCSA) is a research facility for those interested in using case study analysis to deepen their understanding of common sense knowledge and natural learning (how the mind interacts with everyday experiences to develop common sense knowledge). The database comprises three case study corpora based on experiences…

  11. Dioxin: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, G G

    1993-01-01

    The need to notify individuals of a possible health risk from their past exposure to potentially hazardous agents frequently extends beyond workers to include community groups. The issues to consider in community notification are frequently similar to those that are important for worker notification but may include some that are unique. This case study traces the evolution of one company's strategy for communicating with the public about possible dioxin contamination associated with its operations. Early communications tended to emphasize the technical aspects of the issues in the fashion of scientists talking to other scientists. This was interpreted by some to be symptomatic of an arrogant and uncaring attitude. Beginning in the early 1980s, the company's management recognized the need to reach out to a variety of audiences on multiple levels, and shifted to a more comprehensive communications strategy. A similar shift is now occurring throughout the chemical manufacturing industry as top managers realize that, if they expect to continue to operate, they must become more accountable and responsive to the public.

  12. Airborne studies of aerosol emissions from savanna fires in southern Africa: 2. Aerosol chemical composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreae, M. O.; Andreae, T. W.; Annegarn, H.; Beer, J.; Cachier, H.; Le Canut, P.; Elbert, W.; Maenhaut, W.; Salma, I.; Wienhold, F. G.; Zenker, T.

    1998-12-01

    We investigated smoke emissions from fires in savanna, forest, and agricultural ecosystems by airborne sampling of plumes close to prescribed burns and incidental fires in southern Africa. Aerosol samples were collected on glass fiber filters and on stacked filter units, consisting of a Nuclepore prefilter for particles larger than ˜1-2 μm and a Teflon second filter stage for the submicron fraction. The samples were analyzed for soluble ionic components, organic carbon, and black carbon. Onboard the research aircraft, particle number and volume distributions as a function of size were determined with a laser-optical particle counter and the black carbon content of the aerosol with an aethalometer. We determined the emission ratios (relative to CO2 and CO) and emission factors (relative to the amount of biomass burnt) for the various aerosol constituents. The smoke aerosols were rich in organic and black carbon, the latter representing 10-30% of the aerosol mass. K+ and NH4+ were the dominant cationic species in the smoke of most fires, while Cl- and SO42- were the most important anions. The aerosols were unusually rich in Cl-, probably due to the high Cl content of the semiarid vegetation. Comparison of the element budget of the fuel before and after the fires shows that the fraction of the elements released during combustion is highly variable between elements. In the case of the halogen elements, almost the entire amount released during the fire is present in the aerosol phase, while in the case of C, N, and S, only a small proportion ends up as particulate matter. This suggests that the latter elements are present predominantly as gaseous species in the fresh fire plumes studied here.

  13. A disseminated case of Buruli ulcer at Macenta in the forest region of Guinea in West Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bafende Aombe Eric; Strahm Stefan; Loua Richard.; Beavogui Galada Daniel; Kolie Valentin; Guilavogui Raphael; Keita Samba

    2012-01-01

    The author report a confirmed case of Buruli ulcer at Macenta in the forest region of Guinea in West Africa. An 8 years old girl came to the general hospital of Macenta located in the forest region of Guinea at 800km south-west of Conakry. Her story reveals that she used to swim in the local river of Man region in Ivory Coast. There is no notion of trauma or insect bite .The disease started 2 years ago by a nodule of the skin in her right leg which had ulcerated; she received various traditional treatments.

  14. Mobile Africa : changing patterns of movement in Africa and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, van R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    The case studies in this book on mobility in sub-Saharan Africa critically discuss dichotomous interpretations of mobility and reject the idea that migration indicates a breakdown in society. They adopt the approach that sedentary and mobile worlds converge and that mobility is part of the livelihoo

  15. The Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) and the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) Region- The Case for South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Sukati, Mphumuzi A

    2010-01-01

    EPAs between the EU and ACP countries can be viewed as being anti mercantilist and there has been a lot of speculations about their outcome. The aim of the study is to determine the effects of the Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the European Union (EU) and the Southern African Customs Union (SACU) members using Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) version 7. Two scenarios are analysed: first when the other SACU member states sign the EPAs with the EU excluding South Africa and ...

  16. Foreign ownership, sales to multinationals, and firm efficiency: The Case of Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Kinda, Tidiane

    2009-01-01

    Using a one-step stochastic frontier model for five developing countries (Brazil, Morocco, Pakistan, South Africa, and Vietnam), we show that foreign firms benefit from a better investment climate, which significantly explains why they are more efficient than local firms. Unlike former studies, this paper uses the share of each firm’s sales to multinationals located in the country to assess the importance of vertical spillovers, and it controls for the direct impact of the investment climate ...

  17. Theorizing Social Justice Ambiguities in an Era of Neoliberalism: The Case of Postapartheid South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subreenduth, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Sharon Subreenduth explores how social justice policies have both global-local and historical dynamics and maintains that, as a result, dominant Western models of social justice limit engagement with alternative modes of understanding social justice in non-Western locations. She uses the South African experience as a case study for…

  18. Assessing the Impacts of Rural Electrification in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Case of Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragaw, Mekonnen Lulie

    This study links rural electrification and the transition to modern energy services with poverty reduction and rural development in Ethiopia. Benefits of rural electrification in reducing poverty and accelerating rural development in low-income developing countries have been insufficiently researched. This study analyses available empirical evidence at a local level and examines how electricity access translates into productive use beyond powering radios and lighting. A survey of 336 households was conducted in Northern Ethiopia on impacts of electrification on four rural towns with varying number of years of access to electricity. Evidence at household and community levels shows that access to electricity was followed by an increase in household connectivity rate, and slow transition to modern energy services based on level of household income and number of years of a household's connection to electricity services. The pace of transition to modern energy services was slow, and household energy poverty and dependence on biomass fuels continued in most rural towns, having little impact on improved environmental management practices. Improvement in rural livelihood, poverty reduction, and delivery of public services was highest for those with more years of access to electricity, and higher income households. The fact that impacts of RE depend on number of years of a household's electricity connection implies gradual improvements rather than immediate benefits after connection. In the short-term, households improved their quality of life through better lighting and reduced indoor-air pollution. In the medium and longer-term, households and communities diversified their income and received improved public services such as education, health, and potable water. Further benefits were wider off-farm and non-farm employment, increased rural markets, and improved environment for rural development. Very poor households benefited least, while those better-off utilized

  19. Escalation and resolution of border disputes and interstate conflicts in Africa the Malawi--Tanzania Case

    OpenAIRE

    Msafiri, Fulgence S.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Border disputes cause strife worldwide, especially in underdeveloped countries. In Africa, border disputes are commonplace, and they produce bitter conflicts and tribulations. This thesis investigates the border dispute between Malawi and Tanzania over Lake Nyasa. It argues that the protracted dispute is the result of inaction and poor leadership, rather than 'colonial legacy.' Using game theory, this thesis demonstrates that partial...

  20. Seasonality and Access to Education: the case of primary education in sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws together research on seasonality, child labour and education in the context of primary education in sub-Saharan Africa. It describes how income poverty and demand for labour can fluctuate within and between years, affecting participation and progression through school systems. It highlights how analysis of the private and public costs of education frequently ignore the significance of seasonal patterns related to the agricultural cycle and migration. It argues that education ...

  1. Improving Unsustainable Environmental Governance in South Africa: the Case for Holistic Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJ Kotze

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Environmental law in South Africa has developed in a rapid fashion since the inception of the new constitutional dispensation in 1994. This development is evident from, inter alia, the constitutionalisation of the environmental right in section 24 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. Section 24 contains amongst other provisions, directive principles that impose duties on government to protect the environment for present and future generations through reasonable legislative and other measures. It is apparent from section 24 that these measures should ensure environmental governance practices that are aimed at the achievement of sustainable results. The South African environmental governance regime is, however, characterised by fragmentation that may negate the achievement of sustainable environmental governance. It is argued in this article that, for environmental governance to become sustainable, it is necessary to integrate environmental governance efforts, possibly by way of a holistic approach to environmental governance. In light of the above, this article: investigates the nature and extent of fragmentation; explores reasons for fragmentation; discusses disadvantages of fragmented governance efforts in South Africa; investigates the concept of integration and holistic governance as means to achieve sustainable environmental governance results; and makes recommendations regarding the eventual achievement of integrated, holistic and sustainable environmental governance.

  2. A modeling study of the role of deforestation on the climate of central and eastern Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semazzi, F.H.M.; Sun, Liqiang [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Giorgi, F. [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1997-11-01

    This study assessed the effects of deforestation on the physical climate system of eastern and central Africa. The model used was the regional climate model (RegCM2) developed at the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and customized for the region under study. In the anomaly simulation, the land cover was systematically altered to replace the tropical forest with grass and Savannah cover. The RegCM2 realistically simulated the main features of the climate over eastern and central Africas. It was found that: (1) the rainfall dramatically decreased in 2 subregions, decreased in two subregions, increased in 1 subregion, and remained the same in 1 subregion; (2) rainfall deficit mainly happened during night time over the TF subregion and daytime over the LV subregion; and (3) mean surface air temperature increased over 5 subregions and decreased in 1 subregions. Deforestation also increased the diurnal variation of surface air temperature over one subregion. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Systematic review of the magnitude and case fatality ratio for severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa between 1995 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kakaire Othman

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses provides information on the quality of care. We assessed the prevalence/incidence of maternal near miss, maternal mortality and case fatality ratio through systematic review of studies on severe maternal morbidity in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods We examined studies that reported prevalence/incidence of severe maternal morbidity (maternal near misses during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum period between 1996 and 2010. We evaluated the quality of studies (objectives, study design, population studied, setting and context, definition of severe acute obstetric morbidity and data collection instruments. We extracted data, using a pre-defined protocol and criteria, and estimated the prevalence or incidence of maternal near miss. The case-fatality ratios for reported maternal complications were estimated. Results We identified 12 studies: six were cross-sectional, five were prospective and one was a retrospective review of medical records. There was variation in the setting: while some studies were health facility-based (at the national referral hospital, regional hospital or various district hospitals, others were community-based studies. The sample size varied from 557 women to 23,026. Different definitions and terminologies for maternal near miss included acute obstetric complications, severe life threatening obstetric complications and severe obstetric complications. The incidence/prevalence ratio and case-fatality ratio for maternal near misses ranged from 1.1%-10.1% and 3.1%-37.4% respectively. Ruptured uterus, sepsis, obstructed labor and hemorrhage were the commonest morbidities that were analyzed. The incidence/prevalence ratio of hemorrhage ranged from 0.06% to 3.05%, while the case fatality ratio for hemorrhage ranged from 2.8% to 27.3%. The prevalence/incidence ratio for sepsis ranged from 0.03% to 0.7%, while the case fatality ratio ranged from 0.0% to 72

  4. Intercultural Communicative Case Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴冬梅

    2009-01-01

    The essay is mainly about the author's comprehension of cultural differences and intercultural communication after reading the book Communication Between Cultures.In addition,the author also analyses three cases with the theories and approaches mentioned in Communication Between Cultures.

  5. Evaluation of a health systems knowledge translation network for Africa (KTNET): a study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, E.; Walugembe, D.R.; Tetui, M.; Kisakye, A.N.; Rutebemberwa, E; Sengooba, F.; Kananura, R.M.; Wensing, M; Kiwanuka, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing investment in health-related research in Sub-Saharan Africa, a large gulf remains between what is known and what is practiced in health systems. Knowledge translation programs aim to ensure that a wide range of stakeholders are aware of and use research evidence to inform their health and health-care decision-making. The purpose of this study is to provide insight into the impacts on capacity building for knowledge translation and knowledge translation activi...

  6. Modern food retailing buying behaviour in Africa: the case of Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nandonde, Felix Adamu; Kuada, John

    2016-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to explore modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in developing economies using the case of Tanzania. This paper provides an insight into the decision-making practice of modern food retail buyers’ behaviour in emerging modern food distribution systems, where...... the buying task involves balancing the retailer’s commercial interests with more stringent government regulations that shape food business in the region. Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative case study approach was used for the study. The researcher used semi-structured interviews with retailers...... for data collection and corroborated them with secondary data. Data were thematically analysed. Findings – The study shows that the criteria used by modern food retailers in the selection of local food suppliers are reliability, quality, trade credit and legal certification. The task is further complicated...

  7. Energy services for the poor in West Africa. Sub-regional 'Energy access' study of West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sokona, Y.; Sarr, S.; Wade, S.

    2003-11-01

    'Ivoire, Nigeria and Senegal it ranges from 30% to 40%, and it is as low as 4% in Niger and Guinea Bissau. In addition to these disparities betaveen countries, a large disparity exists within individual countries betaveen urban, periurban and rural populations in terms of access to electricity. For example, in Senegal, while the urban population has an access rate of 54%, in the rural areas this drops to just 8%; in Mali the rate is 32% in the urban area and less than 1 % in rural areas (ECOWAS, 2000). The low level of access of the poor to electricity, though due in part to the high level of poverty, can also be partly attributed to the underdevelopment of the electricity supply industry infrastructure in the sub-region. The countries with the highest electrification rates are these that have the most developed industrial infrastructure and equipment (Nigeria, Senegal, Cote d'Ivoire). This study was conducted under the aegis of the Global Network on Energy for Sustainable Development (GNESD) and attempts to assess the impact of electricity sector reforms on poor people in West Africa. In order to do so, this report details the content of the reforms: the objectives, organisational formats, and technical and financial provisions. It also analyses their effects on electricity supply and their impact on the poor. Because of the large size of West Africa and the limited resources means allocated to the study, ave undertook two case studies. The countries were chosen so as to be representative of the differing realities of the sub-region. Senegal and Mali were selected because each one is a member of one of the two groups into which the countries of the region can be placed according to the following criteria: rate of electrification (Senegal is among the best-off with a rate of over 30%, while the latter is one of the worst-off with a rate of just 10%); density of infrastructure and equipment; rate of urbanisation; and rate of industrialisation (Senegal being amongst the most

  8. Emotion, Engagement, and Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Terry, David R.; Lemons, Paula; Armstrong, Norris; Brickman, Peggy; Ribbens, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Three college faculty taught large general biology classes using case studies and personal response systems (clickers). Each instructor taught the same eight cases in two different sections, except the questions within the cases differed. In one section the questions were lower order (LO) factual inquiries, and in the other they were largely…

  9. "Nothing Is Free": A Qualitative Study of Sex Trading Among Methamphetamine Users in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Melissa H; Kimani, Stephen M; Skinner, Donald; Meade, Christina S

    2016-05-01

    South Africa is facing an established epidemic of methamphetamine, known locally as "tik." Globally, methamphetamine has been linked to high rates of sexual risk behaviors, including sex trading. The goal of this study was to qualitatively examine the experiences of sex trading among methamphetamine users in Cape Town, South Africa. Individual in-depth interviews were conducted with 30 active methamphetamine users (17 men and 13 women) recruited from the community. Interviews were conducted in local languages using a semi-structured guide that included questions on sex trading experiences and perceptions of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using analytic memos and coding with constant comparison techniques. The data revealed that in a setting of high levels of addiction and poverty, sex was an important commodity for acquiring methamphetamine. Women were more likely to use sex to acquire methamphetamine, but men reported opportunistic cases of trading sex for methamphetamine. Four models of sex trading emerged: negotiated exchange, implicit exchange, relationships based on resources, and facilitating sex exchange for others. The expectation of sex trading created a context in which sexual violence against female methamphetamine users was common. Multiple sexual partners and inconsistent condom use in acts of sex trading put methamphetamine users at high risk of HIV. Interventions in this setting should address addiction, which is the primary driver of sex trading among methamphetamine users. Harm reduction interventions may include education about HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, availability of condoms and HIV testing, and sexual violence prevention.

  10. Case Study: Case Studies and the Flipped Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herreid, Clyde Freeman; Schiller, Nancy A.

    2013-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's issue discusses the positive and negative aspects of the "flipped classroom." In the flipped classroom model, what is normally done in class and what is normally done as…

  11. Building theories from case study research: the progressive case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuis, Harm-Jan; Bruijn, de Erik J.

    2006-01-01

    Meredith (1998) argues for more case and field research studies in the field of operations management. Based on a literature review, we discuss several existing approaches to case studies and their characteristics. These approaches include; the Grounded Theory approach which proposes no prior litera

  12. Theory Testing Using Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Ann-Kristina Løkke; Dissing Sørensen, Pernille

    2014-01-01

    testing using case studies, including the associated research goal, analysis, and generalisability. We argue that research designs for theory testing using case studies differ from theorybuilding case study research designs because different research projects serve different purposes and follow different......The appropriateness of case studies as a tool for theory testing is still a controversial issue, and discussions about the weaknesses of such research designs have previously taken precedence over those about its strengths. The purpose of the paper is to examine and revive the approach of theory...... research paths....

  13. Potential cost-effectiveness of schistosomiasis treatment for reducing HIV transmission in Africa--the case of Zimbabwean women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martial L Ndeffo Mbah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data from Zimbabwe suggests that genital infection with Schistosoma haematobium may increase the risk of HIV infection in young women. Therefore, the treatment of Schistosoma haematobium with praziquantel could be a potential strategy for reducing HIV infection. Here we assess the potential cost-effectiveness of praziquantel as a novel intervention strategy against HIV infection. METHODS: We developed a mathematical model of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS and HIV infections in Zimbabwe that we fitted to cross-sectional data of FGS and HIV prevalence of 1999. We validated our epidemic projections using antenatal clinic data on HIV prevalence. We simulated annual praziquantel administration to school-age children. We then used these model predictions to perform a cost-effectiveness analysis of annual administration of praziquantel as a potential measure to reduce the burden of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. FINDINGS: We showed that for a variation of efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the enhanced risk of HIV transmission per sexual act due to FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children in Zimbabwe could result in net savings of US$16-101 million compared with no mass treatment of schistosomiasis over a ten-year period. For a variation in efficacy between 30-70% of mass praziquantel administration for reducing the acquisition of FGS, annual administration of praziquantel to school-age children could result in net savings of US$36-92 million over a ten-year period. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to reducing schistosomiasis burden, mass praziquantel administration may be a highly cost-effective way of reducing HIV infections in sub-Saharan Africa. Program costs per case of HIV averted are similar to, and under some conditions much better than, other interventions that are currently implemented in Africa to reduce HIV transmission. As a cost-saving strategy, mass

  14. The petroleum potential of the passive continental margin of South-Western Africa : a basin modelling study

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Sabine

    2004-01-01

    The Petroleum Potential of the Continental Margin of South-Western Africa - A Basin Modelling Study The hydrocarbon potential of the continental margin of south-western Africa was assessed with means of a 2D basin modelling study of the hydrocarbon generation, migration and accumulation of the Kudu gas field. The basin model is based on well and seismic data from offshore Namibia and constrained by geochemical data on source rocks, natural gas samples and hydrocarbons desorbed from near-surfa...

  15. 'Rumours' and clinical trials: a retrospective examination of a paediatric malnutrition study in Zambia, southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amadi Beatrice

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many public health researchers conducting studies in resource-constrained settings have experienced negative 'rumours' about their work; in some cases they have been reported to create serious challenges and derail studies. However, what may appear superficially as 'gossip' or 'rumours' can also be regarded and understood as metaphors which represent local concerns. For researchers unaccustomed to having concerns expressed from participants in this manner, possible reactions can be to be unduly perturbed or conversely dismissive. This paper represents a retrospective examination of a malnutrition study conducted by an international team of researchers in Zambia, Southern Africa. The fears of mothers whose children were involved in the study and some of the concerns which were expressed as rumours are also presented. This paper argues that there is an underlying logic to these anxieties and to dismiss them simply as 'rumours' or 'gossip' would be to overlook the historic and socio-economic factors which have contributed to their production. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with the mothers whose children were involved in the study and with the research nurses. Twenty five face-to-face interviews and 2 focus group discussions (FGDs were conducted with mothers. In addition, face-to-face interviews were conducted with research nurses participating in the trial. Results A prominent anxiety expressed as rumours by the mothers whose children were involved in the study was that recruitment into the trial was an indicator that the child was HIV-infected. Other anxieties included that the trial was a disguise for witchcraft or Satanism and that the children's body parts would be removed and sold. In addition, the liquid, milk-based food given to the children to improve their nutrition was suspected of being insufficiently nutritious, thus worsening their condition. The form which these anxieties took, such as rumours

  16. Measuring Integration and Efficiency in Maize Grain Markets: The Case of South Africa and Mozambique

    OpenAIRE

    Traub, Lulama Ndibongo; Myers, Robert J.; Jayne, Thomas S.; Meyer, Ferdinand H.

    2010-01-01

    Price transmission between the South African market and other regional markets is not as straightforward, despite South Africa’s role of a surplus producer for the region. There appears to be a host of local factors that must be taken into account in order to anticipate the likely level of regional food prices. This article assesses the degree of market integration and the speed of price adjustment to spatial price differentials between the SAFEX maize price in South Africa and maize grain an...

  17. REGIONALISM, TRADE AND GROWTH: THE CASE OF THE EU-SOUTH AFRICA FREE TRADE ARRANGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Soamiely Andriamananjara; Russell Hillberry

    2001-01-01

    In a sequential Computable General Equilibrium analysis, we investigate the likely effects of the EU-South Africa Free Trade agreement (FTA), with a special emphasis on South Africa’s growth prospects. We find that the FTA increases South African output and welfare. We note, however, that the gains are very modest when viewed in the context of the time period over which full adjustment to the treaty provisions is expected to occur. Only 2 percent of the economic growth expected over the next ...

  18. Theoretical Perspectives on Gender in Education: The Case of Eastern and Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannathoko, Changu

    1999-11-01

    In recent years, throughout Eastern and Southern Africa, there has been a proliferation of research on gender in education. It is possible to point to a wide variety of publications, courses and programmes planned and organized by universities, national governments, international organizations, non-governmental organizations and the private sector relating to this field. This article examines the feminist and gender theories underpinning all these endeavors. The theories are assessed for their potential capacity to assist in elucidating the complex relationship between gender and development within the region.

  19. Surgical and medical second trimester abortion in South Africa: A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lince Naomi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high percentage of abortions performed in South Africa are in the second trimester. However, little research focuses on women's experiences seeking second trimester abortion or the efficacy and safety of these services. The objectives are to document clinical and acceptability outcomes of second trimester medical and surgical abortion as performed at public hospitals in the Western Cape Province. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study of women undergoing abortion at 12.1-20.9 weeks at five hospitals in Western Cape Province, South Africa in 2008. Two hundred and twenty women underwent D&E with misoprostol cervical priming, and 84 underwent induction with misoprostol alone. Information was obtained about the procedure and immediate complications, and women were interviewed after recovery. Results Median gestational age at abortion was earlier for D&E clients compared to induction (16.0 weeks vs. 18.1 weeks, p Conclusions As currently performed in South Africa, second trimester abortions by D&E were more effective than induction procedures, required shorter hospital stay, had fewer major immediate complications and were associated with shorter delays accessing care. Both services can be improved by implementing evidence-based protocols.

  20. Peoples of Africa, Topic 1. Africa South of the Sahara: A Program of Study for Secondary School Social Studies Students. (Teaching and Student Guides).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Project Africa.

    This teaching guide and student text for Project Africa's curriculum program, "Africa South of the Sahara," deal with how four typical contemporary African peoples acquired their present way of life: (1) the Hausa of Northern Nigeria, (2) the Kung Bushmen of the Kalahari Desert, (3) the Mech'a Galla of Ethiopa, and (4) the Kikuyu of…

  1. Theory testing using case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing Sørensen, Pernille; Løkke Nielsen, Ann-Kristina

    Case studies may have different research goals. One such goal is the testing of small-scale and middle-range theories. Theory testing refers to the critical examination, observation, and evaluation of the 'why' and 'how' of a specified phenomenon in a particular setting. In this paper, we focus...... on the strengths of theory-testing case studies. We specify research paths associated with theory testing in case studies and present a coherent argument for the logic of theoretical development and refinement using case studies. We emphasize different uses of rival explanations and their implications for research...... design. Finally, we discuss the epistemological logic, i.e., the value to larger research programmes, of such studies and, following Lakatos, conclude that the value of theory-testing case studies lies beyond naïve falsification and in their contribution to developing research programmes in a progressive...

  2. Awareness Towards Chain of Custody Certification in Africa: the Case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alhassan ATTAH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Forest certification was introduced in the early 1990s to address concerns of deforestation and forest degradation and to promote the maintenance of biological diversity, especially in the tropics. Initially pushed by environmental groups, it quickly evolved as a potential instrument to promote sustainable forest management (SFM. To date about 126,000 ha of forests have been certified by the different certification schemes in Africa, despite Africa accounting for 17% of the World�s forest cover. This has been due to the lack of awareness on forest certification and the low standards of forest management in the tropics. The authors conducted a survey of representative stakeholders, in particular export timber firms in Ghana to identify why Chain of Custody certification in the Ghana Timber sector remains undeveloped. A number of 103 stakeholders were consulted. Results collated indicate that the readiness to adopt chain of custody certification among the sector was low. The lack of a national scheme was cited as the primary reasons deterring the sector from adopting certification.

  3. After Marikana: Rethinking Conflict Resolution in Africa: The South African Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin John Bradshaw

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies the Analytical Conflict Resolution School approach to achieve a deeper understanding of South Africa’s post-apartheid era. It argues that South Africa is an example of ‘protracted social conflict,’ because it displays a fundamental communal aspect, evinces a strong ‘human needs’ element, its pre-settlement condition had resulted in strongly authoritarian government, and it displayed a dependency in its foreign relations. While South Africa transcended traditional conflict resolution methodology with its National Peace Accord and Truth and Reconciliation Commission, neither of these processes was seen through to its end and, as a result, the South African conflict resolution process remains in limbo. This is coupled with a rising internal level of strain expressed in racial tension, violence, migration and economic frustration. A way out of this current malaise is the institutionalization of conflict management through its inclusion in the school curricula, the establishment of conflict management systems to deal with lower-level conflicts, and the building of needs-satisfying institutional arrangements throughout the society, enabling government to be more sensitive to the needs of the people.

  4. The Future of the Food System: Cases Involving the Private Sector in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura M. Pereira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The food system is facing unprecedented pressure from environmental change exacerbated by the expansion of agri-food corporations that are consolidating their power in the global food chain. Although Africa missed the Green Revolution and the wave of supermarket expansion that hit the West and then spread to Asia and Latin America, this is unlikely to continue. With a large proportion of sub-Saharan African countries’ GDP still heavily reliant on agriculture, global trends in agri-food business are having an increasing impact on African countries. South Africa, a leader in agribusiness on the continent, has a well-established agri-food sector that is facing increasing pressure from various social and environmental sources. This paper uses interview data with corporate executives from South African food businesses to explore how they are adapting to the dual pressures of environmental change and globalisation. It shows that companies now have to adapt to macro-trends both within and outside the formal food sector and how this in turn has repercussions for building sustainable farming systems—both small and large-scale. It concludes with the recognition that building a sustainable food system is a complex process involving a diversity of actors, however changes are already being seen. Businesses have strategically recognised the need to align the economic bottom line with social and environmental factors, but real sustainability will only happen when all stakeholders are included in food governance.

  5. Instructional Computing: Ten Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargan, Carol; Hunter, Beverly

    These case studies are written for educational institutions that wish to plan, extend, or improve their use of computers for learning and teaching. Each case study includes a brief description of each of the following: profile of the institution, history of the development of instructional computing, organization and management, student access to…

  6. Three Community College Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtysiak, Joseph; Sutton, William J., II; Wright, Tommy; Brantley, Linda

    2011-01-01

    This article presents three case studies that focus on specific projects that are underway or have been completed. In the first case study, Joseph Wojtysiak and William J. Sutton, II discuss the Green Center of Central Pennsylvania, which is designed to serve as the state's preeminent source for education, training and public information about…

  7. Alternative medicines for AIDS in resource-poor settings: Insights from exploratory anthropological studies in Asia and Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Emmanuelle

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The emergence of alternative medicines for AIDS in Asia and Africa was discussed at a satellite symposium and the parallel session on alternative and traditional treatments of the AIDSImpact meeting, held in Marseille, in July 2007. These medicines are heterogeneous, both in their presentation and in their geographic and cultural origin. The sessions focused on the role of these medications in selected resource poor settings in Africa and Asia now that access to anti-retroviral therapy is increasing. The aims of the sessions were to (1 identify the actors involved in the diffusion of these alternative medicines for HIV/AIDS, (2 explore uses and forms, and the way these medicines are given legitimacy, (3 reflect on underlying processes of globalisation and cultural differentiation, and (4 define priority questions for future research in this area. This article presents the insights generated at the meeting, illustrated with some findings from the case studies (Uganda, Senegal, Benin, Burkina Faso, China and Indonesia that were presented. These case studies reveal the wide range of actors who are involved in the marketing and supply of alternative medicines. Regulatory mechanisms are weak. The efficacy claims of alternative medicines often reinforce a biomedical paradigm for HIV/AIDS, and fit with a healthy living ideology promoted by AIDS care programs and support groups. The AIDSImpact session concluded that more interdisciplinary research is needed on the experience of people living with HIV/AIDS with these alternative medicines, and on the ways in which these products interact (or not with anti-retroviral therapy at pharmacological as well as psychosocial levels.

  8. Africa South of the Sahara, Rationale and Introduction: An Experimental Program of Study for Secondary School Social Studies Students. Teaching Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Project Africa.

    The articulation of a rationale for Project Africa's instructional program, the collection of materials for improving inquiry-oriented instruction at the secondary level about Africa south of the Sahara, and the preparation of teaching and study guides have been completed. This geographic region, rather than the whole continent, was chosen to…

  9. The effects of parental divorce on adolescent girls in South Africa : an exploratory study of current status.

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.A. The alarming increase of single parent families in South Africa is distressing. The rising divorce rate and the crisis surrounding divorce was the motivation for the researcher to undertake this study. Many children in South Africa are disadvantaged by the high divorce rate and much documented evidence proves the extensive sociological and psychological effects which this has on these children. Research has shown over and again that divorce is observed from a child's perspective as be...

  10. Focal epithelial hyperplasia: report of six cases from Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nartey, N O; Newman, Merley A; Nyako, E A

    2002-01-01

    Focal epithelial hyperplasia is a proliferative growth of the oral mucosa with distinct clinical and histopathological features. Although focal epithelial hyperplasia is frequently reported in children of American Indian and Eskimo descent, it is rarely seen in Africans. This report presents six new cases of focal epithelial hyperplasia observed in African children. The age of the patients ranged from 4 to 12 years, and all except one were females. Clinical variants, the papillary and the papular types were noted in the same patient. There was spontaneous regression of focal epithelial hyperplasia in four patients during the study period. However, the lesions still persist in two patients three years after the initial presentation.

  11. Transforming Innovations in Africa : Explorative Studies on Appropriation in African Societies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gewald, J.B.; Leliveld, A.H.M.; Pesa, I.

    2012-01-01

    Africa abounds with examples of material and immaterial innovations that were envisaged, developed and designed elsewhere yet came to be innovatively and sometimes unexpectedly transformed in Africa. The authors in this volume explore how external innovations (products, technologies, services, insti

  12. THE DIRECT IMPACT OF ECONOMIC GROWTH ON THE SINO-AFRICA COOPERATION A special case of Zhejiang province and Ghana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George Kwame Agbanyo

    2014-01-01

    The goal for economic policy thus became the emulation of the economic structure found in Venice and in Holland, the bringing together of as many diverse professions as possible, all subject to increasing returns and technology change. Development strategy became one of the benchmarking and emulation. (Erik s. Reinert: How countries got rich and how poor countries stay poor, 2007, p95).The purpose of this study is to gain deep understanding of the impact of economic development on the China-Africa cooperation.

  13. An epizoological study of wastage in Thoroughbred racehorses in Gauteng, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Olivier

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available Wastage is the term used to describe the phenomenon of the loss of racehorses from conception to adulthood due to death or injuries (i.e. they never reach a race-track, or the days lost by racehorses due to not training or being withdrawn from a race. This epizoological study was conducted to investigate wastage in Thoroughbred horses used for flat racing in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. Data from 6 racing stables were recorded from 1 March 1993 to 28 February 1994. Each trainer completed a daily training record of the horses in his stable. This questionnaire included reasons why a horse failed to train on a specific day, or was withdrawn from a race. During the year, 8480 days (8.1 % of the 105 108 total potential training days were lost by horses in the stables investigated. Of the days lost, 72.1 % were due to lameness, 8.6 % to respiratory problems, and 19.3 % to other causes. The lost training days for the individual trainers ranged from 5.4 to 12.6 %. Of the 579 horses included in the study, 291 horses (50.3 % lost one or more training days; 541 problems resulting in wastage were found in these 291 horses; 263 (48.6 % cases were due to lameness and 49 (9.0 % were caused by coughing. The balance were caused by poor weather conditions (11.3 %, vaccinations (7.2 %, wounds (4.6 %, abnormal haematology results (1.8 %, inappetence (2.2 %, nasal discharge (2.0 %, epistaxis (1.8 %, babesiosis (1.8 %, miscellaneous other conditions (7.9 % and unknown causes (1.8 %. An attempt was made to continue the study for a 2nd year but too few questionnaires were returned. However, it was evident that the percentage of lost training days (8.2 % was similar to that of the previous year. The training days lost due to lameness (66.9 % and respiratory problems (8.4 % were also similar to those of the previous year. From the findings of the present study, it was concluded that lameness and respiratory disorders were the major causes of wastage in

  14. Turning the Ships Around: A Case Study of (Re)Membering as Transnational Endarkened Feminist Inquiry and Praxis for Black Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillard, Cynthia B.

    2016-01-01

    In this case study of a young Black woman educator from the southern United States, I examine how her engagements with Africa and African knowledges, culture and womanhood in Ghana, West Africa substantively transformed her selfhood and her ability to respond in cultural relevant and accurate ways in her teaching of Black children. From her story…

  15. Control and non-progression of HIV-1 infection in sub-Saharan Africa: A case and review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Patel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Elite and viraemic controllers represent unique subsets of HIV-infected patients who may also be long-term non-progressors (LTNPs. LNTPs constitute an estimated 1 - 15% of the total HIV-positive population in the USA and Europe, but less is known about their epidemiology in sub-Saharan Africa. Though the exact mechanisms for long-term non-progression appear to be numerous and are still under investigation, research on elite controllers may hold the key to new therapeutics and vaccine development. The clinical management of such patients can be challenging, as there are no standard guidelines for treatment, particularly in resource-limited settings. We describe the case of an HIV-infected Botswanan man who is likely an elite or viraemic controller.

  16. Access to financial services: The case of the ‘Mzansi’ account in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kostov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence of rationing of financial services in the developing countries is a major obstacle to achieving sustainable growth. In recent years there have been co-ordinated efforts to increase the level of financial inclusion, i.e. to reduce the supply-side constraints restricting access to finance. This paper aims to understand household's latent behaviour decision making in accessing financial services, by analysing an entry level Mzansi account in South Africa. The willingness to access financial services is not taken as given, but it is instead defined by perceptions and attitudes. The Mzansi intervention is appealing to individuals with basic but insufficient financial education. Aspirations seem to be very influential in revealing the choice of financial services and to this end, Mzansi is perceived as a pre-entry account not meeting the aspirations of individuals aiming to climb up the financial services ladder.

  17. Human rights and political transition in South Africa: the case of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Buarque de Hollanda

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to recounting the main initiative of Nelson Mandela’s government to manage the social resentment inherited from the segregationist regime. I conducted interviews with South African intellectuals committed to the theme of transitional justice and with key personalities who played a critical role in this process. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission is presented as the primary institutional mechanism envisioned for the delicate exercise of redefining social relations inherited from the apartheid regime in South Africa. Its founders declared grandiose political intentions to the detriment of localized more palpable objectives. Thus, there was a marked disparity between the ambitious mandate and the political discourse about the commission, and its actual achievements.

  18. Roundabouts Canada case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamieson, M. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada); Lenters, M. [Roundabouts Canada, Whitby, ON (Canada)

    2002-07-01

    A modern roundabout was constructed in the community of Ancaster, Ontario in response to growing complaints regarding speeding along the major roadway, and queuing on the minor roadway. The roundabout opened on October 25, 2002. The before and after speeds at the roundabout are being studied, and the fastest path characteristics are assessed in an effort to determine whether the predicted fastest path data correlates with the in-service operating speeds. The speed at R1, R2 and R3 locations on the east west, and north south approaches are measured. tabs., figs.

  19. Case Studies in Science Ethics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Karen

    2010-03-01

    Everyone in science should have ethics education training. I have seen graduate students taken advantage of by their mentors. Many of us have seen misconduct...but what should we do about it? Young scientists are often unaware of the rules in science and make mistakes because of their ignorance of the rules in that particular field of study. Then there are an increasing number of cases in the news of overt cases of misrepresentation in science. All are welcome to attend this discussion of case studies. A case study on topics such as: how to treat data properly, how our values in science affect our work, who gets authorship on scientific papers, who is first author on a paper, what you should do if you uncover misconduct or plagiarism in your university, and we will discuss the scientist's role in society. This will be a painless, non-confrontational small group, then large group discussion of each case

  20. Complainants With Learning Disabilities In Sexual Abuse Cases: A 10-Year Review Of A Psycho-Legal Project In Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickman, Beverley Jo; Roux, Amanda Jane

    2005-01-01

    We describe a project established in 1990 to assist complainants with learning disabilities in sexual assault cases in Cape Town, South Africa. Complainants are prepared for court and psychologists advise investigating officers and prosecutors, and provide expert testimony. There has been an enormous increase in the utilization of the project by…

  1. Job Satisfaction among Pharmaceutical Sales force in South Africa – A Case with Special Reference to Cape Town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinod Kumar SINGH

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Job satisfaction is an attitude that employees have about their work and is based on numerous factors, both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individual. Job satisfaction is important from the perspective of maintaining and retaining the appropriate employees within the organization, it is about fitting the right person to the right job in the right culture and keeping them satisfied. Job satisfaction at salesforce level has become a topic of growing concern since significant proportion of marketing budgets, especially in harmaceutical industry of South Africa, is spent on them to achieve the assigned targets in the circular market. Although a large number of studies have been conducted to investigate job satisfaction in diverse range of the cultures, subjects and occupations yet none has attempted to explore the impact of job content and context factors on the job satisfaction among pharmaceutical salespersons in South Africa. Thus, the current study intends to determine the variance in salespersons’ overall job satisfaction through job content and context factors as a whole. This study also extends the total repercussion on the sales persons and their satisfaction level that cement the good will of the company and personal upliftment.

  2. Traditional Knowledge and Benefit Sharing After the Nagoya Protocol: Three Cases from South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger Chennells

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD has finally produced a negotiated framework intended to significantly advance the achievement of its core objectives, chief amongst them benefit sharing with indigenous and local communities who are holders of traditional knowledge related to genetic resources. The interpretation, in particular of central concepts contained in the Protocol, namely traditional knowledge (TK, community, and ownership of TK, and the practical application thereof by governments, are key to the success of the emerging access and benefit sharing regime. This article examines the manner in which the South African Biodiversity Act deals with these concepts. Three recent case studies are described, namely the Hoodia, Sceletium and Pelargonium cases, in which a range of issues relating to holders of TK were resolved, including the question of who the indigenous knowledge holders are. Moreover the debate on the question as to whether the intellectual property rights of TK holders are property rights as such, leads to the author’s suggestion that TK rights are a sui generis form of property rights, and that the legal principles contained in the law of equity provide useful and accessible guidance towards resolution of potentially competing claims of TK rights by indigenous peoples.

  3. Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona infection in mixed farming units : case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gummow

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Three case studies involving Leptospira interrogans serovar pomona outbreaks within mixed farming systems in South Africa are described. On 2 farms, pigs constituted the main enterprise with cattle and sheep of secondary importance. On each of these 2 farms, abortion due to L. pomona in sows was confirmed by culture, and antibody titres to pomona were detected in cattle, sheep, horses and dogs. On the 3rd farm, a piggery was ofsecondary importance to cattle farming. Abortion and death in cows occurred on this farmand serology showed titres to various serovars, including pomona. L. pomona was also isolated from bovine urine, an aborted bovine foetus and kidneys from slaughtered pigs. This particular case study was regarded as clinically atypical in that adult Jersey cattle died of acute leptospirosis in a semiarid region of South Africa. In all 3 case studies, the poor management of pig effluent and of the drinking water and its sources played a pivotal role in the transmission of the disease. Inadequate vaccination of animals against Leptospira and poor record-keeping within the secondary farming enterprises were also contributing factors to the spread of leptospirosis.

  4. Hydrogeologic Case Studies (Seattle, WA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrogeology is the foundation of subsurface site characterization for evaluations of monitored natural attenuation (MNA). Three case studies are presented. Examples of the potentially detrimental effects of drilling additives on ground-water samples from monitoring wells are d...

  5. Nasopharyngeal Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study conducted in Taiwan between 1991-1994 among approximately 1,000 individuals to examine the role of viral, environmental, and genetic factors associated with the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma

  6. Case Studies in Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-03-06

    Contains developed case studies in strategic planning on The Navy General Board, Joint Service War Planning 1919 to 1941, Navy Strategic Planning , NASA...in Strategic Planning NPS-56-88-031-PR of September 1988. Strategic planning , Strategic Management.

  7. Case Study: del Amo Bioventing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The attached presentation discusses the fundamentals of bioventing in the vadose zone. The basics of bioventing are presented. The experience to date with the del Amo Superfund Site is presented as a case study.

  8. AIDS in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H

    1993-01-01

    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  9. Refugees in and out North Africa: a study of the Choucha refugee camp in Tunisia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourgnon, Paul; Kassar, Hassène

    2014-08-01

    In recent years, North African (NA) countries ceased to be emigration-only countries and are now on the verge of becoming immigration as well as transit countries for economic migrants and refugees. Contextual as well as structural long-term factors are driving these changes. The ongoing crises in Africa and the Middle East are prompting strong outflows of refugees, which are likely to induce NA countries to share some common public policy and public health concerns with European countries in a near future. This article highlights some aspects of these changes, from the study of the consequences of the 2011 Libyan crisis in Tunisia. It addresses individual trajectories and health concerns of refugees in and out North Africa from a study of the Choucha camp in Tunisia. The camp opened to immigrants from Libya during the 2011 crisis and accommodated the bulk of the refugees flow to Tunisia until July 2012. The study includes a monographic approach and a qualitative survey in the Choucha camp refugees. We describe the crisis history and the health response with a focus on the camp. We then address refugees' trajectories, and health needs and concerns from the interviews we collected in the camp in April 2012.

  10. Factors associated with maternal mortality in Sub-Saharan Africa: an ecological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández Valentín

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal health is one of the major worldwide health challenges. Currently, the unacceptably high levels of maternal mortality are a common subject in global health and development discussions. Although some countries have made remarkable progress, half of the maternal deaths in the world still take place in Sub-Saharan Africa where little or no progress has been made. There is no single simple, straightforward intervention that will significantly decrease maternal mortality alone; however, there is a consensus on the importance of a strong health system, skilled delivery attendants, and women's rights for maternal health. Our objective was to describe and determine different factors associated with the maternal mortality ratio in Sub-Saharan countries. Methods An ecological multi-group study compared variables between many countries in Sub-Saharan Africa using data collected between 1997 and 2006. The dependent variable was the maternal mortality ratio, and Health care system-related, educational and economic indicators were the independent variables. Information sources included the WHO, World Bank, UNICEF and UNDP. Results Maternal mortality ratio values in Sub-Saharan Africa were demonstrated to be high and vary enormously among countries. A relationship between the maternal mortality ratio and some educational, sanitary and economic factors was observed. There was an inverse and significant correlation of the maternal mortality ratio with prenatal care coverage, births assisted by skilled health personnel, access to an improved water source, adult literacy rate, primary female enrolment rate, education index, the Gross National Income per capita and the per-capita government expenditure on health. Conclusions Education and an effective and efficient health system, especially during pregnancy and delivery, are strongly related to maternal death. Also, macro-economic factors are related and could be influencing the others.

  11. Buffering municipal wastewater pollution using urban wetlands in sub-Saharan Africa: a case of Masaka municipality, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateganya, Najib Lukooya; Nakalanzi, Diana; Babu, Mohammed; Hein, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In many sub-Saharan Africa municipalities and cities, wastewater is discharged with limited or no treatment at all, thus creating public and environmental health risks. This study assessed the performance of a conventional municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), based on effluent pollution flux, in Masaka Municipality, Uganda. Also, the downstream pollution attenuation through a natural wetland was analysed to ascertain its role in buffering the WWTP performance deficits. Generally, there was deficiency in WWTP performance, with 100% failure over a five-year assessment period, for example, the mean effluent biochemical oxygen demand (BOD)5 and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations (mg l(-1)) were found to be 316 ± 15 and 582 ± 28 compared with 50 and 100 maximum permissible environment discharge limits, respectively. Despite these deficits in WWTP performance, the wetland buffer effectively reduced pollutant loads for suspended solids (73%), organic matter (BOD5, 88% and COD, 75%), nutrients (total nitrogen, 74% and total phosphorus, 83%) and pathogens (faecal coliforms, 99%). These findings underpin the challenge of managing municipal wastewater using centralized mechanical WWTPs in the region. However, the wetland buffer system demonstrated a critical role these ecosystems play in abating both pulse and intermittent pollution loads from urban environments of sub-Saharan Africa whose sanitation systems are defective and inadequate. Therefore, it was concluded that integrating wetland ecosystems in urban planning as natural landscape features to enhance municipal wastewater management and pollution control is paramount.

  12. The impact of climate change on drylands. The case of West Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, T. [AGIDS-CERES, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Verhagen, J. [AB-DLO, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    1999-07-01

    The world's drylands can be characterised as semi-arid and sub-humid areas, with average annual P/ETP between 0.20 and 0.75. Average rainfall conditions restrict rain-dependent agriculture to mainly sorghum, millet and marginal maize cultivation as food crops and groundnuts and cotton as crops for agro-industry and for export. Animal husbandry based on cattle, goats and sheep can also be adding to food supply and cash income. In general, rainfed agriculture gives relatively low crop yields per hectare. Yearly rainfall variation can be considerable. Rainfall unreliability results in relatively high risks of crop failure due to drought. In West Africa, UNESCO's map of the world distribution of and regions shows a band of semi-arid conditions from Dakar in Senegal, via Ouagadougou in Burkina Faso to Niamey in Niger and further to Kano in Nigeria, the Sahel proper. South of this zone there is a band of sub-humid conditions. UNESCO's aridity assessment was based on rainfall and evapotranspiration conditions for mostly 1930-1960. Combined with assessments of land degradation and population density it formed the basis for the ICCD typology of all drylands in the tropics and subtropics. 22 refs.

  13. The development and climate nexus. The case of sub-Saharan Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Ogunlade [Energy and Development Research Centre (EDRC), University of Cape Town (South Africa); Halsnaes, Kirsten [UNEP Collaborating Centre on Energy and Environment, Risoe, Roskilde (Denmark); Huq, Saleemul [International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED), London (United Kingdom); Kok, Marcel; Metz, Bert [National Institute of Public Health and Environment, (RIVM), Bilthoven (Netherlands); Sokona, Youba [Environnement et Developpement du Tiers Monde, (ENDA), Dakar (Senegal); Verhagen, Jan [Plant Research International, Wageningen UR, Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2003-11-01

    This paper explores an alternative approach to future climate policies in developing countries. Although climate change seems marginal compared to the pressing issues of poverty alleviation and economic development, it is becoming clear that the realisation of development goals may be hampered by climate change. However, development can be shaped in such a way as to achieve its goals and at the same time reduce vulnerability to climate change, thereby facilitating sustainable development that realises economic, social, local and global environmental goals. This approach has been coined the 'development first approach', in which a future climate regime should focus on development strategies with ancillary climate benefits and increase the capability of developing countries to implement these. This is anticipated to offer a possible positive way out of the current deadlock between North and South in the climate negotiations. First, elements are presented for an integrated approach to development and climate; second, the approach is elaborated for food and energy security in sub-Saharan Africa; and third, possibilities are outlined for international mechanisms to support such integrated development and climate strategies.

  14. Delayed Closure of Giant Omphaloceles in West Africa: Report of Five Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ezzi, Oumama; Bossou, Raymond; Reinberg, Olivier; Maurer, Sabine Vasseur; Roessingh, Anthony de Buys

    2017-01-01

    Giant omphalocele (GO) management is controversial and not easy. Conservative management at birth and delayed surgical closure is usually mandatory. Postponed surgery may be challenging and carry the risk of intensive care treatment. We report on five children who were treated in our department for GO between 2000 and 2010. Initially, the patients were managed conservatively in West Africa. Delayed closure of the ventral hernia was performed in Switzerland after patient transfer through a nongovernmental organization. Fascial closure was performed at the median age of 23 months. Median diameter of the hernias was 10 × 10 cm ranging from 10 × 8 cm to 24 × 15 cm. Four (80%) patients had associated anomalies. Three children needed mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit after surgery. Median hospitalization was 19 days. Complications were seen in two patients. The follow-up showed no recurrence of ventral hernia. There was no mortality. This report shows that conservative management of a GO at birth with delayed closure of the ventral hernia after transferring the patients to a European center is a safe approach for West African children and avoids life-threatening procedures. Delayed closure of a GO may be nevertheless challenging everywhere.

  15. A case for critical ethnography: rethinking the early years of the AIDS epidemic in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassin, Didier

    2013-12-01

    The epidemic of AIDS in South Africa has been characterized not only by its rapid progression but also its impassioned controversies. Retrospectively examining a long-term anthropological project and discussing some reactions it elicited, the paper proposes a defense and illustration of a critical ethnography at three moments of the research. Ethnography is first discussed as fieldworks, proposing an alternative to the horizontal multi-sited approach via a vertical multi-layered method using various scales and locations, and thus connecting the disease endured by patients in townships and former homelands with the heated debates in scientific and political forums: this procedure substitutes a political economy of the disease for its cultural and behavioral interpretations. Ethnography is then discussed as writing, suggesting acknowledgment of the social intelligence of the agents as well as the need for a scientific distance: this principle allows the articulation of the objective historical condition of the individuals and their subjective experience of history, both revealed in the development of the epidemic. Ultimately ethnography is considered from the perspective of its afterlife, that is, the continuous process of its translation by readers and commentators, on the one hand, by the author trying to reach beyond the boundaries of the academic realm, on the other, the work of anthropology appearing as a living object open to public conversation and consequently a resource for knowledge and action.

  16. Opportunities and constraints for community-based conservation: The case of the KwaZulu-Natal Sandstone Sourveld grassland, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sizwe S. Nkambule

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: South Africa is characterised by high levels of biodiversity and species endemism alongside critical levels of socio-economic vulnerability, demonstrating potential for conservation practices that provide both environmental and social benefits. It is argued that communitybased conservation (CBC practices can be strategically positioned to achieve environmental conservation objectives as well as promote local-level socio-economic development. The KwaZulu-Natal Sandstone Sourveld (KZNSS vegetation type is classified as endemic (to KZN, South Africa, and is at present listed as endangered. Additionally, one of the KZNSS grassland patches occurs adjacent to the low-income peri-urban community of iNanda. The study examined local community uses and perceptions of the vegetation type. Objectives: To examine the uses, perceptions and attitudes displayed by the iNanda community towards the KZNSS grassland patch. Furthermore, it is hoped that the results of this study can be utilised to inform the potential use of CBC strategies within socio-economic contexts such as iNanda. Method: A mixed methodological approach was adopted, focusing on iNanda as the case study. One hundred households were purposively interviewed. Descriptive and chi-square statistical tests were carried out to examine main data trends. Results: Respondents displayed alarming levels of unemployment (61% and 34% relied on state grants as a source of household income. Households used the grassland for subsistence (51%, grazing (14%, recreational (13% and cultural purposes (12%. Respondents displayed limited awareness of conservation and the ecological importance of the grassland. However, respondents recognised the need to conserve the grassland based on their perception of changes to the adjacent patch. Conclusion: Potential grassland conservation plans should consider the current use displayed by respondents. Participatory approaches to conservation such as CBC initiatives

  17. Sustainable Living in Africa: Case of Water, Sanitation, Air Pollution and Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David O. Omole

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study reviewed developmental challenges confronting African countries with specific reference to the availability of potable water, sanitation, energy, water and ambient air. It showed the conflict between the need to exploit environmental capital in order to keep up with the pace of human development activities and the need to utilize resources sustainably. Hitherto, the cost of this development has been at the expense of public health and cleaner environment. The outcome demonstrates the need for a change of approach in the way and manner that environmental resources are exploited for developmental purposes. Two concepts for addressing these problems were discussed. These are the “soft path” approach and the trialog model. The former places high priority on the proper use and management of existing infrastructure or resources rather than acquisition or exploitation of more infrastructure or resources. The latter concept addresses the principle of resource governance through the application of an understanding of the complex relationship between the main stakeholders—government, science, and society. Case studies on the practicality of these concepts were also highlighted and discussed.

  18. Small-scale bioenergy initiatives: brief description and preliminary lessons on livelihood impacts from case studies in Asia, Latin America and Afica. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Fifteen case studies from Africa, Asia, and Latin America were undertaken to assess the impacts that different types of local-level bioenergy initiatives can have on rural livelihoods. The report concludes with preliminary lessons and recommendations for further work.

  19. Health care providers' attitudes towards termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Phyllis

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the abortion legislation in South Africa in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortion services still exist including provider opposition to abortions and a shortage of trained and willing abortion care providers. The dearth of abortion providers undermines the availability of safe, legal abortion, and has serious implications for women's access to abortion services and health service planning. In South Africa, little is known about the personal and professional attitudes of individuals who are currently working in abortion service provision. Exploring the factors which determine health care providers' involvement or disengagement in abortion services may facilitate improvement in the planning and provision of future services. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Thirty four in-depth interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted during 2006 and 2007 with health care providers who were involved in a range of abortion provision in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Data were analysed using a thematic analysis approach. Results Complex patterns of service delivery were prevalent throughout many of the health care facilities, and fragmented levels of service provision operated in order to accommodate health care providers' willingness to be involved in different aspects of abortion provision. Related to this was the need expressed by many providers for dedicated, stand-alone abortion clinics thereby creating a more supportive environment for both clients and providers. Almost all providers were concerned about the numerous difficulties women faced in seeking an abortion and their general quality of care. An overriding concern was poor pre and post abortion counselling including contraceptive counselling and provision. Conclusion This is the first known qualitative study undertaken in South Africa exploring providers' attitudes towards abortion and adds to the body of

  20. Towards climatological study on the characteristics of aerosols in Central Africa and Mediterranean sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benkhalifa, Jamel; Chaabane, Mabrouk

    2016-02-01

    The atmosphere contains molecules, clouds and aerosols that are sub-millimeter particles having a large variability in size, shape, chemical composition, lifetime and contents. The aerosols concentration depends greatly on the geographical situation, meteorological and environmental conditions, which makes aerosol climatology difficult to assess. Setting up a solar photometer (automatic, autonomous and portable instrument) on a given site allows carrying out the necessary measurements for aerosol characterization. The particle microphysical and optical properties are obtained from photometric measurements. The objective of this study is to analyze the spatial variability of aerosol optical thickness (AOT) in several Mediterranean regions and Central Africa, we considered a set of simultaneous data in the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) from six sites, two of which are located in Central Africa (Banizoumbou and Zinder Airport) and the rest are Mediterranean sites (Barcelona, Malaga, Lampedusa, and Forth Crete). The results have shown that the physical properties of aerosols are closely linked to the climate nature of the studied site. The optical thickness, single scattering albedo and aerosols size distribution can be due to the aging of the dust aerosol as they are transported over the Mediterranean basin.

  1. Baseline Study of Women in South Africa with Postgraduate Physics Degrees (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grayson, Diane J.

    2009-04-01

    A baseline study was conducted of women in South Africa who obtained BSc (Honours), MSc, or PhD degrees in physics and astronomy between 1995 and 2005. The first step involved identifying and contacting the women, using snowball sampling. These women were then asked to complete a questionnaire by e-mail. Responses to the questionnaire yielded information about the types of schools they attended, attitudes of their teachers, family history of studying science, influences on choosing to study physics, role models and mentors, employment history and aspects of a job that are important to them, experiences of gender bias, and suggestions for improving the situation for women in physics. This information is very valuable in designing programs, projects, and advocacy to encourage and retain women in physics, from school level to senior management. The methodology and questions developed can be useful to participants interested in obtaining similar information for their own countries.

  2. Disparities in Beef Tapeworm Identification Rates in the Abattoirs of Gauteng Province, South Africa: A Descriptive Epidemiologic Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Nenene Qekwana

    Full Text Available Bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus infections (also called bovine cysticercosis or beef measles is usually diagnosed in cattle only during post-mortem meat inspection. The aim of this study was to investigate the identification rates of these infections in and to identify predictors/determinants of variations in the identification rates in abattoirs in Gauteng province, South Africa.Retrospective data for over 1.4 million cattle carcasses inspected in 26 abattoirs between January 2010 and December 2013 were used for the study. The identification rates (proportion of bovine Taenia saginata cysticercus positive carcasses were computed and generalized estimating equations used to identify predictors/determinants of identification rates.The overall identification rate was 0.70% (95% CI: 0.45, 0.95. Significantly (p0.05 association was identified between identification rates and either the number of meat inspectors per abattoir or the provider of inspection services.Although no significant association was found between identification rates and provider of inspection services, follow-up studies will need to be done to specifically investigate the potential conflict of interest arising from the fact that abattoir owners hire meat inspection services directly. Capture of abattoir surveillance data needs to include farm address and for each case to be reported separately. Finally, information on the type of identified cysts (alive or calcified need to be collected to help better estimate risk to consumers. This study provides useful baseline data to guide future studies, surveillance and control efforts.

  3. eCompetence Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Helle Bækkelund

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches.......In this paper we present some details of the processes undertaken in the European eCompetence Initiative. We present two illustrative and representative case studies. The research aims to identify and understand patterns of individual and organisational eCompetence approaches....

  4. Case Study on Logistics Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahryar Sorooshian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents research carried out at a medium‐size manufacturing organization in east Asia. The study tries to highlight the importance of supply chain management; specifically, our aim for this study is to understand logistics and performance measurement in the logistics and supply chain, and we include a theoretical discussion of online data collected and a case study of the logistic performance of a real organization. The study also examines the performance of the selected company, identifies the problems and provides recommendations for improvements. This study can be a guide for business advisers and those interested in analysing company performance, especially from a logistics viewpoint. We also suggest the methodology of this case study for those who want to have a better understanding of a business environment before starting their own business, or for benchmarking practice during strategic planning.

  5. Teaching Case: Enterprise Architecture Specification Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenkamp, Annette Lerine; Alawdah, Amal; Almasri, Osama; Gai, Keke; Khattab, Nidal; Swaby, Carval; Abaas, Ramy

    2013-01-01

    A graduate course in enterprise architecture had a team project component in which a real-world business case, provided by an industry sponsor, formed the basis of the project charter and the architecture statement of work. The paper aims to share the team project experience on developing the architecture specifications based on the business case…

  6. Groundwater contamination in relation with the increasing urbanization rate in Africa. Case of Cotonou and Porto Novo (Benin).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeloui, Diane; Celle-Jeanton, Hélène; Huneau, Frédéric; Boukari, Moussa; Alassane, Abdelkarim; Garel, Emilie; Lavastre, Véronique; Bertrand, Guillaume

    2016-04-01

    More than one billion people in the world still have no access to sufficient resources in drinking water (United Nation, 2014). In particular, large cities in Africa have to face several problems: 1) population growth associated with the strongest urbanization rate increase (5% per year) of the world leading to a dramatic increase in good-quality water needs, 2) low levels of solid waste management and sanitation services, 3) insufficient or disconnected water supply services, 4) low knowledge of water resources availabilities. The situation in Benin is a relevant illustration of the problems that Africa has to face to. As many other coastal urban areas in Africa (Showers, 2002; Re et al., 2011), Cotonou and Porto Novo cities have seen a rapid increase of their population as these towns constitute a corridor of transit for the imports and the exports in the nearby countries. Hence, they are very attractive for job hunters, and constitute the administrative centers for the whole country. This rapid population growth amplifies the problem of water supply and may generate serious impacts on groundwater resources: depletion due to overexploitation, salinization due to seawater intrusion and pollution linked to human activities. In order to insure a safe water supply in the context of increasing urbanization and population in the coastal area of Cotonou and Porto Novo, the identification of the main sources of pollution is essential for the implementation of long-term water management procedures. Based on two field campaigns carried out in January-2012 (dry season) and August-2012 (rainy season), hydrochemical analysis have been realized on groundwater sampled from boreholes drilled in the CTA (Continental Terminal Aquifer) and wells dug in the QCA (Quaternary Coastal Aquifer) in order to investigate the origin of salinization and the present time extension of the nitrate contamination. Historical data have also been collected from previous studies in order to

  7. A Variable-resolution Surface Wave Dispersion Study of Eurasia, North Africa, and Surrounding Regions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasyanos, M E

    2005-03-21

    This paper presents the results of a large-scale study of surface wave dispersion performed across Eurasia and North Africa. Improvements were made to previous surface wave work by enlarging the study region, increasing path density, improving spatial resolution, and expanding the period range. This study expands the coverage area northwards and eastwards relative to a previous dispersion analysis, which covered only North Africa and the Middle East. We have significantly increased the number of seismograms examined and group velocity measurements made. We have now made good quality dispersion measurements for about 30,000 Rayleigh wave and 20,000 Love wave paths, and have incorporated measurements from several other researchers into the study. A conjugate gradient method was employed for the group velocity tomography, which improved the inversion from the previous study by adopting a variable smoothness. This technique allows us to go to higher resolution where the data allow without producing artifacts. The current results include both Love and Rayleigh wave inversions across the region for periods from 7 to 100 seconds at 1{sup o} resolution. Short period group velocities are sensitive to slow velocities associated with large sedimentary features such as the Caspian Sea, West Siberian Platform, Mediterranean Sea, Bay of Bengal, Tarim Basin, and Persian Gulf. Intermediate periods are sensitive to differences in crustal thickness, such as those between oceanic and continental crust or along orogenic zones and continental plateaus. At longer periods, fast velocities are consistently found beneath cratons while slow upper mantle velocities occur along rift systems, subduction zones, and collision zones such as the Tethys Belt. We have compared the group velocities at various periods with features such as sediment thickness, topographic height, crustal thickness, proximity to plate boundaries, lithospheric age and lithospheric thickness, and find significant

  8. HIV case reporting in the countries of North Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Bozicevic

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of HIV case reporting data for the year 2011 from the countries of the World Health Organization Eastern Mediterranean Region (WHO EMR.Fourteen countries provided data for the year 2011 and reported a total of 4263 HIV cases of which 66.8% were men. The highest number of reported HIV cases in men per 100,000 population was in Oman (5.8, Somalia (5.5 and Iran (3.3, while in women in Somalia (7.6, Oman (3.9 and Morocco (2.4.In the majority of the countries, the most common reported mode of transmission was heterosexual. This could be due to under-reporting of male-to-male transmission and more frequent testing of men than women.

  9. Suggested Safeguards and Limitations for Effective and Permissible Parenting Coordination (Facilitation or Case Management in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madelene (Leentjie de Jong

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of the Children's Act 38 of 2005 greater emphasis was placed on the importance of both parents' involvement in their children's day-to-day lives. An unintended negative consequence of an otherwise laudable shift in social policy which supported a shared parental involvement was that the courts became the forum for co-parents to dispute a lot of day-to-day issues in respect of their children. To alleviate the negative effects of high-conflict co-parenting cases on our court system and the children of divorce, a new alternative dispute resolution process, namely parenting coordination, was introduced. The new process was not labelled as such, but became known as facilitation in the Western Cape, and as case management in Gauteng. Parenting coordination is a legal-psychological hybrid intervention that derives from the practice of the courts. It has the potential to provide substantial benefits for divorcing or separating parties, their children and the court system. Since its inception a few years ago, parenting coordination has steadily grown in popularity as an alternative dispute resolution tool in South Africa. Overhasty implementation of parenting coordination without considering certain concerns could, however, damage the "brand" and lead to confusion about the process. In the first place the difference in nomenclature is a real problem. Secondly, the training and qualifications of parenting coordinators are problematic and even non-existent in most provinces. Thirdly, it is argued by sceptics that parenting coordination is impermissible and constitutes an improper delegation of judicial authority in circumstances where the parenting coordinator is appointed in a court order and not in terms of an Act or court rule or by agreement between the parties. It is further observed that parenting coordination amounts to arbitration in contravention of section 2 of the Arbitration Act 42 of 1965, which currently prohibits the use of

  10. The Case Study of Frank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eynde, Peter Op't; Hannula, Markku S.

    2006-01-01

    As a unifying feature of this Special Issue, we have asked proponents of each framework to analyse an empirical classroom account of one student's process of solving a mathematical problem. Here, for the case study of "Frank", we give the main data that were available to all authors.

  11. Case Studies in Sports Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Nancy

    1988-01-01

    This article presents case studies of two athletes who wanted to affect a change in their body weight in order to enhance athletic performance. Each athlete's problem and the nutrition approach used to solve it are discussed. Caloric values of fast foods are listed. (JL)

  12. The reflexive case study method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rittenhofer, Iris

    2015-01-01

    This paper extends the international business research on small to medium-sized enterprises (SME) at the nexus of globalization. Based on a conceptual synthesis across disciplines and theoretical perspectives, it offers management research a reflexive method for case study research of postnational...

  13. Overview of the Case Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cameron, Ian; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    A series of case studies are used to illustrate many of the underlying modelling principles within the book. To facilitate this, the ICAS-MoT modelling tool has been used. A wide range of application areas have been chosen to ensure that the principal concepts of effective and efficient modelling...

  14. Equatorial jet - a case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Muraleedharan, P.M.; PrasannaKumar, S.

    Detailed EOF analysis of wind data reportEd. by Wunsch over Gan (00 degrees 41'S; 73 degrees 10'E) is made for the period 1963-70. The year 1964, which exhibited least variability from mean wind structure, has been chosen for the case study. EOF...

  15. Cardiovascular risk and endothelial function in people living with HIV/AIDS: design of the multi-site, longitudinal EndoAfrica study in the Western Cape Province of South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Strijdom, Hans; De Boever, Patrick; Walzl, Gerhard; Essop, M. Faadiel; Nawrot, Tim S.; Webster, Ingrid; Westcott, Corli; Mashele, Nyiko; Everson, Frans; Malherbe, Stephanus T.; Stanley, Kim; Kessler, Harald H.; Stelzl, Evelyn; Goswami, Nandu

    2017-01-01

    Background There is growing evidence of an interaction between HIV-infection, anti-retroviral therapy (ART) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Epidemiological studies in Europe and North America have been observing a shift towards an increased incidence of coronary heart disease and acute myocardial infarctions in HIV-infected populations compared to the general population even after adjusting for traditional cardiovascular risk factors. Despite South Africa (and sub-Saharan Africa, SSA) bein...

  16. Changing Africa, Topic 3. Africa South of the Sahara: A Program of Study for Secondary School Social Studies Students. Teaching and Student Guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA. Project Africa.

    This teaching guide and student text deal with four areas of change in contemporary Africa: (1) social change and the presence of industrialization, (2) changing patterns of work from a rural to an industrial-urban economy, (3) the impact of changing patterns in education on the lives of Africans, and (4) the nature of African cities and urban…

  17. Exposure Patterns Driving Ebola Transmission in West Africa: A Retrospective Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agua-Agum, Junerlyn; Aylward, Bruce; Bawo, Luke; Blake, Isobel M.; Brennan, Richard J.; Cawthorne, Amy; Cleary, Eilish; Clement, Peter; Conteh, Roland; Cori, Anne; Dafae, Foday; Dahl, Benjamin; Dangou, Jean-Marie; Diallo, Boubacar; Donnelly, Christl A.; Dye, Christopher; Eckmanns, Tim; Fallah, Mosoka; Fiebig, Lena; Fraser, Christophe; Garske, Tini; Gonzalez, Lice; Hamblion, Esther; Hamid, Nuha; Hinsley, Wes; Jambei, Amara; Jombart, Thibaut; Kargbo, David; Keita, Sakoba; Kinzer, Michael; George, Fred Kuti; Godefroy, Beatrice; Gutierrez, Giovanna; Kannangarage, Niluka; Mills, Harriet L.; Moller, Thomas; Meijers, Sascha; Mohamed, Yasmine; Newton, Emily; Nouvellet, Pierre; Nyenswah, Tolbert; Perea, William; Perkins, Devin; Riley, Steven; Rondy, Marc; Sagrado, Maria; Savulescu, Camelia; Schafer, Ilana J.; Schumacher, Dirk; Seyler, Thomas; Shah, Anita; Van Kerkhove, Maria D.; Wesseh, C. Samford; Yoti, Zabulon

    2016-01-01

    Background The ongoing West African Ebola epidemic began in December 2013 in Guinea, probably from a single zoonotic introduction. As a result of ineffective initial control efforts, an Ebola outbreak of unprecedented scale emerged. As of 4 May 2015, it had resulted in more than 19,000 probable and confirmed Ebola cases, mainly in Guinea (3,529), Liberia (5,343), and Sierra Leone (10,746). Here, we present analyses of data collected during the outbreak identifying drivers of transmission and highlighting areas where control could be improved. Methods and Findings Over 19,000 confirmed and probable Ebola cases were reported in West Africa by 4 May 2015. Individuals with confirmed or probable Ebola (“cases”) were asked if they had exposure to other potential Ebola cases (“potential source contacts”) in a funeral or non-funeral context prior to becoming ill. We performed retrospective analyses of a case line-list, collated from national databases of case investigation forms that have been reported to WHO. These analyses were initially performed to assist WHO’s response during the epidemic, and have been updated for publication. We analysed data from 3,529 cases in Guinea, 5,343 in Liberia, and 10,746 in Sierra Leone; exposures were reported by 33% of cases. The proportion of cases reporting a funeral exposure decreased over time. We found a positive correlation (r = 0.35, p < 0.001) between this proportion in a given district for a given month and the within-district transmission intensity, quantified by the estimated reproduction number (R). We also found a negative correlation (r = −0.37, p < 0.001) between R and the district proportion of hospitalised cases admitted within ≤4 days of symptom onset. These two proportions were not correlated, suggesting that reduced funeral attendance and faster hospitalisation independently influenced local transmission intensity. We were able to identify 14% of potential source contacts as cases in the case line

  18. Evidence-based case selection: An innovative knowledge management method to cluster public technical and vocational education and training colleges in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaretha M. Visser

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Case studies are core constructs used in information management research. A persistent challenge for business, information management and social science researchers is how to select a representative sample of cases among a population with diverse characteristics when convenient or purposive sampling is not considered rigorous enough. The context of the study is post-school education, and it involves an investigation of quantitative methods of clustering the population of public technical and vocational education and training (TVET colleges in South Africa into groups with a similar level of maturity in terms of their information systems.Objectives: The aim of the study was to propose an evidence-based quantitative method for the selection of cases for case study research and to demonstrate the use and usefulness thereof by clustering public TVET colleges.Method: The clustering method was based on the use of a representative characteristic of the context, as a proxy. In this context of management information systems (MISs, website maturity was used as a proxy and website maturity model theory was used in the development of an evaluation questionnaire. The questionnaire was used for capturing data on website characteristics, which was used to determine website maturity. The websites of the 50 public TVET colleges were evaluated by nine evaluators. Multiple statistical techniques were applied to establish inter-rater reliability and to produce clusters of colleges.Results: The analyses revealed three clusters of public TVET colleges based on their website maturity levels. The first cluster includes three colleges with no websites or websites at a low maturity level. The second cluster consists of 30 colleges with websites at an average maturity level. The third cluster contains 17 colleges with websites at a high maturity level.Conclusion: The main contribution to the knowledge domain is an innovative quantitative method employing a

  19. U.S. Students Study Abroad in the Middle East/North Africa: Factors Influencing Growing Numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane-Toomey, Cara K.; Lane, Shannon R.

    2013-01-01

    The political events of the last decade and the Arab Spring have made it more important than ever for Americans to understand the language, culture, and history of the Middle East/North Africa (MENA) region. Study abroad is one important method that can significantly increase American students' understanding of the Arabic language and the culture…

  20. Brief Report: Social and Neighbourhood Correlates of Adolescent Drunkenness--A Pilot Study in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Charles D. H.; Morojele, Neo K.; Saban, Amina; Flisher, Alan J.

    2004-01-01

    Aim: To identify social and neighbourhood correlates of drunkenness among adolescents. Design: A cross-sectional, community study. Participants: A multi-stage cluster sampling strategy was used to select 90 adolescents aged 11-17 years from nine distinct communities in Cape Town, South Africa. The sample was stratified by race, income, and gender.…

  1. A Senior High School Social Studies Unit on Africa South of the Sahara. World History Series, Bulletin No. 252.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Harry; And Others

    This secondary level curriculum guide provides a program and identifies materials for the study of the history and culture of Africa south of the Sahara. The primary purpose of this course is to stimulate thought and to encourage students to make valid generalizations and intelligent assessments of the forces and events that have and are shaping…

  2. Removal of cyanogens from cassava roots. Studies on domestic sun-drying and solid-substrate fermentation in rural Africa.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essers, A.J.A.

    1995-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop, but its potential toxicity has led to some health problems in Africa. The potential toxicity comes from endogenous cyanogenic glucosides, mainly linamarin, which may degrade by linamarase to cyanohydrins and subsequently to hydrocyanic acid (HCN). A study into a

  3. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilberto Serrano Ocaña

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.

  4. Mental health policy process: a comparative study of Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kigozi Fred

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mental illnesses are increasingly recognised as a leading cause of disability worldwide, yet many countries lack a mental health policy or have an outdated, inappropriate policy. This paper explores the development of appropriate mental health policies and their effective implementation. It reports comparative findings on the processes for developing and implementing mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia as part of the Mental Health and Poverty Project. Methods The study countries and respondents were purposively selected to represent different levels of mental health policy and system development to allow comparative analysis of the factors underlying the different forms of mental health policy development and implementation. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews and document analysis. Data analysis was guided by conceptual framework that was developed for this purpose. A framework approach to analysis was used, incorporating themes that emerged from the data and from the conceptual framework. Results Mental health policies in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia are weak, in draft form or non-existent. Mental health remained low on the policy agenda due to stigma and a lack of information, as well as low prioritisation by donors, low political priority and grassroots demand. Progress with mental health policy development varied and respondents noted a lack of consultation and insufficient evidence to inform policy development. Furthermore, policies were poorly implemented, due to factors including insufficient dissemination and operationalisation of policies and a lack of resources. Conclusions Mental health policy processes in all four countries were inadequate, leading to either weak or non-existent policies, with an impact on mental health services. Recommendations are provided to strengthen mental health policy processes in these and other African countries.

  5. Trade unions and democratisation in Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2000-01-01

    In writings about the role of trade unions in the democratization process in Africa one can distinguish a pessimistic and an optimistic school. However, recent research presents a more complex picture. In this chapter the author has selected three case studies for an in-depth comparative analysis: Z

  6. Multispecimen and temper archeomagnetic studies: Application to Iron Age sites from southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, R. D.; Tarduno, J. A.; Watkeys, M. K.; Huffman, T. N.

    2008-12-01

    Here we compare methods of paleointensity analysis as applied to pottery shards. We prefer the Thellier technique because of its foundation in basic rock physics and its associated reliability checks. Nevertheless, we recognize that additional techniques may be useful on problematic samples. We start with multiple specimen techniques. These are attractive because they can potentially address the presence of multidomain magnetic carriers. In addition, pottery shards can often be cut into multiple samples with nearly identical physical properties, and the magnetic component structure is often simple. Nevertheless, grain size effects appear to be present in synthetic samples used to test multi-specimen methods, and selection/rejection criteria are not fully developed. Irrespective of these issues, we find that results from multi- specimen experiments which yield linear results over a broad range of applied fields tend to agree well with results from Thellier runs. The results of other samples are more difficult to interpret, with apparent non- linear behavior at high and low-field values. We also introduce a new paleointensity approach: analysis of temper from pottery shards. This method is an extension of single crystal techniques, and relies on the addition of grains to the pot matrix prior to firing. As is the case in the analysis of lavas, careful separation and selection of grains is needed as temper is diverse between archeological areas. We apply these methods to a new collection of pottery shards from southern Africa, in hopes of constructing a Southern Hemisphere paleointensity record.

  7. Reconceptualising the Standard of Care in Sport: The Case of Youth Rugby in England and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Steve Greenfield; AJ Karstens; Guy Osborn; JP Rossouw

    2015-01-01

    Sport is an important area of civil society in both South Africa and England, and this article is broadly concerned with the relationship between sport and personal injury. More specifically, the article compares how rugby is regulated by the tort of negligence in England and delict in South Africa respectively. Regarding liability, for sport there are very specific factors that need to be taken into account. The article is concerned with, firstly, the broader context of sport as an import...

  8. Reconceptualising the standard of care in sport: The case of youth rugby in England and South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, S.; Karstens, K.; Osborn, G; J.P. Rossouw

    2015-01-01

    Sport is an important area of civil society in both South Africa and England, and this article is broadly concerned with the relationship between sport and personal injury. More specifically, the article compares how rugby is regulated by the tort of negligence in England and delict in South Africa respectively. Regarding liability, for sport there are very specific factors that need to be taken into account. The article is concerned with, firstly, the broader context of sport as an important...

  9. Developing a contextually relevant concept of regional hegemony: The case of South Africa, Zimbabwe and 'quiet diplomacy'

    OpenAIRE

    Prys, Miriam

    2008-01-01

    South Africa's 'quiet diplomacy' has been often used to reject the notion of South African leadership or regional hegemony in southern Africa. This article finds that this evaluation is founded on a misguided understanding of regional hegemony, which is based on conventional hegemony theories that are mostly derived from the global role of the United States after World War II. Alternatively, this article uses a concept of hegemony that, for example, takes into account the 'regionality' of Sou...

  10. Study of the genetic heterogeneity of SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease virus in sub-Saharan Africa with specific focus on East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sahle

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of serotype SAT-2 foot-and-mouth disease was investigated in sub-Saharan Africa by phylogenetic analysis using the 1D gene encoding the major antigenic determinant. Fourteen genotypes were identified of which three are novel and belong to East Africa, bringing the total number of genotypes for that region to eight. The genotypes clustered into three lineages that demonstrated surprising links between East, southern and south-western Africa. One lineage was unique to West Africa. These results established numerous incursions across country borders in East Africa and long term conservation of sequences for periods up to 41 years. Ethiopia, Kenya and Uganda have all experienced outbreaks from more than one unrelated strain, demonstrating the potential for new introductions. The amount of variation observed within this serotype nearly equalled that which was found between serotypes; this has severe implications for disease control using vaccination.

  11. The role of the community conversation approach in facilitating HIV/AIDS competence and utilisation of testing services in Africa : the case of Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nigatu, Yeshambel T.; Abera, Solomon; Mekonnen, Medhanit G.; Melesse, Wondiber N.

    2015-01-01

    Background: HIV/AIDS is a global epidemic. Although unpublished studies showed that the number of AIDS related deaths has fallen by 39% between 2005 and 2013 in sub-Saharan Africa, the region still accounted for 74% of all the people dying from AIDS-related causes. While the community conversation a

  12. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  13. Chickenpox pneumonia. Case presentation. Dora Ngiza hospital, Port Elizabeth, South Africa. Neumonia varicelosa. Presentacion de caso.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilen Ochoa Tamayo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Chickenpox is an exanthematic highly infectious disease produced by the Varicella zoster virus (VZV, commonly occurs in childhood, 90% of cases occurred in children under 12 years of age, 10% of the population over 15 years is susceptible to suffer it. It is an airborne illness, the inhale virus cause an infection in the initial respiratory epithelium, the virus spreads to distant cells of the reticuloendothelial system, finally, there is a state of viremia with skin lesions, although the spread can also be extended to the viscera. The deterioration of the cell-mediated immunity caused by coexisting diseases, HIV infection, cancer, hemato-oncology illnesses, steroid use, as well as advanced age, smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and hemorrhagic nature of the Skin lesions, are risk factors for developing Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. In this article we describe a case of chickenpox in a young HIV positive patient complicated with Varicella-Zoster pneumonia. Despite of the treatment with acyclovir, prednisone and supportive measures had a fatal outcome.La varicela es una infección exantemática producida por el virus Varicela zoster (VZV que comúnmente ocurre en la infancia. Se reporta el 90 % de los casos en niños menores de 12 años, el 10 % de la población mayor de 15 años es susceptible a padecerla. La enfermedad se adquiere por inhalación de partículas que contienen el virus y que son expulsadas por la nasofaringe de individuos infectados. Esto causa una infección inicial en el epitelio respiratorio. El virus se disemina a células distantes del sistema retículo endotelial y, finalmente, se produce un estado de viremia con manifestaciones en la piel, aunque la diseminación también se puede extender a las vísceras. El deterioro de la inmunidad celular ocasionado por enfermedades coexistentes, infección por VIH, cáncer, enfermedad hemato-oncológica, uso de esteroides, así como, la edad avanzada, el hábito de fumar

  14. Anti-tuberculosis drug resistance in Sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Uganda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lukoye, D.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis reports findings of six studies including two tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance surveys, a comparative study of HIV infection rates among patients enrolled in the survey and those under routine TB/HIV surveillance, two TB molecular epidemiological analyses and a systematic review and met

  15. Demographic and circumstantial accounts of burn mortality in Cape Town, South Africa, 2001-2004: An observational register based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laflamme L

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Burns are a persisting public health problem in low- and middle-income countries; however, epidemiologic data for these settings is scarce. South Africa is no exception although there is an emerging knowledge base, especially for paediatric burns. The current study describes the epidemiology of burn mortality across the lifespan in Cape Town (2.9 million inhabitants in 2001, one of the six South African metropolitan centres. Methods The distribution of burn mortality across socio-demographic groups and also their circumstances of occurrence were investigated using four year (2001 to 2004 surveillance data from the National Injury Mortality Surveillance System (n = 1024 cases. Results Burn mortality occurred at a rate of 7.9 per 100 000 person-years (95% CI: 7.3-8.3. Males sustained fatal rates 2.2 times more than that for females (p Conclusion Besides paediatric burns, the high prevalence and circumstances of occurrence of burns among middle age men are a source of concern. There are reasons to believe that this over-representation is a reflection of detrimental living conditions, life-style and poor socio-economic status. It is recommended that there be greater prioritisation of prevention activities that involve the control or management of kerosene heat sources, the provision of alternatives to flammable housing materials, and the implementation of strategies to reduce harmful drinking practices.

  16. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  17. Plasmodium vivax Transmission in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosalind E Howes

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Malaria in sub-Saharan Africa has historically been almost exclusively attributed to Plasmodium falciparum (Pf. Current diagnostic and surveillance systems in much of sub-Saharan Africa are not designed to identify or report non-Pf human malaria infections accurately, resulting in a dearth of routine epidemiological data about their significance. The high prevalence of Duffy negativity provided a rationale for excluding the possibility of Plasmodium vivax (Pv transmission. However, review of varied evidence sources including traveller infections, community prevalence surveys, local clinical case reports, entomological and serological studies contradicts this viewpoint. Here, these data reports are weighted in a unified framework to reflect the strength of evidence of indigenous Pv transmission in terms of diagnostic specificity, size of individual reports and corroboration between evidence sources. Direct evidence was reported from 21 of the 47 malaria-endemic countries studied, while 42 countries were attributed with infections of visiting travellers. Overall, moderate to conclusive evidence of transmission was available from 18 countries, distributed across all parts of the continent. Approximately 86.6 million Duffy positive hosts were at risk of infection in Africa in 2015. Analysis of the mechanisms sustaining Pv transmission across this continent of low frequency of susceptible hosts found that reports of Pv prevalence were consistent with transmission being potentially limited to Duffy positive populations. Finally, reports of apparent Duffy-independent transmission are discussed. While Pv is evidently not a major malaria parasite across most of sub-Saharan Africa, the evidence presented here highlights its widespread low-level endemicity. An increased awareness of Pv as a potential malaria parasite, coupled with policy shifts towards species-specific diagnostics and reporting, will allow a robust assessment of the public health

  18. [Systemic vasculitis: study of 27 cases in Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndongo, S; Diallo, S; Tiendrebeogo, J; Diop, I B; Tall, A; Pouye, A; Ka, M M; Diop, T M

    2010-06-01

    Studies on vasculitis in black Africa are rare. The purpose of this report is to describe a retrospective study of systemic vasculitis managed in the internal medicine, ORL and cardiolology departments of the Aristide le Dantec University Hospital in Dakar, Senegal from 1995 to 2007. A series of 27 cases involving 7 men and 20 women with a mean age of 49 years was compiled. Primary vasculitis included Horton disease in 3 cases, Wegener disease in 2, Takayasu disease in 1, and Buerger disease in 1. Secondary vasculitis included mixed cryoglobulinemia with Gougerot Sjögren syndrome in 7 cases, primary Goujeröt syndrome in 4, rheumatoid arthritis in 3, nodosa periarteritis with hepatitis B in 2, SHARP syndrome in 1, and polymyositis in 1. The remaining two cases involved abdominal periaortitis including one associated with retrosperitoneal fibrosis and tuberculosis and the other with spondylarthropathy. Corticotherapy in combination with anticoagulants, immunosuppressive therapy, and surgery, when necessary, allowed effective management in 24 cases. The findings of this study show that systemic vasculitis can have numerous etiologies and indicate that secondary forms are the most common. Appropriate care modalities are needed to prevent severe outcome in Senegalese hospitals.

  19. Near vision anomalies in Black high school children in Empangeni, South Africa: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam O. Wajuihian

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ability to read efficiently and comfortably is important in the intellectual development and academic performance of a child. Some children experience difficulties when reading due to symptoms related to near vision anomalies. Aim: To explore the feasibility of conducting a large study to determine the prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in high school children in Empangeni, South Africa. Methods: The study was a cross sectional descriptive pilot study designed to provide preliminary data on prevalence, distribution and characteristics of near vision anomalies in a sample of high school-children in South Africa. Study participants comprised 65 Black children (30 males and 35 females, ages ranged between 13 and 19 years with a mean age and standard deviation of 17 ± 1.43 years. The visual functions evaluated and the techniques used included visual acuity (LogMAR acuity chart, refractive error (autorefractor and subjective refraction, heterophoria (von Graefe, near point of convergence (push-in-to-double, amplitude of accommodation (push-in-to-blur accommodation facility (± 2 D flipper lenses, relative accommodation, accommodation response (monocular estimation method and fusional vergences (step vergence with prism bars. Possible associations between symptoms and near vision anomalies were explored using a 20-point symptoms questionnaire. Results: Prevalence estimates were: Myopia 4.8%, hyperopia 1.6% and astigmatism 1.6%.  For accommodative anomalies, 1.6% had accommodative insufficiency while 1.6% had accommodative infacility. For convergence anomalies, 3.2% had receded near point of convergence, 16% had low suspect convergence insufficiency, no participant had high suspect convergence insufficiency, 1.6% had definite convergence insufficiency and 3.2% had convergence excess. Female participants reported more symptoms than the males and the association between clinical measures and symptoms

  20. Elimination of HIV in South Africa through expanded access to antiretroviral therapy: a model comparison study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan A C Hontelez

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expanded access to antiretroviral therapy (ART using universal test and treat (UTT has been suggested as a strategy to eliminate HIV in South Africa within 7 y based on an influential mathematical modeling study. However, the underlying deterministic model was criticized widely, and other modeling studies did not always confirm the study's finding. The objective of our study is to better understand the implications of different model structures and assumptions, so as to arrive at the best possible predictions of the long-term impact of UTT and the possibility of elimination of HIV. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We developed nine structurally different mathematical models of the South African HIV epidemic in a stepwise approach of increasing complexity and realism. The simplest model resembles the initial deterministic model, while the most comprehensive model is the stochastic microsimulation model STDSIM, which includes sexual networks and HIV stages with different degrees of infectiousness. We defined UTT as annual screening and immediate ART for all HIV-infected adults, starting at 13% in January 2012 and scaled up to 90% coverage by January 2019. All models predict elimination, yet those that capture more processes underlying the HIV transmission dynamics predict elimination at a later point in time, after 20 to 25 y. Importantly, the most comprehensive model predicts that the current strategy of ART at CD4 count ≤350 cells/µl will also lead to elimination, albeit 10 y later compared to UTT. Still, UTT remains cost-effective, as many additional life-years would be saved. The study's major limitations are that elimination was defined as incidence below 1/1,000 person-years rather than 0% prevalence, and drug resistance was not modeled. CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirm previous predictions that the HIV epidemic in South Africa can be eliminated through universal testing and immediate treatment at 90% coverage. However, more realistic

  1. Financial Services to the Unbanked: the case of the Mzansi intervention in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Kostov

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mzansi intervention is a major initiative designed to provide banking services to the unbanked South African population. This study investigates the underlying variables that define the choice of a Mzansi account from a consumer perspective. Unlike previous studies, we do not assume that demand for financial services is a given but instead that it is underlain by perceptions and attitudes. Financial attitudes and perceptions are found to exert significant effects on financial choices. In particular, aspirations and forward-looking values are instrumental in facilitating access to finance.

  2. Health care providers' attitudes towards termination of pregnancy: A qualitative study in South Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Orner Phyllis; Stinson Kathryn; Harries Jane

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Despite changes to the abortion legislation in South Africa in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortion services still exist including provider opposition to abortions and a shortage of trained and willing abortion care providers. The dearth of abortion providers undermines the availability of safe, legal abortion, and has serious implications for women's access to abortion services and health service planning. In South Africa, little is known about the personal and prof...

  3. Transnational Private Authority in Education Policy in Jordan and South Africa: The Case of Microsoft Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhanji, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore Microsoft Corporation as a new international actor shaping educational reforms and practices. This study examines how the implementation of Microsoft's global Partners in Learning (PiL) program varied and was mediated by national politics and national institutional practices in two different contexts,…

  4. Towards a Community-Based Integrated Institutional Framework for Ecotourism Management: The Case of the Masebe Nature Reserve, Limpopo Province of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. C. Boonzaaier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Since it was first adopted in the 1980s, the Community-based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM approach has played a significant role in environmental management. This paper argues that for the CBNRM approach to be relevant, functional, and sustainable, it has to be based on existing local institutional (authority structures, which may have to be adapted, and it may even require new institutions to be created to comply with the requirements of sustainable nature conservation. The main aim of this paper is to propose a CBNRM model based on existing local community (authority structures and to investigate its usefulness in an African setting. The Langa Ndebele chiefdom in the Limpopo Province of South Africa serves as a case study because it displays all the features necessary to explore the possible application of the proposed CBNRM model. Data was gathered by means of field research which involved detailed interviews and discussions with functionaries of the relevant institutions at grassroots level. Specific recommendations relating to the use of the model are made.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey Studies of Energy Resources in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1997-01-01

    The U.S. Government and the American public need access to information on energy resources in sub-Saharan Africa.Sub-Saharan Africa (mostly Nigeria) produces 5 percent of the world's oil, while supplying the United States with 15 percent of our imports (Energy Information Administration). In the next 10 years, sub-Saharan oil and gas will become increasingly more important to the export market. New discoveries in offshore provinces of West Africa ensure a bright future for the region. Projections indicate that increased oil production in sub-Saharan Africa will far outpace the growth of intraregional consumption, providing greater quantities of oil for export (Forman, 1996). Also, West Africa, although a marginal supplier of liquefied natural gas (LNG) today, will become an important LNG source to the international market by the year 2000 (Oil & Gas Journal, 1996). The United States needs up-to-date information about petroleum resources and the energy balance within the region to predict the future role of sub-Saharan Africa as a major oil and gas exporter. The data required to generate the needed information are often disseminated in archives of oil companies and African geologic surveys, or in obscure publications. For these reasons, the U.S. Geological Survey is collecting data on sub-Saharan energy and constructing a regional energy bibliography. The team of geoscientists will assure that this information is available quickly and from a scientifically based, objective view point.

  6. Factors Influencing Household Food Security in West Africa: The Case of Southern Niger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seydou Zakari

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Food insecurity is a major challenge for Niger and for many African countries. The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors affecting household food security in Niger. Based on survey data covering 500 households, drought, high food prices, poverty, soil infertility, disease and insect attacks are reported by the respondents to be the main causes of food insecurity. The empirical results from logistic regression revealed that the gender of the head of household, diseases and pests, labor supply, flooding, poverty, access to market, the distance away from the main road and food aid are significant factors influencing the odds ratio of a household having enough daily rations. Another important finding is that female headed households are more vulnerable to food insecurity compared to male headed households. The findings of this study provide evidence that food insecurity continues to affect the Nigerien population.

  7. TEACHER BELIEFS: A CASE STUDY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HuYijie

    2004-01-01

    In recent years ELT has stressed the role which teachers' beliefs play in shaping what they do in the classroom. But so far as teaching English in China is concerned, we lack empirical insight into the relationship between teachers' beliefs and their classroom practice. With specific reference to the use of English in intensive reading classes, by presenting and discussing data from a case study of a non-native college English teacher,this exploratory qualitative classroom research sheds light on the nature of teachers' beliefs held consciously or unconsciously.Their subsequent change and impact on the classroom will also be reported and discussed.

  8. Mortality in sickle cell anemia in Africa: a prospective cohort study in Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Makani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has declared Sickle Cell Anemia (SCA a public health priority. There are 300,000 births/year, over 75% in Africa, with estimates suggesting that 6 million Africans will be living with SCA if average survival reaches half the African norm. Countries such as United States of America and United Kingdom have reduced SCA mortality from 3 to 0.13 per 100 person years of observation (PYO, with interventions such as newborn screening, prevention of infections and comprehensive care, but implementation of interventions in African countries has been hindered by lack of locally appropriate information. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and factors associated with death from SCA in Dar-es-Salaam. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A hospital-based cohort study was conducted, with prospective surveillance of 1,725 SCA patients recruited from 2004 to 2009, with 209 (12% lost to follow up, while 86 died. The mortality rate was 1.9 (95%CI 1.5, 2.9 per 100 PYO, highest under 5-years old [7.3 (4.8-11.0], adjusting for dates of birth and study enrollment. Independent risk factors, at enrollment to the cohort, predicting death were low hemoglobin (<5 g/dL [3.8 (1.8-8.2; p = 0.001] and high total bilirubin (≥102 µmol/L [1.7 (1.0-2.9; p = 0.044] as determined by logistic regression. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality in SCA in Africa is high, with the most vulnerable period being under 5-years old. This is most likely an underestimate, as this was a hospital cohort and may not have captured SCA individuals with severe disease who died in early childhood, those with mild disease who are undiagnosed or do not utilize services at health facilities. Prompt and effective treatment for anemia in SCA is recommended as it is likely to improve survival. Further research is required to determine the etiology, pathophysiology and the most appropriate strategies for management of anemia in SCA.

  9. Multidisciplinary Study of the Precambrian Biosphere and Surficial Oxygenation, Kaapvaal Craton, South Africa: The Agouron Cores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschvink, J. L.; Beukes, N. J.; Evans, D. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Knoll, A. H.; Sumner, D. Y.

    2004-12-01

    The Campbellrand-Kuruman carbonate-iron formation stratigraphic succession, which drapes the Kaapvaal craton of South Africa, provides a unique opportunity to study the latest Archean/Earliest Proterozoic time interval in a multidisciplinary fashion, for four principal reasons: 1) The >1 km-thick succession of carbonates, cherts, shales, and associated iron formations is a storehouse of various geochemical and paleoclimatic proxy records, 2) the carbonate platform has never been significantly buried and contains abundant limestone, thus offering strong potential for preservation of organic biomarkers, 3) the occurrence of early chert and abundant early sea-floor carbonate crusts provide good potential for the preservation of microfossils and magnetofossils, and 4) much of the stratigraphic succession has not been significantly deformed and we have estabilshed a chronostratigraphic framework in which shallow water facies can be traced down the ancient paleoslope into facies deposited at water depths > 250 meters within a sequence stratigraphic context, supplemented with correlation of three impact spherule layers. The geologic framework provided by this sequence of rock offers an unparalleled opportunity to study the structure and composition of the Archean ocean and to merge this information with co-existing paleontological and geochemical records. With support from the Agouron Institute, two separate cores, each ~ 1.5 km in length, were drilled through the margin of the carbonate platform, spaced so as to intercept the transitional facies at two paleodepths. The holes were deviated slightly from vertical so that a ball-mark system could be used to obtain absolute orientation. To enhance the utility for paleomagnetic investigations, core barrels and bits were demagnetized routinely with a portable mu-metal shielded coil assembly to reduce remagnetization problems, and all core slicing was done with non-magnetic blades. To minimize contamination problems for

  10. Sexual Behaviors and HIV Status: A Population-Based Study Among Older Adults in Rural South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Olivé, Francesc X.; Rohr, Julia K.; Houle, Brian C.; Kabudula, Chodziwadziwa W.; Wagner, Ryan G.; Salomon, Joshua A.; Kahn, Kathleen; Berkman, Lisa F.; Tollman, Stephen M.; Bärnighausen, Till

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify the unmet needs for HIV prevention among older adults in rural South Africa. Methods: We analyzed data from a population-based sample of 5059 men and women aged 40 years and older from the study Health and Aging in Africa: Longitudinal Studies of INDEPTH Communities (HAALSI), which was carried out in the Agincourt health and sociodemographic surveillance system in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. We estimated the prevalence of HIV (laboratory-confirmed and self-reported) and key sexual behaviors by age and sex. We compared sexual behavior profiles across HIV status categories with and without age–sex standardization. Results: HIV prevalence was very high among HAALSI participants (23%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 21 to 24), with no sex differences. Recent sexual activity was common (56%, 95% CI: 55 to 58) across all HIV status categories. Condom use was low among HIV-negative adults (15%, 95% CI: 14 to 17), higher among HIV-positive adults who were unaware of their HIV status (27%, 95% CI: 22 to 33), and dramatically higher among HIV-positive adults who were aware of their status (75%, 95% CI: 70 to 80). Casual sex and multiple partnerships were reported at moderate levels, with slightly higher estimates among HIV-positive compared to HIV-negative adults. Differences by HIV status remained after age–sex standardization. Conclusions: Older HIV-positive adults in an HIV hyperendemic community of rural South Africa report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV transmission risk. Older HIV-negative adults report sexual behaviors consistent with high HIV acquisition risk. Prevention initiatives tailored to the particular prevention needs of older adults are urgently needed to reduce HIV risk in this and similar communities in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:27926667

  11. Development through Business: What Do American Business Students Know about Emerging Markets and Opportunities in Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kelli N.

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates how Africa is taught in business and examines African and American student perspectives on business in Africa. Conclusions find that African students, business students or not, had more knowledge about business and economic structures than American business students; however, learning about successful case studies on…

  12. Environmental impact assessment in higher education institutions in East Africa: the case of Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabera, Telesphore

    2017-03-01

    Due to the pressure on limited resources produced by a growing population and due to a decade of war, Rwanda is facing a major problem in environmental protection. Because of such problems, it seems only reasonable that environment-related courses should play an important role in the curricula of institutions of higher learning. The main aim of this research is to present a comprehensive picture of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) integration in graduate and undergraduate programs in Rwandese higher education institutions and to make recommendations for its improvement. During this study, two surveys were conducted: the first survey targeted Environmental Impact Assessment lecturers and the second survey was for Environmental Impact Assessment practitioners (including EIA certified experts and competent authorities). The study found that Environmental Impact Assessment is not well established in these institutions and it is not taught in some programs; civil engineering, for example, has no Environmental Impact Assessment courses. Recommendations to improve EIA education are proposed, such as requiring that a common core course in Environmental Impact Assessment be made available in Rwandese higher learning institutions.

  13. Disability, gender, and employment relationships in Africa: The case of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augustina Naami

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The exploratory quantitative study sought to develop an understanding about the relationships among disability, gender and employment in Northern Ghana. A total of 110 individuals with disabilities (20–60 years from various disability groups participated in the study. The results indicate that many persons with disabilities are unemployed, the majority being women. Discrimination is cited as the greatest barrier to the employment of persons with disabilities, particularly women. The majority of persons with disabilities, typically women, live in poverty; given that some are unemployed and those who are employed worked mostly in marginal, seasonal and menial jobs. Persons with disabilities also experience several challenges on the job, including negative perceptions about their capabilities, discrimination and exclusion, irrespective of the employment sector and disability type. Educational interventions such as workshops, documenting and showcasing success stories of persons with disabilities could be helpful to reduce negative perceptions about their capabilities as well as discrimination against them. Government intervention to support persons with disabilities with start-up capital and funding for formal education is also recommended as these two elements were identified respectively as barriers to self-employment and employment in the public/private sectors. Government interventions to create educational opportunities for persons with disabilities are essential given that lower educational attainment affect their employment.

  14. Tourist Profile and Destination Brand Perception: The Case of Cape Town, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechukwu O. Ezeuduji

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tourists pay for destination brands. This study checked for the relationships between tourists’ profile and how they perceived the destination brand of Cape Town. A questionnaire survey of 220 tourists visiting Cape Town was done. This study found that repeat visit, age of tourist, length of stay, and tourist origin, have significant influences on how tourists visiting Cape Town perceived the destination. The top three destination attributes of Cape Town (cognitive images, which enhance visitor experience satisfaction are (1 the overall level of service quality at facilities in Cape Town, (2 the city being one of the best places the tourists have visited, and (3 the destination’s good value for money. The top three emotional valuations of destination attributes (affective images which enhance visitor experience satisfaction in Cape Town include (1 memorable visit, (2 valuable visit, and (3 friendly and hospitable population. It is therefore recommended that tourism businesses in Cape Town develop relationship marketing tools to attract and retain its tourists segments of loyal, advanced in age, long-staying and domestic tourists. Results from this research could be compared with related findings in the international arena and have related implications, especially for developing economies

  15. Assessment of the ARW-WRF model over complex terrain: the case of the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltanzadeh, Iman; Bonnardot, Valérie; Sturman, Andrew; Quénol, Hervé; Zawar-Reza, Peyman

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has implications for thermal stress for grapevines during ripening, so that wine producers need to adapt their viticultural practices to ensure optimum physiological response to environmental conditions in order to maintain wine quality. The aim of this paper is to assess the ability of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to accurately represent atmospheric processes at high resolution (500 m) during two events during the grapevine ripening period in the Stellenbosch Wine of Origin district of South Africa. Two case studies were selected to identify areas of potentially high daytime heat stress when grapevine photosynthesis and grape composition were expected to be affected. The results of high-resolution atmospheric model simulations were compared to observations obtained from an automatic weather station (AWS) network in the vineyard region. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the ability of the WRF model to reproduce spatial and temporal variations of meteorological parameters at 500-m resolution. The model represented the spatial and temporal variation of meteorological variables very well, with an average model air temperature bias of 0.1 °C, while that for relative humidity was -5.0 % and that for wind speed 0.6 m s-1. Variation in model performance varied between AWS and with time of day, as WRF was not always able to accurately represent effects of nocturnal cooling within the complex terrain. Variations in performance between the two case studies resulted from effects of atmospheric boundary layer processes in complex terrain under the influence of the different synoptic conditions prevailing during the two periods.

  16. Grid parity analysis of stand-alone hybrid microgrids: A comparative study of Germany, Pakistan, South Africa and the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Jawad M.

    Grid parity for alternative energy resources occurs when the cost of electricity generated from the source is lower than or equal to the purchasing price of power from the electricity grid. This thesis aims to quantitatively analyze the evolution of hybrid stand-alone microgrids in the US, Germany, Pakistan and South Africa to determine grid parity for a solar PV/Diesel/Battery hybrid system. The Energy System Model (ESM) and NREL's Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER) software are used to simulate the microgrid operation and determine a Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) figure for each location. This cost per kWh is then compared with two distinct estimates of future retail electricity prices at each location to determine grid parity points. Analysis results reveal that future estimates of LCOE for such hybrid stand-alone microgrids range within the 35-55 cents/kWh over the 25 year study period. Grid parity occurs earlier in locations with higher power prices or unreliable grids. For Pakistan grid parity is already here, while Germany hits parity between the years 2023-2029. Results for South Africa suggest a parity time range of the years 2040-2045. In the US, places with low grid prices do not hit parity during the study period. Sensitivity analysis results reveal the significant impact of financing and the cost of capital on these grid parity points, particularly in developing markets of Pakistan and South Africa. Overall, the study helps conclude that variations in energy markets may determine the fate of emerging energy technologies like microgrids. However, policy interventions have a significant impact on the final outcome, such as the grid parity in this case. Measures such as eliminating uncertainty in policies and improving financing can help these grids overcome barriers in developing economies, where they may find a greater use much earlier in time.

  17. Long Run Relationship between Macroeconomic Indicators and Stock Price: The Case of South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawtari FA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the long-term equilibrium between South Africa’s stock index and selected macroeconomic variables using vector error-correction models (VECM. Upon testing for co-integration, long run structural equation modelling (LRSM and VECM, the results indicate that industrial production is the most important determinant of stock market prices. This suggests that South Africa’s stock market is highly sensitive to the country’s industrial production. Money supply, inflation, and exchange rates are other determinants of South Africa’s stock index but to a lesser extent than industrial production. The study found that the macroeconomic variables comprising industrial production, inflation, money supply, and exchange rate are co-integrated on the long run with stock market prices. These findings have implications for policy makers in the sense that any changes in the macroeconomic policy should take into consideration the impact of such changes on the stock market.

  18. Physiologic amputation: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jeri; Hall, Virginia

    2014-03-01

    Acute limb ischemia is a complication of severe peripheral arterial disease that can be a threatening limb as well as life. Multiple procedures exist today to help revascularize extremities; however, even with the latest technologies, surgical amputation of the limb may still be necessary. Cryoamputation, or physiologic amputation, is a method used to treat patients who are hemodynamically unstable for the operating room and who are in need of urgent amputation owing to arterial ischemia. This procedure is used in the rare instance where not only a persons' limb is threatened, but also their life. This is a case study regarding one patient who presented to the hospital with limb-threatening ischemia who became hemodynamically unstable owing to the rhabdomyolysis associated with the ischemia of his lower extremity. Cryoamputation was used to stabilize the patient and prevent further deterioration, so that he could safely undergo surgical amputation of the limb without an increase in mortality risk. Cryoamputation must be followed by formal surgical amputation when the patient is hemodynamically stabilized. It is not a limb salvaging, procedure but it is a life-saving procedure. This case study demonstrates the usefulness of the procedure and discusses the technique used for cryoamputation.

  19. Five misunderstandings about Case-study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  20. Five misunderstandings about case study research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2004-01-01

    This article examines five common misunderstandings about case-study research: (1) Theoretical knowledge is more valuable than practical knowledge; (2) One cannot generalize from a single case, therefore the single case study cannot contribute to scientific development; (3) The case study is most...

  1. Using Correspondence Analysis in Multiple Case Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, Natascha; van der Heijden, Peter G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  2. Using correspondence analysis in multiple case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kienstra, N.H.H.; van der Heijden, P.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In qualitative research of multiple case studies, Miles and Huberman proposed to summarize the separate cases in a so-called meta-matrix that consists of cases by variables. Yin discusses cross-case synthesis to study this matrix. We propose correspondence analysis (CA) as a useful tool to study thi

  3. Superstition, witchcraft and HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenkorang, Eric Y; Gyimah, Stephen O; Maticka-Tyndale, Eleanor; Adjei, Jones

    2011-10-01

    Belief in superstition and witchcraft is central to many African conceptions of illness, disease causation and etiology. While a number of anthropological studies have alluded to a theoretical link between such beliefs and HIV prevention in particular, there is limited empirical assessment of the association. Using data from the 2008 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey and applying random-effects logit models, we investigate whether the belief that AIDS can spread through witchcraft associates with the sexual decision making of never-married men and women. The results show that men who believed AIDS can spread through witchcraft and other supernatural means were less likely to have used condoms at last sexual intercourse, controlling for other socioeconomic and cultural variables. Women with similar beliefs were more likely to have experienced sexual intercourse but less likely to have used condoms at last sex. For women, however, the relationship between such superstitious beliefs and condom use was somewhat attenuated after controlling for ethnicity and region of residence. From a policy perspective, the findings suggest that local beliefs regarding AIDS causation must be considered in designing HIV/AIDS programmes and interventions.

  4. Feasibility of a large cohort study in sub-Saharan Africa assessed through a four-country study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shona Dalal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Large prospective epidemiologic studies are vital in determining disease etiology and forming national health policy. Yet, such studies do not exist in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA notwithstanding the growing burden of chronic diseases. Objective: We explored the feasibility of establishing a large-scale multicountry prospective study at five sites in four sub-Saharan countries. Design: Based on country-specific considerations of feasibility, Nigeria enrolled health care professionals, South Africa and Tanzania enrolled teachers, and Uganda enrolled village residents at one rural and one periurban site each. All sites used a 6-month follow-up period but different approaches for data collection, namely standardized questionnaires filled out by participants or face-to-face interviews. Results: We enrolled 1415 participants from five sites (range 200–489 with a median age of 41 years. Approximately half had access to clean-burning cooking fuel and 70% to piped drinking water, yet 92% had access to a mobile phone. The prevalence of chronic diseases was 49% among 45- to 54-year-olds and was dominated by hypertension (21.7% overall – ranging from 4.5 to 31.2% across sites – and a serious injury in the past 12 months (12.4% overall. About 80% of participants indicated willingness to provide blood samples. At 6-month follow-up, 68% completed a questionnaire (45 to 96% across sites with evidence that mobile phones were particularly useful. Conclusions: Our pilot study indicates that a large-scale prospective study in SSA is feasible, and the burden of chronic disease in SSA may already be substantial necessitating urgent etiologic research and primary prevention.

  5. Is thermoregulation really unimportant for tropical reptiles? Comparative study of four sympatric snake species from Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luiselli, Luca; Akani, Godfrey C.

    2002-05-01

    Most of the studies concerning the thermal and reproductive relationships of snakes have been conducted in temperate regions, whereas very few data are available for African tropical species. In the present study, aspects of the comparative thermal and reproductive ecology of four sympatric freshwater snakes from tropical Africa (the colubrids Natriciteres fuliginoides, N. variegata, Afronatrix anoscopus, and Grayia smythii) are studied with emphasis on exploring whether their thermal ecology relations with reproduction biology may indicate a substantial influence of thermoregulation on their life-history traits (as shown in several studies from temperate-zone reptiles), or whether thermoregulatory biology is less important in tropical reptiles (as suggested in some recent experimental studies). The present study showed that, with minor species-specific differences, thermoregulation certainly has some relevance for the activity and life-history attributes of the studied species, as (i) the females tended to show body temperatures inversely related to their size (snout-vent length), and (ii) gravid specimens tended to maintain higher body temperatures than non-gravid specimens. However, other sets of our data (e.g., the high and constant Tb exhibited during night-time) strongly indicate that these four species of tropical water snakes can maintain high and stable Tb with little overt thermoregulatory behaviour. As is the rule in most of the other snake species studied to date, the maternal size of the females strongly influenced the number of eggs produced, and testifies that reproductive biology models linking reproductive performance to thermal ecology, highlighted in other snakes from temperate and cool regions, may well apply at least to some extent also to these Afrotropical species.

  6. Human resources needs for universal access to antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a time and motion study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hontelez Jan AC

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although access to life-saving treatment for patients infected with HIV in South Africa has improved substantially since 2004, treating all eligible patients (universal access remains elusive. As the prices of antiretroviral drugs have dropped over the past years, availability of human resources may now be the most important barrier to achieving universal access to HIV treatment in Africa. We quantify the number of HIV health workers (HHWs required to be added to the current HIV workforce to achieve universal access to HIV treatment in South Africa, under different eligibility criteria. Methods We performed a time and motion study in three HIV clinics in a rural, primary care-based HIV treatment program in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to estimate the average time per patient visit for doctors, nurses, and counselors. We estimated the additional number of HHWs needed to achieve universal access to HIV treatment within one year. Results For universal access to HIV treatment for all patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl, an additional 2,200 nurses, 3,800 counselors, and 300 doctors would be required, at additional annual salary cost of 929 million South African rand (ZAR, equivalent to US$ 141 million. For universal treatment (‘treatment as prevention’, an additional 6,000 nurses, 11,000 counselors, and 800 doctors would be required, at an additional annual salary cost of ZAR 2.6 billion (US$ 400 million. Conclusions Universal access to HIV treatment for patients with a CD4 cell count of ≤350 cells/μl in South Africa may be affordable, but the number of HHWs available for HIV treatment will need to be substantially increased. Treatment as prevention strategies will require considerable additional financial and human resources commitments.

  7. Genetic consequences of war and social strife in sub-Saharan Africa : the case of Uganda's large mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muwanika, Vincent B.; Nyakaana, Silvester; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2005-01-01

    data that are relevant to understanding of the genetic effects of war and social strife on Africa's wildlife. Uganda was probably one of the worst affected countries. Before 1972, Uganda had large herds and a variety of mammals. However, following the breakdown of law and order, some large mammals were......The spectacular diversity of sub-Saharan Africa's large mammals was hit by constant social strife and civil war over three decades (1970s-1990s) leading to localized extinctions and drastic reductions in population sizes for many species. These localized extinctions and reduction in population...... sizes undermine the ability of species to evolve and adapt to changing environments as a result of genetic erosion. The genetic consequences of the widespread reduction of population sizes as a result of social strife in sub-Saharan Africa are not well documented. Here we review past molecular genetic...

  8. A comparison of the research and publication patterns and output of academic librarians in eastern and southern Africa from 1990-2006:a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grace Sitienei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the research and publication patterns of academic librarians in eastern and southern Africa. The study confined its scope to publications produced between 1990 and 2006. Bibliometric techniques through content analysis were used as a research method. Two online databases, namely LISTA and WORLDCAT were used for publication searches. Names of academic librarians were retrieved from their respective academic library websites and used as keywords for retrieving data from the two online databases. A total of 866 academic librarians, i.e. 755 from southern Africa and 111 from eastern Africa, were identified and their research publication records analysed. The results indicate that in terms of publications per librarian there was no significant difference between southern Africa and eastern Africa; South Africa was the most productive country in terms of publications; the University of Botswana Library was the most prolific library; Muswazi from the University of Witwatersrand and Pienaar from the University of Pretoria were the most productive academic librarians; academic librarians in eastern Africa preferred publishing in foreign journals while those from southern Africa published more in domestic journals led by South African Journal of Libraries and Information Science; the publication output of the two regions was inconsistent (up-down trend during this period; the main subject area of librarians in both regions was Information Technology; most academic librarians from both regions preferred publishing individually; and the most published type of document in both regions was journal articles.

  9. Studies of 21st-Century Precipitation Trends Over West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Druyan, Leonard M.

    2010-01-01

    West Africa includes a semi-arid zone between the Sahara Desert and the humid Gulf of Guinea coast, approximately between 10 N and 20 N, which is irrigated by summer monsoon rains. This article refers to the region as the Sahel. Rain-fed agriculture is the primary sustenance for Sahel populations, and severe droughts (in the 1970s and 1980s), therefore, have devastating negative societal impacts. The future frequency of Sahel droughts and the evolution of its hydrological balance are therefore of great interest. The article reviews 10 recent research studies that attempt to discover how climate changes will affect the hydrology of the Sahel throughout the 21st century. All 10 studies rely on atmosphere ocean global climate model (AOGCM) simulations based on a range of greenhouse gas emissions scenarios. Many of the simulations are contained in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change archives for Assessment Reports #3 and #4. Two of the studies use AOGCM data to drive regional climate models. Seven studies make projections for the first half of the 21st century and eight studies make projections for the second half. Some studies make projections of wetter conditions and some predict more frequent droughts, and each describes the atmospheric processes associated with its prediction. Only one study projects more frequent droughts before 2050, and that is only for continent-wide degradation in vegetation cover. The challenge to correctly simulate Sahel rainfall decadal trends is particularly daunting because multiple physical mechanisms compete to drive the trend upwards or downwards. A variety of model deficiencies, regarding the simulation of one or more of these physical processes, taints models climate change projections. Consequently, no consensus emerges regarding the impact of anticipated greenhouse gas forcing on the hydrology of the Sahel in the second half of the 21st century.

  10. Children's experiences of corporal punishment: A qualitative study in an urban township of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Alison; Daniels, Karen; Tomlinson, Mark

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to violence is a serious mental and public health issue. In particular, children exposed to violence are at risk for poor developmental outcomes and physical and mental health problems. One area that has been shown to increase the risk for poor outcomes is the use of corporal punishment as a discipline method. While researchers are starting to ask children directly about their experiences of violence, there is limited research with children about their perspectives on physical punishment, particularly in low-and middle-income countries (LMIC). This paper begins to address this gap by reporting on the spontaneous data that emerged during 24 qualitative interviews that were conducted with children, aged 8-12 in South Africa. The themes that emerged indicated that corporal punishment is an everyday experience, that it has negative emotional and behavioral consequences, and that it plays a role in how children resolve interpersonal conflicts. The study highlights the challenges for violence prevention interventions in under-resourced contexts.

  11. The White Lion Volunteer Program in South Africa: A Study of Volunteer Needs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boretti Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Volunteer tourists are motivated to participate in volunteer programs due to their need to ‘do something different’, ‘see another culture’ and ‘to escape’, amongst others. The research aims to determine the internal and external factors that motivate individuals to participate in the Tsau! Global White Lion Protection Trust’s (GWLPT volunteer program. Maslow’s theory of human motivation and Frankl’s study of human behaviour are used to explore intrinsic factors whereas extrinsic or macro environmental factors of influence are also investigated. A mixed method approach with focus group discussions and an online survey is followed. A background to the volunteer program is presented with the activities available to volunteers. The key findings indicate that most volunteers are young females that volunteer for a minimum of two weeks; are internally motivated to ‘give back and be useful’ and ‘to work with the white lions’ for the purpose of self-actualisation. External motivation is mainly social in terms of concern about the well-being of the lions, and South Africa being an economically affordable destination. The GWLPT strives to fulfil the needs of volunteers, especially intrinsic needs associated with self-actualisation and self-transcendence.

  12. Case Study: A Picture Worth a Thousand Words? Making a Case for Video Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    A picture, they say, is worth a thousand words. If a mere picture is worth a thousand words, how much more are "moving pictures" or videos worth? The author poses this not merely as a rhetorical question, but because she wishes to make a case for using videos in the traditional case study method. She recommends four main approaches of…

  13. Desert dust impacts on human health: an alarming worldwide reality and a need for studies in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Longueville, Florence; Ozer, Pierre; Doumbia, Seydou; Henry, Sabine

    2013-01-01

    High desert dust concentrations raise concerns about adverse health effects on human populations. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper aims to learn more about the relationship between desert dust and human health in the world and to analyse the place of West Africa as a study area of interest. Papers focussing on the potential relationship between dust and health and showing quantitative analyses, published between January 1999 and September 2011, were identified using the ISI Web of Knowledge database ( N = 50). A number of adverse health effects, including respiratory, cardiovascular and cardiopulmonary diseases, are associated with dust. This survey highlights obvious dust impacts on human health independently of the study area, health outcomes and method. Moreover, it reveals an imbalance between the areas most exposed to dust and the areas most studied in terms of health effects. None of these studies has been conducted in West Africa, despite the proximity of the Sahara, which produces about half of the yearly global mineral dust. In view of the alarming results in many parts of the world (Asia, Europe, America), this paper concludes by stressing the importance of carrying out impact studies of Saharan dust in West Africa, where dust events are more frequent and intense than anywhere else.

  14. Geographic variation of overweight and obesity among women in Nigeria: a case for nutritional transition in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngianga-Bakwin Kandala

    Full Text Available Nutritional research in sub-Saharan Africa has primarily focused on under-nutrition. However, there is evidence of an ongoing nutritional transition in these settings. This study aimed to examine the geographic variation of overweight and obesity prevalence at the state-level among women in Nigeria, while accounting for individual-level risk factors.The analysis was based on the 2008 Nigerian Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS, including 27,967 women aged 15-49 years. Individual data were collected on socio-demographics, but were aggregated to the country's states. We used a Bayesian geo-additive mixed model to map the geographic distribution of overweight and obesity at the state-level, accounting for individual-level risk factors.The overall prevalence of combined overweight and obesity (body mass index ≥25 was 20.9%. In multivariate Bayesian geo-additive models, higher education [odds ratio (OR & 95% Credible Region (CR: 1.68 (1.38, 2.00], higher wealth index [3.45 (2.98, 4.05], living in urban settings [1.24 (1.14, 1.36] and increasing age were all significantly associated with a higher prevalence of overweight/obesity. There was also a striking variation in overweight/obesity prevalence across ethnic groups and state of residence, the highest being in Cross River State, in south-eastern Nigeria [2.32 (1.62, 3.40], the lowest in Osun State in south-western Nigeria [0.48 (0.36, 0.61].This study suggests distinct geographic patterns in the combined prevalence of overweight and obesity among Nigerian women, as well as the role of demographic, socio-economic and environmental factors in the ongoing nutritional transition in these settings.

  15. KAIZEN – A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjunath Shettar

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate objective of manufacturing industries is to increase productivity with high quality. At present, many manufacturing companies are facing problems such as high quality rejection, high inventories, high lead time, high costs of production, and inability to cope with customer orders. By implementing and practicing the lean production system many problems can be solved without employing high-tech and high-touch approaches but by involving people on the shop floor in Kaizen activities. Kaizen is one of the powerful tools of lean manufacturing. Kaizen refers to continuous improvement in performance, cost and quality. Kaizen ensures that manufacturing processes become leaner and fitter, but eliminate waste (problem where value is added. The main objective of this paper is to provide a background on kaizen, present an overview of kaizen concepts that are used to transform a company into a high performing lean enterprise. A case study of implementation of Kaizen‟s has been discussed.

  16. STS Case Study Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa de Jesus, Dan A.; Johnson, Grace K.

    2013-01-01

    The Shuttle Case Study Collection (SCSC) has been developed using lessons learned documented by NASA engineers, analysts, and contractors. The SCSC provides educators with a new tool to teach real-world engineering processes with the goal of providing unique educational materials that enhance critical thinking, decision-making and problem-solving skills. During this third phase of the project, responsibilities included: the revision of the Hyper Text Markup Language (HTML) source code to ensure all pages follow World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) standards, and the addition and edition of website content, including text, documents, and images. Basic HTML knowledge was required, as was basic knowledge of photo editing software, and training to learn how to use NASA's Content Management System for website design. The outcome of this project was its release to the public.

  17. Using teaching case studies for management research

    OpenAIRE

    Ambrosini, Veronique; Bowman, Cliff; Collier, Nardine

    2010-01-01

    Teaching case studies are widely deployed in business schools. They are contextually rich in detail, and students learn by applying and adapting theoretical concepts to specific business situations described in the case. This article proposes a new way to use teaching case studies, as research materials for academics. The article addresses three questions: (1) Can teaching cases be used as an alternative to field research? (2) When can teaching case studies be used as second...

  18. Value of case studies in disaster assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grynszpan, Delphine; Murray, Virginia; Llosa, Silvia

    2011-06-01

    Case studies can be useful in assessing and learning lessons from emergency situations. In this paper, different uses for disaster case studies, are explored with identification of potential pitfalls that should be avoided. In addition, ways to improve the rigor and significance of case studies are suggested. Case studies can be used as examples or as a research tool. If conducted properly, they can provide robust and compelling results. It is argued that sharing a common guide to conducting and writing case studies among all disaster risk reduction professionals could improve the quality of case study reports and thereby strengthen their value in advancing the prevention, preparedness, and management of disasters and emergencies.

  19. Multi-spatial livelihoods in sub-Saharan Africa : rural farming by urban households - the case of Nakuru town, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foeken, D.W.J.; Owuor, S.O.; Bruijn, de M.E.; Dijk, R.A.; Foeken, D.W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Multispatial livelihoods refer to households with a livelihood foothold in both urban and rural areas. Although it is well-known that multispatial households are common in sub-Saharan Africa, the phenomenon has seldom been looked at from the urban household perspective. A review of the literature in

  20. Women in Educational Leadership: The Case of Hope High School in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diko, Nolutho

    2014-01-01

    The Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996 confers equality on all South African citizens regardless of race and gender. It has been reported that, under apartheid, gender inequality was a way of life and even social liberation movements observed it. Education is not exempt from gender inequality; the Department of Education in 2003…

  1. Innovative business cases in the South Africa table grape and wine industry's: developing the concept op empowerment entrepreneurship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ras, P.J.; Vermeulen, W.J.V.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to reflect on an innovative initiative taken spontaneously by producers in the supply chain of the table grapes and wine industry to empower employees. Empowerment is a fundamental force for change in doing business in South Africa and its societies, especially in the li

  2. Evaluation of innovative land tools in sub-Saharan Africa: Three cases from a peri-urban context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Asperen, P.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is urbanizing rapidly, but most countries lack appropriate tools to manage their urban growth. This creates both risks and opportunities for prospective land holders, resulting in a tangle of insecure land rights and claims under multiple tenure systems. Recently, innovative land

  3. Recentering the Philosophical Foundations of Knowledge: The Case of Africa with a Special Focus on the Global Role of Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Ali A.

    2009-01-01

    The historical and actual marginalizations of African thought systems and knowledge constructions have been expansively responsible for the effectiveness of the dominant educational and governance systems imposed on Africa. The idea as well as the practice of these realities would conform to what Said (1993), Fanon (1967, 1968), and Memmi (1991)…

  4. A high-resolution numerical study at the Canary Islands off Northwest Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Evan; Colas, Francois; Molemaker, Jeroen; Sangrà, Pablo; Pascual, Ananda; McWilliams, James

    2015-04-01

    The Canary Island archipelago lies partially within the upwelling region off the northwest coast of Africa where it perturbs the southwestward flowing Canary Current. The circulation around the islands is complex, as has been revealed in studies based on satellite imagery and from in situ data. Cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies are shed by the islands. Filaments of cold upwelling water extend from the African coast and interact with the island eddies. However, our understanding of these mesoscale features and their interactions is still limited by the sparsity of data available. Few modelling studies have been done for the Canary Island region, and none has yet specifically addressed the dynamics of the island and coastal circulation. A high-resolution regional ocean model (ROMS) configuration has been developed to study the dynamics in this region. We take an offline-nesting approach: A large domain that covers the Canary Basin at 7.5-km resolution feeds two successively finer domains of 3 and 1 km. The 1 km grid is focused on the Canary Islands and nearby African coast. The surface and boundary forcings are climatological. Results at the basin scale have shown a good agreement with the observed regional seasonal cycle. Here, we present preliminary results from the nested solutions where eddies, fronts and filaments are found in abundance. Model eddy conversion terms confirm the observed seasonal cycle of eddy generation, and point to both baroclinic and barotropic processes as sources of instability. Submesocale activity exhibits a pronounced seasonal cycle which is consistent with previous studies in other regions. Time series of drag and lift forces at the island of Gran Canaria are discussed that show the high variability of the incident Canary Current and the associated eddy generation process.

  5. Social aspects of living with rheumatoid arthritis: a qualitative descriptive study in Soweto, South Africa – a low resource context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabile Esther

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA is a chronic illness with important functional, social and employment consequences. We therefore undertook a cross-sectional study, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health framework, to investigate the personal and social consequences of RA in women, living under largely impoverished conditions. Methods A qualitative case study design was used with a convenience sample of 60 women with RA living in Soweto, South Africa. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted to cover a range of experiences including onset of disease, treatment, environmental barriers and facilitators, employment, and social inclusion in family and community life. The outcomes are described according the International Classification of Functioning, Health and Disability framework at the body, person and societal levels and looking at both personal and environmental factors. Results The main features of living with RA were pain, muscle stiffness at the body level, difficulties in doing various activities such as mobility, washing, dressing, domestic activities, using transport and obtaining and maintaining employment at the person level. At the societal level the participants described difficulties moving around, interacting socially and taking part in community activities, fulfilling social roles and earning a living. Environmental facilitators such as assistive devices and health care services improved functioning. Barriers such as physical environments, lack of transport and basic services, such as electricity, and attitudes of others lead to social exclusion, loss of a sense of self and independence. Low income, lack of sufficient public transport, and sparse basic services were poverty features that exacerbated negative experiences. Conclusion The experiences of living with RA in a low resource context are similar to those in mid- and high resource contexts, but are exacerbated by

  6. The case for developing publicly-accessible datasets for health services research in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Jardali Fadi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of publicly-accessible datasets comprised a significant opportunity for health services research to evolve into a science that supports health policy making and evaluation, proper inter- and intra-organizational decisions and optimal clinical interventions. This paper investigated the role of publicly-accessible datasets in the enhancement of health care systems in the developed world and highlighted the importance of their wide existence and use in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA region. Discussion A search was conducted to explore the availability of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region. Although datasets were found in most countries in the region, those were limited in terms of their relevance, quality and public-accessibility. With rare exceptions, publicly-accessible datasets - as present in the developed world - were absent. Based on this, we proposed a gradual approach and a set of recommendations to promote the development and use of publicly-accessible datasets in the region. These recommendations target potential actions by governments, researchers, policy makers and international organizations. Summary We argue that the limited number of publicly-accessible datasets in the MENA region represents a lost opportunity for the evidence-based advancement of health systems in the region. The availability and use of publicly-accessible datasets would encourage policy makers in this region to base their decisions on solid representative data and not on estimates or small-scale studies; researchers would be able to exercise their expertise in a meaningful manner to both, policy makers and the public. The population of the MENA countries would exercise the right to benefit from locally- or regionally-based studies, versus imported and in 'best cases' customized ones. Furthermore, on a macro scale, the availability of regionally comparable publicly-accessible datasets would allow for the

  7. Humanitarian logistics: Review and case study of Zimbabwean experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Mbohwa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews and presents findings on mini-case studies done on the difficulties and problems faced by humanitarian organisations in running logistics systems in Zimbabwe. Document analysis was done and this was complemented by mini-case studies and semi-structured interviews and site visits. Mini-case studies of the operations of the World Food Programme, the International Red Cross Society and the Zimbabwe Red Cross Society, the World Health Organisation, the United Nations Children's Fund and the Zimbabwean Civil Protection Organisation in Zimbabwe are discussed. These clarify the difficulties and problems faced such as the lack of trained logistics personnel, lack of access to specialised humanitarian logistics courses and research information, the difficulty in using and adapting existing logistics systems in attending to humanitarian logistics and the lack of collaborative efforts that address the area specifically. This study seeks to use primary and secondary information to inform decision-making in humanitarian logistics with possible lessons for neighbouring countries, other regions in Africa and beyond. Activities on collaborative networks that are beneficial to humanitarian logistics are also suggested.

  8. Innovations in technology and the online learning environment: A case study of inter-university collaboration

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen ZANETTA

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of online learning. It is based on the researcher’s participation in an inter-university collaborative module at two higher education institutions in South Africa and the United States from August to December 2001. The paper addresses the advantages and disadvantages of the online learning environment and learning in a Virtual Classroom. It provides a critical interpretation of the virtual classroom experienced in this collaboration between institutions. It fi...

  9. Affective mediators of intergroup contact: a three-wave longitudinal study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, Hermann; Hewstone, Miles; Christ, Oliver; Voci, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Intergroup contact (especially cross-group friendship) is firmly established as a powerful strategy for combating group-based prejudice (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2006). Great advances have been made in understanding how contact reduces prejudice (Brown & Hewstone, 2005), highlighting the importance of affective mediators (Pettigrew & Tropp, 2008). The present study, a 3-wave longitudinal study undertaken among minority-status Colored high school children in South Africa (N = 465), explored the full mediation of the effects of cross-group friendships on positive outgroup attitudes, perceived outgroup variability, and negative action tendencies via positive (affective empathy) and negative (intergroup anxiety) affective mediators simultaneously. The target group was the majority-status White South African outgroup. As predicted, a bidirectional model described the relationship between contact, mediators, and prejudice significantly better over time than either autoregressive or unidirectional longitudinal models. However, full longitudinal mediation was only found in the direction from Time 1 contact to Time 3 prejudice (via Time 2 mediators), supporting the underlying tenet of the contact hypothesis. Specifically, cross-group friendships were positively associated with positive outgroup attitudes (via affective empathy) and perceived outgroup variability (via intergroup anxiety and affective empathy) and were negatively associated with negative action tendencies (via affective empathy). Following Pettigrew and Tropp (2008), we compared two alternative hypotheses regarding the relationship between intergroup anxiety and affective empathy over time. Time 1 intergroup anxiety was indirectly negatively associated with Time 3 affective empathy, via Time 2 cross-group friendships. We discuss the theoretical and empirical contributions of this study and make suggestions for future research.

  10. Development of a portfolio of learning for postgraduate family medicine training in South Africa: a Delphi study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenkins Louis

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Within the 52 health districts in South Africa, the family physician is seen as the clinical leader within a multi-professional district health team. Family physicians must be competent to meet 90% of the health needs of the communities in their districts. The eight university departments of Family Medicine have identified five unit standards, broken down into 85 training outcomes, for postgraduate training. The family medicine registrar must prove at the end of training that all the required training outcomes have been attained. District health managers must be assured that the family physician is competent to deliver the expected service. The Colleges of Medicine of South Africa (CMSA require a portfolio to be submitted as part of the uniform assessment of all registrars applying to write the national fellowship examinations. This study aimed to achieve a consensus on the contents and principles of the first national portfolio for use in family medicine training in South Africa. Methods A workshop held at the WONCA Africa Regional Conference in 2009 explored the purpose and broad contents of the portfolio. The 85 training outcomes, ideas from the WONCA workshop, the literature, and existing portfolios in the various universities were used to develop a questionnaire that was tested for content validity by a panel of 31 experts in family medicine in South Africa, via the Delphi technique in four rounds. Eighty five content items (national learning outcomes and 27 principles were tested. Consensus was defined as 70% agreement. For those items that the panel thought should be included, they were also asked how to provide evidence for the specific item in the portfolio, and how to assess that evidence. Results Consensus was reached on 61 of the 85 national learning outcomes. The panel recommended that 50 be assessed by the portfolio and 11 should not be. No consensus could be reached on the remaining 24 outcomes and these were

  11. Catalog of NASA-Related Case Studies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The OCKO has developed over 50 case studies to enhance learning at workshops, training, retreats and conferences. Case studies make mission knowledge attractive and...

  12. Access to electronic health knowledge in five countries in Africa: a descriptive study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honorati Masanja

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Access to medical literature in developing countries is helped by open access publishing and initiatives to allow free access to subscription only journals. The effectiveness of these initiatives in Africa has not been assessed. This study describes awareness, reported use and factors influencing use of on-line medical literature via free access initiatives. Methods Descriptive study in four teaching hospitals in Cameroon, Nigeria, Tanzania and Uganda plus one externally funded research institution in The Gambia. Survey with postgraduate doctors and research scientists to determine Internet access patterns, reported awareness of on-line medical information and free access initiatives; semi structured interviews with a sub-sample of survey participants to explore factors influencing use. Results In the four African teaching hospitals, 70% of the 305 postgraduate doctors reported textbooks as their main source of information; 66% had used the Internet for health information in the last week. In two hospitals, Internet cafés were the main Internet access point. For researchers at the externally-funded research institution, electronic resources were their main source, and almost all had used the Internet in the last week. Across all 333 respondents, 90% had heard of PubMed, 78% of BMJ on line, 49% the Cochrane Library, 47% HINARI, and 19% BioMedCentral. HINARI use correlates with accessing the Internet on computers located in institutions. Qualitative data suggested there are difficulties logging into HINARI and that sometimes it is librarians that limit access to passwords. Conclusion Text books remain an important resource for postgraduate doctors in training. Internet use is common, but awareness of free-access initiatives is limited. HINARI and other initiatives could be more effective with strong institutional endorsement and management to promote and ensure access.

  13. A confirmatory factor analytical study of a servant leadership measure in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bright Mahembe

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Servant leadership is a value-based leadership practice that plays a critical role in team effectiveness and organisational success.Research purpose: The goal of the study was to validate the Servant Leadership Questionnaire(SLQ, which Barbuto and Wheeler developed, on a South African sample.Motivation for the study: The literature is replete with evidence of the role of follower focused leadership practices in improving team effectiveness, employee engagement and organisational success. We need to complement these efforts with psychometrically sound measuring instruments.Research design, approach and method: The authors drew a convenience sample of 288 school teachers from schools in the Western Cape Province of South Africa. They used the SLQ that Barbuto and Wheeler developed to measure servant leadership.Main findings: The authors found high levels of reliability for the sub-scales of the latent variables. They found good fit with the data for the measurement model of the five latent servant leadership dimensions (altruistic calling, persuasive mapping, emotional healing, wisdom and organisational stewardship through confirmatory factor analyses (CFA. They obtained reasonable fit for the first- and second-order servant leadership CFA. The authors concluded that the SLQ shows reasonable fit.Practical/managerial implications: The SLQ showed evidence of reliability and construct validity. It can contribute to the scientific selection and development of education leaders in South African schools.Contribution/value add: Servant leadership incorporates a service ethic that fosters participatory management, teacher development and team building. The department of education should increase team effectiveness in schools by selecting and developing servant leadership.

  14. An overview of industrial and organisational psychology research in South Africa: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Schreuder

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: The generation and development of knowledge for the benefit of the discipline of industrial and organisational psychology by means of research is a core academic focus.Research purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore general research trends in the field of industrial and organisational psychology in South Africa from 1950 to 2008.Motivation for study: Research in the field tends to be influenced by either the changing needs of business or the occupational or personal fields of interest of academics, which often lead to an overemphasis on specific subdisciplines at the expense of others. This research aims to critically review dominant trends in the research focus areas in the field, in the light of present challenges in the changing work context. Recommendations are also made for possible future research.Research design, approach and method: A broad systematic review was carried out to analyse documented published and accredited South African research in the field (n = 2501.Main findings: Although there has been a proportional decline in personnel psychology research since 1990, there has been a proportional increase in both organisational psychology and employee wellness research since 1980 and 1990, respectively. Some areas of the industrial and organisational psychology field appear to be consistently under-researched.Practical implications: The insights derived from the findings can be used by academia and researchers in the field to plan future research initiatives.Contribution/value-add: The findings provide preliminary insights that contribute to the body of knowledge concerned with the industrial and organisational psychology field in the South African context.

  15. Africa and Applied Linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoni, Sinfree, Ed.; Meinhof, Ulrike H., Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This collection of articles includes: "Introducing Applied Linguistics in Africa" (Sinfree Makoni and Ulrike H. Meinhof); "Language Ideology and Politics: A Critical Appraisal of French as Second Official Language in Nigeria" (Tope Omoniyi); "The Democratisation of Indigenous Languages: The Case of Malawi" (Themba…

  16. Groundwater ecohydrology: GIScience tools to forecast change and sustainability of global ecosystems, studies in Africa, Europe and North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Steward

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the interface between groundwater hydrology and ecology, and addresses a scientific grand challenge to develop a comprehensive, systematic understanding of continental water dynamics by linking the hydrosphere and biosphere. There exists a current lack of data interoperability between groundwater modeling tools due to differences in numerical techniques – Analytic Element Method (AEM, Finite Difference Method (FDM, and Finite Element Method (FEM – which lend themselves well to either vector or raster data, and legacy input/output file formats that are not well suited across models. Nonetheless, investigative computational tools are all founded in the same conceptualization of hydrologic properties associated with mass, flux, pathways and residence time. A consistent framework is developed using modern Geographic Information Science (GIScience methods to organize and archive important information from international datasets and previous groundwater ecohydrology studies organized around aquifer and water point, line, polygon and raster features. Case studies illustrate the efficacy of this platform to address existing data interoperability issues for representative groundwater ecohydrology problems of global significance including the impact of human-induced forcings, change in species, and forcings by natural processes on groundwater ecohydrology. In North America, we study the relationships between groundwater pumping in the Ogallala Aquifer and changes in riparian habitat and phreatophyte species composition. In Europe, we study the impacts of changes in forest species composition on groundwater recharge and baseflow to biologically diverse fens and wetlands in the Veluwe sand hill region of The Netherlands. In Africa, we study the wetlands of the Okavango Delta in Botswana that forms an oasis in the midst of the Kalahari Desert and the role of groundwater in flushing salts from this freshwater ecosystem. In each study

  17. Case Study: The Chemistry of Cocaine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewprashad, Brahmadeo

    2011-01-01

    This column provides original articles on innovations in case study teaching, assessment of the method, as well as case studies with teaching notes. This month's case study focuses on the chemistry of cocaine to teach a number of core concepts in organic chemistry. It also requires that students read and analyze an original research paper on…

  18. Writing case studies in information systems research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Blonk, H.C.

    2003-01-01

    Case study research can be reported in different ways. This paper explores the various ways in which researchers may choose to write down their case studies and then introduces a subsequent typology of writing case studies. The typology is based on a 2 x 2 matrix, resulting in four forms of writing

  19. A Survey Study of Pregnant Women and Healthcare Practitioners Assessing the Knowledge of Attitudes and Practices of Hepatitis B Management at a Teaching Hospital in Kumasi, Ghana, West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Anita; Jose, JoAnn; Larsen-Reindorf, Roderick; Small, Christina; Nde, Helen; Dugas, Lara; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Nelson, Kenrad; Ezeanolue, Eche; Layden, Jennifer

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major global health problem, with sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), including West Africa, bearing a large proportion of cases. Mother-to-child and early childhood horizontal transmission, the most common mechanisms of disease spread in West Africa, lead to a high rate of chronic infection. Although these transmission mechanisms are preventable through vaccine and hepatitis B immunoglobulin, they are not routinely used due to limited resources. Antiviral therapy in pregnant women who are HBV positive is another option to reduce transmission. We conducted a survey study of pregnant women and clinicians at a teaching hospital in West Africa to determine the knowledge base about HBV and willingness to implement measures to reduce HBV transmission. Pregnant women had limited knowledge about HBV and the common transmission mechanisms. Clinicians identified cost and time as the major barriers to implementation of HBV prevention measures. Both pregnant women and clinicians were largely willing to implement and use measures, including antivirals, to help reduce HBV transmission.

  20. Palaeobotanical studies from tropical Africa: relevance to the evolution of forest, woodland and savannah biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Bonnie F

    2004-10-29

    Fossil plants provide data on climate, community composition and structure, all of which are relevant to the definition and recognition of biomes. Macrofossils reflect local vegetation, whereas pollen assemblages sample a larger area. The earliest solid evidence for angiosperm tropical rainforest in Africa is based primarily on Late Eocene to Late Oligocene (ca. 39-26 Myr ago) pollen assemblages from Cameroon, which are rich in forest families. Plant macrofossil assemblages from elsewhere in interior Africa for this time interval are rare, but new work at Chilga in the northwestern Ethiopian Highlands documents forest communities at 28 Myr ago. Initial results indicate botanical affinities with lowland West African forest. The earliest known woodland community in tropical Africa is dated at 46 Myr ago in northern Tanzania, as documented by leaves and fruits from lake deposits. The community around the lake was dominated by caesalpinioid legumes, but included Acacia, for which this, to my knowledge, is the earliest record. This community is structurally similar to modern miombo, although it is different at the generic level. The grass-dominated savannah biome began to expand in the Middle Miocene (16 Myr ago), and became widespread in the Late Miocene (ca. 8 Myr ago), as documented by pollen and carbon isotopes from both West and East Africa.

  1. Africa South of the Sahara. Grade Twelve. [Resource Unit IV.] Project Social Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    This is the fourth of seven resource units for a twelfth grade course on value conflicts and policy decisions. The topic for this unit is Africa south of the Sahara. The objectives are listed as to generalizations, skills, and values. The double-page format relates objectives to pertinent content, teaching procedures, and instructional materials.…

  2. Evaluation of a health systems knowledge translation network for Africa (KTNET): a study protocol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ekirapa-Kiracho, E.; Walugembe, D.R.; Tetui, M.; Kisakye, A.N.; Rutebemberwa, E.; Sengooba, F.; Kananura, R.M.; Wensing, M.; Kiwanuka, S.N.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundDespite the increasing investment in health-related research in Sub-Saharan Africa, a large gulf remains between what is known and what is practiced in health systems. Knowledge translation programs aim to ensure that a wide range of stakeholders are aware of and use research evidence to i

  3. How Social and Critical Constructivism Can Inform Science Curriculum Design: A Study from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stears, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Background: The introduction of a new National Curriculum in post-apartheid South Africa heralded a different approach in education. This curriculum not only advocated the development of knowledge and skills, but also emphasised education for democracy and citizenship. It seeks to balance central control (and a single curriculum) with local…

  4. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonini Piergiorgio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV, once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  5. Concentrated photovoltaics, a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonini, Piergiorgio; Centro, Sandro; Golfetto, Stelvio; Saccà, Alessandro

    2014-12-01

    Concentrated Photovoltaics (CPV), once a niche technology, has now reached the maturity and reliability for large scale power generation. Especially in regions where temperatures are very high, the use of high efficiency triple junction solar cells with concentrating optics allows stable energy yield. Thus CPV can be seen as complementary and not in concurrence with silicon photovoltaics. The state of the art, the advantages and limitations of this technology will be shown. Among the main advantages of CPV is the possibility of a much higher energy supply, when compared to silicon photovoltaics, both comparing CPV and silicon with same area or the same installed power. The use of recycled and recyclable materials allows a more environmentally friendly production. The possibility to couple CPV with desalination facilities, energy storage will be analysed. As an example a case study of a CPV installation in Northern Italy is discussed. Here the use of mature technologies, derived from automotive and lighting sectors resulted in a simple and efficient module.

  6. AFRICA2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alphonce Shiundu

    2011-01-01

    THE big story out of Africa in 2011 was the referendum in southern Sudan.That culminated in the birth of a new country,the Republic of South Sudan,which joins the struggling band of developing nations.Africa's newest independent country is high on the hope of prosperity,wary about conflict,dogged with corruption,poverty and hunger,but nonetheless independent.

  7. Present state and future prospects of the fermentation industry in the developing countries of Africa: the Nigerian case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, N.

    1985-02-01

    Although the developing countries of Africa consume products of the fermentation industry, these are usually imported, mainly from Europe. Where the fermentation industry exists at all it is limited to the beer industry. Even this is planned from Europe, whence the major raw materials are also imported. Shortage of hard currency is however forcing a rethinking of the situation. The ultimate end of this is the indigenisation of the fermentation industry. This involves economic considerations, raw materials to be used, the desirable properties of the micro-organisms to be used, personnel, know-how, and the improvement of the process by research. An indigenous fermentation industry in the developing countries of Africa may not only lead to the local production of well-known fermentation products but may also lead to the industrialization of the manufacture of fermentation products currently produced by small-scale traditional methods. 6 references.

  8. Mental health promotion initiatives for children and youth in contexts of poverty: the case of South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Inge; Swartz, Leslie; Bhana, Arvin; Flisher, Alan J

    2010-09-01

    In order to achieve sustainable development and a consequent reduction in levels of poverty, a multisectoral response to development incorporating pro-poor economic policies in low- to middle-income countries (LMICs) is required. An important aspect is strengthening the human capital asset base of vulnerable populations. This should include the promotion of mental health, which can play an important role in breaking the intergenerational cycle of poverty and mental ill-health through promoting positive mental health outcomes within the context of risk. For each developmental phase of early childhood, middle childhood and adolescence, this article provides: (i) an overview of the critical risk influences and evidence of the role of mental health promotion initiatives in mediating these influences; (ii) a background to these risk influences in South Africa; and (iii) a review of mental health promotion initiatives addressing distal upstream influences at a macro-policy level in South Africa, as well as evidence-based micro- and community-level interventions that have the potential to be scaled up. From this review, strengths and gaps in existing micro- and community-level evidence-based mental health promotion interventions as well as macro-policy-level initiatives are identified, and recommendations made for South Africa that may also have applicability for other LMICs.

  9. Cholera outbreaks in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengel, Martin A; Delrieu, Isabelle; Heyerdahl, Leonard; Gessner, Bradford D

    2014-01-01

    During the current seventh cholera pandemic, Africa bore the major brunt of global disease burden. More than 40 years after its resurgence in Africa in 1970, cholera remains a grave public health problem, characterized by large disease burden, frequent outbreaks, persistent endemicity, and high CFRs, particularly in the region of the central African Great Lakes which might act as reservoirs for cholera. There, cases occur year round with a rise in incidence during the rainy season. Elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, cholera occurs mostly in outbreaks of varying size with a constant threat of widespread epidemics. Between 1970 and 2011, African countries reported 3,221,050 suspected cholera cases to the World Health Organization, representing 46 % of all cases reported globally. Excluding the Haitian epidemic, sub-Saharan Africa accounted for 86 % of reported cases and 99 % of deaths worldwide in 2011. The number of cholera cases is possibly much higher than what is reported to the WHO due to the variation in modalities, completeness, and case definition of national cholera data. One source on country specific incidence rates for Africa, adjusting for underreporting, estimates 1,341,080 cases and 160,930 deaths (52.6 % of 2,548,227 estimated cases and 79.6 % of 209,216 estimated deaths worldwide). Another estimates 1,411,453 cases and 53,632 deaths per year, respectively (50 % of 2,836,669 estimated cases and 58.6 % of 91,490 estimated deaths worldwide). Within Africa, half of all cases between 1970 and 2011 were notified from only seven countries: Angola, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Mozambique, Nigeria, Somalia, Tanzania, and South Africa. In contrast to a global trend of decreasing case fatality ratios (CFRs), CFRs have remained stable in Africa at approximately 2 %. Early propagation of cholera outbreaks depends largely on the extent of individual bacterial shedding, host and organism characteristics, the likelihood of people coming into contact with

  10. Cancer prevention in Africa: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busolo, David S; Woodgate, Roberta L

    2015-06-01

    Cancer is an emerging crisis in Africa. Cancer was the seventh leading cause of death in 2004. If not controlled, cancer incidence in Africa is expected to reach 1.28 million cases annually and claim 970,000 lives yearly by 2030. This paper presents a review of the literature on current cancer prevention approaches in Africa, and consists of cancer prevention studies conducted in African countries (e.g. South Africa and Nigeria) from PubMed, Scopus, and CINAHL databases. Common female cancers in Africa are breast and cervical cancer while prostate cancer is the most common neoplasm among African males. Other common cancers are liver, colorectal, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Mortality related to these cancers comes as a result of delays in screening and treatment, unfamiliarity with cancer and cancer prevention, inaccessibility and unaffordability of care, and inefficiency of healthcare systems. Cancer prevention efforts are deficient because many governments lack cancer prevention and control policies. Also contributing to the lack of cancer prevention and control policies are low levels of awareness, scarce human and financial resources, and inadequacy of cancer registries. Overall, governments grapple with limited funds and competing healthcare priorities. As cancer continues to increase in Africa, the need for rigorous interdisciplinary research on cancer etiology and monitoring in Africa has never been timelier. Cost-effective cancer prevention programs, coordination of donor funding, advocacy, and education should be aggressively pursued. The call for more collaborative approaches in research and policy is urgently needed.

  11. Demystifying Instructional Innovation: The Case of Teaching with Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantar, Lina D.

    2013-01-01

    Issues emerging from instructional innovation are inevitable, yet basing any curriculum shift on a theoretical framework is paramount. This paper grounds the case-based pedagogy in three learning theories: behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism. The three theories are described and situated in relation to the case study method. An…

  12. Preparing collections for digitisation: The case of religious archives in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Garaba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to suggest some of the steps that archival repositories with religious archives should adopt when preparing collections for digitisation. The proposed resource manual is based on a survey using questionnaires, observation and interviews that was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in archival repositories with religious archives in Pietermaritzburg, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa to ascertain their readiness for digitisation. The findings revealed that the lack of adequate housing facilities and the need to promote access were incentivising the need to pursue this expensive but noble venture. In other words, the two models of digitisation preferred by these archival repositories were on demand and user initiated, respectively. Despite the great enthusiasm by these surveyed institutions to leapfrog into the digital era, the study concluded, inter alia, that there was a need for the repositories to ensure that their analogue material was meticulously organised before embarking on digitisation. Other pertinent issues included the need for pragmatism, laying parameters in as far as the scope and purpose of what such a project would aim at, identifying resources (human, technical and financial, the benefits to be derived from the digitisation, time framing, transforming the organisational culture, copyright issues, metadata provision, collaborating and selection of content to be digitised. These recommendations come against a backdrop of the poor state of religious archives in the Pietermaritzburg Cluster of Theological Libraries (PCTL and the need for these repositories to strategically position themselves for the inevitable digitisation, thus ensuring the survival of this record in the long term. It was Bailey who advocated that information professionals need to recognise that although technology moves quickly, with organisations slow to change, we need to work to expedite our responsiveness to change, whatever its pace

  13. Background: GIS Applications and Case Studies

    OpenAIRE

    01, CCTP; Albert, Don

    1998-01-01

    This unit presents (1) a case study and (2) a bibliographic resource for GIS in the medical field. The case study illustrates the use of a GIS to monitor and analyze spatial patterns of physicians' multiple locations. This case highlights data location, acquisition and assessment, join and relational operators, geocoding and distance calculations, and standard query language.

  14. Quality of generic medicines in South Africa: Perceptions versus Reality – A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Aarti

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Generic Medicines are an important policy option allowing for access to affordable, essential medicines. Quality of generic medicines must be guaranteed through the activities of national medicines regulatory authorities. Existing negative perceptions surrounding the quality of generic medicines must be addressed to ensure that people use them with confidence. Campaigns to increase the uptake of generic medicines by consumers and providers of healthcare need to be informed by local norms and practices. This study sought to compare South African consumers’ and healthcare providers’ perceptions of quality of generics to the actual quality of selected products. Methods The study was conducted at the local level in three cities of South Africa: Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town. Purposive sampling was used to recruit consumer participants (n = 73 and random sampling used to recruit healthcare providers from public and private sectors (n = 15. Data were obtained through twelve focus group discussions with consumers and semi-structured interviews (n = 15 with healthcare providers in order to gain familiarity with perceptions of quality. One hundred and thirty five products comprising paracetamol tablets (n = 47, amoxicillin capsules (n = 45 and hydrochlorothiazide tablets (n = 43 were sourced from public and private sector healthcare providers. These products were subjected to in vitro dissolution, uniformity of weight and identity (Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy tests using prescribed methods from the British (2005 and United States Pharmacopeias (2006. Results Respondents described drug quality in relation to the effect on symptoms. Procurement and use behavior of healthcare providers was influenced by prior experience, manufacturers’ names and consumers’ ability to pay. All formulations passed the in vitro tests for quality. Conclusions This study showed clear differences between

  15. Community and research staff collaboration for development of materials to inform microbicide study participants in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Woodsong

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Clinical trials of new vaginal products require careful communication with participants about trial requirements. Most microbicide trials have been multi-site studies conducted among women in sub-Saharan Africa, where literacy levels and understanding of scientific methods differ from those designing and conducting the trials. Microbicide trials require women to insert objects in their vagina and ensure they are present in the vagina during sex. For many women, this is a novel behaviour. These behaviours take place within the context of clinical trial participation, which is an additional novelty. Research teams must develop informational materials to help participants understand the clinical trial and input from local research staff and community members can improve the content and format of these materials. Methods: This paper discusses the development of illustrated materials developed for microbicide trial participants, presenting examples from two studies. In both studies, research staff and community advisory groups collaborated to review and revise materials. Results: Collaborative efforts revealed insights about how to convey information about clinical trial participation and microbicide use. These insights highlighted realities of the local context, details that might be misunderstood, illustrations of a sensitive nature and concerns about blood testing. In particular, information about blood testing and product use instructions required careful consideration. Although the research team anticipated needing advice on how best to convey information on these topics to participants, some aspects of potential participant concerns about these topics were also new to the research team. Community advisors and local research staff suggested better ways to convey this information, and provided guidance on how to use the materials. Conclusions: The collaboration served to develop informational materials for microbicide trial

  16. A Comparative Study on Satellite- and Model-Based Crop Phenology in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Vintrou

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Crop phenology is essential for evaluating crop production in the food insecure regions of West Africa. The aim of the paper is to study whether satellite observation of plant phenology are consistent with ground knowledge of crop cycles as expressed in agro-simulations. We used phenological variables from a MODIS Land Cover Dynamics (MCD12Q2 product and examined whether they reproduced the spatio-temporal variability of crop phenological stages in Southern Mali. Furthermore, a validated cereal crop growth model for this region, SARRA-H (System for Regional Analysis of Agro-Climatic Risks, provided precise agronomic information. Remotely-sensed green-up, maturity, senescence and dormancy MODIS dates were extracted for areas previously identified as crops and were compared with simulated leaf area indices (LAI temporal profiles generated using the SARRA-H crop model, which considered the main cropping practices. We studied both spatial (eight sites throughout South Mali during 2007 and temporal (two sites from 2002 to 2008 differences between simulated crop cycles and determined how the differences were indicated in satellite-derived phenometrics. The spatial comparison of the phenological indicator observations and simulations showed mainly that (i the satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS was detected approximately 30 days before the model-derived SOS; and (ii the satellite-derived end-of-season (EOS was typically detected 40 days after the model-derived EOS. Studying the inter-annual difference, we verified that the mean bias was globally consistent for different climatic conditions. Therefore, the land cover dynamics derived from the MODIS time series can reproduce the spatial and temporal variability of different start-of-season and end-of-season crop species. In particular, we recommend simultaneously using start-of-season phenometrics with crop models for yield forecasting to complement commonly used climate data and provide a better

  17. Educational Development in Africa: II -- Costing and Financing. IIEP African Studies Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Raymond, Ed.; Poignant, Raymond, Ed.

    This book contains three monographs based on research conducted in a number of African countries between 1965 and 1967 in an attempt to illuminate some of the problems confronting educational planners in developing countries. This book is one of three related volumes of case studies on educational planning in the English-speaking countries of…

  18. The study of Spanish in the regulated plans middle and upper teachings on the African continent. Case Study: Gabon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugénie Eyeang

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Spanish as a foreign language (ELE, a school course taught in sub-Saharan Africa according to the inherited model of France, from content to assessments, through the levels of education and duration. The purpose of this article is to describe the study of Spanish in the regulated plans in middle and upper school teachings at the African continent as the case of Gabon, from a conceptual framework inspired by Parsons’ (1997 action theory. This is to show the interaction between organizational structures, physical and symbolic ones, in every level of  Spanish teaching. Then the paper sees if there is any consistency between existing structures and purpose of the teaching of Spanish in this country. We support the study analyzing contents: official documents and various administrative reports. The interest is to see how to improve internal and external efficiency in the teaching of this subject in Africa.

  19. Transanal rectopexy - twelve case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Henrique Oleques Fernandes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study analyzed the results of transanal rectopexy and showed the benefits of this surgical technique. METHOD: Twelve patients were submitted to rectopexy between 1997 and 2011. The surgical technique used was transanal rectopexy, where the mesorectum was fixed to the sacrum with nonabsorbable suture. Three patients had been submitted to previous surgery, two by the Delorme technique and one by the Thiersch technique. RESULTS: Postoperative hospital stay ranged from 1 to 4 days. One patient (8.3% had intraoperative hematoma, which was treated with local compression and antibiotics. One patient (8.3% had residual mucosal prolapse, which was resected. Prolapse recurrence was seen in one case (8.3%. Improved incontinence occurred in 75% of patients and one patient reported obstructed evacuation in the first month after surgery. No death occurred. CONCLUSION: Transanal rectopexy is a simple, low cost technique, which has shown good efficacy in rectal prolapse control.OBJETIVO: O presente estudo analisou os resultados da retopexia pela via transanal e expôs os benefícios desta técnica cirúrgica. MÉTODO: Doze pacientes com prolapso foram operados no período de 1997 a 2011. A técnica cirúrgica usada foi a retopexia transanal, onde o mesorreto foi fixado ao sacro com fio inabsorvível. Três pacientes tinham cirurgia prévia, dois pela técnica de Delorme e um pela técnica de Thiersch. RESULTADOS: A permanência hospitalar pós-operatória variou de 1- 4 dias. Uma paciente (8,3% apresentou hematoma transoperatório que foi tratado com compressão local e antibioticoterapia. Um paciente apresentou prolapso mucoso residual (8,3%, que foi ressecado. Houve recidiva da procidência em um caso (8,3%. A melhora da incontinência ocorreu em 75% dos pacientes e uma paciente apresentou bloqueio evacuatório no primeiro mês após a cirurgia. Não houve mortalidade entre os pacientes operados. CONCLUSÃO: A retopexia transanal é uma t

  20. Cloud attenuation studies of the six major climatic zones of Africa for Ka and V satellite system design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temidayo Victor Omotosho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE Cloud cover statistics, cloud base and top height, cloud temperature, frequency of precipitation, freezing height, total cloud liquid water content (TCLWC and cloud attenuation data have been obtained for the six major climatic zones of Africa. The present results reveal a strong positive correlation between the monthly distribution of low cloud cover, cloud top height, cloud temperature, and frequency of precipitation in the six zones. The cumulative distribution of the TCLWC derived from radiosonde measurement in each climatic zone shows a departure from the TCLWC recommended by the ITU Study Group 3 data, with an exceedance percentage difference of 32% to 90% occurring 0.01% to 10% of the time. The underestimation of the TCLWC is greatest in the tropical rain forest. A comparison of the cloud attenuation cumulative distribution in the Ka and V bands reveals that the International Telecommunication Union – Region (ITU-R is an intergovernmental organization that develops rain model based on collected data around the world. This model underestimates the cloud attenuation in all of the six climatic zones by 2.0 dB and 4.7 dB for the arid Sahara desert, 1.3 dB and 3.0 dB in semi-arid North Africa, 1.3 dB and 1.5 dB in savannah North Africa, 2.0 dB and 3.6 dB in the tropical rain forest, 1.3 dB and 2.9 dB in savannah South Africa and 0.9 dB and 2.6 dB in semi-arid South Africa, respectively, at 30 and 50 GHz. Overall, the cloud attenuation in the tropical rain-forest zone is very high because of the high annual total cloud cover (98%, high annual frequency of precipitation (4.5, low annual clear sky amount (8%, high cloud depth (10,937 m, high 0°C isotherm height (4.7 km, high TCLWC (4.0 kg/m2 at 0.01% and low seasonal cloud base height (356 m.

  1. Eastern Africa - A study of the Regional Maize Market and Marketing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    Maize is the most important staple food in the Eastern Africa region and the most widely traded agricultural commodity. Therefore, the performance of grain markets has a significant impact on people's welfare, particularly the poor, and is critical to inducing pro-poor growth in Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, i.e. the countries under review in this report. Marketing costs at the borders woul...

  2. The call and rise of disability leaders in Uganda: The first Christian-based bachelors program in disability studies and special education at Africa Renewal University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley A Hall

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the epidemic that prevails in the lives of persons and families affected by disabilities in developing countries, mainly East Africa and Uganda. Grating data and demography are exposed, along with some of the common dilemmas found in the Ugandan educational systems, churches, and communities, in order to express the palpable realities of families and persons with disabilities. Patrons will discover the features and attributes that constructs the disability studies and special education bachelor’s program at Africa Renewal University, including course listings and course content, and how this program seeks to alleviate some of the major wounds for persons and families affected by disabilities in East Africa, which all contribute to identifying the problem and bringing forth resolution. Lastly, this paper highlights bouyant outcomes, strategies for moving forward, and a scope of the next steps for Christlike front-runners and the souls affected by disabilities subsiding in Uganda and East Africa.

  3. Delays in seeking an abortion until the second trimester: a qualitative study in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Mosotho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite changes to the South African abortion legislation in 1996, barriers to women accessing abortions still exist. Second trimester abortions, an inherently more risky procedure, continue to be 20% of all abortions. Understanding the reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester is important for informing interventions to reduce the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa. Methods Qualitative research methods were used to collect data. Twenty-seven in-depth interviews were conducted in 2006 with women seeking a second trimester abortion at one public sector tertiary hospital and two NGO health care facilities in the greater Cape Town area, South Africa. Data were analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results Almost all women described multiple and interrelated factors that influenced the timing of seeking an abortion. Reasons why women delayed seeking an abortion were complex and were linked to changes in personal circumstances often leading to indecision, delays in detecting a pregnancy and health service related barriers that hindered access to abortion services. Conclusion Understanding the complex reasons why women delay seeking an abortion until the second trimester can inform health care interventions aimed at reducing the proportion of second trimester abortions in South Africa.

  4. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  5. Drive Electric Vermont Case Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, Fred [Energetics Incorporated, Columbia, MD (United States); Roberts, Dave [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation (VEIC), Burlington, VT (United States); Francfort, Jim [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); White, Sera [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Currently in the United States, the heavy majority of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) sales have been in highly conducive, selected, metropolitan areas; opposed to more broad distribution across the country. The U.S. Department of Energy’s EV Everywhere Grand Challenge is looking carefully at the barriers and opportunities that exist to enable small and midsize communities to partake in the PEV market and benefit from the economic and environmental advantages of PEVs. In order to gain insight into these challenges and barriers, DOE selected a success story (i.e., Drive Electric Vermont) as the subject of this case study, as the state of Vermont is tied with Detroit, Michigan in having the highest percentage of 2014 (most recent complete data) PEV registrations for cold weather U.S. cities and has seen more than a sixfold increase in charging stations over the last three years. The overall objective of this case study was to use the lessons learned from Drive Electric Vermont to determine what activities are most effective at encouraging acquisitions of PEVs and deployment of charging infrastructure in small to midsize communities, prioritizing and sequencing their implementation, identifying robust means for extrapolation, and applying this understanding to other small to midsize communities across the nation. The Drive Electric Vermont Program was formed in 2012 with a goal of increasing the use of electrified transportation in Vermont through policy development, education and outreach, and infrastructure development. The Drive Electric Vermont Program can be broadly broken into four components: (1) strategic planning/leadership, (2) stakeholder/partnership development, (3) education and outreach, and (4) incentives. The early phases of the program focused heavily on strategic planning, and stakeholder and partnership development, followed by a transition to education and outreach activities, charging infrastructure development, and grant and incentive programs

  6. Role of the African Diaspora Scholars in strengthening higher education in Africa: Case of a Danish-Ugandan Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ransom Nambuanyi, Lekunze

    2016-01-01

    for them to make their contribution to an emerging Africa. Given the rich and diverse intellectual, scholarly, disciplinary and socio-cultural background of some African diaspora scholars, many feel a moral responsibility to lend a hand of “intellectual remittance” to the development of scholarship...... circulation, enhancing academic visibility and leadership, and enhanced partnerships, this report seeks to point out that there can also be certain key challenges and learning points obtained in this kind of scientific collaboration. These may include: the asymmetrical capacity and resource constraints...

  7. Roadmaster Roading Contractors Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazel Taylor

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems analysis students seldom experience the practical difficulties of the initial investigation into a client’s requirements. They get little chance to practice the skills they need to investigate complex and confused problem situations, or to appreciate the wider organizational issues that can impact on a situation. This teaching case is designed to give students the opportunity to practice and apply investigation skills and to challenge them to consider the wider work environment when considering possible solutions to a problem situation. The case is conducted as a role-play, with students acting as systems analysts and teaching staff role-playing the clients. The students develop a report analyzing the client’s situation based on the issues that arise during the interviews. Feed-back sessions focus on discussing how well the students applied various interviewing strategies previously covered in lectures, and on the wider organizational problems that could impact proposed information system solutions.

  8. Associative visual agnosia: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnallet, A; Carbonnel, S; David, D; Moreaud, O

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study, an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory.

  9. Study on Case Teaching of Financial Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Zhenghong; Che, Zhengmei

    2011-01-01

    Case teaching is an efficient teaching method of management. It plays an important role to enhance the students' ability to practice the theory. However, case teaching of financial management has not achieved the expected results. The paper aims to study the importance, characteristics and corresponding methods of case teaching method of financial…

  10. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    A. Charnallet; S. Carbonnel; David, D.; Moreaud, O.

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive) episodic models of memory [4].

  11. Delays and loss to follow-up before treatment of drug-resistant tuberculosis following implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF in South Africa: A retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Helen; Dickson-Hall, Lindy; Ndjeka, Norbert; Stevens, Wendy; Nicol, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Background South Africa has a large burden of rifampicin-resistant tuberculosis (RR-TB), with 18,734 patients diagnosed in 2014. The number of diagnosed patients has increased substantially with the introduction of the Xpert MTB/RIF test, used for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis for all patients with presumptive TB. Routine aggregate data suggest a large treatment gap (pre-treatment loss to follow-up) between the numbers of patients with laboratory-confirmed RR-TB and those reported to have started second-line treatment. We aimed to assess the impact of Xpert MTB/RIF implementation on the delay to treatment initiation and loss to follow-up before second-line treatment for RR-TB across South Africa. Methods and findings A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted to assess second-line treatment initiation and treatment delay among laboratory-diagnosed RR-TB patients. Cohorts, including approximately 300 sequentially diagnosed RR-TB patients per South African province, were drawn from the years 2011 and 2013, i.e., before and after Xpert implementation. Patients with prior laboratory RR-TB diagnoses within 6 mo and currently treated patients were excluded. Treatment initiation was determined through data linkage with national and local treatment registers, medical record review, interviews with health care staff, and direct contact with patients or household members. Additional laboratory data were used to track cases. National estimates of the percentage of patients who initiated treatment and time to treatment were weighted to account for the sampling design. There were 2,508 and 2,528 eligible patients in the 2011 and 2013 cohorts, respectively; 92% were newly diagnosed with RR-TB (no prior RR-TB diagnoses). Nationally, among the 2,340 and 2,311 new RR-TB patients in the 2011 and 2013 cohorts, 55% (95% CI 53%–57%) and 63% (95% CI 61%–65%), respectively, started treatment within 6 mo of laboratory receipt of their diagnostic specimen (p South Africa that

  12. Multi-scale climate change modeling study over the Greater Horn of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowden, Jared Heath

    There has been limited regional climate modeling (RCM) studies of climate change over the Greater Horn of Africa because of challenges in evaluating model performance with a limited observational network. The ultimate goal of this study was to provide a RCM climate change projection for the GHA. RCM climate change projections are particularly important for the GHA because the surface boundary forcing varies on horizontal scales not resolved by the IPCC General Circulation Models (GCMs) used for current regional climate change assessment. This study adopted several steps to provide optimal RCM projections and understand the uncertainty and added value of the RCM projections. These steps include the following: (1) model customization; (2) multi-year continuous RCM simulation with Reanalysis ICBCs and a single GCM; (3) GCM mean error; (4) A2 GCM projections; (5) A2 RCM projections; (6) modified ICBC approach. The RCM was customized with particular interest in precipitation processes. The customization found that the convective scheme of MIT-Emanuel in conjunction with reducing the relative humidity for threshold for cloud formation provided the most realistic simulation in terms of spatial distribution, convective partition, rainfall totals and temperature bias when compared with observations. The above RCM customization run for multiple years illustrated the RCM has more value for temperature than precipitation. The RCM was able to capture the inter-annual temperature variability, but the positive precipitation bias limited the models ability for inter-annual precipitation variability. However, the RCM was able to capture lower frequency modes of variability for precipitation. Comparison of multi-year RCM simulations using the GCM and Reanalysis lateral boundary forcing implied that the lateral boundary forcing is more important to the RCM solution than errors internal to the RCM. Comparison of the GCMs mean errors illustrated that the mean average performance

  13. Liverpool Telecare Pilot: case studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Barnes

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Telecare services use information and communications technology (ICT to support the provision of care to people in their own homes. This paper describes a pilot telecare service employed by Liverpool (UK City Council to support a sample of their frail and elderly social services users. The pilot has been running for over two years and has been deployed for 21 individuals in Liverpool. In this paper we present the pilot system and provide real example cases which help to illustrate the benefits of such a system.

  14. The African Genome Variation Project shapes medical genetics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurdasani, Deepti; Carstensen, Tommy; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Pagani, Luca; Tachmazidou, Ioanna; Hatzikotoulas, Konstantinos; Karthikeyan, Savita; Iles, Louise; Pollard, Martin O; Choudhury, Ananyo; Ritchie, Graham R S; Xue, Yali; Asimit, Jennifer; Nsubuga, Rebecca N; Young, Elizabeth H; Pomilla, Cristina; Kivinen, Katja; Rockett, Kirk; Kamali, Anatoli; Doumatey, Ayo P; Asiki, Gershim; Seeley, Janet; Sisay-Joof, Fatoumatta; Jallow, Muminatou; Tollman, Stephen; Mekonnen, Ephrem; Ekong, Rosemary; Oljira, Tamiru; Bradman, Neil; Bojang, Kalifa; Ramsay, Michele; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Bekele, Endashaw; Motala, Ayesha; Norris, Shane A; Pirie, Fraser; Kaleebu, Pontiano; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Rotimi, Charles; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Sandhu, Manjinder S

    2015-01-15

    Given the importance of Africa to studies of human origins and disease susceptibility, detailed characterization of African genetic diversity is needed. The African Genome Variation Project provides a resource with which to design, implement and interpret genomic studies in sub-Saharan Africa and worldwide. The African Genome Variation Project represents dense genotypes from 1,481 individuals and whole-genome sequences from 320 individuals across sub-Saharan Africa. Using this resource, we find novel evidence of complex, regionally distinct hunter-gatherer and Eurasian admixture across sub-Saharan Africa. We identify new loci under selection, including loci related to malaria susceptibility and hypertension. We show that modern imputation panels (sets of reference genotypes from which unobserved or missing genotypes in study sets can be inferred) can identify association signals at highly differentiated loci across populations in sub-Saharan Africa. Using whole-genome sequencing, we demonstrate further improvements in imputation accuracy, strengthening the case for large-scale sequencing efforts of diverse African haplotypes. Finally, we present an efficient genotype array design capturing common genetic variation in Africa.

  15. Human rights violations and smoking status among South African adults enrolled in the South Africa Stress and Health (SASH) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Lauren M; Williams, David R; Gupta, Jhumka; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okechukwu, Cassandra A

    2014-03-01

    Despite South Africa's history of violent political conflict, and the link between stressful experiences and smoking in the literature, no public health study has examined South Africans' experiences of human rights violations and smoking. Using data from participants in the nationally representative cross-sectional South Africa Stress and Health study (SASH), this analysis examined the association between respondent smoking status and both human rights violations experienced by the respondent and violations experienced by the respondents' close friends and family members. SAS-Callable SUDAAN was used to construct separate log-binomial models by political affiliation during apartheid (government or liberation supporters). In comparison to those who reported no violations, in adjusted analyses, government supporters who reported violations of themselves but not others (RR = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.25-2.46) had a significantly higher smoking prevalence. In comparison to liberation supporters who reported no violations, those who reported violations of self only (RR = 1.56, 95%CI: 1.07-2.29), close others only (RR = 1.97, 95%CI: 1.12-3.47), or violations of self and close others due to close others' political beliefs and the respondent's political beliefs (RR = 2.86, 95%CI: 1.70-4.82) had a significantly higher prevalence of smoking. The results of this analysis suggest that a relationship may exist between human rights violations and smoking among South Africa adults. Future research should use longitudinal data to assess causality, test the generalizability of these findings, and consider how to apply these findings to smoking cessation interventions.

  16. Hantaviruses in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkowski, Peter T; Klempa, Boris; Ithete, Ndapewa L; Auste, Brita; Mfune, John K E; Hoveka, Julia; Matthee, Sonja; Preiser, Wolfgang; Kruger, Detlev H

    2014-07-17

    This paper summarizes the progress in the search for hantaviruses and hantavirus infections in Africa. After having collected molecular evidence of an indigenous African hantavirus in 2006, an intensive investigation for new hantaviruses has been started in small mammals. Various novel hantaviruses have been molecularly identified not only in rodents but also in shrews and bats. In addition, the first African hantavirus, Sangassou virus, has been isolated and functionally characterized in cell culture. Less is known about the ability of these hantaviruses to infect humans and to cause diseases. To date, no hantavirus genetic material could be amplified from patients' specimens collected in Africa. Serological studies in West Africa, based on a battery of screening and confirmatory assays, led to the detection of hantavirus antibodies in the human population and in patients with putative hantavirus disease. In addition to this overview, we present original data from seroepidemiological and field studies conducted in the Southern part of Africa. A human seroprevalence rate of 1.0% (n=1442) was detected in the South African Cape Region whereas no molecular evidence for the presence of hantavirus was found in 2500 small animals trapped in South Africa and Namibia.

  17. Perspectives on key principles of generalist medical practice in public service in sub-saharan africa: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Downing Raymond V

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The principles and practice of Family Medicine that arose in developed Western countries have been imported and adopted in African countries without adequate consideration of their relevance and appropriateness to the African context. In this study we attempted to elicit a priori principles of generalist medical practice from the experience of long-serving medical officers in a variety of African counties, through which we explored emergent principles of Family Medicine in our own context. Methods A descriptive study design was utilized, using qualitative methods. 16 respondents who were clinically active medical practitioners, working as generalists in the public services or non-profit sector for at least 5 years, and who had had no previous formal training or involvement in academic Family Medicine, were purposively selected in 8 different countries in southern, western and east Africa, and interviewed. Results The respondents highlighted a number of key issues with respect to the external environment within which they work, their collective roles, activities and behaviours, as well as the personal values and beliefs that motivate their behaviour. The context is characterized by resource constraints, high workload, traditional health beliefs, and the difficulty of referring patients to the next level of care. Generalist clinicians in sub-Saharan Africa need to be competent across a wide range of clinical disciplines and procedural skills at the level of the district hospital and clinic, in both chronic and emergency care. They need to understand the patient's perspective and context, empowering the patient and building an effective doctor-patient relationship. They are also managers, focused on coordinating and improving the quality of clinical care through teamwork, training and mentoring other health workers in the generalist setting, while being life-long learners themselves. However, their role in the community, was

  18. The relationship between immigration and depression in South Africa: evidence from the first South African National Income Dynamics Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have examined depression among immigrants in post-apartheid South Africa, and factors that strengthen the relationship between immigration and depression. The first wave of the National Income Dynamics Study was used to investigate links between immigration and depression (n = 15,205). Depression symptoms were assessed using a 10-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale. Immigrants in South Africa had fewer depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) than locally-born participants (17.1 vs. 32.4%, F = 13.5, p < 0.01). Multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyses found that among immigrant populations, younger age (adjusted OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.05) and black African ethnicity (adjusted OR 3.72, 95% CI 1.29-10.7) were associated with higher depression. Younger age was associated with lower depression among locally-born study participants (adjusted OR 0.98, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The varying relationship between certain demographic factors, depression and the different mental health challenges among these groups requires closer attention.

  19. Cardiomyopathy in Africa: heredity versus environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayosi, Bongani M; Somers, Krishna

    2007-01-01

    Unlike other parts of the world in which cardiomyopathy is rare, heart muscle disease is endemic in Africa. The major forms of cardiomyopathy in Africa are dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) and endomyocardial fibrosis (EMF). Whereas DCM is a major cause of heart failure throughout the continent, EMF is restricted to the tropical regions of East, Central, and West Africa. Although epidemiological studies are lacking, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy seem to have characteristics similar to those of other populations elsewhere in the world. Recent advances in the genetic analysis of DCM in other parts of the world indicate that it is a genetically heterogeneous disorder in which some cases have a Mendelian cause and others have a non-genetic or multifactorial cause. This heterogeneous pattern of inheritance has been confirmed in small studies that have been conducted so far in Africa. The advent of human immunodeficiency virus infection and its association with cardiomyopathy has emphasised the role of inflammatory agents in the pathogenesis of DCM. By contrast with DCM in which some cases have major genetic contributions, there is scanty evidence for the role of genetic factors in the aetiology of EMF. Although the pathogenesis of EMF is not fully understood, it appears that the conditioning factor may be geography (in its widest sense, to include climate and socio-economic status), the triggering factor may be an as yet unidentified infective agent, and the perpetuating factor may be eosinophilia. There is a need for renewed effort to identify genetic and non-genetic factors in EMF and other forms of heart muscle disease that are prevalent on the continent of Africa.

  20. Innovations in technology and the online learning environment: A case study of inter-university collaboration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jansen ZANETTA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of online learning. It is based on the researcher’s participation in an inter-university collaborative module at two higher education institutions in South Africa and the United States from August to December 2001. The paper addresses the advantages and disadvantages of the online learning environment and learning in a Virtual Classroom. It provides a critical interpretation of the virtual classroom experienced in this collaboration between institutions. It finds that there are benefits from applying this technology in educational practices and programs particularly in the African context where a large majority of school-leaving learners have little or no access to higher education. However, it also expounds the NEPAD (New Partnership for Africa’s Development initiative to produce ICT in schools throughout Africa to fulfil the Millennium Development Goals on education in developing countries.

  1. Case studies in conservation science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisulca, Christina

    The research presented in this dissertation covers three separate topics of conservation as defined by the National Science Foundation: 1) Materials Stabilization, Strengthening, Monitoring, and Repair; 2. Understanding Material Degradation and Aging; and 3) Materials and Structural Characterization of Cultural Heritage Objects (the 'technical study'). The first topic is addressed through a study to assess the consolidant tetraethoxysilane for the stabilization of alum treated wood. Falling under materials degradation studies is a study published in American Museum Novitates to understand how environmental conditions affect the aging of fossil resins from five different deposits. Two separate studies are included in technical study of cultural heritage objects which comprises the third research area of materials characterization. The first is a survey of red dyes used in Chinese paintings from the Ming Dynasty to the Early Republic (1364-1911). The second is a study of the pigments, dyes and binders used in Hawaiian barkcloth (kapa) from the 19th century.

  2. South Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brixen, Peter; Tarp, Finn

    1996-01-01

    Africa's pressing social needs. Moreover, such expansion is possible without falling into a much feared debt trap, provided moderately optimistic assumptions about the future materialize. Yet, if growth and real resource inflows falter, not even considerable moderation will be sufficient to maintain...

  3. Adolescence as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome in Central Africa--a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Kurth

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest rates of maternal and neonatal mortality worldwide. Young maternal age at delivery has been proposed as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome, yet there is insufficient data from Sub-Saharan Africa. The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal adolescence on pregnancy outcomes in the Central African country Gabon. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Data on maternal age, parity, birth weight, gestational age, maternal Plasmodium falciparum infection, use of bednets, and intake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy were collected in a cross-sectional survey in 775 women giving birth in three mother-child health centers in Gabon. Adolescent women (≤16 years of age had a significantly increased risk to deliver a baby with low birth weight in univariable analysis (22.8%, 13/57, vs. 9.3%, 67/718, OR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.5-5.6 and young maternal age showed a statistically significant association with the risk for low birth weight in multivariable regression analysis after correction for established risk factors (OR: 2.7; 95% CI: 1.1-6.5. In further analysis adolescent women were shown to attend significantly less antenatal care visits than adult mothers (3.3±1.9 versus 4.4±1.9 mean visits, p<0.01, n = 356 and this difference accounted at least for part of the excess risk for low birth weight in adolescents. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrate the importance of adolescent age as risk factor for adverse pregnancy outcome. Antenatal care programs specifically tailored for the needs of adolescents may be necessary to improve the frequency of antenatal care visits and pregnancy outcomes in this risk group in Central Africa.

  4. Ecological niche and geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca S Levine

    Full Text Available Monkeypox virus, a zoonotic member of the genus Orthopoxviridae, can cause a severe, smallpox-like illness in humans. Monkeypox virus is thought to be endemic to forested areas of western and Central Africa. Considerably more is known about human monkeypox disease occurrence than about natural sylvatic cycles of this virus in non-human animal hosts. We use human monkeypox case data from Africa for 1970-2003 in an ecological niche modeling framework to construct predictive models of the ecological requirements and geographic distribution of monkeypox virus across West and Central Africa. Tests of internal predictive ability using different subsets of input data show the model to be highly robust and suggest that the distinct phylogenetic lineages of monkeypox in West Africa and Central Africa occupy similar ecological niches. High mean annual precipitation and low elevations were shown to be highly correlated with human monkeypox disease occurrence. The synthetic picture of the potential geographic distribution of human monkeypox in Africa resulting from this study should support ongoing epidemiologic and ecological studies, as well as help to guide public health intervention strategies to areas at highest risk for human monkeypox.

  5. “发展-安全关联”理论下的美国石油多元化——以中东和非洲为例%Diversity of U.S. Oil under the Theory of Relevance between Development and Security ----A Case Study of the Middle East and Africa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪树民

    2011-01-01

    The theory of relevance between development and security requires that a country must enjoy a secure environment for its development, including its internal security, regional security and international security. On the other hand, security must also be ensured through development. The security of develop- ment and the security under development have become a new trend after the Cold War. In terms of this point, the United States focuses on placing the security policy before its development policy, which is in a dilemma in the Middle East while her practice in Africa is another attempt of this policy.%发展-安全关联理论要求-国要实现发展必须要有安全的环境,包括国内安全及周边地区安全乃至国际局势的安全;另一方面安全也需要发展来保证。冷战结束后发展的安全化与安全的发展化已经成为一种新的趋势。美国在这一点上侧重于发展政策服从于安全政策。这一政策在中东陷入困境,非洲地区的实践是美国这-政策目标下的石油多元化的又一尝试。

  6. Case Studies in L2 Teacher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichelt, Melinda

    2000-01-01

    Reports on the use of student-generated case studies in an English-as-a-Second-Language teacher education course, including the context, participants classroom procedures and case studies written, as well as students' responses to their use. (Author/VWL)

  7. A Case Study of "Empathetic Teaching Artistry"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risner, Doug

    2014-01-01

    This case study is one of twenty cases derived from Anderson and Risner's international study of teaching artists in dance, and theatre, which investigated participants' (n=172) artistic and academic preparation in dance, and theatre, initial entry into the teaching artist field, rewards, challenges, and obstacles in participants' work, artists'…

  8. The Danish National Case Study Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, Søsser; Jørgensen, Michael Søgaard

    Three case studies from Danish science shops within the environmental field are analysed with respect to societal background, interaction between the involved actors and the societal impact of the co-operation. The report is one of the seven national case study reports from the EU...

  9. Case Studies in Middle Management Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Lori S.

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents a series of supervision-related case studies of situations that midlevel managers might face. Individuals enrolled in a midlevel management professional development course recommended the topics selected for this chapter. Drawing upon her experience teaching the course, the author selected four case studies that individuals…

  10. Five Misunderstandings About Case-Study Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2006-01-01

    useful for generating hypotheses, whereas other methods are more suitable for hypotheses testing and theory building; (d) the case study contains a bias toward verification; and (e) it is often difficult to summarize specific case studies. This article explains and corrects these misunderstandings one...

  11. Mass media constructions of 'socio-psychological epidemics' in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of genital shrinking in 11 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Dzokoto, Vivian A; Yevak, Earl

    2015-11-01

    Genital shrinking is a recurring phenomenon with about 180 reported cases in sub-Saharan Africa over the last two decades. Transcending national boundaries, it results in distress for victims, mob violence against accused perpetrators and mass panic which law enforcement agencies struggle to contain. This article examines mass media construction and framing of genital shrinking within a social representations theory framework. Our analysis suggests the following: (1) mass media reports are informed by lay and expert perspectives; (2) three stocks of knowledge are drawn on interchangeably, with culture constituting a core representation; (3) lay and expert perspectives overlap on cultural and common-sense explanations of genital shrinking; and (4) scientific explanations are limited to individual pathophysiology and psychopathology and do not inform public opinion. We consider the implications of understanding genital shrinking for improving mass media constructions and dissemination of information on 'socio-psychological epidemics' that may have scientific explanations.

  12. Case studies--ergonomics in projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikaar, Ruud N

    2012-01-01

    The aim of a series of sessions on Company Case Studies, is to learn from practical experiences, to give feed back to researchers on applicability of theories, methods and techniques, and last but not least, to market ergonomics. In order to learn from case material, reports need to be easy accessible and well structured. System ergonomics provides such a structure. Usually a project is not done twice, i.e. with and without ergonomics. Therefore, it is not possible to make comparisons and determine the impact of ergonomics directly. A different approach is needed. It has been suggested at the IEA2006 World Congress, to compile a database of published case studies, each case to be reported in a fixed report format and critically reviewed to enable generalizing the outcomes. This paper proposes such a format. At the IEA2012 World Congress 40 case studies have been accepted, representing applied ergonomics cases in manufacturing, process industries, aviation and logistic systems.

  13. Leishmaniasis in dogs: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a case of leishmaniasis in a 2.5-month-old dog imported from France. The clinical examination established a generally poor state of health, expressed cachexia, atrophy of the temporal musculature, weakness of movement, as well as abnormally long and brittle nails. There was also hyperkeratosis of the nose tip and paws. A histological examination of biopsy sections of the altered skin parts showed inflammatory changes in the area of the dermis, together with infiltration of macrophages and a smaller number of lymphocytes, plasmocytes and neutrophil granulocytes in the area around the sebaceous glands and hair follicles. The determined changes correspond to superficial dermatitis. Edema followed by partial degeneration of connective-tissue fibers is observed in connective tissue. A smaller number of intracellular parasitic forms was established in mononuclear cells. A smaller number of oval amastigotes with round dark red nucleis were observed in sections stained using the Gimza method in the cytoplasm of macrophages located in the dermis, but also extracellularly. It was concluded that the dog was diseased with leishmaniasis on the grounds of the clinical picture and the microscopic findings.

  14. From single-case studies to practice-based knowledge: aggregating and synthesizing case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwakabe, Shigeru; Gazzola, Nicola

    2009-07-01

    Recent developments in case study methodology reflect a rising interest that clinicians and researchers share in building a clinically useful and empirically sound knowledge base from single-case studies. The present article describes three types of single-case studies (clinical, experimental, systematic) and examines their potential contributions to psychotherapy research. It then lays out three ways in which single-case studies can be aggregated and synthesized to enhance clinical understanding: (a) a case database that allows clinicians to efficiently search for relevant cases, (b) a metasynthesis of single-case studies that integrates common themes across similar cases, and (c) an individual case comparison method in which closely matched cases are compared to identify both therapeutic and hindering processes.

  15. Summary of case studies for cooperation mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longa, Francesco Dalla; Klinge Jacobsen, Henrik; Hansen, Lise-Lotte Pade;

    2012-01-01

    This document is a summary report highlighting the main aspect analyzed in the RES4LESS case studies. The document starts with an introductory chapter where the background that led to the selection of the case studies is outlined. In the following three chapters the case studies are presented......, highlighting the most relevant results. A brief chapter concludes the document, giving an outlook on the follow-up activities of the RES4LESS project. This summary is intended not only as an introduction to the RES4LESS cases studies, but also as a guideline to read and interpret the in-depth analysis carried...... out in the final documents that describe the case studies in detail. These documents will be published in September 2012 on the RES4LESS website, www.res4less.eu....

  16. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  17. Making a case for case studies in psychotherapy training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackrill, Thomas Edward; Iwakabe, Shigeru

    2013-01-01

    The evidence debate in psychotherapy pays little attention to developing an evidence base for training practices. Understanding effective training requires an examination of what makes training work. This article examines the role of case studies in psychotherapy training. This has not been...... articulated explicitly or researched systematically in spite of its cardinal importance. An analysis of the role of case studies in psychotherapy training is presented. Reading, watching, or hearing about cases can offer novice psychotherapists access to a closed world; access to psychological theory...... in action; access to whole courses of therapy; access to different approaches; access to significant moments; access to the therapeutic relationship; access to a wide range of client types; access to working in different contexts; and the opportunity of identifying with therapists and clients. Writing...

  18. Declining incidence of malaria imported into the UK from West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Valerie

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two thirds of all falciparum malaria cases reported in the United Kingdom (UK are acquired in West Africa (WA. To ensure recommendations and guidelines for malaria prophylaxis in travellers to West Africa correlate to the risk of infection, a study was undertaken to examine recent trends and predict future patterns of imported malaria acquired by UK residents visiting West Africa and West African visitors to the UK between 1993 and 2006. Methods and Results Using passenger numbers and malaria surveillance reports, the data revealed a 2.3-fold increase in travel to West Africa with a five-fold increase in travelers visiting friends and relatives (VFR. Malaria incidence fell through the study period, the greatest decline noted in VFR with a fall from 196 cases/1,000 person-years to 52 cases/1,000 person-years, 9.8% per year p Discussion The reduction in incidence among all three groups of travellers may be explained by several factors; changing chemoprophylaxis usage and/or increased travel in urban areas where malaria risk has declined over the past decade, or widespread reduction in malaria transmission in West Africa. Conclusion With the reduction in malaria incidence seen in both visitors to and from West Africa, the most rational explanation for these findings is a fall in malaria transmission in West Africa, which may require a change in chemoprophylaxis policy for UK travelers over the next 5–10 years.

  19. Theoretical pluralism in psychoanalytic case studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willemsen, Jochem; Cornelis, Shana; Geerardyn, Filip M; Desmet, Mattias; Meganck, Reitske; Inslegers, Ruth; Cauwe, Joachim M B D

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an overview of the scientific activity of different psychoanalytic schools of thought in terms of the content and production of case studies published on ISI Web of Knowledge. Between March 2013 and November 2013, we contacted all case study authors included in the online archive of psychoanalytic and psychodynamic case studies (www.singlecasearchive.com) to inquire about their psychoanalytic orientation during their work with the patient. The response rate for this study was 45%. It appears that the two oldest psychoanalytic schools, Object-relations psychoanalysis and Ego psychology or "Classical psychoanalysis" dominate the literature of published case studies. However, most authors stated that they feel attached to two or more psychoanalytic schools of thought. This confirms that the theoretical pluralism in psychoanalysis stretches to the field of single case studies. The single case studies of each psychoanalytic school are described separately in terms of methodology, patient, therapist, or treatment features. We conclude that published case studies features are fairly similar across different psychoanalytic schools. The results of this study are not representative of all psychoanalytic schools, as some do not publish their work in ISI ranked journals.

  20. The Possible Value of a Gap Year: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, M.; Bester, S.

    2009-01-01

    The taking of a "gap year", immediately after completing their secondary school education, to explore life before embarking on formal studies or starting their career, is a growing phenomenon among young people in South Africa. This research study explores the experiences of three young people who engaged in a gap year and focuses on the…

  1. [Ergotamine poisoning: a case study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapalska-Pozarowska, Karolina; Szponar, Jarosław; Górska, Agnieszka; Niewiedzioł, Marek

    2012-01-01

    Ergotamine is a well known pharmacological remedy applied in neurology (treatment of vascular headache) and in obstetrics (abortive remedy, uterus atony). But today it is rarely used, because of new safer anti-migraine medicine (triptanes) which cause fewer side effects. According to obstetrical indications ergotamine is applied only in hospital treatment. For that reason, cases of intoxication by this class of drugs are rarely observed. Ergotamine causes constriction of the blood vessels through the blockade of alpha-receptors and stimulation of the serotonin-receptors on the walls of blood vessels both in the central nervous system and in peripheral circulation. Intoxication/overdose symptoms may appear on application of therapeutic dose by sensitive patients, mostly by patients with migraine headache using ergotamine preparation for relief of migraine attacks. In the Regional Centre of Clinical Toxicology, a 21-year-old patient was hospitalized. She took about 20 tablets of Cafergot (complex preparation containing 1mg ergotamine tartare and 100mg caffeine). During her stay on the ward, typical symptoms of severe poisoning were observed: nausea, severe vomiting, dizziness, decreased blood pressure without perceptible pulse, narrowing of the blood vessels in the extremities of the body (peripheral vasoconstriction) - paresthesia, digital cyanosis, refrigeration of legs, angina. Due to taking once of a great dose of the drug by the patient, violent process of intoxication, possibility of dangerous complication and also the unavailability of specific antidotes and lack of efficient methods of extracorporeal elimination of the drug, the patient was intensively controlled and symptomatic treatments according to the law of intensive therapy was applied.

  2. Epidemiological patterns of chronic kidney disease in black African elders: A retrospective study in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidy Mohamed Seck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is frequently described in elders. This study describes the epidemiological patterns of patients ≥60 years old admitted in our department during one year. The prevalence of CKD was 10.8% (60/552. The mean age of the patients was 70.5 years (60-84 years and the sex ratio (male:female was 1.08. The mean serum creatinine level was 7.10 mg/dL (1.31-25.0 mg/dL and more than two-third of the patients presented CKD stage 4-5. Causes of CKD were dominated by hypertension (30% and diabetes (25%. Prevalence of inpatients aged 60-69 years old was higher than in those ≥80 years old but lower than that in patients aged 70-79 years. At admission, 83.3% of the patients were hypertensive, 75% were anemic and 13% presented proteinuria. The main co-morbidities associated with CKD were neoplasms (17% of cases, chronic heart disease (15% of cases and pneumonia (15% of cases. Furosemide was prescribed in 55% of the patients, calcium channel blockers in 23% of the patients and ACE inhibitors in 20% of the patients. Renal replacement therapy was not performed for any patient. Evolution was favorable in the majority of patients (77%, but 23% died mainly because of uremia and infections.

  3. Multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas: the case of Greater Mapungubwe straddling parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinthumule Ndidzulafhi Innocent

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs have recently emerged as the 21st century approach to managing protected areas in southern Africa. Unlike national parks and other protected areas that place emphasis only on the protection of plant and animal species within their borders, transfrontier conservation areas promote conservation beyond the borders of protected areas. Consequently, this mega-conservation initiative encourage multiple land-use practices with the purpose of improving rural livelihoods whilst promoting biodiversity conservation. Thus, land parcels under different forms of tenure are brought together into a common nature conservation project. This study argues that the integration of various land-use practices within one area benefits conservation goals at the expense of local communities and irrigation farmers. To substantiate this argument, the study draws on fieldwork material collected in the Greater Mapungubwe Transfrontier Conservation Area spanning parts of Botswana, South Africa and Zimbabwe. The study concludes that multiple-land use practices in transfrontier conservation areas is only promoted by wildlife managers to gain access to extra land.

  4. A sero-epidemiological study of arboviral fevers in Djibouti, Horn of Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Andayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Arboviral infections have repeatedly been reported in the republic of Djibouti, consistent with the fact that essential vectors for arboviral diseases are endemic in the region. However, there is a limited recent information regarding arbovirus circulation, and the associated risk predictors to human exposure are largely unknown. We performed, from November 2010 to February 2011 in the Djibouti city general population, a cross-sectional ELISA and sero-neutralisation-based sero-epidemiological analysis nested in a household cohort, which investigated the arboviral infection prevalence and risk factors, stratified by their vectors of transmission. Antibodies to dengue virus (21.8% were the most frequent. Determinants of infection identified by multivariate analysis pointed to sociological and environmental exposure to the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The population was broadly naïve against Chikungunya (2.6% with risk factors mostly shared with dengue. The detection of limited virus circulation was followed by a significant Chikungunya outbreak a few months after our study. Antibodies to West Nile virus were infrequent (0.6%, but the distribution of cases faithfully followed previous mapping of infected Culex mosquitoes. The seroprevalence of Rift valley fever virus was 2.2%, and non-arboviral transmission was suggested. Finally, the study indicated the circulation of Toscana-related viruses (3.7%, and a limited number of cases suggested infection by tick-borne encephalitis or Alkhumra related viruses, which deserve further investigations to identify the viruses and vectors implicated. Overall, most of the arboviral cases' predictors were statistically best described by the individuals' housing space and neighborhood environmental characteristics, which correlated with the ecological actors of their respective transmission vectors' survival in the local niche. This study has demonstrated autochthonous arboviral circulations in the republic of

  5. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Roberts, K.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business)

    1992-01-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  6. Outage management: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haber, S.B.; Barriere, M.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Roberts, K.H. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Walter A. Haas School of Business

    1992-09-01

    Outage management issues identified from a field study conducted at a two-unit commercial pressurized water reactor (PWR), when one unit was in a refueling outage and the other unit was at full power operation, are the focus of this paper. The study was conduced as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s (NRC) organizational factors research program, and therefore the issues to be addressed are from an organizational perspective. Topics discussed refer to areas identified by the NRC as critical for safety during shutdown operations, including outage planning and control, personnel stress, and improvements in training and procedures. Specifically, issues in communication, management attention, involvement and oversight, administrative processes, organizational culture, and human resources relevant to each of the areas are highlighted by example from field data collection. Insights regarding future guidance in these areas are presented based upon additional data collection subsequent to the original study.

  7. Oral Literature in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Finnegan, Ruth; Turin, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Ruth Finnegan’s Oral Literature in Africa was first published in 1970, and since then has been widely praised as one of the most important books in its field. Based on years of fieldwork, the study traces the history of storytelling across the continent of Africa. This revised edition makes Finnegan’s ground-breaking research available to the next generation of scholars. It includes a new introduction, additional images and an updated bibliography, as well as its original chapters on poetry, ...

  8. Case Study Methodology and Homelessness Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Pable

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the potential suitability of case study methodology for inquiry with the homeless population. It references a research study that uses case study research method to build theory. This study's topic is the lived experience of destitute individuals who reside in homeless shelters, and explores the homeless shelter built environment's potential influence on resident satisfaction and recovery. Case study methodology may be appropriate because it explores real-life contextual issues that characterize homelessness and can also accommodate the wide range of homeless person demographics that make this group difficult to study in a generalized fashion. Further, case study method accommodates the need within research in this area to understand individualized treatments as a potential solution for homelessness.

  9. Case Study on Quality Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, Zahida

    2011-01-01

    Quality of Education, especially at Primary level, is an important issue to be discussed at the International Forum. This study highlights the quality of primary education through a comparison of the quality of Community Model Schools and Govt. Girls Primary Schools in Pakistan. Community Model Schools were established under Girls Primary…

  10. Public Policies for Career Development. Case Studies And Emerging Issues For Designing Career Information And Guidance Systems In Developing And Transition Economies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, A. G.; Fretwell, David H.

    2004-01-01

    The following pages summarize the findings of seven case-studies of public policy in career guidance carried out in Chile, the Philippines, Poland, Romania, Russia, South Africa and Turkey. The objectives of this World Bank study were: to identify and describe the distinctive issues faced by developing and transition economies in forming effective…

  11. Associative Visual Agnosia: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Charnallet

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of massive associative visual agnosia. In the light of current theories of identification and semantic knowledge organization, a deficit involving both levels of structural description system and visual semantics must be assumed to explain the case. We suggest, in line with a previous case study [1], an alternative account in the framework of (non abstractive episodic models of memory [4].

  12. Arctic bioremediation -- A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smallbeck, D.R.; Ramert, P.C. (Harding Lawson Associates, Novato, CA (United States)); Liddell, B.V.

    1994-05-01

    This paper discusses the use of bioremediation as an effective method to clean up diesel-range hydrocarbon spills in northern latitudes. The results of a laboratory study of microbial degradation of hydrocarbons under simulated arctic conditions showed that bioremediation can be effective in cold climates and led to the implementation of a large-scale field program. The results of 3 years of field testing have led to a significant reduction in diesel-range hydrocarbon concentrations in the contaminated area.

  13. Community-Associated Staphylococcus aureus from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany: A Cross-Sectional Geographic Correlation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruffing, Ulla; Alabi, Abraham; Kazimoto, Theckla; Vubil, Delfino C; Akulenko, Ruslan; Abdulla, Salim; Alonso, Pedro; Bischoff, Markus; Germann, Anja; Grobusch, Martin P; Helms, Volkhard; Hoffmann, Jonas; Kern, Winfried V; Kremsner, Peter G; Mandomando, Inacio; Mellmann, Alexander; Peters, Georg; Schaumburg, Frieder; Schubert, Sabine; Strauß, Lena; Tanner, Marcel; Briesen, Hagen von; Wende, Laura; Müller, Lutz von; Herrmann, Mathias

    2017-12-01

    Clonal clusters and gene repertoires of Staphylococcus aureus are essential to understand disease and are well characterized in industrialized countries but poorly analysed in developing regions. The objective of this study was to compare the molecular-epidemiologic profiles of S. aureus isolates from Sub-Saharan Africa and Germany. S. aureus isolates from 600 staphylococcal carriers and 600 patients with community-associated staphylococcal disease were characterized by DNA hybridization, clonal complex (CC) attribution, and principal component (PCA)-based gene repertoire analysis. 73% of all CCs identified representing 77% of the isolates contained in these CCs were predominant in either African or German region. Significant differences between African versus German isolates were found for alleles encoding the accessory gene regulator type, enterotoxins, the Panton-Valentine leukocidin, immune evasion gene cluster, and adhesins. PCA in conjunction with silhouette analysis distinguished nine separable PCA clusters, with five clusters primarily comprising of African and two clusters of German isolates. Significant differences between S. aureus lineages in Africa and Germany may be a clue to explain the apparent difference in disease between tropical/(so-called) developing and temperate/industrialized regions. In low-resource countries further clinical-epidemiologic research is warranted not only for neglected tropical diseases but also for major bacterial infections.

  14. Community perceptions of risk factors for interpersonal violence in townships in Cape Town, South Africa: A focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanga, Prestige Tatenda; Schuurman, Nadine; Randall, Ellen

    2015-12-27

    Interpersonal violence is a major contributor to the burden of disease globally, and in South Africa, it is the leading cause of injury. There is an emerging consensus that the development of actionable policy and effective prevention strategies for interpersonal violence requires an understanding of the contextual matters that elevate risk for interpersonal violence. The objective of this study was to explore community perceptions of risks for interpersonal violence in five townships in Cape Town, South Africa, with high rates of violence. Focus group discussions were conducted with community members to identify key factors in that contributed to being either a perpetrator or victim of interpersonal violence. The ecological framework was used to classify the risk factors as occurring at individual, relationship, community or society levels. Some of the risk factors identified included alcohol abuse, poverty, informality of settlements and cultural norms. Differences in how each of these risk factors are expressed and experienced in the five communities are also elucidated. This approach enabled the collection of contextual community-based data that can complement conventional surveillance data in the development of relevant community-level strategies for interpersonal violence prevention.

  15. Case Study: A Strategic Research Methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khairul B.M. Noor

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research reviews the literature on case study as a strategic qualitative research methodology. Although case studies have been criticised by some authors as lacking scientific rigour and do not address generalizability, this research, however, reiterated its appropriateness when dealing with a process or a complex real-life activities in great-depth. Case study has been commonly used in social science fields like sociology, industrial relations and anthropology eventhough generally was considered an underutilized strategy. Hence, this research explained the general concept of a case study, strengths and weaknesses of using this method knowing that theoretically case is exciting and data rich. Based on a study of four organizations and the researcher’s own experience, this article described matters on how case study was undertaken, gaining excess to those organizations and the systematic process of data collection and triangulation (multiple techniques. It was noted that combining multiple techniques for elicitng data in case study research actually strengthens and confirmed results.

  16. Case study on printed matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Introduction Existing product Life Cycle Assessments (LCA’s) on offset printed matter all point at paper as the overall dominating contributor to the impacts from the life-cycle of this category of products. This dominating role of paper is primarily founded in the energy-related impact categories...... include these chemical-related impact categories by making use of some of the newest knowledge about emissions from the production at the printing industry combined with knowledge about the composition of the printing materials used during the production of offset printed matter. This paper is based...... on the dissertation “Assessment of chemical emissions in life cycle impact assessment” (Larsen 2004) and the paper “Life-cycle assessment of offset printed matter with EDIP97 – how important are emissions of chemicals? “ (Larsen et al. 2009). Goal and scope The goal of the study is to identify the distribution...

  17. Case Study of above Average Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez-Morse, Sylvia; Klinker, JoAnn Franklin

    2005-01-01

    This case study explores the duty of midmanagement administrators to enforce district policies with which they do not necessarily agree. The case addresses the issues of moral leadership, distribution of power, emotional responses that impact decision making, class differences, and equity. It also examines the role conflict that many married…

  18. Abbreviated Case Studies in Organizational Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanguri, Deloris McGee

    2005-01-01

    The cases contained within organizational communication texts are generally two to three pages, often followed by questions. These case studies are certainly useful. They generally describe events in the present, provide some type of organizational context, include first-hand data, include a record of what people say and think, develop a…

  19. Case Study Report about Gender Impact Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Stine Thidemann; Agustin, Lise Rolandsen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this national case study report is to take a closer look at the use of Gender Impact Assessments in Denmark in order to describe the Danish implementation of this specific Gender Mainstreaming method. By way of analyzing two selected cases (two law proposals put forward by The Danish...

  20. Music in context : Four case studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Randwijck, R.J.C. van

    2008-01-01

    In his thesis entitled “Music in Context. Four Case Studies”, R.J.C. van Randwijck investigates the context in which music has been created. It is a search in Four Case Studies, approaching four pieces of music from the context in which they were written in order to understand their meaning. The inv