WorldWideScience

Sample records for afm-12 1-km avhrr

  1. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, D.T.; Eidenshink, J.C.

    1998-01-01

    The scientific requirements for mapping the global land surface using 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data have been set forth by the U.S. Global Change Research Program; the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP); The United Nations; the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA); the Committee on Earth Observations Satellites; and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) mission to planet Earth (MTPE) program. Mapping the global land surface using 1 km AVHRR data is an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of AVHRR receiving stations, along with data recorded by NOAA, has been acquiring daily global land coverage since April 1, 1992. A data set of over 70,000 AVHRR images is archived and distributed by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) EROS Data Center, and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the IGBP, processing standards have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are for the study of surface vegetation condition, mapping land cover, and deriving biophysical characteristics of terrestrial ecosystems. A time-series of 54 10-day global vegetation index composites for the period of April 1, 1992 through September 1993 has been produced. The production of a time-series of 33 10-day global vegetation index composites using NOAA-14 data for the period of February 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995 is underway. The data products are available from the USGS, in cooperation with NASA's MTPE program and other international organizations.

  2. AVHRR Polar 1 Km Level 1B Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Please note that the machine on which these AVHRR data are processed has reached its life expectancy and will no longer be available as of 02 June 2008 until further...

  3. The 1 km AVHRR global land data set: first stages in implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eidenshink, J.C.; Faundeen, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    The global land 1 km data set project represents an international effort to acquire, archive, process, and distribute 1 km AVHRR data of the entire global land surface in order to meet the needs of the international science community. A network of 26 high resolution picture transmission (HRPT) stations, along with data recorded by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), has been acquiring daily global land coverage since 1 April 1992. A data set of over 30000 AVHRR images has been archived and made available for distribution by the United States Geological Survey, EROS Data Center and the European Space Agency. Under the guidance of the International Geosphere Biosphere programme, processing standards for the AVHRR data have been developed for calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric registration, and the production of global 10-day maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites. The major uses of the composites are related to the study of surface vegetation cover. A prototype 10-day composite was produced for the period of 21–30 June 1992. Production of an 18-month time series of 10-day composites is underway.

  4. LBA Regional Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of the 1-km global tree cover data set (DeFries et al. 1999) developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies (LGRSS) at the...

  5. LBA Regional Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of the 1-km global tree cover data set (DeFries et al. 1999) developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies...

  6. SAFARI 2000 Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of a southern African subset of the 1-km Global Tree Cover Data Set developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies (LGRSS) at...

  7. SAFARI 2000 Tree Cover from AVHRR, 1-km, 1992-1993 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set consists of a southern African subset of the 1-km Global Tree Cover Data Set developed at the Laboratory for Global Remote Sensing Studies...

  8. Land cover mapping, fire regeneration, and scaling studies in the Canadian boreal forest with 1 km AVHRR and Landsat TM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.; Loveland, Thomas R.

    1997-01-01

    A multitemporal 1 km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) land cover analysis approach was used as the basis for regional land cover mapping, fire disturbance-regeneration, and multiresolution land cover scaling studies in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada. The land cover classification was developed by using regional field observations from ground and low-level aircraft transits to analyze spectral-temporal clusters that were derived from an unsupervised cluster analysis of monthly normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (April-September 1992). Quantitative areal proportions of the major boreal forest components were determined for a 821 km ?? 619 km region, ranging from the southern grasslands-boreal forest ecotone to the northern boreal transitional forest. The boreal wetlands (mostly lowland black spruce, tamarack, mosses, fens, and bogs) occupied approximately 33% of the region, while lakes accounted for another 13%. Upland mixed coniferous-deciduous forests represented 23% of the ecosystem. A SW-NE productivity gradient across the region is manifested by three levels of tree stand density for both the boreal wetland conifer and the mixed forest classes, which are generally aligned with isopleths of regional growing degree days. Approximately 30% of the region was directly affected by fire disturbance within the preceding 30-35 years, especially in the Canadian Shield Zone where large fire-regeneration patterns contribute to the heterogeneous boreal landscape. Intercomparisons with land cover classifications derived from 30-m Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data provided important insights into the relative accuracy of the 1 km AVHRR land cover classification. Primarily due to the multitemporal NDVI image compositing process, the 1 km AVHRR land cover classes have an effective spatial resolution in the 3-4 km range; therefore fens, bogs, small water bodies, and small patches of dry jack pine cannot be resolved within

  9. Relationship between herbaceous biomass and 1km (2) advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) NDVI in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available biomass and 1-km2 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) NDVI in Kruger National Park, South Africa K. J. WESSELS*{, S. D. PRINCE{, N. ZAMBATIS{, S. MACFADYEN{, P. E. FROST§" and D. VAN ZYL§ {Department of Geography, University of Maryland... production (Prince and Justice 1991, Tucker et al. 1991a,b, Myneni et al. *Corresponding author. Email: wessels@geog.umd.edu International Journal of Remote Sensing Vol. 27, No. 5, 10 March 2006, 951–973 International Journal of Remote Sensing ISSN 0143...

  10. A satellite-based climatology (1989-2012) of lake surface water temperature from AVHRR 1-km for Central European water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, Michael; Wunderle, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    The temperature of lakes is an important parameter for lake ecosystems influencing the speed of physio-chemical reactions, the concentration of dissolved gazes (e.g. oxygen), and vertical mixing. Even small temperature changes might have irreversible effects on the lacustrine system due to the high specific heat capacity of water. These effects could alter the quality of lake water depending on parameters like lake size and volume. Numerous studies mention lake water temperature as an indicator of climate change and in the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) requirements it is listed as an essential climate variable. In contrast to in situ observations, satellite imagery offers the possibility to derive spatial patterns of lake surface water temperature (LSWT) and their variability. Moreover, although for some European lakes long in situ time series are available, the temperatures of many lakes are not measured or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyze time series which cover more than 20 years. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) and on the Meteorological Operational Satellites (MetOp) from the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present the results from a study initiated by the Swiss GCOS office to generate a satellite-based LSWT climatology for the pre-alpine water bodies in Switzerland. It relies on the extensive AVHRR 1-km data record (1985-2012) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern (RSGB) and has been derived from the AVHRR/2

  11. Lake surface water temperatures of European Alpine lakes (1989-2013) based on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1 km data set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffler, M.; Wunderle, S.

    2014-05-01

    Lake water temperature (LWT) is an important driver of lake ecosystems and it has been identified as an indicator of climate change. Thus, the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) lists LWT as an Essential Climate Variable (ECV). Although for some European lakes long in situ time series of LWT do exist, many lakes are not observed or only on a non-regular basis making these observations insufficient for climate monitoring. Satellite data can provide the information needed. However, only few satellite sensors offer the possibility to analyse time series which cover 25 years or more. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is among these and has been flown as a heritage instrument for almost 35 years. It will be carried on for at least ten more years finally offering a unique opportunity for satellite-based climate studies. Herein we present a satellite-based lake surface water temperature (LSWT) data set for European (pre-alpine) water bodies based on the extensive AVHRR 1 km data record (1989-2013) of the Remote Sensing Research Group at the University of Bern. It has been compiled out of AVHRR/2 (NOAA-07, -09, -11, -14) and AVHRR/3 (NOAA-16, -17, -18, -19 and Metop-A) data. The high accuracy needed for climate related studies requires careful pre-processing and consideration of the atmospheric state. Especially data from NOAA-16 and prior satellites were prone to noise, e.g., due to transmission errors or fluctuations in the instrument's thermal state. This has resulted in partly corrupted thermal calibration data and may cause errors of up to several Kelvin in the final resulting LSWT. Thus, a multi-stage correction scheme has been applied to the data to minimize these artefacts. The LSWT retrieval is based on a simulation-based scheme making use of the Radiative Transfer for TOVS (RTTOV) Version 10 together with operational analysis and reanalysis data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts. The resulting LSWTs were

  12. G1SST, 1km blended SST

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System)...

  13. The 1 km resolution global data set: needs of the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townshend, J.R.G.; Justice, C.O.; Skole, D.; Malingreau, J.-P.; Cihlar, J.; Teillet, P.; Sadowski, F.; Ruttenberg, S.

    1994-01-01

    Examination of the scientific priorities for the International Geosphere Biosphere Programme (IGBP) reveals a requirement for global land data sets in several of its Core Projects. These data sets need to be at several space and time scales. Requirements are demonstrated for the regular acquisition of data at spatial resolutions of 1 km and finer and at high temporal frequencies. Global daily data at a resolution of approximately 1 km are sensed by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), but they have not been available in a single archive. It is proposed, that a global data set of the land surface is created from remotely sensed data from the AVHRR to support a number of IGBP's projects. This data set should have a spatial resolution of 1 km and should be generated at least once every 10 days for the entire globe. The minimum length of record should be a year, and ideally a system should be put in place which leads to the continuous acquisition of 1 km data to provide a base line data set prior to the Earth Observing System (EOS) towards the end of the decade. Because of the high cloud cover in many parts of the world, it is necessary to plan for the collection of data from every orbit. Substantial effort will be required in the preprocessing of the data set involving radiometric calibration, atmospheric correction, geometric correction and temporal compositing, to make it suitable for the extraction of information.

  14. Global 1-km Sea Surface Temperature (G1SST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — JPL OurOcean Portal: A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (also known as ultra-high resolution) by the JPL ROMS (Regional Ocean...

  15. Development and analysis of a 12-year daily 1-km forest fire dataset across North America from NOAA/AVHRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiliang Pu; Zhanqing Li; Peng Gong; Ivan Csiszar; Robert Fraser; Wei-Min Hao; Shobha Kondragunta; Fuzhong Weng

    2007-01-01

    Fires in boreal and temperate forests play a significant role in the global carbon cycle. While forest fires in North America (NA) have been surveyed extensively by U.S. and Canadian forest services, most fire records are limited to seasonal statistics without information on temporal evolution and spatial expansion. Such dynamic information is crucial for modeling fire...

  16. The 1990 conterminous U.S. AVHRR data set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidenshink, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, using NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 1-km data, has produced a time series of 19 biweekly maximum normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composites of the conterminous United States for the 1990 growing season. Each biweekly composite included data from approximately 20 calibrated and georegistered daily overpasses. The output is a data set which includes all five calibrated AVHRR channels, NDVI values, three satellite/solar viewing angles, and date of observation pointer for each biweekly composite. The data set is intended for assessing seasonal variations in vegetation condition and provides a foundation for studying long-term changes in vegetation resulting from human interactions or global climate alterations. 12 refs

  17. Assessing land cover performance in Senegal, West Africa using 1-km integrated NDVI and local variance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, M.E.; Tappan, G.; Rowland, James; Lewis, J.; Tieszen, L.L.

    2004-01-01

    The researchers calculated seasonal integrated normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for each of 7 years using a time-series of 1-km data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (1992-93, 1995) and SPOT Vegetation (1998-2001) sensors. We used a local variance technique to identify each pixel as normal or either positively or negatively anomalous when compared to its surroundings. We then summarized the number of years that a given pixel was identified as an anomaly. The resulting anomaly maps were analysed using Landsat TM imagery and extensive ground knowledge to assess the results. This technique identified anomalies that can be linked to numerous anthropogenic impacts including agricultural and urban expansion, maintenance of protected areas and increased fallow. Local variance analysis is a reliable method for assessing vegetation degradation resulting from human pressures or increased land productivity from natural resource management practices. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 1km Global Terrestrial Carbon Flux: Estimations and Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Saito, M.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating global scale of the terrestrial carbon flux change with high accuracy and high resolution is important to understand global environmental changes. Furthermore the estimations of the global spatiotemporal distribution may contribute to the political and social activities such as REDD+. In order to reveal the current state of terrestrial carbon fluxes covering all over the world and a decadal scale. The satellite-based diagnostic biosphere model is suitable for achieving this purpose owing to observing on the present global land surface condition uniformly at some time interval. In this study, we estimated the global terrestrial carbon fluxes with 1km grids by using the terrestrial biosphere model (BEAMS). And we evaluated our new carbon flux estimations on various spatial scales and showed the transition of forest carbon stocks in some regions. Because BEAMS required high resolution meteorological data and satellite data as input data, we made 1km interpolated data using a kriging method. The data used in this study were JRA-55, GPCP, GOSAT L4B atmospheric CO2 data as meteorological data, and MODIS land product as land surface satellite data. Interpolating process was performed on the meteorological data because of insufficient resolution, but not on MODIS data. We evaluated our new carbon flux estimations using the flux tower measurement (FLUXNET2015 Datasets) in a point scale. We used 166 sites data for evaluating our model results. These flux sites are classified following vegetation type (DBF, EBF, ENF, mixed forests, grass lands, croplands, shrub lands, Savannas, wetlands). In global scale, the BEAMS estimations was underestimated compared to the flux measurements in the case of carbon uptake and release. The monthly variations of NEP showed relatively high correlations in DBF and mixed forests, but the correlation coefficients of EBF, ENF, and grass lands were less than 0.5. In the meteorological factors, air temperature and solar radiation showed

  19. A high resolution (1 km) groundwater model for Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutanudjaja, Edwin; Verkaik, Jarno; de Graaf, Inge; van Beek, Rens; Erkens, Gilles; Bierkens, Marc

    2015-04-01

    Groundwater is important in many parts of Indonesia. It serves as a primary source of drinking water and industrial activities. During times of drought, it sustains water flows in streams, rivers, lakes and wetlands, and thus support ecosystem habitat and biodiversity as well as preventing hazardous forest fire. Besides its importance, groundwater is known as a vulnerable resource as unsustainable groundwater exploitation and management occurs in many areas of the country. Therefore, in order to ensure sustainable management of groundwater resources, monitoring and predicting groundwater changes in Indonesia are imperative. However, large extent groundwater models to assess these changes on a regional scale are almost non-existent and are hampered by the strong topographical and lithological transitions that characterize Indonesia. In this study, we built an 1 km resolution groundwater model for the entire Indonesian archipelago (total inland area: about 2 million km2). We adopted the approaches of Sutanudjaja et al. (2011, 2014a) and de Graaf et al. (2014) in order to make a MODFLOW (Harbaugh et al., 2000) groundwater model by using only global datasets. Aquifer schematization and properties of the groundwater model were developed from available global lithological maps (e.g. Dürr et al., 2005; Gleeson et al., 2011; Hartmann & Moorsdorf, 2012; Gleeson et al., 2014). We forced the groundwater model with the recent output of global hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB version 2.0 (Sutanudjaja et al., 2014b; van Beek et al., 2011), specifically the long term average of groundwater recharge and average surface water levels derived from channel discharge. Simulation results were promising. The MODFLOW model converged with realistic aquifer properties (i.e. transmissivities) and produced reasonable groundwater head spatial distribution reflecting the positions of major groundwater bodies and surface water bodies in the country. In Vienna, we aim to show and demonstrate these

  20. Assessing the effects of human-induced land degradation in the former homelands of northern South Africa with a 1 km AVHRR NDVI time-series

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2004-05-15

    Full Text Available been successfully estimated with the normalized dif- ference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from satellite data (Deering et al., 1975; Jury et al., 1997; Myneni et al., 1997; Prince, 1991b; Prince & Tucker, 1986; Tucker & Sellers, 1986). NDVI captures... productivity (NPP; Schloss et al., 1999). In arid and semiarid lands, seasonal sums of multitemporal NDVI are strongly corre- lated with vegetation production (Prince, 1991b; Prince & Tucker, 1986; Nicholson & Farrar, 1994; Nicholson et al., 1998). Human...

  1. MODIS/Terra Geolocation Fields 5-Min L1A Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The geolocation fields are calculated for each 1 km MODIS Instantaneous Field of Views (IFOV) for all orbits daily. The locations and ancillary information...

  2. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km (MYD06_L2) product consists of cloud optical and physical parameters. These parameters are derived using remotely...

  3. Estimating the beam attenuation coefficient in coastal waters from AVHRR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Richard W.; Arnone, Robert A.

    1997-09-01

    This paper presents an algorithm to estimate particle beam attenuation at 660 nm ( cp660) in coastal areas using the red and near-infrared channels of the NOAA AVHRR satellite sensor. In situ reflectance spectra and cp660 measurements were collected at 23 stations in Case I and II waters during an April 1993 cruise in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The reflectance spectra were weighted by the spectral response of the AVHRR sensor and integrated over the channel 1 waveband to estimate the atmospherically corrected signal recorded by the satellite. An empirical relationship between integrated reflectance and cp660 values was derived with a linear correlation coefficient of 0.88. Because the AVHRR sensor requires a strong channel 1 signal, the algorithm is applicable in highly turbid areas ( cp660 > 1.5 m -1) where scattering from suspended sediment strongly controls the shape and magnitude of the red (550-650 nm) reflectance spectrum. The algorithm was tested on a data set collected 2 years later in different coastal waters in the northern Gulf of Mexico and satellite estimates of cp660 averaged within 37% of measured values. Application of the algorithm provides daily images of nearshore regions at 1 km resolution for evaluating processes affecting ocean color distribution patterns (tides, winds, currents, river discharge). Further validation and refinement of the algorithm are in progress to permit quantitative application in other coastal areas. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd

  4. Daytime Low Stratiform Cloud Detection on AVHRR Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Pawel Musial

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The near-real time retrieval of low stratiform cloud (LSC coverage is of vital interest for such disciplines as meteorology, transport safety, economy and air quality. Within this scope, a novel methodology is proposed which provides the LSC occurrence probability estimates for a satellite scene. The algorithm is suited for the 1 × 1 km Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data and was trained and validated against collocated SYNOP observations. Utilisation of these two combined data sources requires a formulation of constraints in order to discriminate cases where the LSC is overlaid by higher clouds. The LSC classification process is based on six features which are first converted to the integer form by step functions and combined by means of bitwise operations. Consequently, a set of values reflecting a unique combination of those features is derived which is further employed to extract the LSC occurrence probability estimates from the precomputed look-up vectors (LUV. Although the validation analyses confirmed good performance of the algorithm, some inevitable misclassification with other optically thick clouds were reported. Moreover, the comparison against Polar Platform System (PPS cloud-type product revealed superior classification accuracy. From the temporal perspective, the acquired results reported a presence of diurnal and annual LSC probability cycles over Europe.

  5. One kilometer (1 km) electric solar wind sail tether produced automatically.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppänen, Henri; Rauhala, Timo; Kiprich, Sergiy; Ukkonen, Jukka; Simonsson, Martin; Kurppa, Risto; Janhunen, Pekka; Hæggström, Edward

    2013-09-01

    We produced a 1 km continuous piece of multifilament electric solar wind sail tether of μm-diameter aluminum wires using a custom made automatic tether factory. The tether comprising 90,704 bonds between 25 and 50 μm diameter wires is reeled onto a metal reel. The total mass of 1 km tether is 10 g. We reached a production rate of 70 m/24 h and a quality level of 1‰ loose bonds and 2‰ rebonded ones. We thus demonstrated that production of long electric solar wind sail tethers is possible and practical.

  6. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km (MOD021KM) contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4...

  7. Spatio-temporal interpolation of daily temperatures for global land areas at 1 km resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kilibarda, M.; Hengl, T.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Graler, B.; Pebesma, E.; Tadic, M.P.; Bajat, B.

    2014-01-01

    Combined Global Surface Summary of Day and European Climate Assessment and Dataset daily meteorological data sets (around 9000 stations) were used to build spatio-temporal geostatistical models and predict daily air temperature at ground resolution of 1km for the global land mass. Predictions in

  8. Modelling and mapping the suitability of European forest formations at 1-km resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casalegno, Stefano; Amatulli, Giuseppe; Bastrup-Birk, Annemarie

    2011-01-01

    factors. Here, we used the bootstrap-aggregating machine-learning ensemble classifier Random Forest (RF) to derive a 1-km resolution European forest formation suitability map. The statistical model use as inputs more than 6,000 field data forest inventory plots and a large set of environmental variables...

  9. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km Subsetted V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data type (MOD02SSH) is a subsample from the MODIS Level 1B 1-km data. Every fifth pixel is taken from the MOD021KM product and written out to MOD02SSH. The...

  10. AVHRR for monitoring global tropical deforestation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malingreau, J. P.; Laporte, N.; Tucker, C. J.

    1989-01-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data have been used to assess the dynamics of forest trnsformations in three parts of the tropical belt. A large portion of the Amazon Basin has been systematically covered by Local Area Coverage (LAC) data in the 1985-1987 period. The analysis of the vegetation index and thermal data led to the identification and measurement of large areas of active deforestation. The Kalimantan/Borneo forest fires were monitored and their impact was evaluated using the Global Area Coverage (GAC) 4 km resolution data. Finally, High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) data have provided preliminary information on current activities taking place at the boundary between the savanna and the forest in the Southern part of West Africa. The AVHRR approach is found to be a highly valuable means for carrying out deforestation assessments in regional and global perspectives.

  11. Competitor presence reduces internal attentional focus and improves 16.1km cycling time trial performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emily L; Jones, Hollie S; Andy Sparks, S; Marchant, David C; Midgley, Adrian W; Mc Naughton, Lars R

    2015-07-01

    Whilst the presence of a competitor has been found to improve performance, the mechanisms influencing the change in selected work rates during direct competition have been suggested but not specifically assessed. The aim was to investigate the physiological and psychological influences of a visual avatar competitor during a 16.1-km cycling time trial performance, using trained, competitive cyclists. Randomised cross-over design. Fifteen male cyclists completed four 16.1km cycling time trials on a cycle ergometer, performing two with a visual display of themselves as a simulated avatar (FAM and SELF), one with no visual display (DO), and one with themselves and an opponent as simulated avatars (COMP). Participants were informed the competitive avatar was a similar ability cyclist but it was actually a representation of their fastest previous performance. Increased performance times were evident during COMP (27.8±2.0min) compared to SELF (28.7±1.9min) and DO (28.4±2.3min). Greater power output, speed and heart rate were apparent during COMP trial than SELF (pperformance. Competitive cyclists performed significantly faster during a 16.1-km competitive trial than when performing maximally, without a competitor. The improvement in performance was elicited due to a greater external distraction, deterring perceived exertion. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. SoilGrids1km — Global Soil Information Based on Automated Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengl, Tomislav; de Jesus, Jorge Mendes; MacMillan, Robert A.; Batjes, Niels H.; Heuvelink, Gerard B. M.; Ribeiro, Eloi; Samuel-Rosa, Alessandro; Kempen, Bas; Leenaars, Johan G. B.; Walsh, Markus G.; Gonzalez, Maria Ruiperez

    2014-01-01

    Background Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. Methodology/Principal Findings We present SoilGrids1km — a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution — containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths): soil organic carbon (g kg−1), soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%), bulk density (kg m−3), cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg), coarse fragments (%), soil organic carbon stock (t ha−1), depth to bedrock (cm), World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles), and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images), lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database). Prediction accuracies assessed using 5–fold cross-validation were between 23–51%. Conclusions/Significance SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1) weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2) difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3) low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the Soil

  13. SoilGrids1km--global soil information based on automated mapping.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Hengl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Soils are widely recognized as a non-renewable natural resource and as biophysical carbon sinks. As such, there is a growing requirement for global soil information. Although several global soil information systems already exist, these tend to suffer from inconsistencies and limited spatial detail. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present SoilGrids1km--a global 3D soil information system at 1 km resolution--containing spatial predictions for a selection of soil properties (at six standard depths: soil organic carbon (g kg-1, soil pH, sand, silt and clay fractions (%, bulk density (kg m-3, cation-exchange capacity (cmol+/kg, coarse fragments (%, soil organic carbon stock (t ha-1, depth to bedrock (cm, World Reference Base soil groups, and USDA Soil Taxonomy suborders. Our predictions are based on global spatial prediction models which we fitted, per soil variable, using a compilation of major international soil profile databases (ca. 110,000 soil profiles, and a selection of ca. 75 global environmental covariates representing soil forming factors. Results of regression modeling indicate that the most useful covariates for modeling soils at the global scale are climatic and biomass indices (based on MODIS images, lithology, and taxonomic mapping units derived from conventional soil survey (Harmonized World Soil Database. Prediction accuracies assessed using 5-fold cross-validation were between 23-51%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SoilGrids1km provide an initial set of examples of soil spatial data for input into global models at a resolution and consistency not previously available. Some of the main limitations of the current version of SoilGrids1km are: (1 weak relationships between soil properties/classes and explanatory variables due to scale mismatches, (2 difficulty to obtain covariates that capture soil forming factors, (3 low sampling density and spatial clustering of soil profile locations. However, as the SoilGrids system is

  14. Monitoring natural vegetation in Southern Greenland using NOAA AVHRR and field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Birger Ulf

    1991-01-01

    vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI......vegetation, sheep farming, biomass production, Remote Sensing, NOAA AVHRR, Southern Greenland, NDVI...

  15. A global catalogue of Ceres impact craters ≥ 1 km and preliminary analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Sheng; Yue, Zongyu; Di, Kaichang; Liu, Zhaoqin

    2018-03-01

    The orbital data products of Ceres, including global LAMO image mosaic and global HAMO DTM with a resolution of 35 m/pixel and 135 m/pixel respectively, are utilized in this research to create a global catalogue of impact craters with diameter ≥ 1 km, and their morphometric parameters are calculated. Statistics shows: (1) There are 29,219 craters in the catalogue, and the craters have a various morphologies, e.g., polygonal crater, floor fractured crater, complex crater with central peak, etc.; (2) The identifiable smallest crater size is extended to 1 km and the crater numbers have been updated when compared with the crater catalogue (D ≥ 20 km) released by the Dawn Science Team; (3) The d/D ratios for fresh simple craters, obviously degraded simple crater and polygonal simple crater are 0.11 ± 0.04, 0.05 ± 0.04 and 0.14 ± 0.02 respectively. (4) The d/D ratios for non-polygonal complex crater and polygonal complex crater are 0.08 ± 0.04 and 0.09 ± 0.03. The global crater catalogue created in this work can be further applied to many other scientific researches, such as comparing d/D with other bodies, inferring subsurface properties, determining surface age, and estimating average erosion rate.

  16. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, T.; Murakami, K.; Kato, S.; Matsunaga, T.; Saigusa, N.; Hiraki, K.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. However, most studies, which aimed at the estimation of carbon exchanges between ecosystem and atmosphere, remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. In this study, we show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. As methodology for computing the exchanges, we 1) developed a global 1km-grid climate and satellite dataset based on the approach in Setoyama and Sasai (2013); 2) used the satellite-driven biosphere model (Biosphere model integrating Eco-physiological And Mechanistic approaches using Satellite data: BEAMS) (Sasai et al., 2005, 2007, 2011); 3) simulated the carbon exchanges by using the new dataset and BEAMS by the use of a supercomputer that includes 1280 CPU and 320 GPGPU cores (GOSAT RCF of NIES). As a result, we could develop a global uniform system for realistically estimating terrestrial carbon exchange, and evaluate net ecosystem production in each community level; leading to obtain highly detailed understanding of terrestrial carbon exchanges.

  17. Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part II: Evaluations and Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, K.; Sasai, T.; Kato, S.; Niwa, Y.; Saito, M.; Takagi, H.; Matsunaga, T.; Hiraki, K.; Maksyutov, S. S.; Yokota, T.

    2015-12-01

    Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern in land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many studies have been trying to reveal distribution of carbon exchanges between terrestrial ecosystems and atmosphere for understanding global carbon cycle dynamics by using terrestrial biosphere models, satellite data, inventory data, and so on. However, most studies remained within several tens of kilometers grid spatial resolution, and the results have not been enough to understand the detailed pattern of carbon exchanges based on ecological community and to evaluate the carbon stocks by forest ecosystems in each countries. Improving the sophistication of spatial resolution is obviously necessary to enhance the accuracy of carbon exchanges. Moreover, the improvement may contribute to global warming awareness, policy makers and other social activities. We show global terrestrial carbon exchanges (net ecosystem production, net primary production, and gross primary production) with 1km-grid resolution. The methodology for these estimations are shown in the 2015 AGU FM poster "Estimation of Global 1km-grid Terrestrial Carbon Exchange Part I: Developing Inputs and Modelling". In this study, we evaluated the carbon exchanges in various regions with other approaches. We used the satellite-driven biosphere model (BEAMS) as our estimations, GOSAT L4A CO2 flux data, NEP retrieved by NICAM and CarbonTracer2013 flux data, for period from Jun 2001 to Dec 2012. The temporal patterns for this period were indicated similar trends between BEAMS, GOSAT, NICAM, and CT2013 in many sub-continental regions. Then, we estimated the terrestrial carbon exchanges in each countries, and could indicated the temporal patterns of the exchanges in large carbon stock regions.Global terrestrial carbon cycle largely depends on a spatial pattern of land cover type, which is heterogeneously-distributed over regional and global scales. Many

  18. Practical Application and Obstacles of AVHRR Thermal Data for Estimation of Effusion Rates at Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka Peninsula, Russian Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlpin, D. B.; Meyer, F. J.; Webley, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    Using thermal data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors, we investigated algorithms to estimate the effusive volume of lava flows from the 2012-13 eruption of Tolbachik Volcano with high temporal resolution. AVHRR are polar orbiting, radiation detection instruments that provide reflectance and radiance data in six spectral bands with a ground resolution of 1.1 km². During the Tolbachik eruption of 2012-13, active AVHRR instruments were available aboard four polar orbiting platforms. Although the primary purpose of the instruments is climate and ocean studies, their multiple platforms provide global coverage at least twice daily, with data for all regions of the earth no older than six hours. This frequency makes the AVHRR instruments particularly suitable for the study of volcanic activity. While methods for deriving effusion rates from thermal observations have been previously published, a number of topics complicate their practical application. In particular, these include (1) unknown material parameters used in the estimation process; (2) relatively coarse resolution of thermal sensors; (3) optimizing a model to describe the number of thermal regimes within each pixel and (4) frequent saturation issues in thermal channels. We present ongoing investigations into effusion rate estimation from AVHRR data using the 2012-13 eruption of Tolbachik Volcano as a test event. For this eruption we studied approaches for coping with issues (1) - (4) to pave the way to a more operational implementation of published techniques. To address (1), we used Monte Carlo simulations to understand the sensitivity of effusion rate estimates to changes in material parameters. To study (2) and (3) we compared typical two-component (exposed lava on ambient background) and three-component models (exposed lava, cooled crust, ambient background) for their relative performance. To study issue (4), we compared AVHRR-derived effusion rates to reference data derived from

  19. AVHRR Leads-ARI Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures, Version 1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of AVHRR imagery selected from hard copy 'quick look' images to provide the best coverage possible over the Arctic approximately every three...

  20. Hurricane Satellite (HURSAT) from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Huricane Satellite (HURSAT)-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is used to extend the HURSAT data set such that appling the Objective Dvorak technique...

  1. AVHRR Leads-ARI Polar Gridded Brightness Temperatures

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of AVHRR imagery selected from hard copy 'quick look' images to provide the best coverage possible over the Arctic approximately every three...

  2. GHRSST Level 2P NEODAAS AVHRR18 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The production of these AVHRR L2P data is a NEODAAS activity in collaboration with the UK National Centre for Ocean Forecasting (NCOF). NEODAAS-Dundee acquires...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P NEODAAS AVHRR17 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The production of these AVHRR L2P data is a NEODAAS activity in collaboration with the UK National Centre for Ocean Forecasting (NCOF). NEODAAS-Dundee acquires...

  4. Global-scale high-resolution ( 1 km) modelling of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark; Hendriks, Jan; Beusen, Arthur; Clavreul, Julie; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke

    2017-04-01

    Quantifying mean, maximum and minimum annual flow (AF) of rivers at ungauged sites is essential for a number of applications, including assessments of global water supply, ecosystem integrity and water footprints. AF metrics can be quantified with spatially explicit process-based models, which might be overly time-consuming and data-intensive for this purpose, or with empirical regression models that predict AF metrics based on climate and catchment characteristics. Yet, so far, regression models have mostly been developed at a regional scale and the extent to which they can be extrapolated to other regions is not known. We developed global-scale regression models that quantify mean, maximum and minimum AF as function of catchment area and catchment-averaged slope, elevation, and mean, maximum and minimum annual precipitation and air temperature. We then used these models to obtain global 30 arc-seconds (˜ 1 km) maps of mean, maximum and minimum AF for each year from 1960 through 2015, based on a newly developed hydrologically conditioned digital elevation model. We calibrated our regression models based on observations of discharge and catchment characteristics from about 4,000 catchments worldwide, ranging from 100 to 106 km2 in size, and validated them against independent measurements as well as the output of a number of process-based global hydrological models (GHMs). The variance explained by our regression models ranged up to 90% and the performance of the models compared well with the performance of existing GHMs. Yet, our AF maps provide a level of spatial detail that cannot yet be achieved by current GHMs.

  5. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MYD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  6. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MOD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Night (MYD21A1N.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  8. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid Day (MOD21A1D.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and...

  9. Antarctic 1 km Digital Elevation Model (DEM) from Combined ERS-1 Radar and ICESat Laser Satellite Altimetry

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides a 1 km resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) of Antarctica. The DEM combines measurements from the European Remote Sensing Satellite-1...

  10. Triggered lightning return stroke luminosity to 1 km in two optical bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, F. L.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Wilkes, R.; Kotovsky, D. A.; Hare, B.

    2017-12-01

    Measured luminosity waveforms are presented and analyzed as a function of time and channel height using two types of avalanche photodiodes (APDs) for 19 triggered-lightning return strokes during summer 2016. APD type I had an optical bandwidth from 200 nm to 1,000 nm, with peak response at 600 nm (green light), and APD type II had an optical bandwidth from 400 nm to 1,000 nm with a peak response at 800 nm (red light). Ten channel heights ranging from 0 to 1 km (in 100 m increments) were observed by both types of APDs, 20 total, and measured the luminosity in vertical channel slices of approximately 3 m. For APD type I, the return stroke luminosity waveforms generally decay faster following its singular initial peak (IP) than the waveforms recorded by APD type II. APD type II waveforms often exhibit a second maxima (SM) following the IP. Although the wave shapes recorded by each APD type diverge after the IP, the risetime of the initial luminosity wave front preceding the IP for both types of APDs agrees well. The divergence in the luminosity wave shapes following the IP indicates that APD type II is capable of recording spectral lines that are excited or enhanced after the IP more effectively than APD type I. In addition, the SM/IP ratio increases as a function of channel height, indicating that the spectral range better captured by APD type II is more predominant at the top of the channel than at the bottom. Finally, because APD type II responds better to longer wavelengths than APD type I, and because the SM occurs a few microseconds after the IP (at the channel-bottom), we conjecture that the SM following the IP is a consequence of spectral lines excited during the cooling of the channel, following the initial high-temperature/pressure stage. Our data suggests that the initial optical radiation during the return stroke is dominated by ionized atomic species (e.g. four NII lines between 450 and 600 nm, better captured by APD type I) radiated at higher

  11. Arctic sea ice albedo from AVHRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, R. W.; Rothrock, D. A.

    1994-01-01

    The seasonal cycle of surface albedo of sea ice in the Arctic is estimated from measurements made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the polar-orbiting satellites NOAA-10 and NOAA-11. The albedos of 145 200-km-square cells are analyzed. The cells are from March through September 1989 and include only those for which the sun is more than 10 deg above the horizon. Cloud masking is performed manually. Corrections are applied for instrument calibration, nonisotropic reflection, atmospheric interference, narrowband to broadband conversion, and normalization to a common solar zenith angle. The estimated albedos are relative, with the instrument gain set to give an albedo of 0.80 for ice floes in March and April. The mean values for the cloud-free portions of individual cells range from 0.18 to 0.91. Monthly averages of cells in the central Arctic range from 0.76 in April to 0.47 in August. The monthly averages of the within-cell standard deviations in the central Arctic are 0.04 in April and 0.06 in September. The surface albedo and surface temperature are correlated most strongly in March (R = -0.77) with little correlation in the summer. The monthly average lead fraction is determined from the mean potential open water, a scaled representation of the temperature or albedo between 0.0 (for ice) and 1.0 (for water); in the central Arctic it rises from an average 0.025 in the spring to 0.06 in September. Sparse data on aerosols, ozone, and water vapor in the atmospheric column contribute uncertainties to instantaneous, area-average albedos of 0.13, 0.04, and 0.08. Uncertainties in monthly average albedos are not this large. Contemporaneous estimation of these variables could reduce the uncertainty in the estimated albedo considerably. The poor calibration of AVHRR channels 1 and 2 is another large impediment to making accurate albedo estimates.

  12. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) Cryosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) contains the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) product. APP is a fundamental CDR comprised of calibrated and navigated AVHRR channel...

  13. MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Aqua Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MYD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  14. MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS/Terra Land Surface Temperature/3-Band Emissivity 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid (MOD21A2.006). A new suite of MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) and Emissivity...

  15. The use of NOAA AVHRR satellite data for mapping sediment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of NOAA AVHRR satellite data for mapping sediment variability in the marine and coastal environment. ... The area near Big Constance Lake, which has a persistently higher concentration of suspended sediment around the year, is a suspected non-depositional area. The southwest winds cause a circulation in the ...

  16. Regional thermal patterns in Portugal using satellite images (NOAA AVHRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Lopes

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two NOAA AVHRR diurnal images (channel 4 are used to determine the required procedures aiming at a future operational analysis system in Portugal. Preprocessing and classification operations are described. Strong correlation between air and surface temperature is verified and rather detailed air temperature patterns can be inferred.

  17. AVHRR GAC SST Reanalysis Version 1 (RAN1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Ignatov

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In response to its users’ needs, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA initiated reanalysis (RAN of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR Global Area Coverage (GAC; 4 km sea surface temperature (SST data employing its Advanced Clear Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO retrieval system. Initially, AVHRR/3 data from five NOAA and two Metop satellites from 2002 to 2015 have been reprocessed. The derived SSTs have been matched up with two reference SSTs—the quality controlled in situ SSTs from the NOAA in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam and the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC L4 SST analysis—and analyzed in the NOAA SST Quality Monitor (SQUAM online system. The corresponding clear-sky ocean brightness temperatures (BT in AVHRR bands 3b, 4 and 5 (centered at 3.7, 11, and 12 µm, respectively have been compared with the Community Radiative Transfer Model simulations in another NOAA online system, Monitoring of Infrared Clear-sky Radiances over Ocean for SST (MICROS. For some AVHRRs, the time series of “AVHRR minus reference” SSTs and “observed minus model” BTs are unstable and inconsistent, with artifacts in the SSTs and BTs strongly correlated. In the official “Reanalysis version 1” (RAN1, data from only five platforms—two midmorning (NOAA-17 and Metop-A and three afternoon (NOAA-16, -18 and -19—were included during the most stable periods of their operations. The stability of the SST time series was further improved using variable regression SST coefficients, similarly to how it was done in the NOAA/NASA Pathfinder version 5.2 (PFV5.2 dataset. For data assimilation applications, especially those blending satellite and in situ SSTs, we recommend bias-correcting the RAN1 SSTs using the newly developed sensor-specific error statistics (SSES, which are reported in the product files. Relative performance of RAN1 and PFV5.2 SSTs is discussed. Work is underway to improve the calibration of AVHRR/3s and

  18. Contrail observations from space using NOAA-AVHRR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannstein, H. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Oberpfaffenhofen (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere

    1997-12-31

    The infrared channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard of the weather satellites of the NOAA series allow the detection of contrails. An automated detection scheme is described and tested against computer aided visual classifications by two experts. The algorithm seems to identify contrails within the satellite data with a skill comparable to the human observers. Clusters of contrails within the satellite images are connected to outline regions where the atmospheric properties are favourable for the existence of observable contrails. Air traffic data shows that, over Middle Europe at least, in the main flight levels most of these regions should be marked by detectable contrails. The mean areal coverage of these regions is estimated to be in the range of 10% to 20%, the cloud coverage by detected contrails was 0.9% in 60 AVHRR scenes covering Central Europe. (author) 3 refs.

  19. Developing NOAA's Climate Data Records From AVHRR and Other Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privette, J. L.; Bates, J. J.; Kearns, E. J.

    2010-12-01

    As part of the provisional NOAA Climate Service, NOAA is providing leadership in the development of authoritative, measurement-based information on climate change and variability. NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) recently initiated a satellite Climate Data Record Program (CDRP) to provide sustained and objective climate information derived from meteorological satellite data that NOAA has collected over the past 30+ years - particularly from its Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) program. These are the longest sustained global measurement records in the world and represent billions of dollars of investment. NOAA is now applying advanced analysis methods -- which have improved remarkably over the last decade -- to the POES AVHRR and other instrument data. Data from other satellite programs, including NASA and international research programs and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), are also being used. This process will unravel the underlying climate trend and variability information and return new value from the records. In parallel, NCDC will extend these records by applying the same methods to present-day and future satellite measurements, including the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) and Jason-3. In this presentation, we will describe the AVHRR-related algorithm development activities that CDRP recently selected and funded through open competitions. We will particularly discuss some of the technical challenges related to adapting and using AVHRR algorithms with the VIIRS data that should become available with the launch of the NPOESS Preparatory Project (NPP) satellite in early 2012. We will also describe IT system development activities that will provide data processing and reprocessing, storage and management. We will also outline the maturing Program framework, including the strategies for coding and development standards, community reviews, independent program oversight, and research-to-operations algorithm

  20. The precision of the NDVI derived from AVHRR observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roderick, M.; Smith, R.; Cridland, S.

    1996-01-01

    Vegetation studies using NOAA-AVHRR data have tended to focus on the use of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). This unitless index is computed using near-infrared and red reflectances, and thus has both an accuracy and precision. This article reports on a formal statistical framework for assessing the precision of the NDVI derived from NOAA-AVHRR observations. The framework is based on the “best possible” precision concept, which assumes that signal quantization is the only source of observational error. While the radiance resolution of a spectral observation is essentially fixed by the instrument characteristics, the reflectance resolution is the radiance resolution divided by the cosine of the solar zenith angle. Using typical solar zenith angles for AVHRR image acquisitions over Australia, ± 0.01 NDVI units is typically with “best possible” precision attainable in the NDVI, although this degrades significantly over dark targets, and at large solar zenith angles. Transforming the computed NDVI into a single byte for disk storage results in little or no loss of precision. The framework developed in this article can be adapted to estimate the “best possible” precision of other vegetation indices derived using data from other remote sensing satellites. (author)

  1. A Non-Stationary 1981–2012 AVHRR NDVI3g Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Pinzon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The NDVI3g time series is an improved 8-km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI data set produced from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR instruments that extends from 1981 to the present. The AVHRR instruments have flown or are flying on fourteen polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA and are currently flying on two European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT polar-orbiting meteorological satellites, MetOp-A and MetOp-B. This long AVHRR record is comprised of data from two different sensors: the AVHRR/2 instrument that spans July 1981 to November 2000 and the AVHRR/3 instrument that continues these measurements from November 2000 to the present. The main difficulty in processing AVHRR NDVI data is to properly deal with limitations of the AVHRR instruments. Complicating among-instrument AVHRR inter-calibration of channels one and two is the dual gain introduced in late 2000 on the AVHRR/3 instruments for both these channels. We have processed NDVI data derived from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS from 1997 to 2010 to overcome among-instrument AVHRR calibration difficulties. We use Bayesian methods with high quality well-calibrated SeaWiFS NDVI data for deriving AVHRR NDVI calibration parameters. Evaluation of the uncertainties of our resulting NDVI values gives an error of ± 0.005 NDVI units for our 1981 to present data set that is independent of time within our AVHRR NDVI continuum and has resulted in a non-stationary climate data set.

  2. A Non-Stationary 1981-2012 AVHRR NDVI(sub 3g) Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinzon, Jorge E.; Tucker, Compton J.

    2014-01-01

    The NDVI(sub 3g) time series is an improved 8-km normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data set produced from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instruments that extends from 1981 to the present. The AVHRR instruments have flown or are flying on fourteen polar-orbiting meteorological satellites operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and are currently flying on two European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) polar-orbiting meteorological satellites, MetOp-A and MetOp-B. This long AVHRR record is comprised of data from two different sensors: the AVHRR/2 instrument that spans July 1981 to November 2000 and the AVHRR/3 instrument that continues these measurements from November 2000 to the present. The main difficulty in processing AVHRR NDVI data is to properly deal with limitations of the AVHRR instruments. Complicating among-instrument AVHRR inter-calibration of channels one and two is the dual gain introduced in late 2000 on the AVHRR/3 instruments for both these channels. We have processed NDVI data derived from the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) from 1997 to 2010 to overcome among-instrument AVHRR calibration difficulties. We use Bayesian methods with high quality well-calibrated SeaWiFS NDVI data for deriving AVHRR NDVI calibration parameters. Evaluation of the uncertainties of our resulting NDVI values gives an error of plus or minus 0.005 NDVI units for our 1981 to present data set that is independent of time within our AVHRR NDVI continuum and has resulted in a non-stationary climate data set.

  3. La cartografia de la flora del Montseny en reticle UTM d'1 km. de costat: plantejament i primers resultats

    OpenAIRE

    Panareda i Clopés, Josep M. (Josep Maria), 1945-; Nuet i Badia, Josep

    1983-01-01

    El present treball és un primer escrit sobre la cartografia corològica de les plantes vasculars en el massis del Montseny (Serralada Pre-litoral), en el qual exposem el plantejament del projecte i oferim uns primers résultats. Hi incloem també un mapa per espècie prenent com a unitat espacial el quadrat d'1 km de costat del reticle UTM. La presència de 1'espècie a cada quadrat és indicada en très graus d'abundància: espècie présent o rara, espècie fréquent i espècie abundant. L'àrea estudiada...

  4. Maps Suggest Transport and Source Processes of PM2.5 at 1 km x 1 km for the Whole San Joaquin Valley, Winter 2011 (Generalizations from DISCOVER-AQ)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present interpreted data analysis using MAIAC (Multiangle implementation of Atmospheric Correction) retrievals and appropriate RAPid Update Cycle (RAP) meteorology to map respirable aerosol (PM2.5) for the period January and February, 2011. The San Joaquin Valley is one of the unhealthiest regions in the USA for PM2.5 and related morbidity. The methodology evaluated can be used for the entire moderate-resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS, VIIRS) data record. Other difficult areas of the West: Riverside, CA, Salt Lake City, UT, and Doña Ana County, NM share similar difficulties and solutions. The maps of boundary layer depth for 11-16 hr local time from RAP allows us to interpret aerosol optical thickness as a concentration of particles in a nearly well-mixed box capped by clean air. That mixing is demonstrated by DISCOVER-AQ data and afternoon samples from the airborne measurements, P3B (on-board) and B200 (HSRL2 lidar). This data and the PM2.5 gathered at the deployment sites allowed us to estimate and then evaluate consistency and daily variation of the AOT to PM2.5 relationship. Mixed-effects modeling allowed a refinement of that relation from day to day; RAP mixed layers explained the success of previous mixed-effects modeling. Compositional, size-distribution, and MODIS angle-of-regard effects seem to describe the need for residual daily correction beyond ML depth. We report on an extension method to the entire San Joaquin Valley for all days with MODIS imagery using the permanent PM2.5 stations, evaluated for representativeness. Resulting map movies show distinct sources, particularly Interstate-5 (at 1km x 1km resolution) and the broader Bakersfield area. Accompanying winds suggest transport effects and variable pathways of pollution cleanout. Such estimates should allow morbidity/mortality studies. They should be also useful for actual model assimilations, where composition and sources are uncertain. We conclude with a description of new work to

  5. Monitoring of wildfires in boreal forests using large area AVHRR NDVI composite image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasischke, E.S.; French, N.H.F.; Harrell, P.; Christensen, N.L. Jr.; Ustin, S.L.; Barry, D.

    1993-01-01

    Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) composite image data, produced from AVHRR data collected in 1990, were evaluated for locating and mapping the areal extent of wildfires in the boreal forests of Alaska during that year. A technique was developed to map forest fire boundaries by subtracting a late-summer AVHRR NDVI image from an early summer scene. The locations and boundaries of wildfires within the interior region of Alaska were obtained from the Alaska Fire Service, and compared to the AVHRR-derived fire-boundary map. It was found that AVHRR detected 89.5% of all fires with sizes greater than 2,000ha with no false alarms and that, for most cases, the general shape of the fire boundary detected by AVHRR matched those mapped by field observers. However, the total area contained within the fire boundaries mapped by AVHRR were only 61% of those mapped by the field observers. However, the AVHRR data used in this study did not span the entire time period during which fires occurred, and it is believed the areal estimates could be improved significantly if an expanded AVHRR data set were used

  6. A Global Inventory of Burned Areas at 1 Km Resolution for the Year 2000 Derived from Spot Vegetation Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tansey, K.; Gregoire, J.M.; Boschetti, L.; Maggi, M.; Binaghi, E.; Brivio, P.A.; Stroppiana, D.; Ershov, D.; Flasse, S.; Fraser, R.; Graetz, D.; Peduzzi, P.; Pereira, J.; Silva, J.; Sousa, A.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning constitutes a major contribution to global emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, greenhouse gases and aerosols. Furthermore, biomass burning has an impact on health, transport, the environment and land use. Vegetation fires are certainly not recent phenomena and the impacts are not always negative. However, evidence suggests that fires are becoming more frequent and there is a large increase in the number of fires being set by humans for a variety of reasons. Knowledge of the interactions and feedbacks between biomass burning, climate and carbon cycling is needed to help the prediction of climate change scenarios. To obtain this knowledge, the scientific community requires, in the first instance, information on the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass burning at the global scale. This paper presents an inventory of burned areas at monthly time periods for the year 2000 at a resolution of 1 kilometer (km) and is available to the scientific community at no cost. The burned area products have been derived from a single source of satellite-derived images, the SPOT VEGETATION S1 1 km product, using algorithms developed and calibrated at regional scales by a network of partners. In this paper, estimates of burned area, number of burn scars and average size of the burn scar are described for each month of the year 2000. The information is reported at the country level. This paper makes a significant contribution to understanding the effect of biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry and the storage and cycling of carbon by constraining one of the main parameters used in the calculation of gas emissions

  7. A Global Inventory of Burned Areas at 1 Km Resolution for the Year 2000 Derived from Spot Vegetation Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tansey, K. [Department of Geography, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Gregoire, J.M.; Boschetti, L.; Maggi, M. [European Commission Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, I-21020 (Italy); Binaghi, E. [Universita dell' Insubria, Via Ravasi 2, I-21100 Varese (Italy); Brivio, P.A.; Stroppiana, D. [Institute for Electromagnetic Sensing of the Environment CNR-IREA, Via Bassini 15, I-20133 Milan (Italy); Ershov, D. [International Forest Institute IFI, Novocheriomushkinskaya str. 69a, Moscow, 117418 (Russian Federation); Flasse, S. [Flasse Consulting, 3 Sycamore Crescent, Maidstone, ME16 0AG (United Kingdom); Fraser, R. [Natural Resources Canada, Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS), 588 Booth St., Ottawa, ON, K1A 0Y7 (Canada); Graetz, D. [CSIRO Earth Observation Centre GPO 3023, Canberra, ACT, 2601 (Australia); Peduzzi, P. [United Nations Environment Programme UNEP, Early Warning Unit UNEP/DEWA/GRID, International Environment House, 1219 Geneva (Switzerland); Pereira, J. [Tropical Research Institute, Travessa Conde da Ribeira 9, 1300-142 Lisbon (Portugal); Silva, J. [Department of Forestry, Technical University of Lisbon, Tapada da Ajuda, 1349-017 Lisbon (Portugal); Sousa, A. [Department of Rural Engineering, University of Evora, Apartado 94, 7002-554 Evora (Portugal)

    2004-12-01

    Biomass burning constitutes a major contribution to global emissions of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, greenhouse gases and aerosols. Furthermore, biomass burning has an impact on health, transport, the environment and land use. Vegetation fires are certainly not recent phenomena and the impacts are not always negative. However, evidence suggests that fires are becoming more frequent and there is a large increase in the number of fires being set by humans for a variety of reasons. Knowledge of the interactions and feedbacks between biomass burning, climate and carbon cycling is needed to help the prediction of climate change scenarios. To obtain this knowledge, the scientific community requires, in the first instance, information on the spatial and temporal distribution of biomass burning at the global scale. This paper presents an inventory of burned areas at monthly time periods for the year 2000 at a resolution of 1 kilometer (km) and is available to the scientific community at no cost. The burned area products have been derived from a single source of satellite-derived images, the SPOT VEGETATION S1 1 km product, using algorithms developed and calibrated at regional scales by a network of partners. In this paper, estimates of burned area, number of burn scars and average size of the burn scar are described for each month of the year 2000. The information is reported at the country level. This paper makes a significant contribution to understanding the effect of biomass burning on atmospheric chemistry and the storage and cycling of carbon by constraining one of the main parameters used in the calculation of gas emissions.

  8. A CERES-like Cloud Property Climatology Using AVHRR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.; Yost, C. R.; Trepte, Q.; Bedka, S. T.; Sun-Mack, S.; Doelling, D.

    2015-12-01

    Clouds affect the climate system by modulating the radiation budget and distributing precipitation. Variations in cloud patterns and properties are expected to accompany changes in climate. The NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Project developed an end-to-end analysis system to measure broadband radiances from a radiometer and retrieve cloud properties from collocated high-resolution MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data to generate a long-term climate data record of clouds and clear-sky properties and top-of-atmosphere radiation budget. The first MODIS was not launched until 2000, so the current CERES record is only 15 years long at this point. The core of the algorithms used to retrieve the cloud properties from MODIS is based on the spectral complement of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which has been aboard a string of satellites since 1978. The CERES cloud algorithms were adapted for application to AVHRR data and have been used to produce an ongoing CERES-like cloud property and surface temperature product that includes an initial narrowband-based radiation budget. This presentation will summarize this new product, which covers nearly 37 years, and its comparability with cloud parameters from CERES, CALIPSO, and other satellites. Examples of some applications of this dataset are given and the potential for generating a long-term radiation budget CDR is also discussed.

  9. Calibración in situ del sensor cosmos para determinar humedad del suelo en escalas intermedias (~1 km

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidencio Cruz Bautista

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La heterogeneidad del suelo influye ampliamente en el contenido de humedad, dificultando la precisa determinación de este parámetro en estudios con fines hidrológicos y ecológicos que requieren de mediciones continuas y representativas para escalas intermedias (~1 km. En este contexto un sensor de neutrón de rayo cósmico The COsmic-ray Soil Moisture Observing System (COSMOS permite cuantificar humedad del suelo de manera continua y a escalas espaciales de cientos de metros. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar un esquema de calibración para un sensor COSMOS CRS-1000. El estudio se realizó en una sabana de zacate buffel (Pennisetum ciliare en Rayón Sonora, México. En este sitio se instaló el COSMOS CRS-1000 y para su calibración se realizaron muestreos de suelo en dos etapas. A estas muestras se les determinó el contenido de humedad y su densidad aparente por técnicas gravimétricas. Con el contenido de humedad de estas muestras, expresado en términos volumétricos, se obtuvo por aproximación el parámetro de calibración para el COSMOS CRS-1000. El valor obtenido para este parámetro fue de 4121 conteos por hora (tasa de conteo del neutrón sobre suelo. Con este valor se realizó la corrección a los valores estimados originalmente por el sensor COSMOS CRS-1000. Al realizar esta corrección, se observó un incremento en el contenido de humedad del suelo de 1 a 2 % con respecto a los valores estimados con el COSMOS CRS-1000 en todo el periodo de análisis. A pesar de la variabilidad espacial en el contenido de humedad del suelo bajo estudio, se observó que el sensor COSMOS CRS-1000 tiene la capacidad de proveer estimaciones razonables del contenido de la humedad del suelo de manera continua a una profundidad de 0 a 40 cm, en una superficie de alrededor de 30 ha.

  10. Future Flows Climate: an ensemble of 1-km climate change projections for hydrological application in Great Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prudhomme

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The dataset Future Flows Climate was developed as part of the project ''Future Flows and Groundwater Levels'' to provide a consistent set of climate change projections for the whole of Great Britain at both space and time resolutions appropriate for hydrological applications, and to enable climate change uncertainty and climate variability to be accounted for in the assessment of their possible impacts on the environment.

    Future Flows Climate is derived from the Hadley Centre's ensemble projection HadRM3-PPE that is part of the basis of UKCP09 and includes projections in available precipitation (water available to hydrological processes after snow and ice storages have been accounted for and potential evapotranspiration. It corresponds to an 11-member ensemble of transient projections from January 1950 to December 2098, each a single realisation from a different variant of HadRM3. Data are provided on a 1-km grid over the HadRM3 land areas at a daily (available precipitation and monthly (PE time step as netCDF files.

    Because systematic biases in temperature and precipitation were found between HadRM3-PPE and gridded temperature and precipitation observations for the 1962–1991 period, a monthly bias correction procedure was undertaken, based on a linear correction for temperature and a quantile-mapping correction (using the gamma distribution for precipitation followed by a spatial downscaling. Available precipitation was derived from the bias-corrected precipitation and temperature time series using a simple elevation-dependant snow-melt model. Potential evapotranspiration time series were calculated for each month using the FAO-56 Penman-Monteith equations and bias-corrected temperature, cloud cover, relative humidity and wind speed from HadRM3-PPE along with latitude of the grid and the day of the year.

    Future Flows Climate is freely available for non-commercial use under certain licensing conditions. It is the

  11. The Van Sant AVHRR image projected onto a rhombicosidodecahedron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Michael; Morain, Stan

    1996-03-01

    IDEATION, a design and development corporation, Santa Fe, New Mexico, has modeled Tom Van Sant's ``The Earth From Space'' image to a rhombicosidodecahedron. ``The Earth from Space'' image, produced by the Geosphere® Project in Santa Monica, California, was developed from hundreds of AVHRR pictures and published as a Mercator projection. IDEATION, utilizing a digitized Robinson Projection, fitted the image to foldable, paper components which, when interconnected by means of a unique tabular system, results in a rhombicosidodecahedron representation of the Earth exposing 30 square, 20 triangular, and 12 pentagonal faces. Because the resulting model is not spherical, the borders of the represented features were rectified to match the intersecting planes of the model's faces. The resulting product will be licensed and commercially produced for use by elementary and secondary students. Market research indicates the model will be used in both the demonstration of geometric principles and the teaching of fundamental spatial relations of the Earth's lands and oceans.

  12. EUR-L3P-NAR_AVHRR_NOAA_19:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  13. A New Approach for More Effective Fire Detection Method Using NOAA AVHRR Images

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kalpoma, Kazi A; Haramoto, Yoshiaki; Kudoh, Jun-ich

    2005-01-01

    .... The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on the NOAA satellite series is one of the best systems for fire monitoring due to the combination of a very good temporal resolution of several images a day...

  14. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Extended (APP-X) Cryosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of the extended AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP-x) cryosphere contains 19 geophysical variables over the Arctic and Antarctic for the...

  15. SST Anomaly, NOAA POES AVHRR, Casey and Cornillon Climatology, 0.1 degrees, Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes SST anomaly data using a combination of the POES AVHRR Global Area Coverage data, and data from a climatological database by Casey and...

  16. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Surface Reflectance, Version 4

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains gridded daily surface reflectance and brightness temperatures derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensors onboard...

  17. Advective surface velocity in the north west Pacific derived from NOAA AVHRR images

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Akiyama, M.; Okada, Y.; Sugimori, Y.

    Using sequential AVHRR images in November 1983, nearsurface advective velocities are derived in the region Kuroshio south of Japan. For deriving the velocities two methods are used. One is the Method of Cross Correlation (MCC), using image pair...

  18. AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Twice-Daily 1.25 km EASE-Grid Composites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Please note that the machine on which these AVHRR data are processed has reached its life expectancy and will no longer be available as of 02 June 2008 until further...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO AVHRR17 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-Channel SST retreivals generated in real-time from NOAA-17 AVHRR Global Area Coverage data. Used operationally in Navy oceanographic analyses and forecasts.

  20. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO AVHRR METOP-A Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-Channel SST retreivals generated in real-time from METOP-A AVHRR Global Area Coverage data. Used operationally in Navy oceanographic analyses and forecasts.

  1. GHRSST Level 2P USA NAVOCEANO AVHRR18 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Multi-Channel SST retreivals generated in real-time from NOAA-18 AVHRR Global Area Coverage data. Used operationally in Navy oceanographic analyses and forecasts.

  2. AVHRR CoastWatch Regional Data, November 2003 - present (NODC Accession 0099041)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR (Advanced High Resolution Radiometer) onboard NOAA and Metop satellites is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest....

  3. Retrieving near-global aerosol loading over land and ocean from AVHRR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, N. C.; Lee, J.; Sayer, A. M.; Carletta, N.; Chen, S.-H.; Tucker, C. J.; Holben, B. N.; Tsay, S.-C.

    2017-09-01

    The spaceborne advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensor data record is approaching 40 years, providing a crucial asset for studying long-term trends of aerosol properties regionally and globally. However, due to limitations of its channels' information content, aerosol optical depth (AOD) data from AVHRR over land are still largely lacking. In this paper, we describe a new physics-based algorithm to retrieve aerosol loading over both land and ocean from AVHRR for the first time. The over-land algorithm is an extension of our Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Deep Blue algorithm, while a simplified version of our Satellite Ocean Aerosol Retrieval algorithm is used over ocean. We compare retrieved AVHRR AOD with that from MODIS on a daily and seasonal basis and find, in general, good agreement between the two. For the satellites with equatorial crossing times within 2 h of solar noon, the spatial coverage of the AVHRR aerosol product is comparable to that of MODIS, except over very bright arid regions (such as the Sahara), where the underlying surface reflectance at 630 nm reaches the critical surface reflectance. Based upon comparisons of the AVHRR AOD against Aerosol Robotic Network data, preliminary results indicate that the expected error confidence interval envelope is around ±(0.03 + 15%) over ocean and ±(0.05 + 25%) over land for this first version of the AVHRR aerosol products. Consequently, these new AVHRR aerosol products can contribute important building blocks for constructing a consistent long-term data record for climate studies.

  4. a New Algorithm for the Aod Inversion from Noaa/avhrr Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, L.; Li, R.; Yu, H.

    2018-04-01

    The advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite is one of the earliest data applied in aerosol research. The dense dark vegetation (DDV) algorithm is a popular method for the present land aerosol retrieval. One of the most crucial steps in the DDV algorithm with AVHRR data is estimating the land surface reflectance (LSR). However, LSR cannot be easily estimated because of the lack of a 2.13 μm band. In this article, the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) vegetation index product (MYD13) is introduced to support the estimation of AVHRR LSR. The relationship between MODIS NDVI and the AVHRR LSR of the visible band is analysed to retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from AVHRR data. Retrieval experiments are carried out in mid-eastern America. The AOD data from AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET) measurements are used to evaluate the aerosol retrieval from AVHRR data, the results indicate that about 74 % of the retrieved AOD are within the expected error range of ±(0.05 + 0.2), and a cross comparison of the AOD retrieval results with the MODIS aerosol product (MYD04) shows that the AOD datasets have a similar spatial distribution.

  5. Projection of the change in future extremes over Japan using a cloud-resolving model: (2) Precipitation Extremes and the results of the NHM-1km experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanada, S.; Nakano, M.; Nakamura, M.; Hayashi, S.; Kato, T.; Kurihara, K.; Sasaki, H.; Uchiyama, T.; Aranami, K.; Honda, Y.; Kitoh, A.

    2008-12-01

    In order to study changes in the regional climate in the vicinity of Japan during the summer rainy season due to global warming, experiments by a semi-cloud resolving non-hydrostatic model with a horizontal resolution of 5km (NHM-5km) have been conducted from June to October by nesting within the results of the 10-year time-integrated experiments using a hydrostatic atmospheric general circulation model with a horizontal grid of 20 km (AGCM-20km: TL959L60) for the present and future up to the year 2100. A non-hydrostatic model developed by the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) (JMA-NHM; Saito et al. 2001, 2006) was adopted. Detailed descriptions of the NHM-5km are shown by the poster of Nakano et al. Our results show that rainy days over most of the Japanese Islands will decrease in June and July and increase in August and September in the future climate. Especially, remarkable increases in intense precipitations such as larger than 150 - 300 mm/day are projected from the present to future climate. The 90th percentiles of regional largest values among maximum daily precipitations (R-MDPs) grow 156 to 207 mm/day in the present and future climates, respectively. It is well-known that the horizontal distribution of precipitation, especially the heavy rainfall in the vicinity of Japan, much depends on the topography. Therefore, higher resolution experiments by a cloud-resolving model with a horizontal resolution of 1km (NHM-1km) are one-way nested within the results of NHM-5km. The basic frame and design of the NHM-1km is the same as those of the NHM-5km, but the topography is finer and no cumulus parameterization is used in the NHM-1km experiments. The NHM-1km, which treats the convection and cloud microphysics explicitly, can represent not only horizontal distributions of rainfall in detail but also the 3-dimensional structures of meso-beta-scale convective systems (MCSs). Because of the limitation of computation resources, only heavy rainfall events that rank in top

  6. Evaluation of Decision Trees for Cloud Detection from AVHRR Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Smadar; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2005-01-01

    Automated cloud detection and tracking is an important step in assessing changes in radiation budgets associated with global climate change via remote sensing. Data products based on satellite imagery are available to the scientific community for studying trends in the Earth's atmosphere. The data products include pixel-based cloud masks that assign cloud-cover classifications to pixels. Many cloud-mask algorithms have the form of decision trees. The decision trees employ sequential tests that scientists designed based on empirical astrophysics studies and simulations. Limitations of existing cloud masks restrict our ability to accurately track changes in cloud patterns over time. In a previous study we compared automatically learned decision trees to cloud masks included in Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data products from the year 2000. In this paper we report the replication of the study for five-year data, and for a gold standard based on surface observations performed by scientists at weather stations in the British Islands. For our sample data, the accuracy of automatically learned decision trees was greater than the accuracy of the cloud masks p < 0.001.

  7. Long time-series of turbid coastal water using AVHRR: an example from Florida Bay, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Richard P.; Frayer, M. L.

    1997-02-01

    The AVHRR can provide information on the reflectance of turbid case II water, permitting examination of large estuaries and plumes from major rivers. The AVHRR has been onboard several NOAA satellites, with afternoon overpasses since 1981, offering a long time-series to examine changes in coastal water. We are using AVHRR data starting in December 1989, to examine water clarity in Florida Bay, which has undergone a decline since the late 1980's. The processing involves obtaining a nominal reflectance for red light with standard corrections including those for Rayleigh and aerosol path radiances. Established relationships between reflectance and the water properties being measured in the Bay provide estimates of diffuse attenuation and light limitation for phytoplankton and seagrass productivity studies. Processing also includes monthly averages of reflectance and attenuation. The AVHRR data set describes spatial and temporal patterns, including resuspension of bottom sediments in the winter, and changes in water clarity. The AVHRR also indicates that Florida Bay has much higher reflectivity relative to attenuation than other southeastern US estuaries.

  8. Long-term record of top-of-atmosphere albedo generated from AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z.

    2017-12-01

    Top-of-Atmosphere (TOA) albedo is a fundamental component of Earth's energy budget. Previously, long-term accurate TOA albedo products did not exist due to the lack of stable broadband observations. With a new albedo estimation methodology based on multispectral observations, TOA albedo since 1981 has been retrieved using data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), which provides the longest record of satellite observations across the globe. To develop the long-term TOA albedo record, the instantaneous TOA albedo was calculated by the direct estimation method, which was built on training data pairs from coincident AVHRR TOA reflectance and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) TOA albedo. The instantaneous TOA albedo was then converted to daily mean and monthly mean albedo based on the diurnal curves from geostationary satellites. The TOA albedo results (AVHRR-TAL) were compared with Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) flux products for 2007. The monthly mean AVHRR-TAL agreed well with the CERES products, with a root mean square difference (RMSD) of 0.032 and a bias of 0.013. In addition, AVHRR-TAL showed similar seasonal variations to those seen in the CERES products. Further analysis on long-term time series showed good consistency between the two datasets (R2 > 0.95 and relative RMSD < 4%) from 2000 to 2015. Although some calibration issues remain to be solved, our datasets show the potential ability to observe the global TOA albedo from 1981 to the present.

  9. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Reflectance and Brightness Temperatures from AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-x), Version 5.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR reflectance and brightness temperatures was produced by the University of Wisconsin using the AVHRR Pathfinder...

  10. NOAA AVHRR Clear-Sky Products over Oceans (ACSPO): Sea Surface Temperature, Clear Sky Radiances, and Aerosol Optical Depth for the Global Ocean, 2011 - present (NCEI Accession 0072979)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Clear-Sky Processor over Oceans, jointly developed between NESDIS STAR and OSDPD, produces AVHRR clear-sky products over oceans. ACSPO generates output...

  11. Mapeamento da temperatura da superfície terrestre com uso do sensor AVHRR/NOAA Mapping land surface temperature using AVHRR/NOAA sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aníbal Gusso

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação do uso do sensor AVHRR/NOAA (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration para mapeamento da temperatura da superfície terrestre (TST no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, por meio da comparação entre três algoritmos clássicos. Foram comparados os métodos de Becker & Li, Sobrino et al. e Kerr et al. para estimativa das TST mínimas, utilizando imagens noturnas e logo após o amanhecer. Os dados de emissividade e TST foram obtidos por meio de combinações matemáticas da radiação detectada nas faixas do visível, infravermelho próximo e termal do sensor AVHRR/NOAA. O sensor AVHRR é adequado para o mapeamento de TST para as condições do tipo de cobertura do solo que predominam no Rio Grande do Sul, visto que a TST estimada pelos três métodos testados foi próxima à temperatura do ar medida nos locais selecionados. O método de Sobrino et al. foi o mais adequado.The objective of this work was to evaluate the suitable use of AVHRR/NOAA (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration on land surface temperature (LST mapping in Rio Grande do Sul State by means of the comparison of three classic algorithms. The methods of Becker & Li, Sobrino et al. and Kerr et al. were compared for the minimum LST estimation, using nocturnal and predawn images. Both emissivity and LST data were obtained by means of mathematical combinations of the visible, near-infrared and thermal detected radiation of the AVHRR/NOAA sensor. The AVHRR sensor is suitable for LST mapping for the overall conditions of soil coverage in Rio Grande do Sul, once the estimated LST, by the three tested methods, was close to the measured air temperature at the selected locations. Sobrino et al. was the most adequate method.

  12. Clasificador genérico de objetos en imágenes AVHRR

    OpenAIRE

    Pascual Ramírez, Fermín; Paz Pellat, Fernando; Martínez Menes, Mario; Palacios Vélez, Enrique; Mejía Sáenz, Enrique; Rubio Granados, Erasmo

    2010-01-01

    El presente artículo describe un algoritmo para llevar a cabo una clasificación genérica de objetos utilizando imágenes del sensor advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR), basado en la firma espectral de los objetos genéricos (suelo, mezcla suelo-vegetación, cuerpos de agua, nubes, etc.). Debido a las particularidades de las bandas disponibles en el sensor AVHRR, se presenta un algoritmo específico utilizando la banda 3a (B3a) y otro utilizando la banda 3b (B3b) de este sensor. Los a...

  13. NOAA Daily 25km Global Optimally Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) in situ and AVHRR analysis supplemented with AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 climatological SST for inland and coastal pixels, 1981-09-01 through 2010-12-31 (NODC Accession 0071180)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains the daily 25km global Optimally Interpolated Sea Surface Temperature (OISST) in situ and AVHRR analysis, supplemented with AVHRR Pathfinder...

  14. Monitoring start of season in Alaska with GLOBE, AVHRR, and MODIS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, Jessica; Dubayah, Ralph; Sparrow, Elena; Levine, Elissa

    2008-03-01

    This work evaluates whether continuity between Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring phenological changes in Alaska. This work also evaluates whether NDVI can detect changes in start of the growing season (SOS) in this region. Six quadratic regression models with NDVI as a function of accumulated growing degree days (AGDD) were developed from 2001 through 2004 AVHRR and MODIS NDVI data sets for urban, mixed, and forested land covers. Model parameters determined NDVI values for start of the observational period as well as peak and length of the growing season. NDVI values for start of the growing season were determined from the model equations and field observations of SOS made by GLOBE students and researchers at University of Alaska Fairbanks. AGDD was computed from daily air temperature. AVHRR and MODIS models were significantly different from one another with differences in the start of the observational season as well as start, peak, and length of the growing season. Furthermore, AGDD for SOS was significantly lower during the 1990s than the 1980s. NDVI values at SOS did not detect this change. There are limitations with using NDVI to monitor phenological changes in these regions because of snow, the large extent of conifers, and clouds, which restrict the composite period. In addition, differing processing and spectral characteristics restrict continuity between AVHRR and MODIS NDVI data sets.

  15. Global validation of two-channel AVHRR aerosol optical thickness retrievals over the oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Li; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Geogdzhayev, Igor; Smirnov, Alexander; Sakerin, Sergey M.; Kabanov, Dmitry M.; Ershov, Oleg A.

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents validation results for the aerosol optical thickness derived by applying a two-channel retrieval algorithm to Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) radiance data. The satellite retrievals are compared with ship-borne sun-photometer results. The comparison of spatial and temporal statistics of the AVHRR results and the ship measurements shows a strong correlation. The satellite retrieval results obtained with the original algorithm for a wavelength of 0.55μm are systematically higher than the sun-photometer measurements in the cases of low aerosol loads. The ensemble averaged satellite-retrieved optical thickness overestimates the ensemble averaged sun-photometer data by about 11% with a random error of about 0.04. Increasing the diffuse component of the ocean surface reflectance from 0.002 to 0.004 in the AVHRR algorithm produces a better match, with the ensemble-averaged AVHRR-retrieved optical thickness differing by only about 3.6% from the sun-photometer truth and having a small offset of 0.03

  16. Determining the rate of forest conversion in Mato Grosso, Brazil, using Landsat MSS and AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ross; Horning, Ned; Stone, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    AVHRR-LAC thermal data and Landsat MSS and TM spectral data were used to estimate the rate of forest clearing in Mato Grosso, Brazil, between 1981 and 1984. The Brazilian state was stratified into forest and nonforest. A list sampling procedure was used in the forest stratum to select Landsat MSS scenes for processing based on estimates of fire activity in the scenes. Fire activity in 1984 was estimated using AVHRR-LAC thermal data. State-wide estimates of forest conversion indicate that between 1981 and 1984, 353,966 ha + or - 77,000 ha (0.4 percent of the state area) were converted per year. No evidence of reforestation was found in this digital sample. The relationship between forest clearing rate (based on MSS-TM analysis) and fire activity (estimated using AVHRR data) was noisy (R-squared = 0.41). The results suggest that AVHRR data may be put to better use as a stratification tool than as a subsidiary variable in list sampling.

  17. Detection of coal mine fires in the Jharia coal field using NOAA/AVHRR data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agarwal, R.; Singh, D.; Chauhan, D.S.; Singh, K.P. [Harcourt Butler Technological Institute, Kanpur (India)

    2006-09-15

    Coal fires represent a major problem in most coal producing countries. The Jharia coal field (JCF) has been affected by surface and sub-surface coal fires since the beginning of mining in the region in the mid 1800s. Currently research is focused on using freely available satellite data such as NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectrometer) etc for various applications. The potential of National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images for detecting coal fires and monitoring their progress and associated environmental hazards and risks to the local communities in the JCF has been reviewed. Three models, namely the thresholding model, the contextual model and the fuel mask model have been used to determine the potential fire pixels. Due to the coarse resolution of the NOAA/AVHRR data it was essential to determine sub-pixel fires as well. Results of this study have been verified using the MODIS active fires product, MOD14 (Terra). We have used ten images of NOAA/AVHRR for the year 2004 in this study, and the results are in broad agreement with the ground truth data.

  18. Snow and Ice Applications of AVHRR in Polar Regions: Report of a Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K.; Bindschadler, R.; Casassa, G.; Comiso, J.; Eppler, D.; Fetterer, F.; Hawkins, J.; Key, J.; Rothrock, D.; Thomas, R.; hide

    1993-01-01

    The third symposium on Remote Sensing of Snow and Ice, organized by the International Glaciological Society, took place in Boulder, Colorado, 17-22 May 1992. As part of this meeting a total of 21 papers was presented on snow and ice applications of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite data in polar regions. Also during this meeting a NASA sponsored Workshop was held to review the status of polar surface measurements from AVHRR. In the following we have summarized the ideas and recommendations from the workshop, and the conclusions of relevant papers given during the regular symposium sessions. The seven topics discussed include cloud masking, ice surface temperature, narrow-band albedo, ice concentration, lead statistics, sea-ice motion and ice-sheet studies with specifics on applications, algorithms and accuracy, following recommendations for future improvements. In general, we can affirm the strong potential of AVHRR for studying sea ice and snow covered surfaces, and we highly recommend this satellite data set for long-term monitoring of polar process studies. However, progress is needed to reduce the uncertainty of the retrieved parameters for all of the above mentioned topics to make this data set useful for direct climate applications such as heat balance studies and others. Further, the acquisition and processing of polar AVHRR data must become better coordinated between receiving stations, data centers and funding agencies to guarantee a long-term commitment to the collection and distribution of high quality data.

  19. Evaluation of AVHRR Aerosol Properties Over Mainland China from Deepblue Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Y.; Che, Y.; She, L.

    2017-12-01

    Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on-board NOAA series satellites is the only operational senor which keeps observing surface of the Earth and cloud over 30 years since 1979. Such long time coverage helps to expand the application of AVHRR to aerosol properties retrieval over both land and ocean successfully. Recently in 2017, the Deep Blue Project has published AVHRR `Deep Blue' dataset version 001 (V001) using `Deep Blue (DB)' algorithm(Sayer et al., 2017). This dataset includes not only aerosol properties over land but also oceanic aerosol product at three periods (NOAA-11: 1989-1990, NOAA-14: 1995-1999, NOAA-18: 2006-2011). We pay much of our attention to DB's performance over mainland China. Therefore, in the presenting paper, we focus on validating AVHRR/DB dataset over different land covers in China in 2007, 2008 and 2010. Both of data from ground-based networks from the Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET) and China Aerosol Remote Sensing Network (CARSNET) are used as reference data. The collocation method is to match data at a time range of of satellite pass-by and at a spatial frame of pixels around ground-based site. Totally, data from 18 AERONET and 25 CARSNET are used as shown in figure, collocating 922 matches with AERONET and 2325 matches with CARSNET. Additionally, we introduced a corrected RMS error as main evaluation metric. As a result, AVHRR/DB underestimates AOD increasingly and more uncertainties and errors will be introduced with the growth of AOD. Otherwise, the performance of AVHRR/DB are better compared with AERONET data than with CARSNET data from RMSbc of 0.35 vs. 0.42. Their Rs (0.757 vs. 0.654) prove this characteristic too. For urban areas, the performances in Beijing are better than that in Xi'an from RMSbc, otherwise RMS in Xi'an (0.324) is lower than others' (0.346 and 0.383) mainly because of small AOD observed range and low R (0.624). For croplands, those performances are at same levels with RMSbc from 0.312 to 0

  20. Evaluation of NLDAS 12-km and downscaled 1-km temperature products in New York State for potential use in health exposure response studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, M. G., Jr.; Insaf, T.; Crosson, W. L.; Al-Hamdan, M. Z.

    2017-12-01

    Heat exposure metrics (maximum and minimum daily temperatures,) have a close relationship with human health. While meteorological station data provide a good source of point measurements, temporal and spatially consistent temperature data are needed for health studies. Reanalysis data such as the North American Land Data Assimilation System's (NLDAS) 12-km gridded product are an effort to resolve spatio-temporal environmental data issues; the resolution may be too coarse to accurately capture the effects of elevation, mixed land/water areas, and urbanization. As part of this NASA Applied Sciences Program funded project, the NLDAS 12-km air temperature product has been downscaled to 1-km using MODIS Land Surface Temperature patterns. Limited validation of the native 12-km NLDAS reanalysis data has been undertaken. Our objective is to evaluate the accuracy of both the 12-km and 1-km downscaled products using the US Historical Climatology Network station data geographically dispersed across New York State. Statistical methods including correlation, scatterplots, time series and summary statistics were used to determine the accuracy of the remotely-sensed maximum and minimum temperature products. The specific effects of elevation and slope on remotely-sensed temperature product accuracy were determined with 10-m digital elevation data that were used to calculate percent slope and link with the temperature products at multiple scales. Preliminary results indicate the downscaled temperature product improves accuracy over the native 12-km temperature product with average correlation improvements from 0.81 to 0.85 for minimum and 0.71 to 0.79 for maximum temperatures in 2009. However, the benefits vary temporally and geographically. Our results will inform health studies using remotely-sensed temperature products to determine health risk from excessive heat by providing a more robust assessment of the accuracy of the 12-km NLDAS product and additional accuracy gained from

  1. Allocating emissions to 4 km and 1 km horizontal spatial resolutions and its impact on simulated NOx and O3 in Houston, TX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuai; Choi, Yunsoo; Roy, Anirban; Jeon, Wonbae

    2017-09-01

    A WRF-SMOKE-CMAQ air quality modeling system was used to investigate the impact of horizontal spatial resolution on simulated nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone (O3) in the Greater Houston area (a non-attainment area for O3). We employed an approach recommended by the United States Environmental Protection Agency to allocate county-based emissions to model grid cells in 1 km and 4 km horizontal grid resolutions. The CMAQ Integrated Process Rate analyses showed a substantial difference in emissions contributions between 1 and 4 km grids but similar NOx and O3 concentrations over urban and industrial locations. For example, the peak NOx emissions at an industrial and urban site differed by a factor of 20 for the 1 km and 8 for the 4 km grid, but simulated NOx concentrations changed only by a factor of 1.2 in both cases. Hence, due to the interplay of the atmospheric processes, we cannot expect a similar level of reduction of the gas-phase air pollutants as the reduction of emissions. Both simulations reproduced the variability of NASA P-3B aircraft measurements of NOy and O3 in the lower atmosphere (from 90 m to 4.5 km). Both simulations provided similar reasonable predictions at surface, while 1 km case depicted more detailed features of emissions and concentrations in heavily polluted areas, such as highways, airports, and industrial regions, which are useful in understanding the major causes of O3 pollution in such regions, and to quantify transport of O3 to populated communities in urban areas. The Integrated Reaction Rate analyses indicated a distinctive difference of chemistry processes between the model surface layer and upper layers, implying that correcting the meteorological conditions at the surface may not help to enhance the O3 predictions. The model-observation O3 bias in our studies (e.g., large over-prediction during the nighttime or along Gulf of Mexico coastline), were due to uncertainties in meteorology, chemistry or other processes. Horizontal grid

  2. Caffeine Alters Blood Potassium and Catecholamine Concentrations but not the Perception of Pain and Fatigue with a 1 km Cycling Sprint

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Cordingley

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Caffeine has been used by some athletes to improve short-term high-intensity exercise performance; however, the literature is equivocal. Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of caffeine on plasma potassium and catecholamine concentrations, pain and fatigue perception, to determine whether potassium ion handling and altered perception related to the central nervous system are associated with enhanced performance during a 1 km cycling time trial.  Methods: Thirteen well trained men with a mean age of 27 ± 6 yrs (body mass: 76.4 ± 6.4 kg, height: 180 ± 7 cm, and max: 57.5 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1 were recruited.  Participants were randomized to a caffeine (5 mg·kg-1 or a placebo condition using a double blind, cross over design.  Results: Caffeine had no significant effects on the 1 km time-trial performance indicators of time (82.1 ± 2.4 vs. 81.9 ± 3.9s, peak (633.0 ± 83.6 vs. 638.7 ± 110.1 watts or average power (466.0 ± 37.3 vs. 467.5 ± 59.9 watts; caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  In addition, caffeine had no significant effect on oxygen consumption ( (4.11 ± 0.24 vs 4.06 ± 0.29 L,the perception of pain (5.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.5 ± 2.6 or fatigue (7.1 ± 1.8 vs.7.1 ± 1.8: caffeine and placebo conditions respectively.  There was a significantly greater increase in post-exercise blood lactate (p<0.05 and catecholamines (p<0.05 as well as a lower pre-exercise blood potassium concentration (p<0.05 in the caffeine condition. Conclusions: The results suggest that caffeine can enhance certain metabolic parameters, but these changes were unable to augment short-distance (1km, high-intensity cycling performance. Keywords: ergogenic, anaerobic exercise, performance, oxygen consumption

  3. The proportion of excessive fast-food consumption attributable to the neighbourhood food environment among youth living within 1 km of their school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laxer, Rachel E; Janssen, Ian

    2014-04-01

    The study objective was to estimate the proportion of excessive fast-food consumption by youth that is attributable to living and attending school in a neighbourhood with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. This was a cross-sectional study of 6099 Canadian youths (aged 11-15 years) from 255 school neighbourhoods. All participants lived within 1 km of their school. The density of chain fast-food restaurants within a 1-km circular buffer surrounding each school was determined using geographic information systems. Excessive fast-food consumption (≥2 times per week) was assessed by questionnaire. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations. The population attributable risk estimates of excessive fast-food consumption due to neighbourhood exposure to fast-food restaurants were determined based on the prevalence of exposure and the results from the logistic regression. Eight percent of participants were excessive fast-food consumers. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors (i.e., gender, race, and socioeconomic status), it was found that youths from neighbourhoods with a moderate (odds ratio (OR), 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-2.54) or high (OR 1.70; 95% CI 1.12-2.56) density of chain fast-food restaurants were more likely to be excessive fast-food consumers than were youths from neighbourhoods with no chain fast-food restaurants. Approximately 31% of excessive consumption was attributable to living in neighbourhoods with a moderate or high density of fast-food restaurants. Thus, the fast-food retail environment within which youth live and go to school is an important contributor to their eating behaviours.

  4. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) from AVHRR Pathfinder, Version 5.2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 Sea Surface Temperature data set (PFV52) is a collection of global, twice-daily 4km sea surface temperature data produced in a...

  5. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Cloud Properties from AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-x), Version 5.3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of cloud products was produced by the University of Wisconsin using the AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-X)...

  6. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Visible and Near Infrared Reflectance from AVHRR, Version 1.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR visible gains and offsets convert GAC pixel level counts to radiances and are provided for each visible band encompassing TIROS-N, NOAA-6 through NOAA-19...

  7. Long Term Cloud Property Datasets From MODIS and AVHRR Using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, Patrick; Bedka, Kristopher M.; Doelling, David R.; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Yost, Christopher R.; Trepte, Qing Z.; Bedka, Sarah T.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Scarino, Benjamin R.; Chen, Yan; hide

    2015-01-01

    Cloud properties play a critical role in climate change. Monitoring cloud properties over long time periods is needed to detect changes and to validate and constrain models. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project has developed several cloud datasets from Aqua and Terra MODIS data to better interpret broadband radiation measurements and improve understanding of the role of clouds in the radiation budget. The algorithms applied to MODIS data have been adapted to utilize various combinations of channels on the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the long-term time series of NOAA and MetOp satellites to provide a new cloud climate data record. These datasets can be useful for a variety of studies. This paper presents results of the MODIS and AVHRR analyses covering the period from 1980-2014. Validation and comparisons with other datasets are also given.

  8. Automated cloud screening of AVHRR imagery using split-and-merge clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallaudet, Timothy C.; Simpson, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Previous methods to segment clouds from ocean in AVHRR imagery have shown varying degrees of success, with nighttime approaches being the most limited. An improved method of automatic image segmentation, the principal component transformation split-and-merge clustering (PCTSMC) algorithm, is presented and applied to cloud screening of both nighttime and daytime AVHRR data. The method combines spectral differencing, the principal component transformation, and split-and-merge clustering to sample objectively the natural classes in the data. This segmentation method is then augmented by supervised classification techniques to screen clouds from the imagery. Comparisons with other nighttime methods demonstrate its improved capability in this application. The sensitivity of the method to clustering parameters is presented; the results show that the method is insensitive to the split-and-merge thresholds.

  9. Experimental demonstration of bidirectional up to 40 Gbit/s QPSK coherent free-space optical communication link over ∼1 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xianglian; Wu, Zhihang; Wang, Tianshu; Zhang, Peng; Li, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Huilin; Su, Yuwei; He, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaoyan; Gao, Shiming

    2018-03-01

    Advanced multi-level modulation formats have shown their great potential in high-speed and high-spectral-efficiency optical communications. Using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) modulation format for free-space optical (FSO) communication, a bidirectional high-speed FSO transmission link with the bit rates of up to 40 Gbit/s over ∼1 km, between two buildings in the campus of Changchun University of Science and Technology, Changchun, China, is experimentally demonstrated cooperating by capture and tracking systems. The eye-diagrams and constellation diagrams of the transmitted QPSK signals are clearly observed. By comparing the bit error rate (BER) curves before and after transmission, one can find that the receiving powers are both less than -16.5 dBm for the forward and backward transmissions of the bidirectional 20, 30, and 40 Gbit/s FSO links, and their power penalties due to the phase fluctuation of the atmospheric channel are both less than 2.6 dB, at the BER of 3.8 ×10-3.

  10. Quantifying the carbon uptake by vegetation for Europe on a 1 km2 resolution using a remote sensing driven vegetation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wißkirchen, K.; Tum, M.; Günther, K. P.; Niklaus, M.; Eisfelder, C.; Knorr, W.

    2013-04-01

    In this study we compare monthly gross primary productivity (GPP) time series (2000-2007), computed for Europe with the Biosphere Energy Transfer Hydrology (BETHY/DLR) model with monthly data from the eddy covariance measurements network FLUXNET. BETHY/DLR with a spatial resolution of 1 km2 is designed for regional and continental applications (here Europe) and operated at the German Aerospace Center (DLR). It was adapted from the BETHY scheme to be driven by remote sensing data and meteorology. Time series of Leaf Area Index (LAI) are used to control the development of vegetation. These are taken from the CYCLOPES database. Meteorological time series are used to regulate meteorological seasonality. These comprise daily information on temperature, precipitation, wind-speed and radiation. Additionally, static maps such as land cover, elevation, and soil type are used. To validate our model results we used eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET network of 74 towers across Europe. For forest sites we found that our model predicts between 20% and 40% higher annual GPP sums. In contrast, for cropland sites BETHY/DLR results show about 18% less GPP than eddy covariance measurements. For grassland sites, between 10% more and 16% less GPP was calculated with BETHY/DLR. A mean total carbon uptake of 2.5 Pg C yr-1 (±0.17 Pg) was found for Europe. In addition, this study states on risks that arise from the comparison of modeled data to FLUXNET measurements and their interpretation width.

  11. In-flight interband calibration on AVHRR data by a cloud-viewing technique

    OpenAIRE

    Wald , Lucien

    1997-01-01

    ISBN 90-5410-933-5; International audience; A significant degradation in the responsivity of the AVHRR radiometers aboard the NOAA satellite series, affects the index vegetation (NDVI), which is an important source of information for monitoring vegetation conditions on regional and global scales. Many studies have been carried out which use the viewing Earth calibration approach in order to provide accurate calibration correction coefficients for the computation of the vegetation index using ...

  12. A method for an accurate in-flight calibration of AVHRR data for vegetation index calculation

    OpenAIRE

    Asmami , Mbarek; Wald , Lucien

    1992-01-01

    International audience; A significant degradation in the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) responsitivity, on the NOAA satellite series, has occurred since the prelaunch calibration and with time since launch. This affects the index vegetation (NDVI), which is an important source of information for monitoring vegetation conditions on regional and global scales. Many studies have been carried out which use the Viewing Earth calibration approach in order to provide accurate calib...

  13. Evaluation of Operational Albedo Algorithms For AVHRR, MODIS and VIIRS: Case Studies in Southern Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privette, J. L.; Schaaf, C. B.; Saleous, N.; Liang, S.

    2004-12-01

    Shortwave broadband albedo is the fundamental surface variable that partitions solar irradiance into energy available to the land biophysical system and energy reflected back into the atmosphere. Albedo varies with land cover, vegetation phenological stage, surface wetness, solar angle, and atmospheric condition, among other variables. For these reasons, a consistent and normalized albedo time series is needed to accurately model weather, climate and ecological trends. Although an empirically-derived coarse-scale albedo from the 20-year NOAA AVHRR record (Sellers et al., 1996) is available, an operational moderate resolution global product first became available from NASA's MODIS sensor. The validated MODIS product now provides the benchmark upon which to compare albedo generated through 1) reprocessing of the historic AVHRR record and 2) operational processing of data from the future National Polar-Orbiting Environmental Satellite System's (NPOESS) Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). Unfortunately, different instrument characteristics (e.g., spectral bands, spatial resolution), processing approaches (e.g., latency requirements, ancillary data availability) and even product definitions (black sky albedo, white sky albedo, actual or blue sky albedo) complicate the development of the desired multi-mission (AVHRR to MODIS to VIIRS) albedo time series -- a so-called Climate Data Record. This presentation will describe the different albedo algorithms used with AVHRR, MODIS and VIIRS, and compare their results against field measurements collected over two semi-arid sites in southern Africa. We also describe the MODIS-derived VIIRS proxy data we developed to predict NPOESS albedo characteristics. We conclude with a strategy to develop a seamless Climate Data Record from 1982- to 2020.

  14. Estimating solar radiation using NOAA/AVHRR and ground measurement data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallahi, Somayeh; Amanollahi, Jamil; Tzanis, Chris G.; Ramli, Mohammad Firuz

    2018-01-01

    Solar radiation (SR) data are commonly used in different areas of renewable energy research. Researchers are often compelled to predict SR at ground stations for areas with no proper equipment. The objective of this study was to test the accuracy of the artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models for estimating monthly average SR over Kurdistan Province, Iran. Input data of the models were two data series with similar longitude, latitude, altitude, and month (number of months) data, but there were differences between the monthly mean temperatures in the first data series obtained from AVHRR sensor of NOAA satellite (DS1) and in the second data series measured at ground stations (DS2). In order to retrieve land surface temperature (LST) from AVHRR sensor, emissivity of the area was considered and for that purpose normalized vegetation difference index (NDVI) calculated from channels 1 and 2 of AVHRR sensor was utilized. The acquired results showed that the ANN model with DS1 data input with R2 = 0.96, RMSE = 1.04, MAE = 1.1 in the training phase and R2 = 0.96, RMSE = 1.06, MAE = 1.15 in the testing phase achieved more satisfactory performance compared with MLR model. It can be concluded that ANN model with remote sensing data has the potential to predict SR in locations with no ground measurement stations.

  15. Development of digital interactive processing system for NOAA satellites AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, R. K.; Murthy, N. N.

    The paper discusses the digital image processing system for NOAA/AVHRR data including Land applications - configured around VAX 11/750 host computer supported with FPS 100 Array Processor, Comtal graphic display and HP Plotting devices; wherein the system software for relational Data Base together with query and editing facilities, Man-Machine Interface using form, menu and prompt inputs including validation of user entries for data type and range; preprocessing software for data calibration, Sun-angle correction, Geometric Corrections for Earth curvature effect and Earth rotation offsets and Earth location of AVHRR image have been accomplished. The implemented image enhancement techniques such as grey level stretching, histogram equalization and convolution are discussed. The software implementation details for the computation of vegetative index and normalized vegetative index using NOAA/AVHRR channels 1 and 2 data together with output are presented; scientific background for such computations and obtainability of similar indices from Landsat/MSS data are also included. The paper concludes by specifying the further software developments planned and the progress envisaged in the field of vegetation index studies.

  16. Quantification of Impact of Orbital Drift on Inter-Annual Trends in AVHRR NDVI Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoteshwar R. Nagol

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI time-series data derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR have been extensively used for studying inter-annual dynamics of global and regional vegetation. However, there can be significant uncertainties in the data due to incomplete atmospheric correction and orbital drift of the satellites through their active life. Access to location specific quantification of uncertainty is crucial for appropriate evaluation of the trends and anomalies. This paper provides per pixel quantification of orbital drift related spurious trends in Long Term Data Record (LTDR AVHRR NDVI data product. The magnitude and direction of the spurious trends was estimated by direct comparison with data from MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS Aqua instrument, which has stable inter-annual sun-sensor geometry. The maps show presence of both positive as well as negative spurious trends in the data. After application of the BRDF correction, an overall decrease in positive trends and an increase in number of pixels with negative spurious trends were observed. The mean global spurious inter-annual NDVI trend before and after BRDF correction was 0.0016 and −0.0017 respectively. The research presented in this paper gives valuable insight into the magnitude of orbital drift related trends in the AVHRR NDVI data as well as the degree to which it is being rectified by the MODIS BRDF correction algorithm used by the LTDR processing stream.

  17. Creating a seamless 1 km resolution daily land surface temperature dataset for urban and surrounding areas in the conterminous United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiaoma; Zhou, Yuyu; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Zhu, Zhengyuan

    2018-03-01

    High spatiotemporal land surface temperature (LST) datasets are increasingly needed in a variety of fields such as ecology, hydrology, meteorology, epidemiology, and energy systems. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST is one of such high spatiotemporal datasets that are widely used. But, it has large amount of missing values primarily because of clouds. Gapfilling the missing values is an important approach to create high spatiotemporal LST datasets. However current gapfilling methods have limitations in terms of accuracy and time required to assemble the data over large areas (e.g., national and continental levels). In this study, we developed a 3-step hybrid method by integrating a combination of daily merging, spatiotemporal gapfilling, and temporal interpolation methods, to create a high spatiotemporal LST dataset using the four daily LST observations from the two MODIS instruments on Terra and Aqua satellites. We applied this method in urban and surrounding areas for the conterminous U.S. in 2010. The evaluation of the gapfilled LST product indicates that its root mean squared error (RMSE) to be 3.3K for mid-daytime (1:30 pm) and 2.7K for mid-13 nighttime (1:30 am) observations. The method can be easily extended to other years and regions and is also applicable to other satellite products. This seamless daily (mid-daytime and mid-nighttime) LST product with 1 km spatial resolution is of great value for studying effects of urbanization (e.g., urban heat island) and the related impacts on people, ecosystems, energy systems and other infrastructure for cities.

  18. Mapping Congo Basin vegetation types from 300 m and 1 km multi-sensor time series for carbon stocks and forest areas estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Verhegghen

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to contribute to the understanding of the Congo Basin forests by delivering a detailed map of vegetation types with an improved spatial discrimination and coherence for the whole Congo Basin region. A total of 20 land cover classes were described with the standardized Land Cover Classification System (LCCS developed by the FAO. Based on a semi-automatic processing chain, the Congo Basin vegetation types map was produced by combining 19 months of observations from the Envisat MERIS full resolution products (300 m and 8 yr of daily SPOT VEGETATION (VGT reflectances (1 km. Four zones (north, south and two central were delineated and processed separately according to their seasonal and cloud cover specificities. The discrimination between different vegetation types (e.g. forest and savannas was significantly improved thanks to the MERIS sharp spatial resolution. A better discrimination was achieved in cloudy areas by taking advantage of the temporal consistency of the SPOT VGT observations. This resulted in a precise delineation of the spatial extent of the rural complex in the countries situated along the Atlantic coast. Based on this new map, more accurate estimates of the surface areas of forest types were produced for each country of the Congo Basin. Carbon stocks of the Basin were evaluated to a total of 49 360 million metric tons. The regional scale of the map was an opportunity to investigate what could be an appropriate tree cover threshold for a forest class definition in the Congo Basin countries. A 30% tree cover threshold was suggested. Furthermore, the phenology of the different vegetation types was illustrated systematically with EVI temporal profiles. This Congo Basin forest types map reached a satisfactory overall accuracy of 71.5% and even 78.9% when some classes are aggregated. The values of the Cohen's kappa coefficient, respectively 0.64 and 0.76 indicates a result significantly better than random.

  19. A new 1 km digital elevation model of the Antarctic derived from combined satellite radar and laser data – Part 1: Data and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Bamber

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Digital elevation models (DEMs of the whole of Antarctica have been derived, previously, from satellite radar altimetry (SRA and limited terrestrial data. Near the ice sheet margins and in other areas of steep relief the SRA data tend to have relatively poor coverage and accuracy. To remedy this and to extend the coverage beyond the latitudinal limit of the SRA missions (81.5° S we have combined laser altimeter measurements from the Geosciences Laser Altimeter System onboard ICESat with SRA data from the geodetic phase of the ERS-1 satellite mission. The former provide decimetre vertical accuracy but with poor spatial coverage. The latter have excellent spatial coverage but a poorer vertical accuracy. By combining the radar and laser data using an optimal approach we have maximised the vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the DEM and minimised the number of grid cells with an interpolated elevation estimate. We assessed the optimum resolution for producing a DEM based on a trade-off between resolution and interpolated cells, which was found to be 1 km. This resulted in just under 32% of grid cells having an interpolated value. The accuracy of the final DEM was assessed using a suite of independent airborne altimeter data and used to produce an error map. The RMS error in the new DEM was found to be roughly half that of the best previous 5 km resolution, SRA-derived DEM, with marked improvements in the steeper marginal and mountainous areas and between 81.5 and 86° S. The DEM contains a wealth of information related to ice flow. This is particularly apparent for the two largest ice shelves – the Filchner-Ronne and Ross – where the surface expression of flow of ice streams and outlet glaciers can be traced from the grounding line to the calving front. The surface expression of subglacial lakes and other basal features are also illustrated. We also use the DEM to derive new estimates of balance velocities and ice divide locations.

  20. Detection of Water Bodies from AVHRR Data—A TIMELINE Thematic Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas J. Dietz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of water body dynamics is not only in itself a topic of strong demand, but the presence of water bodies is important information when it comes to the derivation of products such as land surface temperature, leaf area index, or snow/ice cover mapping from satellite data. For the TIMELINE project, which aims to derive such products for a long time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR data for Europe, precise water masks are therefore not only an important stand-alone product themselves, they are also an essential interstage information layer, which has to be produced automatically after preprocessing of the raw satellite data. The respective orbit segments from AVHRR are usually more than 2000 km wide and several thousand km long, thus leading to fundamentally different observation geometries, including varying sea surface temperatures, wave patterns, and sediment and algae loads. The water detection algorithm has to be able to manage these conditions based on a limited amount of spectral channels and bandwidths. After reviewing and testing already available methods for water body detection, we concluded that they cannot fully overcome the existing challenges and limitations. Therefore an extended approach was implemented, which takes into account the variations of the reflectance properties of water surfaces on a local to regional scale; the dynamic local threshold determination will train itself automatically by extracting a coarse-scale classification threshold, which is refined successively while analyzing subsets of the orbit segment. The threshold is then interpolated by fitting a minimum curvature surface before additional steps also relying on the brightness temperature are included to reduce possible misclassifications. The classification results have been validated using Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS data and proven an overall accuracy of 93.4%, with the majority of

  1. An algorithm for the detection of the white-tide ('mucilage') phenomenon in the Adriatic Sea using AVHRR data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tassan, S.

    1993-01-01

    An algorithm using AVHRR data has been set up for the detection of a white tide consisting of algae secretion ('mucilage'), an event occurring in the Adriatic Sea under particular meteorological conditions. The algorithm, which includes an ad hoc procedure for cloud masking, has been tested with reference to the mucilage map obtained from the analysis of contemporary Thematic Mapper data, as well as by comparing consecutive AVHRR scenes. The main features of the exceptional mucilage phenomenon that took place in the northern basin of the Adriatic Sea in summer 1989 are shown by a time series of maps

  2. Intercomparison of 30+ years of AVHRR and Landsat-5 TM Surface Reflectance using Multiple Pseudo-Invariant Calibration Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría-Artigas, A. E.; Franch, B.; Vermote, E.; Roger, J. C.; Justice, C. O.

    2017-12-01

    The 30+ years daily surface reflectance long term data record (LTDR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) is a valuable source of information for long-term studies of the Earth surface. This LTDR was generated by combining observations from multiple AVHRR sensors aboard different NOAA satellites starting from the early 1980s, and due to the lack of on-board calibration its quality should be evaluated. Previous studies have used observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) over pseudo-invariant calibration sites (PICS) as a calibrated reference to assess the performance of AVHRR products. However, this limits the evaluation to the period after MODIS launch. In this work, the AVHRR surface reflectance LTDR was evaluated against Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data using observations from 4 well known pseudo-invariant calibration sites (i.e. Sonoran, Saharan, Sudan1, and Libya4) over an extended time period (1984-2011). For the intercomparison, AVHRR and TM observations of each site were extracted and averaged over a 20 km x 20 km area and aggregated to monthly mean values. In order to account for the spectral differences between sensors, Hyperion hyperspectral data from the Sonoran and Libya4 sites were convolved with sensor-specific relative spectral responses, and used to compute spectral band adjustment factors (SBAFs). Results of the intercomparison are reported in terms of the root mean square difference (RMSD) and determination coefficient (r2). In general, there is good agreement between the surface reflectance products from both sensors. The overall RMSD and r2 for all the sites and AVHRR/TM combinations were 0.03 and 0.85 for the red band, and 0.04 and 0.81 for the near-infrared band. These results show the strong performance of the AVHRR surface reflectance LTDR through all of the considered period. Thus, remarking its usefulness and value for long term Earth studies. Figure 1 shows the red (filled markers

  3. Estimation of the soil temperature from the AVHRR-NOAA satellite data applying split window algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parra, J.C.; Acevedo, P.S.; Sobrino, J.A.; Morales, L.J.

    2006-01-01

    Four algorithms based on the technique of split-window, to estimate the land surface temperature starting from the data provided by the sensor Advanced Very High Resolution radiometer (AVHRR), on board the series of satellites of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), are carried out. These algorithms consider corrections for atmospheric characteristics and emissivity of the different surfaces of the land. Fourteen images AVHRR-NOAA corresponding to the months of October of 2003, and January of 2004 were used. Simultaneously, measurements of soil temperature in the Carillanca hydro-meteorological station were collected in the Region of La Araucana, Chile (38 deg 41 min S; 72 deg 25 min W). Of all the used algorithms, the best results correspond to the model proposed by Sobrino and Raussoni (2000), with a media and standard deviation corresponding to the difference among the temperature of floor measure in situ and the estimated for this algorithm, of -0.06 and 2.11 K, respectively. (Author)

  4. Surface radiant flux densities inferred from LAC and GAC AVHRR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, F.; Klaes, D.

    To infer surface radiant flux densities from current (NOAA-AVHRR, ERS-1/2 ATSR) and future meteorological (Envisat AATSR, MSG, METOP) satellite data, the complex, modular analysis scheme SESAT (Strahlungs- und Energieflüsse aus Satellitendaten) could be developed (Berger, 2001). This scheme allows the determination of cloud types, optical and microphysical cloud properties as well as surface and TOA radiant flux densities. After testing of SESAT in Central Europe and the Baltic Sea catchment (more than 400scenes U including a detailed validation with various surface measurements) it could be applied to a large number of NOAA-16 AVHRR overpasses covering the globe.For the analysis, two different spatial resolutions U local area coverage (LAC) andwere considered. Therefore, all inferred results, like global area coverage (GAC) U cloud cover, cloud properties and radiant properties, could be intercompared. Specific emphasis could be made to the surface radiant flux densities (all radiative balance compoments), where results for different regions, like Southern America, Southern Africa, Northern America, Europe, and Indonesia, will be presented. Applying SESAT, energy flux densities, like latent and sensible heat flux densities could also be determined additionally. A statistical analysis of all results including a detailed discussion for the two spatial resolutions will close this study.

  5. Mesoscale structures viewed by SAR and AVHRR near the Canary islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Barton

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of Synthetic Aperture Radar and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometry images of sea surface backscatter and temperature during the peak of the summer Trade winds reveals many aspects of the regional oceanography of the Canary Islands. A strong correspondence occurs between the SAR and AVHRR signals. The generally uniform wind field is perturbed as it flows past the islands producing regions of calm immediately downstream. These are bounded by lines of strong horizontal wind shear that coincide with temperature fronts between warmer lee waters and the cooler surrounding ocean. Weaker winds prevail up to 50 km downstream while enhanced wind speed on the boundaries of the lee can extend more than 150 km. Lee waves are excited in the atmospheric inversion layer where the wind passes over abrupt island topography. Quantitative estimates of wind speed made with the CMOD4 algorithm are unreliable in the downstream region because wind direction is variable and unknown and because spatial gradients in air-sea temperature difference affect atmospheric boundary layer stability. A large anticyclone south of Tenerife strongly influenced the estimated wind speed probably because higher ocean temperatures in its centre caused atmospheric instability and increased radar backscatter. The temperature fronts marking boundaries of the upwelling filament and strong eddies observed in AVHRR appear as lines of current shear in the SAR images.

  6. Alpine cloud climatology using long-term NOAA-AVHRR satellite data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaestner, M.; Kriebel, K.T.

    2000-07-01

    Three different climates have been identified by our evaluation of AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer) data using APOLLO (AVHRR processing scheme over land, clouds and ocean) for a five-years cloud climatology of the Alpine region. The cloud cover data from four layers were spatially averaged in boxes of 15 km by 14 km. The study area only comprises 540 km by 560 km, but contains regions with moderate, Alpine and Mediterranean climate. Data from the period July 1989 until December 1996 have been considered. The temporal resolution is one scene per day, the early afternoon pass, yielding monthly means of satellite derived cloud coverages 5% to 10% above the daily mean compared to conventional surface observation. At nonvegetated sites the cloudiness is sometimes significantly overestimated. Averaging high resolution cloud data seems to be superior to low resolution measurements of cloud properties and averaging is favourable in topographical homogeneous regions only. The annual course of cloud cover reveals typical regional features as foehn or temporal singularities as the so-called Christmas thaw. The cloud cover maps in spatially high resolution show local luff/lee features which outline the orography. Less cloud cover is found over the Alps than over the forelands in winter, an accumulation of thick cirrus is found over the High Alps and an accumulation of thin cirrus north of the Alps. (orig.)

  7. AVHRR Pathfinder version 5.3 level 3 collated (L3C) global 4km sea surface temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.3 (PFV53) L3C Sea Surface Temperature data set is a collection of global, twice-daily (Day and Night) 4km sea surface temperature...

  8. Validation of AVHRR- and MODIS-derived albedos of snow and ice surfaces by means of helicopter measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Greuell, W.; Oerlemans, J.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the validation of surface albedos of snow and glacier ice as derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and MOderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) satellite data. For this purpose we measured surface albedos from a helicopter over Vatnajökull, Iceland, and

  9. Recent history of large-scale ecosystem disturbances in North America derived from the AVHRR satellite record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher Potter; Tan Pang-Ning; Vipin Kumar; Chris Kucharik; Steven Klooster; Vanessa Genovese; Warren Cohen; Sean. Healey

    2005-01-01

    Ecosystem structure and function are strongly affected by disturbance events, many of which in North America are associated with seasonal temperature extremes, wildfires, and tropical storms. This study was conducted to evaluate patterns in a 19-year record of global satellite observations of vegetation phenology from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR...

  10. Experimental demonstration of 56 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 15 km and 84 Gbit/s PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF at 1525 nm using a 25G VCSEL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eiselt, Nicklas; Griesser, Helmut; Wei, Jinlong

    2016-01-01

    Record 28-GBd PAM-4 transmission over 15 km SSMF and 42-GBd PAM-4 over 1 km SSMF using a low-power 25G VCSEL are demonstrated at 1525 nm without optical dispersion compensation and only simple transceiver DSPs....

  11. AVHRR-based drought-observing system for monitoring the environment and socioeconomic activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, F.

    From all natural disaster, drought is the least understandable and the most damaging environmental phenomenon. Although in pre-satellite era, climate data were used for drought monitoring, drought specifics created problems in early drought detection start/end, monitoring its expansion/contraction, intensity and area coverage and the most important, timely estimation of the impacts on the environment and socioeconomic activities. The latest prevented to take prompt measures in mitigating negative consequences of drought for the society. Advances in remote sensing of the past ten years, contributed to the development of comprehensive drought monitoring system and numerous applications, which helped to make decisions for monitoring the environment and predicting sustainable socioeconomic activities. This paper discusses satellite-based land-surface observing system, which provides wells of information used for monitoring such unusual natural disaster as drought. This system was developed from the observations of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) flown on NOAA operational polar-orbiting satellites. The AVHRR data were packed into the Global Vegetation Index (GVI) product, which have served the global community since 1981. The GVI provided reflectances and indices (4 km spacial resolution) every seven days for each 16 km map cell between 75EN and 55ES covering all land ecosystems. The data includes raw and calibrated radiances in the visible, near infrared and infrared spectral bands, processed (with eliminated high frequency noise) radiances, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), 20-year climatology, vegetation condition indices and also products, such as vegetation health, drought, vegetation fraction, fire risk etc. In the past ten years, users around the world used this information addressing different issues of drought impacts on socioeconomic activities and responded positively to real time drought information place regularly on the

  12. Evaluating operational AVHRR sea surface temperature data at the coastline using surfers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, Robert J. W.; de Mora, Lee; Billson, Oliver; Jackson, Thomas; Russell, Paul; Brewin, Thomas G.; Shutler, Jamie D.; Miller, Peter I.; Taylor, Benjamin H.; Smyth, Tim J.; Fishwick, James R.

    2017-09-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) is an essential climate variable that can be measured routinely from Earth Observation (EO) with high temporal and spatial coverage. To evaluate its suitability for an application, it is critical to know the accuracy and precision (performance) of the EO SST data. This requires comparisons with co-located and concomitant in situ data. Owing to a relatively large network of in situ platforms there is a good understanding of the performance of EO SST data in the open ocean. However, at the coastline this performance is not well known, impeded by a lack of in situ data. Here, we used in situ SST measurements collected by a group of surfers over a three year period in the coastal waters of the UK and Ireland, to improve our understanding of the performance of EO SST data at the coastline. At two beaches near the city of Plymouth, UK, the in situ SST measurements collected by the surfers were compared with in situ SST collected from two autonomous buoys located ∼7 km and ∼33 km from the coastline, and showed good agreement, with discrepancies consistent with the spatial separation of the sites. The in situ SST measurements collected by the surfers around the coastline, and those collected offshore by the two autonomous buoys, were used to evaluate the performance of operational Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) EO SST data. Results indicate: (i) a significant reduction in the performance of AVHRR at retrieving SST at the coastline, with root mean square errors in the range of 1.0 to 2.0 °C depending on the temporal difference between match-ups, significantly higher than those at the two offshore stations (0.4 to 0.6 °C); (ii) a systematic negative bias in the AVHRR retrievals of approximately 1 °C at the coastline, not observed at the two offshore stations; and (iii) an increase in the root mean square error at the coastline when the temporal difference between match-ups exceeded three hours. Harnessing new solutions

  13. LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER products derived from AVHRR long time series: principles and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, A.; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Lacaze, R.; Makhmara, H.; Pacholczyk, P.; Smets, B.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2012-04-01

    Continuous and long term global monitoring of the terrestrial biosphere has draught an intense interest in the recent years in the context of climate and global change. Developing methodologies for generating historical data records from data collected with different satellite sensors over the past three decades by taking benefits from the improvements identified in the processing of the new generation sensors is a new central issue in remote sensing community. In this context, the Bio-geophysical Parameters (BioPar) service within Geoland2 project (http://www.geoland2.eu) aims at developing pre-operational infrastructures for providing global land products both in near real time and off-line mode with long time series. In this contribution, we describe the principles of the GEOLAND algorithm for generating long term datasets of three key biophysical variables, leaf area index (LAI), Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetic Active Radiation (FAPAR) and cover fraction (FCOVER), that play a key role in several processes, including photosynthesis, respiration and transpiration. LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER are produced globally from AVHRR Long Term Data Record (LTDR) for the 1981-2000 period at 0.05° spatial resolution and 10 days temporal sampling frequency. The proposed algorithm aims to ensure robustness of the derived long time series and consistency with the ones developed in the recent years, and particularly with GEOLAND products derived from VEGETATION sensor. The approach is based on the capacity of neural networks to learn a particular biophysical product (GEOLAND) from reflectances from another sensor (AVHRR normalized reflectances in the red and near infrared bands). Outliers due to possible cloud contamination or residual atmospheric correction are iteratively eliminated. Prior information based on the climatology is used to get more robust estimates. A specific gap filing and smoothing procedure was applied to generate continuous and smooth time series of decadal

  14. Remote sensing of biomass burning in West Africa with NOAA-AVHRR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brustet, J.M.; Vickos, J.B.; Fontan, J.; Manissadjan, K.; Podaire, A.; Lavenu, F.

    1991-01-01

    Remote sensing measurements provide a valuable means of determining the extent of burning areas and estimating the overall distribution of the sources in time and space. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (NOAA-AVHRR) satellite is well adapted to a wide coverage of the large African savanna regions. It is necessary to watch the whole area even at times other then during the dry season, since two consecutive weeks without precipitation may be sufficient to allow the bushes to catch fire. The images examined in this chapter include the whole of West Africa - namely, within latitudes 5 degree and 14 degree N and 1 degree and 11 degree W. The study has been focused on a region that contains part of the Guinea territory, Mali, the Ivory Coast, and Burkina Faso

  15. MEDOKADS - A 20 Year's Daily AVHRR Data Series for Analysis of Land Surface Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koslowsky, D.; Billing, H.; Bolle, H.-J.

    2009-04-01

    To derive primary data products from raw AVHRR data, like spectral reflectances or temperatures, it is necessary to correct for sensor degradation and changing hardware specifications, to re-sample the data into a grid of equal pixel size, to perform geographical registration, cloud-screening and normalization for illumination and observation geometry. A data set which resulted from the application of these corrections is the top of the atmosphere Mediterranean Extended One-Km AVHRR Data Set (MEDOKADS) which now covers a period of 20 years. To study land surface processes, the obtained spectral data have to be combined, radiometric corrections for atmospheric effects, emissivity corrections in the case of temperature measurements have to be applied, and the variable over-flight times have to be accounted for. By application of complex evaluation schemes then higher level products are generated, like vegetation indices, surface albedo, and surface energy fluxes. The ultimate goal is to provide the users community with problem-related information. This includes the quantification of changes and the determination of trends. Methods and tools to reach this goal as well as their limitations are discussed. To validate the data, extended field measurements have been performed in which the scaling between local ground measurements and large scale satellite data play a major role. A major problem remains the application of atmospheric corrections because of the not well known variable aerosol content. The supervision of the quality of the derived information leads to the concept of anchor stations at which surface and atmospheric properties should permanently be measured.

  16. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  17. GHRSST Level 3P Global Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 3 Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A platform...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  19. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 Monthly Harmonic Climatologies (1982-2008) (NODC Accession 0075098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a global, 4km monthly sea surface temperature climatology derived from harmonic analysis of the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 sea...

  20. AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 Level 3 Collated (L3C) Global 4km Sea Surface Temperature for 1981-2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 Sea Surface Temperature data set (PFV52) is a collection of global, twice-daily 4km sea surface temperature data produced in a...

  1. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA-19 (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  2. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 5-day Harmonic Climatologies (1982-2008) (NODC Accession 0071182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a global, 4km 5-day sea surface temperature climatology derived from harmonic analysis of the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 sea...

  3. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 Daily Harmonic Climatologies (1982-2008) (NODC Accession 0071181)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a global, 4km daily sea surface temperature climatology derived from harmonic analysis of the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 and 5.1 sea...

  4. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder Cloud Screened Version 5.0 Monthly Climatologies (1985-2006) (NODC Accession 0110657)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a global, 4km monthly sea surface temperature climatology derived from harmonic analysis of the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.0 sea surface...

  5. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  6. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  7. User's guide to image processing applications of the NOAA satellite HRPT/AVHRR data. Part 1: Introduction to the satellite system and its applications. Part 2: Processing and analysis of AVHRR imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Oscar Karl; Leibowitz, Scott G.; Dirosa, Donald; Hill, John M.

    1986-01-01

    The use of NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radar/High Resolution Picture Transmission (AVHRR/HRPT) imagery for earth resource applications is provided for the applications scientist for use within the various Earth science, resource, and agricultural disciplines. A guide to processing NOAA AVHRR data using the hardware and software systems integrated for this NASA project is provided. The processing steps from raw data on computer compatible tapes (1B data format) through usable qualitative and quantitative products for applications are given. The manual is divided into two parts. The first section describes the NOAA satellite system, its sensors, and the theoretical basis for using these data for environmental applications. Part 2 is a hands-on description of how to use a specific image processing system, the International Imaging Systems, Inc. (I2S) Model 75 Array Processor and S575 software, to process these data.

  8. Examination of Regional Trends in Cloud Properties over Surface Sites Derived from MODIS and AVHRR using the CERES Cloud Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, W. L., Jr.; Minnis, P.; Bedka, K. M.; Sun-Mack, S.; Chen, Y.; Doelling, D. R.; Kato, S.; Rutan, D. A.

    2017-12-01

    Recent studies analyzing long-term measurements of surface insolation at ground sites suggest that decadal-scale trends of increasing (brightening) and decreasing (dimming) downward solar flux have occurred at various times over the last century. Regional variations have been reported that range from near 0 Wm-2/decade to as large as 9 Wm-2/decade depending on the location and time period analyzed. The more significant trends have been attributed to changes in overhead clouds and aerosols, although quantifying their relative impacts using independent observations has been difficult, owing in part to a lack of consistent long-term measurements of cloud properties. This paper examines new satellite based records of cloud properties derived from MODIS (2000-present) and AVHRR (1981- present) data to infer cloud property trends over a number of surface radiation sites across the globe. The MODIS cloud algorithm was developed for the NASA Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project to provide a consistent record of cloud properties to help improve broadband radiation measurements and to better understand cloud radiative effects. The CERES-MODIS cloud algorithm has been modified to analyze other satellites including the AVHRR on the NOAA satellites. Compared to MODIS, obtaining consistent cloud properties over a long period from AVHRR is a much more significant challenge owing to the number of different satellites, instrument calibration uncertainties, orbital drift and other factors. Nevertheless, both the MODIS and AVHRR cloud properties will be analyzed to determine trends, and their level of consistency and correspondence with surface radiation trends derived from the ground-based radiometer data. It is anticipated that this initial study will contribute to an improved understanding of surface solar radiation trends and their relationship to clouds.

  9. Global two-channel AVHRR aerosol climatology: effects of stratospheric aerosols and preliminary comparisons with MODIS and MISR retrievals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geogdzhayev, Igor V.; Mishchenko, Michael I.; Liu Li; Remer, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    We present an update on the status of the global climatology of the aerosol column optical thickness and Angstrom exponent derived from channel-1 and -2 radiances of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) in the framework of the Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP). The latest version of the climatology covers the period from July 1983 to September 2001 and is based on an adjusted value of the diffuse component of the ocean reflectance as derived from extensive comparisons with ship sun-photometer data. We use the updated GACP climatology and Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) data to analyze how stratospheric aerosols from major volcanic eruptions can affect the GACP aerosol product. One possible retrieval strategy based on the AVHRR channel-1 and -2 data alone is to infer both the stratospheric and the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness while assuming fixed microphysical models for both aerosol components. The second approach is to use the SAGE stratospheric aerosol data in order to constrain the AVHRR retrieval algorithm. We demonstrate that the second approach yields a consistent long-term record of the tropospheric aerosol optical thickness and Angstrom exponent. Preliminary comparisons of the GACP aerosol product with MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer aerosol retrievals show reasonable agreement, the GACP global monthly optical thickness being lower than the MODIS one by approximately 0.03. Larger differences are observed on a regional scale. Comparisons of the GACP and MODIS Angstrom exponent records are less conclusive and require further analysis

  10. CLARA-A1: a cloud, albedo, and radiation dataset from 28 yr of global AVHRR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.-G. Karlsson

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A new satellite-derived climate dataset – denoted CLARA-A1 ("The CM SAF cLoud, Albedo and RAdiation dataset from AVHRR data" – is described. The dataset covers the 28 yr period from 1982 until 2009 and consists of cloud, surface albedo, and radiation budget products derived from the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer sensor carried by polar-orbiting operational meteorological satellites. Its content, anticipated accuracies, limitations, and potential applications are described. The dataset is produced by the EUMETSAT Climate Monitoring Satellite Application Facility (CM SAF project. The dataset has its strengths in the long duration, its foundation upon a homogenized AVHRR radiance data record, and in some unique features, e.g. the availability of 28 yr of summer surface albedo and cloudiness parameters over the polar regions. Quality characteristics are also well investigated and particularly useful results can be found over the tropics, mid to high latitudes and over nearly all oceanic areas. Being the first CM SAF dataset of its kind, an intensive evaluation of the quality of the datasets was performed and major findings with regard to merits and shortcomings of the datasets are reported. However, the CM SAF's long-term commitment to perform two additional reprocessing events within the time frame 2013–2018 will allow proper handling of limitations as well as upgrading the dataset with new features (e.g. uncertainty estimates and extension of the temporal coverage.

  11. A 30+ Year AVHRR LAI and FAPAR Climate Data Record: Algorithm Description, Validation, and Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claverie, Martin; Matthews, Jessica L.; Vermote, Eric F.; Justice, Christopher O.

    2016-01-01

    In- land surface models, which are used to evaluate the role of vegetation in the context ofglobal climate change and variability, LAI and FAPAR play a key role, specifically with respect to thecarbon and water cycles. The AVHRR-based LAIFAPAR dataset offers daily temporal resolution,an improvement over previous products. This climate data record is based on a carefully calibratedand corrected land surface reflectance dataset to provide a high-quality, consistent time-series suitablefor climate studies. It spans from mid-1981 to the present. Further, this operational dataset is availablein near real-time allowing use for monitoring purposes. The algorithm relies on artificial neuralnetworks calibrated using the MODIS LAI/FAPAR dataset. Evaluation based on cross-comparisonwith MODIS products and in situ data show the dataset is consistent and reliable with overalluncertainties of 1.03 and 0.15 for LAI and FAPAR, respectively. However, a clear saturation effect isobserved in the broadleaf forest biomes with high LAI (greater than 4.5) and FAPAR (greater than 0.8) values.

  12. Arctic surface temperatures from Metop AVHRR compared to in situ ocean and land data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Dybkjær

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The ice surface temperature (IST is an important boundary condition for both atmospheric and ocean and sea ice models and for coupled systems. An operational ice surface temperature product using satellite Metop AVHRR infra-red data was developed for MyOcean. The IST can be mapped in clear sky regions using a split window algorithm specially tuned for sea ice. Clear sky conditions prevail during spring in the Arctic, while persistent cloud cover limits data coverage during summer. The cloud covered regions are detected using the EUMETSAT cloud mask. The Metop IST compares to 2 m temperature at the Greenland ice cap Summit within STD error of 3.14 °C and to Arctic drifting buoy temperature data within STD error of 3.69 °C. A case study reveals that the in situ radiometer data versus satellite IST STD error can be much lower (0.73 °C and that the different in situ measurements complicate the validation. Differences and variability between Metop IST and in situ data are analysed and discussed. An inter-comparison of Metop IST, numerical weather prediction temperatures and in situ observation indicates large biases between the different quantities. Because of the scarcity of conventional surface temperature or surface air temperature data in the Arctic, the satellite IST data with its relatively good coverage can potentially add valuable information to model analysis for the Arctic atmosphere.

  13. The correlated k-distribution technique as applied to the AVHRR channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratz, David P.

    1995-01-01

    Correlated k-distributions have been created to account for the molecular absorption found in the spectral ranges of the five Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite channels. The production of the k-distributions was based upon an exponential-sum fitting of transmissions (ESFT) technique which was applied to reference line-by-line absorptance calculations. To account for the overlap of spectral features from different molecular species, the present routines made use of the multiplication transmissivity property which allows for considerable flexibility, especially when altering relative mixing ratios of the various molecular species. To determine the accuracy of the correlated k-distribution technique as compared to the line-by-line procedure, atmospheric flux and heating rate calculations were run for a wide variety of atmospheric conditions. For the atmospheric conditions taken into consideration, the correlated k-distribution technique has yielded results within about 0.5% for both the cases where the satellite spectral response functions were applied and where they were not. The correlated k-distribution's principal advantages is that it can be incorporated directly into multiple scattering routines that consider scattering as well as absorption by clouds and aerosol particles.

  14. Modeling Agricultural Crop Production in China using AVHRR-based Vegetation Health Indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B.; Kogan, F.; Guo, W.; Zhiyuan, P.; Xianfeng, J.

    Weather related crop losses have always been a concern for farmers On a wider scale it has always influenced decision of Governments traders and other policy makers for the purpose of balanced food supplies trade and distribution of aid to the nations in need Therefore national policy and decision makers are giving increasing importance to early assessment of crop losses in response to weather fluctuations This presentation emphasizes utility of AVHRR-based Vegetation health index VHI for early warning of drought-related losses of agricultural production in China The VHI is a three-channel index characterizing greenness vigor and temperature of land surface which can be used as proxy for estimation of how healthy and potentially productive could be vegetation China is the largest in the world producer of grain including wheat and rice and cotton In the major agricultural areas China s crop production is very dependent on weather The VHI being a proxy indicator of weather impact on vegetation showed some correlation with productivity of agricultural crops during the critical period of their development The periods of the strongest correlation were investigated and used to build regression models where crop yield deviation from technological trend was accepted as a dependent and VHI as independent variables The models were developed for several major crops including wheat corn and soybeans

  15. Application of principal component analysis and information fusion technique to detect hotspots in NOAA/AVHRR images of Jharia coalfield, India - article no. 013523

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A. [Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee (India)

    2007-07-01

    Present paper proposes an algorithm for hotspot (sub-surface fire) detection in NOAA/AVHRR images in Jharia region of India by employing Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and fusion technique. Proposed technique is very simple to implement and is more adaptive in comparison to thresholding, multi-thresholding and contextual algorithms. The algorithm takes into account the information of AVHRR channels 1, 2, 3, 4 and vegetation indices NDVI and MSAVI for the required purpose. Proposed technique consists of three steps: (1) detection and removal of cloud and water pixels from preprocessed AVHRR image and screening out the noise of channel 3, (2) application of PCA on multi-channel information along with vegetation index information of NOAA/AVHRR image to obtain principal components, and (3) fusion of information obtained from principal component 1 and 2 to classify image pixels as hotspots. Image processing techniques are applied to fuse information in first two principal component images and no absolute threshold is incorporated to specify whether particular pixel belongs to hotspot class or not, hence, proposed method is adaptive in nature and works successfully for most of the AVHRR images with average 87.27% detection accuracy and 0.201% false alarm rate while comparing with ground truth points in Jharia region of India.

  16. Aerosol direct effect on solar radiation over the eastern Mediterranean Sea based on AVHRR satellite measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakaki, Paraskevi; Papadimas, Christos D.; Hatzianastassiou, Nikos; Fotiadi, Aggeliki; Matsoukas, Christos; Stackhouse, Paul; Kanakidou, Maria; Vardavas, Ilias M.

    2017-04-01

    Despite the improved scientific understanding of the direct effect of aerosols on solar radiation (direct radiative effect, DRE) improvements are necessary, for example regarding the accuracy of the magnitude of estimated DREs and their spatial and temporal variability. This variability cannot be ensured by in-situ surface and airborne measurements, while it is also relatively difficult to capture through satellite observations. This becomes even more difficult when complete spatial coverage of extended areas is required, especially concerning areas that host various aerosol types with variable physico-chemical and optical aerosol properties. Better assessments of aerosol DREs are necessary, relying on aerosol optical properties with high spatial and temporal variation. The present study aims to provide a refined, along these lines, assessment of aerosol DREs over the eastern Mediterranean (EM) Sea, which is a key area for aerosol studies. Daily DREs are computed for 1˚ x1˚ latitude-longitude grids with the FORTH detailed spectral radiation transfer model (RTM) using input data for various atmospheric and surface parameters, such as clouds, water vapor, ozone and surface albedo, taken from the NASA-Langley Global Earth Observing System (GEOS) database. The model spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD), single scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter are taken from the Global Aerosol Data Set and the NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) version 2 of Advanced Very High resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) AOD dataset which is available over oceans at 0.63 microns and at 0.1˚ x0.1˚ . The aerosol DREs are computed at the surface, the top-of-atmosphere and within the atmosphere, over the period 1985-1995. Preliminary model results for the period 1990-1993 reveal a significant spatial and temporal variability of DREs over the EM Sea, for example larger values over the Aegean and Black Seas, surrounded by land areas with significant anthropogenic aerosol sources, and over the

  17. SST algorithms in ACSPO reanalysis of AVHRR GAC data from 2002-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, B.; Ignatov, A.; Kihai, Y.; Zhou, X.; Stroup, J.

    2014-05-01

    In response to a request from the NOAA Coral Reef Watch Program, NOAA SST Team initiated reprocessing of 4 km resolution GAC data from AVHRRs flown onboard NOAA and MetOp satellites. The objective is to create a longterm Level 2 Advanced Clear-Sky Processor for Oceans (ACSPO) SST product, consistent with NOAA operations. ACSPO-Reanalysis (RAN) is used as input in the NOAA geo-polar blended Level 4 SST and potentially other Level 4 SST products. In the first stage of reprocessing (reanalysis 1, or RAN1), data from NOAA-15, -16, -17, -18, -19, and Metop-A and -B, from 2002-present have been processed with ACSPO v2.20, and matched up with quality controlled in situ data from in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam) version 1. The ~12 years time series of matchups were used to develop and explore the SST retrieval algorithms, with emphasis on minimizing spatial biases in retrieved SSTs, close reproduction of the magnitudes of true SST variations, and maximizing temporal, spatial and inter-platform stability of retrieval metrics. Two types of SST algorithms were considered: conventional SST regressions, and recently developed incremental regressions. The conventional equations were adopted in the EUMETSAT OSI-SAF formulation, which, according to our previous analyses, provide relatively small regional biases and well-balanced combination of precision and sensitivity, in its class. Incremental regression equations were specifically elaborated to automatically correct for model minus observation biases, always present when RTM simulations are employed. Improved temporal stability was achieved by recalculation of SST coefficients from matchups on a daily basis, with a +/-45 day window around the current date. This presentation describes the candidate SST algorithms considered for the next round of ACSPO reanalysis, RAN2.

  18. Detección de incendios en México utilizando imágenes AVHRR (temporada 1998

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Palacio-Prieto

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The 1998 "burning" season in Mexico was outstanding. Hurricanes, low temperatures and unexpected snowfall contributed to the disposal of large quantities of fuelgrass, shrub and wood. Based on the processing of channel 3. 120 AVHRR images from January to June 1998, an evaluation of burned areas is presented. Up to 8 147 pixels assuming the presence of fire were recorded. In order to check accuracy of band 3 derived data, 3 312 sites corresponding to fires were crossed to fires estimated from imagery. About 94% of accuracy was assessed for the map presented here.

  19. Results of agriclimatological studies using multiple satellite sensors like NOAA AVHRR; GMS IR and LANDSAT MSS and TM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1990-08-01

    Bangladesh Space Research and Remote Sensing Organization (SPARRSO) routinely receives NOAA and GMS imagery and uses them in agrometeorological monitoring, it also uses LANDSAT MSS and TM data for this purpose. Analysis of multiple satellite sensor data shows advantages for high resolution sensors. However, in the ease of crop monitoring, a good correlation has been obtained between results obtained with NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT MSS for vegetation index. Crop estimation has been made using all kinds of sensors and it has been found that higher resolution data always give more accurate results. (author). 3 refs

  20. A Comparison Between SST and AOT Derived from AVHRR and MODIS Data in the Frame of the CREPAD Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Gonzalez, Cristina; Fernandez-Renau, Alix; Lopez Gordillo, Noelia; Sevilla, Angel Garcia; Suarez, Juana Santana

    2010-12-01

    Since 1997, the INTA-CREPAD (Centre for REception, Processing, Archiving and Dissemination of Earth Observation Data) program distributes freely some of the most demanded low-resolution remote sensing products: SST, Ocean Chl-a, NDVI, AOD... The data input for such products are captured at the Canary Space Station (Centro Espacial de Canarias, CEC). The data sensors received at the station and used in the CREPAD program are AVHRR, SEAWIFS and MODIS. In this study SST and AOD retrieved by CREPAD algorithms from AVHRR and the SEADAS derived SST and AOD from MODIS have compared. SST values agree very well within 0.1±0.5oC and the coefficient of correlation of the images is 0.9. AOD validation gives good results taking into account the differences in the algorithms used. Mean AOD difference at 0.630 μm is 0.01±0.05 and the correlation coefficient is 0.6.

  1. Cloud Masking and Surface Temperature Distribution in the Polar Regions Using AVHRR and other Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comiso, Joey C.

    1995-01-01

    Surface temperature is one of the key variables associated with weather and climate. Accurate measurements of surface air temperatures are routinely made in meteorological stations around the world. Also, satellite data have been used to produce synoptic global temperature distributions. However, not much attention has been paid on temperature distributions in the polar regions. In the polar regions, the number of stations is very sparse. Because of adverse weather conditions and general inaccessibility, surface field measurements are also limited. Furthermore, accurate retrievals from satellite data in the region have been difficult to make because of persistent cloudiness and ambiguities in the discrimination of clouds from snow or ice. Surface temperature observations are required in the polar regions for air-sea-ice interaction studies, especially in the calculation of heat, salinity, and humidity fluxes. They are also useful in identifying areas of melt or meltponding within the sea ice pack and the ice sheets and in the calculation of emissivities of these surfaces. Moreover, the polar regions are unique in that they are the sites of temperature extremes, the location of which is difficult to identify without a global monitoring system. Furthermore, the regions may provide an early signal to a potential climate change because such signal is expected to be amplified in the region due to feedback effects. In cloud free areas, the thermal channels from infrared systems provide surface temperatures at relatively good accuracies. Previous capabilities include the use of the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) onboard the Nimbus-7 satellite which was launched in 1978. Current capabilities include the use of the Advance Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aboard NOAA satellites. Together, these two systems cover a span of 16 years of thermal infrared data. Techniques for retrieving surface temperatures with these sensors in the polar regions have

  2. Local to Global Scale Time Series Analysis of US Dryland Degradation Using Landsat, AVHRR, and MODIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington-Allen, R. A.; Ramsey, R. D.; West, N. E.; Kulawardhana, W.; Reeves, M. C.; Mitchell, J. E.; Van Niel, T. G.

    2011-12-01

    Drylands cover 41% of the terrestrial land surface and annually generate $1 trillion in ecosystem goods and services for 38% of the global population, yet estimates of the global extent of Dryland degradation is uncertain with a range of 10 - 80%. It is currently understood that Drylands exhibit topological complexity including self-organization of parameters of different levels-of-organization, e.g., ecosystem and landscape parameters such as soil and vegetation pattern and structure, that gradually or discontinuously shift to multiple basins of attraction in response to herbivory, fire, and climatic drivers at multiple spatial and temporal scales. Our research has shown that at large geographic scales, contemporaneous time series of 10 to 20 years for response and driving variables across two or more spatial scales is required to replicate and differentiate between the impact of climate and land use activities such as commercial grazing. For example, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a major driver of Dryland net primary productivity (NPP), biodiversity, and ecological resilience with a 10-year return interval, thus 20 years of data are required to replicate its impact. Degradation is defined here as a change in physiognomic composition contrary to management goals, a persistent reduction in vegetation response, e.g., NPP, accelerated soil erosion, a decline in soil quality, and changes in landscape configuration and structure that lead to a loss of ecosystem function. Freely available Landsat, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradimeter (MODIS) archives of satellite imagery exist that provide local to global spatial coverage and time series between 1972 to the present from which proxies of land degradation can be derived. This paper presents time series assessments between 1972 and 2011 of US Dryland degradation including early detection of dynamic regime shifts in the Mojave and landscape pattern and

  3. Long-term trends in vegetation phenology and productivity over Namaqualand using the GIMMS AVHRR NDVI3g data from 1982 to 2011

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Davis, CL

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation monitoring of arid and semi-arid environments using remotely sensed vegetation indices over long periods of time is essential to improve the understanding of the processes related to change. In this paper, 30 years of biweekly AVHRR NDVI3...

  4. Comparison of Cloud Detection Using the CERES-MODIS Ed4 and LaRC AVHRR Cloud Masks and CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepte, Q. Z.; Minnis, P.; Palikonda, R.; Bedka, K. M.; Sun-Mack, S.

    2011-12-01

    Accurate detection of cloud amount and distribution using satellite observations is crucial in determining cloud radiative forcing and earth energy budget. The CERES-MODIS (CM) Edition 4 cloud mask is a global cloud detection algorithm for application to Terra and Aqua MODIS data with the aid of other ancillary data sets. It is used operationally for the NASA's Cloud and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) project. The LaRC AVHRR cloud mask, which uses only five spectral channels, is based on a subset of the CM cloud mask which employs twelve MODIS channels. The LaRC mask is applied to AVHRR data for the NOAA Climate Data Record Program. Comparisons among the CM Ed4, and LaRC AVHRR cloud masks and the CALIPSO Vertical Feature Mask (VFM) constitute a powerful means for validating and improving cloud detection globally. They also help us understand the strengths and limitations of the various cloud retrievals which use either active and passive satellite sensors. In this paper, individual comparisons will be presented for different types of clouds over various surfaces, including daytime and nighttime, and polar and non-polar regions. Additionally, the statistics of the global, regional, and zonal cloud occurrence and amount from the CERES Ed4, AVHRR cloud masks and CALIPSO VFM will be discussed.

  5. Seasonal variation of sea surface temperature in the Bay of Bengal during 1992 as derived from NOAA-AVHRR SST data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, V.S.N.; Subrahmanyam, B.; Rao, L.V.G.; Reddy, G.V.

    . The spatial variation of Standard Deviation of SST bias was particularly high (less than 0.7) in the western Bay when compared to other parts of the Bay of Bengal. The monthly maps of AVHRR SST clearly depicted the seasonal cycle of SST showing the well known...

  6. Integração de imagens NOAA/AVHRR: rede de cooperação para monitoramento nacional da safra de soja Integration of NOAA/AVHRR images: cooperation network towards national soybean crop monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Gusso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma avaliação inicial das condições do desenvolvimento da safra nacional, enquanto as plantas ainda estão nos campos, é altamente necessária para o cálculo correto das projeções na tomada de decisão e políticas relacionadas com o planejamento governamental e segurança alimentar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação dos dados NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer em detectar mudanças nas condições da vegetação, devidas à ocorrência de estresse hídrico, na soja, por meio de uma combinação do índice NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index e da LST (Land Surface Temperature. Os dados LST e NDVI foram combinados e comparados pixel a pixel, sobre uma área de cultivo de soja, no Rio Grande do Sul. A relação teórica inversa prevista na combinação de LST e NDVI foi detectada. Foi observado que ocorre um aumento médio na LST em uma safra de ciclo normal (de 301,02 K para 308,36 K, quando comparada a uma safra sob condição de estresse hídrico, no desenvolvimento da cultura. Uma redução média do NDVI foi observada no ciclo normal (de 0,65 para 0,53, comparada com uma safra sob efeitos ocasionados pela estiagem no desenvolvimento da cultura. Foi observado maior correlação da produtividade municipal com LST (R2=0,78 do que com o NDVI (R2 = 0,59. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a integração de imagens do sensor AVHRR, proveniente de diferentes instituições, proporciona a adequada combinação espacial e temporal dos dados LST e NDVI, a fim de detectar a ocorrência de estresse hídrico, bem como sua intensidade, caracterizando as condições do ciclo de desenvolvimento da soja.An early assessment of national crop development conditions while the plants are still in the fields is highly needed to calculate correctly projections for decision-making and policies related to government planning and food security. The aim of this study

  7. Sea surface temperatures and seagrass mortality in Florida Bay: Spatial and temporal patterns discerned from MODIS and AVHRR data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carlson, Daniel Frazier; Yarbro, Laura; Scolaro, Sheila

    2018-01-01

    spatial coverage to include the entire Florida Bay ecosystem and to extend the record length to include the 1987-91 die-off event. 1 km MODIS SST show that shallow mudbanks were consistently warmer (by up to 6degC) than nearby deeper basins. While water depth is likely the primary driver of spatial...

  8. ECOCLIMAP-II/Europe: a twofold database of ecosystems and surface parameters at 1-km resolution based on satellite information for use in land surface, meteorological and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroux, S.; Kaptué Tchuenté, A. T.; Roujean, J.-L.; Masson, V.; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-11-01

    The overall objective of the present study is to introduce the new ECOCLIMAP-II database for Europe, which is an upgrade for this region of the former initiative, ECOCLIMAP-I, already implemented at global scale. The ECOCLIMAP programme is a dual database at 1-km resolution that includes an ecosystem classification and a coherent set of land surface parameters that are primarily mandatory in meteorological modelling (notably leaf area index and albedo). Hence, the aim of this innovative physiography is to enhance the quality of initialisation and impose some surface attributes within the scope of weather forecasting and climate related studies. The strategy for implementing ECOCLIMAP-II is to depart from prevalent land cover products such as CLC2000 (Corine Land Cover) and GLC2000 (Global Land Cover) by splitting existing classes into new classes that possess a better regional character by virtue of the climatic environment (latitude, proximity to the sea, topography). The leaf area index (LAI) from MODIS and NDVI from SPOT/Vegetation yield the two proxy variables that were considered here in order to perform a multi-year trimmed analysis between 1999 and 2005 using the K-means method. Further, meteorological applications require each land cover type to appear as a partition of fractions of 4 main surface types or tiles (nature, water bodies, sea, urban areas) and, inside the nature tile, fractions of 12 Plant Functional Types (PFTs) representing generic vegetation types - principally broadleaf forest, needleleaf forest, C3 and C4 crops, grassland and bare land - as incorporated by the SVAT model ISBA developed at Météo France. This landscape division also forms the cornerstone of a validation exercise. The new ECOCLIMAP-II can be verified with auxiliary land cover products at very fine and coarse resolutions by means of versatile land occupation nomenclatures.

  9. ECOCLIMAP-II/Europe: a twofold database of ecosystems and surface parameters at 1 km resolution based on satellite information for use in land surface, meteorological and climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faroux, S.; Kaptué Tchuenté, A. T.; Roujean, J.-L.; Masson, V.; Martin, E.; Le Moigne, P.

    2013-04-01

    The overall objective of the present study is to introduce the new ECOCLIMAP-II database for Europe, which is an upgrade for this region of the former initiative, ECOCLIMAP-I, already implemented at global scale. The ECOCLIMAP programme is a dual database at 1 km resolution that includes an ecosystem classification and a coherent set of land surface parameters that are primarily mandatory in meteorological modelling (notably leaf area index and albedo). Hence, the aim of this innovative physiography is to enhance the quality of initialisation and impose some surface attributes within the scope of weather forecasting and climate related studies. The strategy for implementing ECOCLIMAP-II is to depart from prevalent land cover products such as CLC2000 (Corine Land Cover) and GLC2000 (Global Land Cover) by splitting existing classes into new classes that possess a better regional character by virtue of the climatic environment (latitude, proximity to the sea, topography). The leaf area index (LAI) from MODIS and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from SPOT/Vegetation (a global monitoring system of vegetation) yield the two proxy variables that were considered here in order to perform a multi-year trimmed analysis between 1999 and 2005 using the K-means method. Further, meteorological applications require each land cover type to appear as a partition of fractions of 4 main surface types or tiles (nature, water bodies, sea, urban areas) and, inside the nature tile, fractions of 12 plant functional types (PFTs) representing generic vegetation types - principally broadleaf forest, needleleaf forest, C3 and C4 crops, grassland and bare land - as incorporated by the SVAT model ISBA (Interactions Surface Biosphere Atmosphere) developed at Météo France. This landscape division also forms the cornerstone of a validation exercise. The new ECOCLIMAP-II can be verified with auxiliary land cover products at very fine and coarse resolutions by means of versatile land

  10. Characterization of the Cloud-Topped Boundary Layer at the Synoptic Scale Using AVHRR Observations during the SEMAPHORE Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathieu, A.; Sèze, G.; Lahellec, A.; Guerin, C.; Weill, A.

    2003-12-01

    Satellite platforms NOAA-11 and -12 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data are used during the daytime to study large sheets of stratocumulus over the North Atlantic Ocean. The application concerns an anticyclonic period of the Structure des Echanges Mer Atmosphère, Propriétés des Hétérogénéités Océaniques: Recherché Expérimentale (SEMAPHORE) campaign (10 17 November 1993). In the region of interest, the satellite images are recorded under large solar zenith angles. Extending the SEMAPHORE area, a region of about 3000 × 3000 km2 is studied to characterize the atmospheric boundary layer. A statistical cloud classification method is applied to discriminate for low-level and optically thick clouds. For AVHRR pixels covered with thick clouds, brightness temperatures are used to evaluate the boundary layer cloud-top temperature (CTT). The objective is to obtain accurate CTT maps for evaluation of a global model. In this application, the full-resolution fields are reduced to match model grid size. An estimate of overall temperature uncertainty associated with each grid point is also derived, which incorporates subgrid variability of the fields and quality of the temperature retrieval. Results are compared with the SEMAPHORE campaign measurements. A comparison with “DX” products obtained with the same dataset, but at lower resolution, is also presented. The authors claim that such instantaneous CTT maps could be as intensively used as classical SST maps, and both could be efficiently complemented with gridpoint error-bar maps. They may be used for multiple applications: (i) to provide a means to improve numerical weather prediction and climatological reanalyses, (ii) to represent a boundary layer global characterization to analyze the synoptic situation of field experiments, and (iii) to allow validation and to test development of large-scale and mesoscale models.

  11. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5 Seasonal and Annual Day-Night Sea Surface Temperature Climatologies for 1982-2009 for the Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0072888)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains a set of sea surface temperature climatologies for the Gulf of Mexico (GOM), derived from the AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5 sea surface...

  12. GHRSST Level 3P North Atlantic Regional Subskin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for HIgh Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on...

  13. GHRSST L3C global sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-A) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  14. GHRSST L3C global sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-B) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 3 Collated (L3C) dataset derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)...

  15. Multi year changes of Aerosol Optical Depth in the monsoon region of the Indian Ocean since 1986 as seen in the AVHRR and TOMS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. George

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD data based on AVHRR and TOMS was analyzed to find out the changes in the Indian Ocean from 1981 to 2004. Four regions covering Indian Ocean north of 10° S were studied in detail. The results strongly suggest that the mean value of AOD in these regions decreased from 1986–1990 to 1995–1999. The Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal show increase thereafter whereas in the equatorial part it decreased further, during 2000–2004. The drop in AOD from the first to second period is evident in AVHRR and TOMS in the case of the Arabian Sea (North West Indian Ocean. The decrease in this case is prominent in summer. These results in general agree with the recently reported global decrease in AOD, "global brightening" and also the reversal of trend in some of the anthropogenic emissions.

  16. Quantification of Surface Suspended Sediments along a River Dominated Coast with NOAA AVHRR and SeaWiFS Measurements: Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myint, S. W.; Walker, N. D.

    2002-01-01

    The ability to quantify suspended sediment concentrations accurately over both time and space using satellite data has been a goal of many environmental researchers over the past few decades This study utilizes data acquired by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and the Orbview-2 Sea-viewing wide field-of-view (SeaWiFS) ocean colour sensor, coupled with field measurements to develop statistical models for the estimation of near-surface suspended sediment and suspended solids "Ground truth" water samples were obtained via helicopter, small boat and automatic water sampler within a few hours of satellite overpasses The NOAA AVHRR atmospheric correction was modified for the high levels of turbidity along the Louisiana coast. Models were developed based on the field measurements and reflectance/radiance measurements in the visible and near infrared Channels of NOAA-14 and Orbview-2 SeaWiFS. The best models for predicting surface suspended sediment concentrations were obtained with a NOAA AVHRR Channel 1 (580-680nm) cubic model, Channel 2 (725-1100 nm) linear mod$ and SeaWiFs Channel 6 (660-68Onm) power modeL The suspended sediment models developed using SeaWiFS Channel 5 (545-565 nm) were inferior, a result that we attribute mainly to the atmospheric correction technique, the shallow depth of the water samples and absorption effects from non-sediment water constituents.

  17. Determination of the influence of high clouds on the radiation field and on climate by analyzing NOAA AVHRR data. Die Bestimmung des Einflusses von hohen Wolken auf das Strahlungsfeld und auf das Klima durch Analyse von NOAA AVHRR-Daten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, F H

    1991-11-01

    The influence of clouds on the radiation field and on climate is investigated over the North Sea by analyzing NOAA AVHRR data. The derived information was applied to calculate the cloud-climate efficiency at the top of atmosphere and at the surface. The cloud-climate efficiencies in the shortwave spectrum show a cooling effect of the earth/atmosphere system for all clouds and a strong dependence on the solar insolation. For the cloud-climate efficiency in the longwave region always heating of the earth/atmosphere system was observed. Because of the solar zenith angle effect thick high clouds with the same optical properties may lead to different effects in the earth/atmosphere system. A first approach of a comparison of the increasing cloud forcing (heating of the earth-atmosphere system) and an analysis of the relative topography 300/850 hPa shows that the increase of the cloud forcing is well correlated with an increase of the temperature in this layer. The deviation from the long-term mean of the pressure or temperature shows the same behaviour. (orig.).

  18. A Comparison of Seasonal and Interannual Variability of Soil Dust Aerosols Over the Atlantic Ocean as Inferred by the Toms AI and AVHRR AOT Retrievals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmur, R. V.; Miller, R. L.; Tegen, Ina; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The seasonal cycle and interannual variability of two estimates of soil (or 'mineral') dust aerosols are compared: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) aerosol index (AI), Both data sets, comprising more than a decade of global, daily images, are commonly used to evaluate aerosol transport models. The present comparison is based upon monthly averages, constructed from daily images of each data set for the period between 1984 and 1990, a period that excludes contamination from volcanic eruptions. The comparison focuses upon the Northern Hemisphere subtropical Atlantic Ocean, where soil dust aerosols make the largest contribution to the aerosol load, and are assumed to dominate the variability of each data set. While each retrieval is sensitive to a different aerosol radiative property - absorption for the TOMS AI versus reflectance for the AVHRR AOT - the seasonal cycles of dust loading implied by each retrieval are consistent, if seasonal variations in the height of the aerosol layer are taken into account when interpreting the TOMS AI. On interannual time scales, the correlation is low at most locations. It is suggested that the poor interannual correlation is at least partly a consequence of data availability. When the monthly averages are constructed using only days common to both data sets, the correlation is substantially increased: this consistency suggests that both TOMS and AVHRR accurately measure the aerosol load in any given scene. However, the two retrievals have only a few days in common per month so that these restricted monthly averages have a large uncertainty. Calculations suggest that at least 7 to 10 daily images are needed to estimate reliably the average dust load during any particular month, a threshold that is rarely satisfied by the AVHRR AOT due to the presence of clouds in the domain. By rebinning each data set onto a coarser grid, the availability of

  19. Using NOAA/AVHRR based remote sensing data and PCR method for estimation of Aus rice yield in Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Akhand, Kawsar; Roytman, Leonid; Kogan, Felix; Goldberg, Mitch

    2015-06-01

    Rice is a dominant food crop of Bangladesh accounting about 75 percent of agricultural land use for rice cultivation and currently Bangladesh is the world's fourth largest rice producing country. Rice provides about two-third of total calorie supply and about one-half of the agricultural GDP and one-sixth of the national income in Bangladesh. Aus is one of the main rice varieties in Bangladesh. Crop production, especially rice, the main food staple, is the most susceptible to climate change and variability. Any change in climate will, thus, increase uncertainty regarding rice production as climate is major cause year-to-year variability in rice productivity. This paper shows the application of remote sensing data for estimating Aus rice yield in Bangladesh using official statistics of rice yield with real time acquired satellite data from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor and Principal Component Regression (PCR) method was used to construct a model. The simulated result was compared with official agricultural statistics showing that the error of estimation of Aus rice yield was less than 10%. Remote sensing, therefore, is a valuable tool for estimating crop yields well in advance of harvest, and at a low cost.

  20. Correcting orbital drift signal in the time series of AVHRR derived convective cloud fraction using rotated empirical orthogonal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR instruments onboard the series of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA satellites offer the longest available meteorological data records from space. These satellites have drifted in orbit resulting in shifts in the local time sampling during the life span of the sensors onboard. Depending upon the amplitude of the diurnal cycle of the geophysical parameters derived, orbital drift may cause spurious trends in their time series. We investigate tropical deep convective clouds, which show pronounced diurnal cycle amplitude, to estimate an upper bound of the impact of orbital drift on their time series. We carry out a rotated empirical orthogonal function analysis (REOF and show that the REOFs are useful in delineating orbital drift signal and, more importantly, in subtracting this signal in the time series of convective cloud amount. These results will help facilitate the derivation of homogenized data series of cloud amount from NOAA satellite sensors and ultimately analyzing trends from them. However, we suggest detailed comparison of various methods and rigorous testing thereof applying final orbital drift corrections.

  1. Large-scale heterogeneity of Amazonian phenology revealed from 26-year long AVHRR/NDVI time-series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Fabrício B; Shimabukuro, Yosio E; Aragão, Luiz E O C; Anderson, Liana O; Pereira, Gabriel; Cardozo, Franciele; Arai, Egídio

    2013-01-01

    Depiction of phenological cycles in tropical forests is critical for an understanding of seasonal patterns in carbon and water fluxes as well as the responses of vegetation to climate variations. However, the detection of clear spatially explicit phenological patterns across Amazonia has proven difficult using data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In this work, we propose an alternative approach based on a 26-year time-series of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) to identify regions with homogeneous phenological cycles in Amazonia. Specifically, we aim to use a pattern recognition technique, based on temporal signal processing concepts, to map Amazonian phenoregions and to compare the identified patterns with field-derived information. Our automated method recognized 26 phenoregions with unique intra-annual seasonality. This result highlights the fact that known vegetation types in Amazonia are not only structurally different but also phenologically distinct. Flushing of new leaves observed in the field is, in most cases, associated to a continuous increase in NDVI. The peak in leaf production is normally observed from the beginning to the middle of the wet season in 66% of the field sites analyzed. The phenoregion map presented in this work gives a new perspective on the dynamics of Amazonian canopies. It is clear that the phenology across Amazonia is more variable than previously detected using remote sensing data. An understanding of the implications of this spatial heterogeneity on the seasonality of Amazonian forest processes is a crucial step towards accurately quantifying the role of tropical forests within global biogeochemical cycles. (letter)

  2. Validation of Cloud Parameters Derived from Geostationary Satellites, AVHRR, MODIS, and VIIRS Using SatCORPS Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minnis, P.; Sun-Mack, S.; Bedka, K. M.; Yost, C. R.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Painemal, D.; Chen, Y.; Palikonda, R.; Dong, X.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Validation is a key component of remote sensing that can take many different forms. The NASA LaRC Satellite ClOud and Radiative Property retrieval System (SatCORPS) is applied to many different imager datasets including those from the geostationary satellites, Meteosat, Himiwari-8, INSAT-3D, GOES, and MTSAT, as well as from the low-Earth orbiting satellite imagers, MODIS, AVHRR, and VIIRS. While each of these imagers have similar sets of channels with wavelengths near 0.65, 3.7, 11, and 12 micrometers, many differences among them can lead to discrepancies in the retrievals. These differences include spatial resolution, spectral response functions, viewing conditions, and calibrations, among others. Even when analyzed with nearly identical algorithms, it is necessary, because of those discrepancies, to validate the results from each imager separately in order to assess the uncertainties in the individual parameters. This paper presents comparisons of various SatCORPS-retrieved cloud parameters with independent measurements and retrievals from a variety of instruments. These include surface and space-based lidar and radar data from CALIPSO and CloudSat, respectively, to assess the cloud fraction, height, base, optical depth, and ice water path; satellite and surface microwave radiometers to evaluate cloud liquid water path; surface-based radiometers to evaluate optical depth and effective particle size; and airborne in-situ data to evaluate ice water content, effective particle size, and other parameters. The results of comparisons are compared and contrasted and the factors influencing the differences are discussed.

  3. Comparación de los productos de TSM L3 generados a partir de los sensores AVHRR y MODIS frente al Golfo San Jorge, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Allega

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Desde principios de la década de los 80, el sensor AVHRR a bordo de los satélites NOAA ha provisto de estimaciones de la temperatura de la superficie del mar (TSM a la comunidad científica en general. Hacia finales de la década de los 90, surge una nueva generación de radiómetros que combinan una mayor gama de mediciones espectrales con mejoras en la tecnología, como lo es el sensor  MODIS a bordo de los satélites Terra y Aqua. El desarrollo de este último sensor se basó en los años de trayectoria de la serie NOAA/AVHRR. La comprensión de la relación entre los productos derivados de distintos sensores es fundamental para el seguimiento continuo a largo plazo de cualquier variable y de la construcción de serie de tiempos combinados. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue realizar una comparación de los valores mensuales de TSM para el período 2003-2006 calculadas a partir de datos de la serie NOAA/AVHRR vs Aqua/MODIS sobre un sector de la Plataforma Continental Argentina frente al Golfo San Jorge. El análisis de las isotermas muestra un patrón de distribución similar durante todos los meses para ambos sensores. El coeficiente de correlación de Pearson tanto en el análisis estacional como mensual fue alto (> 0,8. El análisis comparativo de la temperatura medida en ambos sensores muestra que los productos de TSM son similares, teniendo en cuenta que la diferencia media de temperatura entre ambos sensores es inferior a 0,5ºC. Por lo tanto, para el estudio de largas series de tiempo de TSM en la plataforma continental argentina se puede utilizar en forma continua las mediciones de Aqua/MODIS, cuando ya no se disponen las de NOAA/AVHRR.

  4. Climate Trend Detection using Sea-Surface Temperature Data-sets from the (A)ATSR and AVHRR Space Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.; Corlett, G. K.; Remedios, J. J.; Noyes, E. J.; Good, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Sea-Surface Temperature (SST) is an important indicator of global change, designated by GCOS as an essential Climate Variable (ECV). The detection of trends in Global SST requires rigorous measurements that are not only global, but also highly accurate and consistent. Space instruments can provide the means to achieve these required attributes in SST data. This paper presents an analysis of 15 years of SST data from two independent data sets, generated from the (A)ATSR and AVHRR series of sensors respectively. The analyses reveal trends of increasing global temperature between 0.13°C to 0.18 °C, per decade, closely matching that expected from some current predictions. A high level of consistency in the results from the two independent observing systems is seen, which gives increased confidence in data from both systems and also enables comparative analyses of the accuracy and stability of both data sets to be carried out. The conclusion is that these satellite SST data-sets provide important means to quantify and explore the processes of climate change. An analysis based upon singular value decomposition, allowing the removal of gross transitory disturbances, notably the El Niño, in order to examine regional areas of change other than the tropical Pacific, is also presented. Interestingly, although El Niño events clearly affect SST globally, they are found to have a non- significant (within error) effect on the calculated trends, which changed by only 0.01 K/decade when the pattern of El Niño and the associated variations was removed from the SST record. Although similar global trends were calculated for these two independent data sets, larger regional differences are noted. Evidence of decreased temperatures after the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 was also observed. The methodology demonstrated here can be applied to other data-sets, which cover long time-series observations of geophysical observations in order to characterise long-term change.

  5. A GIS based emissions inventory at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution for air pollution analysis in Delhi, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Calori, Giuseppe

    2013-03-01

    In Delhi, between 2008 and 2011, at seven monitoring stations, the daily average of particulates with diameter generation, and construction activities. In this paper, we present a multi-pollutant emissions inventory for the National Capital Territory of Delhi, covering the main district and its satellite cities - Gurgaon, Noida, Faridabad, and Ghaziabad. For the base year 2010, we estimate emissions (to the nearest 000's) of 63,000 tons of PM2.5, 114,000 tons of PM10, 37,000 tons of sulfur dioxide, 376,000 tons of nitrogen oxides, 1.42 million tons of carbon monoxide, and 261,000 tons of volatile organic compounds. The inventory is further spatially disaggregated into 80 × 80 grids at 0.01° resolution for each of the contributing sectors, which include vehicle exhaust, road dust re-suspension, domestic cooking and heating, power plants, industries (including brick kilns), diesel generator sets and waste burning. The GIS based spatial inventory coupled with temporal resolution of 1 h, was utilized for chemical transport modeling using the ATMoS dispersion model. The modeled annual average PM2.5 concentrations were 122 ± 10 μg m-3 for South Delhi; 90 ± 20 μg m-3 for Gurgaon and Dwarka; 93 ± 26 μg m-3 for North-West Delhi; 93 ± 23 μg m-3 for North-East Delhi; 42 ± 10 μg m-3 for Greater Noida; 77 ± 11 μg m-3 for Faridabad industrial area. The results have been compared to measured ambient PM pollution to validate the emissions inventory.

  6. Derivation of Coefficients for the Bidirectional Reflection Distribution Function from AVHRR-data over Europe, under Consideration of the Helmholtz Reciprocity Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billing, H.; Koslowsky, D.

    In the AVHRR data of the polar orbiting NOAA Satellites, directional reflectance under a certain view from satellite and a certain illumination by the sun is measured. Due to the nearly sunsynchroneous orbit of the NOAA satellite, each area is seen under different viewing angles in successive days. Only after approximately 9 days, the conditions are again similar. Areas, seen in specular direction, may appear only half as bright, as if seen in antispecular direction. This deviation from a Lambertian reflector is a function of the surface roughness and the degree of coverage with vegetation. The NOAA afternoon satellites drift by half an hour from year to year. Thus even data from the same season, but different years, are seen under different illumination conditions. To derive the bidirectional reflection distribution function in dependence on satellite viewing angle and solar illumination becomes a very complicated procedure. Using the Helmholtz reciprocity principle (HRP), i.e. the symetrie in viewing and illumination, reduces the problem by one dimension. For different bidimensional reflection laws it will be tested, whether they can be formulated to fullfill the HRP. Via regression, the parameters will be deduced for time series of AVHRR data of 10 years from NOAA 11,14,16 and 17. Brdfunctions, suggested by Rao as well as a law, suggested by Ba seem to become unstable for low sun resp. large viewing zenit angles. Only brdfs with 4 coefficients can fit the observed distributions. A nonlinear temporal angular model (NTAM), suggested by Latifovic,Cihlar and Chen, seems to be suitable to describe even the hot spot and the dependence on plant growth. The coefficients of these brdf-function will be derived via regression for monthly series of cloud free data for the European area, where AVHRR data in full resolution are received in Berlin. Using these coefficients, monthly maps of surface roughness are produced for the above area for the time since 1985. Ba, M

  7. A daytime climatological distribution of high opaque ice cloud classes over the Indian summer monsoon region observed from 25-year AVHRR data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Devasthale

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A daytime climatological spatio-temporal distribution of high opaque ice cloud (HOIC classes over the Indian subcontinent (0–40° N, 60° E–100° E is presented using 25-year data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRRs for the summer monsoon months. The HOICs are important for regional radiative balance, precipitation and troposphere-stratosphere exchange. In this study, HOICs are sub-divided into three classes based on their cloud top brightness temperatures (BT. Class I represents very deep convection (BT<220 K. Class II represents deep convection (220 K<=BT<233 K and Class III background convection (233 K<=BT<253 K. Apart from presenting finest spatial resolution (0.1×0.1 degrees and long-term climatology of such cloud classes from AVHRRs to date, this study for the first time illustrates on (1 how these three cloud classes are climatologically distributed during monsoon months, and (2 how their distribution changes during active and break monsoon conditions. It is also investigated that how many deep convective clouds reach the tropopause layer during individual monsoon months. It is seen that Class I and Class II clouds dominate the Indian subcontinent during monsoon. The movement of monsoon over continent is very well reflected in these cloud classes. During monsoon breaks strong suppression of convective activity is observed over the Arabian Sea and the western coast of India. On the other hand, the presence of such convective activity is crucial for active monsoon conditions and all-India rainfall. It is found that a significant fraction of HOICs (3–5% reach the tropopause layer over the Bay of Bengal during June and over the north and northeast India during July and August. Many cases are observed when clouds penetrate the tropopause layer and reach the lower stratosphere. Such cases mostly occur during June compared to the other months.

  8. Evaluating the Consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI Trends in the Iberian Peninsula across Four Time-series Derived from the AVHRR Sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations’ carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982–1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast. PMID:22205868

  9. Evaluating the consistency of the 1982-1999 NDVI trends in the Iberian Peninsula across four time-series derived from the AVHRR sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations' carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982-1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast.

  10. Comparison and Evaluation of Annual NDVI Time Series in China Derived from the NOAA AVHRR LTDR and Terra MODIS MOD13C1 Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xiaoyi; Zhang, Hongyan; Wu, Zhengfang; Zhao, Jianjun; Zhang, Zhengxiang

    2017-06-06

    Time series of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from multiple satellite sensors are crucial data to study vegetation dynamics. The Land Long Term Data Record Version 4 (LTDR V4) NDVI dataset was recently released at a 0.05 × 0.05° spatial resolution and daily temporal resolution. In this study, annual NDVI time series that are composited by the LTDR V4 and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) NDVI datasets (MOD13C1) are compared and evaluated for the period from 2001 to 2014 in China. The spatial patterns of the NDVI generally match between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. The transitional zone between high and low NDVI values generally matches the boundary of semi-arid and sub-humid regions. A significant and high coefficient of determination is found between the two datasets according to a pixel-based correlation analysis. The spatially averaged NDVI of LTDR V4 is characterized by a much weaker positive regression slope relative to that of the spatially averaged NDVI of the MOD13C1 dataset because of changes in NOAA AVHRR sensors between 2005 and 2006. The measured NDVI values of LTDR V4 were always higher than that of MOD13C1 in western China due to the relatively lower atmospheric water vapor content in western China, and opposite observation appeared in eastern China. In total, 18.54% of the LTDR V4 NDVI pixels exhibit significant trends, whereas 35.79% of the MOD13C1 NDVI pixels show significant trends. Good agreement is observed between the significant trends of the two datasets in the Northeast Plain, Bohai Economic Rim, Loess Plateau, and Yangtze River Delta. By contrast, the datasets contrasted in northwestern desert regions and southern China. A trend analysis of the regression slope values according to the vegetation type shows good agreement between the LTDR V4 and MOD13C1 datasets. This study demonstrates the spatial and temporal consistencies and discrepancies between the AVHRR LTDR and MODIS MOD13C1 NDVI

  11. Integração de imagens NOAA/AVHRR: rede de cooperação para monitoramento nacional da safra de soja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Gusso

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Uma avaliação inicial das condições do desenvolvimento da safra nacional, enquanto as plantas ainda estão nos campos, é altamente necessária para o cálculo correto das projeções na tomada de decisão e políticas relacionadas com o planejamento governamental e segurança alimentar. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a adequação dos dados NOAA/AVHRR (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration / Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer em detectar mudanças nas condições da vegetação, devidas à ocorrência de estresse hídrico, na soja, por meio de uma combinação do índice NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index e da LST (Land Surface Temperature. Os dados LST e NDVI foram combinados e comparados pixel a pixel, sobre uma área de cultivo de soja, no Rio Grande do Sul. A relação teórica inversa prevista na combinação de LST e NDVI foi detectada. Foi observado que ocorre um aumento médio na LST em uma safra de ciclo normal (de 301,02 K para 308,36 K, quando comparada a uma safra sob condição de estresse hídrico, no desenvolvimento da cultura. Uma redução média do NDVI foi observada no ciclo normal (de 0,65 para 0,53, comparada com uma safra sob efeitos ocasionados pela estiagem no desenvolvimento da cultura. Foi observado maior correlação da produtividade municipal com LST (R2=0,78 do que com o NDVI (R2 = 0,59. Os resultados obtidos indicam que a integração de imagens do sensor AVHRR, proveniente de diferentes instituições, proporciona a adequada combinação espacial e temporal dos dados LST e NDVI, a fim de detectar a ocorrência de estresse hídrico, bem como sua intensidade, caracterizando as condições do ciclo de desenvolvimento da soja.

  12. Estimación de la temperatura superficial del mar desde datos satelitales NOAA-AVHRR: validación de algoritmos aplicados a la costa norte de Chile Sea surface temperature estimation from NOAA-AVHRR satellite data: validation of algorithms applied to the northern coast of Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan C Parra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Se aplicaron y compararon tres algoritmos del tipo Split-Window (SW, que permitieron estimar la temperatura superficial del mar desde datos aportados por el sensor Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR, a bordo de la serie de satélites de la National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA. La validación de los algoritmos fue lograda por comparación con mediciones in situ de temperatura del mar provenientes de una boya hidrográfica, ubicada frente a la costa norte de Chile (21°21'S, 70°6'W; Región de Tarapacá, a 3 km de la costa aproximadamente. Los mejores resultados se obtuvieron por aplicación del algoritmo propuesto por Sobrino & Raissouni (2000. En efecto, diferencias entre la temperatura medida in situ y la estimada por SW, permitieron evidenciar una media y desviación estándar de 0,3° y 0,8°K, respectivamente.The present article applies and compares three split-window (SW algorithms, which allowed the estimation of sea surface temperature using data obtained from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR on board the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA series of satellites. The algorithms were validated by comparison with in situ measurements of sea temperature obtained from a hydrographical buoy located off the coast of northern Chile (21°21'S, 70°6'W; Tarapacá Región, approximately 3 km from the coast. The best results were obtained by the application of the algorithm proposed by Sobrino & Raissouni (2000. The mean and standard deviation of the differences between the temperatures measured in situ and those estimated by SW were 0.3° and 0.8°K, respectively.

  13. A Sample-Based Forest Monitoring Strategy Using Landsat, AVHRR and MODIS Data to Estimate Gross Forest Cover Loss in Malaysia between 1990 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Potapov

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Insular Southeast Asia is a hotspot of humid tropical forest cover loss. A sample-based monitoring approach quantifying forest cover loss from Landsat imagery was implemented to estimate gross forest cover loss for two eras, 1990–2000 and 2000–2005. For each time interval, a probability sample of 18.5 km × 18.5 km blocks was selected, and pairs of Landsat images acquired per sample block were interpreted to quantify forest cover area and gross forest cover loss. Stratified random sampling was implemented for 2000–2005 with MODIS-derived forest cover loss used to define the strata. A probability proportional to x (πpx design was implemented for 1990–2000 with AVHRR-derived forest cover loss used as the x variable to increase the likelihood of including forest loss area in the sample. The estimated annual gross forest cover loss for Malaysia was 0.43 Mha/yr (SE = 0.04 during 1990–2000 and 0.64 Mha/yr (SE = 0.055 during 2000–2005. Our use of the πpx sampling design represents a first practical trial of this design for sampling satellite imagery. Although the design performed adequately in this study, a thorough comparative investigation of the πpx design relative to other sampling strategies is needed before general design recommendations can be put forth.

  14. Comparison between remotely-sensed sea-surface temperature (AVHRR and in situ records in San Matías Gulf (Patagonia, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N Williams

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In situ records of sea surface temperature collected between 2005 and 2009 were used to compare, for the first time, the temperature estimated by the Multichannel algorithms (MCSST of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR sensors in San Matías Gulf, in the north of the Argentinean Patagonian Continental Shelf (between 40°47'-42°13'S. Match-ups between in situ records and satellite sea surface temperature (SST were analyzed. In situ records came from fixed stations and oceanographic cruises, while satellite data came from different NOAA satellites. The fitting of temperature data to a Standard Major Axis (SMA type II regression model indicated that a high proportion of the total variance (0.53< r² <0.99 was explained by this model showing a high correlation between in situ data and satellite estimations. The mean differences between satellite and in situ data for the full data set were 1.64 ± 1.49°C. Looking separately into in situ data from different sources and day and night estimates from different NOAA satellites, the differences were between 0.30 ± 0.60°C and 2.60 ± 1.50°C. In this paper we discuss possible reasons for the above-mentioned performance of the MCSST algorithms in the study area.

  15. Comparison of Monthly Mean Cloud Fraction and Cloud Optical depth Determined from Surface Cloud Radar, TOVS, AVHRR, and MODIS over Barrow, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttal, Taneil; Frisch, Shelby; Wang, Xuan-Ji; Key, Jeff; Schweiger, Axel; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Minnis, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    A one year comparison is made of mean monthly values of cloud fraction and cloud optical depth over Barrow, Alaska (71 deg 19.378 min North, 156 deg 36.934 min West) between 35 GHz radar-based retrievals, the TOVS Pathfinder Path-P product, the AVHRR APP-X product, and a MODIS based cloud retrieval product from the CERES-Team. The data sets represent largely disparate spatial and temporal scales, however, in this paper, the focus is to provide a preliminary analysis of how the mean monthly values derived from these different data sets compare, and determine how they can best be used separately, and in combination to provide reliable estimates of long-term trends of changing cloud properties. The radar and satellite data sets described here incorporate Arctic specific modifications that account for cloud detection challenges specific to the Arctic environment. The year 2000 was chosen for this initial comparison because the cloud radar data was particularly continuous and reliable that year, and all of the satellite retrievals of interest were also available for the year 2000. Cloud fraction was chosen as a comparison variable as accurate detection of cloud is the primary product that is necessary for any other cloud property retrievals. Cloud optical depth was additionally selected as it is likely the single cloud property that is most closely correlated to cloud influences on surface radiation budgets.

  16. Evaluation results of the optimal estimation based, multi-sensor cloud property data sets derived from AVHRR heritage measurements in the Cloud_cci project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stapelberg, S.; Jerg, M.; Stengel, M.; Hollmann, R.

    2014-12-01

    In 2010 the ESA Climate Change Initiative (CCI) Cloud project was started with the objectives of generating a long-term coherent data set of cloud properties. The cloud properties considered are cloud mask, cloud top estimates, cloud optical thickness, cloud effective radius and post processed parameters such as cloud liquid and ice water path. During the first phase of the project 3 years of data spanning 2007 to 2009 have been produced on a global gridded daily and monthly mean basis. Next to the processing an extended evaluation study was started in order to gain a first understanding of the quality of the retrieved data. The critical discussion of the results of the evaluation holds a key role for the further development and improvement of the dataset's quality. The presentation will give a short overview of the evaluation study undertaken in the Cloud_cci project. The focus will be on the evaluation of gridded, monthly mean cloud fraction and cloud top data from the Cloud_cci AVHRR-heritage dataset with CLARA-A1, MODIS-Coll5, PATMOS-X and ISCCP data. Exemplary results will be shown. Strengths and shortcomings of the retrieval scheme as well as possible impacts of averaging approaches on the evaluation will be discussed. An Overview of Cloud_cci Phase 2 will be given.

  17. Fire Monitoring - The use of medium resolution satellites (AVHRR, MODIS, TET) for long time series processing and the implementation in User Driven Applications and Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, E.-M.; Stein, E.; Strunz, G.; Strobl, C.; Frey, C.

    2015-04-01

    This paper introduces fire monitoring works of two different projects, namely TIMELINE (TIMe Series Processing of Medium Resolution Earth Observation Data assessing Long -Term Dynamics In our Natural Environment) and PHAROS (Project on a Multi-Hazard Open Platform for Satellite Based Downstream Services). It describes the evolution from algorithm development from in applied research to the implementation in user driven applications and systems. Concerning TIMELINE, the focus of the work lies on hot spot detection. A detailed description of the choice of a suitable algorithm (round robin approach) will be given. Moreover, strengths and weaknesses of the AVHRR sensor for hot spot detection, a literature review, the study areas and the selected approach will be highlighted. The evaluation showed that the contextual algorithm performed best, and will therefore be used for final implementation. Concerning the PHAROS project, the key aspect is on the use of satellite-based information to provide valuable support to all phases of disaster management. The project focuses on developing a pre-operational sustainable service platform that integrates space-based EO (Earth Observation), terrestrial sensors and communication and navigation assets to enhance the availability of services and products following a multi-hazard approach.

  18. GHRSST Level 2P Global Skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite produced by EUMETSAT (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-A) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  20. GHRSST Level 2P sub-skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on Metop satellites (currently Metop-B) (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  1. Midwest agriculture and ENSO: A comparison of AVHRR NDVI3g data and crop yields in the United States Corn Belt from 1982 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glennie, Erin; Anyamba, Assaf

    2018-06-01

    A time series of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) derived normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data were compared to National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) corn yield data in the United States Corn Belt from 1982 to 2014. The main objectives of the comparison were to assess 1) the consistency of regional Corn Belt responses to El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnection signals, and 2) the reliability of using NDVI as an indicator of crop yield. Regional NDVI values were used to model a seasonal curve and to define the growing season - May to October. Seasonal conditions in each county were represented by NDVI and land surface temperature (LST) composites, and corn yield was represented by average annual bushels produced per acre. Correlation analysis between the NDVI, LST, corn yield, and equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies revealed patterns in land surface dynamics and corn yield, as well as typical impacts of ENSO episodes. It was observed from the study that growing seasons coincident with La Niña events were consistently warmer, but El Niño events did not consistently impact NDVI, temperature, or corn yield data. Moreover, the El Niño and La Niña composite images suggest that impacts vary spatially across the Corn Belt. While corn is the dominant crop in the region, some inconsistencies between corn yield and NDVI may be attributed to soy crops and other background interference. The overall correlation between the total growing season NDVI anomaly and detrended corn yield was 0.61(p = 0.00013), though the strength of the relationship varies across the Corn Belt.

  2. Changes in the NDVI of Boreal Forests over the period 1984 to 2003 measured using time series of Landsat TM/ETM+ surface reflectance and the GIMMS AVHRR NDVI record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, A. M.; Rocha, A. V.; Goulden, M. L.

    2006-12-01

    There is a prevailing opinion that the boreal landscape is undergoing change as a result of warming temperatures leading to earlier springs, greater forest fire frequency and possibly CO2 fertilization. One widely- used line of evidence is the GIMMS AVHRR NDVI record. Several studies suggest increasing rates of photosynthesis in boreal forests from 1982 to 1991 (based on NDVI increases) while others suggest declining photosynthesis from 1996 to 2003. We suspect that a portion of these changes are due to the successional stage of the forests. We compiled a time-series of atmospherically-corrected Landsat TM/ETM+ images spanning the period 1984 to 2003 over the BOREAS Northern Study Area and compared spatial and temporal patterns of NDVI between the two records. The Landsat time series is higher resolution and, together with the Canadian Fire Service Large Fire Database, provides stand-age information. We then (1) analyzed the agreement between the Landsat and GIMMS AVHRR time series; (2) determined how the stage of forest succession affected NDVI; (3) assessed how the calculation method of annual averages of NDVI affects decadal-scale trends. The agreement between the Landsat and the AVHRR was reasonable although the depression of NDVI associated with the aerosols from the Pinatubo volcano was greater in the GIMMS time series. Pixels containing high proportions of stands burned within a decade of the observation period showed very high gains in NDVI while the more mature stands were constant. While NDVI appears to exhibit a large sensitivity to the presence of snow, the choice of a May to September averaging period for NDVI over a June to August averaging period did not affect the interannual patterns in NDVI at this location because the snow pack was seldom present in either of these periods. Knowledge of the spatial and temporal patterns of wild fire will prove useful in interpreting trends of remotely-sensed proxies of photosynthesis.

  3. Aplicação de índices das condições de vegetação no monitoramento em tempo quase real da seca em Moçambique usando NOAA_AVHRR- NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alberto Covele

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo tem por objetivo aplicar diferentes índices das condições de vegetação e avaliar suas diferenças e aptidão no monitoramento da distribuição espacial e temporal da seca em Moçambique com base em imagens NDVI da NOAA- AVHRR. Para tanto, avalia as differenças de aptidão dos índices das condições de vegetação especialmente o Índice das Condições de Vegetação (Vegetation Condition Index- VCI, Índice Padronizado de Vegetação (Standardized Vegetation Index- SVI e o Indicador de Productividade da Vegetação (Vegetation Productivity Indicator- VPI no monitoramento da seca em Moçambique. Estes índices são derivados a partir de imagens da Diferença Normalizada do Índice da Vegetação (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index- NDVI de 1981 a 2005, produzidas a partir dos canais 1 e 2 do sensor Advanced Very Higher Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR a bordo dos satélites da National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA.

  4. Patrones fenológicos de la Provincia de Mendoza, Argentina, mediante serie temporal de imágenes NOAA-AVHRR NDVI GAC Phenological patterns of the province of Mendoza, Argentina, through a temporal series of NOAA-AVHRR NDVI GAC images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M González Loyarte

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Se describe la dinámica temporal de la vegetación de Mendoza mediante análisis de la fenología foliar regional con una serie de 108 imágenes mensuales de índice de vegetación NOAA-AVHRR NDVI GAC. La serie se descompone aplicando la Transformada Rápida de Fourier en parámetros dinámicos: NDVI medio, amplitudes (máxima variabilidad del NDVI y fases (tiempo entre inicio del ciclo y máximo NDVI para diferentes períodos. Con los parámetros con mayor información (variablilidad inter e intraanual se hace una clasificación y se obtiene un mapa de 18 áreas de comportamiento fenológico. Éste se vincula con los ecosistemas y con las unidades de vegetación. Se modela el patrón fenológico (curva NDVI mensual para 17 unidades de vegetación. El mapa aporta elementos dinámicos al estudio regional de la vegetación generando una zonificación nueva explicada por variables que determinan la actividad vegetativa. El patrón fenológico describe el funcionamiento de la vegetación y permite comprender sus variaciones geográficas. El conjunto de la vegetación de Mendoza responde a un ciclo anual con matices localizados de ligera bimodalidad. Los patrones de bajo contraste invierno-verano corresponden a condiciones climáticas xéricas expresando su máximo vegetativo al final del verano; la disponibilidad hídrica incrementa este contraste acortando el tiempo de máxima expresión vegetativa.The temporal dynamics of vegetation in Mendoza is described through analysis of regional foliar phenology using a series of 108 monthly NOAA-AVHRR NDVI GAC images. A Fast Fourier Transform was used to decompose the series into dynamic parameters: mean NDVI, amplitudes (maximum NDVI variability and phases (time from start of cycle to maximum NDVI for different time periods. A classification is made based on those parameters with larger information content (inter- and intra-annual variability, achieving a map of 18 areas of phenological behaviour. This

  5. Characterization of AVHRR global cloud detection sensitivity based on CALIPSO-CALIOP cloud optical thickness information: demonstration of results based on the CM SAF CLARA-A2 climate data record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Karl-Göran; Håkansson, Nina

    2018-02-01

    The sensitivity in detecting thin clouds of the cloud screening method being used in the CM SAF cloud, albedo and surface radiation data set from AVHRR data (CLARA-A2) cloud climate data record (CDR) has been evaluated using cloud information from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) onboard the CALIPSO satellite. The sensitivity, including its global variation, has been studied based on collocations of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and CALIOP measurements over a 10-year period (2006-2015). The cloud detection sensitivity has been defined as the minimum cloud optical thickness for which 50 % of clouds could be detected, with the global average sensitivity estimated to be 0.225. After using this value to reduce the CALIOP cloud mask (i.e. clouds with optical thickness below this threshold were interpreted as cloud-free cases), cloudiness results were found to be basically unbiased over most of the globe except over the polar regions where a considerable underestimation of cloudiness could be seen during the polar winter. The overall probability of detecting clouds in the polar winter could be as low as 50 % over the highest and coldest parts of Greenland and Antarctica, showing that a large fraction of optically thick clouds also remains undetected here. The study included an in-depth analysis of the probability of detecting a cloud as a function of the vertically integrated cloud optical thickness as well as of the cloud's geographical position. Best results were achieved over oceanic surfaces at mid- to high latitudes where at least 50 % of all clouds with an optical thickness down to a value of 0.075 were detected. Corresponding cloud detection sensitivities over land surfaces outside of the polar regions were generally larger than 0.2 with maximum values of approximately 0.5 over the Sahara and the Arabian Peninsula. For polar land surfaces the values were close to 1 or higher with maximum values of 4.5 for the parts

  6. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron region of...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  8. JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1- km Mosaic, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set contains two image mosaics of L-band radar backscatter and two image mosaics of first order texture. The two backscatter images are mosaics...

  9. MODIS/Terra Calibrated Radiances 5-Min L1B Swath 1km - NRT

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODIS Level 1B Near Real Time (NRT) data set contains calibrated and geolocated at-aperture radiances for 36 discrete bands located in the 0.4 to 14.4 micron...

  10. Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask 2010 Global 1 km V001

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NASA Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) Global Food Security Support Analysis Data (GFSAD) Crop Mask Global 1 kilometer...

  11. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including daily continuous surfaces...

  12. 1-km Global Anthropogenic Heat Flux Database for Urban Climate Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Y.; Varquez, A. C. G.; Kanda, M.

    2016-12-01

    Among various factors contributing to warming in cities, anthropogenic heat emission (AHE), defined by heat fluxes arising from human consumption of energy, has the most obvious influence. Despite this, estimation of the AHE distribution is challenging and assumed almost uniform in investigations of the regional atmospheric environment. In this study, we introduce a top-down method for estimating a global distribution of AHE (see attachment), with a high spatial resolution of 30 arc-seconds and temporal resolution of 1 hour. Annual average AHE was derived from human metabolic heating and primary energy consumption, which was further divided into three components based on consumer sector: heat loss, heat emissions from industrial-related sectors and heat emissions from commercial, residential and transport sectors (CRT). The first and second components were equally distributed throughout the country and populated areas, respectively. Bulk AHE from the CRT was proportionally distributed using a global population dataset with a nighttime lights adjustment. An empirical function to estimate monthly fluctuations of AHE based on monthly temperatures was derived from various city measurements. Finally, a global AHE database was constructed for the year 2013. Comparisons between our proposed AHE and other existing datasets revealed that a problem of AHE underestimation at central urban areas existing in previous top-down models was significantly mitigated by the nighttime lights adjustment. A strong agreement in the monthly profiles of AHE between our database and other bottom-up datasets further proved the validity of our current methodology. Investigations of AHE in the 29 largest urban agglomerations globally highlighted that the share of heat emissions from CRT sectors to the total AHE at the city level was 40-95%, whereas the share of metabolic heating varied closely depending on the level of economic development in the city. Incorporation of our proposed AHE data into climate models will provide a more realistic representation of urban atmospheric environment, leading to a deeper understanding of urban climate change. Acknowledgment: This research was supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-14) of the Ministry of the Environment, Japan

  13. Daymet: Daily Surface Weather Data on a 1-km Grid for North America, Version 2

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set provides Daymet output data as mosaicked gridded estimates of daily weather parameters for North America, including continuous surfaces of day length,...

  14. MODIS/Terra Vegetation Indices Monthly L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global MODIS vegetation indices are designed to provide consistent spatial and temporal comparisons of vegetation conditions. Blue, red, and near-infrared...

  15. MODIS/Aqua Vegetation Indices 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global MODIS vegetation indices are designed to provide consistent spatial and temporal comparisons of vegetation conditions. Blue, red, and near-infrared...

  16. MODIS/Aqua Vegetation Indices Monthly L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Global MODIS vegetation indices are designed to provide consistent spatial and temporal comparisons of vegetation conditions. Blue, red, and near-infrared...

  17. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  18. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  19. MODIS/Aqua Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  20. MODIS/Aqua Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  1. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire 8-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  2. MODIS/Terra Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire 5-Min L2 Swath 1km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Near Real Time (NRT) Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on...

  3. MODIS/Terra Thermal Anomalies/Fire Daily L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS Thermal Anomalies/Fire products are primarily derived from MODIS 4- and 11-micrometer radiances. The fire detection strategy is based on absolute detection of...

  4. LBA-ECO LC-15 JERS-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar, 1- km Mosaic, Amazon Basin: 1995-1996

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set contains two image mosaics of L-band radar backscatter and two image mosaics of first order texture. The two backscatter images are mosaics of L-band...

  5. MODIS/Terra+Aqua BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters 16-Day L3 Global 1km SIN Grid V005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) BRDF/Albedo Model Parameters product (MCD43B1) contains three-dimensional (3D) data sets providing users...

  6. MODIS/Terra Gross Primary Productivity 8-Day L4 Global 1km SIN Grid V055

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Terra/MODIS Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) product (MOD17A2) is a cumulative composite of GPP values based on the radiation-use efficiency concept that is...

  7. MODIS/Aqua Clouds 5-Min L2 Swath 1km and 5km V5.1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MODIS was launched aboard the Aqua satellite on May 04, 2002 (1:30 pm equator crossing time) as part of NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) mission. MODIS with its...

  8. Carbon pools and productivity in a 1-km2 heterogeneous forest and peatland mosaic in Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Weishampel; Randall Kolka; Jennifer Y. King

    2009-01-01

    Determining the magnitude of carbon (C) storage in forests and peatlands is an important step towards predicting how regional carbon balance will respond to climate change. However, spatial heterogeneity of dominant forest and peatland cover types can inhibit accurate C storage estimates. We evaluated ecosystem C pools and productivity in the Marcell Experimental...

  9. IMS Daily Northern Hemisphere Snow and Ice Analysis at 1 km, 4 km, and 24 km Resolutions

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set provides snow and ice cover maps for the Northern Hemisphere from February 1997 to the present from the National Ice Center's Interactive Multisensor...

  10. FLO1K, global maps of mean, maximum and minimum annual streamflow at 1 km resolution from 1960 through 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarossa, Valerio; Huijbregts, Mark A. J.; Beusen, Arthur H. W.; Beck, Hylke E.; King, Henry; Schipper, Aafke M.

    2018-03-01

    Streamflow data is highly relevant for a variety of socio-economic as well as ecological analyses or applications, but a high-resolution global streamflow dataset is yet lacking. We created FLO1K, a consistent streamflow dataset at a resolution of 30 arc seconds (~1 km) and global coverage. FLO1K comprises mean, maximum and minimum annual flow for each year in the period 1960-2015, provided as spatially continuous gridded layers. We mapped streamflow by means of artificial neural networks (ANNs) regression. An ensemble of ANNs were fitted on monthly streamflow observations from 6600 monitoring stations worldwide, i.e., minimum and maximum annual flows represent the lowest and highest mean monthly flows for a given year. As covariates we used the upstream-catchment physiography (area, surface slope, elevation) and year-specific climatic variables (precipitation, temperature, potential evapotranspiration, aridity index and seasonality indices). Confronting the maps with independent data indicated good agreement (R2 values up to 91%). FLO1K delivers essential data for freshwater ecology and water resources analyses at a global scale and yet high spatial resolution.

  11. Remotely sensed vegetation phenology for describing and predicting the biomes of South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available the distribution of the recently redefined biomes be predicted based on remotely sensed, phenology and productivity metrics? Ten-day, 1 km, NDVI AVHRR were analysed for the period 1985 to 2000. Phenological metrics such as start, end and length of the growing...

  12. Limits to detectability of land degradation by trend analysis of vegetation index data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wessels, Konrad J

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available of reductions in seasonally-summed NDVI are systematically varied on sample data to simulate land degradation, after which the trend analysis was applied and its sensitivity evaluated. The study was based on a widely-used, 1 km2 AVHRR data set for a test area...

  13. OW NOAA AVHRR-GAC Sea-Surface Temperature

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The dataset contains satellite-derived sea-surface temperature measurements collected by means of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer - Global Area Coverage...

  14. Assessing the consistency between AVHRR and MODIS NDVI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (NEP) over India during 2001–2006 in a terrestrial ecosystem model. Harmonic ... state of the biosphere's health and system for car- bon credit trading ... climate has significant control on the NPP over. India with ... and aerosol scattering, ozone, water vapour absorp- tion, etc. ...... To understand the effect of errors in GIMMS-.

  15. Linear mixing model applied to AVHRR LAC data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holben, Brent N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    1993-01-01

    A linear mixing model was applied to coarse spatial resolution data from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The reflective component of the 3.55 - 3.93 microns channel was extracted and used with the two reflective channels 0.58 - 0.68 microns and 0.725 - 1.1 microns to run a Constraine Least Squares model to generate vegetation, soil, and shade fraction images for an area in the Western region of Brazil. The Landsat Thematic Mapper data covering the Emas National park region was used for estimating the spectral response of the mixture components and for evaluating the mixing model results. The fraction images were compared with an unsupervised classification derived from Landsat TM data acquired on the same day. The relationship between the fraction images and normalized difference vegetation index images show the potential of the unmixing techniques when using coarse resolution data for global studies.

  16. Detailed mapping and rupture implications of the 1 km releasing bend in the Rodgers Creek Fault at Santa Rosa, northern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, Suzanne; Langenheim, Victoria; Williams, Robert; Hitchcock, Christopher S.; DeLong, Stephen B.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (lidar) topography reveals for the first time the trace of the Rodgers Creek fault (RCF) through the center of Santa Rosa, the largest city in the northern San Francisco Bay area. Vertical deformation of the Santa Rosa Creek floodplain expresses a composite pull‐apart basin beneath the urban cover that is part of a broader 1‐km‐wide right‐releasing bend in the fault. High‐resolution geophysical data illuminate subsurface conditions that may be responsible for the complex pattern of surface faulting, as well as for the distribution of seismicity and possibly for creep behavior. We identify a dense, magnetic basement body bounded by the RCF beneath Santa Rosa that we interpret as a strong asperity, likely part of a larger locked patch of the fault to the south. A local increase in frictional resistance associated with the basement body appears to explain (1) distributed fault‐normal extension above where the RCF intersects the body; (2) earthquake activity around the northern end of the body, notably the 1969 ML 5.6 and 5.7 events and aftershocks; and (3) creep rates on the RCF that are higher to the north of Santa Rosa than to the south. There is a significant probability of a major earthquake on the RCF in the coming decades, and earthquakes associated with the proposed asperity have the potential to release seismic energy into the Cotati basin beneath Santa Rosa, already known from damaging historical earthquakes to produce amplified ground shaking.

  17. Near-global climate simulation at 1 km resolution: establishing a performance baseline on 4888 GPUs with COSMO 5.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrer, Oliver; Chadha, Tarun; Hoefler, Torsten; Kwasniewski, Grzegorz; Lapillonne, Xavier; Leutwyler, David; Lüthi, Daniel; Osuna, Carlos; Schär, Christoph; Schulthess, Thomas C.; Vogt, Hannes

    2018-05-01

    The best hope for reducing long-standing global climate model biases is by increasing resolution to the kilometer scale. Here we present results from an ultrahigh-resolution non-hydrostatic climate model for a near-global setup running on the full Piz Daint supercomputer on 4888 GPUs (graphics processing units). The dynamical core of the model has been completely rewritten using a domain-specific language (DSL) for performance portability across different hardware architectures. Physical parameterizations and diagnostics have been ported using compiler directives. To our knowledge this represents the first complete atmospheric model being run entirely on accelerators on this scale. At a grid spacing of 930 m (1.9 km), we achieve a simulation throughput of 0.043 (0.23) simulated years per day and an energy consumption of 596 MWh per simulated year. Furthermore, we propose a new memory usage efficiency (MUE) metric that considers how efficiently the memory bandwidth - the dominant bottleneck of climate codes - is being used.

  18. The 40Ar/39Ar and K/Ar dating of lavas from the Hilo 1-km core hole, Hawaii Scientific Drilling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, W.D.; Turrin, B.D.; Renne, P.R.; Lanphere, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Mauna Kea lava flows cored in the HilIo hole range in age from <200 ka to about 400 ka based on 40Ar/39Ar incremental heating and K-Ar analyses of 16 groundmass samples and one coexisting plagioclase. The lavas, all subaerially deposited, include a lower section consisting only of tholeiitic basalts and an upper section of interbedded alkalic, transitional tholeiitic, and tholeiitic basalts. The lower section has yielded predominantly complex, discordant 40Ar/39Ar age spectra that result from mobility of 40Ar and perhaps K, the presence of excess 40Ar, and redistribution of 39Ar by recoil. Comparison of K-Ar ages with 40Ar/39Ar integrated ages indicates that some of these samples have also lost 39Ar. Nevertheless, two plateau ages of 391 ?? 40 and 400 ?? 26 ka from deep in the hole, combined with data from the upper section, show that the tholeiitic section accumulated at an average rate of about 7 to 8 m/kyr and has an mean recurrence interval of 0.5 kyr/flow unit. Samples from the upper section yield relatively precise 40Ar/39Ar plateau and isotope correlation ages of 326 ?? 23, 241 ?? 5, 232 ?? 4, and 199 ?? 9 ka for depths of -415.7 m to -299.2 m. Within their uncertainty, these ages define a linear relationship with depth, with an average accumulation rate of 0.9 m/kyr and an average recurrence interval of 4.8 kyr/flow unit. The top of the Mauna Kea sequence at -280 m must be older than the plateau age of 132 ?? 32 ka, obtained for the basal Mauna Loa flow in the corehole. The upward decrease in lava accumulation rate is a consequence of the decreasing magma supply available to Mauna Kea as it rode the Pacific plate away from its magma source, the Hawaiian mantle plume. The age-depth relation in the core hole may be used to test and refine models that relate the growth of Mauna Kea to the thermal and compositional structure of the mantle plume.

  19. Topographic Position Index (TPI) derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) elevation interpolated at 1 km resolution across the Appalachian Landscape Conservation Coopertive (LCC) region

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The data contained in this file is one of several datasets produced in support of the project entitled “Classification and Mapping of Cave and Karst Resources” for...

  20. Integrated NDVI images for Niger 1986-1987. [Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, John A., Jr.; Wylie, Bruce K.; Tucker, Compton J.

    1988-01-01

    Two NOAA AVHRR images are presented which provide a comparison of the geographic distribution of an integration of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) for the Sahel zone in Niger for the growing seasons of 1986 and 1987. The production of the images and the application of the images for resource management are discussed. Daily large area coverage with a spatial resolution of 1.1 km at nadir were transformed to the NDVI and geographically registered to produce the images.

  1. AVHRR CoastWatch Hawaii Regional Node Data, October 1990-March 2004 (NODC Accession 0121319)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The sea surface temperature (SST) products were derived from NOAA's Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) for the coastal United States and...

  2. GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_AMSR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA...

  3. SST, NOAA POES AVHRR, LAC, 0.0125 degrees, West US, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data is provided at high...

  4. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 1-Degree, 1987 (Defries and Townshend)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of a subset of a 1-degree global land cover product (DeFries and Townshend 1994). The subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  5. SAFARI 2000 Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set consists of a southern African subset of the University of Maryland (UMD) 8-km Global Land Cover product in ASCII GRID and binary image files formats.

  6. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  7. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes, vegetation water...

  8. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 1-Degree, 1987 (Defries and Townshend)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set consists of a subset of a 1-degree global land cover product (DeFries and Townshend 1994). The subset was created for the study area of the...

  9. SAFARI 2000 AVHRR-derived Land Surface Temperature Maps, Africa, 1995-2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is a key indicator of land surface states, and can provide information on surface-atmosphere heat and mass fluxes,...

  10. SAFARI 2000 Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set consists of a southern African subset of the University of Maryland (UMD) 8-km Global Land Cover product in ASCII GRID and binary image files...

  11. LBA Regional Land Cover from AVHRR, 8-km, 1984 (DeFries et al.)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ABSTRACT: This data set is a subset of an 8-km global land cover product (DeFries et al. 1998). This subset was created for the study area of the Large Scale...

  12. Temperature, All Surface, NOAA POES AVHRR, LAC, 0.0125 degrees, West US, Daytime

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides surface temperature products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data is provided at high resolution...

  13. AVHRR Polar Pathfinder Twice-Daily 5 km EASE-Grid Composites

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set is no longer available due to errors in the data. See the Error Sources section of the data set documentation for details. If you have further...

  14. Calibration of NOAA-7 AVHRR, GOES-5 and GOES-6 VISSR/VAS solar channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, R.; Gautier, C.

    1986-01-01

    The NOAA-7, GOES-5 and GOES-6 Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer/Vertical Atmospheric Sounder (VISSR/VAS) solar channels were calibrated. The White Sands Monument area in New Mexico, whose reflectance properties are well known, and space are used as calibration targets. The shortwave reflected terrestrial irradiance that is measured at satellite altitude is computed using a fairly accurate radiative transfer model which accounts for multiple scattering and bidirectional effects. The ground target reflectance and relevant characteristics of the overlying atmosphere are estimated from climatological data and observation at the nearest meteorological sites. The approach is believed to produce accuracies of 8 to 13% depending on the channel considered.

  15. Remotely sensed rice yield prediction using multi-temporal NDVI data derived from NOAA's-AVHRR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Wang, Xiuzhen; Li, Xinxing; Tian, Hanqin; Pan, Zhuokun

    2013-01-01

    Grain-yield prediction using remotely sensed data have been intensively studied in wheat and maize, but such information is limited in rice, barley, oats and soybeans. The present study proposes a new framework for rice-yield prediction, which eliminates the influence of the technology development, fertilizer application, and management improvement and can be used for the development and implementation of provincial rice-yield predictions. The technique requires the collection of remotely sensed data over an adequate time frame and a corresponding record of the region's crop yields. Longer normalized-difference-vegetation-index (NDVI) time series are preferable to shorter ones for the purposes of rice-yield prediction because the well-contrasted seasons in a longer time series provide the opportunity to build regression models with a wide application range. A regression analysis of the yield versus the year indicated an annual gain in the rice yield of 50 to 128 kg ha(-1). Stepwise regression models for the remotely sensed rice-yield predictions have been developed for five typical rice-growing provinces in China. The prediction models for the remotely sensed rice yield indicated that the influences of the NDVIs on the rice yield were always positive. The association between the predicted and observed rice yields was highly significant without obvious outliers from 1982 to 2004. Independent validation found that the overall relative error is approximately 5.82%, and a majority of the relative errors were less than 5% in 2005 and 2006, depending on the study area. The proposed models can be used in an operational context to predict rice yields at the provincial level in China. The methodologies described in the present paper can be applied to any crop for which a sufficient time series of NDVI data and the corresponding historical yield information are available, as long as the historical yield increases significantly.

  16. Trends in LST over the peninsular Spain as derived from the AVHRR imagery data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorchani, Makki; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Azorin-Molina, Cesar

    2018-01-01

    between LST and NDVI changes. The areas that experienced an increase in the LST were spatially consistent with those areas with no changes or even a dominant decrease in vegetation coverage. In addition, the strong increase of LST is coherent with observations of the recent radiative forcing affecting...

  17. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    OpenAIRE

    J. Kujanpää; N. Kalakoski

    2015-01-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSA...

  18. Analysis of Trends in Vegetation Avhrr-Ndvi Data Across Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current situation in vegetation productivity across Nigeria and indeed in Sokoto State is being affected by climatic change and other unfavourable environmental conditions. Time-series Remotely Sensed data within Geographic Information System (GIS) environment can be utilized to timely monitor the trajectory in ...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR16 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  20. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR17 Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  1. Change detection with remote sensing : relating NOAA-AVHRR to environmental impact of agriculture in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Addink, E.

    2001-01-01

    Agricultural production in the European Union sharply rose during the second half of the 20 thcentury. As a side-effect environmental impact increased as well, and resulted in widespread environmental problems, which policymakers now seek to reduce. Therefore,

  2. Satellite AVHRR Temperature Measurements of Pools 4, 7, and 8 of the Upper Mississippi River System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weinkauf, Ronald

    1997-01-01

    ... heavy cloud cover and fog, metal results were obtained. Satellite mean temperatures were within about 1 Celsius degree of in situ temperature means for nine observation dates for the three pools...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR17 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  4. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration AVHRR16 Local SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High quality Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) maps derived from the NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration)-Polar Orbiting Advanced Very High...

  5. Applications of AVHRR-Derived Ice Motions for the Arctic and Antarctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanik, James; Emery, William

    1998-01-01

    Characterization and diagnosis of sea ice/atmosphere/ocean interactions require a synthesis of observations and modeling to identify the key mechanisms controlling the ice/climate system. In this project, we combined product generation, observational analyses, and modeling to define and interpret variability in ice motion in conjunction with thermodynamic factors such as surface temperature and albedo. The goals of this work were twofold: (1) to develop and test procedures to produce an integrated set of polar products from remotely-sensed and supporting data; and (2) to apply these data to understand processes at work in controlling sea ice distribution.

  6. SST, NOAA POES AVHRR, GAC, 0.1 degrees, Global, Day and Night

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch provides sea surface temperature (SST) products derived from NOAA's Polar Operational Environmental Satellites (POES). This data provides global area...

  7. Using NOAA-AVHRR estimates of land surface temperature for regional agrometeoro[lo]gical modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de A.J.W.; Boogaard, H.L.; Diepen, van C.A.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a case study on the use of features derived from remote sensing data for mapping the highly fragmented semideciduous Atlantic forest in Brazil. Innovative aspects of this research include the evaluation of different feature sets in order to improve land cover mapping. The feature

  8. Improvements in AVHRR Daytime Cloud Detection Over the ARM NSA Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrapani, V.; Spangenberg, D. A.; Doelling, D. R.; Minnis, P.; Trepte, Q. Z.; Arduini, R. F.

    2001-01-01

    Clouds play an important role in the radiation budget over Arctic and Antarctic. Because of limited surface observing capabilities, it is necessary to detect clouds over large areas using satellite imagery. At low and mid-latitudes, satellite-observed visible (VIS; 0.65 micrometers) and infrared (IR; 11 micrometers) radiance data are used to derive cloud fraction, temperature, and optical depth. However, the extreme variability in the VIS surface albedo makes the detection of clouds from satellite a difficult process in polar regions. The IR data often show that the surface is nearly the same temperature or even colder than clouds, further complicating cloud detection. Also, the boundary layer can have large areas of haze, thin fog, or diamond dust that are not seen in standard satellite imagery. Other spectral radiances measured by satellite imagers provide additional information that can be used to more accurately discriminate clouds from snow and ice. Most techniques currently use a fixed reflectance or temperature threshold to decide between clouds and clear snow. Using a subjective approach, Minnis et al. (2001) found that the clear snow radiance signatures vary as a function of viewing and illumination conditions as well as snow condition. To routinely process satellite imagery over polar regions with an automated algorithm, it is necessary to account for this angular variability and the change in the background reflectance as snow melts, vegetation grows over land, and melt ponds form on pack ice. This paper documents the initial satellite-based cloud product over the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) North Slope of Alaska (NSA) site at Barrow for use by the modeling community. Cloud amount and height are determined subjectively using an adaptation of the methodology of Minnis et al. (2001) and the radiation fields arc determined following the methods of Doelling et al. (2001) as applied to data taken during the Surface Heat and Energy Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA). The procedures and data produced in this empirically based analysis will also facilitate the development of the automated algorithm for future processing of satellite data over the ARM NSA domain. Results are presented for May, June, and July 1998. ARM surface data are use to partially validate the results taken directly over the ARM site.

  9. Moss and lichen cover mapping at local and regional scales in the boreal forest ecosystem of central Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapalee, G.; Steyaert, L.T.; Hall, F.G.

    2001-01-01

    Mosses and lichens are important components of boreal landscapes [Vitt et al., 1994; Bubier et al., 1997]. They affect plant productivity and belowground carbon sequestration and alter the surface runoff and energy balance. We report the use of multiresolution satellite data to map moss and lichens over the BOREAS region at a 10 m, 30 m, and 1 km scales. Our moss and lichen classification at the 10 m scale is based on ground observations of associations among soil drainage classes, overstory composition, and cover type among four broad classes of ground cover (feather, sphagnum, and brown mosses and lichens). For our 30 m map, we used field observations of ground cover-overstory associations to map mosses and lichens in the BOREAS southern study area (SSA). To scale up to a 1 km (AVHRR) moss map of the BOREAS region, we used the TM SSA mosaics plus regional field data to identify AVHRR overstory-ground cover associations. We found that: 1) ground cover, overstory composition and density are highly correlated, permitting inference of moss and lichen cover from satellite-based land cover classifications; 2) our 1 km moss map reveals that mosses dominate the boreal landscape of central Canada, thereby a significant factor for water, energy, and carbon modeling; 3) TM and AVHRR moss cover maps are comparable; 4) satellite data resolution is important; particularly in detecting the smaller wetland features, lakes, and upland jack pine sites; and 5) distinct regional patterns of moss and lichen cover correspond to latitudinal and elevational gradients. Copyright 2001 by the American Geophysical Union.

  10. Future Climate Impact on the Desertification in the Dry Land Asia Using AVHRR GIMMS NDVI3g Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Miao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry Land Asia is the largest arid and semi-arid region in the northern hemisphere that suffers from land desertification. Over the period 1982–2011, there were both overall improvement and regional degeneration in the vegetation NDVI. We analyze future climate changes in these area using two ensemble-average methods from CMIP5 data. Bayesian Model Averaging shows a better capability to represent the future climate and less uncertainty represented by the 22-model ensemble than does the Simple Model Average. From 2006 to 2100, the average growing season temperature value will increase by 2.9 °C, from 14.4 °C to 17.3 °C under three climate scenarios (RCP 26, RCP 45 and RCP 85. We then conduct multiple regression analysis between climate changes compiled from the Climate Research Unit database and vegetation greenness from the GIMMS NDVI3g dataset. There is a general acceleration in the desertification trend under the RCP 85 scenario in middle and northern part of Middle Asia, northwestern China except Xinjiang and the Mongolian Plateau (except the middle part. The RCP 85 scenario shows a more severe desertification trend than does RCP 26. Desertification in dry land Asia, particularly in the regions highlighted in this study, calls for further investigation into climate change impacts and adaptations.

  11. Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data evaluation for use in monitoring vegetation. Volume 1: Channels 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, N. C.; Gray, T. I.; Mccrary, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration satellite system (NOAA-6 satellite) were analyzed to study their nonmeteorological uses. A file of charts, graphs, and tables was created form the products generated. It was found that the most useful data lie between pixel numbers 400 and 2000 on a given scan line. The analysis of the generated products indicates that the Gray-McCrary Index can discern vegetation and associated daily and seasonal changes. The solar zenith-angle correction used in previous studies was found to be a useful adjustment to the index. The METSAT system seems best suited for providing large-area analyses of surface features on a daily basis.

  12. Using AVIRIS for in-flight calibration of the spectral shifts of SPOT-HRV and of AVHRR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willart-Soufflet, Veronique; Santer, Richard

    1993-01-01

    The response of a satellite sensor varies during its lifetime; internal calibration devices can be used to follow the sensor degradation or in-flight calibrations are conducted from estimates of the radiance at satellite level for well predictable situations. Changes in gain are evaluated assuming that the spectral response of the sensor is stable with time; i.e., that the filter response as well as the optics or the electronics are not modified since the prelaunch determinations. Nevertheless, there is some evidence that the SPOT interferometer filters are affected by outgassing effects during the launch. Tests in vacuum chambers indicated a narrowing of the filters with a shift of the upper side towards the blue of about 10 nm which is more over consistant with the loss of gain observed during the launch. Also, during the lifetime of SPOT, the relationship between the loss of sensitivity and the filter bandwidth may correspond to this effect. On the other hand, the inconsistancy of the NOAA7 calibration between two methods (desert and ocean) having a different spectral sensitivity may indicate a spectral problem with a shift of the central wavelength of -20 nm. The basic idea here is to take advantage of the good spectral definition of AVIRIS to monitor these potential spectral degradations with an experimental opportunity provided by a field campaign held in La Crau (S.E. of France) in June 1991 which associated ground-based measurements and AVIRIS, SPOT2, NOAA-11 overpasses over both the calibration site of La Crau and an agricultural area.

  13. Analysis of teleconnections between AVHRR-based sea surface temperature and vegetation productivity in the semi-arid Sahel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber Gharib, Silvia; Fensholt, Rasmus

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation Index (NDVI) in the Sahel, however with different magnitudes in terms of strength for the western, central and eastern Sahel. Also the correlations based on NDVI and global SST anomalies revealed the same East–West gradient, with a stronger association for the western than the eastern Sahel......, we achieved high correlations for SSTs of oceanic basins which are geographically associated to the climate indices yet by far not always these patterns were coherent. The detected SST–NDVI patterns could provide the basis to develop new means for improved forecasts in particular of the western...

  14. On the suitability of global algorithms for the retrieval of SST from the north Indian Ocean using NOAA/AVHRR

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.

    using satellite-sea-truth matchups for NOAA-9 and NOAA-11. The trends associated with the SST retrievals with respect to various independent parameters and simple statistics are analysed to assess the performance of the algorithms. The MCSST and NLSST...

  15. Linear and non-linear enhancement for sun glint reduction in advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roslan, N; Reba, M N M; Askari, M; Halim, M K A

    2014-01-01

    Cloud detection over water surfaces is difficult due to the sun glint effect. The mixed pixels between both features may introduce inaccurate cloud classification. This problem generally occurs because of less contrast between the glint and the cloud. Both features have almost the same reflectance in the visible wavelength. The piecewise contrast stretch technique shows preservation capability on the reflectance of the cloud. The result of a band ratio was smoothed by applying the Sobel edge detection to provide better cloud feature detection. The study achieved an accuracy of about 77.5% in cloud pixels detection

  16. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of Reflectance from AVHRR Pathfinder Atmospheres - Extended (PATMOS-x), Version 5.2 (Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Please note: this dataset has been superseded by a newer version (see below). This version is archived offline by NOAA NCEI. Users should not obtain this version...

  17. A Change Oriented Extension of EOF Analysis Applied to the 1996-1997 AVHRR Sea Surface Temperature Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Conradsen, Knut; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2002-01-01

    correlation analysis, and maximum autocorrelation factors (MAFs). The method described can be considered as an extension to EOF analysis that is specially tailored for change detection in spatial data since it first maximises differences in the data between two points in time and then maximises...... autocorrelation between neighbouring observations. The results show that the large scale ocean events associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) related changes are concentrated in the first SST MAF/MAD mode and the two first SSH MAF/MAD modes. The MAD/MAF analysis also revealed a spatially...... correlated structure in the Western Mediterranean Sea that turned out to be related to a strong semi-annual variation in the SST for 1997 which was difficult to resolve from a traditional principal component analysis....

  18. Comparison of sensible heat flux estimates using AVHRR with scintillometer measurements over semi-arid grassland in northwest Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Watts, C.J.; Chehbouni, A.; Rodriguez, J.C.; Kerr, Y.H.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Bruin, de H.A.R.

    2000-01-01

    The problems associated with the validation of satellite-derived estimates of the surface fluxes are discussed and the possibility of using the large aperture scintillometer is investigated. Simple models are described to derive surface temperature and sensible heat flux from the advanced very high

  19. A brief comparison of radiometers at NSIDC and their potential to generate long ESDRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moth, P.; Johnston, T.; Haran, T. M.; Fowler, D. K.

    2017-12-01

    Radiometers have played a big part in Earth observing science. In this poster we compare three such instruments: the Advanced Very-High-resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The NASA National Snow and Ice Distributed Active Archive Center (NSIDC DAAC) has archived cryospheric data from all three of these instruments. AVHRR was a 4-channel radiometer that was first launched in 1978 aboard the TIROS-N satellite. Subsequent missions launched improved versions of AVHRR with five and six channels, observing Earth in frequencies ranging from 0.58 μm to 12.5 μm with a resolution at nadir of 1.09 km. MODIS instruments fly onboard NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) Terra and Aqua satellites. Launched in 1999 and 2002, respectively, they still produce much sought after data observed in 36 spectral bands ranging from 0.4 μm to 14.4 μm. Two bands image Earth at a nominal resolution of 250 m at nadir, five at 500 m, and the remaining 29 bands at 1 km. A ±55-degree scanning pattern at the sun-synchronous orbit of 705 km achieves a 2,330 km swath and provides global coverage every one to two days VIIRS, NOAA's latest radiometer, was launched aboard the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership satellite on October 28, 2011. Working collaboratively, NASA and NOAA are producing data that is archived and distributed via NASA DAACs. The VIIRS radiometer comprises 22 bands; five for high-resolution imagery, 16 at moderate resolution, and one panchromatic day/night band. VIIRS is a whiskbroom scanning radiometer that covers the spectrum between 0.412 μm and 12.01 μm and acquires spatial resolutions at nadir of 750 m, 375 m, and 750 m, respectively. Although these instruments are configured with different spectral bands, each was designed with an eye to the future. MODIS can be thought of as a successor to the AVHRR mission, adding capabilities that yielded better data

  20. Earth Observing System precursor data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Grant R.; Eidenshink, Jeff C.; Sheffield, K. W.; Myers, Jeffrey S.

    1993-08-01

    The Land Processes Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC) is archiving and processing precursor data from airborne and spaceborne instruments such as the thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS), the NS-001 and thematic mapper simulators (TMS), and the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). The instrument data are being used to construct data sets that simulate the spectral and spatial characteristics of the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) and the moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (MODIS) flight instruments scheduled to be flown on the EOS-AM spacecraft. Ames Research Center has developed and is flying a MODIS airborne simulator (MAS), which provides coverage in both MODIS and ASTER bands. A simulation of an ASTER data set over Death Valley, California has been constructed using a combination of TMS and TIMS data, along with existing digital elevation models that were used to develop the topographic information. MODIS data sets are being simulated by using MAS for full-band site coverage at high resolution and AVHRR for global coverage at 1 km resolution.

  1. Earth and Space Science Electronic Theater: State-of-the-Art Visualization from the Latest Remote Sensing Observations. High Definition Television on the SMM IMAX Screen with Ultra High Performance Projector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Starr, David (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Fritz Hasler (NASA/Goddard) will demonstrate the latest Blue Marble Digital Earth technology. We will fly in from space through Terra, Landsat 7, to 1 m Ikonos "Spy Satellite" data to Washington, NYC, Chicago, and LA. You will see animations using the new 1 km global datasets from the EOS Terra satellite. Spectacular new animations from Terra, Landsat 7, and SeaWiFS will be presented. See the latest animations of the super hurricanes like, Floyd, Luis, and Mitch, from GOES & TRMM. See movies assembled using new low cost HDTV nonlinear editing equipment that is revolutionizing the way we communicate scientific results. See climate change in action with Global Land & Ocean productivity changes over the last 20 years. Remote sensing observations of ocean SST, height, winds, color, and El Nino from GOES, AVHRR, SSMI & SeaWiFS are put in context with atmospheric and ocean simulations. Compare symmetrical equatorial eddies observed by GOES with the simulations.

  2. VARIABILIDAD DE LA TEMPERATURA DE SUPERFICIES EN EL NW DE LA PROVINCIA DE NEUQUÉN A PARTIR DE INFORMCIÓN SATELITAL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa G. Cogliati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La complejidad del terreno y la falta de datos meteorológicos siguiendo el gradiente altitudinal obliga a la exploración de nuevos métodos o esquemas entre los que se encuentra el análisis por medio de modelos o imágenes satelitales. El presente trabajo pretende describir el marco de información con el que se cuenta en el NW neuquino y la introducción de análisis espacial de distribución de la temperatura de superficie a partir de imágenes NOAA- AVHRR con miras a la inclusión futura de nuevos esquemas de estudio. La temperatura del aire presenta gran variabilidad espacial, principalmente en los valores mínimos, una idea de esta distribución puede asociarse a la temperatura de superficie que es obtenida a partir del análisis de imágenes NOAA-AVHRR. Este trabajo presenta el análisis de situaciones particulares de la temperatura de superficie de la zona NW de la Provincia de Neuquén utilizando imágenes de satélites NOAA en alta resolución (AVHRR e imágenes LANDSAT de la región. La temperatura de superficie obtenida utilizando la información de los canales 4 y 5 del sensor AVHRR presenta la distribución espacial de la temperatura del suelo que pone en evidencia la complejidad del comportamiento, asociado al relieve. Se observa la dependencia de las isotermas con la altura, alcanzando los menores valores de temperatura de superficie en los picos. Esta metodología permitiría incorporar información cuya escala consideraría con mayor detalle que en escala sinóptica de la temperatura de superficie de píxeles de aproximadamente 1 km2. El análisis posterior de una mayor cantidad de situaciones, permitiría realizar mapas estacionales de temperatura de superficie en una escala que no es posible obtener con el instrumental que se encuentra instalado en este momento, pudiendo asociarse posteriormente al comportamiento de la temperatura del aire.

  3. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  4. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  5. Quality Assurance statistics for AVHRR Pathfinder Version 5.2 L3-Collated (L3C) sea surface temperature in global and selected regions (NODC Accession 0111871)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These quality monitoring data for Pathfinder Version 5.2 (PFV5.2) Sea Surface Temperature (SST) are based on the concept of a Rich Inventory developed by the...

  6. ZONAS FRÍAS EN EL VALLE DEL RÍO NEUQUÉN: SU DETECCIÓN MEDIANTE IMÁGENES NOAA-AVHRR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Cogliati

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available El valle inferior del río Neuquén se encuentra incluido en la zona agrícola conocida como Alto Valle del río Negro (AVRN que a pesar de su denominación, incluye además los valles inferiores de los ríos Limay y Neuquén. En esta región se destaca una intensa actividad frutihortícola. Las heladas tardías (que ocurren en los meses de setiembre y octubre constituyen riesgos importantes para dicha actividad llegando incluso a ocasionar grandes pérdidas económicas. Debido a ello, en los valles, se invierten grandes sumas de dinero en la lucha contra las heladas. El Alto Valle del Río Negro es una región con características propias, por los recursos del suelo y subsuelo, por el avance de las ciudades, el numero de habitantes y la tecnificación. La zona cultivada ocupa terrazas fluviales y el abastecimiento de agua se realiza por medio del riego artificial. La superficie regada es de 100000 has. El estudio de las características del clima de la región así como de cada una de las variables climáticas tiene implicancias que poco a poco han sido consideradas por los diferentes agentes del sector productivo. Esto se ve reflejado en la cantidad de estaciones meteorológicas automáticas que han sido adquiridas en la región, tanto por el sector privado como por los organismos públicos relacionados al sector productivo fruti-hortícola (INTA, FUNBAPA; UNC, etc.. Desde hace unos años, se han efectuado distintos esfuerzos aislados desde todas esas instituciones para reunir información y analizar las características propias de la región, sin que se hayan coordinado esfuerzos. Los estudios realizados presentan en su mayoría el estudio de datos de las estaciones meteorológicas convencionales pertenecientes al Servicio Meteorológico Nacional y a la Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias de la Universidad Nacional del Comahue con registros de aproximadamente 30 años, pero no presentan un estudio espacial del tema, sino que definen ciertas características de las estaciones o intentan caracterizar el clima de la región como un todo.

  7. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osunmadewa Babatunde Adeniyi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS and end of season (EOS was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0 and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1 was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0 was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1 was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  8. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness over Global Oceans, Version 1.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 1 of the dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use version 1 except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that...

  9. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness over Global Oceans, Version 2.0 (Version Superseded)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Version 2 of the dataset has been superseded by a newer version. Users should not use version 2 except in rare cases (e.g., when reproducing previous studies that...

  10. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  11. A bi-weekly actual evapotranspiration dataset derived from NOAA-AVHRR images across the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic islands, 1981-2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; Martin-Hernandez, Natalia; Tomas-Burguera, Miquel

    transformed to a bi-weekly temporal resolution and biweekly images were smoothed using a temporal filtering approach to reduce the observed noise. For validation purposes, annual series of ETa were compared with water balances in hydrological basins with different vegetation, water use and management...

  12. Spatio-temporal monitoring of vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid region of Nigeria using time series of AVHRR NDVI and TAMSAT datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osunmadewa, Babatunde Adeniyi; Gebrehiwot, Worku Zewdie; Csaplovics, Elmar; Adeofun, Olabinjo Clement

    2018-03-01

    Time series data are of great importance for monitoring vegetation phenology in the dry sub-humid regions where change in land cover has influence on biomass productivity. However few studies have inquired into examining the impact of rainfall and land cover change on vegetation phenology. This study explores Seasonal Trend Analysis (STA) approach in order to investigate overall greenness, peak of annual greenness and timing of annual greenness in the seasonal NDVI cycle. Phenological pattern for the start of season (SOS) and end of season (EOS) was also examined across different land cover types in four selected locations. A significant increase in overall greenness (amplitude 0) and a significant decrease in other greenness trend maps (amplitude 1 and phase 1) was observed over the study period. Moreover significant positive trends in overall annual rainfall (amplitude 0) was found which follows similar pattern with vegetation trend. Variation in the timing of peak of greenness (phase 1) was seen in the four selected locations, this indicate a change in phenological trend. Additionally, strong relationship was revealed by the result of the pixel-wise regression between NDVI and rainfall. Change in vegetation phenology in the study area is attributed to climatic variability than anthropogenic activities.

  13. GHRSST Level 4 AVHRR_OI Global Blended Sea Surface Temperature Analysis (GDS version 2) from NCEI (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) global Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on a 0.25 degree grid at the NOAA...

  14. GHRSST Level 2P Global Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-16 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals from the...

  15. NOAA Climate Data Record (CDR) of AVHRR Daily and Monthly Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) over Global Oceans, Version 3.0

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The product is the aerosol optical thickness (AOT) at 0.63 micron, which is retrieved from NOAA PATMOS-x level-2B orbital radinace and cloud CDR products. The...

  16. GHRSST Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  17. GHRSST Level 2P Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Level 2P Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the Atlantic Ocean and nearby regions based on multi-channel sea surface...

  19. Improving the Simulation of Sea Ice Lead Conditions and Turbulent Fluxes Using RGPS Products and Merged RADARSAT, AVHRR and MODIS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslanik, James A.

    2004-01-01

    The importance of sea ice leads in the ice-ocean-atmosphere system lies in the fact that each of the boxes in the 'surface processes' interface in this diagram is closely linked to lead conditions. For example, heat, moisture and salt exchange between the Ocean and atmosphere within the ice pack occur nearly entirely through leads. The shear, divergence and convergence associated with lead formation and closure alter surface and basal roughness and topography, which in turn affects momentum transfer in the atmosphere and ocean boundary layers, and modifies the accumulation of snow on the ice surface, which then affects heat conduction and summertime albedo. In addition to providing openings for loss of heat and moisture fluxes to the atmosphere, leads absorb solar energy, which is used to melt ice and is transmitting to the underlying ocean. Given that leads dominate the ice-ocean interface in this manner, then it stands to reason that focusing on lead treatments within models can identify performance limitations of models and yield routes for significant improvements.

  20. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from Metop/AVHRR (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  1. Effects of Atmospheric Water Vapor and Clouds on NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) Satellite Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-07-01

    the effect of inadequate information about world food supplies. The impact of the Soviet grain buys of 1972 are a case in point. The last ten...First came TIROS-I ( Televison and Infrared Observational Satellite) in the early 1960’s. The TIROS Operational Satellite (TOS) or ESSA 5 (Environmental...these items impact on the calculated VIN. Other than water, most objects in a scene transmit very little visible solar radiation. The energy

  2. Cloud Computing Infusion for Generating ESDRs of Visible Spectra Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golpayegani, N.; Halem, M.; Nguyen, P.

    2008-12-01

    The AIRS and AVHRR instruments have been collecting radiances of the Earth in the visible spectrum for over 25 years. These measurements have been used to develop such useful products as NDVI, Snow cover and depth, Outgoing long wave radiation and other products. Yet, no long-term data record of the level 1b visible spectra is available in a grid form to researchers for various climate studies. We present here an Earth System Data Record observed in the visible spectrum as gridded radiance fields of 8kmx10km grid resolution for the six years in the case of AIRS and from 1981 to the present for AVHRR. The AIRS data has four visible channels from 0.41μm to 0.94μm with an IFOV of 1 km and AVHRR has two visible channels in the 0.58μm to 1.00μm range also at 1 km. In order to process such large amounts of data on demand, two components need to be implemented,(i) a processing system capable of gridding TBs of data in a reasonable amount of time and (ii) a download mechanism to access and deliver the data to the processing system. We implemented a cloud computing approach to be able to process such large amounts of data. We use Hadoop, a distributed computation system developed by the Apache Software Foundation. With Hadoop, we are able to store the data in a distributed fashion, taking advantage of Hadoop's distributed file system (dfs). We also take advantage of Hadoop's MapReduce functionality to perform as much computations as is possible on available nodes of the UMBC bluegrit Cell cluster system that contain the data. We make use of the SOAR system developed under the ACCESS program to acquire and process the AIRS and AVHRR observations. Comparisons of the AIRS data witth selected periods of MODIS visible spectral channels on the same sattelite indicate the two instruments have maintained calibration consistency and continuity of their measurements over the six year period. Our download mechanism transfers the data from these instruments into hadoop's dfs. Our

  3. Thermal signatures of urban land cover types: High-resolution thermal infrared remote sensing of urban heat island in Huntsville, AL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chor Pang

    1996-01-01

    The main objective of this research is to apply airborne high-resolution thermal infrared imagery for urban heat island studies, using Huntsville, AL, a medium-sized American city, as the study area. The occurrence of urban heat islands represents human-induced urban/rural contrast, which is caused by deforestation and the replacement of the land surface by non-evaporating and non-porous materials such as asphalt and concrete. The result is reduced evapotranspiration and more rapid runoff of rain water. The urban landscape forms a canopy acting as a transitional zone between the atmosphere and the land surface. The composition and structure of this canopy have a significant impact on the thermal behavior of the urban environment. Research on the trends of surface temperature at rapidly growing urban sites in the United States during the last 30 to 50 years suggests that significant urban heat island effects have caused the temperatures at these sites to rise by 1 to 2 C. Urban heat islands have caused changes in urban precipitation and temperature that are at least similar to, if not greater than, those predicted to develop over the next 100 years by global change models. Satellite remote sensing, particularly NOAA AVHRR thermal data, has been used in the study of urban heat islands. Because of the low spatial resolution (1.1 km at nadir) of the AVHRR data, these studies can only examine and map the phenomenon at the macro-level. The present research provides the rare opportunity to utilize 5-meter thermal infrared data acquired from an airplane to characterize more accurately the thermal responses of different land cover types in the urban landscape as input to urban heat island studies.

  4. 1994 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/ NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the...

  5. 1993 Average Monthly Sea Surface Temperature for California

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NASA AVHRR Oceans Pathfinder sea surface temperature data are derived from the 5-channel Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers (AVHRR) on board the NOAA...

  6. Surface temperature and evapotranspiration: application of local scale methods to regional scales using satellite data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seguin, B.; Courault, D.; Guerif, M.

    1994-01-01

    Remotely sensed surface temperatures have proven useful for monitoring evapotranspiration (ET) rates and crop water use because of their direct relationship with sensible and latent energy exchange processes. Procedures for using the thermal infrared (IR) obtained with hand-held radiometers deployed at ground level are now well established and even routine for many agricultural research and management purposes. The availability of IR from meteorological satellites at scales from 1 km (NOAA-AVHRR) to 5 km (METEOSAT) permits extension of local, ground-based approaches to larger scale crop monitoring programs. Regional observations of surface minus air temperature (i.e., the stress degree day) and remote estimates of daily ET were derived from satellite data over sites in France, the Sahel, and North Africa and summarized here. Results confirm that similar approaches can be applied at local and regional scales despite differences in pixel size and heterogeneity. This article analyzes methods for obtaining these data and outlines the potential utility of satellite data for operational use at the regional scale. (author)

  7. Climate variability and land cover change over the North American monsoon region (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, X.; Scheftic, W. D.; Broxton, P. D.

    2013-12-01

    The North American Monsoon System over Mexico and southwestern United States represents a weather/climate and ecosystem coupled "macrosystem". The weather and climate affect the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem, while the ecosystem change affects surface energy, water, and carbon fluxes that, in turn, affect weather and climate. Furthermore, long-term weather/climate data have a much coarser horizontal resolution than the satellite land cover data. Here the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data at 32 km grid spacing will be combined with various satellite remote sensing products at 1 km and/or 8 km resolution from AVHRR, MODIS, and SPOT for the period of 1982 to present. Our analysis includes: a) precipitation, wind, and precipitable water data from NARR to characterize the North American monsoon; b) land cover type, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), green vegetation fraction, and leaf-area index (LAI) data to characterize the seasonal and interannual variability of ecosystem; c) assessing the consistency of various satellite products; and d) testing the coherence in the weather/climate and ecosystem variability.

  8. Geostationary satellite estimation of biomass burning in Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, W.P.; Cutrim, E.C.; Prins, E.M.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter presents the results of using Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Visible Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) infrared window (3.9 and 11.2 microns) data to monitor biomass burning several times per day in Amazonia. The technique of Matson and Dozier using two window channels was adapted to GOES VAS infrared data to estimate the size and temperature of fires associated with deforestation in the vicinity of Alta Floresta, Brazil, during the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment - Amazonia (BASE-A). Although VAS data do not offer the spatial resolution available with AVHRR data 97 km versus 1 km, respectively, this decreased resolution does not seem to hinder the ability of the VAS instrument to detect fires; in some cases it proves to be advantageous in that saturation does not occur as often. VAS visible data are additionally helpful in verifying that the hot spots sensed in the infrared are actually related to fires. Furthermore, the fire plumes can be tracked in time to determine their motion and extent. In this way, the GOES satellite offers a unique ability to monitor diurnal variations in fire activity and transport of related aerosols

  9. Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolov, Ned; Zeller, Karl

    2006-01-01

    Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale

  10. Efficient retrieval of vegetation leaf area index and canopy clumping factor from satellite data to support pollutant deposition assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolov, Ned [Natural Resource Research Center, 2150 Centre Avenue, Building A, Room 368, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: nnikolov@fs.fed.us; Zeller, Karl [USDA FS Rocky Mountain Research Station, 240 W. Prospect Road, Fort Collins, CO 80526 (United States)]. E-mail: kzeller@fs.fed.us

    2006-06-15

    Canopy leaf area index (LAI) is an important structural parameter of the vegetation controlling pollutant uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. This paper presents a computationally efficient algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy clumping factor from satellite data using observed Simple Ratios (SR) of near-infrared to red reflectance. The method employs numerical inversion of a physics-based analytical canopy radiative transfer model that simulates the bi-directional reflectance distribution function (BRDF). The algorithm is independent of ecosystem type. The method is applied to 1-km resolution AVHRR satellite images to retrieve a geo-referenced data set of monthly LAI values for the conterminous USA. Satellite-based LAI estimates are compared against independent ground LAI measurements over a range of ecosystem types. Verification results suggest that the new algorithm represents a viable approach to LAI retrieval at continental scale, and can facilitate spatially explicit studies of regional pollutant deposition and trace gas exchange. - The paper presents a physics-based algorithm for retrieval of vegetation LAI and canopy-clumping factor from satellite data to assist research of pollutant deposition and trace-gas exchange. The method is employed to derive a monthly LAI dataset for the conterminous USA and verified at a continental scale.

  11. 4 km NODC/RSMAS AVHRR Pathfinder v5.0 and Interim v5.0 Sea Surface Temperature (SST) Data and v5.1 SST Data for 1981-2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 4 km Pathfinder effort at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and the University of Miami's...

  12. Utilização de series temporais de imagens AVHRR/NOAA no apoio a estimativa operacional da produção da cana-de-açucar no Estado de São Paulo

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Rodrigues Nascimento

    2010-01-01

    Resumo: O Brasil é líder mundial na fabricação, exportação de açúcar e na produção de álcool. O estado de São Paulo responde por 60% da produção de açúcar e 61% de todo o álcool produzido no país. Em função da alta relevância da produção, é importante que se tenham estimativas e levantamentos seguros das áreas cultivadas com a cultura. O avanço das diferentes técnicas de sensoriamento remoto tem permitido utilizar imagens de satélites para monitorar e auxiliar a estimativa dessas áreas. São i...

  13. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  14. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-B satellite produced by NAVO (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  15. GHRSST Level 2P Regional 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A regional Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  16. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-18 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  17. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  18. GHRSST Level 2P North Atlantic Regional Bulk Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-17 satellite produced by NEODAAS (GDS version 1)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Level 2P swath-based Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic area from the Advanced Very High Resolution...

  19. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the MetOp-A satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  20. GHRSST Level 2P Global 1m Sea Surface Temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-19 satellite produced by NAVO (GDS versions 1 and 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated in...

  1. GHRSST Level 3C North Atlantic Regional (NAR) subskin Sea Surface Temperature from SNPP/VIIRS and Metop-A/AVHRR (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) dataset for the North Atlantic Region (NAR) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  2. Utilization of satellite remote sensing data on land surface characteristics in water and heat balance component modeling for vegetation covered territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Uspensky, Alexander; Startseva, Zoya; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2010-05-01

    range 2.0-2.6, 2.5-3.7, and 3.5-4.9°C respectively. The dataset of remote sensing products has been compiled on the base of special technology using Internet resources, that includes MODIS-based estimates of land surface temperature (LST) Tsg, E, NDVI, LAI for the region of interest and the same vegetation seasons. Two types of MODIS-based Тsg and E estimates have been extracted from LP DAAC web-site (for separate dates of 2003-2009 time period): LST/E Daily L3 product (MOD11В1) with spatial resolution ~ 4.8 km and LST/E 5-Min L2 product (MOD11_L2) with spatial resolution ~ 1 km. The verification of Tsg estimates has been performed via comparison with analogous and collocated AVHRR-based ones. Along with this the sample of SEVIRI-based Tsg and E estimates has been accumulated for the Kursk area and surrounding territories for the time interval of several days during 2009 vegetation season. To retrieve Тsg and Е from SEVIRI/Meteosat-8, -9 data the new method has been developed. Being designed as the combination of well-known Split Window Technique and Two Temperature Method algorithms it provides the derivation of Тsg from SEVIRI/Meteosat-9 measurements carried out at three successive times (classified as 100% cloud-free) and covering the region under consideration without accurate a priory knowledge of E. Comparison of the SEVIRI-based Tsg retrievals with the independent collocated Tsg estimates gives the values of RMS deviation in the range of 0.9-1.4°C and it proves (indirectly) the efficiency of proposed approach. To assimilate satellite-derived estimates of vegetation characteristics and LST in the SVAT model some procedures have been developed. These procedures have included: 1) the replacement of LAI and B ground and point-wise estimates by their AVHRR- or MODIS-based analogues. The efficiency of such approach has been proved through comparison between satellite-derived and ground-based seasonal time behaviors of LAI and B, between satellite

  3. Application of SVM on satellite images to detect hotspots in Jharia coal field region of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gautam, R.S.; Singh, D.; Mittal, A.; Sajin, P. [Indian Institute for Technology, Roorkee (India)

    2008-07-01

    The present paper deals with the application of Support Vector Machine (SVM) and image analysis techniques on NOAA/AVHRR satellite image to detect hotspots on the Jharia coal field region of India. One of the major advantages of using these satellite data is that the data are free with very good temporal resolution; while, one drawback is that these have low spatial resolution (i.e., approximately 1.1 km at nadir). Therefore, it is important to do research by applying some efficient optimization techniques along with the image analysis techniques to rectify these drawbacks and use satellite images for efficient hotspot detection and monitoring. For this purpose, SVM and multi-threshold techniques are explored for hotspot detection. The multi-threshold algorithm is developed to remove the cloud coverage from the land coverage. This algorithm also highlights the hotspots or fire spots in the suspected regions. SVM has the advantage over multi-thresholding technique that it can learn patterns from the examples and therefore is used to optimize the performance by removing the false points which are highlighted in the threshold technique. Both approaches can be used separately or in combination depending on the size of the image. The RBF (Radial Basis Function) kernel is used in training of three sets of inputs: brightness temperature of channel 3, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI), respectively. This makes a classified image in the output that highlights the hotspot and non-hotspot pixels. The performance of the SVM is also compared with the performance obtained from the neural networks and SVM appears to detect hotspots more accurately (greater than 91% classification accuracy) with lesser false alarm rate. The results obtained are found to be in good agreement with the ground based observations of the hotspots.

  4. The Blue Marble

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This spectacular Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) 'blue marble' image is based on the most detailed collection of true-color imagery of the entire Earth to date. Using a collection of satellite-based observations, scientists and visualizers stitched together months of observations of the land surface, oceans, sea ice, and clouds into a seamless, true-color mosaic of every square kilometer (.386 square mile) of our planet. Most of the information contained in this image came from MODIS, illustrating MODIS' outstanding capacity to act as an integrated tool for observing a variety of terrestrial, oceanic, and atmospheric features of the Earth. The land and coastal ocean portions of this image is based on surface observations collected from June through September 2001 and combined, or composited, every eight days to compensate for clouds that might block the satellite's view on any single day. Global ocean color (or chlorophyll) data was used to simulate the ocean surface. MODIS doesn't measure 3-D features of the Earth, so the surface observations were draped over topographic data provided by the U.S. Geological Survey EROS Data Center. MODIS observations of polar sea ice were combined with observations of Antarctica made by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's AVHRR sensor-the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The cloud image is a composite of two days of MODIS imagery collected in visible light wavelengths and a third day of thermal infra-red imagery over the poles. A large collection of imagery based on the blue marble in a variety of sizes and formats, including animations and the full (1 km) resolution imagery, is available at the Blue Marble page. Image by Reto Stockli, Render by Robert Simmon. Based on data from the MODIS Science Team

  5. Net primary productivity distribution in the BOREAS region from a process model using satellite and surface data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Chen, J. M.; Cihlar, J.; Chen, W.

    1999-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to upscale tower measurements of net primary productivity (NPP) to the Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) study region by means of remote sensing and modeling. The Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS) with a new daily canopy photosynthesis model was first tested in one coniferous and one deciduous site. The simultaneous CO2 flux measurements above and below the tree canopy made it possible to isolate daily net primary productivity of the tree canopy for model validation. Soil water holding capacity and gridded daily meteorological data for the region were used as inputs to BEPS, in addition to 1 km resolution land cover and leaf area index (LAI) maps derived from the advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data. NPP statistics for the various cover types in the BOREAS region and in the southern study area (SSA) and the northern study area (NSA) are presented. Strong dependence of NPP on LAI was found for the three major cover types: coniferous forest, deciduous forest and cropland. Since BEPS can compute total photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by the canopy in each pixel, light use efficiencies for NPP and gross primary productivity could also be analyzed. From the model results, the following area-averaged statistics were obtained for 1994: (1) mean NPP for the BOREAS region of 217 g C m-2 yr-1; (2) mean NPP of forests (excluding burnt areas in the region) equal to 234 g C m-2 yr-1; (3) mean NPP for the SSA and the NSA of 297 and 238 g C m-2 yr-1, respectively; and (4) mean light use efficiency for NPP equal to 0.40, 0.20, and 0.33 g C (MJ APAR)-1 for deciduous forest, coniferous forest, and crops, respectively.

  6. Global analysis of the persistence of the spectral signal associated with burned areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic global burned area maps at coarse spatial resolution (350 m - 1 km) have been produced in the past two decades from several Earth Observation (EO) systems (including MODIS, Spot-VGT, AVHRR, MERIS), and have been extensively used in a variety of applications related to emissions estimation, fire ecology, and vegetation monitoring (Mouillot et al. 2014). There is however a strong need for moderate to high resolution (10-30 m) global burned area maps, in order to improve emission estimations, in particular on heterogeneous landscapes and for local scale air quality applications, for fire management and environmental restoration, and in support of carbon accounting (Hyer and Reid 2009; Mouillot et al. 2014; Randerson et al. 2012). Fires causes a non-permanent land cover change: the ash and charcoal left by the fire can be visible for a period ranging from a few weeks in savannas and grasslands ecosystems, to over a year in forest ecosystems (Roy et al. 2010). This poses a major challenge for designing a global burned area mapping system from moderate resolution (10-30 m) EO data, due to the low revisit time frequency of the satellites (Boschetti et al. 2015). As a consequence, a quantitative assessment of the permanence of the spectral signature of burned areas at global scale is a necessary step to assess the feasibility of global burned area mapping with moderate resolution sensors. This study presents a global analysis of the post-fire reflectance of burned areas, using the MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area product to identify the location and timing of burning, and the MO(Y)D09 global surface reflectance product to retrieve the time series of reflectance values after the fire. The result is a spatially explicit map of persistence of burned area signal, which is then summarized by landcover type, and by fire zone using the subcontinental regions defined by Giglio et al. (2006).

  7. Data records of biophysical products in the Copernicus Global Land Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bydekerke, L.; Smets, B.; Swinnen, E.; Lacaze, R. N.; Calvet, J. C.; Baret, F.; camacho De Coca, F.; Roujean, J. L.; Tansey, K.; Coelho, S.; Jann, A.; Paulik, C.; Verger, A.

    2014-12-01

    From 1stJanuary 2013, the Copernicus Global Land service provides continuously a set of bio-geophysical variables describing, over the whole globe, the vegetation dynamic, the energy budget at the continental surface and some components of the water cycle. These generic products serve numerous applications such as agriculture and food security monitoring, weather forecast, climate change impact studies, water, forest and natural resources management. The portfolio contains Essential Climate Variables like Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), surface albedo, Land Surface Temperature, soil moisture, burnt areas, areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices. They are generated daily on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. Beside this timely production, the available historical archives, up to 16 years for SPOT-VEGETATION, have been processed using the same innovative algorithms. For a number of ECVs, the algorithms are adapted to work with NOAA-AVHRR as input to extend the time series up to 1982. The service continuity is provided in two parallel paths. On one hand, the existing retrieval methodologies are adapted to use the new PROBA-V sensor, fully consistent with SPOT-VEGETATION, and as such extends the time-series at 1km spatial resolution. On the other hand, the operation is moving to the finer resolution of PROBA-V (300m), while maintaining consistency with the 1km series. The data records are documented in terms of the physical methodologies, the technical properties, and the results of validation exercises. The service performs a continuous quality monitoring on three levels: technical, scientific and cross-cutting, following where possible the rules of CEOS/LPV and comparing with both in-situ and other datasets, e.g. MODIS. The service is improved through feedback from an independent expert team performing regular independent reviews and providing user feedback. All

  8. On the characterization of vegetation recovery after fire disturbance using Fisher-Shannon analysis and SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, Rosa; Lanorte, Antonio; Lovallo, Michele; Telesca, Luciano

    2015-04-01

    Time series can fruitfully support fire monitoring and management from statistical analysis of fire occurrence (Tuia et al. 2008) to danger estimation (lasaponara 2005), damage evaluation (Lanorte et al 2014) and post fire recovery (Lanorte et al. 2014). In this paper, the time dynamics of SPOT-VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series are analyzed by using the statistical approach of the Fisher-Shannon (FS) information plane to assess and monitor vegetation recovery after fire disturbance. Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis allows us to gain insight into the complex structure of a time series to quantify its degree of organization and order. The analysis was carried out using 10-day Maximum Value Composites of NDVI (MVC-NDVI) with a 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution. The investigation was performed on two test sites located in Galizia (North Spain) and Peloponnese (South Greece), selected for the vast fires which occurred during the summer of 2006 and 2007 and for their different vegetation covers made up mainly of low shrubland in Galizia test site and evergreen forest in Peloponnese. Time series of MVC-NDVI have been analyzed before and after the occurrence of the fire events. Results obtained for both the investigated areas clearly pointed out that the dynamics of the pixel time series before the occurrence of the fire is characterized by a larger degree of disorder and uncertainty; while the pixel time series after the occurrence of the fire are featured by a higher degree of organization and order. In particular, regarding the Peloponneso fire, such discrimination is more evident than in the Galizia fire. This suggests a clear possibility to discriminate the different post-fire behaviors and dynamics exhibited by the different vegetation covers. Reference Lanorte A, R Lasaponara, M Lovallo, L Telesca 2014 Fisher-Shannon information plane analysis of SPOT/VEGETATION Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series to

  9. Use of remote sensing data in distributed hydrological models: applications in the Senegal River basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Andersen, Jens Asger; Gybkjær, Gorm

    1999-01-01

    Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she......Earth observation, remote sensing, hydrology, distributed hydrological modelling, West Africa, Senegal river basin, land cover, soil moisture, NOAA AVHRR, SPOT, Mike-she...

  10. The use of satellite data for monitoring temporal and spatial patterns of fire: a comprehensive review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasaponara, R.

    2009-04-01

    data analysis for small active fire detection.n International Journal of Remote Sensing, vol. 24, No 8, 1723-1749. Minchella A., F. Del Frate, F. Capogna, S. Anselmi, F. Manes Use of multitemporal SAR data for monitoring vegetation recovery of Mediterranean burned areas Remote Sensing of Environment, In Press Næsset E., T. Gobakken Estimation of above- and below-ground biomass across regions of the boreal forest zone using airborne laser Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 6, 16 June 2008, Pages 3079-3090 Peterson S. H, Dar A. Roberts, Philip E. Dennison Mapping live fuel moisture with MODIS data: A multiple regression approach, Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 12, 15 December 2008, Pages 4272-4284. Schroeder Wilfrid, Elaine Prins, Louis Giglio, Ivan Csiszar, Christopher Schmidt, Jeffrey Morisette, Douglas Morton Validation of GOES and MODIS active fire detection products using ASTER and ETM+ data Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 5, 15 May 2008, Pages 2711-2726 Shi J., T. Jackson, J. Tao, J. Du, R. Bindlish, L. Lu, K.S. Chen Microwave vegetation indices for short vegetation covers from satellite passive microwave sensor AMSR-E Remote Sensing of Environment, Volume 112, Issue 12, 15 December 2008, Pages 4285-4300 Tansey, K., Grégoire, J-M., Defourny, P., Leigh, R., Pekel, J-F., van Bogaert, E. and Bartholomé, E., 2008 A New, Global, Multi-Annual (2000-2007) Burnt Area Product at 1 km Resolution and Daily Intervals Geophysical Research Letters, VOL. 35, L01401, doi:10.1029/2007GL031567, 2008. Telesca L. and Lasaponara R., 2006; "Pre-and Post- fire Behaviural trends revealed in satellite NDVI time series" Geophysical Research Letters,., 33, L14401, doi:10.1029/2006GL026630 Telesca L. and Lasaponara R 2005 Discriminating Dynamical Patterns in Burned and Unburned Vegetational Covers by Using SPOT-VGT NDVI Data. Geophysical Research Letters,, 32, L21401, doi:10.1029/2005GL024391. Telesca L. and Lasaponara R. Investigating fire

  11. Land ECVs from QA4ECV using an optimal estimation framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Jan-Peter; Kharbouche, Said; Lewis, Philip; Danne, Olaf; Blessing, Simon; Giering, Ralf; Gobron, Nadine; Lanconelli, Christian; Govaerts, Yves; Schulz, Joerg; Doutriaux-Boucher, Marie; Lattanzio, Alessio; Aoun, Youva

    2017-04-01

    In the ESA-DUE GlobAlbedo project (http://www.GlobAlbedo.org), a 15 year record of land surface albedo was generated from the European VEGETATION & MERIS sensors using optimal estimation. This was based on 3 broadbands (0.4-0.7, 0.7-3, 0.4-3µm) and fused data at level-2 after converting from spectral narrowband to these 3 broadbands with surface BRFs. A 10 year long record of land surface albedo climatology was generated from Collection 5 of the MODIS BRDF product for these same broadbands. This was employed as an a priori estimate for an optimal estimation based retrieval of land surface albedo when there were insufficient samples from the European sensors. This so-called MODIS prior was derived at 1km from the 500m MOD43A1,2 BRDF inputs every 8 days using the QA bits and the method described in the GlobAlbedo ATBD which is available from the website (http://www.globalbedo.org/docs/GlobAlbedo_Albedo_ATBD_V4.12.pdf). In the ESA-STSE WACMOS-ET project, FastOpt generated fapar & LAI based on this GlobAlbedo BRDF with associated per pixel uncertainty using the TIP framework. In the successor EU-FP7-QA4ECV* project, we have developed a 33 year record (1981-2014) of Earth surface spectral and broadband albedo (i.e. including the ocean and sea-ice) using optimal estimation for the land and where available, relevant sensors for "instantaneous" retrievals over the poles (Kharbouche & Muller, this conference). This requires the longest possible land surface spectral and broadband BRDF record that can only be supplied by a 16 year of MODIS Collection 6 BRDFs at 500m but produced on a daily basis. The CEMS Big Data computer at RAL was used to generate 7 spectral bands and 3 broadband BRDF with and without snow and snow_only. We will discuss the progress made since the start of the QA4ECV project on the production of a new fused land surface BRDF/albedo spectral and broadband CDR product based on four European sensors: MERIS, (A)ATSR(2), VEGETATION, PROBA-V and two US sensors

  12. Pathfinder Climate Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA/NASA Pathfinder climate data CD-ROM contains seven data sets: Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR)Land and Ocean, TIROS Operational Vertical...

  13. A Remote Sensing Survey of Deepwater Port Group on Yangtze River Delta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lou, Dong; Zhiu, Bingjian; Zhu, Yingbo

    2005-01-01

    ...+, SPOT, ESR- 2SAR and NOAA-AVHRR remote sensing data as well as other general data. TM/ETM+ and SPOT remote sensing images were used to obtain the information about port conditions, shoreline types and storage fields...

  14. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Day and Night, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  15. Daily SST fields produced by blending infrared and microwave radiometer estimates

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sreejith, O.P.; Shenoi, S.S.C.

    Measurement of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) using satellite based sensors have matured during the last decade. The infrared measurements, using the AVHRR sensor, flown onboard the NOAA satellites, have been used for the generation of high...

  16. Coral Reef Watch, Degree Heating Weeks, 50 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Coral Reef Watch distributes Degree Heating Week products using a combination of the POES AVHRR Global Area Coverage data, and data from a climatological...

  17. Sound Propagation from the Continental Slope to the Continental Shelf: Remote Sensing Component

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kelly, Kathryn

    2000-01-01

    ... along the East Coast of North America. The AVHRR images were used to show the location and orientation of the shelf I/slope front and the altimeter was used to study the fluctuations of the geostrophic currents...

  18. ABSORPTION, SCATTERING, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS and Other Data from NOAA-12 SATELLITE From World-Wide Distribution from 19960101 to 19961231 (NCEI Accession 9600023)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The accession contains Products developed from data collected from NOAA-11 AVHRR satellite in East Coast US/Canada as part of Coastal Ocean Program / Coastwatch. The...

  19. CoastWatch Regions in HDF Format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The mapped data derived from AVHRR is divided into files for CoastWatch regions of interest. Each file contains multiple data variables stored using the HDF-4...

  20. ABSORPTION, SCATTERING, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS and Other Data from NOAA-11 SATELLITE and Other Platforms from 19950101 to 19951231 (NCEI Accession 9500020)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Sea surface topography, absorption, scattering, attenuation coefficients and other data in this accession was collected from NOAA-11 AVHRR satellite in East...

  1. ABSORPTION, SCATTERING, ATTENUATION COEFFICIENTS and Other Data From TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) from 19920101 to 19931221 (NODC Accession 9600080)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Satellite Sea Surface Temperature and other data in this accession was collected from NOAA AVHRR satellite in TOGA Area - Pacific (30 N to 30 S) as part of...

  2. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration NAR16 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EUMETSAT OSI-SAF NAR SST products are SST fields derived from NOAA/AVHRR data and available over 6 pre-defined zones, 4 times per day. After acquisition and...

  3. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration NAR18 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EUMETSAT OSI-SAF NAR SST products are SST fields derived from NOAA/AVHRR data and available over 6 pre-defined zones, 4 times per day. After acquisition and...

  4. GHRSST Level 2P European Medspiration NAR17 SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The EUMETSAT OSI-SAF NAR SST products are SST fields derived from NOAA/AVHRR data and available over 6 pre-defined zones, 4 times per day. After acquisition and...

  5. Satellite observations of the northeast monsoon coastal current

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shenoi, S.S.C.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shetye, S.R.; Rao, L.V.G.

    Satellite Infrared observations, from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), during November 1987-February 1988 and hydrographic data from the eastern Arabian Sea are used to describe the poleward flowing coastal current in the eastern...

  6. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Day, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  7. SST, Pathfinder Ver 5.0, Night, 4.4 km, Global, Science Quality

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — AVHRR Pathfinder Oceans Project seeks to create a long-term, continuous sea surface temperature data series for use in climate research. The Pathfinder SST data...

  8. GHRSST Level 4 Denmark DMI Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L4 analysis is based upon nighttime GHRSST L2P subskin SST observations from several satellites and instruments such as: AMSRE, ATS_NR_2P, AVHRR18_G,...

  9. GHRSST Level 4 Denmark DMI North Sea Baltic SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The L4 analysis is based upon nighttime GHRSST L2P subskin SST observations from several satellites and instruments such as: AMSRE, ATS_NR_2P, AVHRR18_G,...

  10. GHRSST Level 4 UKMO Global OSTIA SST (GDS2):1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A GHRSST Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office using optimal interpolation from AVHRR, AATSR, SEVIRI,...

  11. GHRSST_UKMO_GLOB_L4_OSTIA_SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A GHRSST Level 4 sea surface temperature analysis produced daily on an operational basis at the UK Met Office using optimal interpolation from AVHRR, AATSR, SEVIRI,...

  12. Inland Water Temperature: An Ideal Indicator for the National Climate Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.; Healey, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA is a significant contributor to the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), which is a central component of the 2012-2022 U.S. Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan. The NCA has identified the need for indicators that provide a clear, concise way of communicating to NCA audiences about not only the status and trends of physical drivers of the climate system, but also the ecological and socioeconomic impacts, vulnerabilities, and responses to those drivers. We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America for potential use as an indicator for the NCA. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 100 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes

  13. Biomass burning emissions of reactive gases estimated from satellite data analysis and ecosystem modeling for the Brazilian Amazon region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Christopher; Brooks-Genovese, Vanessa; Klooster, Steven; Torregrosa, Alicia

    2002-10-01

    To produce a new daily record of trace gas emissions from biomass burning events for the Brazilian Legal Amazon, we have combined satellite advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) data on fire counts together for the first time with vegetation greenness imagery as inputs to an ecosystem biomass model at 8 km spatial resolution. This analysis goes beyond previous estimates for reactive gas emissions from Amazon fires, owing to a more detailed geographic distribution estimate of vegetation biomass, coupled with daily fire activity for the region (original 1 km resolution), and inclusion of fire effects in extensive areas of the Legal Amazon (defined as the Brazilian states of Acre, Amapá, Amazonas, Maranhao, Mato Grosso, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima, and Tocantins) covered by open woodland, secondary forests, savanna, and pasture vegetation. Results from our emissions model indicate that annual emissions from Amazon deforestation and biomass burning in the early 1990s total to 102 Tg yr-1 carbon monoxide (CO) and 3.5 Tg yr-1 nitrogen oxides (NOx). Peak daily burning emissions, which occurred in early September 1992, were estimated at slightly more than 3 Tg d-1for CO and 0.1 Tg d-1for NOx flux to the atmosphere. Other burning source fluxes of gases with relatively high emission factors are reported, including methane (CH4), nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), and sulfur dioxide (SO2), in addition to total particulate matter (TPM). We estimate the Brazilian Amazon region to be a source of between one fifth and one third for each of these global emission fluxes to the atmosphere. The regional distribution of burning emissions appears to be highest in the Brazilian states of Maranhao and Tocantins, mainly from burning outside of moist forest areas, and in Pará and Mato Grosso, where we identify important contributions from primary forest cutting and burning. These new daily emission estimates of reactive gases from biomass burning fluxes are designed to be used as

  14. Land Cover Mapping in Northern High Latitude Permafrost Regions with Satellite Data: Achievements and Remaining Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Bartsch

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Most applications of land cover maps that have been derived from satellite data over the Arctic require higher thematic detail than available in current global maps. A range of application studies has been reviewed, including up-scaling of carbon fluxes and pools, permafrost feature mapping and transition monitoring. Early land cover mapping studies were driven by the demand to characterize wildlife habitats. Later, in the 1990s, up-scaling of in situ measurements became central to the discipline of land cover mapping on local to regional scales at several sites across the Arctic. This includes the Kuparuk basin in Alaska, the Usa basin and the Lena Delta in Russia. All of these multi-purpose land cover maps have been derived from Landsat data. High resolution maps (from optical satellite data serve frequently as input for the characterization of periglacial features and also flux tower footprints in recent studies. The most used map to address circumpolar issues is the CAVM (Circum Arctic Vegetation Map based on AVHRR (1 km and has been manually derived. It provides the required thematic detail for many applications, but is confined to areas north of the treeline, and it is limited in spatial detail. A higher spatial resolution circumpolar land cover map with sufficient thematic content would be beneficial for a range of applications. Such a land cover classification should be compatible with existing global maps and applicable for multiple purposes. The thematic content of existing global maps has been assessed by comparison to the CAVM and regional maps. None of the maps provides the required thematic detail. Spatial resolution has been compared to used classes for local to regional applications. The required thematic detail increases with spatial resolution since coarser datasets are usually applied over larger areas covering more relevant landscape units. This is especially of concern when the entire Arctic is addressed. A spatial

  15. The Copernicus Global Land Service: present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacaze, Roselyne; Smets, Bruno; Trigo, Isabel; Calvet, Jean-Christophe; Jann, Alexander; Camacho, Fernando; Baret, Frédéric; Kidd, Richard; Defourny, Pierre; Tansey, Kevin; Pacholczyk, Philippe; Balsamo, Gianpaolo; Szintai, Balazs

    2013-04-01

    From 1st January 2013, the Copernicus Global Land Service is operational, providing continuously to European, African and International users a set of biophysical variables describing the vegetation conditions, the energy budget at the continental surface and the water cycle over the whole globe at one kilometer resolution. These generic products can serve numerous applications such as agriculture and food security monitoring, weather forecast, climate change impact studies, water, forest and natural resources management. The Copernicus Global Land Service is built on the achievements of the BioPar component of the FP7 geoland2 project. Essential Climate Variables like the Leaf Area Index (LAI), the Fraction of PAR absorbed by the vegetation (FAPAR), the surface albedo, the Land Surface Temperature, the soil moisture, the burnt areas, the areas of water bodies, and additional vegetation indices, are generated every hour, every day or every 10 days on a reliable and automatic basis from Earth Observation satellite data. Beside this timely production, the available historical archives have been processed, using the same innovative algorithms, to get consistent time series as long as possible. As an example, more than 30 years of LAI and FAPAR relying on NOAA/AVHRR sensors (from 1981 to 2000) and SPOT/VGT sensors (from 1999 to the present) are now available. All products are accessible, free of charge and after registration, at the following address: http://www.geoland2.eu/core-mapping-services/biopar.html. Documentation describing the physical methodologies, the technical properties of products, and the results of validation exercises can also be downloaded. In view of service continuity, research and development are performed on two parallel ways. On one hand, the existing retrieval methodologies will be adapted to new input data sets (e.g. Proba-V and Sentinel-3 at 1km resolution) that will be used in replacement of current sensor (SPOT/VGT) which reached the end

  16. A New Global LAI Product and Its Use for Terrestrial Carbon Cycle Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. M.; Liu, R.; Ju, W.; Liu, Y.

    2014-12-01

    For improving the estimation of the spatio-temporal dynamics of the terrestrial carbon cycle, a new time series of the leaf area index (LAI) is generated for the global land surface at 8 km resolution from 1981 to 2012 by combining AVHRR and MODIS satellite data. This product differs from existing LAI products in the following two aspects: (1) the non-random spatial distribution of leaves with the canopy is considered, and (2) the seasonal variation of the vegetation background is included. The non-randomness of the leaf spatial distribution in the canopy is considered using the second vegetation structural parameter named clumping index (CI), which quantifies the deviation of the leaf spatial distribution from the random case. Using the MODIS Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function product, a global map of CI is produced at 500 m resolution. In our LAI algorithm, CI is used to convert the effective LAI obtained from mono-angle remote sensing into the true LAI, otherwise LAI would be considerably underestimated. The vegetation background is soil in crop, grass and shrub but includes soil, grass, moss, and litter in forests. Through processing a large volume of MISR data from 2000 to 2010, monthly red and near-infrared reflectances of the vegetation background is mapped globally at 1 km resolution. This new LAI product has been validated extensively using ground-based LAI measurements distributed globally. In carbon cycle modeling, the use of CI in addition to LAI allows for accurate separation of sunlit and shaded leaves as an important step in terrestrial photosynthesis and respiration modeling. Carbon flux measurements over 100 sites over the globe are used to validate an ecosystem model named Boreal Ecosystem Productivity Simulator (BEPS). The validated model is run globally at 8 km resolution for the period from 1981 to 2012 using the LAI product and other spatial datasets. The modeled results suggest that changes in vegetation structure as quantified

  17. Global irrigated area map (GIAM), derived from remote sensing, for the end of the last millennium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, P.S.; Biradar, C.M.; Noojipady, P.; Dheeravath, V.; Li, Y.; Velpuri, M.; Gumma, M.; Gangalakunta, O.R.P.; Turral, H.; Cai, X.; Vithanage, J.; Schull, M.A.; Dutta, R.

    2009-01-01

    A Global Irrigated Area Map (GIAM) has been produced for the end of the last millennium using multiple satellite sensor, secondary, Google Earth and groundtruth data. The data included: (a) Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) 3-band and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) 10 km monthly time-series for 1997-1999, (b) Syste me pour l'Observation de la Terre Vegetation (SPOT VGT) NDVI 1 km monthly time series for 1999, (c) East Anglia University Climate Research Unit (CRU) rainfall 50km monthly time series for 1961-2000, (d) Global 30 Arc-Second Elevation Data Set (GTOPO30) 1 km digital elevation data of the World, (e) Japanese Earth Resources Satellite-1 Synthetic Aperture Radar (JERS-1 SAR) data for the rain forests during two seasons in 1996 and (f) University of Maryland Global Tree Cover 1 km data for 1992-1993. A single mega-file data-cube (MFDC) of the World with 159 layers, akin to hyperspectral data, was composed by re-sampling different data types into a common 1 km resolution. The MFDC was segmented based on elevation, temperature and precipitation zones. Classification was performed on the segments. Quantitative spectral matching techniques (SMTs) used in hyperspectral data analysis were adopted to group class spectra derived from unsupervised classification and match them with ideal or target spectra. A rigorous class identification and labelling process involved the use of: (a) space-time spiral curve (ST-SC) plots, (b) brightness-greenness-wetness (BGW) plots, (c) time series NDVI plots, (d) Google Earth very-high-resolution imagery (VHRI) 'zoom-in views' in over 11 000 locations, (e) groundtruth data broadly sourced from the degree confluence project (3 864 sample locations) and from the GIAM project (1 790 sample locations), (f) high-resolution Landsat-ETM+ Geocover 150m mosaic of the World and (g) secondary data (e.g. national and global land use and land cover data). Mixed classes were resolved based on decision tree

  18. Interpreting forest biome productivity and cover utilizing nested scales of image resolution and biogeographical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iverson, Louis R.; Cook, Elizabeth A.; Graham, Robin L.; Olson, Jerry S.; Frank, Thomas D.; Ying, KE

    1988-01-01

    The objective was to relate spectral imagery of varying resolution with ground-based data on forest productivity and cover, and to create models to predict regional estimates of forest productivity and cover with a quantifiable degree of accuracy. A three stage approach was outlined. In the first stage, a model was developed relating forest cover or productivity to TM surface reflectance values (TM/FOREST models). The TM/FOREST models were more accurate when biogeographic information regarding the landscape was either used to stratigy the landscape into more homogeneous units or incorporated directly into the TM/FOREST model. In the second stage, AVHRR/FOREST models that predicted forest cover and productivity on the basis of AVHRR band values were developed. The AVHRR/FOREST models had statistical properties similar to or better than those of the TM/FOREST models. In the third stage, the regional predictions were compared with the independent U.S. Forest Service (USFS) data. To do this regional forest cover and forest productivity maps were created using AVHRR scenes and the AVHRR/FOREST models. From the maps the county values of forest productivity and cover were calculated. It is apparent that the landscape has a strong influence on the success of the approach. An approach of using nested scales of imagery in conjunction with ground-based data can be successful in generating regional estimates of variables that are functionally related to some variable a sensor can detect.

  19. Advantageous GOES IR results for ash mapping at high latitudes: Cleveland eruptions 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin; Rose, William I.; Schneider, D.J.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Watson, I.M.

    2005-01-01

    The February 2001 eruption of Cleveland Volcano, Alaska allowed for comparisons of volcanic ash detection using two-band thermal infrared (10-12 ??m) remote sensing from MODIS, AVHRR, and GOES 10. Results show that high latitude GOES volcanic cloud sensing the range of about 50 to 65??N is significantly enhanced. For the Cleveland volcanic clouds the MODIS and AVHRR data have zenith angles 6-65 degrees and the GOES has zenith angles that are around 70 degrees. The enhancements are explained by distortion in the satellite view of the cloud's lateral extent because the satellite zenith angles result in a "side-looking" aspect and longer path lengths through the volcanic cloud. The shape of the cloud with respect to the GOES look angle also influences the results. The MODIS and AVHRR data give consistent retrievals of the ash cloud evolution over time and are good corrections for the GOES data. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Remote sensing data in Rangeland assessment and monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid, Amna Ahmed; Ali, Mohamed M.

    1999-01-01

    The main objective of the paper is to illustrate the potential of remote sensing data in the study and monitoring of environmental changes in western Sudan where considerable part of the area is under rangeland use. Data from NOAA satellite AVHRR sensor as well as thematic mapper Tm was used to assess the environment of the area during 1982-1997. The AVHRR data was processed into vegetation index (NDVI) images. Image analysis and classification was done using image display and analysis (IDA) GIS method to study vegetation condition in time series. The obtained information from field observations. The result showed high correlation between the information the work concluded the followings: NDVI images and thematic mapper data proved to be efficient in environment change analysis. NOAA AVHRR satellite data can provide an early-warning indicator of an approaching disaster. Remote sensing integrated into a GIS can contribute effectively to improve land management through better understanding of environment variability.(Author)

  1. Trace gas emissions to the atmosphere by biomass burning in the west African savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frouin, Robert J.; Iacobellis, Samuel F.; Razafimpanilo, Herisoa; Somerville, Richard C. J.

    1994-01-01

    Savanna fires and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) detection and estimating burned area using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer_(AVHRR) reflectance data are investigated in this two part research project. The first part involves carbon dioxide flux estimates and a three-dimensional transport model to quantify the effect of north African savanna fires on atmospheric CO2 concentration, including CO2 spatial and temporal variability patterns and their significance to global emissions. The second article describes two methods used to determine burned area from AVHRR data. The article discusses the relationship between the percentage of burned area and AVHRR channel 2 reflectance (the linear method) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) (the nonlinear method). A comparative performance analysis of each method is described.

  2. A Climate-Data Record (CDR) of the "Clear Sky" Surface Temperature of the Greenland Ice Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Comiso, J. C.; DiGirolamo, N. E.; Shuman, C. A.

    2011-01-01

    To quantify the ice-surface temperature (IST) we are developing a climate-data record (CDR) of monthly IST of the Greenland ice sheet, from 1982 to the present using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data at 5-km resolution. "Clear-sky" surface temperature increases have been measured from the early 1980s to the early 2000s in the Arctic using AVHRR data, showing increases ranging from 0.57-0.02 (Wang and Key, 2005) to 0.72 0.10 deg C per decade (Comiso, 2006). Arctic warming has implications for ice-sheet mass balance because much of the periphery of the ice sheet is near 0 deg C in the melt season and is thus vulnerable to more extensive melting (Hanna et al., 2008). The algorithm used for this work has a long history of measuring IST in the Arctic with AVHRR (Key and Haefliger, 1992). The data are currently available from 1981 to 2004 in the AVHRR Polar Pathfinder (APP) dataset (Fowler et al., 2000). J. Key1NOAA modified the AVHRR algorithm for use with MODIS (Hall et al., 2004). The MODIS algorithm is now being processed over Greenland. Issues being addressed in the production of the CDR are: time-series bias caused by cloud cover, and cross-calibration between AVHRR and MODIS instruments. Because of uncertainties, time series of satellite ISTs do not necessarily correspond with actual surface temperatures. The CDR will be validated by comparing results with in-situ (see Koenig and Hall, in press) and automatic-weather station data (e.g., Shuman et al., 2001).

  3. Use of NOAA-N satellites for land/water discrimination and flood monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappan, G.; Horvath, N. C.; Doraiswamy, P. C.; Engman, T.; Goss, D. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    A tool for monitoring the extent of major floods was developed using data collected by the NOAA-6 advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR). A basic understanding of the spectral returns in AVHRR channels 1 and 2 for water, soil, and vegetation was reached using a large number of NOAA-6 scenes from different seasons and geographic locations. A look-up table classifier was developed based on analysis of the reflective channel relationships for each surface feature. The classifier automatically separated land from water and produced classification maps which were registered for a number of acquisitions, including coverage of a major flood on the Parana River of Argentina.

  4. The Great Chinese fire of 1987: A view from space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cahoon, D.R. Jr.; Levine, J.S.; Cofer, W.R. III; Miller, J.E.; Minnis, P.; Tennille, G.M.; Yip, T.W.; Stocks, B.J.; Heck, P.W.

    1991-01-01

    On May 6, 1987, three fires were started in the boreal forest of the Helongjing Province of the Peoples' Republic of China. The Helongjing Province borders the Soviet Union along the Amur River. Over 200 images spanning a period of six months were examined in the study of this event. The Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on the NOAA-9 spacecraft produced all the imaging. This chapter reviews the methodology employed in determining the extent of the burning. An important reservation made after comparison with Landsat imagery is that small burned areas may be missed and hence some uncertainty exists with estimations of burned area using AVHRR Global Area Coverage measurements

  5. Examining Severe Drought-Induced Vegetation Change and its Influence on Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A. B.; Springer, E. P.; Vivoni, E. R.

    2007-12-01

    A "global-change-type" drought that occurred in the southwestern U.S. from 2000 to 2003, accompanied by increased temperatures and bark beetle infestations, induced large-scale woodland overstory mortality, the consequent redistribution of water, radiation, and nutrients, as well as modification of the ecosystem phenology. Our objectives in this research are to examine these vegetation changes in detail and to determine whether they translated to changes in hydrological processes. We chose the Rio Ojo Caliente, a subbasin of the Rio Grande, as a study site since a significant portion of the woodland ecosystem (piñon-juniper) was affected. Examining a remotely-sensed vegetation index (1-km AVHRR NDVI from 1989 to 2006), there is an increasing trend in the mean NDVI from 1989 to 1998 (pre-drought period), a decreasing trend from 1999 to 2003 (drought period), and a dramatic increasing trend from 2004 to 2006 (post-drought period) in which the mean NDVI rebounds to pre- drought magnitudes. Streamflow records from 1932 to 2006 show the watershed to be primarily spring snowmelt-driven, although monsoonal summer precipitation also plays a significant role. We compare the temporal variability in the streamflow to the NDVI, including the mean, anomalies from the mean, and seasonally- based duration curves, and find significant correlations (correlation coefficient ρ = -0.61) between the streamflow and NDVI at approximately a three-month lag (NDVI lagging streamflow). In analyzing the three phases of the drought, the correlation is slightly stronger during the pre-drought (ρ = -0.64) and drought (ρ = -0.65) periods, yet markedly stronger during the post-drought period (ρ = -0.74). This suggests that the coupling between vegetation water use and streamflow is tighter after the drought. This may be attributable to the reduction in the less-responsive overstory (pinñon mortality) and increase in the more-responsive understory (grasses and shrubs exploiting newly

  6. Monitoring of spatiotemporal patterns of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) and their ratios (NPP/GPP) derived from MODIS data: assessment natural drivers and their effects on NDVI anomalies in arid and semi-arid zones of Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aralova, Dildora; Jarihani, Ben; Khujanazarov, Timur; Toderich, Kristina; Gafurov, Dilshod; Gismatulina, Liliya

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have shown that precipitation anomalies and raising of temperature trends were deteriorate affected on large-scale of vegetation surveys in Central Asia (CA). Nowadays, remote sensing techniques can provide estimation of Net and Gross Primary Productivity (NPP & GPP) for regional and global scales, and selected zones in CA (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan) dominated by C4 plants (biomes) what it reveals more accurately simulate C4 carbon. The estimation of NPP & GPP from source (MOD17A2/A3) would be beneficial to determine natural driver factors, whether on rangeland ecosystem is a carbon sink or source, such as a vast area of the selected zones incorporates exacerbate regional drought-risk factors nowadays. Generally, we have combined last available NPP & GPP (2000-2015) with 1 km resolution from MODIS, with investigation of long-term vegetation patterns under Normalized Difference Vegetation Indices (NDVI) with 8 km resolution from AVHRR-GIMMS 3g sources (2001-2015) within aim to estimate potential values of rangeland ecosystems. Interaction ratios of NPP/GPP are integrating more accurately describe carbon sink process under natural or anthropogenic factors, specifically last results of NDVI trends were described as decreasing trends due to climate anomalies, besides the eastern and northern parts of CA (mostly boreal forest zones) where accumulated or indicated of raising trends of NDVI in last three years (2012-2015). Results revealed that, in CA were averaged annually value NDVI ranges from 0.19-0.21; (Kyrgyzstan: 0.23-0.26; Kazakhstan: 0.21-0.24; Tajikistan: 0.19-0.21); and resting countries as low NDVI accumulated areas were Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan ranges 0.13-0.16; Comparing datasets of GPP given the response dynamic change structures of NDVI values and explicit carbon uptake (CO2) in arid ecosystems and average GPPyearlyin CA ranges 2.42 kg C/m2; including to Tajikistan, Uzbekistan (3.09 kg C/m2) and

  7. Operationalizing a Research Sensor: MODIS to VIIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Puschell, J.

    2012-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NASA are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellite will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The primary sensor for the JPSS mission is the Visible/Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) developed by Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems (SAS). The ground processing system for the JPSS mission is known as the Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) which are both developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by Raytheon SAS for the NASA Earth Observing System (EOS) as a research instrument to capture data in 36 spectral bands, ranging in wavelength from 0.4 μm to 14.4 μm and at varying spatial resolutions (2 bands at 250 m, 5 bands at 500 m and 29 bands at 1 km). MODIS data provides unprecedented insight into large-scale Earth system science questions related to cloud and aerosol characteristics, surface emissivity and processes occurring in the oceans, on land, and in the lower atmosphere. MODIS has flown on the EOS Terra satellite since 1999 and on the EOS Aqua satellite since 2002 and provided excellent data for scientific research and operational use for more than a decade. The value of MODIS-derived products for operational environmental monitoring motivated led to the development of an operational counterpart to MODIS for the next-generation polar-orbiting environmental satellites, the Visible/Infrared Imager

  8. Trend Analysis of Evapotranspiration over India- Observed from ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3

    Future studies on the effects of ET changes on the hydrological cycle .... VI is useful for long-term monitoring of the land surface and climate related processes. .... were applied spatially using AVHRR Global Inventory Modelling and .... SRB uses cloud properties derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project.

  9. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerosol optical depth (AOD) at 630nm wavelength over the oceanic regions adjoining the Asian Continent is examined using a seven-year long data base derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board NOAA satellite to study the mean spatial and temporal variations as well as to ...

  10. Use of remotely sensed precipitation and leaf area index in a distributed hydrological model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Dybkjær, G.; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2002-01-01

    Remotely sensed precipitation from METEOSAT data and leaf area index (LAI) from NOAA AVHRR data is used as input data to the distributed hydrological modelling of three sub catchments (82.000 km(2)) in the Senegal River Basin. Further, root depths of annual vegetation are related to the temporal...

  11. Polarimetric signatures of sea ice in the Greenland Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skriver, Henning; Pedersen, Leif Toudal

    1995-01-01

    Polarimetric SAR data of sea ice have been acquired by the Danish polarimetric SAR (EMISAR) during a mission at the Greenland Sea in August 1994. Video recordings from a low-altitude acquisition have been used for interpretation of the SAR data. Also, ERS-1 SAR data and NOAA AVHRR-data have been...

  12. GHRSST Level 4 Australian Bureau of Meteorology GAMSSA_28km Global SST:1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GAMSSA v1.0 system blends NAVOCEANO's GAC 9.9 km x 4.4 km resolution AVHRR L2P SST1m data (NOAA-17, NOAA-18 and METOP-A), European Space Agency's 0.17 AATSR skin...

  13. Satellite-derived vertical profiles of temperature and dew point for mesoscale weather forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masselink, Thomas; Schluessel, P.

    1995-12-01

    Weather forecast-models need spatially high resolutioned vertical profiles of temperature and dewpoint for their initialisation. These profiles can be supplied by a combination of data from the Tiros-N Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS) and the imaging Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board the NOAA polar orbiting sate!- lites. In cloudy cases the profiles derived from TOVS data only are of insufficient accuracy. The stanthrd deviations from radiosonde ascents or numerical weather analyses likely exceed 2 K in temperature and 5Kin dewpoint profiles. It will be shown that additional cloud information as retrieved from AVHIRR allows a significant improvement in theaccuracy of vertical profiles. The International TOVS Processing Package (ITPP) is coupled to an algorithm package called AVHRR Processing scheme Over cLouds, Land and Ocean (APOLLO) where parameters like cloud fraction and cloud-top temperature are determined with higher accuracy than obtained from TOVS retrieval alone. Furthermore, a split-window technique is applied to the cloud-free AVHRR imagery in order to derive more accurate surface temperatures than can be obtained from the pure TOVS retrieval. First results of the impact of AVHRR cloud detection on the quality of the profiles are presented. The temperature and humidity profiles of different retrieval approaches are validated against analyses of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weatherforecasts.

  14. On the warm nearshore bias in Pathfinder monthly SST products over Eastern Boundary upwelling systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dufois, F

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Using in situ sea surface temperature (SST) data and MODIS/TERRA SST, the monthly AVHRR Pathfinder (version 5.0 and 5.2) SST product was evaluated within the four main Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems. A warm bias in the monthly Pathfinder data...

  15. Do cold, low salinity waters pass through the Indo-Sri Lanka Channel during winter?

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, R.R.; Girishkumar, M.S.; Ravichandran, M.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Pankajakshan, T.

    -navigable shallow ISLC, the observed high resolution, advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sea surface temperature (SST), and sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) chlorophyll-a and historic sea surface salinity (SSS) data are utilized...

  16. Regional forest cover estimation via remote sensing: the calibration center concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis R. Iverson; Elizabeth A. Cook; Robin L. Graham; Robin L. Graham

    1994-01-01

    A method for combining Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) imagery, and other biogeographic data to estimate forest cover over large regions is applied and evaluated at two locations. In this method, TM data are used to classify a small area (calibration center) into forest/nonforest; the resulting forest cover map is then...

  17. Development of a Methodology for Predicting Forest Area for Large-Area Resource Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    William H. Cooke

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Southcm Research Station, appointed a remote-sensing team to develop an image-processing methodology for mapping forest lands over large geographic areds. The team has presented a repeatable methodology, which is based on regression modeling of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Landsat Thematic...

  18. Mixed layer heat budget of Kuroshio-Tango Triangle using satellite and ship observations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pankajakshan, T.; Akiyama, M.; Sugimori, Y.; Wuwa, J.; Okada, Y.; Siripong, A.

    heat flux across the air-sea boundary both satellite (NIMBUS-7 SMMR) and ship observations are used. The advective fluxes across the lateral boundaries of the system are derived from sequential images of AVHRR. The net heat divergence of the triangular...

  19. Forecasting Future Sea Ice Conditions: A Lagrangian Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    AVHRR, AMSRE) combining the bootstrap and NASA-Team algorithms (Fowler et al, 2013). The PP data product also assimilates buoy data, which... business as usual” or that hopes to benefit from environmental change. These issues are playing out now in the Arctic, as it shifts from white, ice

  20. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    -AVHRR images from 1990 covering part of the Ferlo region of northern, semiarid Senegal in West Africa. The spatial pattern in TVDI has been compared with simulations of soil moisture from a distributed hydrological model based on the MIKE SHE code. The spatial variation in TVDI reflects the variation...

  1. Evaluation of remotely sensed actual evapotranspiration data for modeling small scale irrigation in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddele, Y. D.; Ayana, E.; Worqlul, A. W.; Srinivasan, R.; Gerik, T.; Clarke, N.

    2017-12-01

    The research presented in this paper is conducted in Ethiopia, which is located in the horn of Africa. Ethiopian economy largely depends on rainfed agriculture, which employs 80% of the labor force. The rainfed agriculture is frequently affected by droughts and dry spells. Small scale irrigation is considered as the lifeline for the livelihoods of smallholder farmers in Ethiopia. Biophysical models are highly used to determine the agricultural production, environmental sustainability, and socio-economic outcomes of small scale irrigation in Ethiopia. However, detailed spatially explicit data is not adequately available to calibrate and validate simulations from biophysical models. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model was setup using finer resolution spatial and temporal data. The actual evapotranspiration (AET) estimation from the SWAT model was compared with two remotely sensed data, namely the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS). The performance of the monthly satellite data was evaluated with correlation coefficient (R2) over the different land use groups. The result indicated that over the long term and monthly the AVHRR AET captures the pattern of SWAT simulated AET reasonably well, especially on agricultural dominated landscapes. A comparison between SWAT simulated AET and AVHRR AET provided mixed results on grassland dominated landscapes and poor agreement on forest dominated landscapes. Results showed that the AVHRR AET products showed superior agreement with the SWAT simulated AET than MODIS AET. This suggests that remotely sensed products can be used as valuable tool in properly modeling small scale irrigation.

  2. Validation of Satellite-Derived Sea Surface Temperatures for Waters around Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-An Lee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to validate the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR-derived sea surface temperatures (SST of the waters around Taiwan, we generated a match-up data set of 961 pairs, which included in situ SSTs and concurrent AVHRR measurements for the period of 1998 to 2002. Availability of cloud-free images, i.e., images with more than 85% of cloud-free area in their coverage, was about 2.23% of all AVHRR images during the study period. The range of in situ SSTs was from _ to _ The satellite derived-SSTs through MCSST and NLSST algorithms were linearly related to the in situ SSTs with correlation coefficients of 0.985 and 0.98, respectively. The MCSSTs and NLSSTs had small biases of 0.009 _ and 0.256 _ with root mean square deviations of 0.64 _ and 0.801 _ respectively, therefore the AVHRR-based MCSSTs and NLSSTs had high accuracy in the seas around Taiwan.

  3. Radiation budget studies using collocated observations from advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer, High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2, and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Steven A.; Frey, Richard A.; Smith, William L.

    1992-01-01

    Collocated observations from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), High-Resolution Infrared Sounder/2 (HIRS/2), and Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) instruments onboard the NOAA 9 satellite are combined to describe the broadband and spectral radiative properties of the earth-atmosphere system. Broadband radiative properties are determined from the ERBE observations, while spectral properties are determined from the HIRS/2 and AVHRR observations. The presence of clouds, their areal coverage, and cloud top pressure are determined from a combination of the HIRS/2 and the AVHRR observations. The CO2 slicing method is applied to the HIRS/2 to determine the presence of upper level clouds and their effective emissivity. The AVHRR data collocated within the HIRS/2 field of view are utilized to determine the uniformity of the scene and retrieve sea surface temperature. Changes in the top of the atmosphere longwave and shortwave radiative energy budgets, and the spectral distribution of longwave radiation are presented as a function of cloud amount and cloud top pressure. The radiative characteristics of clear sky conditions over oceans are presented as a function of sea surface temperature and atmospheric water vapor structure.

  4. Climate applications for NOAA 1/4° Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, T.; Banzon, P. V. F.; Liu, G.; Saha, K.; Wilson, C.; Stachniewicz, J. S.

    2015-12-01

    Few sea surface temperature (SST) datasets from satellites have the long temporal span needed for climate studies. The NOAA Daily Optimum Interpolation Sea Surface Temperature (DOISST) on a 1/4° grid, produced at National Centers for Environmental Information, is based primarily on SSTs from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), available from 1981 to the present. AVHRR data can contain biases, particularly when aerosols are present. Over the three decade span, the largest departure of AVHRR SSTs from buoy temperatures occurred during the Mt Pinatubo and El Chichon eruptions. Therefore, in DOISST, AVHRR SSTs are bias-adjusted to match in situ SSTs prior to interpolation. This produces a consistent time series of complete SST fields that is suitable for modelling and investigating local climate phenomena like El Nino or the Pacific warm blob in a long term context. Because many biological processes and animal distributions are temperature dependent, there are also many ecological uses of DOISST (e.g., coral bleaching thermal stress, fish and marine mammal distributions), thereby providing insights into resource management in a changing ocean. The advantages and limitations of using DOISST for different applications will be discussed.

  5. Monitoring Start of Season in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robin, J.; Dubayah, R.; Sparrow, E.; Levine, E.

    2006-12-01

    In biomes that have distinct winter seasons, start of spring phenological events, specifically timing of budburst and green-up of leaves, coincides with transpiration. Seasons leave annual signatures that reflect the dynamic nature of the hydrologic cycle and link the different spheres of the Earth system. This paper evaluates whether continuity between AVHRR and MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) is achievable for monitoring land surface phenology, specifically start of season (SOS), in Alaska. Additionally, two thresholds, one based on NDVI and the other on accumulated growing degree-days (GDD), are compared to determine which most accurately predicts SOS for Fairbanks. Ratio of maximum greenness at SOS was computed from biweekly AVHRR and MODIS composites for 2001 through 2004 for Anchorage and Fairbanks regions. SOS dates were determined from annual green-up observations made by GLOBE students. Results showed that different processing as well as spectral characteristics of each sensor restrict continuity between the two datasets. MODIS values were consistently higher and had less inter-annual variability during the height of the growing season than corresponding AVHRR values. Furthermore, a threshold of 131-175 accumulated GDD was a better predictor of SOS for Fairbanks than a NDVI threshold applied to AVHRR and MODIS datasets. The NDVI threshold was developed from biweekly AVHRR composites from 1982 through 2004 and corresponding annual green-up observations at University of Alaska-Fairbanks (UAF). The GDD threshold was developed from 20+ years of historic daily mean air temperature data and the same green-up observations. SOS dates computed with the GDD threshold most closely resembled actual green-up dates observed by GLOBE students and UAF researchers. Overall, biweekly composites and effects of clouds, snow, and conifers limit the ability of NDVI to monitor phenological changes in Alaska.

  6. Commerce Spectrum Management Advisory Committee (CSMAC) Working Group (WG) 3 Phase 2 Study Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    threshold Kauai Niihau 52 HTS Power Contours 1 kW transmitter power with 20 dB attenuation, 1 km grid spacing LTE base station received power (dBW...137.4 dBW LTE threshold Kauai Niihau 53 HTS LTE System Threshold Exceedance, 1755-1780 MHz 1 kW transmitter power, 1 km grid spacing

  7. A multisensor approach to sea ice classification for the validation of DMSP-SSM/I passive microwave derived sea ice products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, K.; Schweiger, A. J.

    1990-01-01

    The validation of sea ice products derived from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) on board a DMSP platform is examined using data from the Landsat MSS and NOAA-AVHRR sensors. Image processing techniques for retrieving ice concentrations from each type of imagery are developed and results are intercompared to determine the ice parameter retrieval accuracy of the SSM/I NASA-Team algorithm. For case studies in the Beaufort Sea and East Greenland Sea, average retrieval errors of the SSM/I algorithm are between 1.7 percent for spring conditions and 4.3 percent during freeze up in comparison with Landsat derived ice concentrations. For a case study in the East Greenland Sea, SSM/I derived ice concentration in comparison with AVHRR imagery display a mean error of 9.6 percent.

  8. The investigation of identifying method on grass fire by FY-3 VIRR images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Youyan; Han, Tao; Wang, Dawei

    2018-03-01

    Grassland fire has the characteristics of fierce fire and rapid spreading, and many fires occur in sparsely populated places. Satellite remote sensing has the characteristics of fast imaging period and wide coverage, and plays an important role in the rapid monitoring and evaluation of grassland fire. FY-3 satellite has been widely used since its launch in September 2008, and this paper uses the fire information of Gansu grassland from 2011 to 2016, based on the more mature MODIS and NOAA-AVHRR fire identification method. The results show that the accuracy of FY-3/VIRR satellite data fire detection are higher than that of NOAA-AVHRR satellite, and the accuracy of FY-3/VIRR satellite data is described. There is a greater improvement, the ability to identify slightly worse than the MODIS satellite, the region is relatively large fire detection accuracy is higher.

  9. Satellite remote sensing of limnological indicators of global change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wynne, R.H.; Lillesand, T.M.

    1991-01-01

    The paper examines the general hypothesis that large-scale and long-term trends in lake ice formation and breakup, along with changes in the optical properties of lakes, can serve as robust integrated measures of regional and global climate change. Recent variation in the periodicity of lake ice formation and breakup is investigated using the AVHRR aboard the NOAA/TIROS series of polar orbiting satellites. The study area consists of 44 lakes and reservoirs with a surface area of greater than 1000 hectares in Wisconsin. The utility of AVHRR for lake ice detection with high temporal resolution is demonstrated, the relationship between ice phenology and periodicity with lake morphometry for the lakes in the study is elucidated, and remotely sensed measures of ice periodicity are correlated with local and regional temperature trends. 31 refs

  10. Normalization and calibration of geostationary satellite radiances for the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desormeaux, Yves; Rossow, William B.; Brest, Christopher L.; Campbell, G. G.

    1993-01-01

    Procedures are described for normalizing the radiometric calibration of image radiances obtained from geostationary weather satellites that contributed data to the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project. The key step is comparison of coincident and collocated measurements made by each satellite and the concurrent AVHRR on the 'afternoon' NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellite at the same viewing geometry. The results of this comparison allow transfer of the AVHRR absolute calibration, which has been established over the whole series, to the radiometers on the geostationary satellites. Results are given for Meteosat-2, 3, and 4, for GOES-5, 6, and 7, for GMS-2, 3, and 4 and for Insat-1B. The relative stability of the calibrations of these radiance data is estimated to be within +/- 3 percent; the uncertainty of the absolute calibrations is estimated to be less than 10 percent. The remaining uncertainties are at least two times smaller than for the original radiance data.

  11. IASI instrument: technical description and measured performances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hébert, Ph.; Blumstein, D.; Buil, C.; Carlier, T.; Chalon, G.; Astruc, P.; Clauss, A.; Siméoni, D.; Tournier, B.

    2017-11-01

    IASI is an infrared atmospheric sounder. It will provide meteorologist and scientific community with atmospheric spectra. The IASI system includes 3 instruments that will be mounted on the Metop satellite series, a data processing software integrated in the EPS (EUMETSAT Polar System) ground segment and a technical expertise centre implemented in CNES Toulouse. The instrument is composed of a Fourier transform spectrometer and an associated infrared imager. The optical configuration is based on a Michelson interferometer and the interferograms are processed by an on-board digital processing subsystem, which performs the inverse Fourier transforms and the radiometric calibration. The infrared imager co-registers the IASI soundings with AVHRR imager (AVHRR is another instrument on the Metop satellite). The presentation will focus on the architectures of the instrument, the description of the implemented technologies and the measured performance of the first flight model. CNES is leading the IASI program in association with EUMETSAT. The instrument Prime is ALCATEL SPACE.

  12. On the circulation in the Bay of Bengal during northern spring inter-monsoon (March-April 1987)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Babu, M.T.; Sarma, Y.V.B.; Murty, V.S.N.; Vethamony, P.

    ) indicated an anticyclonic circulation with a northeastward flow in the western bay duringMarch–April ( La Fond and La Fond 1968; Duing, 1970; Wyrtki, 1971). The temperature field obtained from satellite- based advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR.... Pergamon. New York, pp. 451–475. Duing,W.,1970.Themonsoonregimeofcurrentsin theIndian Ocean. University Press of Hawaii, Honolulu, USA, 68pp. Eigenheer,A.,Quadfasel,D.,2000.SeasonalvariabilityoftheBay of Bengal circulation inferred from TOPEX...

  13. Analysis of 3-dimensional Hydro-dynamical Model Simulation in the Gulf of Kutch, India and Its Comparison with Satellite Data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Osawa, T.; Zhao, C.; Kunte, P.D.; Ae, L.S.; Hara, M.; Moriyama, T.

    temperature, relative humidity and cloud fraction are obtained from Da Silva et al. (1994) climatic data sets from 1984-1991. Figure 2b shows the air temperature and the relative humidity above sea surface, and we can see that the temperature changes from 22... to monitor the variation of environment in the enclosed Gulf. Satellite data could provide cloud fraction from NOAA/AVHRR or other meteorological satellites. Making full use of satellite observations and combining with numerical model simulation will give...

  14. Use of Vegetation Health Data for Estimation of Aus Rice Yield in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Atiqur; Roytman, Leonid; Krakauer, Nir Y.; Nizamuddin, Mohammad; Goldberg, Mitch

    2009-01-01

    Rice is a vital staple crop for Bangladesh and surrounding countries, with interannual variation in yields depending on climatic conditions. We compared Bangladesh yield of aus rice, one of the main varieties grown, from official agricultural statistics with Vegetation Health (VH) Indices [Vegetation Condition Index (VCI), Temperature Condition Index (TCI) and Vegetation Health Index (VHI)] computed from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) data covering a period of 15 years (1991...

  15. Applying High Resolution Imagery to Understand the Role of Dynamics in the Diminishing Arctic Sea Ice Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    describe contemporary ice pack thickness, MODIS , AVHRR, RadarSat-2 (satellite imagery) that describe ice pack deformation features on large scales, as well...high-resolution visible-band images of the Arctic ice pack that are available at the GFL, USGS. The statistics related to the available images are...University of Maryland team as a Faculty Research Assistant, working under the guidance of Co-PI Farrell. Ms. Faber is responsible for analysis of MODIS

  16. Interpolación espacial de la evapotranspiración del cultivo de referencia, ET0 a partir de imágenes de satélite

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez Martínez, Marcela; Chuvieco Salinero, Emilio

    2002-01-01

    This paper intends to obtain accurate estimations of reference évapotranspiration from multitemporal analysis of NOAA-AVHRR images. The study area corresponds to the Autonomous Community of Andalucía, and the period of analysis comprehends the spring and summer seasons of 1994 to 1997. Results obtained from multiple regression analysis are compared with those derived from spatial interpolation, using geostatistical methods. The results show a better fitting and more realistic trends for those...

  17. Cyclone track forecasting based on satellite images using artificial neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Kovordanyi, Rita; Roy, Chandan

    2009-01-01

    Many places around the world are exposed to tropical cyclones and associated storm surges. In spite of massive efforts, a great number of people die each year as a result of cyclone events. To mitigate this damage, improved forecasting techniques must be developed. The technique presented here uses artificial neural networks to interpret NOAA-AVHRR satellite images. A multi-layer neural network, resembling the human visual system, was trained to forecast the movement of cyclones based on sate...

  18. Bone cement distribution is a potential predictor to the reconstructive effects of unilateral percutaneous kyphoplasty in OVCFs: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jiachen; Qian, Lie; Jiang, Changqing; Chen, Xiuyuan; Feng, Fan; Lao, Lifeng

    2018-06-07

    Osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) is a common type of fracture, and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) is an eligible solution to it. Previous studies have revealed that both the volume and filling pattern of bone cement correlate with the clinical outcomes after PKP procedure. However, the role of bone cement distribution remains to be illustrated. To retrospectively evaluate the relationship between the bone cement distribution and the clinical outcomes of unilateral PKP, we enrolled 73 OVCF patients receiving unilateral PKP treatment. All the intervened vertebrae were classified into three groups based on the bone cement distribution observed on postoperative X-ray films. Preoperative and postoperative radiographic parameters including the vertebral height and kyphotic Cobb angle were recorded, and anterior vertebral height restoration rate (AVHRR) and Cobb angle correction (CR) were then calculated to assess the vertebral height reconstruction. Preoperative and postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) and visual analogue scale (VAS) were adopted by interviewing patients to assess the mobility improvement and pain relief. Demographic data, body mass index (BMI), lumbar bone mineral density (evaluated by BMD T-score) of each patient, bone cement volume (BV), and bone cement extravasation (BE) were also recorded. Between- and within-group comparisons and multivariable correlation analysis were carried out to analyze the data. VAS and ODI scores were both significantly improved in all of the enrolled cases with no significant differences between groups. Among the three groups, the average age, AVHRR, and BV were significantly different. Occurrence of BE was significantly different between two of the three groups. AVHRR was demonstrated to correlate negatively with preoperative anterior vertebral height ratio and positively with preoperative Cobb angle, CR, diffusion score, and ODI changes. Bone cement distribution is a potential predictor to the

  19. Remote sensing of coastal sea-surface features off northern British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardine, I.D.; Thomson, K.A.; LeBlond, P.H.; Foreman, M.G.

    1993-01-01

    This article presents an overview of surface oceanographic features identified by AVHRR imagery in Hecate Strait and adjacent waters surrounding the Queen Charlotte Islands, Canada, an area still poor in in situ observations. The observed features and their temporal variability are interpreted in terms of meteorological and hydrological forcing. The effects of tidal mixing are discussed through the application of a finite element numerical model

  20. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Casady, Grant M.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fi...

  1. The Maximum Cross-Correlation approach to detecting translational motions from sequential remote-sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, J.; Lythe, M. B.

    1996-06-01

    This paper presents the principle of the Maximum Cross-Correlation (MCC) approach in detecting translational motions within dynamic fields from time-sequential remotely sensed images. A C program implementing the approach is presented and illustrated in a flowchart. The program is tested with a pair of sea-surface temperature images derived from Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) images near East Cape, New Zealand. Results show that the mean currents in the region have been detected satisfactorily with the approach.

  2. Estimation of land surface temperature based on satellite image data. Paper no. IGEC-1-117

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, S.; Yano, T.; Iino, N.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to predict a ground surface temperature (GST) of Kagoshima Prefecture in Kyushu Island, Japan, by using LANDSAT-5/TM and NOAA-11/AVHRR digital data. Image processing procedure is employed to aid in evaluating GST, in which the thermal images of AVHRR bands 4 and 5 are analysed. Emphasis is placed on the prediction accuracy of the existing atmospheric correlation equations taking the atmospheric attenuation effect into account, which are proposed by Tamba et. al., Bates and Diaz, and Sakkaida and Kawamura. It is disclosed that (I) the factor of the zenith angle need to be taken into account when the accurate GST is evaluated by using the atmospheric correction equations, (ii) that of Sakaida and Kawamura has better accuracy, (iii) LANDSAT-5/TM data contains a very high resolution level of the land, the estimated land surface temperature is higher than the measured value, and (iv) improved accuracy of the surface temperature is achieved if LANDSAT-5/TM data are used together with NOAA-11/AVHRR. (author)

  3. Multisensor remote sensing data and GIS techniques for monitoring preservation areas - A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimabukuro, Y.E.; Lee, D.C.L.; Dos Santos, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    The capability of remote sensing and Geographic Information System techniques for detecting and monitoring the anthropic alterations which sometimes occur in preservation areas is discussed. Attention is given to the Emas National Park in the southwest Goias State, Brazil. TM/Landsat data from July 29, 1988 (before a fire that occurred there) and August 14, 1988, (after the fire) and AVHRR/NOAA data obtained in this period covered by TM images were used to monitor the biomass burning. The TM images were registered to a topographic map in order to compile a data base including information such as drainage, roads, elevation, and vegetation type for this park. Pixels classified as burned areas using band 3 of AVHRR images were overlayed on the map derived from the data base. The integration of elevation, TM multitemporal data, and information derived from AVHRR images is found to be a valuable tool for managers in detecting and evaluating damage and in monitoring the regeneration process of land cover. 15 refs

  4. CLARA-SAL: a global 28 yr timeseries of Earth's black-sky surface albedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riihelä

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel 28 yr dataset of Earth's black-sky surface albedo, derived from AVHRR instruments. The dataset is created using algorithms to separately derive the surface albedo for different land use areas globally. Snow, sea ice, open water and vegetation are all treated independently. The product features corrections for the atmospheric effect in satellite-observed surface radiances, a BRDF correction for the anisotropic reflectance properties of natural surfaces, and a novel topography correction of geolocation and radiometric accuracy of surface reflectance observations over mountainous areas. The dataset is based on a homogenized AVHRR radiance timeseries. The product is validated against quality-controlled in situ observations of clear-sky surface albedo at various BSRN sites around the world. Snow and ice albedo retrieval validation is given particular attention using BSRN sites over Antarctica, Greenland Climate Network stations on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS, as well as sea ice albedo data from the SHEBA and Tara expeditions. The product quality is found to be comparable to other previous long-term surface albedo datasets from AVHRR.

  5. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-01-01

    An increasing number of remote sensing investigations require radiometrically calibrated imagery from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiation (AVHRR) sensors. Although a prelaunch calibration is done for these sensors, there is no capability for monitoring any changes in the in-flight absolute calibration for the visible and near infrared spectral channels. Hence, the possibility of using the reflectance-based method developed at White Sands for in-orbit calibration of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT Haute Resolution Visible (HVR) data to calibrate the AVHRR sensor was investigated. Three diffrent approaches were considered: Method 1 - ground and atmospheric measurements and reference to another calibrated satellite sensor; Method 2 - ground and atmospheric measurements with no reference to another sensor; and Method 3 - no ground and atmospheric measurements but reference to another satellite sensor. The purpose is to describe an investigation on the use of Method 2 to calibrate NOAA-9 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 with the help of ground and atmospheric measurements at Rogers (dry) Lake, Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in the Mojave desert of California.

  6. The absolute radiometric calibration of the advanced very high resolution radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, P. N.; Teillet, P. M.; Ding, Y.

    1988-10-01

    An increasing number of remote sensing investigations require radiometrically calibrated imagery from NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiation (AVHRR) sensors. Although a prelaunch calibration is done for these sensors, there is no capability for monitoring any changes in the in-flight absolute calibration for the visible and near infrared spectral channels. Hence, the possibility of using the reflectance-based method developed at White Sands for in-orbit calibration of LANDSAT Thematic Mapper (TM) and SPOT Haute Resolution Visible (HVR) data to calibrate the AVHRR sensor was investigated. Three diffrent approaches were considered: Method 1 - ground and atmospheric measurements and reference to another calibrated satellite sensor; Method 2 - ground and atmospheric measurements with no reference to another sensor; and Method 3 - no ground and atmospheric measurements but reference to another satellite sensor. The purpose is to describe an investigation on the use of Method 2 to calibrate NOAA-9 AVHRR channels 1 and 2 with the help of ground and atmospheric measurements at Rogers (dry) Lake, Edwards Air Force Base (EAFB) in the Mojave desert of California.

  7. Cloud Detection from Satellite Imagery: A Comparison of Expert-Generated and Automatically-Generated Decision Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiffman, Smadar

    2004-01-01

    Automated cloud detection and tracking is an important step in assessing global climate change via remote sensing. Cloud masks, which indicate whether individual pixels depict clouds, are included in many of the data products that are based on data acquired on- board earth satellites. Many cloud-mask algorithms have the form of decision trees, which employ sequential tests that scientists designed based on empirical astrophysics studies and astrophysics simulations. Limitations of existing cloud masks restrict our ability to accurately track changes in cloud patterns over time. In this study we explored the potential benefits of automatically-learned decision trees for detecting clouds from images acquired using the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA-14 weather satellite of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. We constructed three decision trees for a sample of 8km-daily AVHRR data from 2000 using a decision-tree learning procedure provided within MATLAB(R), and compared the accuracy of the decision trees to the accuracy of the cloud mask. We used ground observations collected by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Clouds and the Earth s Radiant Energy Systems S COOL project as the gold standard. For the sample data, the accuracy of automatically learned decision trees was greater than the accuracy of the cloud masks included in the AVHRR data product.

  8. The CACAO Method for Smoothing, Gap Filling, and Characterizing Seasonal Anomalies in Satellite Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verger, Aleixandre; Baret, F.; Weiss, M.; Kandasamy, S.; Vermote, E.

    2013-01-01

    Consistent, continuous, and long time series of global biophysical variables derived from satellite data are required for global change research. A novel climatology fitting approach called CACAO (Consistent Adjustment of the Climatology to Actual Observations) is proposed to reduce noise and fill gaps in time series by scaling and shifting the seasonal climatological patterns to the actual observations. The shift and scale CACAO parameters adjusted for each season allow quantifying shifts in the timing of seasonal phenology and inter-annual variations in magnitude as compared to the average climatology. CACAO was assessed first over simulated daily Leaf Area Index (LAI) time series with varying fractions of missing data and noise. Then, performances were analyzed over actual satellite LAI products derived from AVHRR Long-Term Data Record for the 1981-2000 period over the BELMANIP2 globally representative sample of sites. Comparison with two widely used temporal filtering methods-the asymmetric Gaussian (AG) model and the Savitzky-Golay (SG) filter as implemented in TIMESAT-revealed that CACAO achieved better performances for smoothing AVHRR time series characterized by high level of noise and frequent missing observations. The resulting smoothed time series captures well the vegetation dynamics and shows no gaps as compared to the 50-60% of still missing data after AG or SG reconstructions. Results of simulation experiments as well as confrontation with actual AVHRR time series indicate that the proposed CACAO method is more robust to noise and missing data than AG and SG methods for phenology extraction.

  9. Long-Term Water Temperature Variations in Daya Bay, China Using Satellite and In Situ Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Yu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Daya Bay is a shallow, semi-en closed bay in the northern section of the South China Sea. The present study analyzed variations of water temperature in Daya Bay over the past 21 years (1985 - 2005 using Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR satellite remote sensing data and in situ observations. Results showed that AVHRR readings of sea surface temperature (SST increased by 0.07°C y-1. Linear regression anal y sis for monthly SST anomalies (SSTA showed a shift from negative to positive from 1995 - 1996, when the Daya Bay nuclear power station commenced operations in 1994. The slope of linear regression analysis for SSTA nearly doubled from 0.05 (1985 - 1993 to 0.09 (1994 - 2005. Monthly AVHRR images showed a thermal plume from the power station and revealed the in crease of SST over 21 years. In situ observations in water temperature also showed an in creasing trend for the same period (1985 - 2005. Variations in water temperature in Daya Bay were connected with climatic perturbations and in creasing human activity including thermal discharge from nuclear power stations and the rapid economic development around the bay area.

  10. Socio-Economic Impact of Air Pollution on Dwellers of and around ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    include the assessment of the health effects of air pollution on the people who are residing .... industries: electric power generation industry, mineral (mostly cement) ... within 1 km from energy production industries had greater mortality from.

  11. Georeferenced Population Datasets of Mexico (GEO-MEX): Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Raster Based GIS Coverage of Mexican Population is a gridded coverage (1 x 1 km) of Mexican population. The data were converted from vector into raster. The...

  12. GHRSST Level 2P Global skin Sea Surface Temperature from the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) on the Metop-A satellite (GDS V2) produced by OSI SAF (GDS version 2)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A global 1 km Group for High Resolution Sea Surface Temperature (GHRSST) Level 2P dataset based on multi-channel sea surface temperature (SST) retrievals generated...

  13. EOP MIT General Circulation Model (MITgcm)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution for the...

  14. Analysis of wind bias change with respect to time at Cape Kennedy, Florida, and Vandenberg AFB, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adelfang, S. I.

    1978-01-01

    A statistical analysis is presented of the temporal variability of wind vectors at 1 km altitude intervals from 0 to 27 km altitude after applying a digital filter to the original wind profile data sample.

  15. Daily MUR SST, Interim near-real-time (nrt) product

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A daily, global Sea Surface Temperature (SST) data set is produced at 1-km (MUR, or Multi-scale ultra-high resolution Temperature) by the JPL sciengists Drs. Mike...

  16. Statistical properties of visible and infrared beams retroreflected through a turbulent atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slatkine, M.; Bensimon, D.; Englander, A.; Shtrikman, S.; Treves, D.

    1980-01-01

    Statistical properties of HeNe and CO 2 laser beams retroreflected through a turbulent atmosphere are investigated experimentally for round paths of 1 km and 12 km. Both heterodyne and direct detection are used

  17. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and currents speed from 2011-04-01 to 2013-07-30 from model output (NCEI Accession 0166079)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains output of a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution...

  18. WATER TEMPERATURE, SALINITY, and currents speed from 2011-04-01 to 2013-07-30 from model output (NCEI Accession 0131071)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains output of a regional implementation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology general circulation model (MITgcm) at a 1-km spatial resolution...

  19. Effects of spatial aggregation on the multi-scale estimation of evapotranspiration

    KAUST Repository

    Ershadi, Ali; McCabe, Matthew; Evans, Jason P.; Walker, Jeffrey P.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of spatial resolution on the estimation of land surface heat fluxes from remote sensing is poorly understood. In this study, the effects of aggregation from fine (< 100 m) to medium (approx. 1. km) scales are investigated using high

  20. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project (GRUMP), Alpha Version consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km)...

  1. Secrets of life buried in the ice

    CERN Multimedia

    Collins, S

    2003-01-01

    "New Zealand scientists have joined an ambitious project to build a 1km-sized telescope deep under the South Pole to detect tiny particles ejected from "black holes" in the universe that hurtle through the earth" (1 page).

  2. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  3. SeaWiFS

    Data.gov (United States)

    Washington University St Louis — SEAWiFS_US is a high resolution (1km) satellite dataset derived from the eight wavelength SEAWiFS sensor. The dataset also includes the aerosol reflectance over the...

  4. URBAN MORPHOLOGY FOR HOUSTON TO DRIVE MODELS-3/CMAQ AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different degrees of treatment in the specifications of the underlying surfaces. As we model neighborhood scales ( 1 km horizontal grid spacing), the representation of urban morphological structures (e....

  5. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 7-day, 3-hourly forecast for the region surrounding the island of Oahu at approximately 1-km resolution. While considerable...

  6. Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1): Coastlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Global Rural-Urban Mapping Project, Version 1 (GRUMPv1) consists of estimates of human population for the years 1990, 1995, and 2000 by 30 arc-second (1km) grid...

  7. Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS): Oahu: Data Assimilating

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) 2-day, 3-hourly data assimilating hindcast for the region surrounding the island of Oahu at approximately 1-km resolution....

  8. Growth, production and consumption of the thalassinid prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1992-03-31

    Mar 31, 1992 ... The growth of these prawns, determined by cohort analyses, was described by von. Bertalantty equations: Lt ... 35·E. SWARTKOPS ESTUARY. 1 km. •. VILLAGES !Ii MAJOR BAIT AREAS. Figure 1 (A) ...... Commerce,. National ...

  9. An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Avitabile, V.; Herold, M.; Heuvelink, G. B. M.; Lewis, S. L.; Phillips, O. L.; Asner, G. P.; Armston, J.; Ashton, P. S.; Banin, L.; Bayol, N.; Berry, N. J.; Boeckx, P.; de Jong, B. H. J.; DeVries, B.; Girardin, C. A. J.

    2016-01-01

    We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of field observations and locally calibrated high-resolution biomass maps, harmonized and upscaled to 14 477 1-km AGB estimates. Our data fusion approach uses bias removal and weighted linear averaging...

  10. Two-dimensional coherence analysis of magnetic and gravity data from the Casper Quadrangle, Wyoming. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Volume II contains the following: gravity station location map; complete Bouguer gravity map; total magnetic map; gravity data copper area detrended continued 1 km; magnetic data Casper Wyoming continued 1 km; upward continued coherent gravity maps; magnetic field reduced to the pole/pseudo gravity map; geology map-Casper Quadrangle; magnetic interpretation map-Casper Quadrangle; gravity interpretation map; magnetic interpretation cross section; magnetic profiles; flight line map and uranium occurrences

  11. Creating a Regional MODIS Satellite-Driven Net Primary Production Dataset for European Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Mathias; Moreno, Adam; Thurnher, Christopher; Mues, Volker; Härkönen, Sanna; Mura, Matteo; Bouriaud, Olivier; Lang, Mait; Cardellini, Giuseppe; Thivolle-Cazat, Alain; Bronisz, Karol; Merganic, Jan; Alberdi, Iciar; Astrup, Rasmus; Mohren, Frits

    2016-01-01

    Net primary production (NPP) is an important ecological metric for studying forest ecosystems and their carbon sequestration, for assessing the potential supply of food or timber and quantifying the impacts of climate change on ecosystems. The global MODIS NPP dataset using the MOD17 algorithm provides valuable information for monitoring NPP at 1-km resolution. Since coarse-resolution global climate data are used, the global dataset may contain uncertainties for Europe. We used a 1-km daily g...

  12. 49 CFR 563.8 - Data format

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... roll angle −1080 deg to + 1080 deg ±10% 10 deg. Speed, vehicle indicated 0 km/h to 200 km/h ±1 km/h 1 km/h. Engine throttle, percent full (accelerator pedal percent full) 0 to 100% ±5% 1%. Engine RPM 0 to 10,000 rpm ± 100 rpm. 100 rpm. Service brake (on, off) On and Off N/A On and Off. ABS activity On...

  13. Cosmic Ray Physics with the IceCube Observatory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolanoski, H

    2013-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory with its 1-km 3 in-ice detector and the 1-km 2 surface detector (IceTop) constitutes a three-dimensional cosmic ray detector well suited for general cosmic ray physics. Various measurements of cosmic ray properties, such as energy spectra, mass composition and anisotropies, have been obtained from analyses of air showers at the surface and/or atmospheric muons in the ice.

  14. Air-quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    K. Markakis; M. Valari; A. Colette; O. Sanchez; O. Perrussel; C. Honore; R. Vautard; Z. Klimont; S. Rao

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. High-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed bas...

  15. Browning boreal forests of western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbyla, David

    2011-12-01

    The GIMMS NDVI dataset has been widely used to document a 'browning trend' in North American boreal forests (Goetz et al 2005, Bunn et al 2007, Beck and Goetz 2011). However, there has been speculation (Alcaraz-Segura et al 2010) that this trend may be an artifact due to processing algorithms rather than an actual decline in vegetation activity. This conclusion was based primarily on the fact that GIMMS NDVI did not capture NDVI recovery within most burned areas in boreal Canada, while another dataset consistently showed post-fire increasing NDVI. I believe that the results of Alcaraz-Segura et al (2010) were due simply to different pixel sizes of the two datasets (64 km2 versus 1 km2 pixels). Similar results have been obtained from tundra areas greening in Alaska, with the results simply due to these pixel size differences (Stow et al 2007). Furthermore, recent studies have documented boreal browning trends based on NDVI from other sensors. Beck and Goetz (2011) have shown the boreal browning trend derived from a different sensor (MODIS) to be very similar to the boreal browning trend derived from the GIMMS NDVI dataset for the circumpolar boreal region. Parent and Verbyla (2010) found similar declining NDVI patterns based on NDVI from Landsat sensors and GIMMS NDVI in boreal Alaska. Zhang et al (2008) found a similar 'browning trend' in boreal North America based on a production efficiency model using an integrated AVHRR and MODIS dataset. The declining NDVI trend in areas of boreal North America is consistent with tree-ring studies (D'Arrigo et al 2004, McGuire et al 2010, Beck et al 2011). The decline in tree growth may be due to temperature-induced drought stress (Barber et al 2000) caused by higher evaporative demands in a warming climate (Lloyd and Fastie 2002). In a circumpolar boreal study, Lloyd and Bunn (2007) found that a negative relationship between temperature and tree-ring growth occurred more frequently in warmer parts of species' ranges

  16. Shifts in Arctic phenology in response to climate and anthropogenic factors as detected from multiple satellite time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Heqing; Jia, Gensuo; Forbes, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    There is an urgent need to reduce the uncertainties in remotely sensed detection of phenological shifts of high latitude ecosystems in response to climate changes in past decades. In this study, vegetation phenology in western Arctic Russia (the Yamal Peninsula) was investigated by analyzing and comparing Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and SPOT-Vegetation (VGT) during the decade 2000–2010. The spatial patterns of key phenological parameters were highly heterogeneous along the latitudinal gradients based on multi-satellite data. There was earlier SOS (start of the growing season), later EOS (end of the growing season), longer LOS (length of the growing season), and greater MaxNDVI from north to south in the region. The results based on MODIS and VGT data showed similar trends in phenological changes from 2000 to 2010, while quite a different trend was found based on AVHRR data from 2000 to 2008. A significantly delayed EOS (p < 0.01), thus increasing the LOS, was found from AVHRR data, while no similar trends were detected from MODIS and VGT data. There were no obvious shifts in MaxNDVI during the last decade. MODIS and VGT data were considered to be preferred data for monitoring vegetation phenology in northern high latitudes. Temperature is still a key factor controlling spatial phenological gradients and variability, while anthropogenic factors (reindeer husbandry and resource exploitation) might explain the delayed SOS in southern Yamal. Continuous environmental damage could trigger a positive feedback to the delayed SOS. (letter)

  17. How consistent are global long-term satellite LAI products in terms of interannual variability and trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, C.; Ryu, Y.; Fang, H.

    2016-12-01

    Proper usage of global satellite LAI products requires comprehensive evaluation. To address this issue, the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Land Product Validation (LPV) subgroup proposed a four-stage validation hierarchy. During the past decade, great efforts have been made following this validation framework, mainly focused on absolute magnitude, seasonal trajectory, and spatial pattern of those global satellite LAI products. However, interannual variability and trends of global satellite LAI products have been investigated marginally. Targeting on this gap, we made an intercomparison between seven global satellite LAI datasets, including four short-term ones: MODIS C5, MODIS C6, GEOV1, MERIS, and three long-term products ones: LAI3g, GLASS, and GLOBMAP. We calculated global annual LAI time series for each dataset, among which we found substantial differences. During the overlapped period (2003 - 2011), MODIS C5, GLASS and GLOBMAP have positive correlation (r > 0.6) between each other, while MODIS C6, GEOV1, MERIS, and LAI3g are highly consistent (r > 0.7) in interannual variations. However, the previous three datasets show negative trends, all of which use MODIS C5 reflectance data, whereas the latter four show positive trends, using MODIS C6, SPOT/VGT, ENVISAT/MERIS, and NOAA/AVHRR, respectively. During the pre-MODIS era (1982 - 1999), the three AVHRR-based datasets (LAI3g, GLASS and GLOBMAP) agree well (r > 0.7), yet all of them show oscillation related with NOAA platform changes. In addition, both GLASS and GLOBMAP show clear cut-points around 2000 when they move from AVHRR to MODIS. Such inconsistency is also visible for GEOV1, which uses SPOT-4 and SPOT-5 before and after 2002. We further investigate the map-to-map deviations among these products. This study highlights that continuous sensor calibration and cross calibration are essential to obtain reliable global LAI time series.

  18. Detecting and quantifying the extent of desertification and its impact in the semi-arid Sub-Saharan Africa: A case study of the Upper East Region, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owusu, Alex B.

    The semi-arid Sub-Saharan region of Africa is in a state of permanent instability at a variety of spatio-temporal momentum. Efforts at sustaining and managing this fragile but all-important ecosystem and its processes require collecting, storing and analyzing multispatial and temporal data that are accurate and continuously updated in terms of changes (degradation), types and magnitude of change. Remote sensing techniques based on multispectral satellite-acquired data (AVHRR, Landsat TM and ETM+) have demonstrated an immense potential as a means to detect, quantify, monitor and map these changes. However, much of what satellite sensors can detect and capture, especially in the form of vegetation index (NDVI), do not tell the entire story about land degradation. This research used multispectral remote sensing data from three sensors (AVHRR, Landsat TM, and ETM+ and IKONOS) to detect and quantify the spatio-temporal land degradation (desertification) to validate the local observation and perception of desertification. The study also analyzes data on crop production in search of evidence proving or disproving degradation in the semi-arid sahel-sudan savannah transitional vegetation zone of the UER, Ghana. Multispectral satellite-acquired NDVI, from AVHRR, Landsat TM & ETM+, show that vegetation greenness is on the ascendancy, although there are pockets (localized degradation) signs of severe land degradation; field evidence suggests that the increasing NDVI is caused by vegetation succession where locally adapted horsetail grasses have been displaced by environmentally efficient, short-lived, quick maturing and dense grasses due to excessive burning, rapid population growth and inappropriate development policies. Local people's perceptions, supported by crop production data, suggest extensive land degradation. Other evidence includes food insecurity, diseases, rainfall variability and land extensification to marginal lands. Convergence of evidence suggests that

  19. Snow cover monitoring model and change over both time and space in pastoral area of northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yan; Li, Suju; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Wei; Nie, Juan; Wen, Qi

    2014-11-01

    Snow disaster is a natural phenomenon owning to widespread snowfall for a long time and usually affect people's life, property and economic. During the whole disaster management circle, snow disaster in pastoral area of northern china which including Xinjiang, Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, Tibet has been paid more attention. Thus do a good job in snow cover monitoring then found snow disaster in time can help the people in disaster area to take effective rescue measures, which always been the central and local government great important work. Remote sensing has been used widely in snow cover monitoring for its wide range, high efficiency, less conditions, more methods and large information. NOAA/AVHRR data has been used for wide range, plenty bands information and timely acquired and act as an import data of Snow Cover Monitoring Model (SCMM). SCMM including functions list below: First after NOAA/AVHRR data has been acquired, geometric calibration, radiometric calibration and other pre-processing work has been operated. Second after band operation, four threshold conditions are used to extract snow spectrum information among water, cloud and other features in NOAA/AVHRR image. Third snow cover information has been analyzed one by one and the maximum snow cover from about twenty images in a week has been selected. Then selected image has been mosaic which covered the pastoral area of China. At last both time and space analysis has been carried out through this operational model ,such as analysis on the difference between this week and the same period of last year , this week and last week in three level regional. SCMM have been run successfully for three years, and the results have been take into account as one of the three factors which led to risk warning of snow disaster and analysis results from it always play an important role in disaster reduction and relief.

  20. Using satellite data on meteorological and vegetation characteristics and soil surface humidity in the Land Surface Model for the vast territory of agricultural destination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Vasilenko, Eugene; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The model of water and heat exchange between vegetation covered territory and atmosphere (LSM, Land Surface Model) for vegetation season has been developed to calculate soil water content, evapotranspiration, infiltration of water into the soil, vertical latent and sensible heat fluxes and other water and heat balances components as well as soil surface and vegetation cover temperatures and depth distributions of moisture and temperature. The LSM is suited for utilizing satellite-derived estimates of precipitation, land surface temperature and vegetation characteristics and soil surface humidity for each pixel. Vegetation and meteorological characteristics being the model parameters and input variables, correspondingly, have been estimated by ground observations and thematic processing measurement data of scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, SEVIRI/Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3) and MSU-MR/Meteor-M № 2. Values of soil surface humidity has been calculated from remote sensing data of scatterometers ASCAT/MetOp-A, -B. The case study has been carried out for the territory of part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region of European Russia with area of 227300 km2 located in the forest-steppe zone for years 2012-2015 vegetation seasons. The main objectives of the study have been: - to built estimates of precipitation, land surface temperatures (LST) and vegetation characteristics from MSU-MR measurement data using the refined technologies (including algorithms and programs) of thematic processing satellite information matured on AVHRR and SEVIRI data. All technologies have been adapted to the area of interest; - to investigate the possibility of utilizing satellite-derived estimates of values above in the LSM including verification of obtained estimates and development of procedure of their inputting into the model. From the AVHRR data there have been built the estimates of precipitation, three types of LST: land skin temperature Tsg, air temperature at a level of

  1. Recent history of trends in vegetation greenness and large-scale ecosystem disturbances in Eurasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potter, Christopher; Nemani, Ramakrishna; Kumar, Vipin; Klooster, Steven

    2007-01-01

    Recent patterns of land cover and vegetation dynamics on the Euasian continent have been linked to changes in the global carbon cycle. Our study was conducted to evaluate patterns in a 19-yr record of global satellite observations of terrestrial vegetation from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) as a means to characterize major trends in both vegetation 'greenness' and ecosystem disturbance. The fraction absorbed of photosynthetically active radiation (FPAR) by vegetation canopies worldwide has been computed from the AVHRR at a monthly time interval from 1982 to 2000 and gridded at a spatial resolution of 8 km globally. Unlike previous studies of the AVHRR multiyear time-series of vegetation dynamics, the 8-km spatial resolution makes it possible to compare disturbance events and greenness trends at the same level of spatial detail. Positive trends in FPAR were detected throughout a major greenbelt of central-eastern Europe starting in the mid-1980s. This Eurasian greenbelt extended in a wide swath over the Urals, into the vicinity of Lake Baykal south of the central Siberian plateau, mainly along a latitude belt from 55 deg N to 65 deg N. There was also significantly positive greening in relatively large areas of Great Britain, Italy, Greece, Turkey, the Caucasus and southern India. Nonetheless, a strong downward trend in the FPAR time-series over most of Eurasia was observed by the end of the 1990s. Throughout the 19-yr time period, Eurasia was also impacted by many notable droughts and other disturbance events that could have substantially offset decadal carbon gains attributed to satellite-observed greening. Large-scale ecosystems disturbance events were identified in the FPAR time-series by locating anomalously low values (FPAR-LO) that lasted longer than 12 consecutive months at any 8-km pixel. We find verifiable evidence of numerous disturbance types across Eurasia, including regional patterns of severe droughts, forest fires and insect

  2. Spatio-temporal variations of vegetation indicators in Eastern Siberia under global warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varlamova, Eugenia V.; Solovyev, Vladimir S.

    2017-11-01

    Study of spatio-temporal variations of NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and phenological parameters of Eastern Siberia vegetation cover under global warming was carried out on AVHRR/NOAA data (1982-2014). Trend maps of NDVI and annual variations of phenological parameters and NDVI are analyzed. A method based on stable transition of air temperature through +5°C was used to estimate the beginning, end and the length of the growing season. Correlation between NDVI and phenological parameters, surface air temperature and precipitation are discussed.

  3. "Estimativa da produção primária e biomassa fitoplanctônica através de sensoriamento remoto da cor do oceano e dados in situ na Costa Sudeste Brasileira"

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Kampel

    2003-01-01

    A biomassa e a produtividade primária fitoplanctônica da costa sudeste foram estimadas através de sensoriamento remoto da cor do oceano e dados in situ. Foram realizados quatro cruzeiros hidrográficos sazonais de mesoescala nas regiões de plataforma e talude continental durante os verões e invernos de 2001 e 2002. Com a descrição das características hidrográficas e distribuições de nutrientes inorgânicos dissolvidos, complementada pela análise de imagens orbitais (AVHRR e SeaWiFS), foi possív...

  4. Extrapolation of contrail investigations by LIDAR to larger scale measurements. Analysis and calibration of CCD camera and satellite images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, R.; Homburg, F.; Freudenthaler, V.; Jaeger, H. [Frauenhofer Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Umweltforschung, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The CCD image of a persistent contrail and the coincident LIDAR measurement are presented. To extrapolate the LIDAR derived optical thickness to the video field of view an anisotropy correction and calibration has to be performed. Observed bright halo components result from highly regular oriented hexagonal crystals with sizes of 200 {mu}m-2 mm. This explained by measured ambient humidities below the formation threshold of natural cirrus. Optical thickness from LIDAR shows significant discrepancies to the result from coincident NOAA-14 data. Errors result from anisotropy correction and parameterized relations between AVHRR channels and optical properties. (author) 28 refs.

  5. Relative sensitivity of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) for vegetation and desertification monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Francois; Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1988-01-01

    A simple equation relating the Microwave Polarization Difference Index (MPDI) and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is proposed which represents well data obtained from Nimbus 7/SMMR at 37 GHz and NOAA/AVHRR Channels 1 and 2. It is found that there is a limit which is characteristic of a particular type of cover for which both indices are equally sensitive to the variation of vegetation, and below which MPDI is more efficient than NDVI. The results provide insight into the relationship between water content and chlorophyll absorption at pixel size scales.

  6. Biological-Physical Coupling in the Gulf of Maine: Satellite and Model Studies of Phytoplankton Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Andrew C.; Chai, F.; Townsend, D. W.; Xue, H.

    2002-01-01

    The goals of this project were to acquire, process, QC, archive and analyze SeaWiFS chlorophyll fields over the Gulf of Maine and Scotia Shelf region. The focus of the analysis effort was to calculate and quantify seasonality and interannual. variability of SeaWiFS-measured phytoplankton biomass in the study area and compare these to physical forcing and hydrography. An additional focus within this effort was on regional differences within the heterogeneous biophysical regions of the Gulf of Maine / Scotia Shelf. Overall goals were approached through the combined use of SeaWiFS and AVHRR data and the development of a coupled biology-physical numerical model.

  7. Future opportunities and challenges in remote sensing of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardlow, Brian D.; Anderson, Martha C.; Sheffield, Justin; Doorn, Brad; Zhan, Xiwu; Rodell, Matt; Wardlow, Brian D.; Anderson, Martha C.; Verdin, James P.

    2012-01-01

    The value of satellite remote sensing for drought monitoring was first realized more than two decades ago with the application of Normalized Difference Index (NDVI) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) for assessing the effect of drought on vegetation. Other indices such as the Vegetation Health Index (VHI) were also developed during this time period, and applied to AVHRR NDVI and brightness temperature data for routine global monitoring of drought conditions. These early efforts demonstrated the unique perspective that global imagers such as AVHRR could provide for operational drought monitoring through their near-daily, global observations of Earth's land surface. However, the advancement of satellite remote sensing of drought was limited by the relatively few spectral bands of operational global sensors such as AVHRR, along with a relatively short period of observational record. Remote sensing advancements are of paramount importance given the increasing demand for tools that can provide accurate, timely, and integrated information on drought conditions to facilitate proactive decision making (NIDIS, 2007). Satellite-based approaches are key to addressing significant gaps in the spatial and temporal coverage of current surface station instrument networks providing key moisture observations (e.g., rainfall, snow, soil moisture, ground water, and ET) over the United States and globally (NIDIS, 2007). Improved monitoring capabilities will be particularly important given increases in spatial extent, intensity, and duration of drought events observed in some regions of the world, as reported in the International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report (IPCC, 2007). The risk of drought is anticipated to further increase in some regions in response to climatic changes in the hydrologic cycle related to evaporation, precipitation, air temperature, and snow cover (Burke et al., 2006; IPCC, 2007; USGCRP, 2009). Numerous national, regional, and

  8. Ozone concentrations in the Brazilian Amazonia during BASE-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setzer, A.W.; Kirchhoff, V.W.J.H.; Pereira, M.C.

    1991-01-01

    During the Biomass Burning Airborne and Spaceborne Experiment--Amazonia, thermal images of fires were made with the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on board meteorological NOAA series satellites. The results of ozone measurements made on board the Brazilian Institute for Space Research (INPE) airplane during September of 1989 are presented and analyzed in relation to the temporal and geographical location of fires detected before and during the sampling. Results show that on a synoptic scale, concentrations of ozone rise sharply in regions of more intense burning

  9. TOVS data analysis during the catastrophic floods of Bangladesh of 1987 and 1988 and Cyclone of 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choudhury, A.M.

    1990-08-01

    Bangladesh has witnessed catastrophic floods in recent years so much so that in 1988 two-thirds of the country was flooded. This had created a world-wide attention. NOAA AVHRR and LANDSAT TM data have been analyzed to monitor floods. TOVS data prior to flooding, have also been analyzed to find out the causes of abnormal rainfall in the catchment area, responsible for flooding. TOVS data of the cyclone of 25 May 1985 which hit Bangladesh have also been analyzed. Satellite imagery can be very effectively used in the early warning of floods and cyclones. (author). 4 refs

  10. Can an Atmospherically Forced Ocean Model Accurately Simulate Sea Surface Temperature During ENSO Events?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Ruth H. Preller, 7300 Security, Code 1226 Office of Counsel.Code 1008.3 ADOR/Director NCST E. R. Franchi , 7000 Public Affairs (Unclassified...Ruth H. Prellcr. 7300 Security. Code 1226 Office nl Cot nsal.Co’de’""" 10OB.3 ADORfOireMO,’ NCST. E. R. Franchi , 7000 Public Affairs ftMCl»SS/»d...over the global ocean. Similarly, the monthly mean MODAS SST climatology is based on Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Multi

  11. Observational evidence for the impact of jet condensation trails upon the earths radiation budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1998-12-31

    Jet condensation trails have been classified in AVHRR images from a couple of month. It was tried to estimate their impact upon the radiation budget from the observed radiances. This has been performed by direct comparison of contrail image points to neighboring image points, assuming a slowly varying background. The classification method, basing on an artificial neural network for pattern recognition is explained. The details of the estimation of the net impact of contrails upon the radiation budget are shown by one example. (author) 5 refs.

  12. Observational evidence for the impact of jet condensation trails upon the earths radiation budget

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meinert, D. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    1997-12-31

    Jet condensation trails have been classified in AVHRR images from a couple of month. It was tried to estimate their impact upon the radiation budget from the observed radiances. This has been performed by direct comparison of contrail image points to neighboring image points, assuming a slowly varying background. The classification method, basing on an artificial neural network for pattern recognition is explained. The details of the estimation of the net impact of contrails upon the radiation budget are shown by one example. (author) 5 refs.

  13. Determining the Pixel-to-Pixel Uncertainty in Satellite-Derived SST Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The primary measure of the quality of sea surface temperature (SST fields obtained from satellite-borne infrared sensors has been the bias and variance of matchups with co-located in-situ values. Because such matchups tend to be widely separated, these bias and variance estimates are not necessarily a good measure of small scale (several pixels gradients in these fields because one of the primary contributors to the uncertainty in satellite retrievals is atmospheric contamination, which tends to have large spatial scales compared with the pixel separation of infrared sensors. Hence, there is not a good measure to use in selecting SST fields appropriate for the study of submesoscale processes and, in particular, of processes associated with near-surface fronts, both of which have recently seen a rapid increase in interest. In this study, two methods are examined to address this problem, one based on spectra of the SST data and the other on their variograms. To evaluate the methods, instrument noise was estimated in Level-2 Visible-Infrared Imager-Radiometer Suite (VIIRS and Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR SST fields of the Sargasso Sea. The two methods provided very nearly identical results for AVHRR: along-scan values of approximately 0.18 K for both day and night and along-track values of 0.21 K for day and night. By contrast, the instrument noise estimated for VIIRS varied by method, scan geometry and day-night. Specifically, daytime, along-scan (along-track, spectral estimates were found to be approximately 0.05 K (0.08 K and the corresponding nighttime values of 0.02 K (0.03 K. Daytime estimates based on the variogram were found to be 0.08 K (0.10 K with the corresponding nighttime values of 0.04 K (0.06 K. Taken together, AVHRR instrument noise is significantly larger than VIIRS instrument noise, along-track noise is larger than along-scan noise and daytime levels are higher than nighttime levels. Given the similarity of

  14. The environmental vegetation index: A tool potentially useful for arid land management. [Texas and Mexico, plant growth stress due to water deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, T. I., Jr.; Mccrary, D. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    The NOAA-6 AVHRR data sets acquired over South Texas and Mexico during the spring of 1980 and after Hurricane Allen passed inland are analyzed. These data were processed to produce the Gray-McCrary Index (GMI's) for each pixel location over the selected area, which area contained rangeland and cropland, both irrigated and nonirrigated. The variations in the GMI's appear to reflect well the availability of water for vegetation. The GMI area maps are shown to delineate and to aid in defining the duration of drought; suggesting the possibility that time changes over a selected area could be useful for irrigation management.

  15. A modified integrated NDVI for improving estimates of terrestrial net primary production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Running, Steven W.

    1990-01-01

    Logic is presented for a time-integrated NDVI that is modified by an AVHRR derived surface evaporation resistance factor sigma, and truncated by temperatures that cause plant dormancy, to improve environmental sensitivity. With this approach, NDVI observed during subfreezing temperatures is not integrated. Water stress-related impairment in plant activity is incorporated by reducing the effective NDVI at each integration with sigma, which is derived from the slope of the surface temperature to NDVI ratio for climatically similar zones of the scene. A comparison of surface resistance before and after an extended drought period for a 1200 sq km region of coniferous forest in Montana is presented.

  16. Global Sea Surface Temperature: A Harmonized Multi-sensor Time-series from Satellite Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, C. J.

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents the methods used to obtain a new global sea surface temperature (SST) dataset spanning the early 1980s to the present, intended for use as a climate data record (CDR). The dataset provides skin SST (the fundamental measurement) and an estimate of the daily mean SST at depths compatible with drifting buoys (adjusting for skin and diurnal variability). The depth SST provided enables the CDR to be used with in situ records and centennial-scale SST reconstructions. The new SST timeseries is as independent as possible from in situ observations, and from 1995 onwards is harmonized to an independent satellite reference (namely, SSTs from the Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (Advanced ATSR)). This maximizes the utility of our new estimates of variability and long-term trends in interrogating previous datasets tied to in situ observations. The new SSTs include full resolution (swath, level 2) data, single-sensor gridded data (level 3, 0.05 degree latitude-longitude grid) and a multi-sensor optimal analysis (level 4, same grid). All product levels are consistent. All SSTs have validated uncertainty estimates attached. The sensors used include all Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometers from NOAA-6 onwards and the ATSR series. AVHRR brightness temperatures (BTs) are calculated from counts using a new in-flight re-calibration for each sensor, ultimately linked through to the AATSR BT calibration by a new harmonization technique. Artefacts in AVHRR BTs linked to varying instrument temperature, orbital regime and solar contamination are significantly reduced. These improvements in the AVHRR BTs (level 1) translate into improved cloud detection and SST (level 2). For cloud detection, we use a Bayesian approach for all sensors. For the ATSRs, SSTs are derived with sufficient accuracy and sensitivity using dual-view coefficients. This is not the case for single-view AVHRR observations, for which a physically based retrieval is employed, using a hybrid

  17. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Konrad; Key, J.; Maslanik, J.; Schweiger, A.

    1993-01-01

    This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction - Application of Multispectral Satellite Data in Polar Surface Energy Flux Estimates. The main emphasis during the past year was on: radiative flux estimates from satellite data; intercomparison of satellite and ground-based cloud amounts; radiative cloud forcing; calibration of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) visible channels and comparison of two satellite derived albedo data sets; and on flux modeling for leads. Major topics covered are arctic clouds and radiation; snow and ice albedo, and leads and modeling.

  18. The along track scanning radiometer for ERS-1 - Scan geometry and data simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prata, A. J. Fred; Cechet, Robert P.; Barton, Ian J.; Llewellyn-Jones, David T.

    1990-01-01

    The first European remote-sensing satellite (ERS-1), due to be launched in 1990, will carry the along track scanning radiometer (ATSR), which has been specifically designed to give accurate satellite measurements of sea surface temperature (SST). Details of the novel scanning technique used by the ATSR are given, and data from the NOAA-9 AVHRR instrument are used to simulate raw ATSR imagery. Because of the high precision of the onboard blackbodies, the active cooling of the detectors, 12-b digitization, and dual-angle capability, the ATSR promises to achieve higher-accuracy satellite-derived SSTs than are currently available.

  19. New views on changing Arctic vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert E.

    2012-03-01

    means of tracking retrospective changes in Arctic and boreal vegetation. These images are attractive because they are consistent over time, are good at mapping vegetation, are available for areas difficult to reach on the ground, and are of broad geographic extent. In a now-classic study, Myneni et al (1998) used historical reanalysis of AVHRR image data to document changes in vegetation phenology at continental scales in the northern hemisphere, finding patterns of change consistent with impacts of increased growing season in boreal and near-polar regions. The year 2000 launch of the MODIS sensors has allowed even more robust assessment of vegetation change in the Arctic (de Beurs and Henebry 2010) and at global scales (Zhao and Running 2010). Despite opening a window into vegetation change in the Arctic, these studies provide a relatively coarsely filtered view of change. To track trends occurring before the year 2000, researchers are constrained to the large pixel sizes of the AVHRR instrument (nominally 1 km, but typically 4-8 km for derived datasets). Even the finer grain of MODIS (250 m to 1 km resolution) obscures many important natural and anthropogenically derived spatial patterns. The effects of climate change may exacerbate contrasts in competitive status of different vegetative groups (Klady et al 2011, Pieper et al 2011, Seastedt et al 2004). Resolving mechanisms of response requires empirical observation at the scale of individual vegetative communities. Thus, the new work of Fraser et al (2011) represents a critical milestone in climate change related monitoring of Arctic vegetation. Their work is important in three ways. First, the authors provide the first spatially explicit, continuous record of long-term trends in Arctic vegetation condition at a pixel resolution of 30 m. Based on Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data reaching back to the mid 1980s, the work required the overcoming of several key methodological challenges to build a dataset from which

  20. Evaluating the Height of Biomass Burning Smoke Aerosols Retrieved from Synergistic Use of Multiple Satellite Sensors Over Southeast Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jaehwa; Hsu, N. Christina; Bettenhausen, Corey; Sayer, Andrew M.; Seftor, Colin J.; Jeong, Myeong-Jae; Tsay, Si-Chee; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Wang, Sheng-Hsiang; Chen, Wei-Nai

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates the height of biomass burning smoke aerosols retrieved from a combined use of Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) observations. The retrieved heights are compared against space borne and ground-based lidar measurements during the peak biomass burning season (March and April) over Southeast Asia from 2013 to 2015. Based on the comparison against CALIOP, a quality assurance (QA) procedure is developed. It is found that 74 (8184) of the retrieved heights fall within 1 km of CALIOP observations for unfiltered (QA-filtered) data, with root-mean-square error (RMSE) of 1.1 km (0.81.0 km). Eliminating the requirement of CALIOP observations from the retrieval process significantly increases the temporal coverage with only a slight decrease in the retrieval accuracy; for best QA data, 64 of data fall within 1 km of CALIOP observations with RMSE of 1.1 km. When compared with Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) measurements deployed at Doi Ang Khang, Thailand, the retrieved heights show RMSE of 1.7 km (1.1 km) for unfiltered (QA-filtered) data for the complete algorithm, and 0.9 km (0.8 km) for the simplified algorithm.

  1. Effects of Telecoupling on Global Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    With the ever increasing trend in telecoupling processes, such as international trade, all countries around the world are becoming more interdependent. However, the effects of this growing interdependence on vegetation (e.g., shifts in the geographic extent and distribution) remain unknown even though vegetation dynamics are crucially important for food production, carbon sequestration, provision of other ecosystem services, and biodiversity conservation. In this study we evaluate the effects of international trade on the spatio-temporal trajectories of vegetation at national and global scales, using vegetation index imagery collected over more than three decades by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite sensor series together with concurrent national and international data on international trade (and its associated movement of people, goods, services and information). The spatio-temporal trajectories of vegetation are obtained using the scale of fluctuation technique, which is based on the decomposition of the AVHRR image time series to obtain information on its spatial dependence structure over time. Similar to the correlation length, the scale of fluctuation corresponds to the range over which fluctuations in the vegetation index are spatially correlated. Results indicate that global vegetation has changed drastically over the last three decades. These changes are not uniform across space, with hotspots in active trading countries. This study not only has direct implications for understanding global vegetation dynamics, but also sheds important insights on the complexity of human-nature interactions across telecoupled systems.

  2. Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) Data Sets for Global Environment and Climate Change Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bess, T. Dale; Carlson, Ann B.; Denn, Fredrick M.

    1997-01-01

    For a number of years there has been considerable interest in the earth's radiation budget (ERB) or energy balance, and entails making the best measurements possible of absorbed solar radiation, reflected shortwave radiation (RSW), thermal outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and net radiation. ERB data are fundamental to the development of realistic climate models and studying natural and anthropogenic perturbations of the climate. Much of the interest and investigations in the earth's energy balance predated the age of earth-orbiting satellites (Hunt et al., 1986). Beginning in the mid 1960's earth-orbiting satellites began to play an important role in making measurements of the earth's radiation flux although much effort had gone into measuring ERB parameters prior to 1960 (House et al., 1986). Beginning in 1974 and extending until the present time, three different satellite experiments (not all operating at the same time) have been making radiation budget measurements almost continually in time. Two of the experiments were totally dedicated to making radiation budget measurements of the earth, and the other experiment flown on NOAA sun-synchronous AVHRR weather satellites produced radiation budget parameters as a by-product. The heat budget data from the AVHRR satellites began collecting data in June 1974 and have operated almost continuously for 23 years producing valuable data for long term climate monitoring.

  3. Uncertainties in satellite remote sensing of aerosols and impact on monitoring its long-term trend: a review and perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of increasing attention paid to aerosols in climate studies, numerous global satellite aerosol products have been generated. Aerosol parameters and underlining physical processes are now incorporated in many general circulation models (GCMs in order to account for their direct and indirect effects on the earth's climate, through their interactions with the energy and water cycles. There exists, however, an outstanding problem that these satellite products have substantial discrepancies, that must be lowered substantially for narrowing the range of the estimates of aerosol's climate effects. In this paper, numerous key uncertain factors in the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD are articulated for some widely used and relatively long satellite aerosol products including the AVHRR, TOMS, MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS. We systematically review the algorithms developed for these sensors in terms of four key elements that influence the quality of passive satellite aerosol retrieval: calibration, cloud screening, classification of aerosol types, and surface effects. To gain further insights into these uncertain factors, the NOAA AVHRR data are employed to conduct various tests, which help estimate the ranges of uncertainties incurred by each of the factors. At the end, recommendations are made to cope with these issues and to produce a consistent and unified aerosol database of high quality for both environment monitoring and climate studies.

  4. High spatial resolution radiation budget for Europe: derived from satellite data, validation of a regional model; Raeumlich hochaufgeloeste Strahlungsbilanz ueber Europa: Ableitung aus Satellitendaten, Validation eines regionalen Modells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollmann, R. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerenphysik

    2000-07-01

    Since forty years instruments onboard satellites have been demonstrated their usefulness for many applications in the field of meteorology and oceanography. Several experiments, like ERBE, are dedicated to establish a climatology of the global Earth radiation budget at the top of the atmosphere. Now the focus has been changed to the regional scale, e.g. GEWEX with its regional sub-experiments like BALTEX. To obtain a regional radiation budget for Europe in the first part of the work the well calibrated measurements from ScaRaB (scanner for radiation budget) are used to derive a narrow-to-broadband conversion, which is applicable to the AVHRR (advanced very high resolution radiometer). It is shown, that the accuracy of the method is in the order of that from SCaRaB itself. In the second part of the work, results of REMO have been compared with measurements of ScaRaB and AVHRR for March 1994. The model reproduces the measurements overall well, but it is overestimating the cold areas and underestimating the warm areas in the longwave spectral domain. Similarly it is overestimating the dark areas and underestimating the bright areas in the solar spectral domain. (orig.)

  5. Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovalskyy, V; Henebry, G M, E-mail: geoffrey.henebry@sdstate.ed [Geographic Information Science Center of Excellence (GIScCE), South Dakota State University, 1021 Medary Avenue, Wecota Hall 506B, Brookings, SD 57007-3510 (United States)

    2009-10-15

    The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

  6. A primary study on finding hot groundwater using infrared remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.; Wu, Q.

    Hot groundwater is a kind of valuable natural resources to be explored utilized. Shanxi Province, located in the eastern Loess Plateau of China, is rich in geothermal resources, most of which was found in irrigation well drilling or geological survey. Basic study is weak. Now new developed Remote Sensing technique provides geothermal study with an advanced way. Air-RS information of thermal infrared and dada from thermal channel of Meteorological Landset AVHRR has been used widely. A thermal infrared channel (TM6) was installed in the U. S. second Landset, Its resolving power of space is as high as 120 m, 10 times more t an one ofh AVHRR. A Landset earth recourses launched by China and Brazil (CBERS-1) in 1999, including a spectrum of thermal infrared. It is paid a great interested and attention to survey geothermal resources using thermal infrared. This article is a brief introduction of finding hot groundwater with on the bases of differences of thermal radiation of objects reflected by thermal infrared in the Landset, and treated with HIS colors changes. This study provides an advanced way widely used to exploit hot groundwater and to promote the development of tourism and geothermal medical in China.

  7. Characterization of Land Surfaces with Satellite-borne Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Y.

    Hot groundwater is a kind of valuable natural resources to be explored utilized. Shanxi Province, located in the eastern Loess Plateau of China, is rich in geothermal resources, most of which was found in irrigation well drilling or geological survey. Basic study is weak. Now new developed Remote Sensing technique provides geothermal study with an advanced way. Air-RS information of thermal infrared and dada from thermal channel of Meteorological Landset AVHRR has been used widely. A thermal infrared channel (TM6) was installed in the U.S. second Landset, Its resolving power of space is as high as 120m, 10 times more than one of AVHRR. A Landset earth recourses launched by China and Brazil (CBERS-1) in 1999, including a spectrum of thermal infrared. It is paid a great interested and attention to survey geothermal resources using thermal infrared. This article is a brief introduction of finding hot groundwater with on the bases of differences of thermal radiation of objects reflected by thermal infrared in the Landset, and treated with HIS colors changes. This study provides an advanced way widely used to exploit hot groundwater and to promote the development of tourism and geothermal medical in China.

  8. Change and persistence in land surface phenologies of the Don and Dnieper river basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalskyy, V; Henebry, G M

    2009-01-01

    The formal collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991 produced major socio-economic and institutional dislocations across the agricultural sector. The picture of broad scale patterns produced by these transformations continues to be discovered. We examine here the patterns of land surface phenology (LSP) within two key river basins-Don and Dnieper-using AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) data from 1982 to 2000 and MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) data from 2001 to 2007. We report on the temporal persistence and change of LSPs as summarized by seasonal integration of NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) time series using accumulated growing degree-days (GDDI NDVI). Three land cover super-classes-forest lands, agricultural lands, and shrub lands-constitute 96% of the land area within the basins. All three in both basins exhibit unidirectional increases in AVHRR GDDI NDVI between the Soviet and post-Soviet epochs. During the MODIS era (2001-2007), different socio-economic trajectories in Ukraine and Russia appear to have led to divergences in the LSPs of the agricultural lands in the two basins. Interannual variation in the shrub lands of the Don river basin has increased since 2000. This is due in part to the better signal-to-noise ratio of the MODIS sensor, but may also be due to a regional drought affecting the Don basin more than the Dnieper basin.

  9. Theoretical algorithms for satellite-derived sea surface temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, I. J.; Zavody, A. M.; O'Brien, D. M.; Cutten, D. R.; Saunders, R. W.; Llewellyn-Jones, D. T.

    1989-03-01

    Reliable climate forecasting using numerical models of the ocean-atmosphere system requires accurate data sets of sea surface temperature (SST) and surface wind stress. Global sets of these data will be supplied by the instruments to fly on the ERS 1 satellite in 1990. One of these instruments, the Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (ATSR), has been specifically designed to provide SST in cloud-free areas with an accuracy of 0.3 K. The expected capabilities of the ATSR can be assessed using transmission models of infrared radiative transfer through the atmosphere. The performances of several different models are compared by estimating the infrared brightness temperatures measured by the NOAA 9 AVHRR for three standard atmospheres. Of these, a computationally quick spectral band model is used to derive typical AVHRR and ATSR SST algorithms in the form of linear equations. These algorithms show that a low-noise 3.7-μm channel is required to give the best satellite-derived SST and that the design accuracy of the ATSR is likely to be achievable. The inclusion of extra water vapor information in the analysis did not improve the accuracy of multiwavelength SST algorithms, but some improvement was noted with the multiangle technique. Further modeling is required with atmospheric data that include both aerosol variations and abnormal vertical profiles of water vapor and temperature.

  10. Remote sensing the susceptibility of cloud albedo to changes in drop concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platnick, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    The role of clouds in reflecting solar radiation to space and thereby reducing surface heating is of critical importance to climate. Combustion processes that produce greenhouse gases also increase cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations which in turn increase cloud drop concentrations and thereby cloud albedo. A calculation of cloud susceptibility, defined in this work as the increase in albedo resulting from the addition of one cloud drop per cubic centimeter (as cloud liquid water content remains constant), is made through satellite remote sensing of cloud drop radius and optical thickness. The remote technique uses spectral channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) instrument on board the NOAA polar orbiting satellites. Radiative transfer calculations of reflectance and effective surface and cloud emissivities are made for applicable sun and satellite viewing angles, including azimuth, at various radii and optical thicknesses for each AVHRR channel. Emission in channel 3 (at 3.75 microns) is removed to give the reflected solar component. These calculations are used to infer the radius and optical thickness giving the best match to the satellite measurements. The effect of the atmosphere on the signal received by the satellite is included in the analysis

  11. Characteristics (abundance, type and origin) of beach litter on the Galician coast (NW Spain) from 2001 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Gago, J. (Jesús); Lahuerta, F. (Fernando); Antelo, P. (Pilar)

    2014-01-01

    In order to assess the situation of beach litter on the Galician coast (NW Spain), we conducted a seasonal series of sampling on three beaches: A Lanzada, Baldaio and O Rostro. A total of 79 surveys were conducted from 2001 to 2010 on a stretch of 100 m and a stretch of 1 km. A total of 37862 beach litter items were counted and classified on the 100-m stretch and 7845 on the 1-km stretch. The average annual value of litter items for the 100-m beach stretch was 1016±633, 88±31 and 332±183; for...

  12. Air quality in the mid-21st century for the city of Paris under two climate scenarios; from the regional to local scale

    OpenAIRE

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Colette, A.; Sanchez, O.; Perrussel, O.; Honore, C.; Vautard, R.; Klimont, Z.; Rao, S.

    2014-01-01

    Ozone and PM2.5 concentrations over the city of Paris are modeled with the CHIMERE air-quality model at 4 km × 4 km horizontal resolution for two future emission scenarios. A high-resolution (1 km × 1 km) emission projection until 2020 for the greater Paris region is developed by local experts (AIRPARIF) and is further extended to year 2050 based on regional-scale emission projections developed by the Global Energy Assessment. Model evaluation is performed based on a 10-year...

  13. IM/DD vs. 4-PAM Using a 1550-nm VCSEL over Short-Range SMF/MMF Links for Optical Interconnects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karinou, Fotini; Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Prince, Kamau

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally compare the performance of 10.9-Gb/s IM/DD and 5-GBd 4-PAM modulation formats over 5-km SMF and 1-km MMF links, employing a commercially-available 1550-nm VCSEL as an enabling technology for use in optical interconnects.......We experimentally compare the performance of 10.9-Gb/s IM/DD and 5-GBd 4-PAM modulation formats over 5-km SMF and 1-km MMF links, employing a commercially-available 1550-nm VCSEL as an enabling technology for use in optical interconnects....

  14. Calculation of exposure to NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} for Oslo, Drammen, Bergen and Trondheim; Beregning av NO{sub 2} og PM{sub 10} eksponering for Oslo, Drammen, Bergen og Trondheim. Vinteren 1994-1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloerdal, L H

    1998-12-31

    This report presents calculations of the human exposure to the air pollutants NO{sub 2} and PM{sub 10} in four Norwegian cities. The calculations are done for the winter 1994/1995. Data on the distribution of residences in a 1 km x 1 km model grid are used to calculate various measures of exposure. It is calculated that large parts of the population are at times subjected to exposures greater than the officially recommended limits. This is particularly the case with NO{sub 2} and for the cities Oslo and Trondheim. 2 refs., 9 tabs.

  15. A simulation study of the effects of land cover and crop type on sensing soil moisture with an orbital C-band radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, M. C.; Ulaby, F. T.; Moezzi, S.; Roth, E.

    1983-01-01

    Simulated C-band radar imagery for a 124-km by 108-km test site in eastern Kansas is used to classify soil moisture. Simulated radar resolutions are 100 m by 100 m, 1 km by 1 km, and 3 km by 3 km, and each is processed using more than 23 independent samples. Moisture classification errors are examined as a function of land-cover distribution, field-size distribution, and local topographic relief for the full test site and also for subregions of cropland, urban areas, woodland, and pasture/rangeland. Results show that a radar resolution of 100 m by 100 m yields the most robust classification accuracies.

  16. Modeling water and heat balance components of large territory for vegetation season using information from polar-orbital and geostationary meteorological satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muzylev, Eugene; Startseva, Zoya; Uspensky, Alexander; Volkova, Elena; Kukharsky, Alexander; Uspensky, Sergey

    2015-04-01

    To date, physical-mathematical modeling processes of land surface-atmosphere interaction is considered to be the most appropriate tool for obtaining reliable estimates of water and heat balance components of large territories. The model of these processes (Land Surface Model, LSM) developed for vegetation period is destined for simulating soil water content W, evapotranspiration Ev, vertical latent LE and heat fluxes from land surface as well as vertically distributed soil temperature and moisture, soil surface Tg and foliage Tf temperatures, and land surface skin temperature (LST) Ts. The model is suitable for utilizing remote sensing data on land surface and meteorological conditions. In the study these data have been obtained from measurements by scanning radiometers AVHRR/NOAA, MODIS/EOS Terra and Aqua, SEVIRI/geostationary satellites Meteosat-9, -10 (MSG-2, -3). The heterogeneity of the land surface and meteorological conditions has been taken into account in the model by using soil and vegetation characteristics as parameters and meteorological characteristics as input variables. Values of these characteristics have been determined from ground observations and remote sensing information. So, AVHRR data have been used to build the estimates of effective land surface temperature (LST) Ts.eff and emissivity E, vegetation-air temperature (temperature at the vegetation level) Ta, normalized vegetation index NDVI, vegetation cover fraction B, the leaf area index LAI, and precipitation. From MODIS data the values of LST Tls, Å, NDVI, LAI have been derived. From SEVIRI data there have been retrieved Tls, E, Ta, NDVI, LAI and precipitation. All named retrievals covered the vast territory of the part of the agricultural Central Black Earth Region located in the steppe-forest zone of European Russia. This territory with coordinates 49°30'-54°N, 31°-43°E and a total area of 227,300 km2 has been chosen for investigation. It has been carried out for years 2009

  17. Satellite-based climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trentmann, Jörg; Cremer, Roswitha; Kothe, Steffen; Müller, Richard; Pfeifroth, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    The incoming surface solar radiation has been defined as an essential climate variable by GCOS. Long term monitoring of this part of the earth's energy budget is required to gain insights on the state and variability of the climate system. In addition, climate data sets of surface solar radiation have received increased attention over the recent years as an important source of information for solar energy assessments, for crop modeling, and for the validation of climate and weather models. The EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF) is deriving climate data records (CDRs) from geostationary and polar-orbiting satellite instruments. Within the CM SAF these CDRs are accompanied by operational data at a short time latency to be used for climate monitoring. All data from the CM SAF is freely available via www.cmsaf.eu. Here we present the regional and the global climate data records of surface solar radiation from the CM SAF. The regional climate data record SARAH (Surface Solar Radiation Dataset - Heliosat, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/SARAH/V002) is based on observations from the series of Meteosat satellites. SARAH provides 30-min, daily- and monthly-averaged data of the effective cloud albedo, the solar irradiance (incl. spectral information), the direct solar radiation (horizontal and normal), and the sunshine duration from 1983 to 2015 for the full view of the Meteosat satellite (i.e, Europe, Africa, parts of South America, and the Atlantic ocean). The data sets are generated with a high spatial resolution of 0.05° allowing for detailed regional studies. The global climate data record CLARA (CM SAF Clouds, Albedo and Radiation dataset from AVHRR data, doi: 10.5676/EUM_SAF_CM/CLARA_AVHRR/V002) is based on observations from the series of AVHRR satellite instruments. CLARA provides daily- and monthly-averaged global data of the solar irradiance (SIS) from 1982 to 2015 with a spatial resolution of 0.25°. In addition to the solar surface

  18. Time scales of pattern evolution from cross-spectrum analysis of advanced very high resolution radiometer and coastal zone color scanner imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denman, Kenneth L.; Abbott, Mark R.

    1994-01-01

    We have selected square subareas (110 km on a side) from coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) and advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) images for 1981 in the California Current region off northern California for which we could identify sequences of cloud-free data over periods of days to weeks. We applied a two-dimensional fast Fourier transformation to images after median filtering, (x, y) plane removal, and cosine tapering. We formed autospectra and coherence spectra as functions of a scalar wavenumber. Coherence estimates between pairs of images were plotted against time separation between images for several wide wavenumber bands to provide a temporal lagged coherence function. The temporal rate of loss of correlation (decorrelation time scale) in surface patterns provides a measure of the rate of pattern change or evolution as a function of spatial dimension. We found that patterns evolved (or lost correlation) approximately twice as rapidly in upwelling jets as in the 'quieter' regions between jets. The rapid evolution of pigment patterns (lifetime of about 1 week or less for scales of 50-100 km) ought to hinder biomass transfer to zooplankton predators compared with phytoplankton patches that persist for longer times. We found no significant differences between the statistics of CZCS and AVHRR images (spectral shape or rate of decorrelation). In addition, in two of the three areas studied, the peak correlation between AVHRR and CZCS images from the same area occurred at zero lag, indicating that the patterns evolved simutaneously. In the third area, maximum coherence between thermal and pigment patterns occurred when pigment images lagged thermal images by 1-2 days, mirroring the expected lag of high pigment behind low temperatures (and high nutrients) in recently upwelled water. We conclude that in dynamic areas such as coastal upwelling systems, the phytoplankton cells (identified by pigment color patterns) behave largely as passive scalars at the

  19. Two MODIS Aerosol Products over Ocean on the Terra and Aqua CERES SSF Datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignatov, Alexander; Minnis, Patrick; Loeb, Norman; Wielicki, Bruce; Miller, Walter; Sun-Mack, Sunny; Tanré, Didier; Remer, Lorraine; Laszlo, Istvan; Geier, Erika

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the impact of aerosols on the earth's radiation budget and the long-term climate record requires consistent measurements of aerosol properties and radiative fluxes. The Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Science Team combines satellite-based retrievals of aerosols, clouds, and radiative fluxes into Single Scanner Footprint (SSF) datasets from the Terra and Aqua satellites. Over ocean, two aerosol products are derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) using different sampling and aerosol algorithms. The primary, or M, product is taken from the standard multispectral aerosol product developed by the MODIS aerosol group while a simpler, secondary [Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) like], or A, product is derived by the CERES Science Team using a different cloud clearing method and a single-channel aerosol algorithm. Two aerosol optical depths (AOD), τA1 and τA2, are derived from MODIS bands 1 (0.644 μm) and 6 (1.632 μm) resembling the AVHRR/3 channels 1 and 3A, respectively. On Aqua the retrievals are made in band 7 (2.119 μm) because of poor quality data from band 6. The respective Ångström exponents can be derived from the values of τ. The A product serves as a backup for the M product. More importantly, the overlap of these aerosol products is essential for placing the 20+ year heritage AVHRR aerosol record in the context of more advanced aerosol sensors and algorithms such as that used for the M product.This study documents the M and A products, highlighting their CERES SSF specifics. Based on 2 weeks of global Terra data, coincident M and A AODs are found to be strongly correlated in both bands. However, both domains in which the M and A aerosols are available, and the respective τ/α statistics significantly differ because of discrepancies in sampling due to differences in cloud and sun-glint screening. In both aerosol products, correlation is observed between the retrieved

  20. Satellite radar altimetry for monitoring small rivers and lakes in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulistioadi, Y.B.; Tseng, K.H.; Shum, C.K.; Hidayat, Hidayat; Sumaryono, M.; Suhardiman, A.; Setiawan, F.; Sunarso, S.

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing and satellite geodetic observations are capable of hydrologic monitoring of freshwater resources. Although satellite radar altimetry has been used in monitoring water level or discharge, its use is often limited to monitoring large rivers (>1 km) with longer interval periods

  1. Skills of different mesoscale models over Indian region during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tion and prediction of high impact severe weather systems. Such models ... mesoscale models can be run at cloud resolving resolutions (∼1km) ... J. Earth Syst. Sci. 117, No. ..... similar to climate drift, indicating that those error components are ...

  2. Depressionary Effect of Proximity of Residential Properties to Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Past studies have researched these impacts using a variety of hedonic models and Marginal Implicit Pricing, however, this study takes a special focus on the resident's perspective based on the linear proximity to waste disposal sites. 260 questionnaires were distributed to residents within 1km to the site and Estate ...

  3. Optimizing Internal Wave Drag in a Forward Barotropic Model with Semidiurnal Tides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-23

    rates and patterns after tuning. This suggests that the directionality of the tensor scheme may not provide substantial additional benefit compared to...wave drag scheme Model (layers) Res [] Observations RMSE >1 km [cm] RMSE all depths [cm] Jayne and St. Laurent (2001) JSL JSL(1) 1=2 UT- CSR 6:7$ Egbert

  4. Animals & Livestock | National Agricultural Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    News Contact Us Search  Log inRegister Home Home Animals & Livestock NEWT: National Extension fisher occupancy of small, 1 km^2^ grid cells of forest habitat. Animals and Livestock html Data from consisting of IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R, and activates the JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Animals and Livestock html

  5. Electromagnetic field, excited by monodirected X-radiation pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhemerov, A.V.; Metelkin, E.V.

    1994-01-01

    Parameters of electromagnetic field, generated in the atmosphere by monodirected pulse source of X radiation located at the altitude of approximately several kilometers have been estimated by the method of delayed potentials. The source radiation is directed towards the Earth surface. The conclusion was made that restricted areas of approximately 1 km with considerable pulse electromagnetic fields can be created on the Earth surface

  6. Los tambos Inca: el caso de Camata Tambo valle alto de Moquegua

    OpenAIRE

    Chacaltana Cortez, Sofía; Ministerio de Cultura

    2013-01-01

    Camata Tambo está ubicado en la parte alta del valle alto de Moquegua. Por este tambo pasa un camino Inca que viene del altiplano y continúa hacia el centro provincial de Sabaya ubicado a 1 km valle abajo.

  7. An integrated pan-tropical biomass map using multiple reference datasets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avitabile, V.; Herold, M.; Heuvelink, G.B.M.; Lewis, S.L.; Phillips, O.L.; Asner, G.P.; Armston, J.; Asthon, P.; Banin, L.F.; Bayol, N.; Berry, N.; Boeckx, P.; Jong, De B.; Devries, B.; Girardin, C.; Kearsley, E.; Lindsell, J.A.; Lopez-gonzalez, G.; Lucas, R.; Malhi, Y.; Morel, A.; Mitchard, E.; Nagy, L.; Qie, L.; Quinones, M.; Ryan, C.M.; Slik, F.; Sunderland, T.; Vaglio Laurin, G.; Valentini, R.; Verbeeck, H.; Wijaya, A.; Willcock, S.

    2016-01-01

    We combined two existing datasets of vegetation aboveground biomass (AGB) (Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, 2011, 9899; Nature Climate Change, 2, 2012, 182) into a pan-tropical AGB map at 1-km resolution using an independent reference dataset of

  8. Yield estimation using SPOT-VEGETATION products: A case study of wheat in European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kowalik, W.; Dabrowska-Zielinska, K.; Meroni, M.; Raczka, T.U.; Wit, de A.J.W.

    2014-01-01

    In the period 1999-2009 ten-day SPOT-VEGETATION products of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) at 1 km spatial resolution were used in order to estimate and forecast the wheat yield over Europe. The products were

  9. Downscaling Coarse Actual ET Data Using Land Surface Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, T.

    2017-12-01

    This study proposed a new approach of downscaling ETWATCH 1km actual evapotranspiration (ET) product to a spatial resolution of 30m using land surface resistance that simulated mainly from monthly Landsat8 data and Jarvis method, which combined the benefits of both high temporal resolution of ETWATCH product and fine spatial resolution of Landsat8. The driving factor, surface resistance (Rs), was chosen for the reason that could reflect the transfer ability of vapor flow over canopy. Combined resistance Rs both upon canopy conditions, atmospheric factors and available water content of soil, which remains stable inside one ETWATCH pixel (1km). In this research, we used ETWATCH 1km ten-day actual ET product from April to October in a total of twenty-one images and monthly 30 meters cloud-free NDVI of 2013 (two images from HJ as a substitute due to cloud contamination) combined meteorological indicators for downscaling. A good agreement and correlation were obtained between the downscaled data and three flux sites observation in the middle reach of Heihe basin. The downscaling results show good consistency with the original ETWATCH 1km data both temporal and spatial scale over different land cover types with R2 ranged from 0.8 to 0.98. Besides, downscaled result captured the progression of vegetation transpiration well. This study proved the practicability of new downscaling method in the water resource management.

  10. Increased risk of pneumonia in residents living near poultry farms: does the upper respiratory tract microbiota play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.A.; Boender, G.J.; de Steenhuijsen Piters, W.A.A.; Hagenaars, T.J.; Huijskens, E G W; Rossen, John W A; Koopmans, M.; Nodelijk, G.; Sanders, Elisabeth A M; Yzermans, J.; Bogaert, D.; Heederik, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potentially related to particulate matter and endotoxin emissions. We aim to confirm

  11. Increased risk of pneumonia in residents living near poultry farms: does the upper respiratory tract microbiota play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, L.A.M.; Boender, G.J.; Steenhuijsen Piters, W.A.A. de; Hagenaars, T.J.; Huijskens, E.G.W.; Rossen, J.W.A.; Koopmans, M.; Nodelijk, G.; Sanders, E.A.M.; Yzermans, J.; Bogaert, D.; Heederik, D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potentially related to particulate matter and endotoxin emissions. We aim to confirm

  12. Increased risk of pneumonia in residents living near poultry farms : does the upper respiratory tract microbiota play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Lidwien A. M.; Boender, Gert Jan; de Steenhuijsen Piters, Wouter A A; Hagenaars, Thomas J; Huijskens, Elisabeth G. W.; Rossen, John W A; Koopmans, Marion; Nodelijk, Gonnie; Sanders, Elisabeth A. M.; Yzermans, Joris; Bogaert, Debby; Heederik, Dick

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Air pollution has been shown to increase the susceptibility to community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously, we observed an increased incidence of CAP in adults living within 1 km from poultry farms, potentially related to particulate matter and endotoxin emissions. We aim to confirm

  13. Evaluation of MODIS gross primary productivity for Africa using eddy covariance data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Sjöström, M

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available MOD17A2 provides operational gross primary production (GPP) data globally at 1 km spatial resolution and 8-day temporal resolution. MOD17A2 estimates GPP according to the light use efficiency (LUE) concept assuming a fixed maximum rate of carbon...

  14. An Updating System for the Gridded Population Database of China Based on Remote Sensing, GIS and Spatial Database Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Huang, Yaohuan; Dong, Pinliang; Jiang, Dong; Liu, Honghui

    2009-01-01

    The spatial distribution of population is closely related to land use and land cover (LULC) patterns on both regional and global scales. Population can be redistributed onto geo-referenced square grids according to this relation. In the past decades, various approaches to monitoring LULC using remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have been developed, which makes it possible for efficient updating of geo-referenced population data. A Spatial Population Updating System (SPUS) is developed for updating the gridded population database of China based on remote sensing, GIS and spatial database technologies, with a spatial resolution of 1 km by 1 km. The SPUS can process standard Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS L1B) data integrated with a Pattern Decomposition Method (PDM) and an LULC-Conversion Model to obtain patterns of land use and land cover, and provide input parameters for a Population Spatialization Model (PSM). The PSM embedded in SPUS is used for generating 1 km by 1 km gridded population data in each population distribution region based on natural and socio-economic variables. Validation results from finer township-level census data of Yishui County suggest that the gridded population database produced by the SPUS is reliable. PMID:22399959

  15. Natural Environment Suitability of China and Its Relationship with Population Distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohuan Yang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The natural environment factor is one of the main indexes for evaluating human habitats, sustained economic growth and ecological health status. Based on Geographic Information System (GIS technology and an analytic hierarchy process method, this article presents the construction of the Natural Environment Suitability Index (NESI model of China by using natural environment data including climate, hydrology, surface configuration and ecological conditions. The NESI value is calculated in grids of 1 km by 1 km through ArcGIS. The spatial regularity of NESI is analyzed according to its spatial distribution and proportional structure. The relationship of NESI with population distribution and economic growth is also discussed by analyzing NESI results with population distribution data and GDP data in 1 km by 1 km grids. The study shows that: (1 the value of NESI is higher in the East and lower in the West in China; The best natural environment area is the Yangtze River Delta region and the worst are the northwest of Tibet and southwest of Xinjiang. (2 There is a close correlation among natural environment, population distribution and economic growth; the best natural environment area, the Yangtze River Delta region, is also the region with higher population density and richer economy. The worst natural environment areas, Northwest and Tibetan Plateau, are also regions with lower population density and poorer economies.

  16. Natural Environment Suitability of China and Its Relationship with Population Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohuan; Ma, Hanqing

    2009-01-01

    The natural environment factor is one of the main indexes for evaluating human habitats, sustained economic growth and ecological health status. Based on Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and an analytic hierarchy process method, this article presents the construction of the Natural Environment Suitability Index (NESI) model of China by using natural environment data including climate, hydrology, surface configuration and ecological conditions. The NESI value is calculated in grids of 1 km by 1 km through ArcGIS. The spatial regularity of NESI is analyzed according to its spatial distribution and proportional structure. The relationship of NESI with population distribution and economic growth is also discussed by analyzing NESI results with population distribution data and GDP data in 1 km by 1 km grids. The study shows that: (1) the value of NESI is higher in the East and lower in the West in China; The best natural environment area is the Yangtze River Delta region and the worst are the northwest of Tibet and southwest of Xinjiang. (2) There is a close correlation among natural environment, population distribution and economic growth; the best natural environment area, the Yangtze River Delta region, is also the region with higher population density and richer economy. The worst natural environment areas, Northwest and Tibetan Plateau, are also regions with lower population density and poorer economies. PMID:20049243

  17. Water conservation through trade: the case of Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mekonnen, Mesfin; Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert

    2014-01-01

    This study quantifies and maps the water footprint of Kenya from both production and consumption perspectives and estimates the country’s virtual water export and import. Kenya’s virtual water export related to trade in agricultural products was 4.1 km3/y; its virtual water import was 4.0 km3/y. The

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, elemental and organic carbon emissions from tire-wear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aatmeeyata; Sharma, Mukesh

    2010-09-15

    Tire-wear is an important source of PAHs, elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC). The emissions of these pollutants have been studied in an experimental set-up, simulating a realistic road-tire interaction (summer tire-concrete road). The large particle non-exhaust emissions (LPNE; diameter greater than 10 microm) have been evaluated over 14,500 km run of the tire. An increasing linear trend with cumulative km run was observed for emissions of PAHs and carbon. Amongst PAHs in LPNE, pyrene has been observed to be the highest (30+/-4 mg kg(-1)) followed by benzo[ghi]perylene (17+/-2 mg kg(-1)). Different fractions of EC-OC for tire-wear have been analyzed, and unlike exhaust emissions, EC1 was observed to be 99% of EC whereas more than 70% of the OC was the high temperature carbon (OC3 and OC4). The overall emission factors (mass tire(-1) km(-1)) for PAHs, EC and OC from tire-wear are 378 ng tire(-1) km(-1), 1.46 mg tire(-1) km(-1) and 2.37 mg tire(-1) km(-1) for small cars. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Welding the CNGS decay tube

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2004-01-01

    3.6 km of welds were required for the 1 km long CERN Neutrinos to Gran Sasso (CNGS) decay tube, in which particles produced in the collision with a proton and a graphite target will decay into muons and muon neutrinos. Four highly skilled welders performed this delicate task.

  20. UNITED STATES LAND USE INVENTORY FOR ESTIMATING BIOGENIC OZONE PRECURSOR EMISSIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Earth Resources Observation System (EROS) Data Center's (EDC) 1-km classified land cover data are combined with other land use data using a Geographic Information System (GIS) to create the Biogenic Emissions Landcover Database (BELD). The land...