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Sample records for afm indentation study

  1. AFM indentation study of breast cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Q.S.; Lee, G.Y.H.; Ong, C.N.; Lim, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical properties of individual living cells are known to be closely related to the health and function of the human body. Here, atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation using a micro-sized spherical probe was carried out to characterize the elasticity of benign (MCF-10A) and cancerous (MCF-7) human breast epithelial cells. AFM imaging and confocal fluorescence imaging were also used to investigate their corresponding sub-membrane cytoskeletal structures. Malignant (MCF-7) breast cells were found to have an apparent Young's modulus significantly lower (1.4-1.8 times) than that of their non-malignant (MCF-10A) counterparts at physiological temperature (37 deg. C), and their apparent Young's modulus increase with loading rate. Both confocal and AFM images showed a significant difference in the organization of their sub-membrane actin structures which directly contribute to their difference in cell elasticity. This change may have facilitated easy migration and invasion of malignant cells during metastasis

  2. Quantitative Hardness Measurement by Instrumented AFM-indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Arnaud

    2016-11-22

    In this work, a combination of amplitude-modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy and atomic force spectroscopy is applied for instrumented hardness measurements on an Au(111) surface with atomistic resolution of single plasticity events. A careful experimental procedure is described that includes the force sensor selection, its calibration, the calibration of the cantilever deflection detection system, and the minimization of instrumental drift for accurate and reproducible force-distance measurements. Also, a method for the data analysis is presented that allows the extraction of force-penetration curves from recorded force-distance curves. A typical curve displays a clear elastic deformation regime up to the first plasticity event, or pop-in, with a length in the range of one to two Burger's vectors. Later plasticity events exhibit the same magnitude. The work of plasticity is further extracted from the measurements. Finally, the hardness is determined in combination with the indentation curve using non-contact atomic force microscopy images of the remaining indents.

  3. Comparison of the indentation and elasticity of E. coli and its spheroplasts by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.J. [Genome Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6123 (United States); Venkataraman, S.; Retterer, S.T. [Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6123 (United States); Allison, D.P. [Genome Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Cellular and Molecular Biology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6123 (United States); Agilent Technologies, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Doktycz, M.J. [Genome Science and Technology, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37932 (United States); Biosciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6123 (United States)], E-mail: doktyczmj@ornl.gov

    2007-10-15

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) provides a unique opportunity to study live individual bacteria at the nanometer scale. In addition to providing accurate morphological information, AFM can be exploited to investigate membrane protein localization and molecular interactions on the surface of living cells. A prerequisite for these studies is the development of robust procedures for sample preparation. While such procedures are established for intact bacteria, they are only beginning to emerge for bacterial spheroplasts. Spheroplasts are useful research models for studying mechanosensitive ion channels, membrane transport, lipopolysaccharide translocation, solute uptake, and the effects of antimicrobial agents on membranes. Furthermore, given the similarities between spheroplasts and cell wall-deficient (CWD) forms of pathogenic bacteria, spheroplast research could be relevant in biomedical research. In this paper, a new technique for immobilizing spheroplasts on mica pretreated with aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) and glutaraldehyde is described. Using this mounting technique, the indentation and cell elasticity of glutaraldehyde-fixed and untreated spheroplasts of E. coli in liquid were measured. These values are compared to those of intact E. coli. Untreated spheroplasts were found to be much softer than the intact cells and the silicon nitride cantilevers used in this study.

  4. Sensing inhomogeneous mechanical properties of human corneal Descemet's membrane with AFM nano-indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mundo, Rosa; Recchia, Giuseppina; Parekh, Mohit; Ruzza, Alessandro; Ferrari, Stefano; Carbone, Giuseppe

    2017-10-01

    The paper describes a highly space-resolved characterization of the surface mechanical properties of the posterior human corneal layer (Descemet's membrane). This has been accomplished with Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) nano-indentation by using a probe with a sharp tip geometry. Results indicate that the contact with this biological tissue in liquid occurs with no (or very low) adhesion. More importantly, under the same operating conditions, a broad distribution of penetration depth can be measured on different x-y positions of the tissue surface, indicating a high inhomogeneity of surface stiffness, not yet clearly reported in the literature. An important contribution to such inhomogeneity should be ascribed to the discontinuous nature of the collagen/proteoglycans fibers matrix tissue, as can be imaged by AFM when the tissue is semi-dry. Using classical contact mechanics calculations adapted to the specific geometry of the tetrahedral tip it has been found that the elastic modulus E of the material in the very proximity of the surface ranges from 0.23 to 2.6 kPa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. AFM study of montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pettersson, Torbjoern; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per

    2010-02-01

    Na-montmorillonite and Ca-montmorillonite particles have been attached to molecularly flat mica surfaces using simple evaporation of montmorillonite solutions. The particles stick to the surface by strong van der Waals forces. The homogeneity of the montmorillonite particle surfaces has been evaluated by AFM imaging and by AFM force raster measurements. As a control, molecularly smooth mica surfaces were used, and the data obtained for montmorillonite was compared with the data obtained for mica. In images of the size 100x100 nm we can identify variations on the Na-montmorillonite particle surfaces. This variation is attributed to inhomogeneities of the montmorillonite particles. The inhomogeneous nature of the montmorillonite surface is also clearly demonstrated by the force raster measurement, in particular the force raster adhesion maps show larger variations and a more patterned structure for montmorillonite than for mica. Thus, any attempt to model the interaction between montmorillonite particles using a model of ideally flat surfaces with a homogeneous charge distribution is an oversimplification. We suggest that this explains the differences between measured swelling pressures and modelling results

  6. AFM study of montmorillonite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Torbjoern; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per (Dept. of Chemistry, Surface Chemistry, Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-02-15

    Na-montmorillonite and Ca-montmorillonite particles have been attached to molecularly flat mica surfaces using simple evaporation of montmorillonite solutions. The particles stick to the surface by strong van der Waals forces. The homogeneity of the montmorillonite particle surfaces has been evaluated by AFM imaging and by AFM force raster measurements. As a control, molecularly smooth mica surfaces were used, and the data obtained for montmorillonite was compared with the data obtained for mica. In images of the size 100x100 nm we can identify variations on the Na-montmorillonite particle surfaces. This variation is attributed to inhomogeneities of the montmorillonite particles. The inhomogeneous nature of the montmorillonite surface is also clearly demonstrated by the force raster measurement, in particular the force raster adhesion maps show larger variations and a more patterned structure for montmorillonite than for mica. Thus, any attempt to model the interaction between montmorillonite particles using a model of ideally flat surfaces with a homogeneous charge distribution is an oversimplification. We suggest that this explains the differences between measured swelling pressures and modelling results

  7. Lower nanometer-scale size limit for the deformation of a metallic glass by shear transformations revealed by quantitative AFM indentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Caron

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We combine non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging and AFM indentation in ultra-high vacuum to quantitatively and reproducibly determine the hardness and deformation mechanisms of Pt(111 and a Pt57.5Cu14.7Ni5.3P22.5 metallic glass with unprecedented spatial resolution. Our results on plastic deformation mechanisms of crystalline Pt(111 are consistent with the discrete mechanisms established for larger scales: Plasticity is mediated by dislocation gliding and no rate dependence is observed. For the metallic glass we have discovered that plastic deformation at the nanometer scale is not discrete but continuous and localized around the indenter, and does not exhibit rate dependence. This contrasts with the observation of serrated, rate-dependent flow of metallic glasses at larger scales. Our results reveal a lower size limit for metallic glasses below which shear transformation mechanisms are not activated by indentation. In the case of metallic glass, we conclude that the energy stored in the stressed volume during nanometer-scale indentation is insufficient to account for the interfacial energy of a shear band in the glassy matrix.

  8. Cathodoluminescence study of vickers indentations in magnesium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vickers diamond pyramid indentations made in single crystal of magnesium oxide (MgO) were examined in an environmental scanning electron microscope interfaced with an AVS-2000 spectrophotometer for luminescence. Three distinct zones around the indentations were identified to exhibit cathodoluminescence, which ...

  9. Crystal plasticity study of single crystal tungsten by indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao, Weizhi

    2012-01-01

    Owing to its favorable material properties, tungsten (W) has been studied as a plasma-facing material in fusion reactors. Experiments on W heating in plasma sources and electron beam facilities have shown an intense micro-crack formation at the heated surface and sub-surface. The cracks go deep inside the irradiated sample, and often large distorted areas caused by local plastic deformation are present around the cracks. To interpret the crack-induced microscopic damage evolution process in W, one needs firstly to understand its plasticity on a single grain level, which is referred to as crystal plasticity. In this thesis, the crystal plasticity of single crystal tungsten (SCW) has been studied by spherical and Berkovich indentation tests and the finite element method with a crystal plasticity model. Appropriate values of the material parameters included in the crystal plasticity model are determined by fitting measured load-displacement curves and pile-up profiles with simulated counterparts for spherical indentation. The numerical simulations reveal excellent agreement with experiment. While the load-displacement curves and the deduced indentation hardness exhibit little sensitivity to the indented plane at small indentation depths, the orientation of slip directions within the crystals governs the development of deformation hillocks at the surface. It is found that several factors like friction, indentation depth, active slip systems, misoriented crystal orientation, misoriented sample surface and azimuthal orientation of the indenter can affect the indentation behavior of SCW. The Berkovich indentation test was also used to study the crystal plasticity of SCW after deuterium irradiation. The critical load (pop-in load) for triggering plastic deformation under the indenter is found to depend on the crystallographic orientation. The pop-in loads decrease dramatically after deuterium plasma irradiation for all three investigated crystallographic planes.

  10. Toothbrush abrasion of surface softened enamel studied with tapping mode AFM and AFM nanoindentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippert, F; Parker, D M; Jandt, K D

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present in vitro study was to investigate the toothbrush abrasion of surface softened enamel using tapping mode atomic force microscopy (TM-AFM) and AFM nanoindentation. TM-AFM investigations showed that the typical prismatic pattern as observed after demineralisation was retained after toothbrushing. The exposure to artificial saliva resulted in the deposition of a 'sausage-shape' material with random orientation. Brushing of these samples did not lead to a complete removal of this deposited material. Enamel mineral loss increased with increasing demineralisation time and increased further, although only to a small extent, due to subsequent toothbrushing. Exposure to artificial saliva did not alter the amount of enamel mineral lost due to the brushing treatment. AFM nanoindentation investigations showed that the three different demineralisation treatments caused three statistically different reductions in both surface hardness and reduced elastic modulus values, with the shortest exposure time having the least effect on the nanomechanical properties of the enamel samples. Toothbrushing did result only in a small increase in hardness and reduced elastic modulus. The present study has shown that toothbrushing of surface softened enamel leads to minor changes in the surface morphology and nanomechanical properties. The amount of enamel lost due to toothbrushing was independent of the demineralisation time and was lower compared to the mineral loss caused by the demineralisation treatments. Furthermore, the exposure to artificial saliva offers minimal protective effect to the softened enamel surface against toothbrushing.

  11. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Initial growth stages of the ultra thin films of germanium (Ge) prepared by ion beam sputter deposition have been studied using atomic force microscope (AFM) and interference enhanced Raman scattering. The growth of the films follows Volmer-Weber growth mechanism. Analysis of the AFM images shows that Ostwald ...

  12. Indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic thin films by atomic force microscopy: A case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passeri, D., E-mail: daniele.passeri@uniroma1.it [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Bettucci, A.; Biagioni, A.; Rossi, M.; Alippi, A. [Dipartimento di Energetica, Universita di Roma ' La Sapienza' , Via A. Scarpa 16, 00161 Roma (Italy); Tamburri, E. [Dipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Chimiche, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Lucci, M.; Davoli, I. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Roma ' Tor Vergata' , Via della Ricerca Scientifica, 00133 Roma (Italy); Berezina, S. [Department of Physics, University of Zilina, 01026, Univerzitna 1 Zilina (Slovakia)

    2009-11-15

    We propose a nanoindentation technique based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) that allows one to deduce both indentation modulus and hardness of viscoelastic materials from the force versus penetration depth dependence, obtained by recording the AFM cantilever deflection as a function of the sample vertical displacement when the tip is pressed against (loading phase) and then removed from (unloading phase) the surface of the sample. Reliable quantitative measurements of both indentation modulus and hardness of the investigated sample are obtained by calibrating the technique through a set of different polymeric samples, used as reference materials, whose mechanical properties have been previously determined by standard indentation tests. By analyzing the dependence of the cantilever deflection versus time, the proposed technique allows one to evaluate and correct the effect of viscoelastic properties of the investigated materials, by adapting a post-experiment data processing procedure well-established for standard depth sensing indentation tests. The technique is described in the case of the measurement of indentation modulus and hardness of a thin film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate), deposited by chronoamperometry on an indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate.

  13. Progress in Indentation Study of Materials via Both Experimental and Numerical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Indentation as a method to characterize materials has a history of more than 117 years. However, to date, it is still the most popular way to measure the mechanical properties of various materials at microscale and nanoscale. This review summarizes the background and the basic principle of processing by indentation. It is demonstrated that indentation is an effective and efficient method to identify mechanical properties, such as hardness, Young’s modulus, etc., of materials at smaller scale, when the traditional tensile tests could not be applied. The review also describes indentation process via both experimental tests and numerical modelling in recent studies.

  14. Nanomechanics of phospholipid LB film studied layer by layer with AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yinli; Zhu, Changjiang; Zhu, Jichun; Liang, Hao; Chen, Dong; Zhao, Huiling; Liu, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Phospholipid, a main component of cell membrane, has been explored as a model system of the cell membrane and temporary scaffold materials in recent studies. The mechanical properties of phospholipid layers are essentially interesting since it is involved in several biological processes. Here, the nanomechanical properties such as indentation force, adhesion force and DMT (Derjaguin-Müller-Toporov) modulus of 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC) Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) films were analyzed layer by layer with Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) under deionized water condition. The penetration distances in the indentation force curves are equal to the thicknesses of phospholipid films, and the yield forces of DSPC LB films in deionized water are smaller than that of similar lipid films in buffered solutions due to the influence of ions. Moreover, the DMT modulus of upper layer DSPC LB film is different from that of monolayer DSPC LB film due to the influence of their different substrates. Our results suggest that environment such as surrounding ions and substrate will strongly influence the measured nano-mechanical properties of the lipid bilayer, especially that of the down layer. Graphical AbstractA process about the exploration of nanomechanics of DSPC LB film.

  15. Influence of tip indentation on the adhesive behavior of viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane networks studied by atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pickering, J.P.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2001-01-01

    A commercial atomic force microscope (AFM) outfitted with a custom control and data acquisition system was used to investigate the adhesive nature of a viscoelastic polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) network. Due to the complex dependence of the adhesion of this sample on factors such as indentation,

  16. High-speed AFM for Studying Dynamic Biomolecular Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Toshio

    2008-03-01

    Biological molecules show their vital activities only in aqueous solutions. It had been one of dreams in biological sciences to directly observe biological macromolecules (protein, DNA) at work under a physiological condition because such observation is straightforward to understanding their dynamic behaviors and functional mechanisms. Optical microscopy has no sufficient spatial resolution and electron microscopy is not applicable to in-liquid samples. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can visualize molecules in liquids at high resolution but its imaging rate was too low to capture dynamic biological processes. This slow imaging rate is because AFM employs mechanical probes (cantilevers) and mechanical scanners to detect the sample height at each pixel. It is quite difficult to quickly move a mechanical device of macroscopic size with sub-nanometer accuracy without producing unwanted vibrations. It is also difficult to maintain the delicate contact between a probe tip and fragile samples. Two key techniques are required to realize high-speed AFM for biological research; fast feedback control to maintain a weak tip-sample interaction force and a technique to suppress mechanical vibrations of the scanner. Various efforts have been carried out in the past decade to materialize high-speed AFM. The current high-speed AFM can capture images on video at 30-60 frames/s for a scan range of 250nm and 100 scan lines, without significantly disturbing week biomolecular interaction. Our recent studies demonstrated that this new microscope can reveal biomolecular processes such as myosin V walking along actin tracks and association/dissociation dynamics of chaperonin GroEL-GroES that occurs in a negatively cooperative manner. The capacity of nanometer-scale visualization of dynamic processes in liquids will innovate on biological research. In addition, it will open a new way to study dynamic chemical/physical processes of various phenomena that occur at the liquid-solid interfaces.

  17. Immobilizing live Escherichia coli for AFM studies of surface dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lonergan, N.E.; Britt, L.D.; Sullivan, C.J.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a probe-based technique that permits high resolution imaging of live bacterial cells. However, stably immobilizing cells to withstand the probe-based lateral forces remains an obstacle in AFM mediated studies, especially those of live, rod shaped bacteria in nutrient media. Consequently, AFM has been under-utilized in the research of bacterial surface dynamics. The aim of the current study was to immobilize a less adherent Escherichia coli strain in a method that both facilitates AFM imaging in nutrient broth and preserves overall cell viability. Immobilization reagents and buffers were systematically evaluated and the cell membrane integrity was monitored in all sample preparations. As expected, the biocompatible gelatin coated surfaces facilitated stable cell attachment in lower ionic strength buffers, yet poorly immobilized cells in higher ionic strength buffers. In comparison, poly-L-lysine surfaces bound cells in both low and high ionic strength buffers. The benefit of the poly-L-lysine binding capacity was offset by the compromised membrane integrity exhibited by cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces. However, the addition of divalent cations and glucose to the immobilization buffer was found to mitigate this unfavorable effect. Ultimately, immobilization of E. coli cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces in a lower ionic strength buffer supplemented with Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ was determined to provide optimal cell attachment without compromising the overall cell viability. Cells immobilized in this method were stably imaged in media through multiple division cycles. Furthermore, permeability assays indicated that E. coli cells recover from the hypoosmotic stress caused by immobilization in low ionic strength buffers. Taken together, this data suggests that stable immobilization of viable cells on poly-L-lysine surfaces can be accomplished in lower ionic strength buffers that are supplemented with divalent cations for membrane stabilization while

  18. Mechanical properties of cancer cells depend on number of passages: Atomic force microscopy indentation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokukin, Maxim E.; Guz, Natalia V.; Sokolov, Igor

    2017-08-01

    Here we investigate one of the key questions in cell biology, if the properties of cell lines depend on the number of passages in-vitro. It is generally assumed that the change of cell properties (phenotypic drift) is insignificant when the number of passages is low (cell body and parameters of the pericellular brush layer from indentation force curves, which are recorded by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Using this method, we tested the change of the cell properties of human cancer breast epithelial cell line, MCF-7 (ATCC® HTB-22™), within the passages between 2 and 10. In contrast to the previous expectations, we observed a substantial transient change of the elastic modulus of the cell body during the first four passages (up to 4 times). The changes in the parameters of the pericellular coat were less dramatic (up to 2 times) but still statistically significant.

  19. Plastic Indentation Analysis Used in Study of Colliding Robotic Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In robotic system there are frequent situations when on the robotic parts percutions develop. The impact plastic imprints are unique source of data remaining after collision, but complications occur in the analysis and the work models a general impact and presents the manner of processing the experimental data. The paper presents the characteristics occurring in the analysis of the indentation remnant after the oblique impact between a free falling ball and the surface of an inclined metallic prism. A series of difficulties arise while trying to approximate the collision’s imprint profile with a parabola having oblique symmetry axis. Both these impediments and the manner of surmounting them are presented. Finally, the impasse that takes place in the actual analysis of an imprint profile is presented. A first method of surpassing this aspect uses the intrinsic characteristics of osculating circle in a point of the profile is applicable only for smooth signals. The second proposed method is applied to the real signal and provides fine results.

  20. Nanoindentation and AFM studies of PECVD DLC and reactively ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    microscopy (TEM), nanoindentation and by AFM. The results show that the PECVD DLC film has a higher elastic modulus, hardness and roughness than the UMSD Ti/a-C : H film. It also has a lower pull off force than Ti containing amorphous carbon film. Keywords. Carbon films; nanoindentation; topography. 1. Introduction.

  1. AFM review study on pox viruses and living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnesorge, F M; Hörber, J K; Häberle, W; Czerny, C P; Smith, D P; Binnig, G

    1997-10-01

    Single living cells were studied in growth medium by atomic force microscopy at a high--down to one image frame per second--imaging rate over time periods of many hours, stably producing hundreds of consecutive scans with a lateral resolution of approximately 30-40 nm. The cell was held by a micropipette mounted onto the scanner-piezo as shown in Häberle, W., J. K. H. Hörber, and G. Binnig. 1991. Force microscopy on living cells. J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B9:1210-0000. To initiate specific processes on the cell surface the cells had been infected with pox viruses as reported earlier and, most likely, the liberation of a progeny virion by the still-living cell was observed, hence confirming and supporting earlier results (Häberle, W., J. K. H. Hörber, F. Ohnesorge, D. P. E. Smith, and G. Binnig. 1992. In situ investigations of single living cells infected by viruses. Ultramicroscopy. 42-44:1161-0000; Hörber, J. K. H., W. Häberle, F. Ohnesorge, G. Binnig, H. G. Liebich, C. P. Czerny, H. Mahnel, and A. Mayr. 1992. Investigation of living cells in the nanometer regime with the atomic force microscope. Scanning Microscopy. 6:919-930). Furthermore, the pox viruses used were characterized separately by AFM in an aqueous environment down to the molecular level. Quasi-ordered structural details were resolved on a scale of a few nm where, however, image distortions and artifacts due to multiple tip effects are probably involved--just as in very high resolution (small dark spots in the light microscope, that we believed to be the regions in the cell plasma where viruses are assembled; this is known from the literature on electron microscopy on pox-infected cells and referred to there as "virus factories" (e.g., Moss, B. 1986. Replication of pox viruses. In Fundamental Virology, B. N. Fields and D. M. Knape, editors. Raven Press, New York. 637-655). Therefore, we assume that the cells stay alive during imaging, in our experience for approximately 30-45 h p.i.).

  2. Implementing atomic force microscopy (AFM) for studying kinetics of gold nanoparticle's growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgiev, P.; Bojinova, A.; Kostova, B.

    2013-01-01

    In a novel experimental approach Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was applied as a tool for studying the kinetics of gold nanoparticle growth. The gold nanoparticles were obtained by classical Turkevich citrate synthesis at two different temperatures. From the analysis of AFM images during...... the synthesis process the nanoparticle s' sizes were obtained. To demonstrate the applicability and the reliability of the proposed experimental approach we studied the nanoparticles growth at two different temperatures by spectrophotometric measurements and compared them with the results from AFM experimental...

  3. Microrheology of aggregated emulsion droplet networks studied with AFM-CSLM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filip, D.; Uricanu, V.I.; Duits, Michael H.G.; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mellema, J.; Agterof, W.G.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2005-01-01

    We studied the mechanical behavior of densely packed (up to ~30% v/v), sedimented layers of (1 m) water-in-oil W/O emulsion droplets, upon indentation with a (10 m) large spherical probe. In the presence of attractive forces, the droplets form solid like networks which can resist deformation. Adding

  4. Using XAFS, EDAX and AFM in comparative study of various natural and synthetic emeralds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parikh, P.; Saini, N.L.; Dalela, S.; Bhardwaj, D.M.; Fernandes, S.; Gupta, R.P.; Garg, K.B.

    2003-01-01

    We have performed XAFS, EDAX and AFM studies on some natural and synthetic emeralds. While the XAFS results yield information on changes in the valence of the Cr ion and the n-n distance the AFM is used to determine the areal atomic density on surface of the crystals. It is a pilot study to explore if the three techniques can offer a possible way of distinguishing between the natural and synthetic emeralds and the results are promising

  5. Indentation studies on Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-stabilized ZrO[sub 2]; 2: Toughness determination from stable growth of indentation-induced cracks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dransmann, G.W.; Steinbrech, R.W. (Inst. fuer Reaktorwerkstoffe, Juelich (Germany)); Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Facultad de Ciencias); Dominguez-Rodriguez, A. (Univ. de Sevilla (Spain). Dept. de Fisic Materia Condensada); Heuer, A.H. (Case Western Reserve Univ., Cleveland, OH (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-05-01

    Stable indentation cracks were grown in four-point bend tests to study the fracture toughness of two Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]-stabilized ZrO[sub 2] ceramics containing 3 and 4 mol% Y[sub 2]O[sub 3]. By combining microscopic in situ stable crack growth observations at discrete stresses with crack profile measurements, the dependence of toughness on crack extension was determined from crack extension plots, which graphically separate the crack driving residual stress intensity and applied stress intensity factors. Both materials exhibit steeply rising R-curves, with a plateau toughness of 4.5 and 3.1 MPa[center dot]m[sup 1/2] for the 3- and 4-mol% materials, respectively. The magnitude of the plateau toughness reflects the fraction of tetragonal grain contributing to transformation toughening.

  6. Study of indentation induced cracks in MoSi2-reaction bonded SiC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mo melt into a preform of commercial SiC and petroleum coke powder. The infiltrated sample had a density > 92% of the theoretical density (TD) and microstructurally contained SiC, MoSi2, residual Si and unreacted C. The material was tested for indentation fracture toughness at room temperature with a Vicker's indenter ...

  7. Mechanical properties study of particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites by micro-indentation experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Zhanwei

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available By using instrumental micro-indentation technique, the microhardness and Young’s modulus of SiC particles reinforced aluminum matrix composites were investigated with micro-compression-tester (MCT. The micro-indentation experiments were performed with different maximum loads, and with three loading speeds of 2.231, 4.462 and 19.368 mN/s respectively. During the investigation, matrix, particle and interface were tested by micro-indentation experiments. The results exhibit that the variations of Young’s modulus and microhardness at particle, matrix and interface were highly dependent on the loading conditions (maximum load and loading speed and the locations of indentation. Micro-indentation hardness experiments of matrix show the indentation size effects, i.e. the indentation hardness decreased with the indentation depth increasing. During the analysis, the effect of loading conditions on Young’s modulus and microhardness were explained. Besides, the elastic–plastic properties of matrix were analyzed. The validity of calculated results was identified by finite element simulation. And the simulation results had been preliminarily analyzed from statistical aspect.

  8. Analytical/Empirical Study on Indentation Behavior of Sandwich Plate with Foam Core and Composite Face Sheets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Dariushi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sandwich structures are widely used in aerospace, automobile, high speed train and civil applications. Sandwich structures consist of two thin and stiff skins and a thick and light weight core. In this study, the obligatory mandate of a sandwich plate contact constitutes a flexible foam core and composite skins with a hemispherical rigid punch has been studied by an analytical/empirical method. In sandwich structures, calculation of force distribution under the punch nose is complicated, because the core is flexible and the difference between the modulus of elasticity of skin and core is large. In the present study, an exponential correlation between the contact force and indentation is proposed. The coefficient and numerical exponent were calculated using the experimental indentation results. A model based on a high-order sandwich panel theory was used to study the bending behavior of sandwich plate under hemispherical punch load. In the first method, the force distribution under the punch nose was calculated by the proposed method and multiplied to deformation of related point in the loading area to calculate the potential energy of the external loads. In the second method, the punch load was modeled as a point force and multiplied to deformation of maximum indented point. The results obtained from the two methods were compared with the experimental results. Indentation and bending tests were carried out on sandwich plates with glass/epoxy skins and a styrene/acrylonitrile foam core. In the bending test, a simply support condition was set and in the indentation test the sandwich specimens were put on a rigid support. Indeed, in this position the punch movement was equal the indentation. The comparison between the analytical and experimental results showed that the proposed method significantly improved the accuracy of analysis.

  9. Indentation studies on Y2O3-stabilized ZrO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dransmann, G.W.; Steinbrech, R.W.; Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Dominguez-Rodriguez, A.; Heuer, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    Stable indentation cracks were grown in four-point bend tests to study the fracture toughness of two Y 2 O 3 -stabilized ZrO 2 ceramics containing 3 and 4 mol% Y 2 O 3 . By combining microscopic in situ stable crack growth observations at discrete stresses with crack profile measurements, the dependence of toughness on crack extension was determined from crack extension plots, which graphically separate the crack driving residual stress intensity and applied stress intensity factors. Both materials exhibit steeply rising R-curves, with a plateau toughness of 4.5 and 3.1 MPa·m 1/2 for the 3- and 4-mol% materials, respectively. The magnitude of the plateau toughness reflects the fraction of tetragonal grain contributing to transformation toughening

  10. Indentation Depth Dependent Mechanical Behavior in Polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Alisafaei, Farid; Han, Chung-Souk

    2015-01-01

    Various experimental studies have revealed size dependent deformation of materials at micro and submicron length scales. Among different experimental methods, nanoindentation testing is arguably the most commonly applied method of studying size effect in various materials where increases in the hardness with decreasing indentation depth are usually related to indentation size effects. Such indentation size effects have been observed in both metals and polymers. While the indentation size effe...

  11. Influence of strain gradients on lattice rotation in nano-indentation experiments: A numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Demiral, Murat

    2014-07-01

    In this paper the texture evolution in nano-indentation experiments was investigated numerically. To achieve this, a three-dimensional implicit finite-element model incorporating a strain-gradient crystal-plasticity theory was developed to represent accurately the deformation of a body-centred cubic metallic material. A hardening model was implemented to account for strain hardening of the involved slip systems. The surface topography around indents in different crystallographic orientations was compared to corresponding lattice rotations. The influence of strain gradients on the prediction of lattice rotations in nano-indentation was critically assessed. © 2014 Elsevier B.V..

  12. AFM study of hippocampal cells cultured on silicon wafers with nano-scale surface topograph.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Liu, B F; Xu, Q Y; Cui, F Z

    2005-08-01

    The rat hippocampal cells were selected as model to study the interaction between the neural cells and silicon substrates using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hippocampal cells show tight adherence on silicon wafers with nano-scale surface topograph. The lateral friction force investigated by AFM shows significant increase on the boundary around the cellular body. It is considered to relate to the cytoskeleton and cellular secretions. After ultrasonic wash in ethanol and acetone step by step, the surface of silicon wafers was observed by AFM sequentially. We have found that the culture leftovers form tight porous networks and a monolayer on the silicon wafers. It is concluded that the leftovers overspreading on the silicon substrates are the base of cell adherence on such smooth inert surfaces.

  13. Influence of loading path and precipitates on indentation creep behavior of wrought Mg–6 wt% Al–1 wt% Zn magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nautiyal, Pranjal [Discipline of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Information Technology, Design & Manufacturing, Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh 482005 (India); Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India); Jain, Jayant [Department of Applied Mechanics, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi 110016 (India); Agarwal, Arvind, E-mail: agarwala@fiu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2016-01-05

    This study reports the effect of loading path and precipitates on indentation induced creep behavior of AZ61 magnesium alloy. Indentation creep tests were performed on solution-treated and peak-aged extruded AZ61 magnesium alloy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) investigations were carried out to study deformation mechanisms. Twinning is the dominant creep mechanism for indentation along the extrusion direction (ED) in solution-treated alloy. A combination of slip and twinning appears to be the prominent mechanisms for indentation creep perpendicular to ED. Creep flow is arrested for indentation perpendicular to ED, due to slip–twin interactions. Influence of precipitates on creep deformation was also studied. Aged specimen exhibited higher creep resistance than solution-treated specimen. Unlike solution-treated specimens, twinning was not observed in aged alloy. Creep in aged specimen was attributed to slip.

  14. Buckling of Single-Crystal Silicon Nanolines under Indentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min K. Kang

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic force microscope-(AFM- based indentation tests were performed to examine mechanical properties of parallel single-crystal silicon nanolines (SiNLs of sub-100-nm line width, fabricated by a process combining electron-beam lithography and anisotropic wet etching. The SiNLs have straight and nearly atomically flat sidewalls, and the cross section is almost perfectly rectangular with uniform width and height along the longitudinal direction. The measured load-displacement curves from the indentation tests show an instability with large displacement bursts at a critical load ranging from 480 μN to 700 μN. This phenomenon is attributed to a transition of the buckling mode of the SiNLs under indentation. Using a set of finite element models with postbuckling analyses, we analyze the indentation-induced buckling modes and investigate the effects of tip location, contact friction, and substrate deformation on the critical load of mode transition. The results demonstrate a unique approach for the study of nanomaterials and patterned nanostructures via a combination of experiments and modeling.

  15. Frictional forces between cohesive powder particles studied by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, Robert; Pollock, Hubert M; Geldart, Derek; Verlinden-Luts, Ann

    2004-01-01

    A range of commercially important powders (hydrated alumina, limestone, titania and zeolite) and glass ballotini were attached to atomic force microscope cantilevers, and inter-particle friction forces studied in air using lateral force microscopy (LFM). The in situ calibration procedure for friction forces is described. LF images, line profiles, LF histograms, surface roughness, pull-off forces, and the load dependence of friction in the range 0-25 nN were studied for both particle-particle and particle-wall (steel) contacts. The single-particle friction results are discussed in terms of contact mechanics theory. Particle-particle contacts showed load-dependent friction, involving single asperity contacts (non-linear behaviour) or multi-asperity contacts (linear behaviour). Particle-wall contacts usually showed little load dependence and were more adhesive. The results are also related to shear stress-normal stress data (yield loci) for the same materials from bulk shear testers

  16. Comparative study of rock salt deformation by indentation and acoustic emission methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filimonov, Y.; Traskine, V.; Skvortsova, Z.

    2003-04-01

    Experimental studies of rock salt deformation and failure are of a great interest in the context of the problem of radioactive waste management, as well as for better understanding salt tectonics structures. Laboratory tests with acoustic emission (AE) measurement performed on natural specimens of rock salt under uniaxial compression loading have shown that the AE hit rate is considerably higher (up to five times) in the specimens deformed at a higher loading rate. The cumulative number of AE hits, on the contrary, are larger in the specimens deformed with a lower speed. The shape of the AE vs stress curve is loading rate-dependent too. The indentation tests made with a spherical indentor, i.e. under progressively decreasing stress and strain rate, on synthetic NaCl single crystals in brine demonstrate a transition from dislocation motion limited stage (observed in brine, in air or in a neutral liquid) to the pressure solution stage (observed only in brine). Both methods evidence approximately similar values for the transition rates.

  17. AFM studies of environmental effects on nanomechanical properties and cellular structure of human hair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Chen, Nianhuan

    2006-01-01

    Characterization of cellular structure and physical and mechanical properties of hair are essential to develop better cosmetic products and advance biological and cosmetic science. Although the morphology of the cellular structure of human hair has been traditionally investigated using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, these techniques provide limited capability to in situ study of the physical and mechanical properties of human hair in various environments. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) overcomes these problems and can be used for characterization in ambient conditions without requiring specific sample preparations and surface treatment. In this study, film thickness, adhesive forces and effective Young's modulus of various hair surfaces were measured at different environments (humidity and temperature) using force calibration plot technique with an AFM. Torsional resonance mode phase contrast images were also taken in order to characterize the morphology and cellular structure changes of human hair at different humidity. The correlation between the nanomechanical properties and the cellular structure of hair is discussed

  18. Graphene layer on Rh(111): combined DFT, STM, and NC-AFM studies

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanov, Petar; Voloshina, Elena; Dedkov, Yuriy; Schmitt, Stefan; Haenke, Torben; Thissen, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The simultaneous combination of scanning probe methods (tunnelling and force microscopies, STM and AFM) is a unique way to get an information about crystallographic and electronic structure of the studied surface. Here we apply these methods accompanied by the state-of-the-art density functional theory (DFT) calculations to shed a light on the structure and electronic properties of the strongly-corrugated graphene/Rh(111) system. The atomically resolved images are obtained for both STM and AF...

  19. Tumor suppressor protein SMAR1 modulates the roughness of cell surface: combined AFM and SEM study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamgain Hitesh

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Imaging tools such as scanning electron microscope (SEM and atomic force microscope (AFM can be used to produce high-resolution topographic images of biomedical specimens and hence are well suited for imaging alterations in cell morphology. We have studied the correlation of SMAR1 expression with cell surface smoothness in cell lines as well as in different grades of human breast cancer and mouse tumor sections. Methods We validated knockdown and overexpression of SMAR1 using RT-PCR as well as Western blotting in human embryonic kidney (HEK 293, human breast cancer (MCF-7 and mouse melanoma (B16F1 cell lines. The samples were then processed for cell surface roughness studies using atomic force microscopy (AFM and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The same samples were used for microarray analysis as well. Tumors sections from control and SMAR1 treated mice as well as tissues sections from different grades of human breast cancer on poly L-lysine coated slides were used for AFM and SEM studies. Results Tumor sections from mice injected with melanoma cells showed pronounced surface roughness. In contrast, tumor sections obtained from nude mice that were first injected with melanoma cells followed by repeated injections of SMAR1-P44 peptide, exhibited relatively smoother surface profile. Interestingly, human breast cancer tissue sections that showed reduced SMAR1 expression exhibited increased surface roughness compared to the adjacent normal breast tissue. Our AFM data establishes that treatment of cells with SMAR1-P44 results into increase in cytoskeletal volume that is supported by comparative gene expression data showing an increase in the expression of specific cytoskeletal proteins compared to the control cells. Altogether, these findings indicate that tumor suppressor function of SMAR1 might be exhibited through smoothening of cell surface by regulating expression of cell surface proteins. Conclusion Tumor suppressor

  20. AFM investigation and optical band gap study of chemically deposited PbS thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaman, S.; Mansoor, M.; Abubakar; Asim, M. M.

    2016-08-01

    The interest into deposition of nanocrystalline PbS thin films, the potential of designing and tailoring both the topographical features and the band gap energy (Eg) by controlling growth parameters, has significant technological importance. Nanocrystalline thin films of lead sulfide were grown onto glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD) method. The experiments were carried out by varying deposition temperature. We report on the modification of structural and optical properties as a function of deposition temperature. The morphological changes of the films were analyzed by using SEM and AFM. AFM was also used to calculate average roughness of the films. XRD spectra indicated preferred growth of cubic phase of PbS films in (200) direction with increasing deposition time. Optical properties have been studied by UV-Spectrophotometer. From the diffused reflectance spectra we have calculated the optical Eg shift from 0.649-0.636 eV with increasing deposition time.

  1. AFM stochastic analysis of surface twisted nanograin chains of iron oxide: a kinetic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhavan, O; Azimirad, R

    2009-01-01

    We have studied the stochastic parameters of surface iron oxide nanograin chains, 97 nm in diameter and 2.4 μm in length, prepared at different annealing temperatures, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) spectral analysis. In this regard, the roughness of the thin films including self-assembled twisted nanograin chains has been analysed and characterized using the height-height correlation function, the roughness exponent as well as the power spectrum density of the AFM profiles and their gradient, for the different annealing temperatures. The tip convolution effect on the stochastic parameters under study has also been investigated. The kinetics of the formation of nanograins on the film surface has been obtained using the AFM spectral analysis of the profiles and their gradient. The activation energy needed for the formation of surface nanograin chains was found to be 0.55 eV. It has been shown that the tip-surface interaction affects mainly the diffusion parameters obtained by using the surface roughness analysis of the profiles, while use of the surface roughness analysis of the gradient of the profiles results in a nearly independent tip convolution effect on the diffusion parameters. Hence, this work also provides a method for calculating the required activation energy for the formation of self-assembled nanostructures affecting the roughness of a surface.

  2. Bacterial adhesion to protein-coated surfaces: An AFM and QCM-D study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Joshua; Liu, Yatao; Camesano, Terri A.

    2009-09-01

    Bacterial adhesion to biomaterials, mineral surfaces, or other industrial surfaces is strongly controlled by the way bacteria interact with protein layers or organic matter and other biomolecules that coat the materials. Despite this knowledge, many studies of bacterial adhesion are performed under clean conditions, instead of in the presence of proteins or organic molecules. We chose fetal bovine serum (FBS) as a model protein, and prepared FBS films on quartz crystals. The thickness of the FBS layer was characterized using atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging under liquid and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Next, we characterized how the model biomaterial surface would interact with the nocosomial pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis. An AFM probe was coated with S. epidermidis cells and used to probe a gold slide that had been coated with FBS or another protein, fibronectin (FN). These experiments show that AFM and QCM-D can be used in complementary ways to study the complex interactions between bacteria, proteins, and surfaces.

  3. Residual stresses around Vickers indents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pajares, A.; Guiberteau, F.; Steinbrech, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    The residual stresses generated by Vickers indentation in brittle materials and their changes due to annealing and surface removal were studied in 4 mol% yttria partially stabilized zirconia (4Y-PSZ). Three experimental methods to gain information about the residual stress field were applied: (i) crack profile measurements based on serial sectioning, (ii) controlled crack propagation in post indentation bending tests and (iii) double indentation tests with smaller secondary indents located around a larger primary impression. Three zones of different residual stress behavior are deduced from the experiments. Beneath the impression a crack free spherical zone of high hydrostatic stresses exists. This core zone is followed by a transition regime where indentation cracks develop but still experience hydrostatic stresses. Finally, in an outward third zone, the crack contour is entirely governed by the tensile residual stress intensity (elastically deformed region). Annealing and surface removal reduce this crack driving stress intensity. The specific changes of the residual stresses due to the post indentation treatments are described and discussed in detail for the three zones

  4. An AFM-Based Study of Porcine OBP Film for Artificial Olfaction

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cai, Qiang

    2001-01-01

    .... The topograph of these films was measured using Atomic Force Micrograph (AFM). In order to evaluate the affinity of OBP and its antibody, the AFM probe was coated with the anti-OBP using the covalent method...

  5. Experimental Study of the Interactions and Dynamics at Interfaces Using Newly Developed AFM Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Dongshi

    Compared to the bulk properties of material, our fundamental understanding of the interactions and dynamics at the liquid-air, liquid-solid, and even solid-solid interfaces are still very limited. The lack of progress is partially because the interfacial interactions are extremely sensitive to the nanoscale distance at which the measurements are made, and the interfacial dynamics are easily disturbed by defects and impurities at the interface. Well-controlled experimental systems with tunable interfacial properties together with surface-sensitive experimental tools and analysis methods are needed for the study of the interactions and dynamics at interfaces. Over the past 30 years, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has become one of the most important tools for the study of interfaces. In this thesis, I present the development of new AFM probes and techniques and their applications in the investigation of novel interfacial phenomena and understanding of the underlying physics. Three interesting problems are studied at different interfaces. In the first experiment, we carry out direct AFM measurements of capillary force hysteresis (CFH) and relaxation of a circular moving contact line (MCL) formed on a long micron-sized hydrophobic glass fiber intersecting a liquid-air interface. The measured CFH and contact line (CL) relaxation show an asymmetric speed dependence in the advancing and receding directions. A unified model based on force-assisted barrier crossing is developed to find the effective energy barrier Eb and size lambda associated with the defects on the fiber surface. The experiment demonstrates that the pinning (relaxation) and depinning dynamics of the CL can be described by a common microscopic framework, and the advancing and receding CLs are in influenced by two different sets of relatively non-wetting and wetting defects on the fiber surface. The second experiment studies the enhanced optical force acting on a nano-structured plasmonic resonant cavity

  6. An AFM study of the morphology and local mechanical properties of superconducting YBCO thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soifer, Ya.M.; Verdyan, A.; Azoulay, J.; Kazakevich, M.; Rabkin, E

    2004-02-01

    The morphology of thin superconducting YBCO films deposited on sapphire and on SrTiO{sub 3} was studied with the help of atomic force and scanning electron microscopies. The intrinsic mechanical properties in the flat, particles-free and chemically homogeneous regions of the films were determined with the aid of nanoindenting atomic force microscope. Also the microscopy studies revealed the difference in topography of the films, the nanohardness and Young's modulus of two films were very close to each other. For the indents shallower than 0.2 of the film thickness the Young's modulus and hardness of the films on two different substrates converged to the values of 210 and 8.5 GPa, respectively. The possible deformation mechanisms determining the localized deformation of intrinsically brittle ceramic films are discussed.

  7. Atomic-scale non-contact AFM studies of alumina supported nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard; Meinander, Kristoffer; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose

    in the society today, both as the means for environmental protection and as the backbone technology for most of the chemical industries. Among important processes based on heterogeneous catalysis are biomass conversion, steam reforming of methane and the synthesis of synthetic fuel from hydrocarbons, coal...... conducting or non-conducting [2]. We use nc-AFM to study the growth, shape and size of nanoparticles on spinel and alumina surfaces. In addition to this, we have grown a transition alumina thin film on a spinel surface in order to characterize such a film as well as studying the catalytic properties...

  8. Surface study of irradiated sapphires from Phrae Province, Thailand using AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monarumit, N.; Jivanantaka, P.; Mogmued, J.; Lhuaamporn, T.; Satitkune, S.

    2017-09-01

    The irradiation is one of the gemstone enhancements for improving the gem quality. Typically, there are many varieties of irradiated gemstones in the gem market such as diamond, topaz, and sapphire. However, it is hard to identify the gemstones before and after irradiation. The aim of this study is to analyze the surface morphology for classifying the pristine and irradiated sapphires using atomic force microscope (AFM). In this study, the sapphire samples were collected from Phrae Province, Thailand. The samples were irradiated by high energy electron beam for a dose of ionizing radiation at 40,000 kGy. As the results, the surface morphology of pristine sapphires shows regular atomic arrangement, whereas, the surface morphology of irradiated sapphires shows the nano-channel observed by the 2D and 3D AFM images. The atomic step height and root mean square roughness have changed after irradiation due to the micro-structural defect on the sapphire surface. Therefore, this study is a frontier application for sapphire identification before and after irradiation.

  9. A study on the evaluation of material degradation using ball indentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Pyo; Seok, Chang Sung; Ahn, Ha Neul

    2000-01-01

    As huge energy transfer systems like a nuclear power plant, steam power plant and petrochemical plant are operated for a long time, mechanical properties are changed by degradation. The life time of the systems can be affected by the mechanical properties. BI(Ball Indentation) test has a potential to replace conventional fracture tests like a uniaxial tensile test, fracture toughness test, hardness test and so on. In this paper, we would like to present the aging evaluation technique by the BI method. The four classes of the thermally aged 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V specimens were prepared using an artificially accelerated aging method. Tensile tests, fracture toughness tests, hardness tests and BI tests were performed. The results of the BI tests were in good agreement with fracture characteristics by a standard fracture test method. The IDE(Indentation Deformation Energy) of a BI technique as a new parameter for evaluating a degradation was suggested and the new IDE parameter clearly depicts the degradation degree

  10. High-stress study of bioinspired multifunctional PEDOT:PSS/nanoclay nanocomposites using AFM, SEM and numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Alfredo J; Noh, Hanaul; Meier, Tobias; Solares, Santiago D

    2017-01-01

    Bioinspired design has been central in the development of hierarchical nanocomposites. Particularly, the nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar structure has shown excellent mechanical properties, as well as gas-barrier properties and optical transparency. Along with these intrinsic properties, the layered structure has also been utilized in sensing devices. Here we extend the multifunctionality of nacre-mimetics by designing an optically transparent and electron conductive coating based on PEDOT:PSS and nanoclays Laponite RD and Cloisite Na + . We carry out extensive characterization of the nanocomposite using transmittance spectra (transparency), conductive atomic force microscopy (conductivity), contact-resonance force microscopy (mechanical properties), and SEM combined with a variety of stress-strain AFM experiments and AFM numerical simulations (internal structure). We further study the nanoclay's response to the application of pressure with multifrequency AFM and conductive AFM, whereby increases and decreases in conductivity can occur for the Laponite RD composites. We offer a possible mechanism to explain the changes in conductivity by modeling the coating as a 1-dimensional multibarrier potential for electron transport, and show that conductivity can change when the separation between the barriers changes under the application of pressure, and that the direction of the change depends on the energy of the electrons. We did not observe changes in conductivity under the application of pressure with AFM for the Cloisite Na + nanocomposite, which has a large platelet size compared with the AFM probe diameter. No pressure-induced changes in conductivity were observed in the clay-free polymer either.

  11. On the molecular interaction between albumin and ibuprofen: An AFM and QCM-D study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleta-Lopez, Aitziber; Etxebarria, Juan; Reichardt, Niels-Christian; Georgieva, Radostina; Bäumler, Hans; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2015-10-01

    The adsorption of proteins on surfaces often results in a change of their structural behavior and consequently, a loss of bioactivity. One experimental method to study interactions on a molecular level is single molecular force spectroscopy that permits to measure forces down to the pico-newton range. In this work, the binding force between human serum albumin (HSA), covalently immobilized on glutaraldehyde modified gold substrates, and ibuprofen sodium salt was studied by means of single molecular force spectroscopy. First of all, a protocol was established to functionalize atomic force microscopy (AFM) tips with ibuprofen. The immobilization protocol was additionally tested by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and contact angle measurements. AFM was used to characterize the adsorption of HSA on gold substrates, which lead to a packed monolayer of thickness slightly lower than the reported value in solution. Finally, single molecule spectroscopy results were used to characterize the binding force between albumin and ibuprofen and calculate the distance of the transition state (0.6 nm) and the dissociation rate constant (0.055 s(-1)). The results might indicate that part of the adsorbed protein still preserves its functionality upon adsorption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Adsorption mechanisms for fatty acids on DLC and steel studied by AFM and tribological experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simič, R.; Kalin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Fatty acids are known to affect the friction and wear of steel contacts via adsorption onto the surface, which is one of the fundamental boundary-lubrication mechanisms. The understanding of the lubrication mechanisms of polar molecules on diamond-like carbon (DLC) is, however, still insufficient. In this work we aimed to find out whether such molecules have a similar effect on DLC coatings as they do on steel. The adsorption of hexadecanoic acid in various concentrations (2–20 mmol/l) on DLC was studied under static conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The amount of surface coverage of the adsorbed fatty-acid molecules was analysed. In addition, tribological tests were performed to correlate the wear and friction behaviours in tribological contacts with the adsorption of molecules on the surface under static conditions. A good correlation between the AFM results and the tribological behaviour was observed. We confirmed that fatty acids can adsorb onto the DLC surfaces and are, therefore, potential boundary-lubrication agents for DLC coatings. The adsorption of the fatty acid onto the DLC surfaces reduces the wear of the coatings, but it is less effective in reducing the friction. Tentative adsorption mechanisms that include an environmental species effect, a temperature effect and a tribochemical effect are proposed for DLC and steel surfaces based on our results and few potential mechanisms found in literature.

  13. Adsorption mechanisms for fatty acids on DLC and steel studied by AFM and tribological experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simič, R.; Kalin, M., E-mail: mitjan.kalin@tint.fs.uni-lj.si

    2013-10-15

    Fatty acids are known to affect the friction and wear of steel contacts via adsorption onto the surface, which is one of the fundamental boundary-lubrication mechanisms. The understanding of the lubrication mechanisms of polar molecules on diamond-like carbon (DLC) is, however, still insufficient. In this work we aimed to find out whether such molecules have a similar effect on DLC coatings as they do on steel. The adsorption of hexadecanoic acid in various concentrations (2–20 mmol/l) on DLC was studied under static conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The amount of surface coverage of the adsorbed fatty-acid molecules was analysed. In addition, tribological tests were performed to correlate the wear and friction behaviours in tribological contacts with the adsorption of molecules on the surface under static conditions. A good correlation between the AFM results and the tribological behaviour was observed. We confirmed that fatty acids can adsorb onto the DLC surfaces and are, therefore, potential boundary-lubrication agents for DLC coatings. The adsorption of the fatty acid onto the DLC surfaces reduces the wear of the coatings, but it is less effective in reducing the friction. Tentative adsorption mechanisms that include an environmental species effect, a temperature effect and a tribochemical effect are proposed for DLC and steel surfaces based on our results and few potential mechanisms found in literature.

  14. AFM Studies of Salt Concentration Effects on the (110) Surface Structure of Tetragonal Lysozyme Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc Lee; Gorti, Sridhar; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Konnert, John

    2002-01-01

    Previous high resolution AFM studies of the (110) surface of tetragonal chicken egg white lysozyme crystals had shown that only one of two possible molecular surfaces is present, those constituting the completed 43 helices. These suggested that the crystal growth process was by the solution-phase assembly of the growth units, which then attach to the surface. However, the best fit for the imaged surfaces, vs. those predicted based upon the bulk crystallographic coordinates, were obtained when the packing about the 43 helices was "tightened up", while maintaining the underlying crystallographic unit cell spacing. This results in a widening of the gap between adjacent helices, and the top- most layer(s) may no longer be in contact. We postulated that the tightened packing about the helices is a result of the high salt concentrations in the bulk solution, used to crystallize the protein, driving hydrophobic interactions. Once the crystal surface is sufficiently buried by subsequent growth layers the ratio of salt to protein molecules decreases and the helices relax to their bulk crystallographic coordinates. The crystal surface helix structure is thus a reflection of the solution structure, and the tightness of the packing about the 43 helices would be a function of the bulk salt concentration. AFM images of the (110) surface of tetragonal lysozyme crystals grown under low (2%) and high (5%) NaCl concentrations reveal differences in the packing about the 43 helices consistent with the above proposal.

  15. Nitrogen ion implantation on stainless steel: AFM study of surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chico, B. [Dpto. Ingenieria de Materiales, Degradacion y Durabilidad, Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM), CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: bchico@cenim.csic.es; Martinez, L. [Dpto. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Perez, F.J. [Dpto. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2005-04-30

    This work presents a study by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of the modification of the surface topography of AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel after N-ion implantation, irradiated by 1 x 10{sup 15} N{sub 2}{sup +}/cm{sup 2} at 80 keV. Prior to the implantation surface modification, the samples were electropolished for the optimum observation of the surface at a small scale to obtain an initial surface with the smaller roughness. The electrolytic bath was composed of a mixture of water/sulphuric acid/orthophosphoric acid in percentages 20, 20 and 60%, respectively. Once the surface was optimized, the samples were implanted and observed by AFM, a new technique whose importance relies on its resolution power, allowing the acquisition of topographic images of the surface with nanometric resolution. Thanks to the high resolution power could be observed that ion implantation increases the surface roughness and promotes the apparition of 3 {mu}m wide and 10 nm depth craters as well as the apparition of products with singular morphology.

  16. AFM study of the thrombogenicity of carbon-based coatings for cardiovascular applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karagkiozaki, V.; Logothetidis, S.; Laskarakis, A.; Giannoglou, G.; Lousinian, S.

    2008-01-01

    The new nanotechnologies in biomaterials for cardiovascular applications target at surface alterations for prevention of platelets aggregation and subsequent clotting as their usual failure arises from thrombogenicity. Knowledge of structural properties of platelets during their adhesion on nanostructure materials is required to obtain a comprehensive understanding of their activation and the conventional imaging tools require special preparation of the samples and does not guarantee the viability of the cells. Thus, in this study, the atomic force microscope (AFM) which is a non-destructive and nanoscale precision technique is implemented for the study of platelets' adhesion onto amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) thin films and a methodology is developed. Carbon-based thin films grown by magnetron sputtering under different deposition conditions are considered to meet the requirements for biomedical applications and were selected as well-characterized, case study materials. Platelet rich plasma drawn from healthy donors was used for the study of platelets adhesion onto the a-C:H films. The fourier transform IR phase modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry (FTIRSE) (900-3500 cm -1 ) being a powerful, non-destructive, optical technique was used for the investigation of bonding structure of the adherent platelets onto the a-C:H materials and the contribution of the different vibration bands of the platelet bonding groups was shown and discussed. The effect of nanostructure, surface properties and wettability of the carbon thin films on their thrombogenic potential was verified and it was found that the different deposition conditions determine their structural, surface and biological properties. Thus, the tailoring of surface properties of biomaterials and the informative study of platelets-nanomaterials interactions with AFM and FTIRSE will revolutionize the development of less thrombogenic biomaterials

  17. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks : An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, Wietske H W; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Schuurmans, Marieke J; Leenen, Luke P H

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  18. Pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from cervical spine immobilization with extrication collars and headblocks: An observational study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, W.H.; Schoonhoven, L.; Schuurmans, M.J.; Leenen, L.P.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the occurrence and severity of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain from the extrication collar combined with headblocks. Furthermore, the influence of time, injury severity and patient characteristics on the development of pressure ulcers, indentation marks and pain

  19. AFM study of adsorption of protein A on a poly(dimethylsiloxane) surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Ling; Lu Zhisong; Gan Ye; Liu Yingshuai; Li, C M

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the morphology and kinetics of adsorption of protein A on a PDMS surface is studied by AFM. The results of effects of pH, protein concentration and contact time of the adsorption reveal that the morphology of adsorbed protein A is significantly affected by pH and adsorbed surface concentration, in which the pH away from the isoelectric point (IEP) of protein A could produce electrical repulsion to change the protein conformation, while the high adsorbed surface protein volume results in molecular networks. Protein A can form an adsorbed protein film on PDMS with a maximum volume of 2.45 x 10 -3 μm 3 . This work enhances our fundamental understanding of protein A adsorption on PDMS, a frequently used substrate component in miniaturized immunoassay devices.

  20. Corrosion behaviour of Ni in aprotic solvents an electrochemical, XPS and AFM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, F.; Monetta, T.; Capobianco, G.; Deganello, A.; Glisenti, A.; Moretti, G.

    1998-01-01

    Electrochemical and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) techniques have been used to study the passivation of nickel in 0.1 M H 2 SO 4 DMF and ACN solutions with different water content. Electrochemical results indicate the anodic formation of a thin, poor protective layer and the possibility of salt precipitation onto the metallic surface. ARXPS results indicate that while in the anodic film formed in DMF, Ni(OH) 2 constitute the superficial component under which a discontinuous layer of NiO and NiSO 4 is present. Ni(OH) 2 and NiSO 4 are the more superficial constituents in the passivation layer formed in ACN, while NiO becomes prevalent in the underlying layers. AFM images show that in both the solvents the sample surface is very dishomogeneous with flakes and fractures. (orig.)

  1. Adsorption of albumin and sodium hyaluronate on UHMWPE: a QCM-D and AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serro, A P; Degiampietro, K; Colaço, R; Saramago, B

    2010-06-15

    The biotribological properties of artificial joints, in particular the efficiency of the lubrication, strongly determine their lifetime. The most commonly used artificial joints combine a metallic or ceramic part articulating against a ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) counterface, and are lubricated by the periprosthetic fluid. This fluid contains several macromolecules, namely albumin and sodium hyaluronate (NaHA), that are known to be involved in the lubrication process. There are several studies in the literature concerning the interaction of the referred macromolecules with ceramic or metallic prosthetic materials. However, to our knowledge, information about their binding to the polymeric surface is practically inexistent. The objective of this work is to contribute to clarify the role played by albumin and NaHA on the biolubrication process, through the investigation of their interaction with the UHMWPE surface. The study involves adsorption measurements using a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D), the characterization of the adsorbed films by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and wettability determinations. Albumin was found to adsorb strongly and extensively to the polymer, while NaHA led to a very low adsorption. In both cases rigid films were obtained, but with different morphology and porosity. The high binding affinity of the protein to the polymer was demonstrated both by the results of the fittings to Langmuir and Freundlich models and by the values of the adhesion forces determined by AFM. In the simultaneous adsorption of albumin and NaHA, protein adsorption is predominant and determines the surface properties. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparative Cryo-SEM and AFM studies of hylid and rhacophorid tree frog toe pads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, W Jon P; Baum, Martina; Peisker, Henrik; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2013-12-01

    Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (cryo-SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) offer new avenues for the study of the morphology of tree frog adhesive toe pads. Using these techniques, we compare toe pad microstructure in two distantly related species of tree frog, Litoria caerulea, White (Hylidae) and Rhacophorus prominanus, Smith (Rhacophoridae), in which the toe pads are considered to be convergent. AFM demonstrates the extraordinary similarity of both surface microstructures (largely hexagonal epithelial cells surrounded by deep channels) and nanostructures (an array of nanopillars, ca. 350 nm in diameter, all with a small dimple at the apex). The cryo-SEM studies examined the distribution of the fibrillar cytoskeleton within the different layers of the stratified toe pad epithelium, demonstrating that the cytoskeletal elements (keratin tonofilaments) that lie at an angle to the surface are relatively poorly developed in L. caerulea, clearly so in comparison to R. prominanus. Cryo-SEM also enabled the visualization of the fluid layer that is critical to a toe pad's adhesive function. This was achieved by examination of the frozen fluid residues left behind after removal of a toe within the cryo-SEM's experimental chamber. Such 'toeprints' demonstrated the presence of a wedge of fluid surrounding each toe pad, as well as fluid filling the channels that surround each epithelial cell. Cryo-SEM was used to examine epithelial cell shape. In a sample of 582 cells, 59.5% were hexagonal, the remainder being mainly pentagonal (23.1%) or heptagonal (16.1%). The distribution of differently-shaped cells was not random, but was not associated with either pad curvature or the distribution of mucous pores that provide fluid for the frogs' wet adhesion mechanism. Our main finding, the great similarity of toe pad structure in these two species, has important implications for biomimetics, for such convergent evolution suggests a good starting point for attempts to develop

  3. Hematite/silver nanoparticle bilayers on mica--AFM, SEM and streaming potential studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morga, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Bielańska, Elżbieta

    2014-06-15

    Bilayers of hematite/silver nanoparticles were obtained in the self-assembly process and thoroughly characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and in situ streaming potential measurements. The hematite nanoparticles, forming a supporting layer, were 22 nm in diameter, exhibiting an isoelectric point at pH 8.9. The silver nanoparticles, used to obtain an external layer, were 29 nm in diameter, and remained negative within the pH range 3 to 11. In order to investigate the particle deposition, mica sheets were used as a model solid substrate. The coverage of the supporting layer was adjusted by changing the bulk concentration of the hematite suspension and the deposition time. Afterward, silver nanoparticle monolayers of controlled coverage were deposited under the diffusion-controlled transport. The coverage of bilayers was determined by a direct enumeration of deposited particles from SEM micrographs and AFM images. Additionally, the formation of the hematite/silver bilayers was investigated by streaming potential measurements carried out under in situ conditions. The effect of the mica substrate and the coverage of a supporting layer on the zeta potential of bilayers was systematically studied. It was established that for the coverage exceeding 0.20, the zeta potential of bilayers was independent on the substrate and the supporting layer coverage. This behavior was theoretically interpreted in terms of the 3D electrokinetic model. Beside significance for basic sciences, these measurements allowed to develop a robust method of preparing nanoparticle bilayers of controlled properties, having potential applications in catalytic processes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Indentation size effects in the nano- and micro-hardness of a Fe-based bulk metallic glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, F., E-mail: xufu@xtu.edu.cn; Ding, Y.H.; Deng, X.H.; Zhang, P.; Long, Z.L.

    2014-10-01

    Hardness of a Fe-based bulk metallic glass (BMG) was evaluated by both atomic force microscopy (AFM) nanoindentation (nano-hardness) and instrumented indentation with a traditional indenter setup (micro-hardness) under different maximum loads at room temperature. The nano-hardness and the micro-hardness were found to be comparable. For both of the indentation methods, indentation size effect (ISE) is detected as increase in hardness with decrease in indentation peak load. It is proposed that strain rate dependent softening, loading history and the lag between free volume creation and mechanical softening should be responsible for the ISE in this BMG. Furthermore, ISE is found to be more significant in AFM nanoindentation than in instrumented indentation. This can be explained by taking into account the effect of exerted peak load and the face angle of the indenter in a qualitative manner.

  5. AFM measurements of novel solar cells. Studying electronic properties of Si-based radial junctions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hývl, Matěj

    -, č. 1 (2014), s. 52-53 ISSN 1439-4243 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-25747S; GA ČR GA13-12386S; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2011026 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : AFM measurements * conductive cantilever * electronic properties * nanowires * PF TUNA Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism http://www.imaging-git.com/science/ scanning - probe -microscopy/afm-measurements-novel-solar-cells

  6. High-stress study of bioinspired multifunctional PEDOT:PSS/nanoclay nanocomposites using AFM, SEM and numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo J. Diaz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Bioinspired design has been central in the development of hierarchical nanocomposites. Particularly, the nacre-mimetic brick-and-mortar structure has shown excellent mechanical properties, as well as gas-barrier properties and optical transparency. Along with these intrinsic properties, the layered structure has also been utilized in sensing devices. Here we extend the multifunctionality of nacre-mimetics by designing an optically transparent and electron conductive coating based on PEDOT:PSS and nanoclays Laponite RD and Cloisite Na+. We carry out extensive characterization of the nanocomposite using transmittance spectra (transparency, conductive atomic force microscopy (conductivity, contact-resonance force microscopy (mechanical properties, and SEM combined with a variety of stress-strain AFM experiments and AFM numerical simulations (internal structure. We further study the nanoclay’s response to the application of pressure with multifrequency AFM and conductive AFM, whereby increases and decreases in conductivity can occur for the Laponite RD composites. We offer a possible mechanism to explain the changes in conductivity by modeling the coating as a 1-dimensional multibarrier potential for electron transport, and show that conductivity can change when the separation between the barriers changes under the application of pressure, and that the direction of the change depends on the energy of the electrons. We did not observe changes in conductivity under the application of pressure with AFM for the Cloisite Na+ nanocomposite, which has a large platelet size compared with the AFM probe diameter. No pressure-induced changes in conductivity were observed in the clay-free polymer either.

  7. Colloid-probe AFM studies of the interaction forces of proteins adsorbed on colloidal crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gurvinder; Bremmell, Kristen E; Griesser, Hans J; Kingshott, Peter

    2015-04-28

    In recent years, colloid-probe AFM has been used to measure the direct interaction forces between colloidal particles of different size or surface functionality in aqueous media, as one can study different forces in symmerical systems (i.e., sphere-sphere geometry). The present study investigates the interaction between protein coatings on colloid probes and hydrophilic surfaces decorated with hexagonally close packed single particle layers that are either uncoated or coated with proteins. Controlled solvent evaporation from aqueous suspensions of colloidal particles (coated with or without lysozyme and albumin) produces single layers of close-packed colloidal crystals over large areas on a solid support. The measurements have been carried out in an aqueous medium at different salt concentrations and pH values. The results show changes in the interaction forces as the surface charge of the unmodified or modified particles, and ionic strength or pH of the solution is altered. At high ionic strength or pH, electrostatic interactions are screened, and a strong repulsive force at short separation below 5 nm dominates, suggesting structural changes in the absorbed protein layer on the particles. We also study the force of adhesion, which decreases with an increment in the salt concentration, and the interaction between two different proteins indicating a repulsive interaction on approach and adhesion on retraction.

  8. Study of the Tool Geometry Influence in Indentation for the Analysis and Validation of the New Modular Upper Bound Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bermudo

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on incremental bulk metal forming processes, the indentation process is gaining interest as a fundamental part of these kinds of processes. This paper presents the analysis of the pressure obtained in indentation under the influence of different punch geometries. To this end, an innovative Upper Bound Theorem (UBT based solution is introduced. This new solution can be easily applied to estimate the necessary force that guarantees plastic deformation by an indentation process. In this work, we propose an accurate analytical approach to analyse indentation under different punches. The new Modular Upper Bound (MUB method presents a simpler and faster application. Additionally, its complexity is not considerably increased by the addition of more Triangular Rigid Zones. In addition, a two-dimensional indentation model is designed and implemented using the Finite Element Method (FEM. The comparison of the two methods applied to the indentation process analysed—the new Modular Upper Bound technique and the Finite Element Method—reveal close similarities, the new Modular Upper Bound being more computationally efficient.

  9. Indentation of elastically soft and plastically compressible solids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Needleman, A.; Tvergaard, Viggo; Van der Giessen, E.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of soft elasticity, i.e., a relatively small value of the ratio of Young's modulus to yield strength and plastic compressibility on the indentation of isotropically hardening elastic-viscoplastic solids is investigated. Calculations are carried out for indentation of a perfectly sticking...... the ratio of nominal indentation hardness to yield strength. A linear relation is found between the nominal indentation hardness and the logarithm of the ratio of Young's modulus to yield strength, but with a different coefficient than reported in previous studies. The nominal indentation hardness decreases...

  10. Rebound indentation problem for a viscoelastic half-space and axisymmetric indenter - Solution by the method of dimensionality reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argatov, Ivan I.; Popov, Valentin L.

    2016-08-01

    The method of dimensionality reduction (MDR) is extended for the axisymmetric frictionless unilateral Hertz-type contact problem for a viscoelastic half-space and an arbitrary axisymmetric rigid indenter under the assumption that an arbitrarily evolving in time circular contact area remains singly connected during the whole process of indentation. In particular, the MDR is applied to study in detail the so-called rebound indentation problem, where the contact radius has a single maximum. It is shown that the obtained closed-form analytical solution for the rebound indentation displacement (recorded in the recovery phase, when the contact force vanishes) does not depend on the indenter shape.

  11. The difference of phase distributions in silicon after indentation with Berkovich and spherical indenters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarudi, I.; Zhang, L.C.; Cheong, W.C.D.; Yu, T.X.

    2005-01-01

    This study analyses the microstructure of monocrystalline silicon after indentation with a Berkovich and spherical indenter. Transmission electron microscopy on cross section view samples was used to explore the detailed distributions of various phases in the subsurfaces of indented silicon. It was found that an increase of the P max would promote the growth of the crystalline R8/BC8 phase at the bottom of the deformation zone. Microcracks were always generated in the range of the P max studied. It was also found that the deformation zones formed by the Berkovich and spherical indenters have very different phase distribution characteristics. A molecular dynamics simulation and finite element analysis supported the experimental observations and suggested that the distribution of the crystalline phases in the transformation zone after indentation was highly stress-dependent

  12. RBS and AFM study of Ag and Au diffusion into PET foils influenced by plasma treatment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macková, Anna; Švorčík, V.; Strýhal, Z.; Pavlík, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 38, č. 4 (2006), s. 335-338 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1P05OC014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : metal diffusion * polymer metal intermixing * RBS * AFM Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.427, year: 2006

  13. Mechanism of immonoglobulin G adsorption on mica-AFM and electrokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dąbkowska, Maria; Adamczyk, Zbigniew

    2014-06-01

    Adsorption of immunoglobulin G (IgG) from aqueous NaCl solutions of the concentration 10(-3)-0.15M on mica was studied. Initially, the kinetics was evaluated at pH 3.5 by direct AFM imaging. A monotonic increase in the maximum coverage of IgG with NaCl concentration was observed. These results were interpreted in terms of the theoretical model postulating an irreversible adsorption of the protein governed by the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. Additionally, IgG adsorption and desorption was studied under in situ conditions, with streaming potential measurements. These measurements revealed that the maximum coverage of irreversibly adsorbed IgG varies from 0.37mgm(-2) for 10(-3)M, NaCl to 1.2mgm(-2) for 0.15M, NaCl. The significant role of ionic strength was attributed to the lateral electrostatic repulsion among adsorbed IgG molecules, positively charged at this pH value. These experimental results confirmed that monolayers of irreversibly bound IgG can be produced by adjusting ionic strength of the protein solution. In further experiments the stability and acid base properties of such monolayers were studied using the streaming potential method. It revealed that the monolayers were stable against pH cycling for the range from 3.5 to 9.5. The isoelectric point of mica supported IgG monolayers was 5.9, similar to derived from the micro-electrophoretic measurements in the bulk (5.8). Beside significance for basic sciences, the results indicate that thorough characteristics of IgG can be acquired via streaming potential measurements using microgram quantities of the protein. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. AFM studies of the crystallization and habit modification of an excipient material, adipic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, T R; Thompson, C; Davies, M C; Tendler, S J B; Roberts, C J

    2004-08-06

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to investigate the (1 0 0) face of crystalline adipic acid, both in air and liquid environments. In air, surface reorganization occurred during scanning of the AFM probe, which has been investigated using single point force-distance analysis under a controlled relative humidity (RH) environment. We suggest such reorganization can be attributed to the influence of a network of water molecules bound to the hydrophilic (1 0 0) surface permitting local AFM tip-enhanced dissolution and reorganization of the solute. In situ imaging was also carried out on the crystals, revealing etch-pit formation during dissolution, and rapid growth at higher levels of supersaturation (sigma), both of which are direct consequences of the hydrophilic nature of the (1 0 0) face. Also presented here are nanoscale observations of the effect of octanoic acid, a structurally-related habit modifier, on crystalline adipic acid. Using AFM, we have been able to show that the presence of octanoic acid at low concentration has little observable affect on the development of the (1 0 0) face; however, as this concentration is increased, there are clear changes in step morphology and growth mode on the (1 0 0) face of the crystal. At a concentration of 1.26 mmol dm(-3) (a concentration corresponding to a molar ratio of approximately 1:175 octanoic acid:adipic acid), growth on the (1 0 0) face is inhibited, with in situ AFM imaging indicating this is a direct consequence of octanoic acid binding to the surface, and pinning the monomolecular growth steps.

  15. Comparative studies of thin film growth on aluminium by AFM, TEM and GDOES characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jiantao; Thompson, George E.

    2016-07-01

    In this present study, comparative studies of trivalent chromium conversion coating formation, associated with aluminium dissolution process, have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). High-resolution electron micrographs revealed the evident and uniform coating initiation on the whole surface after conversion treatment for only 30 s, although a network of metal ridges was created by HF etching pre-treatment. In terms of conversion treatment process on electropolished aluminium, constant kinetics of coating growth, ∼0.30 ± 0.2 nm/s, were found after the prolonged conversion treatment for 600 s. The availability of electrolyte anions for coating deposition determined the growth process. Simultaneously, a proceeding process of aluminium dissolution during conversion treatment, of ∼0.11 ± 0.02 nm/s, was found for the first time, indicating constant kinetics of anodic reactions. The distinct process of aluminium consumption was assigned with loss of corrosion protection of the deposited coating material as evidenced in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Based on the present data, a new mechanism of coating growth on aluminium was proposed, and it consisted of an activation period (0-30 s), a linear growth period (0.30 nm/s, up for 600 s) and limited growth period (0.17 nm/s, 600-1200 s). In addition, the air-drying post-treatment and a high-vacuum environment in the microscope revealed a coating shrinkage, especially in the coatings after conversion treatments for longer time.

  16. Recombinant albumin adsorption on mica studied by AFM and streaming potential measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujda, Marta; Adamczyk, Zbigniew; Morga, Maria; Sofińska, Kamila

    2015-03-01

    Recombinant human serum albumin (rHSA) in monomeric state is widely used in pharmaceutical industry as a drug excipient and for preparing coatings for medical devices. In this work the adsorption process of rHSA on model mica surface at pH 3.5 was studied using the atomic force microscopy (AFM) and in situ streaming potential measurements. The kinetics of albumin adsorption was determined by a direct enumeration of single molecules over various substrate areas. These results were consistent with streaming potential measurements carried out for the parallel-plate channel flow and with theoretical predictions derived from the random sequential adsorption (RSA) model. Desorption kinetics of albumin under flow conditions was also evaluated via the streaming potential measurements. In this way, the amount of irreversibly bound albumin was quantitatively evaluated to be 0.64 and 1.2 mg m(-2) for ionic strength of 0.01 and 0.15 M, respectively. This agrees with previous results obtained for HSA and theoretical calculations derived from the RSA model. Additionally, it was demonstrated that there existed a fraction of reversibly bound albumin that can be fully eluted within a few hours. The binding energy of these fraction of molecules was -18 kT that is consistent with the electrostatic controlled adsorption mechanism of albumin at this pH. It was concluded that the rHSA monolayers of well-defined coverage can find applications for quantitatively analyzing ligand binding and for performing efficient biomaterials and immunological tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Atom probe, AFM and STM study on vacuum fired stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stupnik, A.; Frank, P.; Leisch, M.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: Stainless steel is one of the most commonly used structural materials for vacuum equipment. An efficient method to reduce the outgassing rate from stainless steel is a high temperature bakeout in vacuum (vacuum firing). This procedure reduces significantly the amount of dissolved hydrogen in the bulk. For the outgassing process the recombination rate of hydrogen atoms to the molecules plays the determining role and recombination is strongly related to the surface structure and composition. To get more detailed information about the surface morphology and composition AFM, STM and atom probe studies were carried out. Experiments on AISI 304L stainless steel samples show that the surface reconstructs completely during vacuum firing and large atomically flat terraces bounded by bunched steps and facets are formed. The large flat terraces can be assigned to (111) planes. The bunched steps and facets are corresponding in orientation almost to (110) planes and (100) planes. Surface inspection after vacuum firing by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) gives reason for a composition change indicated by a reduction of the chromium signal in relation to the iron and nickel signal. Since the information depth of AES covers several atomic layers not only the top atomic layer of the sample surface is probed. For this reason 3D atom probe was used as well suited tool to investigate the segregation behavior of this alloy with the goal to examine the change in local chemical composition due to the high temperature treatment. As a result of vacuum firing the atom probe experiments show a significant enrichment of nickel at the top surface layer. In the second atomic layer chromium enrichment is detected. After vacuum firing the average composition below the second atomic layer shows certain chromium depletion up to 2 nm in depth. The observed changes in surface chemistry influence recombination and desorption probability from the surface and may contribute to the present

  18. Analysis of indentation creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don S. Stone; Joseph E. Jakes; Jonathan Puthoff; Abdelmageed A. Elmustafa

    2010-01-01

    Finite element analysis is used to simulate cone indentation creep in materials across a wide range of hardness, strain rate sensitivity, and work-hardening exponent. Modeling reveals that the commonly held assumption of the hardness strain rate sensitivity (mΗ) equaling the flow stress strain rate sensitivity (mσ...

  19. Comparative studies of thin film growth on aluminium by AFM, TEM and GDOES characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Jiantao, E-mail: alexanderinmanchester@gmail.com; Thompson, George E.

    2016-07-30

    Highlights: • Coating initiation was evidenced after conversion treatment for only 30 s and the uniform cross section revealed a chemical deposition process of electrolyte anions on aluminium. • A proceeding process of aluminium dissolution during conversion treatment was found for the first time, indicating non-inhibitive kinetics of anodic reactions. • Coating growth on aluminium was determined by the availability of electrolyte anions and the prolonged conversion treatment crated a significant concentration gradient to limit growth. • Coating shrinkage either in the microscope or after post-coating treatment in the air was clarified, especially for the coating after prolonged conversion treatments. - Abstract: In this present study, comparative studies of trivalent chromium conversion coating formation, associated with aluminium dissolution process, have been investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and glow-discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). High-resolution electron micrographs revealed the evident and uniform coating initiation on the whole surface after conversion treatment for only 30 s, although a network of metal ridges was created by HF etching pre-treatment. In terms of conversion treatment process on electropolished aluminium, constant kinetics of coating growth, ∼0.30 ± 0.2 nm/s, were found after the prolonged conversion treatment for 600 s. The availability of electrolyte anions for coating deposition determined the growth process. Simultaneously, a proceeding process of aluminium dissolution during conversion treatment, of ∼0.11 ± 0.02 nm/s, was found for the first time, indicating constant kinetics of anodic reactions. The distinct process of aluminium consumption was assigned with loss of corrosion protection of the deposited coating material as evidenced in the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Based on the present data, a new mechanism of coating growth on aluminium

  20. Analysis of Indentation-Derived Power-Law Creep Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Nicholas J.; Shen, Yu-Lin

    2016-03-01

    The use of instrumented indentation to characterize power-law creep is studied by computational modeling. Systematic finite element analyses were conducted to examine how indentation creep tests can be employed to retrieve the steady-state creep parameters pertaining to regular uniaxial loading. The constant indentation load hold and constant indentation-strain-rate methods were considered, first using tin (Sn)-based materials as a model system. The simulated indentation-strain rate-creep stress relations were compared against the uniaxial counterparts serving as model input. It was found that the constant indentation-strain-rate method can help establish steady-state creep, and leads to a more uniform behavior than the constant-load hold method. An expanded parametric analysis was then performed using the constant indentation-strain-rate method, taking into account a wide range of possible power-law creep parameters. The indentation technique was found to give rise to accurate stress exponents, and a certain trend for the ratio between indentation strain rate and uniaxial strain rate was identified. A contour-map representation of the findings serves as practical guidance for determining the uniaxial power-law creep response based on the indentation technique.

  1. AFM study of surface relief evolution in 316L steel fatigued at low and high temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Valtr, B.; Weidner, A.; Petrenec, Martin; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2010), s. 1625-1633 E-ISSN 1877-7058. [Fatigue 2010. Praha, 06.06.2010-11.06.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/10/2371; GA AV ČR 1QS200410502; GA ČR GA106/06/1096 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : Fatigue crack initiation * 316L steel * Persistent slip band (PSB) * Extrusion * Intrusion * Atomic force microscopy (AFM) Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics

  2. tRNA conjugation with chitosan nanoparticles: An AFM imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agudelo, D; Kreplak, L; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2016-04-01

    The conjugation of tRNA with chitosan nanoparticles of different sizes 15,100 and 200 kDa was investigated in aqueous solution using multiple spectroscopic methods and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Structural analysis showed that chitosan binds tRNA via G-C and A-U base pairs as well as backbone PO2 group, through electrostatic, hydrophilic and H-bonding contacts with overall binding constants of KCh-15-tRNA=4.1 (±0.60)×10(3)M(-1), KCh-100-tRNA=5.7 (±0.8)×10(3)M(-1) and KCh-200-tRNA=1.2 (±0.3)×10(4)M(-1). As chitosan size increases more stable polymer-tRNA conjugate is formed. AFM images showed major tRNA aggregation and particle formation occurred as chitosan concentration increased. Even though chitosan induced major biopolymer structural changes, tRNA remains in A-family structure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Influence of indenter geometry on the frictional sliding resistance of tooth enamel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Swain

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Indentation force-displacement and sliding scratch resistance measurements have been conducted on orangutan tooth enamel. Tests were made with a corner-cube (CC, Berkovich, as well as spherical (nominally 1 μm and 5 μm radius indenters. Indentation loads ranged from 100 to 5000 μN and were also made on fused silica to calibrate the indenter tips. The frictional force as a function of sliding distance was measured with the atomic force microscope (AFM option on the indenter system as well as using a high precision AFM and scanning electron microscope (SEM. The frictional resistance was found to be almost constant with indenter load for the CC and Berkovich indenters; for the CC, it depended upon the orientation of the sliding indenter. For the spherical indenters, the 1 μm showed a sharp increase in frictional resistance with increasing load whereas for the 5 μm tip there was minimal change. Observations of the resultant scratches showed ploughing/cutting with the sharp indenters and a transition from an “ironing” like deformation for all the 5 μm tests and for the low load 1 μm tip with ploughing at the heaviest load. In the case of the sharp tips a “metallic” like discontinuous swarf removal process was evident. It was found that the frictional resistance force scaled with the effective rake angle of the indenter tips. Implications of the current observations for understanding tooth wear are considered.

  4. Studying Chemical Reactions, One Bond at a Time, with Single Molecule AFM Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julio M.

    2008-03-01

    The mechanisms by which mechanical forces regulate the kinetics of a chemical reaction are unknown. In my lecture I will demonstrate how we use single molecule force-clamp spectroscopy and protein engineering to study the effect of force on the kinetics of thiol/disulfide exchange. Reduction of disulfide bond via the thiol/disulfide exchange chemical reaction is crucial in regulating protein function and is of common occurrence in mechanically stressed proteins. While reduction is thought to proceed through a substitution nucleophilic bimolecular (SN2) reaction, the role of a mechanical force in modulating this chemical reaction is unknown. We apply a constant stretching force to single engineered disulfide bonds and measure their rate of reduction by dithiothreitol (DTT). We find that while the reduction rate is linearly dependent on the concentration of DTT, it is exponentially dependent on the applied force, increasing 10-fold over a 300 pN range. This result predicts that the disulfide bond lengthens by 0.34 å at the transition state of the thiol/disulfide exchange reaction. In addition to DTT, we also study the reduction of the engineered disulfide bond by the E. coli enzyme thioredoxin (Trx). Thioredoxins are enzymes that catalyze disulfide bond reduction in all organisms. As before, we apply a mechanical force in the range of 25-450 pN to the engineered disulfide bond substrate and monitor the reduction of these bonds by individual enzymes. In sharp contrast with the data obtained with DTT, we now observe two alternative forms of the catalytic reaction, the first requiring a reorientation of the substrate disulfide bond, causing a shortening of the substrate polypeptide by 0.76±0.07 å, and the second elongating the substrate disulfide bond by 0.21±0.01 å. These results support the view that the Trx active site regulates the geometry of the participating sulfur atoms, with sub-ångström precision, in order to achieve efficient catalysis. Single molecule

  5. On size-effects in single crystal wedge indentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Kysar, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    Wedge indentation in single crystals is studied numerically, with emphasis on size-effects on the micron scale. Under the assumption of a perfectly sharp wedge indenter, a linear relationship between indentation force and indentation depth would be predicted from conventional theories lacking con...... are included in the model due to the addition of gradient terms in both the free energy as well as through a dissipation potential. The finite element solution method is presented, which delivers the slip-rate field and the velocity-field based on two minimum principles.......Wedge indentation in single crystals is studied numerically, with emphasis on size-effects on the micron scale. Under the assumption of a perfectly sharp wedge indenter, a linear relationship between indentation force and indentation depth would be predicted from conventional theories lacking...... constitutive length parameters to model sizeeffects. The problem is studied numerically using a strain gradient crystal visco-plasticity theory formulated along the lines proposed by Fleck andWillis (2009). It is shown how the force-indentation relation is affected due to size-dependence in the material. Size-effects...

  6. Atomic force microscopy indentation of fluorocarbon thin films fabricated by plasma enhanced chemical deposition at low radio frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirghi, L.; Ruiz, A.; Colpo, P.; Rossi, F.

    2009-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) indentation technique is used for characterization of mechanical properties of fluorocarbon (CF x ) thin films obtained from C 4 F 8 gas by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition at low r.f. power (5-30 W) and d.c. bias potential (10-80 V). This particular deposition method renders films with good hydrophobic property and high plastic compliance. Commercially available AFM probes with stiff cantilevers (10-20 N/m) and silicon sharpened tips (tip radius < 10 nm) are used for indentations and imaging of the resulted indentation imprints. Force depth curves and imprint characteristics are used for determination of film hardness, elasticity modulus and plasticity index. The measurements show that the decrease of the discharge power results in deposition of films with decreased hardness and stiffness and increased plasticity index. Nanolithography based on AFM indentation is demonstrated on thin films (thickness of 40 nm) with good plastic compliance.

  7. Nanotribology at single crystal electrodes: Influence of ionic adsorbates on friction forces studied with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausen, Florian; Nielinger, Michael; Ernst, Siegfried [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany); Baltruschat, Helmut [Institut fuer Physikalische und Theoretische Chemie, Universitaet Bonn, Roemerstrasse 164, D-53117 Bonn (Germany)], E-mail: baltruschat@uni-bonn.de

    2008-09-01

    We present friction force measurements on Au(1 1 1) single crystal electrode surfaces performed under electrochemical conditions using an atomic force microscope (AFM). At monoatomic steps friction is increased in both scan directions. In 0.05 M sulfuric acid an increase of friction is observed with the increase of adsorbed sulfate. Friction force increases non-linearly with load. Cu UPD also increases friction in presence of sulfate. However, in presence of 4 x 10{sup -4} M chloride friction is much smaller for all deposited Cu coverages - ranging from a submonolayer up to bulk copper compared to the solution without chloride. After dissolution of bulk copper clusters deposited on Au(1 1 1) we observed an area with higher friction forces due to the formation of an alloy between gold and copper.

  8. TEM and AFM study of WO3 nanosize growth on α-Al2O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Mohammad, A.

    2007-07-01

    WO 3 thin films have been deposited by thermal evaporation on (0001) and (1012 ) planes of alumina oxide single crystal and annealed either in Oxygen or in air atmosphere. The morphology and crystallographic structure of films (as-deposited and annealed films) have been characterized by Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), and transmission electron diffraction (TED). During annealing, the films undergo important morphological and structural changes. The annealed films exhibit large grains. These grains have the monoclinic structure in epitaxial orientations. The grains are made of twinned microdomains elongated in the [100] direction resulting of a preferential growth. The microdomains are along the three different directions on the (0001) α-Al 2 O 3 surface and only one direction on the (1012 ) α-Al 2 O 3 one.(author)

  9. Determination of the mechanical properties and fracture mechanisms of YSZ and GDC for electrolyte-supported SOFCs by instrumented indentation test; Determinacion de las propiedades mecanicas y mecanismos de fractura de electrolitos soportados de YSZ y GDC mediante ensayos de indentacion instrumentada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roa, J. J.; Morales, M.; Capdevila, X. G.; Segarra, M.

    2010-07-01

    The main purpose of this work is to evaluate the different mechanical properties and the different fracture mechanisms activated during the instrumented indentation process of the electrolytes based on Yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) and gadolinia doped ceria (GDC), for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs). Both materials, with a thickness of 200 {mu}m, were shaped by uniaxial pressing at 500 MPa, and sintered at 1400 degree centigrade. Mechanical properties such as hardness (H) and Young's modulus (E) have been studied at different penetration depths using the Oliver and Pharr equations. The different fracture mechanisms activated during the instrumented indentation process have been studied at constant penetration depth of 500 nm, performed with a diamond Berkovich tip indenter. The residual indentation imprints have been observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hardness and Young's modulus for YSZ electrolytes are higher than for GDC materials, due to the different fracture mechanism activated during the indentation process. As a result, the electrolytes of YSZ presented trans- and intergranular fracture mechanisms, depending on the place of the residual indentation imprint (in the grain boundary or in the middle of the grain, respectively). However, the GDC electrolyte revealed radical cracks at the corners of the residual nano indentation imprints, thus producing a phenomenon known as chipping. (Author)

  10. The morphological and biomechanical changes of keratocytes cultured on modified p (HEMA-MMA) hydrogel studied by AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Tuo; Sun, Rong; Deng, Hua; Tan, Baihua; Ao, Ningjian

    2009-01-01

    The poor integration with host cornea tissue and the low mechanical properties of pHEMA hydrogel for artificial cornea remains a difficult problem to solve. A modified pHEMA hydrogel, MMA copolymerized and type-I collagen and bFGF immobilized, was previously prepared in an attempt to solve the problems. In this study, the cytotoxicity of Col/bFGF-p (HEMA-MMA) and p (HEMA-MMA) was studied by cell adhesion assay and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results of cell adhesion assay show that the attachment of keratocytes on the modified membrane is much higher than that of the unmodified membrane. This indicates that the material after modification have better cell-material interaction. The AFM images reveal that the morphology of keratocytes cultured on different substrate is obviously different. The cell cultured on modified membrane presented a completely elongated and spindle-shape morphology. The force-distance indicates that the biomechanical of keratocytes changes significantly after culturing on different substrates. The adhesion force (2328+/-523 pN) and Young's modulus (0.51+/-0.125 kPa) of the cell cultured on modified membrane are much higher, and the stiffness (0.08+/-0.022 mN/m) is lower than those of the cell cultured on unmodified membrane. These results show that the cytotoxicity of Col/bFGF-p (HEMA-MMA) for keratocytes is much improved. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Molecular shape and binding force of Mycoplasma mobile's leg protein Gli349 revealed by an AFM study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesoil, Charles; Nonaka, Takahiro; Sekiguchi, Hiroshi; Osada, Toshiya; Miyata, Makoto; Afrin, Rehana; Ikai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of the gliding bacteria Mycoplasma mobile have identified a family of proteins called the Gli family which was considered to be involved in this novel and yet fairly unknown motility system. The 349 kDa protein called Gli349 was successfully isolated and purified from the bacteria, and electron microscopy imaging and antibody experiments led to the hypothesis that it acts as the 'leg' of M. mobile, responsible for attachment to the substrate as well as for gliding motility. However, more precise evidence of the molecular shape and function of this protein was required to asses this theory any further. In this study, an atomic force microscope (AFM) was used both as an imaging and a force measurement device to provide new information about Gli349 and its role in gliding motility. AFM images of the protein were obtained revealing a complex structure with both rigid and flexible parts, consistent with previous electron micrographs of the protein. Single-molecular force spectroscopy experiments were also performed, revealing that Gli349 is able to specifically bind to sialyllactose molecules and withstand unbinding forces around 70 pN. These findings strongly support the idea that Gli349 is the 'leg' protein of M. mobile, responsible for binding and also most probably force generation during gliding motility.

  12. Assembly of α-synuclein fibrils in nanoscale studied by peptide truncation and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Feng; Lin Xiaojing; Ji Lina; Du Haining; Tang Lin; He Jianhua; Hu Jun; Hu Hongyu

    2008-01-01

    α-Synuclein (α-Syn) fibrils are the major component of Lewy bodies that are closely associated with the pathogenesis of Parkinson's disease, but the mechanism for the fibril assembly remains poorly understood. Here we report using a combination of peptide truncation and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to elucidate the self-assembly and morphology of the α-Syn fibrils. The results show that protease K significantly slims the fibrils from the mean height of ∼6.6 to ∼4.7 nm, whereas chaotropic denaturant urea completely breaks down the fibrils into small particles. The in situ enzymatic digestion also results in thinning of the fibrils, giving rise to some nicks on the fibrils. Moreover, N- or C-terminally truncated α-Syn fragments assemble into thinner filaments with the heights depending on the peptide lengths. A nine-residue peptide corresponding to the homologous GAV-motif sequence can form very thin (∼2.2 nm) but long (>1 μm) filaments. Thus, the central sequence of α-Syn forms a fibrillar core by cross-β-structure that is flanked by two flexible termini, and the orientation of the fibril growth is perpendicular to the β-sheet structures

  13. The influence of aminophylline on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes: an AFM study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xun; He, Jiexiang; Liu, Mingxian; Zhou, Changren

    2014-09-01

    Although much progress has been made in the illustration of the mechanism of aminophylline (AM) treating asthma, there is no data about its effect on the nanostructure and nanomechanics of T lymphocytes. Here, we presented atomic force spectroscopy (AFM)-based investigations at the nanoscale level to address the above fundamental biophysical questions. As increasing AM treatment time, T lymphocytes' volume nearly double increased and then decreased. The changes of nanostructural features of the cell membrane, i.e., mean height of particles, root-mean-square roughness (Rq), crack and fragment appearance, increased with AM treatment time. T lymphocytes were completely destroyed with 96-h treatment, and they existed in the form of small fragments. Analysis of force-distance curves showed that the adhesion force of cell surface decreased significantly with the increase of AM treatment time, while the cell stiffness increased firstly and then decreased. These changes were closely correlated to the characteristics and process of cell oncosis. In total, these quantitative and qualitative changes of T lymphocytes' structure and nanomechanical properties suggested that AM could induce T lymphocyte oncosis to exert anti-inflammatory effects for treating asthma. These findings provide new insights into the T lymphocyte oncosis and the anti-inflammatory mechanism and immune regulation actions of AM.

  14. Cable indenter aging monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shook, T.A.; Gardner, J.B.

    1988-07-01

    This project was undertaken to develop a hand-held, nondestructive test device to assess the aged condition of electrical cable by in situ measurement of mechanical properties of polymeric jackets and insulations. The device is an indenter similar to those used to make hardness measurements. Comparison of measurements made on installed cables with previous measurements serving as baseline aging/mechanical property data will determine the state of aging of the field cables. Such a device will be valuable in nuclear and fossil plant life extension programs. Preliminary laboratory tests on cables covered with ethylene propylene rubber (EPR) and chlorosulfated polyethylene (CSPE) point to the measurement of the rate of force increase resulting from constant rate deformation as having the best correlation with progressive thermal aging. This first phase of the work has demonstrated the technical feasibility of the method. A second phase will include the generation of additional groundwork data and the design of the portable indenter for in situ plant measurements

  15. Blunt indentation of core graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartley, M.; McEnaney, B.

    1996-01-01

    Blunt indentation experiments were carried out on unoxidized and thermally oxidised IM1-24 graphite as a model to simulate local point stresses acting on graphite moderator bricks. Blunt indentation of unoxidized graphite initiates cracks close to the region of maximum tensile stress at the edge of the indentation. Cracks propagate and converge to form a cone of material. Failure is catastrophic, typically forming three pieces of graphite and ejecting the cone referred to above. The failure mode under indentation loading for highly oxidised graphite (weigh loss > 40%) is different from that for the unoxidized graphite. There is no longer a distinct crack path, the indentation is much deeper than in the case of the unoxidized graphite, and there is a region of crushed debris beneath the indentation, producing a crater-like structure. The reduction in the compressive fracture stress, σ cf , under indentation loading with increasing fractional weight loss on oxidation, x, can be fitted to σ cf /σ 0 = exp-[5.2x] where σ 0 is the compressive fracture stress of the unoxidized graphite. This indicates that the effect of thermal oxidation on indentation fracture stress is more severe than the effects of radiolytic oxidation on conventional strengths of nuclear graphites. (author). 8 refs, 12 figs

  16. The combined study of the organosilicon films by RBS, ERDA and AFM analytical methods obtained from PECVD and PACVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackova, A.; Perina, V.; Stryhal, Z.; Pavlik, J.; Svec, M.; Quédé, A.; Supiot, P.; Borvon, G.; Granier, A.; Raynaud, P.

    2004-09-01

    Organosilicon plasma deposited polymers are of interest for different kinds of applications like packaging, passivation and dielectric layers. A large set of plasma processes is possible, among which are low-pressure plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) and plasma assisted chemical vapour deposition (PACVD) often used. In this work, we studied the composition and surface morphology of the hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetramethyldisiloxane (TMDSO) layers produced by PECVD and PACVD deposition using three plasma generation processes (plasma reactors): RF inductively coupled plasma (RFICP), microwave distributed electron cyclotron resonance plasma (DECR) and microwave induced remote nitrogen afterglow (MIRA). The layer composition was investigated by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) and the layer surface morphology was determined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Composition, density and morphology (roughness, porosity) of the layers is discussed in connection with deposition techniques used.

  17. Coating of AFM probes with aquatic humic and non-humic NOM to study their adhesion properties

    KAUST Repository

    Aubry, Cyril

    2013-06-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study interaction forces between four Natural Organic Matter (NOM) samples of different physicochemical characteristics and origins and mica surface at a wide range of ionic strength. All NOM samples were strongly adsorbed on positively charged iron oxide-coated silica colloidal probe. Cross-sectioning by focused ion beam milling technique and elemental mapping by energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy indicated coating completeness of the NOM-coated colloidal probes. AFM-generated force-distance curves were analyzed to elucidate the nature and mechanisms of these interacting forces. Electrostatics and steric interactions were important contributors to repulsive forces during approach, although the latter became more influential with increasing ionic strength. Retracting force profiles showed a NOM adhesion behavior on mica consistent with its physicochemical characteristics. Humic-like substances, referred as the least hydrophilic NOM fraction, i.e., so called hydrophobic NOM, poorly adsorbed on hydrophilic mica due to their high content of ionized carboxyl groups and aromatic/hydrophobic character. However, adhesion force increased with increasing ionic strength, suggesting double layer compression. Conversely, polysaccharide-like substances showed high adhesion to mica. Hydrogen-bonding between hydroxyl groups on polysaccharide-like substances and highly electronegative elements on mica was suggested as the main adsorption mechanism, where the adhesion force decreased with increasing ionic strength. Results from this investigation indicated that all NOM samples retained their characteristics after the coating procedure. The experimental approach followed in this study can potentially be extended to investigate interactions between NOM and clean or fouled membranes as a function of NOM physicochemical characteristics and solution chemistry. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Cell visco-elasticity measured with AFM and optical trapping at sub-micrometer deformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schanila Nawaz

    Full Text Available The measurement of the elastic properties of cells is widely used as an indicator for cellular changes during differentiation, upon drug treatment, or resulting from the interaction with the supporting matrix. Elasticity is routinely quantified by indenting the cell with a probe of an AFM while applying nano-Newton forces. Because the resulting deformations are in the micrometer range, the measurements will be affected by the finite thickness of the cell, viscous effects and even cell damage induced by the experiment itself. Here, we have analyzed the response of single 3T3 fibroblasts that were indented with a micrometer-sized bead attached to an AFM cantilever at forces from 30-600 pN, resulting in indentations ranging from 0.2 to 1.2 micrometer. To investigate the cellular response at lower forces up to 10 pN, we developed an optical trap to indent the cell in vertical direction, normal to the plane of the coverslip. Deformations of up to two hundred nanometers achieved at forces of up to 30 pN showed a reversible, thus truly elastic response that was independent on the rate of deformation. We found that at such small deformations, the elastic modulus of 100 Pa is largely determined by the presence of the actin cortex. At higher indentations, viscous effects led to an increase of the apparent elastic modulus. This viscous contribution that followed a weak power law, increased at larger cell indentations. Both AFM and optical trapping indentation experiments give consistent results for the cell elasticity. Optical trapping has the benefit of a lower force noise, which allows a more accurate determination of the absolute indentation. The combination of both techniques allows the investigation of single cells at small and large indentations and enables the separation of their viscous and elastic components.

  19. AFM measurements on ferrous materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ros Yáñez, T.

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM has been successfully used for the characterisation of the surface topography of a very wide range of materials. The AFM is an interesting technique to study the surface of materials and specifically to study surface effects in steel, e.g. after polishing and/or after etching. This technique allows not only to study the topography of the samples, but it is also a useful tool to obtain structural details of surfaces and for the identification of different phases. In this paper, some applications are shown concerning the study of the microstructure of multiphase-steels.

    El Microcopio de Fuerza Atómica (AFM es utilizado en la caracterización topográfica de una gran variedad de materiales. El AFM es una interesante técnica para el estudio de la superficie de los aceros, ya sea con ataque químico o no. Esta técnica es también una útil herramienta para obtener detalles estructurales en las superficies y en la identificación de fases. En este trabajo algunas de estas aplicaciones son mostradas en el estudio de la microestructura de aceros multifásicos.

  20. Mechanical behavior of biopolymer composite coatings on plastic films by depth-sensing indentation - A nanoscale study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovera, Cesare; Cozzolino, Carlo A; Ghaani, Masoud; Morrone, Davide; Olsson, Richard T; Farris, Stefano

    2018-02-15

    Fundamental physical behaviors of materials at the nanoscale level are crucial when local aspects govern the macroscale performance of nanocomposites, e.g., interface and surface phenomena. Because of the increasing interest in biopolymer nanocomposite coatings for many different applications (e.g., optical devices, displays/screens, and packaging), this work investigates the potential of nanoindentation as a method for clarifying the interplay between distinct phases (i.e., organic and inorganic) at local level in thin biopolymer films loaded with nanoparticles. The nanomechanical features of pullulan nanocomposite coatings laid on polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were quantified in terms of elastic modulus (E), hardness (H), and creep (C) through an instrumented indentation test composed of a loading-holding-unloading cycle. Colloidal silica (CS) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were used as spherical and rod-like nanoparticles, respectively. An overall reinforcing effect was shown for all nanocomposite coatings over the pristine (unfilled) pullulan coating. A size effect was also disclosed for the CS-loaded surfaces, with the highest E value recorded for the largest particles (8.19 ± 0.35 GPa) and the highest H value belonging to the smallest ones (395.41 ± 25.22 MPa). Comparing CS and CNCs, the addition of spherical nanoparticles had a greater effect on the surface hardness than cellulose nanowhiskers (353.50 ± 83.52 MPa and 321.36 ± 43.26 MPa, respectively). As for the elastic modulus, the addition of CS did not provide any improvement over both the bare and CNC-loaded pullulan coatings, whereas the coating including CNCs exhibited higher E values (p coatings were the best performing in terms of C properties, with an average indentation depth of 16.5 ± 1.85 nm under a load of ∼190 μN. These results are discussed in terms of local distribution gradients, surface chemistry of nanoparticles, and how nanoparticle

  1. Biophysical analysis of bacterial and viral systems. A shock tube study of bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/nanosims investigation of vaccinia virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gates, Sean Damien [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The work presented herein is concerned with the development of biophysical methodology designed to address pertinent questions regarding the behavior and structure of select pathogenic agents. Two distinct studies are documented: a shock tube analysis of endospore-laden bio-aerosols and a correlated AFM/NanoSIMS study of the structure of vaccinia virus.

  2. Finite element simulation of Reference Point Indentation on bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idkaidek, Ashraf; Agarwal, Vineet; Jasiuk, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    inversely proportional to the compressive yield stress, and strongly proportional to the viscosity constant and maximum applied load, but has weak relation with the damage parameter, indenter tip radius, and elastic modulus. This computational study advances our understanding of the RPI outputs and provides a starting point for more comprehensive computational studies of the RPI technique. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Measuring bacterial cells size with AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Osiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM can be used to obtain high-resolution topographical images of bacteria revealing surface details and cell integrity. During scanning however, the interactions between the AFM probe and the membrane results in distortion of the images. Such distortions or artifacts are the result of geometrical effects related to bacterial cell height, specimen curvature and the AFM probe geometry. The most common artifact in imaging is surface broadening, what can lead to errors in bacterial sizing. Several methods of correction have been proposed to compensate for these artifacts and in this study we describe a simple geometric model for the interaction between the tip (a pyramidal shaped AFM probe and the bacterium (Escherichia coli JM-109 strain to minimize the enlarging effect. Approaches to bacteria immobilization and examples of AFM images analysis are also described.

  4. Application and Development of Biological AFM for the Study of Bacterial Toxins

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yang, Jie

    1999-01-01

    ... with other conventional methods. These studies have also established a solid foundation for our structural elucidation of molecular level conformation of membranous bacterial toxins, such as cholera toxin and alpha-hemolysin...

  5. Pathways of lipid vesicle deposition on solid surfaces : A combined QCM-D and AFM study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richter, R; Mukhopadhyay, A; Brisson, A

    2003-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) are popular models of cell membranes with potential biotechnological applications, yet the mechanism of SLB formation is only partially understood. In this study, the adsorption and subsequent conformational changes of sonicated unilamellar vesicles on silica supports

  6. Ionic Strength Mediated Self-Organization of Gold Nanocrystals: An AFM Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, Ernst S.; Brouwer, E.A.M.; Wormeester, Herbert; Poelsema, Bene

    2002-01-01

    The deposition of charge-stabilized colloidal gold nanocrystals on silicon substrates, derivatized with (aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), is studied using atomic force microscopy. The influence of ionic strength on the spatial distribution of gold nanocrystal assemblies is analyzed in terms of

  7. The lamellar period in symmetric diblock copolymer thin films studied by neutron reflectivity and AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, N.; Almdal, K.; Larsen, N.B.

    1999-01-01

    The lamellar structure of a symmetric diblock copolymer was studied as a function of temperature. We used dPEP-PDMS with a molecular weight of 8.3 kg/mol as model system. The polymer was dissolved in chloroform and spin-casted on silicon wafers into thin uniform films. The degree and direction...

  8. Combined TEM and NC-AFM study of Al2O3-supported Pt nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Nørregaard; Simonsen, Søren Bredmose; Chorkendorff, Ib

    Sintering, the growth of large particles at the expense of smaller ones, is one of the main causes of catalysts deactivation, since the physicochemical properties of a nanoparticle may depend strongly on its size, shape and composition. For application as heterogeneous catalysts, the nanoparticle...... kinks and edges often play an important role for the catalytic activity. In order to preserve these sites, it is important to stabilize the supported nanoparticles with sizes of a few nanometers during operational conditions at often high temperatures and in the relevant gas environments. A prototypical...... nanocatalyst system for studying coarsening consists of Pt nanoparticles supported on an Al2O3 material which is relevant as an oxidation catalyst in diesel and lean-burn engine exhaust after-treatment technologies. In this study we address the effect on sintering of the shape of Pt nanoparticles supported...

  9. SVET, AFM and AES study of pitting corrosion initiated on MnS inclusions by microinjection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuillemin, B.; Philippe, X.; Oltra, R.; Vignal, V.; Coudreuse, L.; Dufour, L.C.; Finot, E.

    2003-01-01

    As pitting is a random phenomenon, it is difficult to predict where a pit will appear on the surface and consequently the use of local probes is rendered difficult. In this work, a new method to study pitting corrosion on a MnS inclusion on 316L stainless steel is proposed. It consists in modifying locally the chemistry in its vicinity by injecting with a microcapillary an aggressive solution of NaCl, H 2 SO 4 or HCl. Once a pit appears, scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET) is used to follow the current fluctuations over and around the pit when the metal is polarized at a passive potential. In another series of experiments the effect of local activation of MnS inclusion was studied ex-situ using Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and atomic force microscopy. It is observed that a single pit can be initiated only when hydrochloric acid is injected, whereas sulphuric acid only partially dissolved the inclusion. On another hand, the surface morphology is not affected when a sodium chloride solution is injected. A significant enrichment in sulphur is detected around the inclusion by AES, and micropits are observed in the metal at the edge of the inclusion after HCl activation. Anodic zones are detected by SVET around the inclusion, whereas a cathodic current flows from the inclusion. The anodic current is clearly ascribed to the breakdown of passivity induced by adsorbed sulphur coming from the MnS dissolution, whereas various assumptions can be proposed for the origin of the cathodic current

  10. AFM, XRD and HRTEM Studies of Annealed FePd Thin Films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perzanowski, M.; Zabila, Y.; Polit, A.; Krupinski, M.; Dobrowolska, A.; Marszalek, M.; Morgiel, J.

    2010-01-01

    Ferromagnetic FePd L1 0 ordered alloys are highly expected as forthcoming high-density recording materials, because they reveal a large perpendicular magnetocrystalline anisotropy. The value of the magnetic anisotropy of FePd alloy strongly depends on the alloy composition, degree of alloy order as well as on the crystallographic grain orientation. In particular, to obtain the perpendicular anisotropy, it is necessary to get the films with (001) texture. One of the successful methods, which allows one to obtain highly ordered alloy, is a subsequent deposition of Fe and Pd layers, followed by an annealing at high temperature. This paper presents the study of the FePd thin alloy film structure changing in the result of high temperature annealing. During the annealing in high vacuum, the measurements of electrical resistance were performed, indicating the regions of different structure evolution. Changes in the crystal structure and surface morphology induced by thermal treatment were investigated by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, as well as high resolution transmission electron microscopy and then compared with electrical resistivity measurement. The slow thermal annealing of the deposited layers leads to the formation of L1 0 ordered FePd alloy with preferred (111) grain orientation. After the annealing at the highest used temperature, the dewetting process was observed, resulting in a creation of well oriented, regular nanoparticles. (author)

  11. AFM-based tribological study of nanopatterned surfaces: the influence of contact area instabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, A; Serpini, E; Gazzadi, G C; Valeri, S

    2016-04-06

    Although the importance of morphology on the tribological properties of surfaces has long been proved, an exhaustive understanding of nanopatterning effects is still lacking due to the difficulty in both fabricating 'really nano-' structures and detecting their tribological properties. In the present work we show how the probe-surface contact area can be a critical parameter due to its remarkable local variability, making a correct interpretation of the data very difficult in the case of extremely small nanofeatures. Regular arrays of parallel 1D straight nanoprotrusions were fabricated by means of a low-dose focused ion beam, taking advantage of the amorphization-related swelling effect. The tribological properties of the patterns were detected in the presence of air and in vacuum (dry ambient) by atomic force microscopy. We have introduced a novel procedure and data analysis to reduce the uncertainties related to contact instabilities. The real time estimation of the radius of curvature of the contacting asperity enables us to study the dependence of the tribological properties of the patterns from their geometrical characteristics. The effect of the patterns on both adhesion and the coefficient of friction strongly depends on the contact area, which is linked to the local radius of curvature of the probe. However, a detectable hydrophobic character induced on the hydrophilic native SiO2 has been observed as well. The results suggest a scenario for capillary formation on the patterns.

  12. In situ AFM study of pitting corrosion and corrosion under strain on a 304L stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, F.A. [CEA de Saclay, DRECAM/SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Cousty, J.; Masson, J-L. [CEA de Saclay, DRECAM/SPCSI, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France); Bataillon, C. [CEA de Saclay, DEN/DPC/LECA, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2004-07-01

    Our study is centred on surface localised corrosion under strain of a standard stainless steel (304L). The interest we take in these corrosion phenomena is led by the general misunderstanding of its primary initiation steps. The goal of this study is to determine precisely the relationships between local geometrical defects (grain boundaries, dislocation lines, etc) or chemical defects (inclusions) with the preferential sites of corrosion on the strained material. By combining three techniques at the same time: Atomic Force Microscopy, an electrochemical cell and a traction plate, we can observe in situ the effect of localised stress and deformation on the sample surface exposed to a corrosive solution. We managed to build an original set-up compatible with all the requirements of these three different techniques. Furthermore, we prepared the surface of our sample as flat as possible to decrease at maximum the topographical noise in order to observe the smallest defect on the surface. By using a colloidal suspension of SiO{sub 2}, we obtained surfaces with a typical corrugation (RMS) of about 1 A for areas of at least 1 {mu}m{sup 2}. Our experimental study has been organised in two primary investigations: - In situ study of the morphology evolution of the surface under a corrosive chloride solution (borate buffer with NaCl salt). The influence of time, NaCl concentration, and potential was investigated; - In situ exploration of a 304L strained surface. It revealed the first stages of the surface plastic evolutions like activation of sliding dislocations, materialized by parallel steps of about 2 nm high in the same grain. The secondary sliding plane systems were also noticeable for higher deformation rates. Recent results concerning in situ AFM observation of corroded surfaces under strain in a chloride media will be presented. (authors)

  13. In situ AFM study of pitting corrosion and corrosion under strain on a 304L stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, F.A.; Cousty, J.; Masson, J-L.; Bataillon, C.

    2004-01-01

    Our study is centred on surface localised corrosion under strain of a standard stainless steel (304L). The interest we take in these corrosion phenomena is led by the general misunderstanding of its primary initiation steps. The goal of this study is to determine precisely the relationships between local geometrical defects (grain boundaries, dislocation lines, etc) or chemical defects (inclusions) with the preferential sites of corrosion on the strained material. By combining three techniques at the same time: Atomic Force Microscopy, an electrochemical cell and a traction plate, we can observe in situ the effect of localised stress and deformation on the sample surface exposed to a corrosive solution. We managed to build an original set-up compatible with all the requirements of these three different techniques. Furthermore, we prepared the surface of our sample as flat as possible to decrease at maximum the topographical noise in order to observe the smallest defect on the surface. By using a colloidal suspension of SiO 2 , we obtained surfaces with a typical corrugation (RMS) of about 1 A for areas of at least 1 μm 2 . Our experimental study has been organised in two primary investigations: - In situ study of the morphology evolution of the surface under a corrosive chloride solution (borate buffer with NaCl salt). The influence of time, NaCl concentration, and potential was investigated; - In situ exploration of a 304L strained surface. It revealed the first stages of the surface plastic evolutions like activation of sliding dislocations, materialized by parallel steps of about 2 nm high in the same grain. The secondary sliding plane systems were also noticeable for higher deformation rates. Recent results concerning in situ AFM observation of corroded surfaces under strain in a chloride media will be presented. (authors)

  14. Indentation and needle insertion properties of the human eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, A; Hutnik, C; Hill, K; Newson, T; Chan, T; Campbell, G

    2014-07-01

    Characterization of the biomechanical properties of the human eye has a number of potential utilities. One novel purpose is to provide the basis for development of suitable tissue-mimicking material. The purpose of this study was to determine the indentation and needle insertion characteristics on human eye globes and tissue strips. An indenter assessed the elastic response of human eye globes and tissue strips under increasing compressive loads. Needle insertion determined the force (N) needed to penetrate various areas of the eye wall. The results demonstrated that globes underwent slightly greater indentation at the midline than at the central cornea, and corneal strips indented twofold more than scleral strips, although neither difference was significant (P=0.400 and P=0.100, respectively). Significant differences were observed among various areas of needle insertion (Phuman eye construct with potential utility as a model for use in ophthalmology research and surgical teaching.

  15. Indentation and Observation of Anisotropic Soft Tissues Using an Indenter Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parinaz ASHRAFI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Soft tissues of human body have complex structures and different mechanical behaviors than those of traditional engineering materials. There is a great urge to understand tissue behavior of human body. Experimental data is needed for improvement of soft tissue modeling and advancement in implants and prosthesis, as well as diagnosis of diseases. Mechanical behavior and responses change when tissue loses its liveliness and viability. One of the techniques for soft tissue testing is indentation, which is applied on live tissue in its physiological environment. Indentation affords several advantages over other types of tests such as uniaxial tension, biaxial tension, and simple shear and suction, thus it is of interest to develop new indentation techniques from which more valid data can be extracted. In this study a new indenter device was designed and constructed. Displacement and force rate cyclic loading, and relaxation experiments were conducted on human arm. The in-vivo force rate controlled cyclic loading test method which is novel is compared with the traditional displacement controlled cyclic loading tests. Anisotropic behavior of tissue cannot be determined by axisymmetric tips, therefore ellipsoid tips were used for examining anisotropy and inplane material direction of bulk soft tissues

  16. Micromechanical Characterization of Complex Polypropylene Morphologies by HarmoniX AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Liparoti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the capability of the HarmoniX Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM technique to draw accurate and reliable micromechanical characterization of complex polymer morphologies generally found in conventional thermoplastic polymers. To that purpose, injection molded polypropylene samples, containing representative morphologies, have been characterized by HarmoniX AFM. Mapping and distributions of mechanical properties of the samples surface are determined and analyzed. Effects of sample preparation and test conditions are also analyzed. Finally, the AFM determination of surface elastic moduli has been compared with that obtained by indentation tests, finding good agreement among the results.

  17. Surface analysis with STM and AFM

    CERN Document Server

    Magonov, Sergi N

    1996-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) are powerful tools for surface examination. In the past, many STM and AFM studies led to erroneous conclusions due to lack of proper theoretical considerations and of an understanding of how image patterns are affected by measurement conditions. For this book, two world experts, one on theoretical analysis and the other on experimental characterization, have joined forces to bring together essential components of STM and AFM studies: The practical aspects of STM, the image simulation by surface electron density plot calculat

  18. Chemical Etching, AFM, Laser Damage Threshold, and Nonlinear Optical Studies of Potential Nonlinear Optical Crystal: Bis (L-Glutamine Potassium Nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redrothu Hanumantharao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical crystal bis (L-glutamine potassium nitrate (BGPN grown by slow evaporation technique at ambient temperature. The grown crystal surface has been analyzed by chemical etching and atomic force microscopy (AFM studies. Amplitude parameters like area roughness, roughness average, valley height, valley depth, peak height, and peak valley height were measured successfully from AFM studies. Etching studies were carried out by various solvents like water, methanol and ethanol. The etching study indicates the occurrence of different types of etch pit patterns like striations and steplike pattern. The laser damage threshold energy has been measured by irradiating laser beam using a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser (1064 nm. Second harmonic generation (SHG studies have been performed by famous Kurtz powder technique with reference to standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals (KDP. It is found from this technique that SHG efficiency of BGPN is in comparison to that of standard KDP crystals.

  19. Evaluation for rheological constitutive relations, using the indentation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei

    1992-01-01

    A simple experimental method of determining the rheological constitutive relations is proposed. The method relies upon an analysis of the frictionless contact of a rigid spherical indenter and the rheological materials. The proposal addresses problems in two fields: rheological constitutive models and contact mechanics. It attempts to evaluate the rheological constitutive relations using an indentation technique. A systematic, optimization-based material parameter/function indentation model is proposed. The identification algorithm is based on a modified Marquardt-Levenberg method. A new integral constitutive equation for viscoelastic materials is derived. The derivation is carried out so that a damage function is included in the model in a relatively convenient form. Inclusion of damage effects makes this constitutive equation considerably more general than the widely accepted K-BKZ integral model. The single-step and double-step stress relaxation indentation experiments on asphalt materials were performed. The K-BKZ, Wagner, and nonlinear Volterra models were evaluated. It is demonstrated that the new integral constitutive model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data. The idea of damage function is introduced not only to have a better fit of data, but the damage (or irreversibility) is observed experimentally. Also, the creep indentation tests on composites were presented. A multiaxial theory of creep deformation for particle-strengthened metal matrix composites (Zhu-Weng Theory) was evaluated. The goal of the proposed research is to develop the indentation technique for use in basic mechanical studies. From the indentation test, material response is measured. The data are used in conjunction with the material parameter identification model to optimally back calculate the constitutive relations. indentation test and other experiment method demonstrates the viability of the proposed approach.

  20. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmann, A; Staunton, J R; Banyai, N; Davies, P C W; Ros, R; Nandakumar, V

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division and motility, and the epithelial–mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett's Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We used the combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope to study the mechanical properties of single adherent cells. Sixty four force indentation curves were taken over the nucleus of each cell in an 8 × 8 grid pattern. Analyzing the force indentation curves, indentation depth-dependent Young's moduli were found for all cell lines. Stiffness tomograms demonstrate distinct differences between the mechanical properties of the studied cell lines. Comparing the stiffness for indentation forces of 1 nN, most probable Young's moduli were calculated to 4.7 kPa for EPC2 (n = 18 cells), 3.1 kPa for CP-A (n = 10) and 2.6 kPa for CP-D (n = 19). We also tested the influence of nuclei and nucleoli staining organic dyes on the mechanical properties of the cells. For stained EPC2 cells (n = 5), significant stiffening was found (9.9 kPa), while CP-A cells (n = 5) showed no clear trend (2.9 kPa) and a slight softening was observed (2.1 kPa) in the case of CP-D cells (n = 16). Some force–indentation curves show non-monotonic discontinuities with segments of negative slope, resembling a sawtooth pattern. We found the incidence of these 'breakthrough events' to be highest in the dysplastic CP-D cells, intermediate in the metaplastic CP-A cells and lowest in the normal EPC2 cells. This observation suggests that the microscopic explanation for the increased compliance of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells may lie in their susceptibility to 'crumble and yield' rather than their

  1. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, A; Staunton, J R; Nandakumar, V; Banyai, N; Davies, P C W; Ros, R

    2011-01-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division, and motility, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett’s Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We used the combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope (FLIM) to study the mechanical properties of single adherent cells. 64 force indentation curves were taken over the nucleus of each cell in an 8×8 grid pattern. Analyzing the force indentation curves, indentation depth dependent Young’s moduli were found for all cell lines. Stiffness tomograms demonstrate distinct differences between the mechanical properties of the studied cell lines. Comparing the stiffness for indentation forces of 1 nN, most probable Young’s moduli were calculated to 4.7 kPa for EPC2 (n=18 cells), 3.1 kPa for CP-A (n=10), and 2.6 kPa for CP-D (n=19). We also tested the influence of nuclei and nucleoli staining organic dyes on the mechanical properties of the cells. For stained EPC2 cells (n=5), significant stiffening was found (9.9 kPa), while CP-A cells (n=5) showed no clear trend (2.9 kPa) and a slight softening was observed (2.1 kPa) in the case of CP-D cells (n=16). Some force-indentation curves show non-monotonic discontinuities with segments of negative slope, resembling a sawtooth pattern. We found the incidence of these ‘breakthrough events’ to be highest in the dysplastic CP-D cells, intermediate in the metaplastic CP-A cells, and lowest in the normal EPC2 cells. This observation suggests that the microscopic explanation for the increased compliance of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells may lie in their susceptibility to ‘crumble and yield’ rather than their ability to ‘bend and flex’. PMID

  2. AFM stiffness nanotomography of normal, metaplastic and dysplastic human esophageal cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrmann, A.; Staunton, J. R.; Nandakumar, V.; Banyai, N.; Davies, P. C. W.; Ros, R.

    2011-02-01

    The mechanical stiffness of individual cells is important in tissue homeostasis, cell growth, division and motility, and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in the initiation of cancer. In this work, a normal squamous cell line (EPC2) and metaplastic (CP-A) as well as dysplastic (CP-D) Barrett's Esophagus columnar cell lines are studied as a model of pre-neoplastic progression in the human esophagus. We used the combination of an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a scanning confocal fluorescence lifetime imaging microscope to study the mechanical properties of single adherent cells. Sixty four force indentation curves were taken over the nucleus of each cell in an 8 × 8 grid pattern. Analyzing the force indentation curves, indentation depth-dependent Young's moduli were found for all cell lines. Stiffness tomograms demonstrate distinct differences between the mechanical properties of the studied cell lines. Comparing the stiffness for indentation forces of 1 nN, most probable Young's moduli were calculated to 4.7 kPa for EPC2 (n = 18 cells), 3.1 kPa for CP-A (n = 10) and 2.6 kPa for CP-D (n = 19). We also tested the influence of nuclei and nucleoli staining organic dyes on the mechanical properties of the cells. For stained EPC2 cells (n = 5), significant stiffening was found (9.9 kPa), while CP-A cells (n = 5) showed no clear trend (2.9 kPa) and a slight softening was observed (2.1 kPa) in the case of CP-D cells (n = 16). Some force-indentation curves show non-monotonic discontinuities with segments of negative slope, resembling a sawtooth pattern. We found the incidence of these 'breakthrough events' to be highest in the dysplastic CP-D cells, intermediate in the metaplastic CP-A cells and lowest in the normal EPC2 cells. This observation suggests that the microscopic explanation for the increased compliance of cancerous and pre-cancerous cells may lie in their susceptibility to 'crumble and yield' rather than their ability to 'bend and flex'.

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Ultraviolet Resonance Raman (UVRR) Spectroscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for Study of the Kinetics of Formation and Structural Characterization of Tau Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, Gayathri

    2017-01-01

    Kinetic studies of tau fibril formation in vitro most commonly employ spectroscopic probes such as thioflavinT fluorescence and laser light scattering or negative stain transmission electron microscopy. Here, I describe the use of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, ultraviolet resonance Raman (UVRR) spectroscopy, and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as complementary probes for studies of tau aggregation. The sensitivity of vibrational spectroscopic techniques (FTIR and UVRR) to secondary structure content allows for measurement of conformational changes that occur when the intrinsically disordered protein tau transforms into cross-β-core containing fibrils. AFM imaging serves as a gentle probe of structures populated over the time course of tau fibrillization. Together, these assays help further elucidate the structural and mechanistic complexity inherent in tau fibril formation.

  4. Investigation of geometrical effects in the carbon allotropes manipulation based on AFM: multiscale approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korayem, M. H., E-mail: hkorayem@iust.ac.ir; Hefzabad, R. N.; Homayooni, A.; Aslani, H. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Robotic Research Laboratory, Center of Excellence in Experimental Solid Mechanics and Dynamics, School of Mechanical Engineering (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    Carbon allotropes are used as nanocarriers for drug and cell delivery. To obtain an accurate result in the nanoscale, it is important to use a precise model. In this paper, a multiscale approach is presented to investigate the manipulation process of carbon allotropes based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this purpose, the AFM setup is separated into two parts with different sizes as macro field (MF) and nano field (NF). Using Kirchhoff’s plate model, the cantilever (the main part of MF) is modeled. The molecular dynamics method is applied to model the NF part, and then the MF and NF are coupled with the multiscale algorithm. With this model, by considering the effect of size and shape, the manipulation of carbon allotropes is carried out. The manipulations of armchair CNTs and fullerenes are performed to study the diameter changing effects. The result shows that the manipulation and friction force increases by increasing the diameter. The result of the indentation depth for the armchair CNTs indicates that decreasing the diameter causes the indentation depth to reduce. Moreover, the manipulations of four kinds of carbon allotropes with the same number of atoms have been studied to investigate the geometrical effects. The shapes of these nanoparticles change from sphere to cylinder. The results illustrate that the manipulation and the friction force decrease as the nanoparticle shape varies from sphere to cylinder. The Von-Mises results demonstrate that by changing the nanoparticle shape from the spherical to the cylindrical form, the stress increases, although the manipulation force reduces.

  5. Investigation of geometrical effects in the carbon allotropes manipulation based on AFM: multiscale approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korayem, M. H.; Hefzabad, R. N.; Homayooni, A.; Aslani, H.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon allotropes are used as nanocarriers for drug and cell delivery. To obtain an accurate result in the nanoscale, it is important to use a precise model. In this paper, a multiscale approach is presented to investigate the manipulation process of carbon allotropes based on atomic force microscopy (AFM). For this purpose, the AFM setup is separated into two parts with different sizes as macro field (MF) and nano field (NF). Using Kirchhoff’s plate model, the cantilever (the main part of MF) is modeled. The molecular dynamics method is applied to model the NF part, and then the MF and NF are coupled with the multiscale algorithm. With this model, by considering the effect of size and shape, the manipulation of carbon allotropes is carried out. The manipulations of armchair CNTs and fullerenes are performed to study the diameter changing effects. The result shows that the manipulation and friction force increases by increasing the diameter. The result of the indentation depth for the armchair CNTs indicates that decreasing the diameter causes the indentation depth to reduce. Moreover, the manipulations of four kinds of carbon allotropes with the same number of atoms have been studied to investigate the geometrical effects. The shapes of these nanoparticles change from sphere to cylinder. The results illustrate that the manipulation and the friction force decrease as the nanoparticle shape varies from sphere to cylinder. The Von-Mises results demonstrate that by changing the nanoparticle shape from the spherical to the cylindrical form, the stress increases, although the manipulation force reduces.

  6. Reconstruction Algorithms in Undersampled AFM Imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arildsen, Thomas; Oxvig, Christian Schou; Pedersen, Patrick Steffen

    2016-01-01

    images, our simulations reveal that using a simple raster scanning pattern in combination with conventional image interpolation performs very well. Moreover, this combination enables a reduction by a factor 10 of the scanning time while retaining an average reconstruction quality around 36 dB PSNR......This paper provides a study of spatial undersampling in atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging followed by different image reconstruction techniques based on sparse approximation as well as interpolation. The main reasons for using undersampling is that it reduces the path length and thereby...... the scanning time as well as the amount of interaction between the AFM probe and the specimen. It can easily be applied on conventional AFM hardware. Due to undersampling, it is then necessary to further process the acquired image in order to reconstruct an approximation of the image. Based on real AFM cell...

  7. Changes in surface characteristics of two different resin composites after 1 year water storage: An SEM and AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Pala, Kansad; Demirci, Mustafa; Tuncer, Safa

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate changes in surface characteristics of two different resin composites after 1 year of water storage using a profilometer, Vickers hardness, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A total of 46 composite disk specimens (10 mm in diameter and 2 mm thick) were fabricated using Clearfil Majesty Esthetic and Clearfil Majesty Posterior (Kuraray Medical Co, Tokyo, Japan). Ten specimens from each composite were used for surface roughness and microhardness tests (n = 10). For each composite, scanning electron microscope (SEM, n = 2) and atomic force microscope (AFM, n = 1) images were obtained after 24 h and 1 year of water storage. The data were analyzed using two-way analysis of variance and a post-hoc Bonferroni test. Microhardness values of Clearfil Majesty Esthetic decreased significantly (78.15-63.74, p = 0.015) and surface roughness values did not change after 1 year of water storage (0.36-0.39, p = 0.464). Clearfil Majesty Posterior microhardness values were quite stable (138.74-137.25, p = 0.784), and surface roughness values increased significantly (0.39-0.48, p = 0.028) over 1 year. One year of water storage caused microhardness values for Clearfil Majesty Esthetic to decrease and the surface roughness of Clearfil Majesty Posterior increased. AFM and SEM images demonstrated surface detoration of the materials after 1 year and ensured similar results with the quantitative test methods. SCANNING 38:694-700, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. A dual triangular pyramidal indentation technique based on FEA solutions for Material property evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minsoo; Hyun, Hong Chul [Sogana Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng; Lee, Hyungyil [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    In this study, we suggest a method for material property evaluation by dual triangular pyramidal indenters using the reverse analysis. First, we demonstrated that load displacement curves of conical and triangular pyramidal indenters are different for the same material. For this reason, an independent research on the triangular pyramidal indenter is needed. From FE indentation analyses on various materials, we then investigated the relationships among material properties, indentation parameters and load displacement curves. From this, we established property evaluation formula using dual triangular pyramidal indenters having two different half included angles. The approach provides the values of elastic modulus, yield strength and strain hardening exponent within an average error of 3% for various materials.

  9. Biomechanical Properties of Murine Meniscus Surface via AFM-based Nanoindentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Doyran, Basak; Gamer, Laura W.; Lu, X. Lucas; Qin, Ling; Ortiz, Christine; Grodzinsky, Alan J.; Rosen, Vicki; Han, Lin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the biomechanical properties of murine meniscus surface. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanoindentation was performed on the central region, proximal side of menisci from 6- to 24-week old male C57BL/6 mice using microspherical tips (Rtip ≈ 5 μm) in PBS. A unique, linear correlation between indentation depth, D, and response force, F, was found on menisci from all age groups. This non-Hertzian behavior is likely due to the dominance of tensile resistance by the collagen fibril bundles on meniscus surface that are mostly aligned along the circumferential direction observed on 12-week old menisci. The indentation resistance was calculated as both the effective stiffness, Sind = dF/dD, and the effective modulus, Eind, via the isotropic Hertz model. Values of Sind and Eind were found to depend on indentation rate, suggesting the existence of poro-viscoelasticity. These values do not significantly vary with anatomical sites, lateral versus medial compartments, or mouse age. In addition, Eind of meniscus surface (e.g., 6.1 ± 0.8 MPa for 12 weeks of age, mean ± SEM, n = 13) was found to be significantly higher than those of meniscus surfaces in other species, and of murine articular cartilage surface (1.4 ± 0.1 MPa, n = 6). In summary, these results provided the first direct mechanical knowledge of murine knee meniscus tissues. We expect this understanding to serve as a mechanics-based benchmark for further probing the developmental biology and osteoarthritis symptoms of meniscus in various murine models. PMID:25817332

  10. Load and depth sensing indentation as a tool to monitor a gradient in the mechanical properties across a polymer coating: A study of physical and chemical aging effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, A.; Soloukhin, V.A.; Brokken-Zijp, J.C.M.; With, G. de

    2004-01-01

    Load and depth sensing indentation has been used to characterize the elastic modulus and hardness of various polycarbonate films. This analytical technique is shown to be extremely suitable for the determination of gradients in these mechanical properties. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that such a

  11. Reference point indentation is not indicative of whole mouse bone measures of stress intensity fracture toughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carriero, Alessandra; Bruse, Jan L; Oldknow, Karla J; Millán, José Luis; Farquharson, Colin; Shefelbine, Sandra J

    2014-12-01

    Bone fragility is a concern for aged and diseased bone. Measuring bone toughness and understanding fracture properties of the bone are critical for predicting fracture risk associated with age and disease and for preclinical testing of therapies. A reference point indentation technique (BioDent) has recently been developed to determine bone's resistance to fracture in a minimally invasive way by measuring the indentation distance increase (IDI) between the first and last indentations over cyclic indentations in the same position. In this study, we investigate the relationship between fracture toughness KC and reference point indentation parameters (i.e. IDI, total indentation distance (TID) and creep indentation distance (CID)) in bones from 38 mice from six types (C57Bl/6, Balb, oim/oim, oim/+, Phospho1(-/-) and Phospho1 wild type counterpart). These mice bone are models of healthy and diseased bone spanning a range of fracture toughness from very brittle (oim/oim) to ductile (Phospho1(-/-)). Left femora were dissected, notched and tested in 3-point bending until complete failure. Contralateral femora were dissected and indented in 10 sites of their anterior and posterior shaft surface over 10 indentation cycles. IDI, TID and CID were measured. Results from this study suggest that reference point indentation parameters are not indicative of stress intensity fracture toughness in mouse bone. In particular, the IDI values at the anterior mid-diaphysis across mouse types overlapped, making it difficult to discern differences between mouse types, despite having extreme differences in stress intensity based toughness measures. When more locations of indentation were considered, the normalised IDIs could distinguish between mouse types. Future studies should investigate the relationship of the reference point indentation parameters for mouse bone in other material properties of the bone tissue in order to determine their use for measuring bone quality. Copyright © 2014

  12. A study on the influence of surface active agent molecules on the AFM scanning and imaging of SWCNTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Ke; Yu Haibo; Tian Xiaojun; Dong Zaili [State Key Laboratory of Robotics, Shenyang Institute of Automation, CAS, Shenyang 110016 (China); Wu Chengdong [Northeastern University, Shenyang 110004 (China)], E-mail: xuke08@sia.cn

    2009-09-01

    The paper proposed a preprocessing method for scanning samples based on rinsing technology, and solved the effective fabrication problem of AFM scanning samples based on facilitated dispersing SWCNTs with SDS surface active agents. First, the ultrasonication oscillation method was applied, and the uniform alignment of SWCNTs in SDS was realized. Then, SDS solution of different concentrations was scanned and imaged with AFM, the influence of SDS solution on the imaging quality of SWCNTs was analyzed, and the method to effectively fabricate scanning samples after dispersing SWCNTs was found. The results of the experiments showed that the preprocessing of the SWCNTs solution scanning samples was the decisive factor to influence SWCNTs imaging quality, that the result of rinsing SWCNTs scanning samples for 5s at 0.1ml/s with di-ionized water was the best, and that with the same rinsing rate and angle, the rinsing di-ionized water quantity would influence the alignment degree of SWCNTs on the substrates and SDS macromolecules' residual quantity on SWCNTs scanning samples.

  13. A study on the influence of surface active agent molecules on the AFM scanning and imaging of SWCNTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ke; Yu Haibo; Tian Xiaojun; Dong Zaili; Wu Chengdong

    2009-01-01

    The paper proposed a preprocessing method for scanning samples based on rinsing technology, and solved the effective fabrication problem of AFM scanning samples based on facilitated dispersing SWCNTs with SDS surface active agents. First, the ultrasonication oscillation method was applied, and the uniform alignment of SWCNTs in SDS was realized. Then, SDS solution of different concentrations was scanned and imaged with AFM, the influence of SDS solution on the imaging quality of SWCNTs was analyzed, and the method to effectively fabricate scanning samples after dispersing SWCNTs was found. The results of the experiments showed that the preprocessing of the SWCNTs solution scanning samples was the decisive factor to influence SWCNTs imaging quality, that the result of rinsing SWCNTs scanning samples for 5s at 0.1ml/s with di-ionized water was the best, and that with the same rinsing rate and angle, the rinsing di-ionized water quantity would influence the alignment degree of SWCNTs on the substrates and SDS macromolecules' residual quantity on SWCNTs scanning samples.

  14. Requirements for investigating the temperature-dependent fracture behavior of irradiated materials by indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacksteder, Irène, E-mail: irene.sacksteder@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Hostettler, Simon [Synton-MDP Inc., Nidau (Switzerland); Charbonneau, Grégoire; Albinski, Bartlomiej; Schneider, Hans-Christian [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • A custom-made indenter is designed for indentations at high temperature. • The instrumented indentation technique at high temperature will be used to investigate temperature dependent fracture mechanisms in structural materials. • A finite-element based model has been validated with a view to predict crack initiation and propagation in Eurofer97 and tungsten-like materials. -- Abstract: The instrumented indentation technique is an interesting testing tool to examine temperature-dependent fracture mechanisms. It is planned to be used to generate cracks at defined temperatures in hard and brittle metallic materials. The present study describes the properties needed for the use of a new type of indenter operating at high temperature. The indenter was designed to meet mechanical and thermal requirements and other constraints relating to the operation of functional units of the indentation instrument. Additionally, a finite element model has been built with a view to predict indentation induced cracks in Eurofer97 and tungsten. The model has been validated both with the theory of Hertz and experimentally by comparison with indentation curves.

  15. Ag induced modifications on WO3 films studied by AFM, Raman and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittencourt, C; Llobet, E; Ivanov, P; Vilanova, X; Correig, X; Silva, M A P; Nunes, L A O; Pireaux, J J

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, the morphology, vibrational spectra and electronic properties of WO 3 films loaded with different levels of Ag, prepared by screen printing onto Si substrates and annealed in air at 600 deg. C were investigated. AFM micrography showed that the films are grain-like, and the grain size increases with an increase in the Ag loading level. Raman spectroscopy results showed the formation of a AgWO 3 bronze structure that results in a more stable film. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results showed that the Ag concentration is 1.8 times higher than the nominal concentration indicating that Ag diffuses to the WO 3 grain surface. No strong electronic interaction between the Ag clusters and the WO 3 grains was found. Sensors fabricated with the WO 3 : Ag films exhibited a significant increase in their sensitivity and selectivity towards NO 2 detection

  16. Optical and AFM study of electrostatically assembled films of CdS and ZnS colloid nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suryajaya; Nabok, A.; Davis, F.; Hassan, A.; Higson, S.P.J.; Evans-Freeman, J.

    2008-01-01

    CdS and ZnS semiconducting colloid nanoparticles coated with the organic shell, containing either SO 3 - or NH 2 + groups, were prepared using the aqueous phase synthesis. The multilayer films of CdS (or ZnS) were deposited onto glass, quartz and silicon substrates using the technique of electrostatic self-assembly. The films produced were characterized with UV-vis spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry and atomic force microscopy. A substantial blue shift of the main absorption band with respect to the bulk materials was found for both CdS and ZnS films. The Efros equation in the effective mass approximation (EMA) theoretical model allowed the evaluation of the nanoparticle radius of 1.8 nm, which corresponds well to the ellipsometry results. AFM shows the formation of larger aggregates of nanoparticles on solid surfaces

  17. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil [Sogang Univ., Seoul, (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jin Haeng [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve.

  18. Spherical Indentation Techniques for Creep Property Evaluation Considering Transient Creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Dongkyu; Kim, Minsoo; Lee, Hyungyil; Lee, Jin Haeng

    2013-01-01

    Creep through nanoindentations has attracted increasing research attention in recent years. Many studies related to indentation creep tests, however, have simply focused on the characteristics of steady-state creep, and there exist wide discrepancies between the uniaxial test and the indentation test. In this study, we performed a computational simulation of spherical indentations, and we proposed a method for evaluating the creep properties onsidering transient creep. We investigated the material behavior with variation of creep properties and expressed it using regression equations for normalized variables. We finally developed a program to evaluate the creep properties considering transient creep. By using the proposed method, we successfully obtained creep exponents with an average error less than 1.1 and creep coefficients with an average error less than 2.3 from the load-depth curve

  19. Polymorphism of amyloid fibrils formed by a peptide from the yeast prion protein Sup35: AFM and Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey V., E-mail: akrasnos@unomaha.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Nebraska Omaha, Omaha, NE 68182 (United States); Deckert-Gaudig, Tanja [IPHT-Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Zhang, Yuliang [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States); Deckert, Volker [IPHT-Leibniz Institute of Photonic Technology, Albert-Einstein-Str. 9, D-07745 Jena (Germany); Institute for Physical Chemistry and Abbe Center of Photonics, University of Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, D-07743 Jena (Germany); Lyubchenko, Yuri L., E-mail: ylyubchenko@unmc.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nebraska Medical Center, 986025 Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Aggregation of prion proteins is the cause of various prion related diseases. The infectious form of prions, amyloid aggregates, exist as multiple strains. The strains are thought to represent structurally different prion protein molecules packed into amyloid aggregates, but the knowledge on the structure of different types of aggregates is limited. Here we report on the use of AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy) and TERS (Tip-Enhanced Raman Scattering) to study morphological heterogeneity and access underlying conformational features of individual amyloid aggregates. Using AFM we identified the morphology of amyloid fibrils formed by the peptide (CGNNQQNY) from the yeast prion protein Sup35 that is critically involved in the aggregation of the full protein. TERS results demonstrate that morphologically different amyloid fibrils are composed of a distinct set of conformations. Fibrils formed at pH 5.6 are composed of a mixture of peptide conformations (β-sheets, random coil and α-helix) while fibrils formed in pH~2 solution primarily have β-sheets. Additionally, peak positions in the amide III region of the TERS spectra suggested that peptides have parallel arrangement of β-sheets for pH~2 fibrils and antiparallel arrangement for fibrils formed at pH 5.6. We also developed a methodology for detailed analysis of the peptide secondary structure by correlating intensity changes of Raman bands in different regions of TERS spectra. Such correlation established that structural composition of peptides is highly localized with large contribution of unordered secondary structures on a fibrillar surface. - Highlights: • Amyloid polymorphs were characterized by AFM and TERS. • A mixture of peptide secondary structures in fibrils were identified using TERS. • TERS recognizes packing arrangement (parallel versus antiparallel) of peptides. • TERS is a powerful tool for high resolution structural analysis of fibrils.

  20. AFM and electron microscopy study of the unusual aggregation behavior of metallosurfactants based on iron(II) complexes with bipyridine ligands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Paula; Eaton, Peter; Geurts, Huub P M; Sousa, Miguel; Gameiro, Paula; Feiters, Martin C; Nolte, Roeland J M; Pereira, Eulalia; de Castro, Baltazar

    2007-07-17

    The aggregation behavior in water-rich solutions of five iron(II) complexes with alkylated derivatives of 2,2'-bipyridine was studied by electron microscopy (cryo-SEM, SEM, and TEM) and AFM. The results obtained by cryo-SEM on frozen colloidal solutions show that the morphology of the aggregates strongly depends on the length of the alkyl chains in the bipyridine ligands, with shorter alkyl chains forming rod-like structures, whereas for compounds with longer alkyl chains, only spherical structures were detected. The self-aggregates were further characterized by SEM and TEM. The results show that their overall morphology depends only on the length of the alkyl chain of the bipyridine ligands and that the samples show a broad size distribution. In addition, TEM and SEM were used to study the stability of the self-aggregates in solution, the effect of addition of methanol, and the temperature used in the preparation of the colloidal solutions. AFM studies of the aggregates either dried in ambient conditions or dehydrated by long drying under vacuum showed partially collapsed self-aggregates in the latter case, showing that the aggregates contain water in their core, indicating that the self-aggregation leads to vesicle-type structures.

  1. Assessing strain mapping by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy using wedge-indented Si

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedman, Lawrence H.; Vaudin, Mark D.; Stranick, Stephan J.; Stan, Gheorghe; Gerbig, Yvonne B.; Osborn, William; Cook, Robert F., E-mail: robert.cook@nist.gov

    2016-04-15

    The accuracy of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM) for small-scale strain mapping are assessed using the multi-axial strain field surrounding a wedge indentation in Si as a test vehicle. The strain field is modeled using finite element analysis (FEA) that is adapted to the near-indentation surface profile measured by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The assessment consists of (1) direct experimental comparisons of strain and deformation and (2) comparisons in which the modeled strain field is used as an intermediate step. Direct experimental methods (1) consist of comparisons of surface elevation and gradient measured by AFM and EBSD and of Raman shifts measured and predicted by CRM and EBSD, respectively. Comparisons that utilize the combined FEA–AFM model (2) consist of predictions of distortion, strain, and rotation for comparison with EBSD measurements and predictions of Raman shift for comparison with CRM measurements. For both EBSD and CRM, convolution of measurements in depth-varying strain fields is considered. The interconnected comparisons suggest that EBSD was able to provide an accurate assessment of the wedge indentation deformation field to within the precision of the measurements, approximately 2×10{sup −4} in strain. CRM was similarly precise, but was limited in accuracy to several times this value. - Highlights: • We map strain by electron backscatter diffraction and confocal Raman microscopy. • The test vehicle is the multi-axial strain field of wedge-indented silicon. • Strain accuracy is assessed by direct experimental intercomparison. • Accuracy is also assessed by atomic force microscopy and finite element analyses. • Electron diffraction measurements are accurate; Raman measurements need refinement.

  2. Disturbance induced by surface preparation on instrumented indentation test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yugang; Kanouté, Pascale; François, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Surface preparation, which may induce considerable sample disturbance, plays an important role in instrumented indentation test (IIT). In this study, the sample disturbance (mainly divided into residual stresses and plastic strain) induced by the surface preparation process of instrumented indentation test specimens were investigated with both experimental tests and numerical simulations. Grazing incidence X-ray diffractions (GIXRD) and uniaxial tensile tests were conducted for characterizing the residual stresses and high plastic strain in the top surface layers of a carefully mechanically polished indentation sample, which, in the present work, is made of commercially pure titanium. Instrumented indentation tests and the corresponding finite element simulations were performed as well. For comparison, a reference sample (carefully mechanically polished & electrolytically polished) which represents the raw material was prepared and tested. Results showed that a careful mechanical polishing procedure can effectively reduce the level of residual stresses induced by this process. However, the high plastic strain in the surface region imposed by the polishing process is significant. The induced plastic strain can affect a depth up to 5 µm, which is deeper than the maximum penetration depth h max (3 µm) used for the instrumented indentation tests. In the near surface layer (in the range of depth about 350 nm), the plastic strain levels are fairly high. In the very top layer, the plastic strain was even estimated to reach more than 60%. The simultaneous use of indentation tests and numerical simulations showed that the existence of high plastic strain in the surface region will make the load vs depth (P–h) curve shift upwards, the contact hardness (H) increase and the contact stiffness (S) decrease

  3. Crystallographic Analysis of Nucleation at Hardness Indentations in High-Purity Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chaoling; Zhang, Yubin; Lin, Fengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Nucleation at Vickers hardness indentations has been studied in high-purity aluminum cold-rolled 12 pct. Electron channeling contrast was used to measure the size of the indentations and to detect nuclei, while electron backscattering diffraction was used to determine crystallographic orientation...

  4. AFM study of combinatorial Ga sup + implanted Co sub 7 Ag sub 9 sub 3 film and its Kerr effect

    CERN Document Server

    Cai Ying Wen; Wei Lun; Li Jian Guo; Li Ai Guo; Ni Xin Bo; Zhang Gui Lin; Wang Song You; Shen Zuo Cheng; Li Jin; Chen Liang Yao

    2002-01-01

    A magneto-optic chip was prepared on Si wafer by combinatorial Ga sup + implantation into ion sputtered Co sub 7 Ag sub 9 sub 3 film. The surface morphology of each unit of the chip was detected by AFM, while their Kerr effect was measured by MOKE equipment. It is observed that the maximum Kerr rotation (MKR) occurs when the incident photon energy is around 3.8-3.9 eV. Summarisation of MKR versus implanted Ga sup + dose shows that the MKR enhancement by Ga sup + implantation can be characterized as incubation, enhancement and saturation regions. Considering the mutual solubility and surface morphology transition after annealing, it is suggested that Ga sup + tends to form CoGa and/or CoGa sub 3 intermetallic compounds. Before the formation of CoGa sub 3 compounds, no apparent MKR enhancement could be observed. While when the surface is half occupied by forest-like CoGa sub 3 compounds, MKR enhancement will be saturated. By comparison of the maximum Kerr rotation with the cone areal density, it can be induced ...

  5. Visualization of atomic structure using AFM: theoretical description

    OpenAIRE

    Gallyamov, M. O.; Yaminsky, I. V.

    2011-01-01

    We suggest simple model of image formation in atomic force microscope (AFM) taking into account contact deformations of probe and sample during scanning. The model explains the possibility of AFM visualization of regular atomic or molecular structure when probe-sample contact area is greater than an area per atom or molecule in surface lattice. (This is usually the case when lattice to be studied has subnanometer unit cell parameters and AFM investigations are carried out in air in contact mo...

  6. Development of a novel nanoindentation technique by utilizing a dual-probe AFM system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eyup Cinar

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available A novel instrumentation approach to nanoindentation is described that exhibits improved resolution and depth sensing. The approach is based on a multi-probe scanning probe microscopy (SPM tool that utilizes tuning-fork based probes for both indentation and depth sensing. Unlike nanoindentation experiments performed with conventional AFM systems using beam-bounce technology, this technique incorporates a second probe system with an ultra-high resolution for depth sensing. The additional second probe measures only the vertical movement of the straight indenter attached to a tuning-fork probe with a high spring constant and it can also be used for AFM scanning to obtain an accurate profiling. Nanoindentation results are demonstrated on silicon, fused silica, and Corning Eagle Glass. The results show that this new approach is viable in terms of accurately characterizing mechanical properties of materials through nanoindentation with high accuracy, and it opens doors to many other exciting applications in the field of nanomechanical characterization.

  7. Nanoindentation hardness measurements using real-shape indenters: application to extremely hard and elastic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, E.; Esteve, J.

    We study the technique of nanoindentation hardness measurement applied to extremely hard and elastic thin films. We do the study with the aid of Hertz's solutions for elastic contacts. The effect of different apical angles in ideally sharp conical diamond indenters is analyzed. In addition, the blunt tip shape of practical diamond indenters is discussed. The area function of the tip of real indenters is deduced from experimental nanoindentation measurements performed with these indenters on fused quartz. Triangular-base pyramidal indenters with Berkovich and cube corner geometries are considered. Theoretical hardness values applying Hertz's and Oliver and Pharr's methods of analysis are obtained and compared with the experimental data deduced from nanoindentation measurements performed on very hard and elastic ta-C films. The theoretical analysis shows a necessary dependence of the calculated hardness values with the apical angle of the indenter in totally elastic materials and to some extent in elastoplastic materials. Moreover, when the indenter tip is blunt or when there are inaccuracies in the measured area function of the indenter tip, hardness values decrease for very small penetration depths. Besides, in these films, because of their very small thickness, measured hardness values also decrease for measurements with penetration depths larger than a fraction of film thickness, due to the effects of the softer substrate.

  8. Indentation of Ellipsoidal and Cylindrical Elastic Shells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, Dominic

    2012-10-01

    Thin shells are found in nature at scales ranging from viruses to hens\\' eggs; the stiffness of such shells is essential for their function. We present the results of numerical simulations and theoretical analyses for the indentation of ellipsoidal and cylindrical elastic shells, considering both pressurized and unpressurized shells. We provide a theoretical foundation for the experimental findings of Lazarus etal. [following paper, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 144301 (2012)PRLTAO0031-9007] and for previous work inferring the turgor pressure of bacteria from measurements of their indentation stiffness; we also identify a new regime at large indentation. We show that the indentation stiffness of convex shells is dominated by either the mean or Gaussian curvature of the shell depending on the pressurization and indentation depth. Our results reveal how geometry rules the rigidity of shells. © 2012 American Physical Society.

  9. AFM study of excimer laser patterning of block-copolymer: Creation of ordered hierarchical, hybrid, or recessed structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Švanda, Jan; Siegel, Jakub; Švorčík, Vaclav; Lyutakov, Oleksiy

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Combination of bottom-up (BCP separation) and top-down (laser patterning) technologies allows obtaining hierarchical structures. • Surface morphologies were determined by the order of patterning steps (laser modification, annealing, surface reconstruction). • Tuning the order of steps enables the reorientation of BCP domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. • The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, plasmonics, information storage, sensors and smart surfaces. - Abstract: We report fabrication of the varied range of hierarchical structures by combining bottom-up self-assembly of block copolymer poly(styrene-block-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) with top-down excimer laser patterning method. Different procedures were tested, where laser treatment was applied before phase separation and after phase separation or phase separation and surface reconstruction. Laser treatment was performed using either polarized laser light with the aim to create periodical pattern on polymer surface or non-polarized light for preferential removing of polystyrene (PS) part from PS-b-P4VP. Additionally, dye was introduced into one part of block copolymer (P4VP) with the aim to modify its response to laser light. Resulting structures were analyzed by XPS, UV–vis and AFM techniques. Application of polarized laser light leads to creation of structures with hierarchical, recessed or hybrid geometries. Non-polarized laser beam allows pronouncing the block copolymer phase separated structure. Tuning the order of steps or individual step conditions enables the efficient reorientation of block-copolymer domain at large scale, fabrication of hierarchical, hybrid or recessed structures. The obtained structures can find potential applications in nanotechnology, photonics, plasmonics, information storage, optical devices, sensors and smart surfaces.

  10. Evaluation of elastic properties of DLC layers using resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and AFM nanoindentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kocourek, Tomáš; Růžek, Michal; Landa, Michal; Jelínek, Miroslav; Mikšovský, Jan; Kopeček, Jaromír

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 205, č. 2 (2011), S67-S70 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA101/09/0702 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100522; CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : RUS-resonant ultrasound spectroscopy * PLD * diamond-like carbon * elastic properties * AFM nano indentation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.867, year: 2011

  11. Crystallization of Probucol in Nanoparticles Revealed by AFM Analysis in Aqueous Solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egami, Kiichi; Higashi, Kenjirou; Yamamoto, Keiji; Moribe, Kunikazu

    2015-08-03

    The crystallization behavior of a pharmaceutical drug in nanoparticles was directly evaluated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) force curve measurements in aqueous solution. A ternary spray-dried sample (SPD) was prepared by spray drying the organic solvent containing probucol (PBC), hypromellose (HPMC), and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The amorphization of PBC in the ternary SPD was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) and solid-state 13C NMR measurements. A nanosuspension containing quite small particles of 25 nm in size was successfully prepared immediately after dispersion of the ternary SPD into water. Furthermore, solution-state 1H NMR measurements revealed that a portion of HPMC coexisted with PBC as a mixed state in the freshly prepared nanosuspension particles. After storing the nanosuspension at 25 °C, a gradual increase in the size of the nanoparticles was observed, and the particle size changed to 93.9 nm after 7 days. AFM enabled the direct observation of the morphology and agglomeration behavior of the nanoparticles in water. Moreover, AFM force-distance curves were changed from (I) to (IV), depending on the storage period, as follows: (I) complete indentation within an applied force of 1 nN, (II) complete indentation with an applied force of 1-5 nN, (III) partial indentation with an applied force of 5 nN, and (IV) nearly no indentation with an applied force of 5 nN. This stiffness increase of the nanoparticles was attributed to gradual changes in the molecular state of PBC from the amorphous to the crystal state. Solid-state 13C NMR measurements of the freeze-dried samples demonstrated the presence of metastable PBC Form II crystals in the stored nanosuspension, strongly supporting the AFM results.

  12. A contribution to understanding the results of instrumented indentation on thermal spray coatings - Case study on Al2O3 and stainless steel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nohava, J.; Mušálek, Radek; Matějíček, Jiří; Vilémová, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 240, February (2014), s. 243-249 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP108/12/1872; GA ČR(CZ) GPP108/12/P552 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Thermal spray coating * Instrumented indentation * Al2O3 * Stainless steel * Scale effect Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.998, year: 2014 http://www. science direct.com/ science /article/pii/S0257897213011869#

  13. Evaluation of sinking-in and cracking behavior of soda-lime glass under varying angle of trigonal pyramid indenter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Yoshida

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that glass undergoes elastic and inelastic deformation under a sharp diamond indenter. Although brittle or less-brittle behavior of glass must be connected with such mechanical responses of glass under the indenter, there has been limited research on in-situ deformation behavior of glass during the loading and unloading indentation cycle. This is because most indentation tests were conducted using a commercial hardness tester for which this information is not available. In this study, the in-situ sinking-in region of glass during indentation test is determined using a custom-designed indentation microscope with trigonal pyramid indenters having different tip angles. It is found that both the shape of contact region and the amount of sinking-in are affected by indenter geometries, and that the projected contact region of the glass sample under Berkovich indenter is not a regular triangle, but a concave triangle with bowed-in edges. This is due to the larger amount of sinking-in under the face than under the ridge of indenter. It is also found that these deformation behaviors of glass are inseparably linked with contact damage or cracking in glass.

  14. Porosity-induced relaxation of strains in GaN layers studied by means of micro-indentation and optical spectroscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-05-04

    We report the fabrication of porous GaNnanostructures using UV-assisted electroless etching of bulk GaN layer grown on c-plane sapphire substrate in a solution consisting of HF:CH3OH:H2O2. The morphology of the porous GaNnanostructures was characterized for different etching intervals using high resolution scanning electron microscopy. The geometry and size of resultant pores do not appear to be affected by the etching time; however, the pore density was augmented for longer etching time. Micro-indentation tests were carried out to quantify the indentation modulus for different porous GaNnanostructures. Our results reveal a relationship between the elastic properties and the porosity kinetics, i.e., a decrease of the elastic modulus was observed with increasing porosity. The photoluminescence(PL) and Raman measurements carried out at room temperature for the etched samples having a high degree of porosity revealed a strong enhancement in intensity. Also, the peak of the PL wavelength was shifted towards a lower energy. The high intensity of PL was correlated to an increase of scattered photons within the porous media and to the reduction of the dislocation density.

  15. AFM plough YBCO micro bridges: substrate effects

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Elkaseh, A

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available AFM nanolithography was used as a novel cutting technique to define micro-size YBCO superconducting constrictions. Researchers studied the substrate effects on MgO and STO substrates and showed that the observed Shapiro steps from the bridges on STO...

  16. Prediction of Indentation Behavior of Superelastic TiNi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, Rabin; Farhat, Zoheir

    2014-09-01

    Superelastic TiNi shape memory alloys have been extensively used in various applications. The great interest in TiNi alloys is due to its unique shape memory and superelastic effects, along with its superior wear and dent resistance. Assessment of mechanical properties and dent resistance of superelastic TiNi is commonly performed using indentation techniques. However, the coupling of deformation and reversible martensitic transformation of TiNi under indentation conditions makes the interpretation of results challenging. An attempt is made to enhance current interpretation of indentation data. A load-depth curve is predicted that takes into consideration the reversible martensitic transformation. The predicted curve is in good agreement with experimental results. It is found in this study that the elastic modulus is a function of indentation depth. At shallow depths, the elastic modulus is high due to austenite dominance, while at high depths, the elastic modulus drops as the depth increases due to austenite to martensite transition, i.e., martensite dominance. It is also found that TiNi exhibits superior dent resistance compared to AISI 304 steel. There is two orders of magnitude improvement in dent resistance of TiNi in comparison to AISI 304 steel.

  17. AFM studies and electrochemical characterization of boron-doped diamond surfaces modified with metal oxides by the Sol-Gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suffredini Hugo B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuing previous investigations, direct surface modifications of boron-doped diamond (BDD electrodes with metal oxides (PtOx, RuO2, IrO2 and PbO2 and with some mixed composites were carried out by the Sol-Gel technique. The materials were studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM to determine their surface topologies and by electrochemical techniques to establish the catalytic activity towards the oxygen evolution reaction (OER and also, for the PtOx and PtOx-RuO2 composites, the ethanol oxidation reactions in acid media. The stability of PtOx coating covered by a Nafion® film was also tested by long-term operation. The AFM results indicated sites of heterogeneous deposition and the electrochemical studies demonstrated that the active surface area changed considerably with the proposed method of modification. The IrO2/BDD electrode showed the best performance to the OER with the onset of the oxidation current at ~1.4 V, a value 200 mV lower than for the PtOx/BDD electrode. The enhanced stability of PtOx/BDD electrodes achieved by the application of a Nafion® film and already reported in acid media was further proved using the ethanol oxidation reaction. Only a small loss of activity (6% was observed after 4-hours electrolysis while one-thousand voltammetric cycles left the surface practically unchanged. In addition, preliminary studies for the same reaction on PtOx/BDD and PtOx-RuO2/BDD electrodes demonstrated the excellent activity of these mixed Sol-Gel coatings on the BDD surface and the possibility of further investigations for practical applications.

  18. Structure Assisted Compressed Sensing Reconstruction of Undersampled AFM Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oxvig, Christian Schou; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben

    2017-01-01

    The use of compressed sensing in atomic force microscopy (AFM) can potentially speed-up image acquisition, lower probe-specimen interaction, or enable super resolution imaging. The idea in compressed sensing for AFM is to spatially undersample the specimen, i.e. only acquire a small fraction...... of the full image of it, and then use advanced computational techniques to reconstruct the remaining part of the image whenever this is possible. Our initial experiments have shown that it is possible to leverage inherent structure in acquired AFM images to improve image reconstruction. Thus, we have studied...... structure in the discrete cosine transform coefficients of typical AFM images. Based on this study, we propose a generic support structure model that may be used to improve the quality of the reconstructed AFM images. Furthermore, we propose a modification to the established iterative thresholding...

  19. Standard practice for instrumented indentation testing

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice defines the basic steps of Instrumented Indentation Testing (IIT) and establishes the requirements, accuracies, and capabilities needed by an instrument to successfully perform the test and produce the data that can be used for the determination of indentation hardness and other material characteristics. IIT is a mechanical test that measures the response of a material to the imposed stress and strain of a shaped indenter by forcing the indenter into a material and monitoring the force on, and displacement of, the indenter as a function of time during the full loading-unloading test cycle. 1.2 The operational features of an IIT instrument, as well as requirements for Instrument Verification Annex A1), Standardized Reference Blocks (Annex A2) and Indenter Requirements (Annex A3) are defined. This practice is not intended to be a complete purchase specification for an IIT instrument. 1.3 With the exception of the non-mandatory Appendix X4, this practice does not define the analysis necessary...

  20. A simple model for indentation creep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginder, Ryan S.; Nix, William D.; Pharr, George M.

    2018-03-01

    A simple model for indentation creep is developed that allows one to directly convert creep parameters measured in indentation tests to those observed in uniaxial tests through simple closed-form relationships. The model is based on the expansion of a spherical cavity in a power law creeping material modified to account for indentation loading in a manner similar to that developed by Johnson for elastic-plastic indentation (Johnson, 1970). Although only approximate in nature, the simple mathematical form of the new model makes it useful for general estimation purposes or in the development of other deformation models in which a simple closed-form expression for the indentation creep rate is desirable. Comparison to a more rigorous analysis which uses finite element simulation for numerical evaluation shows that the new model predicts uniaxial creep rates within a factor of 2.5, and usually much better than this, for materials creeping with stress exponents in the range 1 ≤ n ≤ 7. The predictive capabilities of the model are evaluated by comparing it to the more rigorous analysis and several sets of experimental data in which both the indentation and uniaxial creep behavior have been measured independently.

  1. Evaluation of the degradation characteristics of CF-8A cast stainless steel using EDS and nano-indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Seung; Koo, Jae Mean; Seok, Chang Sung

    2004-01-01

    Cast austenitic stainless steel piping pump, valve casings, and elbows are susceptible to reductions in toughness and ductility because of long term exposure at the operating temperatures in LWR(Light Water Reactor). In this paper, we have measured the material properties of long term aged CF-8A cast stainless steel, accelerated aging at 400 .deg. C. These studies have been carried out using indentation tests(automated ball indentation and nano-indentation) and EDS(Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy). The fracture toughness of Cf-8A cast stainless steel was also determined by using standard fracture toughness and automated ball indentation

  2. Indentation versus Rolling: Dependence of Adhesion on Contact Geometry for Biomimetic Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyle, Nichole; He, Zhenping; Wu, Haibin; Hui, Chung-Yuen; Jagota, Anand

    2018-04-03

    Numerous biomimetic structures made from elastomeric materials have been developed to produce enhancement in properties such as adhesion, static friction, and sliding friction. As a property, one expects adhesion to be represented by an energy per unit area that is usually sensitive to the combination of shear and normal stresses at the crack front but is otherwise dependent only on the two elastic materials that meet at the interface. More specifically, one would expect that adhesion measured by indentation (a popular and convenient technique) could be used to predict adhesion hysteresis in the more practically important rolling geometry. Previously, a structure with a film-terminated fibrillar geometry exhibited dramatic enhancement of adhesion by a crack-trapping mechanism during indentation with a rigid sphere. Roughly isotropic structures such as the fibrillar geometry show a strong correlation between adhesion enhancement in indentation versus adhesion hysteresis in rolling. However, anisotropic structures, such as a film-terminated ridge-channel geometry, surprisingly show a dramatic divergence between adhesion measured by indentation versus rolling. We study this experimentally and theoretically, first comparing the adhesion of the anisotropic ridge-channel structure to the roughly isotropic fibrillar structure during indentation with a rigid sphere, where only the isotropic structure shows adhesion enhancement. Second, we examine in more detail the anomalous anisotropic film-terminated ridge-channel structure during indentation with a rigid sphere versus rolling to show why these structures show a dramatic adhesion enhancement for the rolling case and no adhesion enhancement for indentation.

  3. Influence of heat treatment and indenter tip material on depth sensing hardness tests at high temperatures of fusion relevant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bredl, Julian; Dany, Manuel; Albinski, Bartlomiej; Schneider, Hans-Christian; Kraft, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Operation of a custom-made indentation device designed for test temperatures up to 650 °C and a remote handled operation in a Hot Cell. • Instrumented indentation and conventional hardness testing of unirradiated MANET II and EUROFER. • Comparison of diamond and sapphire as indenter tip materials. - Abstract: The instrumented indentation is a suitable method for testing of even small neutron-irradiated specimens. From the continuously recorded indentation depth and the indentation force, it is possible to deduce mechanical parameters of the tested material. In this paper, a brief description of the high temperature device is given and representative results are presented. In the study, unirradiated steels are investigated by instrumented indentation at temperatures up to 500 °C. It is shown that the hardness is highly depending on the testing-temperature and can be correlated to the results of conventional tensile testing experiments. A not negligible influence of the indenter tip material is observed. The results show the functionality of the high-temperature indentation device.

  4. Modeling ramp-hold indentation measurements based on Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; zhe Zhang, Qing; Ruan, Litao; Duan, Junbo; Wan, Mingxi; Insana, Michael F.

    2018-03-01

    Interpretation of experimental data from micro- and nano-scale indentation testing is highly dependent on the constitutive model selected to relate measurements to mechanical properties. The Kelvin-Voigt fractional derivative model (KVFD) offers a compact set of viscoelastic features appropriate for characterizing soft biological materials. This paper provides a set of KVFD solutions for converting indentation testing data acquired for different geometries and scales into viscoelastic properties of soft materials. These solutions, which are mostly in closed-form, apply to ramp-hold relaxation, load-unload and ramp-load creep-testing protocols. We report on applications of these model solutions to macro- and nano-indentation testing of hydrogels, gastric cancer cells and ex vivo breast tissue samples using an atomic force microscope (AFM). We also applied KVFD models to clinical ultrasonic breast data using a compression plate as required for elasticity imaging. Together the results show that KVFD models fit a broad range of experimental data with a correlation coefficient typically R 2  >  0.99. For hydrogel samples, estimation of KVFD model parameters from test data using spherical indentation versus plate compression as well as ramp relaxation versus load-unload compression all agree within one standard deviation. Results from measurements made using macro- and nano-scale indentation agree in trend. For gastric cell and ex vivo breast tissue measurements, KVFD moduli are, respectively, 1/3-1/2 and 1/6 of the elasticity modulus found from the Sneddon model. In vivo breast tissue measurements yield model parameters consistent with literature results. The consistency of results found for a broad range of experimental parameters suggest the KVFD model is a reliable tool for exploring intrinsic features of the cell/tissue microenvironments.

  5. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xiaopeng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  6. Metallography of the indented aluminium sheet fracture surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, M.A.; Qaiser, S.; Haq, A.U.; Atkins, A.G.

    1997-01-01

    It was experimentally observed that indentation of aluminium sheet samples with a sharp tool leads the off cut metal into a flare out-curvature, whose shape depends upon the geometry of the tool, applied force, displacement, material properties etc. The crack initiation, crack propagation and fracture surfaces were studied. Type grain, fibers, cut marks and voids were analyzed on optical and scanning electron microscopes to see how these were produced,. and their relationship to the material inherent properties, since this phenomenon has hot been studied so far. The sharp tool angles were responsible for the plastic flow. Plastic work per volume, fracture toughness and deformation area of the indented material. The metallographic information provided details of sheet metal deformation, and failure into the particular shapes represented on the fracture surfaces. (author)

  7. QCM and AFM Study of atomic scale polishing and roughening of surfaces exposed to nanoparticle suspensions of diamond, Al2O3 and SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krim, Jacqueline; Acharya, Biplav; Chestnut, Melanie; Marek, Antonin; Shendarova, Olga; Smirnov, Alex

    The addition of nanoparticles to conventional automotive lubricants is known in many cases to result in increased energy efficiency, but the atomic scale mechanisms leading to the increased efficiency are yet to be established. To explore this issue, we studied surface uptake and nanotribological properties of nanoparticle suspensions of diamond, Al2O3 and SiO2 dispersed in water and/or oil (PAO6) in real time by means of an in situ Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) technique, with a focus on the impact of the suspension on the surface roughness and texture of the QCM electrode and how the results compared to macroscopic reductions in friction and increased energy efficiency for the same materials' combinations. The frequency and dissipative properties (mechanical resistance) of QCM's with both gold and nickel surface electrodes were first studied for immersed samples upon addition of the nanoparticles. Nanodiamonds resulted in an increased mechanical resistance while the addition of Al2O3 and SiO2 nanoparticles resulted in a decreased resistance, indicating a reduced resistance of the fluid to the motion of the QCM. Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) measurements were then performed on the QCM electrodes after exposure to the suspensions, to explore potential polishing and/or roughening effects. The results are closely linked to the macroscopic friction and wear attributes. Work supported by NSF.

  8. AFM, XPS and RBS studies of the growth process of CdS thin films on ITO/glass substrates deposited using an ammonia-free chemical process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazon-Montijo, D.A.; Sotelo-Lerma, M.; Rodriguez-Fernandez, L.; Huerta, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper deals with a detailed study of the growth stages of CdS thin films on ITO/glass substrates by chemical bath deposition (CBD). The chemical and morphological characterization was done through X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. On the other hand, optical transmission and X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements were performed in order to study the optical and structural properties of the films. The time, the chemistry, and morphology of the different stages that form the growth process by CBD were identified through these results. Furthermore, clear evidence was obtained of the formation of Cd(OH) 2 as the first chemical species adhered to the substrate surface which forms the first nucleation centers for a good CdS formation and growth. On the other hand, the ITO coating caused growth stages to occur earlier than in just glass substrates, with which we can obtain a determined thickness in a shorter deposition time. We were able to prove that CBD is a good technique for the manufacture of thin films of semiconductor materials, since the CdS film does not have any impurities. Completely formed films were transparent, uniform, with good adherence to the substrate, of a polycrystalline nature with a hexagonal structure. These results indicate that films obtained by CBD are good candidates to be applied in different optoelectronic devices.

  9. PREFACE: Non-contact AFM Non-contact AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giessibl, Franz J.; Morita, Seizo

    2012-02-01

    This special issue is focussed on high resolution non-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM). Non-contact atomic force microscopy was established approximately 15 years ago as a tool to image conducting and insulating surfaces with atomic resolution. Since 1998, an annual international conference has taken place, and although the proceedings of these conferences are a useful source of information, several key developments warrant devoting a special issue to this subject. In the theoretic field, the possibility of supplementing established techniques such as scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and Kelvin probe microscopy with atomically resolved force micrsoscopy poses many challenges in the calculation of contrast and contrast reversal. The surface science of insulators, self-assembled monolayers and adsorbates on insulators is a fruitful field for the application of non-contact AFM: several articles in this issue are devoted to these subjects. Atomic imaging and manipulation have been pioneered using STM, but because AFM allows the measurement of forces, AFM has had a profound impact in this field as well. Three-dimensional force spectroscopy has allowed many important insights into surface science. In this issue a combined 3D tunneling and force microscopy is introduced. Non-contact AFM typically uses frequency modulation to measure force gradients and was initially used mainly in a vacuum. As can be seen in this issue, frequency modulation is now also used in ambient conditions, allowing better spatial and force resolution. We thank all of the contributors for their time and efforts in making this special issue possible. We are also very grateful to the staff of IOP Publishing for handling the administrative aspects and for steering the refereeing process. Non-contact AFM contents Relation between the chemical force and the tunnelling current in atomic point contacts: a simple model Pavel Jelínek, Martin Ondrácek and Fernando Flores Theoretical simulation of

  10. Nanopuller-open data acquisition platform for AFM force spectroscopy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pawlak, Konrad; Strzelecki, Janusz

    2016-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a widely used tool in force spectroscopy studies. Presently, this instrument is accessible from numerous vendors, albeit commercial solutions are expensive and almost always hardware and software closed. Approaches for open setups were published, as with modern low cost and readily available piezoelectric actuators, data acquisition interfaces and optoelectronic components building such force spectroscopy AFM is relatively easy. However, suitable software to control such laboratory made instrument was not released. Developing it in the lab requires significant time and effort. Our Nanopuller software described in this paper is intended to eliminate this obstacle. With only minimum adjustments this program can be used to control and acquire data with any suitable National Instruments universal digital/analog interface and piezoelectric actuator analog controller, giving significant freedom and flexibility in designing force spectroscopy experiment. Since the full code, written in a graphical LabVIEW environment is available, our Nanopuller can be easily customized. In this paper we describe the program and test its performance in controlling different setups. Successful and accurate force curve acquisition for standard samples (single molecules of I27O reference titin polyprotein and DNA as well as red blood cells) is shown. - Highlights: • We created open data acquisition software for performing Atomic Force Microscopy force measurements with custom laboratory made setups. • The software allows large flexibility in atomic force microscope design with minimum adjustment necessary. • The software is written in LabVIEW, allowing easy customization. • We successfully tested the program on two different hardware configurations by stretching single macromolecules and indenting cells.

  11. Nanopuller-open data acquisition platform for AFM force spectroscopy experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pawlak, Konrad; Strzelecki, Janusz

    2016-05-15

    Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a widely used tool in force spectroscopy studies. Presently, this instrument is accessible from numerous vendors, albeit commercial solutions are expensive and almost always hardware and software closed. Approaches for open setups were published, as with modern low cost and readily available piezoelectric actuators, data acquisition interfaces and optoelectronic components building such force spectroscopy AFM is relatively easy. However, suitable software to control such laboratory made instrument was not released. Developing it in the lab requires significant time and effort. Our Nanopuller software described in this paper is intended to eliminate this obstacle. With only minimum adjustments this program can be used to control and acquire data with any suitable National Instruments universal digital/analog interface and piezoelectric actuator analog controller, giving significant freedom and flexibility in designing force spectroscopy experiment. Since the full code, written in a graphical LabVIEW environment is available, our Nanopuller can be easily customized. In this paper we describe the program and test its performance in controlling different setups. Successful and accurate force curve acquisition for standard samples (single molecules of I27O reference titin polyprotein and DNA as well as red blood cells) is shown. - Highlights: • We created open data acquisition software for performing Atomic Force Microscopy force measurements with custom laboratory made setups. • The software allows large flexibility in atomic force microscope design with minimum adjustment necessary. • The software is written in LabVIEW, allowing easy customization. • We successfully tested the program on two different hardware configurations by stretching single macromolecules and indenting cells.

  12. Preparation, Study and Modification of Nanometer-Scale Flat TiO2 Surfaces by Electrochemistry and AFM Techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dihn Thi, M. T.; Cleemann, Lars Nilausen; Welinder, Anne Christina

    In order to study local properties of surfaces, it is necessary to control their preparation mode to get reproducible and well characterized samples. The first part of this work concerns the preparation of TiO2 films on Ti substrates that fulfil these criteria. The TiO2 formed by anodisation of t...

  13. Effect of the Concentration of Cytolytic Protein Cyt2Aa2 on the Binding Mechanism on Lipid Bilayers Studied by QCM-D and AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharad, Sudarat; Iturri, Jagoba; Moreno-Cencerrado, Alberto; Mittendorfer, Margareta; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai; Toca-Herrera, José L

    2015-09-29

    Bacillus thuringiensis is known by its insecticidal property. The insecticidal proteins are produced at different growth stages, including the cytolytic protein (Cyt2Aa2), which is a bioinsecticide and an antimicrobial protein. However, the binding mechanism (and the interaction) of Cyt2Aa2 on lipid bilayers is still unclear. In this work, we have used quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to investigate the interaction between Cyt2Aa2 protein and (cholesterol-)lipid bilayers. We have found that the binding mechanism is concentration dependent. While at 10 μg/mL, Cyt2Aa2 binds slowly on the lipid bilayer forming a compliance protein/lipid layer with aggregates, at higher protein concentrations (100 μg/mL), the binding is fast, and the protein/lipid layer is more rigid including holes (of about a lipid bilayer thickness) in its structure. Our study suggests that the protein/lipid bilayer binding mechanism seems to be carpet-like at low protein concentrations and pore forming-like at high protein concentrations.

  14. The effect of surface sealant application and accelerated aging on posterior restorative surfaces: An SEM and AFM study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekçe, Neslihan; Pala, Kanşad; Tuncer, Safa; Demirci, Mustafa

    2017-03-31

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of surface sealant application and 10,000 thermocycles on the surface roughness and microhardness of different resin composite systems. A micro-hybrid (G Aenial Posterior), a nano-hybrid (Clearfil Majesty Posterior), a nano-fill (Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative, Enamel Shade), and a bulk-fill resin composite (Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative) were used for the study. Specimens were evaluated at 24 h, after application of the surface sealant Fortify Plus, and after thermocycling. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a posthoc Bonferroni test (pRestorative increased significantly after surface sealant application. However, neither surface sealant application nor thermocycling had a significant effect on composite microhardness values except Filtek Ultimate Universal Restorative (p>0.05).

  15. AFM and TEM study of cyclic slip localization in fatigued ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Man, J.; Petrenec, M.; Obrtlik, K.; Polak, J.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy and high resolution scanning electron microscopy were applied to the study of surface relief evolution at emerging persistent slip bands (PSBs) in individual grains of ferritic X10CrAl24 stainless steel cycled with constant plastic strain amplitude. Only the combination of both methods can reveal the true shape and fine details of extrusions and intrusions. Quantitative data on the changes of the surface topography of persistent slip markings and on the kinetics of extrusion growth during the fatigue life were obtained. Transmission electron microscopy of surface foils revealed PSBs with the typical, well-known ladder structure. Experimental data on cyclic slip localization in PSBs are compared with those in fcc metals and discussed in terms of vacancy models of surface relief evolution and fatigue crack initiation

  16. AFM study of the early corrosion of a high strength steel in a diluted sodium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, Javier; Fullea, Jose; Andrade, Carmen; Gaitero, Juan J.; Porro, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The high strength steels employed as reinforcement in pre-stressed concrete structures are drawn wire steels of eutectoid composition with a pearlitic microstructure. This work is focused on the study, by atomic force microscopy, of the early stages of the corrosion of such steels as a consequence of their exposition to a sodium chloride solution. The obtained images show the pearlitic microstructure of the steel, with a preferential attack of the ferrite phase and the cementite acting as a cathode. The corrosion rate was determined by calculating the amount of material lost from a roughness analysis. The obtained results are in good agreement with the predictions of Galvelel's theory, according to which the corrosion rate slows down as the pit depth increases

  17. Aqueous humour dynamics in anterior chamber under influence of cornea indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuhaila, I.; Jiann, L. Y.; Sharidan, S.; Fitt, A.

    2017-04-01

    The existing temperature different between the cornea and the pupil induces the aqueous humour (AH) to circulate in the anterior chamber (AC). The buoyancy forces produced by the temperature gradient has driven the AH to flow. Previous studies have shown that cornea indentation changes the structure of the AC. This imply that the cornea indentation may change the fluid flow behaviour in the AC. A mathematical model of AH flow has been developed in order to analyse the fluid mechanics concerning the indentation of the cornea. Naiver-Stokes equations is used to describe the flow of AH in the AC. The governing equations have been solved numerically using finite element method. The results show that the cornea indentation has slow down the circulation the AH in the AC.

  18. Spherical indentation of a freestanding circular membrane revisited: Analytical solutions and experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Congrui; Davoodabadi, Ali; Li, Jianlin; Wang, Yanli; Singler, Timothy

    2017-03-01

    Due to the development of novel micro-fabrication techniques to produce ultra-thin materials and increasing interest in thin biological membranes, in recent years, the mechanical characterization of thin films has received a significant amount of attention. To provide a more accurate solution for the relationship among contact radius, load and deflection, the fundamental and widely applicable problem of spherical indentation of a freestanding circular membrane have been revisited. The work presented here significantly extends the previous contributions by providing an exact analytical solution to the governing equations of Föppl-Hecky membrane indented by a frictionless spherical indenter. In this study, experiments of spherical indentation has been performed, and the exact analytical solution presented in this paper is compared against experimental data from existing literature as well as our own experimental results.

  19. Extrinsic stretching narrowing and anterior indentation of the rectosigmoid junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, A.; Fataar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five cases of extrinsic narrowing or anterior indentation of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) have been studied. The RSJ lies directly behind the pouch of Douglas which is a favoured site for peritoneal metastasis, abscess and endometriosis. Any space-occupying lesion of sufficient size at this site will indent the anterior aspects of the RSJ. Causes include distension or tumour of the ileum or sigmoid colon, gross ascites (when the patient is erect), and tumours below the pelvic peritonium, such as gynaecological neoplasm and internal iliac artery aneurysm. When a desmoplastic metastasis in the pouch of Douglas infiltrates the outer layers of the RSJ, the fibrosis produces an eccentric shortening on its anterior aspect, which in turn causes a pleating of the mucosa with the folds radiating towards the shortened area. This is also seen with primary pelvic carcinomas directly adherent to the rectum, endometriosis with repeated bleeding and increasing eccentric, submucosal fibrosis, and chronic abscess in the pouch of Douglas. Not all extrinsic narrowing of the RSJ are pathological. One case of anterior indentation followed operation for rectal prolapse. Ten additional cases showed narrowing due to a technical artefact air-distended colon rising into the upper abdomen to cause stretching at the RSJ. As with ascites, this narrowing due to 'high-rise sigmoid' disappeared when the patients became recumbent and the colonic air redistributed. (author)

  20. Single-crystal LiNbO.sub.3./sub. surfaces processed in low-temperature hydrogen plasma:XPS, REELS and AFM study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turčičová, Hana; Zemek, Josef; Tóht, J.; Drbohlav, Ivo

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 34, - (2002), s. 468-471 ISSN 0142-2421 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/98/1285 Grant - others:IAEA(AT) 10031 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : lithium niobate * radiofrequency plasma * XPS * REELS * AFM Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.071, year: 2002

  1. Volume phase transition of 'smart' microgels in bulk solution and adsorbed at an interface: A combined AFM, dynamic light, and small angle neutron scattering study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Höfl, Sarah; Zitzler, Lothar; Hellweg, Thomas; Herminghaus, Stephan; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2007-01-01

    In the present article the swelling behavior of copolymer microgel particles made of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)-co-vinylacetic acid using dynamic light scattering (DLS), neutron scattering, and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM) for various copolymerized amounts of vinylacetic acid (VA) (up to

  2. In situ EC-AFM study of the effect of nanocrystals on the passivation and pit initiation in an Al-based metallic glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, S.D.; Liu, Z.W.; Wang, Z.M.; Wang, J.Q.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The nanoscale corrosion on Al-rich glass was characterised by in situ EC-AFM. • The nanocrystals were identified from amorphous matrix by tapping mode AFM. • The formation of corrosion products is associated with the galvanic coupling. • The nanocrystals changed the local structure and component of the passive film. - Abstract: The effect of nanocrystals on pit initiation in metallic glasses is an unresolved issue. The passive film formation and pit initiation in the Al–Ni–Ce metallic glass were investigated using in situ electrochemical atomic force microscope (EC-AFM). The α-Al nanophases were identified from the amorphous matrix based upon the phase imaging in the tapping mode AFM. In the early stage of the passive film formation, the corrosion products Al(OH) 3 formed on the α-Al nanoparticles due to the galvanic coupling. The corrosion products incorporated into the passive film changed the local structure and component of the passive film, lowering its stability

  3. Thermo-responsive diblock and triblock cationic copolymers at the silica/aqueous interface: A QCM-D and AFM study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghaddam, Saeed Zajforoushan; Zhu, Kaizheng; Nyström, Bo

    2017-01-01

    are investigated using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Moreover, dynamic light scattering is employed to assess the copolymers in terms of the hydrodynamic size and interchain aggregation. Although viscoelastic Voigt modeling of the QCM-D data...

  4. Puncture mechanics of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation by rigid cylindrical indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junjie; Chen, Zhe; Liang, Xueya; Huang, Xiaoqiang; Mao, Guoyong; Hong, Wei; Yu, Honghui; Qu, Shaoxing

    2018-03-01

    Soft elastomeric membrane structures are widely used and commonly found in engineering and biological applications. Puncture is one of the primary failure modes of soft elastomeric membrane at large deformation when indented by rigid objects. In order to investigate the puncture failure mechanism of soft elastomeric membrane with large deformation, we study the deformation and puncture failure of silicone rubber membrane that results from the continuous axisymmetric indentation by cylindrical steel indenters experimentally and analytically. In the experiment, effects of indenter size and the friction between the indenter and the membrane on the deformation and puncture failure of the membrane are investigated. In the analytical study, a model within the framework of nonlinear field theory is developed to describe the large local deformation around the punctured area, as well as to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The deformed membrane is divided into three parts and the friction contact between the membrane and indenter is modeled by Coulomb friction law. The first invariant of the right Cauchy-Green deformation tensor I1 is adopted to predict the puncture failure of the membrane. The experimental and analytical results agree well. This work provides a guideline in designing reliable soft devices featured with membrane structures, which are present in a wide variety of applications.

  5. BOREAS AFM-11 Aircraft Flux Analysis Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Reports from the BOREAS AFM-11 team regarding quality control and sampling analysis of data collected by other AFM personnel using the Electra, LongEZ, and Twin...

  6. Technical and practical improvements in arthroscopic indentation technique for diagnostics of articular cartilage softening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, M A; Töyräs, J; Aula, A S; Karjalainen, J P; Riekkinen, O; Jurvelin, J S

    2011-01-01

    Indentation measurements have been proposed to serve as sensitive in vivo diagnostics of cartilage degeneration. However, practical difficulties have hindered the use of quantitative indentation techniques during routine arthroscopies. In this study we modified the previously commercial indentation technique by designing software for quality control of manual indentations. With the modifications, our aim was to introduce more rapid and less erroneous measurements, as well as more automatic and objective analyses. The performance of the technique was tested in situ using six bovine medial tibial plateaus. All measurements were conducted by three operators. The intraoperator reproducibility was reasonable (CV%  = 7.1%) and the interoperator reproducibility was good (intraclass correlation coefficient  = 0.976). Further, the novel technique was tested by a single operator using 10 bovine medial tibial plateaus. The indentation stiffness values determined with the arthroscopic instrument correlated significantly with the dynamic (r = 0.823) and equilibrium (r = 0.752) moduli as well as tissue water (r =  -0.830) and hydroxyproline (r = 0.776) contents. To conclude, the novel measurement technique showed good reproducibility and was found to give valuable information on cartilage properties. Most importantly, the measurements and analyses were more straightforward and automatic than those introduced in the original indentation approach.

  7. Indentation Size Effect on Ag Nanoparticle-Modified Graphene/Sn-Ag-Cu Solders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L. Y.; Zhang, S. T.; Jing, H. Y.; Wang, L. X.; Wei, J.; Kong, X. C.; Han, Y. D.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results for the indentation size effect (ISE) on the creep stress exponent and hardness of 0.03 wt.% Ag-modified graphene nanosheet Sn-Ag-Cu solder alloys, using constant loading/holding and multi-cycle (CMC) loading methods, respectively. At each maximum load, with increasing indentation depth, the creep exponent first decreased and then increased. At the same strain rate, the stress exponent also showed the same tendency, increasing as the indentation depth (peak load) increased and then decreased. The hardness was measured continuously with increasing indentation depth by the CMC loading method. The hardness did not exhibit a decrease as the indentation depth increased, which differs from the classical description of the ISE. After an initial decrease, the hardness then increased and finally decreased as the indentation depth increased. This study reviews the existing theories and formulations describing ISE with hardening effects. The experimental results fit well with the empirical formulation. The phenomenon of ISE accompanied by hardening effects has been explained physically via the interaction between geometrically necessary dislocations and grain boundaries.

  8. Quasi-Plastic Deformation of WC-Co Composites Loaded with a Spherical Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Haibo; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Belnap, J. Daniel

    2007-03-01

    The quasi-plastic deformation behavior of cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) materials was studied using Hertzian indentation techniques. The indentation stress-strain curves of three WC-10 wt pct Co alloys with different hardness values demonstrate that WC-Co alloys exhibit “quasi-plasticity” behavior under indentation load and the increase of indentation stress vs indentation strain bears similarity to “strain hardening” in ductile metals. The analysis of the subsurface indentation damage shows that the mechanisms of the quasi-plastic deformation of WC-Co material are the formation of microcracks. Microcracks were found at heavily damaged areas in all three alloys, and the number of microcracks was higher for the sample with the higher apparent quasi-plasticity. The threshold stress values for the onset of quasi-plastic deformation and formation of ring cracks were determined and used to evaluate the brittleness index of these materials. The correlation of the brittleness index with hardness values gives insight with regard to the brittle or quasi-plastic responses of WC-Co materials.

  9. Method to determine the optimal constitutive model from spherical indentation tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tairui Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The limitation of current indentation theories was investigated and a method to determine the optimal constitutive model through spherical indentation tests was proposed. Two constitutive models, the Power-law and the Linear-law, were used in Finite Element (FE calculations, and then a set of indentation governing equations was established for each model. The load-depth data from the normal indentation depth was used to fit the best parameters in each constitutive model while the data from the further loading part was compared with those from FE calculations, and the model that better predicted the further deformation was considered the optimal one. Moreover, a Yang’s modulus calculation model which took the previous plastic deformation and the phenomenon of pile-up (or sink-in into consideration was also proposed to revise the original Sneddon-Pharr-Oliver model. The indentation results on six materials, 304, 321, SA508, SA533, 15CrMoR, and Fv520B, were compared with tensile ones, which validated the reliability of the revised E calculation model and the optimal constitutive model determination method in this study. Keywords: Optimal constitutive model, Spherical indentation test, Finite Element calculations, Yang’s modulus

  10. Comparison of Isolated Indentation and Grid Indentation Methods for HVOF Sprayed Cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nohava, Jiří; Haušild, Petr; Houdková, Šárka; Enžl, Radek

    2012-06-01

    This paper compares the results of two approaches of instrumented indentation for characterization of mechanical properties of HVOF coatings. Three types of HVOF sprayed coatings (Cr3C2-NiCr, WC-Co, (Ti, Mo)(C,N)-NiCo) were investigated by the means of isolated nanoindentation and grid indentation methods. The results of the isolated indentation revealed hardness and elastic modulus of the individual phases in very good agreement with the corresponding bulk material. The grid indentation method, based on statistical evaluation of a large number of indentations, was influenced by the carbide-matrix interface, which gave rise to a third peak apart from the two peaks corresponding to the carbides and metallic matrix. As a consequence, the bimodal Gaussian fit was insufficient and a trimodal fit had to be used. The results extracted from low load grid nanoindentations were quite close to the results of isolated indentations whereas higher load grid nanoindentation revealed overall properties of the coating.

  11. Mechanical characterization of soft materials using transparent indenter testing system and finite element simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yue

    Background. Soft materials such as polymers and soft tissues have diverse applications in bioengineering, medical care, and industry. Quantitative mechanical characterization of soft materials at multiscales is required to assure that appropriate mechanical properties are presented to support the normal material function. Indentation test has been widely used to characterize soft material. However, the measurement of in situ contact area is always difficult. Method of Approach. A transparent indenter method was introduced to characterize the nonlinear behaviors of soft materials under large deformation. This approach made the direct measurement of contact area and local deformation possible. A microscope was used to capture the contact area evolution as well as the surface deformation. Based on this transparent indenter method, a novel transparent indentation measurement systems has been built and multiple soft materials including polymers and pericardial tissue have been characterized. Seven different indenters have been used to study the strain distribution on the contact surface, inner layer and vertical layer. Finite element models have been built to simulate the hyperelastic and anisotropic material behaviors. Proper material constants were obtained by fitting the experimental results. Results.Homogeneous and anisotropic silicone rubber and porcine pericardial tissue have been examined. Contact area and local deformation were measured by real time imaging the contact interface. The experimental results were compared with the predictions from the Hertzian equations. The accurate measurement of contact area results in more reliable Young's modulus, which is critical for soft materials. For the fiber reinforced anisotropic silicone rubber, the projected contact area under a hemispherical indenter exhibited elliptical shape. The local surface deformation under indenter was mapped using digital image correlation program. Punch test has been applied to thin films of

  12. Extrusions and intrusions in fatigued metals. Part 2. AFM and EBSD study of the early growth of extrusions and intrusions in 316L steel fatigued at room temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Man, Jiří; Klapetek, P.; Man, O.; Weidner, A.; Obrtlík, Karel; Polák, Jaroslav

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 16 (2009), s. 1337-1372 ISSN 1478-6435 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/06/1096; GA ČR GA101/07/1500; GA AV ČR 1QS200410502 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20410507 Keywords : 316L steel * fatigue * AFM Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 1.273, year: 2009

  13. Improving fundamental movement skills in Hong Kong students through an assessment for learning intervention that emphasizes fun, mastery, and support: the A?+?FMS randomized controlled trial study protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Cecilia; Ha, Amy; Ng, Johan Y. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background Assessment for learning has been identified as an effective strategy to help children learn more effectively. Developing children to master basic movement skills in primary school requires formative assessments to inform instruction and learning. This study reports the rationale and methods for an assessment-based intervention that emphasizes fun, mastery and support (A?+?FMS) designed to improve fundamental movement skill (FMS) proficiency of primary schoolchildren. Methods/design...

  14. Contact problem for a solid indenter and a viscoelastic half-space described by the spectrum of relaxation and retardation times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, F. I.

    2018-04-01

    The mechanical properties of a material which is modeled by an exponential creep kernel characterized by a spectrum of relaxation and retardation times are studied. The research is carried out considering a contact problem for a solid indenter sliding over a viscoelastic half-space. The contact pressure, indentation depth of the indenter, and the deformation component of the friction coefficient are analyzed with respect to the case of half-space material modeled by single relaxation and retardation times.

  15. AFM study of advanced composite materials for organic photovoltaic cells with active layer based on P3HT:PCBM and chiral photosensitive liquid crystalline dopants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Iwan, A.; Sikora, A.; Hamplová, Věra; Bubnov, Alexej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 7 (2015), s. 964-972 ISSN 0267-8292 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7AMB13PL041; GA ČR GA13-14133S; GA MŠk(CZ) LD14007; GA MŠk 7AMB13PL038 Grant - others:AVČR(CZ) M100101204 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : AFM * chiral liquid crystal * organic solar cells * azo compounds * photovoltaics Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 2.244, year: 2015

  16. Indentation Size Effects in Single Crystal Copper as Revealed by Synchrotron X-ray Microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, G.; Budiman, A. S.; Nix, W. D.; Tamura, N.; Patel, J. R.

    2007-11-19

    The indentation size effect (ISE) has been observed in numerous nanoindentation studies on crystalline materials; it is found that the hardness increases dramatically with decreasing indentation size - a 'smaller is stronger' phenomenon. Some have attributed the ISE to the existence of strain gradients and the geometrically necessary dislocations (GNDs). Since the GND density is directly related to the local lattice curvature, the Scanning X-ray Microdiffraction ({mu}SXRD) technique, which can quantitatively measure relative lattice rotations through the streaking of Laue diffractions, can used to study the strain gradients. The synchrotron {mu}SXRD technique we use - which was developed at the Advanced Light Source (ALS), Berkeley Lab - allows for probing the local plastic behavior of crystals with sub-micrometer resolution. Using this technique, we studied the local plasticity for indentations of different depths in a Cu single crystal. Broadening of Laue diffractions (streaking) was observed, showing local crystal lattice rotation due to the indentation-induced plastic deformation. A quantitative analysis of the streaking allows us to estimate the average GND density in the indentation plastic zones. The size dependence of the hardness, as found by nanoindentation, will be described, and its correlation to the observed lattice rotations will be discussed.

  17. Indentation size effect of Y-TZP dental ceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majić Renjo, Marijana; Ćurković, Lidija; Štefančić, Sanja; Ćorić, Danko

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and analyze the indentation size effect (ISE) in Vickers hardness of monolithic yttria partially stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) dental ceramics without and with the addition of dental dye A3. The ISE is analyzed using the Mayer law, a proportional specimen resistance (PSR) model and a modified proportional specimen resistance (MPSR) model. Two samples of Y-TZP dental ceramics, trade names BruxZir (provided by Glidewell Laboratories, CA, USA), were investigated. The first sample was polished Y-TZP and the second sample was polished Y-TZP with the addition of dental dye A3, by VITA Classical Shade Guide. The Vickers hardness was measured under the following loads: 0.49N, 0.98N, 1.96N, 4.90, 9.81N and 29.42N. Thirty indentations were made on each sample, under each load. Relationships between the applied load, F, and the resulting indentation size, d, have been analyzed by the Mayer law, the PSR model and the MPSR model. The Meyer index (n) for both Y-TZP dental ceramics is less than 2, which indicates that hardness is dependent on test loads. The PSR model and the MPSR model were used to calculate "true" Vickers hardness or load-independent hardness. All applied mathematical models are suitable for the data analysis, which is confirmed with high correlation coefficients, but the best correlation between measured values and mathematical models was achieved with the MPSR model with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. AFM study of microbial colonization and its deleterious effect on 304 stainless steel by Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans in simulated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.J.; Pehkonen, S.O.

    2009-01-01

    The biofilm colonization dynamics of Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021 and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans (ATCC 27774) on 304 stainless steels (304 SS) was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) in simulated seawater-based media under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Results showed that the biofilm formed on the coupon surface by the two strains of bacteria increased in the coverage, heterogeneity and thickness with exposure time, thus resulting in the deterioration of the steel substratum underneath the biofilm in the form of pitting corrosion. The depth of pits induced by D. desulfuricans was larger than that by Pseudomonas NCIMB 2021, which was mainly attributed to the enhanced corrosion of 304 SS coupons by the biogenic sulfide ions, as revealed by the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Tafel polarization curves. AFM was also used to determine cell attachment/detachment processes of the Pseudomonas and D. desulfuricans bacteria on the coupon surface by quantifying the tip-cell interaction forces. The interactive forces between the tip and the bacterial cell surface were considerably smaller than those between the tip and the cell-cell interface due to the accumulation of extra-cellular polymeric substances (EPS) for both strains. Furthermore, the adhesion forces over the Pseudomonas cells were verified to be more attractive than those of D. desulfuricans due to the former being a slime-producer.

  19. Site-controlled fabrication of silicon nanotips by indentation-induced selective etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Chenning; Yu, Bingjun; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Xiao, Chen; Wang, Hongbo; Jiang, Shulan; Wu, Jiang; Liu, Huiyun; Qian, Linmao

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, the indentation-induced selective etching approach is proposed to fabricate site-controlled pyramidal nanotips on Si(100) surface. Without any masks, the site-controlled nanofabrication can be realized by nanoindentation and post etching in potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. The effect of indentation force and etching time on the formation of pyramidal nanotips was investigated. It is found that the height and radius of the pyramidal nanotips increase with the indentation force or etching time, while long-time etching can lead to the collapse of the tips. The formation of pyramidal tips is ascribed to the anisotropic etching of silicon and etching stop of (111) crystal planes in KOH aqueous solution. The capability of this fabrication method was further demonstrated by producing various tip arrays on silicon surface by selective etching of the site-controlled indent patterns, and the maximum height difference of these tips is less than 10 nm. The indentation-induced selective etching provides a new strategy to fabricate well site-controlled tip arrays for multi-probe SPM system, Si nanostructure-based sensors and high-quality information storage.

  20. Method to determine the optimal constitutive model from spherical indentation tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tairui; Wang, Shang; Wang, Weiqiang

    2018-03-01

    The limitation of current indentation theories was investigated and a method to determine the optimal constitutive model through spherical indentation tests was proposed. Two constitutive models, the Power-law and the Linear-law, were used in Finite Element (FE) calculations, and then a set of indentation governing equations was established for each model. The load-depth data from the normal indentation depth was used to fit the best parameters in each constitutive model while the data from the further loading part was compared with those from FE calculations, and the model that better predicted the further deformation was considered the optimal one. Moreover, a Yang's modulus calculation model which took the previous plastic deformation and the phenomenon of pile-up (or sink-in) into consideration was also proposed to revise the original Sneddon-Pharr-Oliver model. The indentation results on six materials, 304, 321, SA508, SA533, 15CrMoR, and Fv520B, were compared with tensile ones, which validated the reliability of the revised E calculation model and the optimal constitutive model determination method in this study.

  1. Indentation Behavior of Permanently Densified Oxide Glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechgaard, Tobias Kjær; Januchta, Kacper; Kapoor, Saurabh

    -induced changes in density, structure, and indentation behavior of a range of oxide glasses, including silicates, borates, and phosphates. The effect of compression on the structure is analyzed through both Raman and NMR spectroscopy, while the mechanical properties are investigated using Vickers micro......Hot isostatic compression can be used as a post treatment method to tune the properties of glass materials as well as to obtain improved understanding of the pressure-induced structural changes and densification mechanisms, e.g., during sharp contact loading. Here, we review the pressure...... number distribution of network formers, the number of non-bridging oxygens, and the packing efficiency in the glasses....

  2. Phase Transformation of Metastable Austenite in Steel during Nano indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Taehong; Lee, Sung Bo; Han, Heung Nam; Park, Kyungtae

    2013-01-01

    These can produce geometrical softening accompanied by a sudden displacement excursion during load-controlled nanoindentation, which referred to in the literature as a pop-in. In this study, phase transformation of metastable austenite to stress-induced ε martensite which causes pop-ins during nanoindentation of steel will be reported and discussed. This study investigated the relationship between pop-in behavior of austenite in the early stage of nanoindentation and formation of ε martensite based on microstructural analyses. The load-displacement curve obtained from nanoindentation revealed stepwise pop-ins in the early stage of plastic deformation. From analyses of high resolution TEM images, a cluster of banded structure under the indent turned out a juxtaposition of (111) planes of γ austenite and (0001) planes of ε martensite. The calculation of displacement along indentation axis for (111) slip system by formation of ε martensite showed that geometrical softening can also occur by ε martensite formation when considering that the stress-induced ε martensite transformation is the predominant deformation mode in the early stage of plastic deformation and its monopartial nature as well. These microstructural investigations strongly suggest that the pop-in behavior in the early stage of plastic deformation of austenite is closely related to the formation of ε martensite

  3. Phase Transformation of Metastable Austenite in Steel during Nano indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Taehong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Bo; Han, Heung Nam [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyungtae [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    These can produce geometrical softening accompanied by a sudden displacement excursion during load-controlled nanoindentation, which referred to in the literature as a pop-in. In this study, phase transformation of metastable austenite to stress-induced ε martensite which causes pop-ins during nanoindentation of steel will be reported and discussed. This study investigated the relationship between pop-in behavior of austenite in the early stage of nanoindentation and formation of ε martensite based on microstructural analyses. The load-displacement curve obtained from nanoindentation revealed stepwise pop-ins in the early stage of plastic deformation. From analyses of high resolution TEM images, a cluster of banded structure under the indent turned out a juxtaposition of (111) planes of γ austenite and (0001) planes of ε martensite. The calculation of displacement along indentation axis for (111) slip system by formation of ε martensite showed that geometrical softening can also occur by ε martensite formation when considering that the stress-induced ε martensite transformation is the predominant deformation mode in the early stage of plastic deformation and its monopartial nature as well. These microstructural investigations strongly suggest that the pop-in behavior in the early stage of plastic deformation of austenite is closely related to the formation of ε martensite.

  4. AFM image of an entire polygene chromosome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Minqian; Takeuchi; Ikai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The author present AFM images of an entire polygene chromosome of Drosophila for the first time. Comparing with conventional optical microscope, the AFM image of the polygene chromosomes provides much higher resolution and 3-D measurement capability which will lead to finer scale gene mapping and identification

  5. Crack formation mechanisms during micro and macro indentation of diamond-like carbon coatings on elastic-plastic substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, N.B.; Fischer-Cripps, A.C.; Swain, M.V.

    1998-01-01

    of cracking and the fracture mechanisms taking place. In the study various diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings deposited onto stainless steel and tool steel were investigated. Results primarily for one DLC system will be presented here. (C) 1998 Published by Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved.......In the present study crack formation is investigated on both micro and macro scale using spherical indenter tips. in particular, systems consisting of elastic coatings that are well adhered to elastic-plastic substrates are studied. Depth sensing indentation is used on the micro scale and Rockwell...... indentation on the macro scale. The predominant driving force for coating failure and crack formation during indentation is plastic deformation of the underlying substrate. The aim is to relate the mechanisms creating both delamination and cohesive cracking on both scales with fracture mechanical models...

  6. Microhardness with depth sensing indentation. Instruments methods and applications; Mesure de durete submicronique instrumentee. Methode et applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poissonnet, S

    1999-07-01

    The study of applied surface layer or modified layers lead to the development of depth sensing indentation instruments in which measurements of penetration depth replaces optical measurements of surface impressions and sub-micron hardness may be determined. Indentation curves, depth-load, of elastoplastic materials give informations about plasticity and elasticity. After a description of the micro-indentation techniques we show few applications. Irradiation effects are measured in different materials like hafnium diboride, stainless steel or kapton. Hardness in oxide formed on metal study give informations. All these examples show that the nano-indentation is a powerful mean in the physical studies of materials because of a good statistic may be obtained and we have access to thin samples and to small phases. (author)

  7. In-situ electrochemical-AFM study of localized corrosion of AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys in chloride solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yunzhu; Collins, Liam; Balke, Nina; Liaw, Peter K.; Yang, Bin

    2018-05-01

    In-situ electrochemical (EC)-AFM is employed to investigate the localized corrosion of the AlxCoCrFeNi high-entropy alloys (HEAs). Surface topography changes on the micro/sub-micro scale are monitored at different applied anodizing potentials in a 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. The microstructural evolutions with the increased Al content in the alloys are characterized by SEM, TEM, EDS and EBSD. The results show that by increasing the Al content, the microstructure changes from single solid-solution to multi-phases, leading to the segregations of elements. Due to the microstructural variations in the AlxCoCrFeNi HEAs, localized corrosion processes in different ways after the breakdown of the passive film, which changes from pitting to phase boundary corrosion. The XPS results indicate that an increased Al content in the alloys/phases corresponds to a decreased corrosion resistance of the surface passive film.

  8. Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Interaction with Components Found in Typical Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids – a QCM-D and AFM Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kervin O. Evans

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM were combined to evaluate the defects created by an ionic liquid anion and a cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium (OMIM+ was shown to remove lipids from the bilayer, increase the roughness to approximately 2.8 nm (~0.2 for stable supported bilayer and possibly redeposit lipids with entrapped water. The anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (Tf2N- was found to leave distinct defects within the bilayer that had large pore-like interiors which left the surrounding bilayer intact. However, the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonylimide (BMP-Tf2N formed a film over the supported bilayer. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the direct effects common components of ionic liquids have on a supported phospholipids bilayer.

  9. Investigation of metal sorption behavior of Slp1 from Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53: a combined study using QCM-D, ICP-MS and AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Matthias; Unger, Nancy; Viacava, Karen E; Günther, Tobias J; Raff, Johannes; Pollmann, Katrin

    2014-12-01

    Surface layer proteins (S-layer) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53 are biological compounds with several bio-based technical applications such as biosorptive materials for metal removal or rare metals recovery from the environment. Despite their well-described applications, a deeper understanding of their metal sorption behavior still remains challenging. The metal sorption ability of Au(3+), Pd(2+), Pt(2+) and Eu(3+) was investigated by ICP-MS, AFM and QCM-D which enables the sorption detection in real-time during in situ experiments. Results indicate a high binding of Pd, followed by Au, Eu and Pt to the proteins. The comparison between different methods allowed a deeper understanding of the metal sorption of isolated S-layer either frees in liquid, adsorbed forming a protein layer or as the bacteria surface.

  10. Supported Phospholipid Bilayer Interaction with Components Found in Typical Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids – a QCM-D and AFM Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kervin O.

    2008-01-01

    Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) monitoring and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were combined to evaluate the defects created by an ionic liquid anion and a cation in a supported phospholipid bilayer composed of zwitterionic lipids on a silica surface. The cation 1-octyl-3-methyl imidazolium (OMIM+) was shown to remove lipids from the bilayer, increase the roughness to approximately 2.8 nm (~0.2 for stable supported bilayer) and possibly redeposit lipids with entrapped water. The anion bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) was found to leave distinct defects within the bilayer that had large pore-like interiors which left the surrounding bilayer intact. However, the ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methyl pyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (BMP-Tf2N) formed a film over the supported bilayer. This work demonstrates, for the first time, the direct effects common components of ionic liquids have on a supported phospholipids bilayer. PMID:19325765

  11. Mechanical evaluation of five flowable resin composites by the dynamic micro-indentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Iwai, Hirotoshi; Tanimoto, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    Measurement of the strength of brittle materials, such as resin composites, is extremely difficult. Micro-indentation hardness testing is a convenient way of investigating the mechanical properties of a small volume of material. In this study, the mechanical properties of five commercially available flowable resin composites were investigated by the dynamic micro-indentation method. Additionally, the effects of inorganic-filler content on the dynamic hardness and elastic modulus of flowable composites obtained by this method were investigated. The weight percentages of the inorganic fillers in the resin composites were determined by the ashing technique. The results indicate that the mechanical properties of flowable composites are affected by not only the filler content but also the properties of the resin matrix. In conclusion, the dynamic micro-indentation method is a useful technique for determining the mechanical behavior of dental resin composites as brittle material.

  12. Using the ultrasound and instrumented indentation techniques to measure the elastic modulus of engineering materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meza, J. M.; Franco, E. E.; Farias, M. C. M.; Buiochi, F.; Souza, R. M.; Cruz, J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, the acoustic and nano indentation techniques are two of the most used techniques for materials elastic modulus measurement. In this article fundamental principles and limitations of both techniques are shown and discussed. Last advances in nano indentation technique are also reviewed. an experimental study in ceramic, metallic, composite and single crystals was also done. Results shown that ultrasonic technique is capable to provide results in agreement with those reported in literature. However, ultrasonic technique does not allow measuring the elastic modulus of some small samples and single crystals. On the other hand, the nano indentation technique estimates the elastic modulus values in reasonable agreement with those measured by acoustic methods, particularly in amorphous materials, while in some policristaline materials some deviation from expected values was obtained. (Author) 29 refs

  13. Derivation of tensile flow characteristics for austenitic materials from instrumented indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K-W; Kim, K-H; Kim, J-Y; Kwon, D

    2008-01-01

    In this study, a method for deriving the tensile flow characteristics of austenitic materials from an instrumented indentation technique is presented along with its experimental verification. We proposed a modified algorithm for austenitic materials that takes their hardening behaviour into account. First, the true strain based on sine function instead of tangent function was adapted. It was proved that the sine function shows constant degrees of hardening which is a main characteristic of the hardening of austenitic materials. Second, a simple and linear constitutive equation was newly suggested to optimize indentation flow curves. The modified approach was experimentally verified by comparing tensile properties of five austenitic materials from uniaxial tensile test and instrumented indentation tests

  14. Elastic modulus of claystone evaluated by nano-/micro-indentation tests and meso-compression tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Auvray

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Toarcian claystone such as that of the Callovo-Oxfordian is a qualified multiphase material. The claystone samples tested in this study are composed of four main mineral phases: silicates (clay minerals, quartz, feldspars, micas (≈86%, sulphides (pyrite (≈3%, carbonates (calcite, dolomite (≈10% and organic kerogen (≈1%. Three sets of measurements of the modulus of deformability were compared as determined in (i nano-indentation tests with a constant indentation depth of 2 μm, (ii micro-indentation tests with a constant indentation depth of 20 μm, and (iii meso-compression tests with a constant displacement of 200 μm. These three experimental methods have already been validated in earlier studies. The main objective of this study is to demonstrate the influence of the scaling effect on the modulus of deformability of the material. Different frequency distributions of the modulus of deformability were obtained at the different sample scales: (i in nano-indentation tests, the distribution was spread between 15 GPa and 90 GPa and contained one peak at 34 GPa and another at 51 GPa; (ii in the micro-indentation tests, the distribution was spread between 25 GPa and 60 GPa and displayed peaks at 26 GPa and 37 GPa; and (iii in the meso-compression tests, a narrow frequency distribution was obtained, ranging from 25 GPa to 50 GPa and with a maximum at around 35 GPa.

  15. BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Wind Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides wind profiles at 38 heights, containing the variables of wind speed; wind direction; and the u-, v-, and w-components of the total wind. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean wind profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  16. BOREAS AFM-06 Mean Temperature Profile Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 915-MHz wind/Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS) profiler system in the Southern Study Area (SSA) near the Old Jack Pine (OJP) tower from 21 May 1994 to 20 Sep 1994. The data set provides temperature profiles at 15 heights, containing the variables of virtual temperature, vertical velocity, the speed of sound, and w-bar. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The mean temperature profile data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  17. Characterisation of tissue factor-bearing extracellular vesicles with AFM: comparison of air-tapping-mode AFM and liquid Peak Force AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Hardij

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extracellular vesicles (EVs are shed from cells and carry markers of the parent cells. Vesicles derived from cancer cells reach the bloodstream and locally influence important physiological processes. It has been previously shown that procoagulant vesicles are circulating in patients’ fluids. These EVs are therefore considered as promising biomarkers for the thrombotic risk. Because of their small size, classical methods such as flow cytometry suffer from limitation for their characterisation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM has been proposed as a promising complementary method for the characterisation of EVs. Objectives: The objectives of this study are: (a to develop and validate AFM with specific antibodies (anti-TF and (b to compare air and liquid modes for EVs’ size and number determination as potential biomarkers of the prothrombotic risk. Methods: AFM multimode nanoscope III was used for air tapping mode (TM. AFM catalyst was used for liquid Peak Force Tapping (PFT mode. Vesicles are generated according to Davila et al.'s protocol. Substrates are coated with various concentrations of antibodies, thanks to ethanolamine and glutaraldehyde. Results: Vesicles were immobilised on antibody-coated surfaces to select tissue factor (TF-positive vesicles. The size range of vesicles observed in liquid PFT mode is 6–10 times higher than in air mode. This corresponds to the data found in the literature. Conclusion: We recommend liquid PFT mode to analyse vesicles on 5 µg/ml antibody-coated substrates.

  18. Characterisation of tissue factor-bearing extracellular vesicles with AFM: comparison of air-tapping-mode AFM and liquid Peak Force AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardij, Julie; Cecchet, Francesca; Berquand, Alexandre; Gheldof, Damien; Chatelain, Christian; Mullier, François; Chatelain, Bernard; Dogné, Jean-Michel

    2013-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are shed from cells and carry markers of the parent cells. Vesicles derived from cancer cells reach the bloodstream and locally influence important physiological processes. It has been previously shown that procoagulant vesicles are circulating in patients' fluids. These EVs are therefore considered as promising biomarkers for the thrombotic risk. Because of their small size, classical methods such as flow cytometry suffer from limitation for their characterisation. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been proposed as a promising complementary method for the characterisation of EVs. THE OBJECTIVES OF THIS STUDY ARE: (a) to develop and validate AFM with specific antibodies (anti-TF) and (b) to compare air and liquid modes for EVs' size and number determination as potential biomarkers of the prothrombotic risk. AFM multimode nanoscope III was used for air tapping mode (TM). AFM catalyst was used for liquid Peak Force Tapping (PFT) mode. Vesicles are generated according to Davila et al.'s protocol. Substrates are coated with various concentrations of antibodies, thanks to ethanolamine and glutaraldehyde. Vesicles were immobilised on antibody-coated surfaces to select tissue factor (TF)-positive vesicles. The size range of vesicles observed in liquid PFT mode is 6-10 times higher than in air mode. This corresponds to the data found in the literature. We recommend liquid PFT mode to analyse vesicles on 5 µg/ml antibody-coated substrates.

  19. Charging C60 islands with the AFM tip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brice; Henry, Claude R.; Barth, Clemens

    2015-12-01

    We show that electrons can be transferred on demand from an AFM tip into single bulk-like C60 islands, which are supported on the insulating NaCl(001) surface. We exemplify this by controlled charge-manipulation experiments conducted in ultrahigh vacuum by noncontact AFM (nc-AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM shows a homogeneous contrast at the islands, which is a signature for an equal distribution of the electrons in the T1u band. The charge dissipates during half a day due to an interaction of the charged C60 islands with defects in the near surface region of NaCl. Our results open the perspective in photo-voltaics to study charge attachment, stability and charge exchange with the environment of any C60 bulk-like system.We show that electrons can be transferred on demand from an AFM tip into single bulk-like C60 islands, which are supported on the insulating NaCl(001) surface. We exemplify this by controlled charge-manipulation experiments conducted in ultrahigh vacuum by noncontact AFM (nc-AFM), electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) and Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM). KPFM shows a homogeneous contrast at the islands, which is a signature for an equal distribution of the electrons in the T1u band. The charge dissipates during half a day due to an interaction of the charged C60 islands with defects in the near surface region of NaCl. Our results open the perspective in photo-voltaics to study charge attachment, stability and charge exchange with the environment of any C60 bulk-like system. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/C5NR04541J

  20. Quantitative Imaging of the Stress/Strain Fields and Generation of Macroscopic Cracks from Indents in Silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian K. Tanner

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The crack geometry and associated strain field around Berkovich and Vickers indents on silicon have been studied by X-ray diffraction imaging and micro-Raman spectroscopy scanning. The techniques are complementary; the Raman data come from within a few micrometres of the indentation, whereas the X-ray image probes the strain field at a distance of typically tens of micrometres. For example, Raman data provide an explanation for the central contrast feature in the X-ray images of an indent. Strain relaxation from breakout and high temperature annealing are examined and it is demonstrated that millimetre length cracks, similar to those produced by mechanical damage from misaligned handling tools, can be generated in a controlled fashion by indentation within 75 micrometres of the bevel edge of 200 mm diameter wafers.

  1. Postcollisional cooling history of the Eastern and Southern Alps and its linkage to Adria indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heberer, Bianca; Reverman, Rebecca Lee; Fellin, Maria Giuditta; Neubauer, Franz; Dunkl, István; Zattin, Massimiliano; Seward, Diane; Genser, Johann; Brack, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Indentation of rigid blocks into rheologically weak orogens is generally associated with spatiotemporally variable vertical and lateral block extrusion. The European Eastern and Southern Alps are a prime example of microplate indentation, where most of the deformation was accommodated north of the crustal indenter within the Tauern Window. However, outside of this window only the broad late-stage exhumation pattern of the indented units as well as of the indenter itself is known. In this study we refine the exhumational pattern with new (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track thermochronology data on apatite from the Karawanken Mountains adjacent to the eastern Periadriatic fault and from the central-eastern Southern Alps. Apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He ages from the Karawanken Mountains range between 12 and 5 Ma and indicate an episode of fault-related exhumation leading to the formation of a positive flower structure and an associated peripheral foreland basin. In the Southern Alps, apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He and fission-track data combined with previous data also indicate a pulse of mainly Late Miocene exhumation, which was maximized along thrust systems, with highly differential amounts of displacement along individual structures. Our data contribute to mounting evidence for widespread Late Miocene tectonic activity, which followed a phase of major exhumation during strain localization in the Tauern Window. We attribute this exhumational phase and more distributed deformation during Adriatic indentation to a major change in boundary conditions operating on the orogen, likely due to a shift from a decoupled to a coupled system, possibly enhanced by a shift in convergence direction.

  2. Single molecule transcription profiling with AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Jason; Mishra, Bud; Pittenger, Bede; Magonov, Sergei; Troke, Joshua; Teitell, Michael A.; Gimzewski, James K.

    2007-01-01

    Established techniques for global gene expression profiling, such as microarrays, face fundamental sensitivity constraints. Due to greatly increasing interest in examining minute samples from micro-dissected tissues, including single cells, unorthodox approaches, including molecular nanotechnologies, are being explored in this application. Here, we examine the use of single molecule, ordered restriction mapping, combined with AFM, to measure gene transcription levels from very low abundance samples. We frame the problem mathematically, using coding theory, and present an analysis of the critical error sources that may serve as a guide to designing future studies. We follow with experiments detailing the construction of high density, single molecule, ordered restriction maps from plasmids and from cDNA molecules, using two different enzymes, a result not previously reported. We discuss these results in the context of our calculations. Based on invited talk at the International Conference on Nanoscience and Technology 2006.

  3. Single molecule transcription profiling with AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, Jason; Mishra, Bud; Pittenger, Bede; Magonov, Sergei; Troke, Joshua; Teitell, Michael A; Gimzewski, James K

    2007-01-01

    Established techniques for global gene expression profiling, such as microarrays, face fundamental sensitivity constraints. Due to greatly increasing interest in examining minute samples from micro-dissected tissues, including single cells, unorthodox approaches, including molecular nanotechnologies, are being explored in this application. Here, we examine the use of single molecule, ordered restriction mapping, combined with AFM, to measure gene transcription levels from very low abundance samples. We frame the problem mathematically, using coding theory, and present an analysis of the critical error sources that may serve as a guide to designing future studies. We follow with experiments detailing the construction of high density, single molecule, ordered restriction maps from plasmids and from cDNA molecules, using two different enzymes, a result not previously reported. We discuss these results in the context of our calculations

  4. Progressive evolution of microfabrics in high-temperature indentation creep experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassmann, S.; Dorner, D.; Stoeckhert, B.

    2014-12-01

    Microfabrics of natural rocks as well as of those deformed in laboratory experiments are studied post-mortem, the history of fabric evolution being inferred from a finite state. This is a major drawback when being interested in modification of fabrics related to progressive deformation. Here we present a novel approach to analyze and compare fabrics in different stages of evolution, taking spatial position to mimic a time series. Using this approach, evolution in time can be investigated on one sample deformed in a single indentation creep test. Such experiments at high temperatures and atmospheric pressure provide information on mechanical properties of rock-forming minerals as well as on microfabrics developed during inhomogeneous deformation underneath the indenter. Using a conventional creep apparatus, a cylindrical alumina indenter, 2 mm in diameter, is driven by a dead load into the flat surface of a specimen. A penetration depth of 1 mm is typically reached after hours to days, depending on material, applied temperature, and load. Previous experiments on natural, polycrystalline anhydrite carried out at temperatures between 700°C and 920 °C yield a stress exponent of 3.9 indicating deformation in the dislocation creep regime, consistent with microstructural observations (Dorner et al., 2014; Solid Earth). Within a cone-shaped region in front of the indenter, the original microfabric appears entirely unaffected. The neutral cone is mantled by highly deformed shear zones. During progressive indentation this structure of undeformed cone and shear zones propagates into the specimen. Thus, for a homogeneous starting material, serial sections of the deformed specimen normal to the indenter axis provide insight into fabrics in distinct stages of evolution. Microfabrics developed at different distance in front of the approaching indenter can be taken to represent a time series. A disadvantage of the technique is that the history of shear zone deformation is

  5. Hardening Effect Analysis by Modular Upper Bound and Finite Element Methods in Indentation of Aluminum, Steel, Titanium and Superalloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudo, Carolina; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Martín, Francisco; Trujillo, Francisco Javier

    2017-01-01

    The application of incremental processes in the manufacturing industry is having a great development in recent years. The first stage of an Incremental Forming Process can be defined as an indentation. Because of this, the indentation process is starting to be widely studied, not only as a hardening test but also as a forming process. Thus, in this work, an analysis of the indentation process under the new Modular Upper Bound perspective has been performed. The modular implementation has several advantages, including the possibility of the introduction of different parameters to extend the study, such as the friction effect, the temperature or the hardening effect studied in this paper. The main objective of the present work is to analyze the three hardening models developed depending on the material characteristics. In order to support the validation of the hardening models, finite element analyses of diverse materials under an indentation are carried out. Results obtained from the Modular Upper Bound are in concordance with the results obtained from the numerical analyses. In addition, the numerical and analytical methods are in concordance with the results previously obtained in the experimental indentation of annealed aluminum A92030. Due to the introduction of the hardening factor, the new modular distribution is a suitable option for the analysis of indentation process. PMID:28772914

  6. Nucleation at hardness indentations in cold rolled Al

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.L.; Zhang, Yubin; Wu, G.L.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleation of recrystallization near hardness indentations has been investigated in slightly cold rolled high purity aluminium. Samples were cold rolled to 12% and 20% reductions in thickness and indentations were done with two different loads (500 g and 2000 g). The samples were annealed at 300 ...

  7. Mechanical indentation improves cerebral blood oxygenation signal quality of functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during breath holding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William C.; Romero, Edwin; LaConte, Stephen M.; Rylander, Christopher G.

    2013-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a well-known technique for non-invasively measuring cerebral blood oxygenation, and many studies have demonstrated that fNIRS signals can be related to cognitive function. However, the fNIRS signal is attenuated by the skin, while scalp blood content has been reported to influence cerebral oxygenation measurements. Mechanical indentation has been shown to increase light transmission through soft tissues by causing interstitial water and blood flow away from the compressed region. To study the effects of indentation on fNIRS, a commercial fNIRS system with 16 emitter/detector pairs was used to measure cerebral blood oxygenation at 2 Hz. This device used diffuse reflectance at 730 nm and 850 nm to calculate deoxy- and oxy-hemoglobin concentrations. A borosilicate glass hemisphere was epoxied over each sensor to function as both an indenter and a lens. After placing the indenter/sensor assembly on the forehead, a pair of plastic bands was placed on top of the fNIRS headband and strapped to the head to provide uniform pressure and tightened to approx. 15 N per strap. Cerebral blood oxygenation was recorded during a breath holding regime (15 second hold, 15 second rest, 6 cycles) in 4 human subjects both with and without the indenter array. Results showed that indentation increased raw signal intensity by 85 +/- 35%, and that indentation increased amplitude of hemoglobin changes during breath cycles by 313% +/- 105%. These results suggest that indentation improves sensing of cerebral blood oxygenation, and may potentially enable sensing of deeper brain tissues.

  8. Sub-micron indent induced plastic deformation in copper and irradiated steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robertson, Ch.

    1999-01-01

    In this work we aim to study the indent induced plastic deformation. For this purpose, we have developed a new approach, whereby the indentation curves provides the mechanical behaviour, while the deformation mechanisms are observed thanks to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In order to better understand how an indent induced dislocation microstructure forms, numerical modeling of the indentation process at the scale of discrete dislocations has been worked out as well. Validation of this modeling has been performed through direct comparison of the computed microstructures with TEM micrographs of actual indents in pure Cu (001]. Irradiation induced modifications of mechanical behaviour of ion irradiated 316L have been investigated, thanks to the mentioned approach. An important hardening effect was reported from indentation data (about 50%), on helium irradiated 316L steel. TEM observations of the damage zone clearly show that this behaviour is associated with the presence of He bubbles. TEM observations of the indent induced plastic zone also showed that the extent of the plastic zone is strongly correlated with hardness, that is to say: harder materials gets a smaller plastic zone. These results thus clearly established that the selected procedure can reveal any irradiation induced hardening in sub-micron thick ion irradiated layers. The behaviour of krypton irradiated 316L steel is somewhat more puzzling. In one hand indeed, a strong correlation between the defect cluster size and densities on the irradiation temperature is observed in the 350 deg. C - 600 deg. C range, thanks to TEM observations of the damage zone. On the other hand, irradiation induced hardening reported from indentation data is relatively small (about 10%) and shows no dependence upon the irradiation temperature (within the mentioned range). In addition, it has been shown that the reported hardening vanishes following appropriate post-irradiation annealing, although most of the TEM

  9. Determining interfacial properties of submicron low-k films on Si substrate by using wedge indentation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeap, Kong Boon; Zeng, Kaiyang; Jiang, Haiyan; Shen, Lu; Chi, Dongzhi

    2007-06-01

    This article presents studies on using a wedge indentation technique to determine interfacial adhesion properties of low-k dielectric films, namely, methyl-silsesquioxane (MSQ) and black diamond (BD™)films, both on a Si substrate. Interfacial crack initiation and propagation processes in the MSQ/Si system are studied by using focused-ion-beam sectioning of the indentation impressions created by wedge tips with 90° and 120° of inclusion angles, respectively. Furthermore, the indentation induced stress is found to be proportional to the ratio of the indentation volume and the interface delamination crack volume for both plane strain and nonplane strain cases. With this analysis, the interface toughness of the MSQ/Si and BD/Si system, in terms of the strain energy release rate, is determined. The interface toughness for the MSQ/Si system is found to be a value of 1.89±0.28J/m2 for the 90° wedge tip indentation and 1.92±0.08J/m2 for the 120° wedge tip indentation. In addition, using the 120° wedge tip, the interface toughnesses of the BD films on the Si substrate with 200 and 500nm thicknesses are found to be the values of 6.62±1.52 and 6.35±2.27J/m2, respectively.

  10. Combined atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) studies of glucose oxidase (GOx) immobilised onto self-assembled monolayer on the gold film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losic, D.; Shapter, J.; Gooding, J.; Erokin, P.; Short, K.

    1999-01-01

    In fabrication of biosensors, self-assembled monolayers (SAM) are an attractive method of immobilising enzymes at electrode surface since it allows precise control over the amount and spatial distribution of the immobilized enzyme. The covalent attachment of glucose oxidase (GOx) to a carboxylic terminated SAM chemisorbed onto gold films was achieved via carbodiimide activation of the carboxylic acids to a reactive intermediate susceptible to nucleophilic attack by amines on free lysine chains of the enzyme. Atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) measurements were used for characterisation of GOx modified gold surfaces. Tapping mode AFM studies have revealed that GOx molecules form slightly disordered arrays of pentagonal or hexagonal clusters. Observed features of immobilised GOx are distributed as a submonolayer on the SAM surface which has allowed visualisation of native and unfolded enzyme structure. The presence of the SAM and enzyme on the gold surface was detected by XPS spectroscopy. Spectra show typical peaks for the C 1s, O 1s and N 1s regions. A kinetic study of the adsorption of GOx onto activated SAM using in-situ QCM allowed determination the amount of immobilised GOx on the layer and consequently the optimal immobilisation conditions. Performance parameters of the biosensor such as sensitivity to glucose concentration as a function of enzyme loading were evaluated amperometrically using the redox mediator p-benzoquinone

  11. ezAFM: A low cost Atomic Force Microscope(AFM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Umit; Celik, Kubra; Aslan, Husnu; Kehribar, Ihsan; Dede, Munir; Ozgur Ozer, H.; Oral, Ahmet

    2012-02-01

    A low cost AFM, ezAFM is developed for educational purposes as well as research. Optical beam deflection method is used to measure the deflection of cantilever. ezAFM scanner is built using voice coil motors (VCM) with ˜50x50x6 μm scan area. The microscope uses alignment free cantilevers, which minimizes setup times. FPGA based AFM feedback Control electronics is developed. FPGA technology allows us to drive all peripherals in parallel. ezAFM Controller is connected to PC by USB 2.0 interface as well as Wi-Fi. We have achieved <5nm lateral and ˜0.01nm vertical resolution. ezAFM can image single atomic steps in HOPG and mica. An optical microscope with <3 μm resolution is also integrated into the system. ezAFM supports different AFM operation modes such as dynamic mode, contact mode, lateral force microscopy. Advanced modes like magnetic force microscopy and electric force microscopy will be implemented later on. The new ezAFM system provides, short learning times for student labs, quick setup and easy to transport for portable applications with the best price/performance ratio. The cost of the system starts from 15,000, with system performance comparable with the traditional AFM systems.

  12. Adsorption and Fibrillization of Islet Amyloid Polypeptide at Self-Assembled Monolayers Studied by QCM-D, AFM, and PM-IRRAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiraissi, Roozbeh; Hanke, Marcel; Yang, Yu; Duderija, Belma; Gonzalez Orive, Alejandro; Grundmeier, Guido; Keller, Adrian

    2018-03-20

    Aggregation and fibrillization of human islet amyloid polypeptide (hIAPP) plays an important role in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Understanding the interaction of hIAPP with interfaces such as cell membranes at a molecular level therefore represents an important step toward new therapies. Here, we investigate the fibrillization of hIAPP at different self-assembled alkanethiol monolayers (SAMs) by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). We find that hydrophobic interactions with the CH 3 -terminated SAM tend to retard hIAPP fibrillization compared to the carboxylic acid-terminated SAM where attractive electrostatic interactions lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network of interwoven fibrils. At the hydroxyl- and amino-terminated SAMs, fibrillization appears to be governed by hydrogen bonding between the peptide and the terminating groups which may even overcome electrostatic repulsion. These results thus provide fundamental insights into the molecular mechanisms governing amyloid assembly at interfaces.

  13. Analytical method for establishing indentation rolling resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are highly reliable machines able to work in special operating conditions. Harsh environment, long distance of transporting and great mass of transported martials are cause of high energy usage. That is why research in the field of belt conveyor transportation nowadays focuses on reducing the power consumption without lowering their efficiency. In this paper, previous methods for testing rolling resistance are described, and new method designed by authors was presented. New method of testing rolling resistance is quite simple and inexpensive. Moreover it allows to conduct the experimental tests of the impact of different parameters on the value of indentation rolling resistance such as core design, cover thickness, ambient temperature, idler travel frequency, or load value as well. Finally results of tests of relationship between rolling resistance and idler travel frequency and between rolling resistance and idler travel speed was presented.

  14. Nanomechanical properties of polymer brushes by colloidal AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kutnyanszky, E.; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2012-01-01

    Nanomechanical properties of end grafted polymer layers were studied by AFM based, colloidal probe compression measurements. Zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) brush was grafted from planar Si surface and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMAA) brush was grown on colloidal probe by

  15. Interlaboratory round robin on cantilever calibration for AFM force spectroscopy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riet, J. te; Katan, A.J.; Rankl, C.; Stahl, S.W.; Buul, A.M. van; Phang, I.Y.; Gomez-Casado, A.; Schon, P.; Gerritsen, J.W.; Cambi, A.; Rowan, A.E.; Vancso, G.J.; Jonkheijm, P.; Huskens, J.; Oosterkamp, T.H.; Gaub, H.; Hinterdorfer, P.; Figdor, C.G.; Speller, S.

    2011-01-01

    Single-molecule force spectroscopy studies performed by Atomic Force Microscopes (AFMs) strongly rely on accurately determined cantilever spring constants. Hence, to calibrate cantilevers, a reliable calibration protocol is essential. Although the thermal noise method and the direct Sader method are

  16. Nano indentation of particulate and polymer films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, Aisha

    2001-01-01

    A detailed knowledge of the formation and rupture mechanisms of agglomerates is essential when seeking to model equipment designed to produce and process such agglomerated particulate solids. In the work to be described the nano-indentation of two-dimensional agglomerate films was carried out in order to establish a means of identifying the generic breakage mechanisms of agglomerated systems. Data analysis techniques are developed that enable the individual inter-particle junction strengths to be calculated for a model system consisting of rather mono-dispersed colloidal silica particles (20-24 nm diameter) bound with a poly(methyl methacrylate). Applied load and penetration depth data in the range (10 mN and 500 nm respectively) are provided as a function of loading time during a continuous loading. It is argued that these data enable the sequence of the discrete binder bridge failures to be observed thus giving a quantitative indication of the breakage mechanism of this agglomerate system as well as reflect the agglomerate structure. The secondary objective of this work was to produce a range of agglomerates with different mechanical properties, without changing the type and amount of binder or prime particles used in the system. This was achieved by altering the mechanical properties of the binder, poly(methyl methacrylate), by the use of a variety of solvents. From data obtained using nano-indentation on thin films of the treated polymer, brittle and ductile forms of poly(methyl methacrylate) could be distinguished. These trends are reflected, to some degree, in the mechanical response of the agglomerated layers. (author)

  17. AFM ve farmaceutické technologii 3.

    OpenAIRE

    Ščuryová, Veronika

    2015-01-01

    Charles University in Prague Faculty of Pharmacy in Hradec Králové Department of Pharmaceutical Technology Student: Veronika Ščuryová Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Pavel Doležal, CSc. Title of thesis: AFM in Pharmaceutical Technology 3 The theoretical part deals first with the construction of AFM microscope, the principle of the method, determining the surface topography and regimes which can be used. Described therein are distinct advantages over previous traditional methods but also its pitfalls. ...

  18. In Situ AFM Study of Crystal Growth on a Barite (001 Surface in BaSO4 Solutions at 30 °C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshihiro Kuwahara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The growth behavior and kinetics of the barite (001 surface in supersaturated BaSO4 solutions (supersaturation index (SI = 1.1–4.1 at 30 °C were investigated using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM. At the lowest supersaturation, the growth behavior was mainly the advancement of the initial step edges and filling in of the etch pits formed in the water before the BaSO4 solution was injected. For solutions with higher supersaturation, the growth behavior was characterized by the advance of the and [010] half-layer steps with two different advance rates and the formation of growth spirals with a rhombic to bow-shaped form and sector-shaped two-dimensional (2D nuclei. The advance rates of the initial steps and the two steps of 2D nuclei were proportional to the SI. In contrast, the advance rates of the parallel steps with extremely short step spacing on growth spirals were proportional to SI2, indicating that the lateral growth rates of growth spirals were directly proportional to the step separations. This dependence of the advance rate of every step on the growth spirals on the step separations predicts that the growth rates along the [001] direction of the growth spirals were proportional to SI2 for lower supersaturations and to SI for higher supersaturations. The nucleation and growth rates of the 2D nuclei increased sharply for higher supersaturations using exponential functions. Using these kinetic equations, we predicted a critical supersaturation (SI ≈ 4.3 at which the main growth mechanism of the (001 face would change from a spiral growth to a 2D nucleation growth mechanism: therefore, the morphology of bulk crystals would change.

  19. AFM tip-sample convolution effects for cylinder protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jian; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Fei-Hu; Gan, Yang

    2017-11-01

    A thorough understanding about the AFM tip geometry dependent artifacts and tip-sample convolution effect is essential for reliable AFM topographic characterization and dimensional metrology. Using rigid sapphire cylinder protrusions (diameter: 2.25 μm, height: 575 nm) as the model system, a systematic and quantitative study about the imaging artifacts of four types of tips-two different pyramidal tips, one tetrahedral tip and one super sharp whisker tip-is carried out through comparing tip geometry dependent variations in AFM topography of cylinders and constructing the rigid tip-cylinder convolution models. We found that the imaging artifacts and the tip-sample convolution effect are critically related to the actual inclination of the working cantilever, the tip geometry, and the obstructive contacts between the working tip's planes/edges and the cylinder. Artifact-free images can only be obtained provided that all planes and edges of the working tip are steeper than the cylinder sidewalls. The findings reported here will contribute to reliable AFM characterization of surface features of micron or hundreds of nanometers in height that are frequently met in semiconductor, biology and materials fields.

  20. Residual stress evaluation in brittle coatings using indentation technique combined with in-situ bending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futakawa, Masatoshi; Steinbrech, R.W.; Tanabe, Yuji; Hara, Toshiaki

    2000-01-01

    The indentation crack length approach was adopted and further elaborated to evaluate residual stress and toughness of the brittle coatings: two kinds of glass coatings on steel. The influence of the residual stress on indentation cracking was examined in as-received coating condition and by in-situ superimposing a counteracting tensile stress. For purpose of providing reference toughness values stress-free pieces of separated coating material have also been examined. Thus results of the two complementary sets of experiments were assumed to prove self-consistently toughness and residual stress data of the coating. In particular, the in-situ bending of specimen in combination with the indentation test allowed us to vary deliberately the residual stress situation in glass coating. Thus experiments which utilized the combination of bending test and micro-indentation were introduced as a method to provide unambiguous information about residual compressive stress. Toughness and residual compressive stress of glass coatings used in this study were 0.46-0.50 MPa·m 1/2 and 94-111 MPa, respectively. Furthermore, a thermoelastic calculation of the residual compressive stress was performed and it is found that the value of residual compressive stress at coating surface of specimen was 90-102 MPa. (author)

  1. Measurement of time-dependent adhesion between a polymer film and a flat indenter tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S T; Lee, S R; Earmme, Y Y

    2008-01-01

    We revisited an elasticity problem of flat indentation on an elastic film bonded to a rigid substrate and obtained the force-depth relation in a simple form. With the obtained force-depth relation, Kendall's elastic equilibrium theory of adhesion was extended to the adhesion between a flat tip and a compressible elastic film. Thus, the thermodynamic work of adhesion at the moment of debonding of a flat tip from an elastic film was expressed in terms of pull-off force, elastic constants and geometric parameters. It is worth noting that the obtained relation for elastic films is still valid for viscoelastic films if viscoelastic losses are limited to the process zone of debonding. This makes it possible to study the time-dependent adhesion of viscoelastic polymer films. Indentation experiments with a flat diamond tip were performed on SU-8 films, and the results verified that the extended form of Kendall's theory correctly compensates the effect of the finite thickness of the films on the work of adhesion. The indentation results also showed that the work of adhesion is strongly dependent on the unloading velocity of the tip, while indentation depth and dwell time have only minor effects on the work of adhesion

  2. Mechanical damage in a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Hailing; Xia, Yong; Zhou, Qing

    2017-07-01

    The short circuit of lithium-ion batteries induced by mechanical abuse is a great concern in electric vehicle design. It remains a challenge to fully understand the nature of the mechanical damage process with the aim of improving battery crash safety. The present paper investigates the evolution of the damage process for a lithium-ion pouch cell under indentation by loading the cell to various force levels. A significant inflection point on the force-indentation curve is observed before the force peak. Post-mortem examinations indicate that the characteristic change in the local slope of the curve is related to the change occurring at the local interfaces, including three phenomena - formation of tight adhesion on the anode-separator interfaces, delamination in the separators and decoating of graphite particles from the anodes. Analysis of the fracture sequence at the onset of short circuit clearly shows that the number of short-circuited electrode pairs is equal to the number of anode layers adhered with delaminated separator material before fracture occurs. The experimental study in the present paper implies that the inflection point on the force-indentation curve may be an indicator of damage initiation inside pouch cells under indentation.

  3. Influence of the indenter tip defect in classical indentation: Application to the hardness determination of DLC thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benarioua, Y. [Département de Génie Mécanique, Faculté de Technologies, Université de M' Sila, BP 166, M’Sila 28000 (Algeria); Roudet, F. [Univ. Lille, FRE 3723-LML – Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France); Chicot, D., E-mail: didier.chicot@univ-lille1.fr [Univ. Lille, FRE 3723-LML – Laboratoire de Mécanique de Lille, F-59000 Lille (France)

    2016-04-26

    For an accurate determination of the materials hardness, instrumented indentation test is undoubtedly the most adequate technique compared to the classical one. However, numerous laboratories or industries have no access to such instrumented device. Consequently, they have no other alternative methods that the use of classical indentation test. However, this technique can lead to wrong interpretation because it does not allow considering the indenter tip defect. In this paper, we suggest to introduce the indenter tip defect into the classical hardness calculation. The proposed methodology is validated on a diamond like-carbon thin film deposited onto a tungsten carbide. Firstly, the truncated indenter tip defect length is estimated from the indentation size effect observed for the substrates which is attributed to the influence of the indenter tip defect. As a result, the tip defect is found to have the same value independently of the tested samples. Afterwards, the tip defect length is introduced into the composite hardness computation and the model of Jönsson and Hogmark is applied to predict film hardness. As a main result, the film hardness is found equal to 37.3 GPa independently of the film thickness and in a good accordance with literature data regarding the diamond hybridization sp3/sp2 ratio.

  4. In situ, controlled and reproducible attachment of carbon nanotubes onto conductive AFM tips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianxun [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Chinese Academy of Science Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafty, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, No. 11, Bei yi tiao, Zhong Guan Cun, Beijing 100190 (China); Shingaya, Yoshitaka [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan); Zhao, Yuliang [Chinese Academy of Science Key Laboratory for Biomedical Effects of Nanomaterials and Nanosafty, National Center for Nanoscience and Technology of China, No. 11, Bei yi tiao, Zhong Guan Cun, Beijing 100190 (China); Nakayama, Tomonobu, E-mail: NAKAYAMA.Tomonobu@nims.go.jp [International Center for Materials Nanoarchitectonics (MANA), National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0044 (Japan)

    2015-04-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An effective and controllable method was developed to fabricate CNT AFM probes in-situ. • Individual carbon nanotube was assembled. • The alignment angle and protruding length of as-produced CNT probes are excellent. - Abstract: Owing to the small diameter, wear resistance, high aspect ratio of their cylindrical structure and outstanding young's modulus, carbon nanotubes are regarded as excellent probes for atomic force microscope (AFM) imaging and various applications. To take the best out of carbon nanotubes’ potentials as AFM probes, we present a facile and reliable method to attach a single carbon nanotube onto an AFM probe covered with conductive Au layer. The method involves the following steps: positioning the AFM probe exactly onto a designated multiple-walled carbon nanotube growing vertically on a conductive substrate, establishing physical contact of the probe apex to the carbon nanotube with an appropriate force, and finally flowing a DC current of typically 100 μA from the AFM probe to the substrate through the carbon nanotube. The current flow results in the fracture and attachment of the carbon nanotube onto the AFM probe. Our method is similar to that reported in previous studies to cut and assemble carbon nanotubes by flowing current under SEM, but by our method we succeed to achieve superior control of protruding length and reproducible attachment angle of the carbon nanotube in one step. Moreover, it is now possible to reliably prepare carbon nanotube probes in-situ during AFM experiments.

  5. Fast and controlled fabrication of porous graphene oxide: application of AFM tapping for mechano-chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Liangyong; Korobko, Alexander V.; Bus, Marcel; Boshuizen, Bart; Sudhölter, Ernst J. R.; Besseling, Nicolaas A. M.

    2018-05-01

    This paper describes a novel method to fabricate porous graphene oxide (PGO) from GO by exposure to oxygen plasma. Compared to other methods to fabricate PGO described so far, e.g. the thermal and steam etching methods, oxygen plasma etching method is much faster. We studied the development of the porosity with exposure time using atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was found that the development of PGO upon oxygen-plasma exposure can be controlled by tapping mode AFM scanning using a Si tip. AFM tapping stalls the growth of pores upon further plasma exposure at a level that coincides with the fraction of sp2 carbons in the GO starting material. We suggest that AFM tapping procedure changes the bond structure of the intermediate PGO structure, and these stabilized PGO structures cannot be further etched by oxygen plasma. This constitutes the first report of tapping AFM as a tool for local mechano-chemistry.

  6. Identification of the crushing behavior of brittle foam: From indentation to oedometric tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouterf, A.; Adrien, J.; Maire, E.; Brajer, X.; Hild, F.; Roux, S.

    2017-01-01

    Compaction of the core of plasterboard is one of the limiting phenomena for its mechanical performance. This mechanism is studied herein in an indentation test. A cylinder made of foamed gypsum is indented in situ in an X-ray lab tomograph with a sphere of millimeter radius. The reported experiments show that foamed plaster displays a sharp transition between an undamaged state (with linear elastic behavior) and a compacted state with collapsed porosity under the indenter. Tomographic acquisitions of the sample under load associated with a global version of Digital Volume Correlation allow displacement fields to be measured at different load levels. However, because of the heterogeneous nature of the indentation test, a fine spatial resolution of the displacement fields is required to measure the strains at the crushing limit. A dedicated procedure exploiting computed displacement fields within the digital volume correlation procedure is utilized. It allows for the quantification of stress fields that are post-processed to identify the crushing criterion. It is shown that this analysis is very consistent with more macroscopic oedometric tests. Last, predictions of a Mohr-Coulomb model are compared with macroscopic and microscopic data. It is shown that despite the fact that this model reproduces very well the load-displacement response of the indentation test, a poorer prediction of the experimental crushed zone is observed. In particular, the transition between compacted plaster and its pristine state is not captured by the model, which predicts a very progressive transition rather than an abrupt one. The same conclusions are drawn for a crushable foam model when compared with experimental evidence of an in situ oedometric test.

  7. Non-destructive test of steel structures by conical indentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beskopylny Alexey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of mechanical properties measurement of steel structures by non-destructive method of impact cone indentation is considered. The method is based on analytical solution and experimental data of a problem of impact indentation by cone into elastic-plastic half-space. Non-destructive dynamic indentation method is one of more efficient for mechanical properties assessment because of compact instrument that makes it possible of measuring at any point of structure. The scheme of impact indentation was considered and the problem of elastic-plastic impact is solved. The device with a computer way of information processing was created and tested for determining the characteristics of the existing structures. The method was adopted and tested on bridge structures, butt welded joints, civil engineering structures and others.

  8. Effect of viscoplastic material parameters on polymer indentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, V; Needleman, A

    2012-01-01

    The effect of material parameters characterizing viscoplastic flow on the indentation response of polymers is investigated using three-dimensional finite element analyses and a one-dimensional expanding spherical cavity model. The polymer is characterized by a finite strain elastic...... variations considered, it is found that two material stress parameters characterizing the plastic flow resistance have the largest effect on the value of the indentation hardness although variations in other material parameters can lead to significant variations....

  9. Hydration states of AFm cement phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baquerizo, Luis G., E-mail: luis.baquerizoibarra@holcim.com [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Matschei, Thomas [Innovation, Holcim Technology Ltd., CH-5113 Holderbank (Switzerland); Scrivener, Karen L. [Laboratory of Construction Materials, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Saeidpour, Mahsa; Wadsö, Lars [Building Materials, Lund University, Box 124, 221 000 Lund (Sweden)

    2015-07-15

    The AFm phase, one of the main products formed during the hydration of Portland and calcium aluminate cement based systems, belongs to the layered double hydrate (LDH) family having positively charged layers and water plus charge-balancing anions in the interlayer. It is known that these phases present different hydration states (i.e. varying water content) depending on the relative humidity (RH), temperature and anion type, which might be linked to volume changes (swelling and shrinkage). Unfortunately the stability conditions of these phases are insufficiently reported. This paper presents novel experimental results on the different hydration states of the most important AFm phases: monocarboaluminate, hemicarboaluminate, strätlingite, hydroxy-AFm and monosulfoaluminate, and the thermodynamic properties associated with changes in their water content during absorption/desorption. This data opens the possibility to model the response of cementitious systems during drying and wetting and to engineer systems more resistant to harsh external conditions.

  10. Elastic layer under axisymmetric indentation and surface energy effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intarit, Pong-in; Senjuntichai, Teerapong; Rungamornrat, Jaroon

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a continuum-based approach is adopted to investigate the contact problem of an elastic layer with finite thickness and rigid base subjected to axisymmetric indentation with the consideration of surface energy effects. A complete Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity is employed to consider the influence of surface stresses. The indentation problem of a rigid frictionless punch with arbitrary axisymmetric profiles is formulated by employing the displacement Green's functions, derived with the aid of Hankel integral transform technique. The problem is solved by assuming the contact pressure distribution in terms of a linear combination of admissible functions and undetermined coefficients. Those coefficients are then obtained by employing a collocation technique and an efficient numerical quadrature scheme. The accuracy of proposed solution technique is verified by comparing with existing solutions for rigid indentation on an elastic half-space. Selected numerical results for the indenters with flat-ended cylindrical and paraboloidal punch profiles are presented to portray the influence of surface energy effects on elastic fields of the finite layer. It is found that the presence of surface stresses renders the layer stiffer, and the size-dependent behavior of elastic fields is observed in the present solutions. In addition, the surface energy effects become more pronounced with smaller contact area; thus, the influence of surface energy cannot be ignored in the analysis of indentation problem especially when the indenter size is very small such as in the case of nanoindentation.

  11. Quasi-static indentation modelling of aluminium specimen using finite element analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Mayank Nirbhay; Mahima Dua; Anurag Dixit; Satpal Sharma; R.K. Misra

    2017-01-01

    The influence of different types of rigid hemispherical and conical indenters on a rectangular specimen of aluminium has been investigated, in the small indenter test. A 3-D finite-element FE model was used to carry out the computation of the elastic-plastic solution of different rigid hemispherical and conical indenters. Three hemispherical-headed and four conical-headed indenters were designed and developed for testing. FE software ABAQUS® has been used to determine the load vs. indenter-di...

  12. On the distinction between instrumented indentation technique and x-ray diffraction method in nondestructive or semi-nondestructive surface stress measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okano, Shigetaka; Kanamaru, Daisuke; Ihara, Ryohei; Mochizuki, Masahito

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of machined surface layer on stress measurement by means of instrumented indentation technique and X-ray diffraction method was comparatively investigated through the use of three weld specimens of low-carbon austenitic stainless steel with different machined surface layers; as-cutout, mechanically-polished and electrolytically-polished specimens. Tensile and compressive stresses exist respectively in the machined surface layer of as-cutout and mechanically-polished specimens. Meanwhile, no stress and no machined surface layer exist in electrolytically-polished specimen. Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) bead-on-plate welding was performed under the same welding heat input condition to introduce the residual stress into these three specimens. Against these three specimens, firstly the X-ray diffraction method was applied, then the instrumented indentation technique was applied and finally the stress relief technique was applied to measure the distributions of residual stress after welding. Based on a comparison between these stress measurement results, the instrumented indentation technique was in good agreement with the stress relief technique rather than the X-ray diffraction method, even though both machined surface layer and penetration of indenter had almost the same depths. That is why it can be considered that the instrumented indentation technique measures the residual stress in deeper areas of material surface than penetration depth of indenter. A distinction between the instrumented indentation technique and X-ray diffraction method in surface stress measurement was thus clarified from a viewpoint of measurement depth. (author)

  13. Electrospray deposition from fountain pen AFM probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geerlings, J.; Sarajlic, Edin; Berenschot, Johan W.; Abelmann, Leon; Tas, Niels Roelof

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present for the first time electrospraying from fountain pen probes. By using electrospray contactless deposition in an AFM setup becomes possible. Experiments on a dedicated setup were carried out as first step towards this goal. Spraying from 8 and 2 µm apertures was observed. For

  14. AFM-CMM integrated instrument user manual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marinello, Francesco; Bariani, Paolo

    This manual gives general important guidelines for a proper use of the integrated AFM-CMM instrument. More information can be collected reading: • N. Kofod Ph.D thesis [1]; • P. Bariani Ph.D thesis [2]; • Dualscope DME 95-200 operation manuals [3]; • SPIP help [4] • Stitching software user manual...

  15. Mechanical properties of bovine cortical bone based on the automated ball indentation technique and graphics processing method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Airong; Zhang, Song; Bian, Cuirong

    2018-02-01

    Cortical bone provides the main form of support in humans and other vertebrates against various forces. Thus, capturing its mechanical properties is important. In this study, the mechanical properties of cortical bone were investigated by using automated ball indentation and graphics processing at both the macroscopic and microstructural levels under dry conditions. First, all polished samples were photographed under a metallographic microscope, and the area ratio of the circumferential lamellae and osteons was calculated through the graphics processing method. Second, fully-computer-controlled automated ball indentation (ABI) tests were performed to explore the micro-mechanical properties of the cortical bone at room temperature and a constant indenter speed. The indentation defects were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Finally, the macroscopic mechanical properties of the cortical bone were estimated with the graphics processing method and mixture rule. Combining ABI and graphics processing proved to be an effective tool to obtaining the mechanical properties of the cortical bone, and the indenter size had a significant effect on the measurement. The methods presented in this paper provide an innovative approach to acquiring the macroscopic mechanical properties of cortical bone in a nondestructive manner. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Competing magnetic anisotropies in an AFM-FM-AFM trilayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bali, R.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B.B.; Scholl, A.; Arenholz, E.; Suzuki, Y.; Blamire, M.G.

    2009-08-01

    An antiferromagnet-ferromagnet-antiferromagnet trilayer was grown in magnetic field using CoMn, permalloy (Py), and FeMn, respectively. Magnetometry studies show that the direction of exchange coupling of CoMn with Py was perpendicular to that of Py with FeMn. These results are explained by a spin flop in the CoMn layer and show that the spin structure of an antiferromagnet may undergo severe modification due to a relatively small magnetic field applied during its growth. The perpendicular exchange coupling was exploited in the CoMn-Py-FeMn trilayer to manipulate the easy axis of the ferromagnet.

  17. Superparamagnetism in AFM Cr2O3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobia, D.; Winkler, E.L.; Zysler, R.D.; Granada, M.; Troiani, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    In this work we report the size effects on the magnetic properties of AFM Cr 2 O 3 nanoparticles. From transmission electron microscopy we determined that the system presents high crystallinity and narrow lognormal size distribution centred at = 7.8 nm with σ = 0.3. The magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were studied by magnetization and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) experiments. By EPR spectroscopy we established that the AFM order temperature, T N , shifted to ∼270 K when the size is reduced (T N (Bulk) ∼ 308 K). From the zero-field-cooling and the field-cooling magnetization curves we determined the blocking temperature T B = 28 K. Below T B the system presents exchange bias effect. We discuss the results by using recent models in terms of the internal magnetic structures of the nanoparticles.

  18. Finite element modeling of trolling-mode AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjadi, Mohammadreza; Pishkenari, Hossein Nejat; Vossoughi, Gholamreza

    2018-03-14

    Trolling mode atomic force microscopy (TR-AFM) has overcome many imaging problems in liquid environments by considerably reducing the liquid-resonator interaction forces. The finite element model of the TR-AFM resonator considering the effects of fluid and nanoneedle flexibility is presented in this research, for the first time. The model is verified by ABAQUS software. The effect of installation angle of the microbeam relative to the horizon and the effect of fluid on the system behavior are investigated. Using the finite element model, frequency response curve of the system is obtained and validated around the frequency of the operating mode by the available experimental results, in air and liquid. The changes in the natural frequencies in the presence of liquid are studied. The effects of tip-sample interaction on the excitation of higher order modes of the system are also investigated in air and liquid environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of bilayer enamel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yunfei; Xuan, Fu-zhen; Chen, Xiaoping; Yang, Fuqian

    2014-04-01

    Tooth enamel is often subjected to repeated contact and often experiences contact deformation in daily life. The mechanical strength of the enamel determines the biofunctionality of the tooth. Considering the variation of the rod arrangement in outer and inner enamel, we approximate enamel as a bilayer structure and perform finite element analysis of the cyclic indentation of the bilayer structure, to mimic the repeated contact of enamel during mastication. The dynamic deformation behaviour of both the inner enamel and the bilayer enamel is examined. The material parameters of the inner and outer enamel used in the analysis are obtained by fitting the finite element results with the experimental nanoindentation results. The penetration depth per cycle at the quasi-steady state is used to describe the depth propagation speed, which exhibits a two-stage power-law dependence on the maximum indentation load and the amplitude of the cyclic load, respectively. The continuous penetration of the indenter reflects the propagation of the plastic zone during cyclic indentation, which is related to the energy dissipation. The outer enamel serves as a protective layer due to its great resistance to contact deformation in comparison to the inner enamel. The larger equivalent plastic strain and lower stresses in the inner enamel during cyclic indentation, as calculated from the finite element analysis, indicate better crack/fracture resistance of the inner enamel.

  20. Quantitative analysis and classification of AFM images of human hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurden, S P; Monteiro, V F; Longo, E; Ferreira, M M C

    2004-07-01

    The surface topography of human hair, as defined by the outer layer of cellular sheets, termed cuticles, largely determines the cosmetic properties of the hair. The condition of the cuticles is of great cosmetic importance, but also has the potential to aid diagnosis in the medical and forensic sciences. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been demonstrated to offer unique advantages for analysis of the hair surface, mainly due to the high image resolution and the ease of sample preparation. This article presents an algorithm for the automatic analysis of AFM images of human hair. The cuticular structure is characterized using a series of descriptors, such as step height, tilt angle and cuticle density, allowing quantitative analysis and comparison of different images. The usefulness of this approach is demonstrated by a classification study. Thirty-eight AFM images were measured, consisting of hair samples from (a) untreated and bleached hair samples, and (b) the root and distal ends of the hair fibre. The multivariate classification technique partial least squares discriminant analysis is used to test the ability of the algorithm to characterize the images according to the properties of the hair samples. Most of the images (86%) were found to be classified correctly.

  1. Macro-scale approach for rough frictionless multi-indentation on a viscoelastic half-space

    OpenAIRE

    DUBOIS, Guillaume; CESBRON, Julien; YIN, Hai Ping; ANFOSSO LEDEE, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the numerical study of frictionless viscoelastic tyre/road contact. The present macro-scale approach takes into account both the viscoelastic behaviour of the tyre and the roughness of the road surface by solving the contact problem between a rough multi-indentation surface and a viscoelastic half-space. The method relies on the fact that a viscoelastic solution can be instantaneously reduced to an elastic solution. A simplified description of viscoelastic material behav...

  2. CONTACT STRESSES IN A TRANSVERSELY ISOTROPIC SOLID CYLINDER LATERALLY COMPRESSED BY AN INDENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet YAPICI

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an elastostatic contact problem for a laterally compressed transversely isotropic cylinder subjected to radial compression through a circumferential rigid indenter is considered. The extent of the contact region and the stress distribution are sought. It is assumed that the contact between the cylinder and the rigid indenter is frictionless and only compressive normal tractions can be transmitted through the interface. Due to the geometry of the configuration, Fourier transform techniques are chosen. The problem is reduced to a singular integral equation. It is reduced to linear algebraic equation system by using Gauss Chebyshev Integration Formulae and is solved by using Gauss Elimination method. E glass and barium titanate are used as a transversely isotropic materials. The stress analysis is performed for different contact area, punch radiuses and cylinder radiuses. The obtained results are shown in figures.

  3. Master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jaehyun; Zhong, Yongmin; Gu, Chengfan

    2017-12-01

    Bilateral control of a master-slave robotic system is a challenging issue in robotic-assisted minimally invasive surgery. It requires the knowledge on contact interaction between a surgical (slave) robot and soft tissues. This paper presents a master-slave robotic system for needle indentation and insertion. This master-slave robotic system is able to characterize the contact interaction between the robotic needle and soft tissues. A bilateral controller is implemented using a linear motor for robotic needle indentation and insertion. A new nonlinear state observer is developed to online monitor the contact interaction with soft tissues. Experimental results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed master-slave robotic system for robotic needle indentation and needle insertion.

  4. A novel numerical framework for self-similarity in plasticity: Wedge indentation in single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juul, K. J.; Niordson, C. F.; Nielsen, K. L.; Kysar, J. W.

    2018-03-01

    A novel numerical framework for analyzing self-similar problems in plasticity is developed and demonstrated. Self-similar problems of this kind include processes such as stationary cracks, void growth, indentation etc. The proposed technique offers a simple and efficient method for handling this class of complex problems by avoiding issues related to traditional Lagrangian procedures. Moreover, the proposed technique allows for focusing the mesh in the region of interest. In the present paper, the technique is exploited to analyze the well-known wedge indentation problem of an elastic-viscoplastic single crystal. However, the framework may be readily adapted to any constitutive law of interest. The main focus herein is the development of the self-similar framework, while the indentation study serves primarily as verification of the technique by comparing to existing numerical and analytical studies. In this study, the three most common metal crystal structures will be investigated, namely the face-centered cubic (FCC), body-centered cubic (BCC), and hexagonal close packed (HCP) crystal structures, where the stress and slip rate fields around the moving contact point singularity are presented.

  5. Dynamic mechanical response of brain tissue in indentation in vivo, in situ and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prevost, Thibault P; Jin, Guang; de Moya, Marc A; Alam, Hasan B; Suresh, Subra; Socrate, Simona

    2011-12-01

    Characterizing the dynamic mechanical properties of brain tissue is deemed important for developing a comprehensive knowledge of the mechanisms underlying brain injury. The results gathered to date on the tissue properties have been mostly obtained in vitro. Learning how these results might differ quantitatively from those encountered in vivo is a critical step towards the development of biofidelic brain models. The present study provides novel and unique experimental results on, and insights into, brain biorheology in vivo, in situ and in vitro, at large deformations, in the quasi-static and dynamic regimes. The nonlinear dynamic response of the cerebral cortex was measured in indentation on the exposed frontal and parietal lobes of anesthetized porcine subjects. Load-unload cycles were applied to the tissue surface at sinusoidal frequencies of 10, 1, 0.1 and 0.01 Hz. Ramp-relaxation tests were also conducted to assess the tissue viscoelastic behavior at longer times. After euthanasia, the indentation test sequences were repeated in situ on the exposed cortex maintained in its native configuration within the cranium. Mixed gray and white matter samples were subsequently excised from the superior cortex to be subjected to identical indentation test segments in vitro within 6-7 h post mortem. The main response features (e.g. nonlinearities, rate dependencies, hysteresis and conditioning) were measured and contrasted in vivo, in situ and in vitro. The indentation response was found to be significantly stiffer in situ than in vivo. The consistent, quantitative set of mechanical measurements thereby collected provides a preliminary experimental database, which may be used to support the development of constitutive models for the study of mechanically mediated pathways leading to traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Measurement of diabetic wounds with optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system and a material testing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, M-C; Cheung, K-K; Ng, G Y-F; Zheng, Y-P; Cheing, G L-Y

    2015-11-01

    Material testing system is a conventional but destructive method for measuring the biomechanical properties of wound tissues in basic research. The recently developed optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system is a non-destructive method for measuring these properties of soft tissues in a non-contact manner. The aim of the study was to examine the correlation between the biomechanical properties of wound tissues measured by the two systems. Young male Sprague-Dawley rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetic were wounded by a 6 mm biopsy punch on their hind limbs. The biomechanical properties of wound tissues were assessed with the two systems on post-wounding days 3, 7, 10, 14, and 21. Wound sections were stained with picro-sirius red for analysis on the collagen fibres. Data obtained on the different days were charted to obtain the change in biomechanical properties across the time points, and then pooled to examine the correlation between measurements made by the two devices. Qualitative analysis to determine any correlation between indentation stiffness measured by the air-jet indentation system and the orientation of collagen fibres. The indentation stiffness is significantly negatively correlated to the maximum load, maximum tensile stress, and Young's modulus by the material testing system (all p<0.05). The orientation of collagen changes with the indentation stiffness over time. Our findings support the use of optical coherence tomography-based air-jet indentation system to evaluate the biomechanical properties of wounds in a non-contact manner. It is a potential clinical device to examine the biomechanical properties of chronic wounds in vivo in a repeatable manner.

  7. Combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of indentation cracks in a PZT-5H ferroelectric ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.Y.; Chu, W.Y.; Su, Y.J.; Qiao, L.J.; Gao, K.W.

    2005-01-01

    The combined effect of electric field and residual stress on propagation of unloaded indentation cracks in a PZT-5 ceramic has been studied. The results show that residual stress itself is too small to induce delayed propagation of the indentation cracks in silicon oil. If applied constant electric field is larger than 0.2 kV/cm, the combined effect of electric field and residual stress can cause delayed propagation of the indentation crack after passing an incubation time in silicon oil, but the crack will arrest after propagating for 10-30 μm because of decrease of the resultant stress intensity factor induced by the field and residual stress with increasing the crack length. The threshold electric field for delayed propagation of the indentation crack in silicon oil is E DP = 0.2 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 5.25 kV/cm, combined effect of the electric field and residual stress can cause instant propagation of the indentation crack, and under sustained electric field, the crack which has propagated instantly can propagate continuously, until arrest at last. The critical electric field for instant propagation of the indentation crack is E P = 5.25 kV/cm. If the applied electric field is larger than 12.6 kV/cm, the microcracks induced by the electric field initiate everywhere, grow and connect in a smooth specimen, resulting in delayed failure, even without residual stress. The threshold electric field for delayed failure of a smooth specimen in silicon oil is E DF = 12.6 kV/cm and the critical electric field for instant failure is E F = 19.1 kV/cm

  8. Sub-micron indent induced plastic deformation in copper and irradiated steel; Deformation plastique induite par l'essai d'indentation submicronique, dans le cuivre et l'acier 316L irradie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, Ch

    1999-07-01

    In this work we aim to study the indent induced plastic deformation. For this purpose, we have developed a new approach, whereby the indentation curves provides the mechanical behaviour, while the deformation mechanisms are observed thanks to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). In order to better understand how an indent induced dislocation microstructure forms, numerical modeling of the indentation process at the scale of discrete dislocations has been worked out as well. Validation of this modeling has been performed through direct comparison of the computed microstructures with TEM micrographs of actual indents in pure Cu (001]. Irradiation induced modifications of mechanical behaviour of ion irradiated 316L have been investigated, thanks to the mentioned approach. An important hardening effect was reported from indentation data (about 50%), on helium irradiated 316L steel. TEM observations of the damage zone clearly show that this behaviour is associated with the presence of He bubbles. TEM observations of the indent induced plastic zone also showed that the extent of the plastic zone is strongly correlated with hardness, that is to say: harder materials gets a smaller plastic zone. These results thus clearly established that the selected procedure can reveal any irradiation induced hardening in sub-micron thick ion irradiated layers. The behaviour of krypton irradiated 316L steel is somewhat more puzzling. In one hand indeed, a strong correlation between the defect cluster size and densities on the irradiation temperature is observed in the 350 deg. C - 600 deg. C range, thanks to TEM observations of the damage zone. On the other hand, irradiation induced hardening reported from indentation data is relatively small (about 10%) and shows no dependence upon the irradiation temperature (within the mentioned range). In addition, it has been shown that the reported hardening vanishes following appropriate post-irradiation annealing, although most of the TEM

  9. Giant panda׳s tooth enamel: Structure, mechanical behavior and toughening mechanisms under indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Z Y; Liu, Z Q; Ritchie, R O; Jiao, D; Li, D S; Wu, H L; Deng, L H; Zhang, Z F

    2016-12-01

    The giant panda׳s teeth possess remarkable load-bearing capacity and damage resistance for masticating bamboos. In this study, the hierarchical structure and mechanical behavior of the giant panda׳s tooth enamel were investigated under indentation. The effects of loading orientation and location on mechanical properties of the enamel were clarified and the evolution of damage in the enamel under increasing load evaluated. The nature of the damage, both at and beneath the indentation surfaces, and the underlying toughening mechanisms were explored. Indentation cracks invariably were seen to propagate along the internal interfaces, specifically the sheaths between enamel rods, and multiple extrinsic toughening mechanisms, e.g., crack deflection/twisting and uncracked-ligament bridging, were active to shield the tips of cracks from the applied stress. The giant panda׳s tooth enamel is analogous to human enamel in its mechanical properties, yet it has superior hardness and Young׳s modulus but inferior toughness as compared to the bamboo that pandas primarily feed on, highlighting the critical roles of the integration of underlying tissues in the entire tooth and the highly hydrated state of bamboo foods. Our objective is that this study can aid the understanding of the structure-mechanical property relations in the tooth enamel of mammals and further provide some insight on the food habits of the giant pandas. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Identification of the material properties of Al 2024 alloy by means of inverse analysis and indentation tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moy, Charles K.S.; Bocciarelli, Massimiliano; Ringer, Simon P.; Ranzi, Gianluca

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Identification of mechanical properties by indentation test and inverse analysis. → Pile-up height is also considered as experimental information. → Inverse problem results to be well posed also in the case of mystical materials. → 2024 Al alloy samples prepared using different age-hardening treatments are studied. - Abstract: This paper outlines an inverse analysis approach aimed at the identification of the mechanical properties of metallic materials based on the experimental results obtained from indentation tests. Previous work has shown the ill-posed nature of the inverse problem based on the load-penetration curve when dealing with mystical materials, which exhibit identical indentation curves even if possessing different yield and strain-hardening properties. For this reason, an additional measurement is used in the present study as input for the inverse analysis which consists of the maximum pile-up height measured after the indentation test. This approach lends itself for practical applications as the load-penetration curve can be easily obtained from commonly available micro-indenters while the pile-up present at the end of the test can be measured by different instruments depending on the size of the indented area, for example by means of an atomic force microscope or a laser profilometer. The inverse analysis procedure consists of a batch deterministic approach, and conventional optimization algorithms are employed for the minimization of the discrepancy norm. The first part of the paper outlines how the inclusion of both the maximum height of the pile-up and the indentation curve in the input data of the inverse analysis leads to a well-defined inverse problem using parameters of mystical materials. The approach is then applied to real experimental data obtained from three sets of 2024 Al alloy samples prepared using different age-hardening treatments. The accuracy of the identification process is validated against the mechanical

  11. AFM study shows prominent physical changes in elasticity and pericellular layer in human acute leukemic cells due to inadequate cell-cell communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guz, Nataliia V.; Patel, Sapan J.; Dokukin, Maxim E.; Clarkson, Bayard; Sokolov, Igor

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical properties of single cells in vitro or ex vivo and their pericellular interfaces have recently attracted a lot of attention as a potential biophysical (and possibly prognostic) marker of various diseases and cell abnormalities. At the same time, the influence of the cell environment on the biomechanical properties of cells is not well studied. Here we use atomic force microscopy to demonstrate that cell-cell communication can have a profound effect on both cell elasticity and its pericellular coat. A human pre-B p190BCR/ABL acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line (ALL3) was used in this study. Assuming that cell-cell communication is inversely proportional to the distance between cells, we study ALL3 cells in vitro growing at different cell densities. ALL3 cells demonstrate a clear density dependent behavior. These cells grow very well if started at a relatively high cell density (HD, >2 × 105 cells ml-1) and are poised to grow at low cell density (LD, <1 × 104 cells ml-1). Here we observe ˜6× increase in the elastic (Young’s) modulus of the cell body and ˜3.6× decrease in the pericellular brush length of LD cells compared to HD ALL3 cells. The difference observed in the elastic modulus is much larger than typically reported for pathologically transformed cells. Thus, cell-cell communication must be taken into account when studying biomechanics of cells, in particular, correlating cell phenotype and its biophysical properties.

  12. Mechanical properties of orthodontic wires derived by instrumented indentation testing (IIT) according to ISO 14577.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinelis, Spiros; Al Jabbari, Youssef S; Gaintantzopoulou, Marianna; Eliades, George; Eliades, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was the characterization of mechanical properties of representative types of orthodontic wires employing instrumented indentation testing (IIT) according to ISO 14577. Segments were cut from ten wires. The first six are made of stainless steel (SS), two are made of Ni-Ti, and the last two are made of titanium molybdenum alloys (TMA). Then, the Martens hardness (HM), the Vickers hardness (HVIT) based on indentation hardness (H IT), the indentation modulus (E IT), the ratio of elastic to total work (η IT), and the traditional Vickers hardness (HV1) were measured by IIT. The results were statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls (SNK) test at a = 0.05. The HVIT and HV1 data were analyzed by paired t test (a = 0.05). SS wires showed the highest hardness followed by TMA and Ni-Ti alloys. However, all wires showed significantly lower HVIT compared to corresponding HV1, a finding probably appended to elastic recovery around the indentation. E IT for all wires tested was determined much lower than the nominal values of the corresponding alloys due to the implication of residual stress field at the slope of unloading curve. Elastic to total work ratio was ranged from 45.8 to 64.4 % which is higher than that expected for ductile alloys (<30 %). The products tested illustrated significant differences in their mechanical properties. Although IIT provides reliable data for hardness and elastic index of materials tested, the intense residual stress field developed during the manufacturing process significantly affects the determination of modulus of elasticity.

  13. Influence of the surface chemistry on the nanotribological behaviour of (AFM tip/graphite) couples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jradi, Khalil [Universite du Quebec a Trois Rivieres, Centre Integre en pates et papiers, 3351 boulevard des forges, Trois Rivieres, Quebec G9A 5H7 (Canada); Schmitt, Marjorie, E-mail: Marjorie.Schmitt@uha.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Organique et Bioorganique, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Mulhouse - CNRS, 3, rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France); Bistac, Sophie [Laboratoire de Photochimie et d' Ingenierie Macromoleculaires, 3, rue Alfred Werner, 68093 Mulhouse Cedex (France)

    2012-03-01

    The development of the nanotechnology has made essential the knowledge of the tribological behaviour of carbonaceous materials, and more particularly of graphite. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is thus used to study the friction properties at this nanoscopic scale. In this work, results concerning the friction of AFM tips against graphite pins are presented, with a particular emphasis on the effect of the chemical modification of these tips on the tribological behaviour of graphite.

  14. AFM study of the supramolecular transformation of polyaniline and polyaniline/carbon nanotubes composite upon doping with dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid in the presence of a solvent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobov, I. A.; Davletkildeev, N. A.; Sokolov, D. V.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, we present a new approach for the formation of conducting polyaniline and polyaniline/carbon nanotube composite films with well-developed surface morphology. This approach consists in combined influence of solvent and dopant on the base form of the polymer film. The morphology of the films has been studied by atomic force microscopy. It has been found that polyaniline films possess the fiber structure, and polyaniline/carbon nanotube composite films have the island-like structure.

  15. Fracture Characteristics of Dlc on Silicon Using Nano-Indentation and Fea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Seung; Seok, Chang-Sung

    In this study, using the nano and micro-indentation tests and finite element analysis (FEA), we investigated the fracture behaviors of diamond like carbon (DLC) on silicon in indentation state. Diamond like carbon coating of 3μm and 1.5μm thickness were deposited on polished (100) single crystal silicon substrates by radio frequency plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (RF-PACVD), respectively. Fracture toughness of DLC films was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks formed by nano and micro-indentation on each sample. We used various equations such as Lawn's and Liang's equation to calculate the fracture toughness. The effective fracture toughnesses of these DLC films were 1.2 ~1.3 MPam0.5, calculated by Lawn's and Liang's equations. The true fracture toughness of DLC on silicon, excluding the portion of fracture toughness due to a substrate, was determined to be 4.0~5.1MPam0.5. DLC films with crack initiation and propagation were analyzed by finite element method.

  16. Characterization of Adhesion in Pressure Sensitive Adhesives with a Spherical Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Alfred; Shull, Kenneth R.

    1997-03-01

    A combination of interfacial effects and bulk viscoelastic behavior controls the performance of pressure sensitive adhesives. We have studied these issues using commercially available adhesive transfer tapes. Using a spherical indenter, these experiments measure the displacement of the indenter into the adhesive as a function of the applied normal contact force. With the assumption of linear elastic behavior under small displacements, accepted theories of this contact problem are used to approximate the contact area and calculate a plateau modulus from the loading data. Fracture mechanics approaches based on linear elasticity also allow us to calculate the energy release rate (i.e. driving force for adhesive failure) from the load/displacement relationship measured during unloading. To alleviate uncertainty in the calculation of the plateau modulus and energy release rate for thicknesses not within the ranges of accepted theories, a finite element model simulates the behavior of the polymer layer upon loading and pull-off of the indenter. Future work will include modeling the adhesive with a viscoelastic constitutive model and characterizing the effects of geometry, substrate material, and loading rate on the adhesive properties.

  17. Understanding the Impact of Water on the Miscibility and Microstructure of Amorphous Solid Dispersions: An AFM-LCR and TEM-EDX Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na; Gilpin, Christopher J; Taylor, Lynne S

    2017-05-01

    Miscibility is critical for amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs). Phase-separated ASDs are more prone to crystallization, and thus can lose their solubility advantage leading to product failure. Additionally, dissolution performance can be diminished as a result of phase separation in the ASD matrix. Water is known to induce phase separation during storage for some ASDs. However, the impact of water introduced during preparation has not been as thoroughly investigated to date. The purpose of this study was to develop a mechanistic understanding of the effect of water on the phase behavior and microstructure of ASDs. Evacetrapib and two polymers were selected as the model system. Atomic force microscopy coupled with Lorentz contact resonance, and transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were employed to evaluate the microstructure and composition of phase-separated ASDs. It was found that phase separation could be induced via two routes: solution-state phase separation during ASD formation caused by water absorption during film formation by a hydrophilic solvent, or solid-phase separation following exposure to high RH during storage. Water contents of as low as 2% in the organic solvent system used to dissolve the drug and polymer were found to result in phase separation in the resultant ASD film. These findings have profound implications on lab-scale ASD preparation and potentially also for industrial production. Additionally, these high-resolution imaging techniques combined with orthogonal analyses are powerful tools to visualize structural changes in ASDs, which in turn will enable better links to be made between ASD structure and performance.

  18. Application of Indenting Method for Calculation of Activation Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong-Seog; Kim, Tae-Ryong

    2006-01-01

    For the calculation of activation energy of cable materials, we used to apply the break-elongation test in accordance with ASTM D412(Stand Test Methods for Rubber Properties in Tension). For the cable jacket and insulation which have regular thickness, break-elongation test had been preferred since it showed linear character in the activation energy curve. But, for the cable which has irregular thickness or rugged surface of cable inside, break-elongation test show scattered data which can not be used for the calculation of activation energy. It is not easy to prepare break-elongation specimen for the cable smaller than 13mm diameter in accordance with ASTM D412. In the cases of above, we sometime use TGA method which heat the specimen from 50 .deg. C to 700 .deg. C at heating rates of 10, 15, 20 .deg. C/min. But, TGA is suspected for the representative of natural aging in the plant since it measure the weight decreasing rate during burning which may have different aging mechanism with that of natural aging. To solve above problems, we investigated alternatives such as indenter test. Indenter test is very convenient since it does not ask for a special test specimen as the break-elongation test does. Regular surface of cable outside is the only requirement of indenter test. Experience of activation energy calculation by using the indenter test is described herein

  19. Rigid indented cylindrical cathode for X-ray tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudgens, Claude R.

    1985-01-01

    A cathode assembly for a vacuum tube includes a wire filament, a straight bular anode parallel to and surrounding the wire filament, and insulating spacers for rigidly fastening the filament with respect to the anode, and with one side of the anode indented or flattened such that only one portion of the anode is heated to emitting temperatures by the filament.

  20. Image analysis of moving seeds in an indented cylinder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole; Jørgensen, Johannes Ravn

    2010-01-01

    inspection in seed cleaning equipment. A prototype of an indented cylinder will be constructed. To make it more dynamic, the cylinder itself will be manufactured using 3D printing technology. The input will come either from 3D scans of existing cylinders or by defining their topology using parametric B...

  1. Indentation fatigue in silicon nitride, alumina and silicon carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    ceramics viz. a hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), sintered alumina of two different grain sizes viz. 1 µm and. 25 µm, and a sintered silicon ... the sintered silicon carbide was found out to be linked to its previous thermal history. Keywords. Indentation fatigue .... This presence of a grain size effect in the RIF behaviour of the ...

  2. Hardness and elasticity of abrasive particles measured by instrumented indentation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hvizdoš, P.; Zeleňák, Michal; Hloch, Sergej

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 1 (2016), s. 869-871 ISSN 1805-0476 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : abrasive * garnet * hardness * elasticity * instrumental indentation Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools http://www.mmscience.eu/content/file/archives/MM_Science_201601.pdf

  3. Indentation fatigue in silicon nitride, alumina and silicon carbide ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Repeated indentation fatigue (RIF) experiments conducted on the same spot of different structural ceramics viz. a hot pressed silicon nitride (HPSN), sintered alumina of two different grain sizes viz. 1 m and 25 m, and a sintered silicon carbide (SSiC) are reported. The RIF experiments were conducted using a Vicker's ...

  4. Competing indentation deformation mechanisms in glass using different strengthening methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Luo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Chemical strengthening via ion exchange, thermal tempering, and lamination are proven techniques for strengthening of oxide glasses. For each of these techniques, the strengthening mechanism is conventionally ascribed to the linear superposition of the compressive stress profile on the glass surface. However, in this work we use molecular dynamics simulations to reveal the underlying indentation deformation mechanism beyond the simple linear superposition of compressive and indentation stresses. In particular, the plastic zone can be dramatically different from the commonly assumed hemispherical shape, which leads to a completely different stress field and resulting crack system. We show that the indentation-induced fracture is controlled by two competing mechanisms: the compressive stress itself and a potential reduction in free volume that can increase the driving force for crack formation. Chemical strengthening via ion exchange tends to escalate the competition between these two effects, while thermal tempering tends to reduce it. Lamination of glasses with differential thermal expansion falls in between. The crack system also depends on the indenter geometry and the loading stage, i.e., loading vs. after unloading. It is observed that combining thermal tempering or high free volume content with ion exchange or lamination can impart a relatively high compressive stress and reduce the driving force for crack formation. Therefore, such a combined approach might offer the best overall crack resistance for oxide glasses.

  5. Application of the method of dimensionality reduction to simulate the fretting wear of anisotropic indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitriev, A. I.

    2015-10-01

    In the paper we consider the fretting wear of two contacting bodies (indenter and half-space). Due to heterogeneity the indenter in contact area can have different mechanical properties. With an increasing number of cycles, the wear profile tends towards a limiting shape, in which no further wear occurs. Nonlinear dependence between final wear volume and indenter shear modulus was found. In accordance with our results the soft indenter provides less wear volume under fretting wear.

  6. Residual stress estimation of ceramic thin films by X-ray diffraction and indentation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atar, Erdem; Sarioglu, Cevat; Demirler, Ugur; Sabri Kayali, E.; Cimenoglu, Huseyin

    2003-01-01

    The residual stresses in ceramic thin films obtained by the indentation method have been found to be three times higher than those of the X-ray diffraction method. This discrepancy can be eliminated by setting the geometrical factor for the Vickers pyramid indenter to 1 in the relevant equation of the indentation method

  7. Au-Interaction of Slp1 Polymers and Monolayer from Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53 - QCM-D, ICP-MS and AFM as Tools for Biomolecule-metal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhr, Matthias; Raff, Johannes; Pollmann, Katrin

    2016-01-19

    In this publication the gold sorption behavior of surface layer (S-layer) proteins (Slp1) of Lysinibacillus sphaericus JG-B53 is described. These biomolecules arrange in paracrystalline two-dimensional arrays on surfaces, bind metals, and are thus interesting for several biotechnical applications, such as biosorptive materials for the removal or recovery of different elements from the environment and industrial processes. The deposition of Au(0) nanoparticles on S-layers, either by S-layer directed synthesis or adsorption of nanoparticles, opens new possibilities for diverse sensory applications. Although numerous studies have described the biosorptive properties of S-layers, a deeper understanding of protein-protein and protein-metal interaction still remains challenging. In the following study, inductively coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) was used for the detection of metal sorption by suspended S-layers. This was correlated to measurements of quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), which allows the online detection of proteinaceous monolayer formation and metal deposition, and thus, a more detailed understanding on metal binding. The ICP-MS results indicated that the binding of Au(III) to the suspended S-layer polymers is pH dependent. The maximum binding of Au(III) was obtained at pH 4.0. The QCM-D investigations enabled the detection of Au(III) sorption as well as the deposition of Au(0)-NPs in real-time during the in situ experiments. Further, this method allowed studying the influence of metal binding on the protein lattice stability of Slp1. Structural properties and protein layer stability could be visualized directly after QCM-D experiment using atomic force microscopy (AFM). In conclusion, the combination of these different methods provides a deeper understanding of metal binding by bacterial S-layer proteins in suspension or as monolayers on either bacterial cells or recrystallized surfaces.

  8. AFM Nanotools for Surgery of Biological Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Gordeev, S N [Department of Physics, Claverton Down, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Guy, R H, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, Claverton Down, University of Bath, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    Using a method of electron-beam induced deposition, we have been able to fabricate specialized AFM probes with application as 'nanotools' for the manipulation of biological structures ('nanosurgery'). We describe several such tools, including a 'nanoscalpel', 'nanoneedles' for probing intracellular structures, and a 'nanotome' which can separate surface layers from a biological structure. These applications are demonstrated by performing nanomanipulation on corneocyte cells from the outer layer of human skin.

  9. Phase imaging quality improvement by modification of AFM probes' cantilever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skibinski, J; Rebis, J; Kaczmarek, L; Wejrzanowski, T; Plocinski, T; Rozniatowski, K

    2018-03-01

    Imaging of the surface of materials by atomic force microscopy under tapping and phase imaging mode, with use of modified probes is addressed. In this study, the circularly shaped holes located in varying distance from the probe base, were cut out by focused ion beam. Such modification was a consequence of the results of the previous experiments (probe tip sharpening and cantilever thinning) where significant improvement of image quality in tapping and phase imaging mode has been revealed. The solution proposed herein gives similar results, but is much simpler from the technological point of view. Shorter exposition time of the tip onto gallium ions during FIB processing allows to reduce material degradation. The aim of this modification was to change harmonic oscillators' properties in the simplest and fastest way, to obtain stronger signal for higher resonant frequencies, which can be advantageous for improving the quality of imaging in PI mode. Probes shaped in that way were used for AFM investigations with Bruker AFM nanoscope 8. As a testing material, titanium roughness standard sample, supplied by Bruker, was used. The results have shown that the modifications performed within these studies influence the oscillation of the probes, which in some cases may result in deterioration of the imaging quality under tapping mode for one or both self-resonant frequencies. However, phase imaging results obtained using modified probes are of higher quality. The numerical simulations performed by application of finite element method were used to explain the results obtained experimentally. Phenomenon described within this study allows to apply developed modelling methodology for prediction of effects of various modifications on the probes' tip, and as a result, to predict how proposed modifications will affect AFM imaging quality. © 2017 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2017 Royal Microscopical Society.

  10. Indentation theory on a half-space of transversely isotropic multi-ferroic composite medium: sliding friction effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F.; Wu, T.-H.; Li, X.-Y.

    2018-03-01

    This article aims to present a systematic indentation theory on a half-space of multi-ferroic composite medium with transverse isotropy. The effect of sliding friction between the indenter and substrate is taken into account. The cylindrical flat-ended indenter is assumed to be electrically/magnetically conducting or insulating, which leads to four sets of mixed boundary-value problems. The indentation forces in the normal and tangential directions are related to the Coulomb friction law. For each case, the integral equations governing the contact behavior are developed by means of the generalized method of potential theory, and the corresponding coupling field is obtained in terms of elementary functions. The effect of sliding on the contact behavior is investigated. Finite element method (FEM) in the context of magneto-electro-elasticity is developed to discuss the validity of the analytical solutions. The obtained analytical solutions may serve as benchmarks to various simplified analyses and numerical codes and as a guide for future experimental studies.

  11. Influence of the molecular structure on indentation size effect in polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Chung-Souk

    2010-01-01

    Size dependent deformation of polymers has been observed by various researchers in various experimental settings including micro beam bending, foams and indentation testing. Here in this article the indentation size effect in polymers is examined which manifests itself in increased hardness at decreasing indentation depths. Based on previously suggested rationale of size dependent deformation and depth dependent hardness model the depth dependent hardness of various polymers are analyzed. It is found that polymers containing aromatic rings in their molecular structure exhibit depth dependent hardness above the micron length scale. For polymers not containing aromatic rings polymers the indentation size effect starts at smaller indentation depths if they are present at all.

  12. Full-Field Indentation Damage Measurement Using Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elías López-Alba

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A novel approach based on full-field indentation measurements to characterize and quantify the effect of contact in thin plates is presented. The proposed method has been employed to evaluate the indentation damage generated in the presence of bending deformation, resulting from the contact between a thin plate and a rigid sphere. For this purpose, the 3D Digital Image Correlation (3D-DIC technique has been adopted to quantify the out of plane displacements at the back face of the plate. Tests were conducted using aluminum thin plates and a rigid bearing sphere to evaluate the influence of the thickness and the material behavior during contact. Information provided by the 3D-DIC technique has been employed to perform an indirect measurement of the contact area during the loading and unloading path of the test. A symmetrical distribution in the contact damage region due to the symmetry of the indenter was always observed. In the case of aluminum plates, the presence of a high level of plasticity caused shearing deformation as the load increased. Results show the full-field contact damage area for different plates’ thicknesses at different loads. The contact damage region was bigger when the thickness of the specimen increased, and therefore, bending deformation was reduced. With the proposed approach, the elastic recovery at the contact location was quantified during the unloading, as well as the remaining permanent indentation damage after releasing the load. Results show the information obtained by full-field measurements at the contact location during the test, which implies a substantial improvement compared with pointwise techniques.

  13. Characterization of Rubbers from Spherical Punch - Plate Indentation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina Carmen Ciornei

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rubber plates with different compositions and hardness were tested by continuous indentation, using a spherical punch and hysteretic phenomenon was evidenced. The experimental data interpolation with polynomial functions is accurate and permits estimation of the lost work during loading cycles. The interpolation by power law functions is more convenient by using less parameters and having a form accepted in literature. From the rubbers tested, two were considered to present good damping properties.

  14. AFM 4.0: a toolbox for DNA microarray analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitkreutz, B J; Jorgensen, P; Breitkreutz, A; Tyers, M

    2001-01-01

    We have developed a series of programs, collectively packaged as Array File Maker 4.0 (AFM), that manipulate and manage DNA microarray data. AFM 4.0 is simple to use, applicable to any organism or microarray, and operates within the familiar confines of Microsoft Excel. Given a database of expression ratios, AFM 4.0 generates input files for clustering, helps prepare colored figures and Venn diagrams, and can uncover aneuploidy in yeast microarray data. AFM 4.0 should be especially useful to laboratories that do not have access to specialized commercial or in-house software.

  15. Extraordinary Indentation Strain Stiffening Produces Superhard Tungsten Nitrides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng; Li, Quan; Ma, Yanming; Chen, Changfeng

    2017-09-01

    Transition-metal light-element compounds are a class of designer materials tailored to be a new generation of superhard solids, but indentation strain softening has hitherto limited their intrinsic load-invariant hardness to well below the 40 GPa threshold commonly set for superhard materials. Here we report findings from first-principles calculations that two tungsten nitrides, hP4-WN and hP 6 -WN2 , exhibit extraordinary strain stiffening that produces remarkably enhanced indentation strengths exceeding 40 GPa, raising exciting prospects of realizing the long-sought nontraditional superhard solids. Calculations show that hP4-WN is metallic both at equilibrium and under indentation, marking it as the first known intrinsic superhard metal. An x-ray diffraction pattern analysis indicates the presence of hP4-WN in a recently synthesized specimen. We elucidate the intricate bonding and stress response mechanisms for the identified structural strengthening, and the insights may help advance rational design and discovery of additional novel superhard materials.

  16. Interactions between chitosan and cells measured by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Wen; Thien, Doan Van Hong; Ho, Ming-Hua; Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen; Li, Chung-Hsing; Hung, Chang-Hsiang; Li, Hsi-Hsin

    2010-01-01

    Chitosan, a biocompatible material that has been widely used in bone tissue engineering, is believed to have a high affinity to osteoblastic cells. This research is the first to prove this hypothesis. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a chitosan-modified cantilever, quantitative evaluation of the interforce between chitosan and cells was carried out. A chitosan tip functionalized with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was also used to measure the interforce between RGD-chitosan and osteoblastic cells. This research concluded by examining cell adhesion and spreading of chitosan substrates as further characterization of the interactions between cells and chitosan. The force measured by AFM showed that the interforce between chitosan and osteoblasts was the highest (209 nN). The smallest adhesion force (61.8 nN) appeared between chitosan and muscle fibroblasts, which did not demonstrate any osteoblastic properties. This result proved that there was a significant interaction between chitosan and bone cells, and correlated with the observations of cell attachment and spreading. The technique developed in this research directly quantified the adhesion between chitosan and cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that specific interaction exists between chitosan and osteoblasts.

  17. Interactions between chitosan and cells measured by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Sheng-Wen; Thien, Doan Van Hong; Ho, Ming-Hua [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Hsyue-Jen [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Li, Chung-Hsing [Division of Orthodontics and Pediatric Dentistry, Department of Dentistry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hung, Chang-Hsiang [Department of Dentistry, Kinmen Hospital Department of Health, Taiwan (China); Li, Hsi-Hsin, E-mail: mhho@mail.ntust.edu.t [Deputy Superintendent, Kinmen Hospital Department of Health, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-01

    Chitosan, a biocompatible material that has been widely used in bone tissue engineering, is believed to have a high affinity to osteoblastic cells. This research is the first to prove this hypothesis. By using atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a chitosan-modified cantilever, quantitative evaluation of the interforce between chitosan and cells was carried out. A chitosan tip functionalized with Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) was also used to measure the interforce between RGD-chitosan and osteoblastic cells. This research concluded by examining cell adhesion and spreading of chitosan substrates as further characterization of the interactions between cells and chitosan. The force measured by AFM showed that the interforce between chitosan and osteoblasts was the highest (209 nN). The smallest adhesion force (61.8 nN) appeared between chitosan and muscle fibroblasts, which did not demonstrate any osteoblastic properties. This result proved that there was a significant interaction between chitosan and bone cells, and correlated with the observations of cell attachment and spreading. The technique developed in this research directly quantified the adhesion between chitosan and cells. This is the first study to demonstrate that specific interaction exists between chitosan and osteoblasts.

  18. AFM analysis of bleaching effects on dental enamel microtopography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedreira de Freitas, Ana Carolina, E-mail: anacarolfreitas@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cardoso Espejo, Luciana, E-mail: luespejo@hotmail.com [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Brossi Botta, Sergio, E-mail: sbbotta@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sa Teixeira, Fernanda de, E-mail: nandast@if.usp.br [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05314-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Cerqueira, Luz Maria Aparecida A., E-mail: maacluz@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Garone-Netto, Narciso, E-mail: ngarone@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bona Matos, Adriana, E-mail: bona@usp.br [Departamento de Dentistica, Faculdade de Odontologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2227 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05508-000, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Barbosa da Silveira Salvadori, Maria Cecilia, E-mail: mcsalva@if.usp.br [Laboratorio de Filmes Finos, Instituto de Fisica da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Rua do Matao, Travessa R, 187 - Cidade Universitaria, CEP 05314-970, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to test a new methodology to evaluate the effects of 35% hydrogen peroxide agent on the microtopography of sound enamel using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The buccal sound surfaces of three extracted human lower incisors were used, without polishing the surfaces to maintain them with natural morphology. These unpolished surfaces were subjected to bleaching procedure with 35% hydrogen peroxide that consisted of 4 applications of the bleaching agent on enamel surfaces for 10 min each application. Surface images were obtained in a 15 {mu}m x 15 {mu}m area using an AFM. The roughness (Ra and RMS) and the power spectral density (PSD) were obtained before and after the bleaching treatment. As results we could inquire that the PSD analyses were very suitable to identifying the morphological changes on the surfaces, while the Ra and RMS parameters were insufficient to represent the morphological alterations promoted by bleaching procedure on enamel. The morphological wavelength in the range of visible light spectrum (380-750 nm) was analyzed, showing a considerable increase of the PSD with the bleaching treatment.

  19. Analysis of the equivalent indenter concept used to extract Young’s modulus from a nano-indentation test: some new insights into the Oliver–Pharr method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    on an equivalent conical indenter whose semi-apical angle depends on the ratio between residual and total penetration. Specifically, this angle tends to 90° when the material exhibits extensive inelastic deformation, whereas it reduces to the one characteristic of the real indenter for a perfectly elastic material...

  20. Dislocation sources and slip band nucleation from indents on silicon wafers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittge, J.; Danilewsky, A.N.; Allen, D.

    2010-01-01

    The nucleation of dislocations at controlled indents in silicon during rapid thermal annealing has been studied by in situ X-ray diffraction imaging (topography). Concentric loops extending over pairs of inclined {111} planes were formed, the velocities of the inclined and parallel segments being almost equal. Following loss of the screw segment from the wafer, the velocity of the inclined segments almost doubled, owing to removal of the line tension of the screw segments. The loops acted as obstacles to slip band propagation. (orig.)

  1. Assessment of the Local Residual Stresses of 7050-T7452 Aluminum Alloy in Microzones by the Instrumented Indentation with the Berkovich Indenter

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M.; Huang, C. H.; Wang, X. X.; Yang, F.; Zhang, N.; Li, F. G.

    2017-10-01

    The local residual stresses in microzones are investigated by the instrumented indentation method with the Berkovich indenter. The parameters required for determination of residual stresses are obtained from indentation load-penetration depth curves constructed during instrumented indentation tests on flat square 7050-T7452 aluminum alloy specimens with a central hole containing the compressive residual stresses generated by the cold extrusion process. The force balance system with account of the tensile and compressive residual stresses is used to explain the phenomenon of different contact areas produced by the same indentation load. The effect of strain-hardening exponent on the residual stress is tuned-off by application of the representative stress σ_{0.033} in the average contact pressure assessment using the Π theorem, while the yield stress value is obtained from the constitutive function. Finally, the residual stresses are calculated according to the proposed equations of the force balance system, and their feasibility is corroborated by the XRD measurements.

  2. Visualising the Micro World of Chemical/Geochemical Interactions Using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.M.; Sorbie, K.S.

    1996-12-31

    Scanning force microscopy, in particular AFM (Atomic Force Microscopy), provides a particular useful and interesting tool for the examination of surface structure at the near-atomic level. AFM is particularly well suited to the study of interactions at the surface in aqueous solutions using real time in-situ measurements. In this paper there is presented AFM images showing in situ crystal growth from supersaturated BaSO{sub 4} solutions onto the surface of barite. Growth structures in the form of spiral crystal growth features, presumably originating from screw dislocations, are illustrated. AFM images of novel scale crystal growth inhibition experiments are presented. Examination of the manner in which generically different species adsorb onto growth structures may help to explain mechanistic differences in the way which different inhibitor species perform against barium sulphate scale formation. Adsorption of polyacrylamide species onto mica surfaces have been viewed. The general utility of AFM to a number of other common surface interactions in oil field chemistry will be discussed. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  3. Fractal analysis of AFM images of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ţălu, Ştefan; Stach, Sebastian; Sueiras, Vivian; Ziebarth, Noël Marysa

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study is to further investigate the ultrastructural details of the surface of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) images. One representative image acquired of Bowman's membrane of a human cornea was investigated. The three-dimensional (3-D) surface of the sample was imaged using AFM in contact mode, while the sample was completely submerged in optisol solution. Height and deflection images were acquired at multiple scan lengths using the MFP-3D AFM system software (Asylum Research, Santa Barbara, CA), based in IGOR Pro (WaveMetrics, Lake Oswego, OR). A novel approach, based on computational algorithms for fractal analysis of surfaces applied for AFM data, was utilized to analyze the surface structure. The surfaces revealed a fractal structure at the nanometer scale. The fractal dimension, D, provided quantitative values that characterize the scale properties of surface geometry. Detailed characterization of the surface topography was obtained using statistical parameters, in accordance with ISO 25178-2: 2012. Results obtained by fractal analysis confirm the relationship between the value of the fractal dimension and the statistical surface roughness parameters. The surface structure of Bowman's membrane of the human cornea is complex. The analyzed AFM images confirm a fractal nature of the surface, which is not taken into account by classical surface statistical parameters. Surface fractal dimension could be useful in ophthalmology to quantify corneal architectural changes associated with different disease states to further our understanding of disease evolution.

  4. On the use of Raman spectroscopy and instrumented indentation for characterizing damage in machined carbide ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth, Benjamin Peter

    Machining is a necessary post-processing step in the manufacturing of many ceramic materials. Parts are machined to meet specific dimensions, with tight tolerances, not attainable from forming alone, as well as to achieve a desired surface finish. However, the machining process is very harsh, often employing the use of high temperatures and pressures to achieve the wanted result. In the case of silicon carbide, a material with extremely high hardness and stiffness, machining is very difficult and requires machining conditions that are highly aggressive. This can leave behind residual stresses in the surface of the material, cause unwanted phase transformations, and produce sub-surface deformation that can lead to failure. This thesis seeks to determine the effect of various machining conditions on the Raman spectra and elastic properties of sintered silicon carbide materials. Sample sets examined included hot-pressed silicon carbide tiles with four different surface finishes, as well as "ideal" single crystal silicon carbide wafers. The surface finishes studied were as follows: an as-pressed finish; a grit blast finish; a harsh rotary ground finish; and a mirror polish. Each finish imparts a different amount, as well as type, of deformation to the sample and are each utilized for a specific application. The sample surfaces were evaluated using a combination of Raman spectroscopy, for phase identification and stress analysis, and nanoindentation, for obtaining elastic properties and imparting uniform controlled deformation to the samples. Raman spectroscopy was performed over each sample surface using 514- and 633-nm wavelength excitation, along with confocal and non-confocal settings to study depth variation. Surfaces stresses were determined using peak shift information extracted from Raman spectra maps, while other spectral variations were used to compare levels of machining damage. Elastic modulus, hardness, and plastic work of indentation maps were generated

  5. On the relationship between indentation hardness and modulus, and the damage resistance of biological materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labonte, David; Lenz, Anne-Kristin; Oyen, Michelle L

    2017-07-15

    The remarkable mechanical performance of biological materials is based on intricate structure-function relationships. Nanoindentation has become the primary tool for characterising biological materials, as it allows to relate structural changes to variations in mechanical properties on small scales. However, the respective theoretical background and associated interpretation of the parameters measured via indentation derives largely from research on 'traditional' engineering materials such as metals or ceramics. Here, we discuss the functional relevance of indentation hardness in biological materials by presenting a meta-analysis of its relationship with indentation modulus. Across seven orders of magnitude, indentation hardness was directly proportional to indentation modulus. Using a lumped parameter model to deconvolute indentation hardness into components arising from reversible and irreversible deformation, we establish criteria which allow to interpret differences in indentation hardness across or within biological materials. The ratio between hardness and modulus arises as a key parameter, which is related to the ratio between irreversible and reversible deformation during indentation, the material's yield strength, and the resistance to irreversible deformation, a material property which represents the energy required to create a unit volume of purely irreversible deformation. Indentation hardness generally increases upon material dehydration, however to a larger extent than expected from accompanying changes in indentation modulus, indicating that water acts as a 'plasticiser'. A detailed discussion of the role of indentation hardness, modulus and toughness in damage control during sharp or blunt indentation yields comprehensive guidelines for a performance-based ranking of biological materials, and suggests that quasi-plastic deformation is a frequent yet poorly understood damage mode, highlighting an important area of future research. Instrumented

  6. The detection of hepatitis c virus core antigen using afm chips with immobolized aptamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleshakova, T O; Kaysheva, A L; Bayzyanova, J М; Anashkina, А S; Uchaikin, V F; Ziborov, V S; Konev, V A; Archakov, A I; Ivanov, Y D

    2018-01-01

    In the present study, the possibility of hepatitis C virus core antigen (HCVcoreAg) detection in buffer solution, using atomic force microscope chip (AFM-chip) with immobilized aptamers, has been demonstrated. The target protein was detected in 1mL of solution at concentrations from 10 -10 М to 10 -13 М. The registration of aptamer/antigen complexes on the chip surface was carried out by atomic force microscopy (AFM). The further mass-spectrometric (MS) identification of AFM-registered objects on the chip surface allowed reliable identification of HCVcoreAg target protein in the complexes. Aptamers, which were designed for therapeutic purposes, have been shown to be effective in HCVcoreAg detection as probe molecules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. AFM characterization of nonwoven material functionalized by ZnO sputter coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bingyao; Yan Xiong; Wei Qufu; Gao Weidong

    2007-01-01

    Sputter coatings provide new approaches to the surface functionalization of textile materials. In this study, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) nonwoven material was used as a substrate for creating functional nanostructures on the fiber surfaces. A magnetron sputter coating was used to deposit functional zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures onto the nonwoven substrate. The evolution of the surface morphology of the fibers in the nonwoven web was examined using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The AFM observations revealed a significant difference in the morphology of the fibers before and after the sputter coating. The AFM images also indicated the effect of the sputtering conditions on the surface morphology of the fibers. The increase in the sputtering time led to the growth of the ZnO grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher pressure in the sputtering chamber could cause the formation of larger grains on the fiber surfaces. The higher power used also generated larger grains on the fiber surfaces

  8. Iron in carbonate containing AFm phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilnesa, B.Z.; Lothenbach, B.; Le Saout, G.; Renaudin, G.; Mesbah, A.; Filinchuk, Y.; Wichser, A.; Wieland, E.

    2011-01-01

    One of the AFm phases in hydrated Portland cement is Ca 3 (Al x Fe 2 - x )O 6 .CaCO 3 .nH 2 O. It is based on hexagonal and platey structural elements and the interlayer structure incorporates CO 3 2- . The solid phases were experimentally synthesized and characterized by different techniques including X-ray techniques (XRD and EXAFS) and vibrational spectroscopy techniques (IR, Raman). Fe-monocarbonate (Fe-Mc) and Al-monocarbonate (Al-Mc) were found to be stable up to 50 o C, while Fe-hemicarbonate (Fe-Hc) was unstable with respect to Fe-Mc in the presence of calcite. Fe-Mc has a rhombohedral R3-barc symmetry which is different from the triclinic of the Al analogue. Both XRD and thermodynamic modelling of the liquid compositions indicated that Al-Mc and the Fe-Mc phases do not form solid solution. The solubility products were calculated experimentally at 20 o C and 50 o C. Under standards condition the solubility products and other thermodynamic parameters were estimated using temperature-solubility product extrapolation and found to be logK S0 (Fe-Mc) = -34.59 ± 0.50, logK S0 (Fe-Hc) = -30.83 ± 0.50 and logK S0 (Al-Mc) = -31.32 ± 0.50.

  9. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, X D; Jennett, N M

    2017-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed. (paper)

  10. A method to separate and quantify the effects of indentation size, residual stress and plastic damage when mapping properties using instrumented indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, X. D.; Jennett, N. M.

    2017-11-01

    Instrumented indentation is a convenient and increasingly rapid method of high resolution mapping of surface properties. There is, however, significant untapped potential for the quantification of these properties, which is only possible by solving a number of serious issues that affect the absolute values for mechanical properties obtained from small indentations. The three most pressing currently are the quantification of: the indentation size effect (ISE), residual stress, and pile-up and sink-in—which is itself affected by residual stress and ISE. Hardness based indentation mapping is unable to distinguish these effects. We describe a procedure that uses an elastic modulus as an internal reference and combines the information available from an indentation modulus map, a hardness map, and a determination of the ISE coefficient (using self-similar geometry indentation) to correct for the effects of stress, pile up and the indentation size effect, to leave a quantified map of plastic damage and grain refinement hardening in a surface. This procedure is used to map the residual stress in a cross-section of the machined surface of a previously stress free metal. The effect of surface grinding is compared to milling and is shown to cause different amounts of work hardening, increase in residual stress, and surface grain size reduction. The potential use of this procedure for mapping coatings in cross-section is discussed.

  11. EVALUATION OF METALLIC MATERIALS PLASTICITY BY DYNAMIC INDENTATION METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Rudnitsky

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of plasticity test of metallic materials realized by means of a dynamic dimpling of material by a spherical tip is offered. The measured value of plasticity is defined by a ratio of plastic and complete deformations in the formed indentation which considers influence of an elastic modulus of material. The dependence connecting plasticity and dynamic hardness of materials is received. Experiments on metals from 70 to 380 GPA having an elastic modulus and hardness up to 62 HRC are made.

  12. Optical measuring system for the geometrical parameters of Rockwell and Vickers diamond hardness indenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiong; Cui, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Feng

    2017-11-01

    Hardness testing is widely used for characterizing the mechanical properties of materials. However, the measured hardness values in hardness measurements are strongly influenced by the geometrical parameters of diamond hardness indenters. In the most severe case, the geometrical error of the diamond indenter, Rockwell hardness measurements in particular, leads to be about 50% hardness measurement uncertainty. It has been generally recognized for many years that the geometry of diamond indenters must be calibrated or verified before use to correct the hardness value for each indenter and improve the hardness measurement uncertainty. The contact-based calibration methods and the contactless based optical measuring methods are two typical ways to calibrate the geometrical form of an indenter at present. The contact-based calibration methods characterized by large measurement range of tens of mm with nanometer resolution, has a time-consuming measurement process, the contactless based optical measuring methods have become a general trend. In this work, an optical measuring system, which employs the combination of an interferometric microscope and a profile projection technique, is presented to measure and calibrate the geometrical parameters of Rockwell and Vickers diamond hardness indenters in National Institute of Metrology of China. Initial experiments demonstrated that the angle and axis angle measurement of indenter are achieved with accuracy of 0.1°, the straightness deviation of Rockwell indenters is less than 2μm, the radius measurement uncertainty of the tip of Rockwell indenters is better than 5μm.

  13. Optimization of functionalization conditions for protein analysis by AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo-Hernández, María, E-mail: maria.arroyo@ctb.upm.es [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Daza, Rafael; Pérez-Rigueiro, Jose; Elices, Manuel; Nieto-Márquez, Jorge; Guinea, Gustavo V. [Centro de Tecnología Biomédica, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28223 Pozuelo de Alarcón, Madrid (Spain); Departamento de Ciencia de Materiales, ETSI Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-10-30

    Highlights: • Highest fluorescence is obtained for central conditions. • Largest primary amine contribution is obtained for central conditions. • RMS roughness is smaller than 1 nm for all functional films. • Selected deposition conditions lead to proper RMS and functionality values. • LDH proteins adsorbed on AVS-films were observed by AFM. - Abstract: Activated vapor silanization (AVS) is used to functionalize silicon surfaces through deposition of amine-containing thin films. AVS combines vapor silanization and chemical vapor deposition techniques and allows the properties of the functionalized layers (thickness, amine concentration and topography) to be controlled by tuning the deposition conditions. An accurate characterization is performed to correlate the deposition conditions and functional-film properties. In particular, it is shown that smooth surfaces with a sufficient surface density of amine groups may be obtained with this technique. These surfaces are suitable for the study of proteins with atomic force microscopy.

  14. Evaluation of material degradation of 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V steel using ball Indentation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Chang Sung; Koo, Jae Mean; Kim, Jeong Pyo

    2004-01-01

    The BI (Ball Indentation) method has the potential to assess the mechanical properties and to replace conventional fracture tests. In this study, the effect of aging on mechanical behavior of 1Cr-1Mo-0.25V steels procured by isothermal aging heat-treatment at four different aging times in the range of 0∼1820 hours at 630 .deg. C, were investigated using BI system

  15. Experimental creep behavior of porcine liver under indentation with laparoscopic grasper for MIS applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-mo Cai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical response of soft tissues behaved disparate due to fast and large deformation during surgical grasping, so there is a need for experimental databases of biomechanical characteristics of soft tissue under the contact of MIS tool, which are more useful for designing new surgical instruments, training inexperienced surgeons, improving surgical simulations and developing surgical robotics system. A novel indentation test to simulate the real-time surgical operation condition was present in this paper. The creep behavior of porcine liver in vitro was studied under uniaxial indentation by using MIS grasper. The nominal stress between the grasper and the liver was 0.02 to 0.1 MPa, the loading velocity was 1 to 3 mm/s, and the holding time was 300 s to simulate clamping tissue operation. Results showed that the creep process of the liver during 300 s of duration can be divided into three stages: loading stage I, transition creep stage II and steady creep stage III. The creep characteristic of liver behaves time-dependent, load-dependent and strongly loading velocity-dependent due to its nonlinear viscoelastic characteristics and hysteresis characteristics. These creep behavior might also be associated with the deformation, migration and biochemical reaction of the liver cells. The phenomenological model derived in this paper may describe the creep behavior of the liver. The results would provide experimental databases and phenomenological models for investigating biomechanical characteristics of soft tissue under the contact of MIS tool.

  16. Atom-resolved AFM imaging of calcite nanoparticles in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imada, Hirotake; Kimura, Kenjiro; Onishi, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► An advanced frequency-modulation AFM (FM-AFM) was applied for imaging particles. ► Atom-resolved topography of nano-sized particles of calcite was observed in water. ► Locally ordered structures were found and assigned to a (104) facet of calcite. ► A promising ability of FM-AFM was demonstrated in imaging nano-sized particles. - Abstract: The atom-resolved topography of calcite nanoparticles was observed in water using a frequency-modulation atomic force microscope. Locally ordered structures were found and assigned to a (104) facet of crystalline calcite

  17. AFM tip effect on a thin liquid film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledesma-Alonso, R; Legendre, D; Tordjeman, Ph

    2013-06-25

    We study the interaction between an AFM probe and a liquid film deposited over a flat substrate. We investigate the effects of the physical and geometrical parameters, with a special focus on the film thickness E, the probe radius R, and the distance D between the probe and the free surface. Deformation profiles have been calculated from the numerical simulations of the Young-Laplace equation by taking into account the probe/liquid and the liquid/substrate interactions, characterized by the Hamaker constants, Hpl and Hls. We demonstrate that the deformation of a shallow film is determined by a particular characteristic length λF = (2πγE(4)/Hls)(1/2), resulting from the balance between the capillary force (γ is the surface tension) and the van der Waals liquid/substrate attraction. For the case of a bulk liquid, the extent of the interface deformation is simply controlled by the capillary length λC = (γ/Δρg)(1/2). These trends point out two asymptotic regimes, which in turn are bounded by two characteristic film thicknesses Eg = (Hls/2πΔρg)(1/4) and Eγ = (R(2)Hls/2πγ)(1/4). For E > Eg, the bulk behavior is recovered, and for E effect is observed. This tip effect is characterized by the small magnitude of the deformation and an important restriction of its radial extent λF localized below the probe. In addition, we have found that the film thickness has a significant effect on the threshold separation distance Dmin below which the irreversible jump-to-contact process occurs: Dmin is probe radius-dependent for the bulk whereas it is film-thickness-dependent for shallow films. These results have an important impact on the optimal AFM scanning conditions.

  18. Application of reference point indentation for micro-mechanical surface characterization of calcium silicate based dental materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijević, Djordje; Milovanović, Petar; Riedel, Christoph; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Busse, Björn; Djurić, Marija

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to elucidate micromechanical properties of Biodentine and two experimental calcium silicate cements (CSCs) using Reference Point Indentation (RPI). Biomechanical characteristics of the cement type and the effects of a radiopacifier, liquid components, acid etching treatment and bioactivation in simulated body fluid (SBF) were investigated by measuring the microhardness, average unloading slope (Avg US) and indentation distance increase (IDI). Biodentine had a greater microhardness than the experimental CSCs, while the Avg US and IDI values were not significantly different among investigated materials. There was a statistically significant difference in microhardness and IDI values between pure CSCs and radiopacified cements (p calcium chloride and CSCs' immersion in SBF are beneficial for CSCs' micromechanical performance, while the addition of radiopacifiers and acid etching treatment weaken the CSCs' surface. Application of RPI aids with the characterization of micromechanical properties of synthetic materials' surfaces.

  19. Quasi-Static Indentation Analysis of Carbon-Fiber Laminates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Briggs, Timothy [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); English, Shawn Allen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Nelson, Stacy Michelle [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    A series of quasi - static indentation experiments are conducted on carbon fiber reinforced polymer laminates with a systematic variation of thicknesses and fixture boundary conditions. Different deformation mechanisms and their resulting damage mechanisms are activated b y changing the thickn ess and boundary conditions. The quasi - static indentation experiments have been shown to achieve damage mechanisms similar to impact and penetration, however without strain rate effects. The low rate allows for the detailed analysis on the load response. Moreover, interrupted tests allow for the incremental analysis of various damage mechanisms and pr ogressions. The experimentally tested specimens are non - destructively evaluated (NDE) with optical imaging, ultrasonics and computed tomography. The load displacement responses and the NDE are then utilized in numerical simulations for the purpose of model validation and vetting. The accompanying numerical simulation work serves two purposes. First, the results further reveal the time sequence of events and the meaning behind load dro ps not clear from NDE . Second, the simulations demonstrate insufficiencies in the code and can then direct future efforts for development.

  20. Measurement of the Indentation Modulus and the Local Internal Friction in Amorphous SiO2 Using Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang B.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available For the past two decades, atomic force acoustic microscopy (AFAM, an advanced scanning probe microscopy technique, has played a promising role in materials characterization with a good lateral resolution at micro/nano dimensions. AFAM is based on inducing out-of-plane vibrations in the specimen, which are generated by an ultrasonic transducer. The vibrations are sensed by the AFM cantilever when its tip is in contact with the material under test. From the cantilver’s contactresonance spectra, one determines the real and the imaginary part of the contact stiffness k*, and then from these two quantities the local indentation modulus M' and the local damping factor Qloc-1 can be obtained with a spatial resolution of less than 10 nm. Here, we present measured data of M' and of Qloc-1 for the insulating amorphous material, a-SiO2. The amorphous SiO2 layer was prepared on a crystalline Si wafer by means of thermal oxidation. There is a spatial distribution of the indentation modulus M' and of the internal friction Qloc-1. This is a consequence of the potential energy landscape for amorphous materials.

  1. Statistical flaw strength distributions for glass fibres: Correlation between bundle test and AFM-derived flaw size density functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foray, G.; Descamps-Mandine, A.; R’Mili, M.; Lamon, J.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper investigates glass fibre flaw size distributions. Two commercial fibre grades (HP and HD) mainly used in cement-based composite reinforcement were studied. Glass fibre fractography is a difficult and time consuming exercise, and thus is seldom carried out. An approach based on tensile tests on multifilament bundles and examination of the fibre surface by atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used. Bundles of more than 500 single filaments each were tested. Thus a statistically significant database of failure data was built up for the HP and HD glass fibres. Gaussian flaw distributions were derived from the filament tensile strength data or extracted from the AFM images. The two distributions were compared. Defect sizes computed from raw AFM images agreed reasonably well with those derived from tensile strength data. Finally, the pertinence of a Gaussian distribution was discussed. The alternative Pareto distribution provided a fair approximation when dealing with AFM flaw size.

  2. THz spectroscopy and directional dichroism in the high magnetic field AFM phase of bulk BiFeO3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rõõm, Toomas; Viirok, J.; Nagel, U.; Farkas, D.; Bordács, S.; Kézsmárki, I.; Engelkamp, H.; Thirunavukkuarasu, K.; Krzystek, J.; Fishman, R. S.; Ozaki, Y.; Tomioka, Y.; Ito, T.

    Magnetic ordering can induce local electric polarization via three mechanisms in BiFeO3: spin-current, exchange-striction, and single-ion anisotropy. Only the spin-current mechanism causes the observed large non-reciprocal directional dichroism (NDD) at THz frequencies in the cycloidal state. However, the static magneto-electric effect persists even in the canted AFM state where the cycloid is destroyed by high magnetic field. Single crystal samples were studied in fields up to 35 T with B ∥ a , B ⊥ a and B ∥ a . NDD was found in the canted AFM phase above 18 T. The number of observed spin wave modes is not consistent with a current model of two AFM-coupled spin sublattices in the canted AFM phase. Research sponsored by the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (IUT23-3) and Estonian Ministry of Education and Research and the European Regional Development Fund project TK134.

  3. An AFM-based pit-measuring method for indirect measurements of cell-surface membrane vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Chen, Yuan; Chen, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Air drying induced the transformation of cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits. • An AFM-based pit-measuring method was developed to measure cell-surface vesicles. • Our method detected at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles. - Abstract: Circulating membrane vesicles, which are shed from many cell types, have multiple functions and have been correlated with many diseases. Although circulating membrane vesicles have been extensively characterized, the status of cell-surface membrane vesicles prior to their release is less understood due to the lack of effective measurement methods. Recently, as a powerful, micro- or nano-scale imaging tool, atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in measuring circulating membrane vesicles. However, it seems very difficult for AFM to directly image/identify and measure cell-bound membrane vesicles due to the similarity of surface morphology between membrane vesicles and cell surfaces. Therefore, until now no AFM studies on cell-surface membrane vesicles have been reported. In this study, we found that air drying can induce the transformation of most cell-surface membrane vesicles into pits that are more readily detectable by AFM. Based on this, we developed an AFM-based pit-measuring method and, for the first time, used AFM to indirectly measure cell-surface membrane vesicles on cultured endothelial cells. Using this approach, we observed and quantitatively measured at least two populations of cell-surface membrane vesicles, a nanoscale population (<500 nm in diameter peaking at ∼250 nm) and a microscale population (from 500 nm to ∼2 μm peaking at ∼0.8 μm), whereas confocal microscopy only detected the microscale population. The AFM-based pit-measuring method is potentially useful for studying cell-surface membrane vesicles and for investigating the mechanisms of membrane vesicle formation/release

  4. Relationship between thin-film bond strength as measured by a scratch test, and indentation hardness for bonding agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusakabe, Shusuke; Rawls, H Ralph; Hotta, Masato

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate thin-film bond strength between a bonding agent and human dentin, using a scratch test, and the characteristics and accuracy of measurement. One-step bonding agents (BeautiBond; Bond Force; Adper Easy Bond; Clearfil tri-S Bond) and two-step bonding agents (Cleafil SE Bond; FL-Bond II) were investigated in this study. Flat dentin surfaces were prepared for extracted human molars. The dentin surfaces were ground and bonding agents were applied and light cured. The thin-film bond strength test of the specimens was evaluated by the critical load at which the coated bonding agent failed and dentin appeared. The scratch mark sections were then observed under a scanning electron microscope. Indentation hardness was evaluated by the variation in depth under an applied load of 10gf. Data were compared by one-way ANOVA with the Scheffé's post hoc multiple comparison test (pstrength and indentation hardness were analyzed using analysis of correlation and covariance. The thin-film bond strength of two-step bonding agents were found to be significantly higher than that of one-step bonding agents with small standard deviations. Scratch marks consistently showed adhesive failure in the vicinity of the bonding agent/dentin interface. The indentation hardness showed a trend that two-step bonding agents have greater hardness than one-step bonding agents. A moderately significant correlation (r(2)=0.31) was found between thin-film bond strength and indentation hardness. Thin-film bond strength test is a valid and reliable means of evaluating bond strength in the vicinity of the adhesive interface and is more accurate than other methods currently in use. Further, the thin-film bond strength is influenced by the hardness of the cued bonding agent. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Modular design of AFM probe with sputtered silicon tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, Jacob; Bouwstra, Siebe

    2001-01-01

    We present an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with integrated piezoresistive read-out. The probe consists of a micromachined cantilever with a tip at the end. The cantilever is a multilayer structure with its thickness defined by etch-stop and the bending controlled by fitting the thicknesses...... with polysilicon resistors for demonstrating the fabrication principle. The probes have been characterised with respect to noise and deflection sensitivity and have been applied in AFM imaging....

  6. Indentations and Starting Points in Traveling Sales Tour Problems: Implications for Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGregor, James N.

    2012-01-01

    A complete, non-trivial, traveling sales tour problem contains at least one "indentation", where nodes in the interior of the point set are connected between two adjacent nodes on the boundary. Early research reported that human tours exhibited fewer such indentations than expected. A subsequent explanation proposed that this was because…

  7. A novel sample preparation method to avoid influence of embedding medium during nano-indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yujie Meng; Siqun Wang; Zhiyong Cai; Timothy M. Young; Guanben Du; Yanjun Li

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the embedding medium on the nano-indentation measurements of lignocellulosic materials was investigated experimentally using nano-indentation. Both the reduced elastic modulus and the hardness of nonembedded cell walls were found to be lower than those of the embedded samples, proving that the embedding medium used for specimen preparation on cellulosic...

  8. Temperature-dependent indentation behavior of transformation-toughened zirconia-based ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikare, Veena; Heuer, Arthur H.

    1991-01-01

    Indentation behavior of Ce-TZP, Y-TZP, and Mg-PSZ between room temperature and 1300 C was investigated. Hardness decreased with increasing temperature for all three materials, but indentation cracking increased with increasing temperature. The opposing temperature dependences are discussed in terms of dislocation and transformation plasticity.

  9. Determining the Elastic Modulus of Compliant Thin Films Supported on Substrates from Flat Punch Indentation Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.J. Wald; J.M. Considine; K.T. Turner

    2013-01-01

    Instrumented indentation is a technique that can be used to measure the elastic properties of soft thin films supported on stiffer substrates, including polymer films, cellulosic sheets, and thin layers of biological materials. When measuring thin film properties using indentation, the effect of the substrate must be considered. Most existing models for determining the...

  10. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Jack R.; Doss, Bryant L.; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion.

  11. Correlating confocal microscopy and atomic force indentation reveals metastatic cancer cells stiffen during invasion into collagen I matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staunton, Jack R; Doss, Bryant L; Lindsay, Stuart; Ros, Robert

    2016-01-27

    Mechanical interactions between cells and their microenvironment dictate cell phenotype and behavior, calling for cell mechanics measurements in three-dimensional (3D) extracellular matrices (ECM). Here we describe a novel technique for quantitative mechanical characterization of soft, heterogeneous samples in 3D. The technique is based on the integration of atomic force microscopy (AFM) based deep indentation, confocal fluorescence microscopy, finite element (FE) simulations and analytical modeling. With this method, the force response of a cell embedded in 3D ECM can be decoupled from that of its surroundings, enabling quantitative determination of the elastic properties of both the cell and the matrix. We applied the technique to the quantification of the elastic properties of metastatic breast adenocarcinoma cells invading into collagen hydrogels. We found that actively invading and fully embedded cells are significantly stiffer than cells remaining on top of the collagen, a clear example of phenotypical change in response to the 3D environment. Treatment with Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor significantly reduces this stiffening, indicating that actomyosin contractility plays a major role in the initial steps of metastatic invasion.

  12. Quasi-static indentation modelling of aluminium specimen using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayank Nirbhay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different types of rigid hemispherical and conical indenters on a rectangular specimen of aluminium has been investigated, in the small indenter test. A 3-D finite-element FE model was used to carry out the computation of the elastic-plastic solution of different rigid hemispherical and conical indenters. Three hemispherical-headed and four conical-headed indenters were designed and developed for testing. FE software ABAQUS® has been used to determine the load vs. indenter-displacement curves, reaction forces, deformation contours and Von-Mises stresses. The FE model was validated by comparing the results with the experimental data received from the Hertz Contact Theory and was found to be in reasonably good agreement.

  13. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  14. AFM lateral force calibration for an integrated probe using a calibration grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Huabin; Gee, Michelle L.

    2014-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) friction measurements on hard and soft materials remain a challenge due to the difficulties associated with accurately calibrating the cantilever for lateral force measurement. One of the most widely accepted lateral force calibration methods is the wedge method. This method is often used in a simplified format but in so doing sacrifices accuracy. In the present work, we have further developed the wedge method to provide a lateral force calibration method for integrated AFM probes that is easy to use without compromising accuracy and reliability. Raw friction calibration data are collected from a single scan image by continuous ramping of the set point as the facets of a standard grating are scanned. These data are analysed to yield an accurate lateral force conversion/calibration factor that is not influenced by adhesion forces or load deviation. By demonstrating this new calibration method, we illustrate its reliability, speed and ease of execution. This method makes accessible reliable boundary lubrication studies on adhesive and heterogeneous surfaces that require spatial resolution of frictional forces. - Highlights: • We develop a simple and accurate method for lateral force calibration in AFM friction measurements. • We detail the basis of the method and illustrate how to use it and its reliability with example data. • Our method is easy, accurate and accounts for the affects of adhesion on friction measurements. • The method is applicable to integrated probes, as opposed to colloidal probes. • This allows accurate AFM friction measurements on spatially heterogeneous and adhesive surfaces

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of nanoparticle releasing in AFM nanomanipulation using high voltage electrostatic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghattan Kashani, H.; Shokrolahi, S.; Akbari Moayyer, H.; Shariat Panahi, M.; Shahmoradi Zavareh, A.

    2017-07-01

    Atomic Force Microscopes (AFMs) have been widely used as nanomanipulators due to their versatility to work with a broad range of materials and their controllable interaction force, among other features. While AFMs can effectively grasp, move, and position nanoscale objects in 2D environments through basic pull/push operations, they often lack the high precision required in many 3D pick and place applications, especially in non-vacuum environments. In this study, a novel method to resolve the adhesion problem between nanoscale objects and the AFM tip has been developed and tested. The method is based on the application of a high electrostatic voltage to the tip to produce the repulsive force required for the release of the nanoobject. The method is proposed for conductive nanoparticles and tips used in many nanomanipulation applications, and can be easily implemented on typical AFMs with minimal alterations. The applicability of the proposed method is investigated through a series of combined Molecular Dynamics/Finite Element simulations.

  16. Controlled AFM detachments and movement of nanoparticles: gold clusters on HOPG at different temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Manoj; Paolicelli, Guido; D'Addato, Sergio; Valeri, Sergio

    2012-06-22

    The effect of temperature on the onset of movement of gold nanoclusters (diameter 27 nm) deposited on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) has been studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. Using the AFM with amplitude modulation (tapping mode AFM) we have stimulated and controlled the movement of individual clusters. We show how, at room temperature, controlled detachments and smooth movements can be obtained for clusters having dimensions comparable to or smaller than the tip radius. Displacement is practically visible in real time and it can be started and stopped easily by adjusting only one parameter, the tip amplitude oscillation. Analysing the energy dissipation signal at the onset of nanocluster sliding we evaluated a detachment threshold energy as a function of temperature in the range 300-413 K. We also analysed single cluster thermal induced displacement and combining this delicate procedure with AFM forced movement behaviour we conclude that detachment threshold energy is directly related to the activation energy of nanocluster diffusion and it scales linearly with temperature as expected for a single-particle thermally activated process.

  17. Mechanical properties of single nanostructures investigated by in-situ AFM and micro-XRD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornelius, Thomas; Scheler, Thomas; Magalhaes-Paniago, Rogerio; Metzger, Till Hartmut [ESRF, Grenoble (France)

    2010-07-01

    In recent years, nanostructures attracted enormous attention due to size-effects influencing the structural, optical, electrical, and mechanical properties of materials with low dimensions. Concerning the mechanical properties mainly the plastic regime was explored showing a trend that ''smaller is stronger''. In contrast, studies of the elastic behaviour of nanowires revealed contradictory results concerning the influence of size-effects on the elasticity. To investigate single nanoobjects in the elastic regime, we combined an in-situ AFM with XRD in a microfocused beam. The AFM is used to image the sample surface, to select an individual nanostructure, and to apply pressure on a chosen object. Due to the interaction between the AFM-tip and the compressed object the resonance frequency of the AFM force sensor shifts to larger values enabling us to derive the stiffness of the contact area. Simultaneous to the pressure application, XRD images around a pre-defined Bragg peak are recorded. These images allow for the determination of the elastic lattice parameter change in-situ. From the contact stiffness and the lattice parameter change, the Young modulus of an individual nanoobject is derived. Here, we present results both for SiGe islands grown by liquid-phase epitaxy on Si wafers and GaAs nanorods created by selective-area metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on GaAs substrates.

  18. Nonlinear Phenomena in the Single-Mode Dynamics in an AFM Cantilever Beam

    KAUST Repository

    Ruzziconi, Laura

    2016-12-05

    This study deals with the nonlinear dynamics arising in an atomic force microscope cantilever beam. After analyzing the static behavior, a single degree of freedom Galerkin reduced order model is introduced, which describes the overall scenario of the structure response in a neighborhood of the primary resonance. Extensive numerical simulations are performed when both the forcing amplitude and frequency are varied, ranging from low up to elevated excitations. The coexistence of competing attractors with different characteristics is analyzed. Both the non-resonant and the resonant behavior are observed, as well as ranges of inevitable escape. Versatility of behavior is highlighted, which may be attractive in applications. Special attention is devoted to the effects of the tip-sample separation distance, since this aspect is of fundamental importance to understand the operation of an AFM. We explore the metamorphoses of the multistability region when the tip-sample separation distance is varied. To have a complete description of the AFM response, comprehensive behavior charts are introduced to detect the theoretical boundaries of appearance and disappearance of the main attractors. Also, extensive numerical simulations investigate the AFM response when both the forcing amplitude and the tip-sample separation distance are considered as control parameters. The main features are analyzed in detail and the obtained results are interpreted in terms of oscillations of the cantilever-tip ensemble. However, we note that all the aforementioned results represent the limit when disturbances are absent, which never occurs in practice. Here comes the importance of overcoming local investigations and exploring dynamics from a global perspective, by introducing dynamical integrity concepts. To extend the AFM results to the practical case where disturbances exist, we develop a dynamical integrity analysis. After performing a systematic basin of attraction analysis, integrity

  19. Analysis of aflatoxin M1 in milk and yogurt and AFM1 reduction by lactic acid bacteria used in Lebanese industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Khoury, A.; Yaghi, J.; Atoui, A.

    2011-01-01

    In this study a screening survey was undertaken to determine the presence and levels of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in locally produced dairy products. For this purpose, a total of 138 dairy samples (milk and yogurt) were analyzed to quantify AFM1 levels in these products. Results obtained showed that AFM1 was found in 40.62% and 32.81% of milk and yogurt samples respectively. The range of contamination levels varied between lower and higher than European regulation limit. Lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) used in the Lebanese traditional industry were screened for their ability to reduce the level of AFM1. Due to the lack in data on the natural occurrence of AFM1 in Lebanese dairy products, the aim of this work was to report some information and to state these products according to EC regulations. (author)

  20. Analysis of ray trajectories of flexural waves propagating over generalized acoustic black hole indentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei; Ji, Hongli; Qiu, Jinhao; Cheng, Li

    2018-03-01

    An Acoustic Black Hole (ABH) indentation embedded in thin-walled structures has been proved remarkably useful for broadband flexural wave focalization, in which the phase velocity of the flexural waves and the refractive index of the media undergo gradual changes from the outside towards the center of the indentation. A generalized two-dimensional ABH indentation can be defined by three geometric parameters: a power index, an extra thickness and a radius of a plateau at the indentation center. The dependence of the energy focalization on these parameters as well as the energy focalization process is of paramount importance for the understanding and design of effective ABH indentations. This work aims at investigating the energy focalization characteristics of flexural waves in such generalized ABH indentations. The calculation of the flexural ray trajectories is conducted to reveal and analyze the wave propagation features through numerical integration of the eikonal equation from the Geometric Acoustics Approximation (GAA). The theoretical results are verified by both experiment using wave visualization technique based on laser acoustic scanning method and finite element (FE) simulations. Finally, the influence of the geometric parameters on the flexural wave focalization characteristics in ABH indentations is discussed in detail.

  1. Wettability of AFM tip influences the profile of interfacial nanobubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshima, Hideaki; Takahashi, Koji; Takata, Yasuyuki; Nishiyama, Takashi

    2018-02-01

    To accurately characterize the shape of interfacial nanobubbles using atomic force microscopy (AFM), we investigated the effect of wettability of the AFM tip while operating in the peak force tapping (PFT) mode. The AFM tips were made hydrophobic and hydrophilic by Teflon AF coating and oxygen plasma treatment, respectively. It was found that the measured base radius of nanobubbles differed between AFM height images and adhesion images, and that this difference depended on the tip wettability. The force curves obtained during the measurements were also different depending on the wettability, especially in the range of the tip/nanobubble interaction and in the magnitude of the maximum attractive force in the retraction period. The difference suggests that hydrophobic tips penetrate the gas/liquid interface of the nanobubbles, with the three phase contact line being pinned on the tip surface; hydrophilic tips on the other hand do not penetrate the interface. We then quantitatively estimated the pinning position and recalculated the true profiles of the nanobubbles by comparing the height images and adhesion images. As the AFM tip was made more hydrophilic, the penetration depth decreased and eventually approached zero. This result suggests that the PFT measurement using a hydrophilic tip is vital for the acquisition of reliable nanobubble profiles.

  2. Mapping residual stress fields from Vickers hardness indents using Raman microprobe spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparks, R.G.; Enloe, W.S.; Paesler, M.A.

    1988-12-01

    Micro-Raman spectroscopy is used to map the residual stress fields in the vicinity of Vickers hardness indents. Both 514.5 and 488.0 nm, light is used to excite the effect and the resulting shifted and broadened Raman peaks are analyzed using computer deconvolution. Half-wave plates are used to vary the orientation of the incident later light`s polarization state with respect to crystal orientation. The Raman scattered light is then analyzed for polarization dependences which are indicative of the various components of the Raman scattering tensor. Such studies can yield valuable information about the orientation of stress components in a well known stress field. The results can then be applied to the determination of stress components in machined semiconductor materials.

  3. Representative Stress-Strain Curve by Spherical Indentation on Elastic-Plastic Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Chang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Tensile stress-strain curve of metallic materials can be determined by the representative stress-strain curve from the spherical indentation. Tabor empirically determined the stress constraint factor (stress CF, ψ, and strain constraint factor (strain CF, β, but the choice of value for ψ and β is still under discussion. In this study, a new insight into the relationship between constraint factors of stress and strain is analytically described based on the formation of Tabor’s equation. Experiment tests were performed to evaluate these constraint factors. From the results, representative stress-strain curves using a proposed strain constraint factor can fit better with nominal stress-strain curve than those using Tabor’s constraint factors.

  4. Comment on 'Axisymmetric indentation of an incompressible elastic thin film'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chadwick, Richard S [Section on Auditory Mechanics, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2005-04-07

    It is shown that a recent method based on the asymptotic inversion of Hankel transforms for indentation of thin films (Yang F Q 2003 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 36 50) provides a non-unique solution for the case of frictionless contact between the film and the substrate. In addition to the solution given by Yang, another one exists having zero hydrostatic stress that results in half the force acting on the indenter for the same indentation. A more rigorous asymptotic method (Chadwick R S 2002 SIAM J. Appl. Math. 62 1520) singles out the smaller force solution as the correct one. (comment)

  5. Neutron detection using CR-39 and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez L, C.; Fragoso, R.; Felix, R.; Golzarri, J.I.; Espinosa, G.; Castillo, F.

    2007-01-01

    AFM has been applied in many CR-39 track formation analyses. In this paper, the use of AFM in the neutron detection and analysis of the track formation is reported. The irradiation was made with an 1.5 GBq (0.5 Ci) 241 Am-Be neutron source, with and without a polyethylene radiator. The surface analysis was made to the CR-39 fresh material without irradiation, after the irradiation, and after a very short etching time. The results show important differences between the irradiation, with and without polyethylene radiator, and the latent tracks of the neutron in the CR-39 polycarbonate. The development of track formation after very short etching time and pits characterization were measured too using the AFM facilities. (Author)

  6. Simultaneous AFM nano-patterning and imaging for photomask repair

    OpenAIRE

    Keyvani, A.; Tamer, M.S.; Es, M.H. van; Sadeghian Marnani, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a new AFM based nano-patterning technique that can be used for fast defect repairing of high resolution photomasks and possibly other high-speed nano-patterning applications. The proposed method works based on hammering the sample with tapping mode AFM followed by wet cleaning of the residuals. On the area where a specific pattern should be written, the tip-sample interaction force is tuned in a controlled manner by changing the excitation frequency of the cantilever ...

  7. Automated handling and assembly of customizable AFM-tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartenwerfer, M.; Eichhorn, V.; Jasper, D.

    2011-01-01

    for metrology are required. Two of the most important parameters are the line width and sidewall roughness of vertical interconnects and nanooptical structures. The measurement of these parameters becomes increasingly challenging as the continuous shrinking of dimensions requires higher lateral resolution...... and customizable scanning probe tips, so-called NanoBits, can be attached to standard AFM cantilevers offering unprecedented freedom in adapting the shape and size of the tips to the surface topology of the specific application. In order to realize the in-situ exchange of NanoBits within the AFM environment...

  8. Determination of the Mechanical Properties of Plasma-Sprayed Hydroxyapatite Coatings Using the Knoop Indentation Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Fahad; Wang, James; Berndt, Christopher

    2015-06-01

    The microhardness and elastic modulus of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings were evaluated using Knoop indentation on the cross section and on the top surface. The effects of indentation angle, testing direction, measurement location and applied load on the microhardness and elastic modulus were investigated. The variability and distribution of the microhardness and elastic modulus data were statistically analysed using the Weibull modulus distribution. The results indicate that the dependence of microhardness and elastic modulus on the indentation angle exhibits a parabolic shape. Dependence of the microhardness values on the indentation angle follows Pythagoras's theorem. The microhardness, Weibull modulus of microhardness and Weibull modulus of elastic modulus reach their maximum at the central position (175 µm) on the cross section of the coatings. The Weibull modulus of microhardness revealed similar values throughout the thickness, and the Weibull modulus of elastic modulus shows higher values on the top surface compared to the cross section.

  9. Finite Element Bond Modeling for Indented Wires in Pretensioned Concrete Crossties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    Indented wires have been increasingly employed by : concrete crosstie manufacturers to improve the bond between : prestressing steel reinforcements and concrete, as bond can : affect several critical performance measures, including transfer : length,...

  10. Experimental validation of the new modular application of the upper bound theorem in indentation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bermudo

    Full Text Available Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process.

  11. Experimental Validation of the New Modular Application of the Upper Bound Theorem in Indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudo, Carolina; Martín, Francisco; Martín, María Jesús; Sevilla, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process. PMID:25826738

  12. Experimental validation of the new modular application of the upper bound theorem in indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudo, Carolina; Martín, Francisco; Martín, María Jesús; Sevilla, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, thanks to the new manufacturing processes, indentation is becoming an essential part of the new arising processes such as the Incremental Forming Processes. This work presents the experimental validation of the analytical model developed for an indentation-based process. The analytical model is originated from the Upper Bound Theorem application by means of its new modular distribution. The modules considered are composed of two Triangular Rigid Zones each. The experimental validation is performed through a series of indentation tests with work-pieces of annealed aluminium EN AW-2030 and punches of steel AISI 304, under plane strain conditions. The results are compared with the ones obtained from the application of this new modular distribution of the Upper Bound Theorem, showing a good approximation and suitability of the model developed for an indentation-based process.

  13. Flat indentation of a viscoelastic polymer film on a rigid substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Tae; Lee, Seung Ryoon; Earmme, Youn Young

    2008-01-01

    A systematic method of flat indentation was developed to measure the elastic and viscoelastic properties of polymer films. A flat indentation problem on an elastic film perfectly bonded to a rigid substrate was revisited, from which the relationship between the applied force and the penetration depth was obtained in a simple form. Application of the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle converts the force-depth relationship for elastic films to the Laplace transform of that for viscoelastic films. Indentation experiments with a flat diamond tip were performed on polymer films (SU-8 and NR4-8000P). Analysis of the measured data with the viscoelastic force-depth relationship provides the shear moduli, Poisson's ratios, and relaxation moduli of these films. Viscoplastic deformations produced in the films that underwent the flat indentation process were quantified by measuring the residual deformation after unloading with an atomic force microscope

  14. AFM lithography of aluminum for fabrication of nanomechanical systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Zachary James; Abadal, G.; Hansen, Ole

    2003-01-01

    Nanolithography by local anodic oxidation of surfaces using atomic force microscopy (AFM) has proven to be more reproducible when using dynamic, non-contact mode. Hereby, the tip/sample interaction forces are reduced dramatically compared to contact mode, and thus tip wear is greatly reduced. Ano...

  15. AFM cantilever with in situ renewable mercury microelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schön, Peter Manfred; Geerlings, J.; Tas, Niels Roelof; Sarajlic, Edin

    2013-01-01

    We report here first results obtained on a novel, in situ renewable mercury microelectrode integrated into an atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilever. Our approach is based on a fountain pen probe with appropriate dimensions enabling reversible filling with(nonwetting) mercury under changing the

  16. Modular design of AFM probe with sputtered silicon tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Thaysen, Jacob; Bouwstra, Siebe

    2001-01-01

    of the thin films constituting the cantilever. The AFM probe has an integrated tip made of a thick sputtered silicon layer, which is deposited after the probe has been defined and just before the cantilevers are released. The tips are so-called rocket tips made by reactive ion etching. We present probes...

  17. Factors influencing the stability of AFm and AFt in the Ca–Al–S–O–H system at 25 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pan; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2016-01-01

    The stabilities of Al2O3–Fe2O3-mono (AFm) and –tri (AFt) phases in the Ca–Al–S–O–H system at 25 °C are examined using Gibbs energy minimization as implemented by GEM-Selektor software coupled with the Nagra/PSI thermodynamic database. Equilibrium phase diagrams are constructed and compared to those reported in previous studies. The sensitivity of the calculations to the assumed solid solubility products, highlighted by the example of hydrogarnet, is likely the reason why some studies, including this one, predict a stable SO4-rich AFm phase while others do not. The majority of the effort is given to calculating the influences on AFm and AFt stability of alkali and carbonate components, both of which are typically present in cementitious binders. Higher alkali content shifts the equilibria of both AFt and AFm to lower Ca but higher Al and S concentrations in solution. More importantly, higher alkali content significantly expands the range of solution compositions in equilibrium with AFm relative to AFt phases. The introduction of carbonates alters not only the stable AFm solid solution compositions, as expected, but also influences the range of solution pH over which SO4-rich and OH-rich AFm phases are dominant. Some experimental tests are suggested that could provide validation of these calculations, which are all the more important because of the implications for resistance of portland cement binders to external sulfate attack. PMID:27335503

  18. Factors influencing the stability of AFm and AFt in the Ca-Al-S-O-H system at 25 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Pan; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W

    2016-03-01

    The stabilities of Al 2 O 3 -Fe 2 O 3 -mono (AFm) and -tri (AFt) phases in the Ca-Al-S-O-H system at 25 °C are examined using Gibbs energy minimization as implemented by GEM-Selektor software coupled with the Nagra/PSI thermodynamic database. Equilibrium phase diagrams are constructed and compared to those reported in previous studies. The sensitivity of the calculations to the assumed solid solubility products, highlighted by the example of hydrogarnet, is likely the reason why some studies, including this one, predict a stable SO 4 -rich AFm phase while others do not. The majority of the effort is given to calculating the influences on AFm and AFt stability of alkali and carbonate components, both of which are typically present in cementitious binders. Higher alkali content shifts the equilibria of both AFt and AFm to lower Ca but higher Al and S concentrations in solution. More importantly, higher alkali content significantly expands the range of solution compositions in equilibrium with AFm relative to AFt phases. The introduction of carbonates alters not only the stable AFm solid solution compositions, as expected, but also influences the range of solution pH over which SO 4 -rich and OH-rich AFm phases are dominant. Some experimental tests are suggested that could provide validation of these calculations, which are all the more important because of the implications for resistance of portland cement binders to external sulfate attack.

  19. STM, SECPM, AFM and Electrochemistry on Single Crystalline Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Stimming

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Scanning probe microscopy (SPM techniques have had a great impact on research fields of surface science and nanotechnology during the last decades. They are used to investigate surfaces with scanning ranges between several 100 mm down to atomic resolution. Depending on experimental conditions, and the interaction forces between probe and sample, different SPM techniques allow mapping of different surface properties. In this work, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM in air and under electrochemical conditions (EC-STM, atomic force microscopy (AFM in air and scanning electrochemical potential microscopy (SECPM under electrochemical conditions, were used to study different single crystalline surfaces in electrochemistry. Especially SECPM offers potentially new insights into the solid-liquid interface by providing the possibility to image the potential distribution of the surface, with a resolution that is comparable to STM. In electrocatalysis, nanostructured catalysts supported on different electrode materials often show behavior different from their bulk electrodes. This was experimentally and theoretically shown for several combinations and recently on Pt on Au(111 towards fuel cell relevant reactions. For these investigations single crystals often provide accurate and well defined reference and support systems. We will show heteroepitaxially grown Ru, Ir and Rh single crystalline surface films and bulk Au single crystals with different orientations under electrochemical conditions. Image studies from all three different SPM methods will be presented and compared to electrochemical data obtained by cyclic voltammetry in acidic media. The quality of the single crystalline supports will be verified by the SPM images and the cyclic voltammograms. Furthermore, an outlook will be presented on how such supports can be used in electrocatalytic studies.

  20. Cell mechanics as a marker for diseases: Biomedical applications of AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred, E-mail: mr@biophysik.uni-bremen.de [Institute of Biophysics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn Allee 1, Bremen, D-28359 Germany (Germany)

    2016-08-02

    Many diseases are related to changes in cell mechanics. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is one of the most suitable techniques allowing the investigation of both topography and mechanical properties of adherent cells with high spatial resolution under physiological conditions. Over the years the use of this technique in medical and clinical applications has largely increased, resulting in the notion of cell mechanics as a biomarker to discriminate between different physiological and pathological states of cells. Cell mechanics has proven to be a biophysical fingerprint able discerning between cell phenotypes, unraveling processes in aging or diseases, or even detecting and diagnosing cellular pathologies. We will review in this report some of the works on cell mechanics investigated by AFM with clinical and medical relevance in order to clarify the state of research in this field and to highlight the role of cell mechanics in the study of pathologies, focusing on cancer, blood and cardiovascular diseases.

  1. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmona, Noemi; Kowal, Andrzej; Rincon, Jesus-Maria; Villegas, Maria-Angeles

    2010-01-01

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  2. AFM assessment of the surface nano/microstructure on chemically damaged historical and model glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmona, Noemi [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Kowal, Andrzej [Institute of Catalysis and Surface Chemistry, PAN, ul. Niezapominajek 8, 30239 Cracow (Poland); Rincon, Jesus-Maria [Instituto Eduardo Torroja de Ciencias de la Construccion, CSIC, C. Serrano Galvache s/n, 28033 Madrid (Spain); Villegas, Maria-Angeles, E-mail: mariangeles.villegas@cchs.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas, CSIC, Avda. Gregorio del Amo, 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Instituto de Historia, Centro de Ciencias Humanas y Sociales, CSIC, C. Albasanz, 26-28, 28037 Madrid (Spain)

    2010-01-15

    Surface chemical damage on selected historical glasses from 13th to 19th centuries was evaluated by means of atomic force microscopy (AFM). Nano- and microstructure, roughness and topography of ancient glass samples have been compared with those of model glasses prepared by conventional melting at the laboratory with similar compositions to those most frequently found in historical glass pieces. The results obtained allow discussing the chemical degradation mechanisms in terms of the acid and/or basic chemical attack carried out by the combination of gaseous pollutants and environmental humidity. Even though deep corrosion features escape to the observation order of magnitude of the AF microscope used, the AFM technique proves to be quite useful for the study and evaluation of the most common surface pathologies of historical glasses with different compositions once submitted to natural weathering.

  3. Thermally-treated Pt-coated silicon AFM tips for wear resistance in ferroelectric data storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhushan, Bharat; Palacio, Manuel; Kwak, Kwang Joo

    2008-01-01

    In ferroelectric data storage, a conductive atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe with a noble metal coating is placed in contact with a lead zirconate titanate (PZT) film. The understanding and improvement of probe tip wear, particularly at high velocities, is needed for high data rate recording. A commercial Pt-coated silicon AFM probe was thermally treated in order to form platinum silicide at the near-surface. Nanoindentation, nanoscratch and wear experiments were performed to evaluate the mechanical properties and wear performance at high velocities. The thermally treated tip exhibited lower wear than the untreated tip. The tip wear mechanism is adhesive and abrasive wear with some evidence of impact wear. The enhancement in mechanical properties and wear resistance in the thermally treated film is attributed to silicide formation in the near-surface. Auger electron spectroscopy and electrical resistivity measurements confirm the formation of platinum silicide. This study advances the understanding of thin film nanoscale surface interactions

  4. AFM picking-up manipulation of the metaphase chromosome fragment by using the tweezers-type probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Keiichiro; Saito, Masato; Shichiri, Motoharu; Sugiyama, Sigeru; Takamura, Yuzuru; Hashiguchi, Gen; Tamiya, Eiichi

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the development of a new procedure based on atomic force microscopy (AFM) for the analysis of metaphase chromosome. The aim of this study was to obtain detailed information about the specific locations of genes on the metaphase chromosome. In this research, we performed the manipulation of the metaphase chromosome by using novel AFM probes to obtain chromosome fragments of a smaller size than the ones obtained using the conventional methods, such as glass microneedles. We could pick up the fragment of the metaphase chromosome dissected by the knife-edged probe by using our tweezers-type probe

  5. Alternate approach for calculating hardness based on residual indentation depth: Comparison with experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananthakrishna, G.; K, Srikanth

    2018-03-01

    It is well known that plastic deformation is a highly nonlinear dissipative irreversible phenomenon of considerable complexity. As a consequence, little progress has been made in modeling some well-known size-dependent properties of plastic deformation, for instance, calculating hardness as a function of indentation depth independently. Here, we devise a method of calculating hardness by calculating the residual indentation depth and then calculate the hardness as the ratio of the load to the residual imprint area. Recognizing the fact that dislocations are the basic defects controlling the plastic component of the indentation depth, we set up a system of coupled nonlinear time evolution equations for the mobile, forest, and geometrically necessary dislocation densities. Within our approach, we consider the geometrically necessary dislocations to be immobile since they contribute to additional hardness. The model includes dislocation multiplication, storage, and recovery mechanisms. The growth of the geometrically necessary dislocation density is controlled by the number of loops that can be activated under the contact area and the mean strain gradient. The equations are then coupled to the load rate equation. Our approach has the ability to adopt experimental parameters such as the indentation rates, the geometrical parameters defining the Berkovich indenter, including the nominal tip radius. The residual indentation depth is obtained by integrating the Orowan expression for the plastic strain rate, which is then used to calculate the hardness. Consistent with the experimental observations, the increasing hardness with decreasing indentation depth in our model arises from limited dislocation sources at small indentation depths and therefore avoids divergence in the limit of small depths reported in the Nix-Gao model. We demonstrate that for a range of parameter values that physically represent different materials, the model predicts the three characteristic

  6. Analysis of the equivalent indenter concept used to extract Young’s modulus from a nano-indentation test: some new insights into the Oliver–Pharr method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andriollo, Tito; Thorborg, Jesper; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2017-01-01

    's elastic solution which is formally valid only for indentation into a flat surface. This allows for formulating the problem of extracting Young's modulus from the unloading curve as an optimization problem. However, it is proved that the latter does not have a unique solution, due to the particular...

  7. A correlation between micro- and nano-indentation on materials irradiated by high-energy heavy ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yitao; Zhang, Chonghong; Ding, Zhaonan; Su, Changhao; Yan, Tingxing; Song, Yin; Cheng, Yuguang

    2018-01-01

    Hardness testing is an efficient means of assessing the mechanical properties of materials due to the small sampling volume requirement. Previous studies have established the correlation between flow stress and Vickers hardness. However, the damage layer produced by ions irradiation with low energy is too thin to perform Vickers hardness test, which is usually measured by nano-indentation. Therefore, it is necessary to correlate the Vickers hardness and nano-hardness for the convenience of assessing mechanical properties of materials under irradiation. In this study, various materials (pure nickel, nickel base alloys and oxide dispersion strengthened steel) were irradiated with high-energy heavy ions to different damage levels. After irradiation, micro- and nano-indentation were performed to characterize the change in hardness. Due to indentation size effect (ISE), the hardness was dependent of load or depth. Therefore, Nix-Gao model was used to obtain the hardness without ISE (Hv0 and Hnano_0). The determined Hv0 was plotted as a function of the corresponding Hnano_0, then a good linear relation was found between Vickers hardness and nano-hardness, and a coefficient was determined to be 81.0 ± 10.5, namely, Hv 0 = 81.0Hnano _ 0 (Hv0 with unit of kgf/mm2, Hnano_0 with unit of GPa). This correlation was based on the data from various materials, therefore it was independent of materials. Based on the established correlation and nano-indentation results, the change fraction in yield stress of Inconel 718 and pure Ni with ion irradiation was compared with that with neutron irradiation. The data of Inconel 718 with heavy ion irradiation was in good agreement with the data with neutron irradiation, which was a good demonstration for the validation of the established correlation. However, a distinctive difference in change fraction of yield stress was seen for pure Ni under heavy ion irradiation and neutron irradiation, which was attributed to the difference in samples

  8. AFM Imaging of Natural Optical Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinara Sultanovna Dallaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The research in this field is focused to the investigation of biological structures with superior optical features. The study presents atomic force microscopy of biological optical structures on butterfly wings. The bright blue and dark black color scales exhibit the different topography. These scales were compared to the visually the same color scales of other two species of butterflies. The histograms of heights distribution are presented and show similar results for the scales of one color for different species.

  9. Phenotypic Heterogeneity in Attachment of Marine Bacteria toward Antifouling Copolymers Unraveled by AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofiane El-Kirat-Chatel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Up to recent years, bacterial adhesion has mostly been evaluated at the population level. Single cell level has improved in the past few years allowing a better comprehension of the implication of individual behaviors as compared to the one of a whole community. A new approach using atomic force microscopy (AFM to measure adhesion forces between a live bacterium attached via a silica microbead to the AFM tipless cantilever and the surface has been recently developed. The objectives of this study is to examine the bacterial adhesion to a surface dedicated to ship hulls at the population and the cellular level to understand to what extent these two levels could be correlated. Adhesion of marine bacteria on inert surfaces are poorly studied in particular when substrata are dedicated to ship hulls. Studying these interactions in this context are worthwhile as they may involve different adhesion behaviors, taking place in salty conditions, using different surfaces than the ones usually utilized in the literacy. FRC (fouling release coatings–SPC (self-polishing coatings hybrids antifouling coatings have been used as substrata and are of particular interest for designing environmentally friendly surfaces, combining progressive surface erosion and low adhesion properties. In this study, a hybrid coating has been synthetized and used to study the adhesion of three marine bacteria, displaying different surface characteristics, using microplate assays associated with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM and AFM. This study shows that the bacterial strain that appeared to have the weakest adhesion and biofilm formation abilities when evaluated at the population level using microplates assays and CSLM, displayed stronger adhesion forces on the same surfaces at the single cell level using AFM. In addition, one of the strains tested which presented a strong ability to adhere and to form biofilm at the population level, displayed a heterogeneous

  10. AFM-porosimetry: density and pore volume measurements of particulate materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sörensen, Malin H; Valle-Delgado, Juan J; Corkery, Robert W; Rutland, Mark W; Alberius, Peter C

    2008-06-01

    We introduced the novel technique of AFM-porosimetry and applied it to measure the total pore volume of porous particles with a spherical geometry. The methodology is based on using an atomic force microscope as a balance to measure masses of individual particles. Several particles within the same batch were measured, and by plotting particle mass versus particle volume, the bulk density of the sample can be extracted from the slope of the linear fit. The pore volume is then calculated from the densities of the bulk and matrix materials, respectively. In contrast to nitrogen sorption and mercury porosimetry, this method is capable of measuring the total pore volume regardless of pore size distribution and pore connectivity. In this study, three porous samples were investigated by AFM-porosimetry: one ordered mesoporous sample and two disordered foam structures. All samples were based on a matrix of amorphous silica templated by a block copolymer, Pluronic F127, swollen to various degrees with poly(propylene glycol). In addition, the density of silica spheres without a template was measured by two independent techniques: AFM and the Archimedes principle.

  11. Graphene Nanopore Support System for Simultaneous High-Resolution AFM Imaging and Conductance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Accurately defining the nanoporous structure and sensing the ionic flow across nanoscale pores in thin films and membranes has a wide range of applications, including characterization of biological ion channels and receptors, DNA sequencing, molecule separation by nanoparticle films, sensing by block co-polymers films, and catalysis through metal–organic frameworks. Ionic conductance through nanopores is often regulated by their 3D structures, a relationship that can be accurately determined only by their simultaneous measurements. However, defining their structure–function relationships directly by any existing techniques is still not possible. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) can image the structures of these pores at high resolution in an aqueous environment, and electrophysiological techniques can measure ion flow through individual nanoscale pores. Combining these techniques is limited by the lack of nanoscale interfaces. We have designed a graphene-based single-nanopore support (∼5 nm thick with ∼20 nm pore diameter) and have integrated AFM imaging and ionic conductance recording using our newly designed double-chamber recording system to study an overlaid thin film. The functionality of this integrated system is demonstrated by electrical recording (nanopore and simultaneous AFM imaging of the bilayer. PMID:24581087

  12. Custom AFM for X-ray beamlines: in situ biological investigations under physiological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gumí-Audenis, B.; Carlà, F.; Vitorino, M. V.; Panzarella, A.; Porcar, L.; Boilot, M.; Guerber, S.; Bernard, P.; Rodrigues, M. S.; Sanz, F.; Giannotti, M. I.; Costa, L.

    2015-01-01

    The performance of a custom atomic force microscope for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments on hydrated soft and biological samples is presented. A fast atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed that can be installed as a sample holder for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments at solid/gas or solid/liquid interfaces. It allows a wide range of possible investigations, including soft and biological samples under physiological conditions (hydrated specimens). The structural information obtained using the X-rays is combined with the data gathered with the AFM (morphology and mechanical properties), providing a unique characterization of the specimen and its dynamics in situ during an experiment. In this work, lipid monolayers and bilayers in air or liquid environment have been investigated by means of AFM, both with imaging and force spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. In addition, this combination allows the radiation damage induced by the beam on the sample to be studied, as has been observed on DOPC and DPPC supported lipid bilayers under physiological conditions

  13. Writing with Fluid: Structuring Hydrogels with Micrometer Precision by AFM in Combination with Nanofluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfricht, Nicolas; Mark, Andreas; Behr, Marina; Bernet, Andreas; Schmidt, Hans-Werner; Papastavrou, Georg

    2017-08-01

    Hydrogels have many applications in biomedical surface modification and tissue engineering. However, the structuring of hydrogels after their formation represents still a major challenge, in particular due to their softness. Here, a novel approach is presented that is based on the combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM) and nanofluidics, also referred to as FluidFM technology. Its applicability is demonstrated for supramolecular hydrogel films that are prepared from low-molecular weight hydrogelators, such as derivates of 1,3,5-benzene tricarboxamides (BTAs). BTA films can be dissolved selectively by ejecting alkaline solution through the aperture of a hollow AFM-cantilever connected to a nanofluidic controller. The AFM-based force control is essential in preventing mechanical destruction of the hydrogels. The resulting "chemical writing" process is studied in detail and the influence of various parameters, such as applied pressure and time, is validated. It is demonstrated that the achievable structuring precision is primarily limited by diffusion and the aperture dimensions. Recently, various additive techniques have been presented to pattern hydrogels. The here-presented subtractive approach can not only be applied to structure hydrogels from the large class of reversibly formed gels with superior resolution but would also allow for the selective loading of the hydrogels with active substances or nanoparticles. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Custom AFM for X-ray beamlines: in situ biological investigations under physiological conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumí-Audenis, B. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Carlà, F. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Vitorino, M. V. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Panzarella, A. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Porcar, L. [Institut Laue-Langevin, Grenoble (France); Boilot, M. [ORTEC, Marseille (France); Guerber, S. [CEA, LETI Grenoble (France); Bernard, P. [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France); Rodrigues, M. S. [University of Lisboa, Falculty of Science, Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute - BIOISI, Lisbon (Portugal); Sanz, F.; Giannotti, M. I. [Institute for Bioengineering of Catalonia (IBEC), Barcelona (Spain); Physical Chemistry Department, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain); Networking Biomedical Research Center on Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Madrid (Spain); Costa, L., E-mail: luca.costa@esrf.fr [ESRF, The European Synchrotron, Grenoble (France)

    2015-09-30

    The performance of a custom atomic force microscope for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments on hydrated soft and biological samples is presented. A fast atomic force microscope (AFM) has been developed that can be installed as a sample holder for grazing-incidence X-ray experiments at solid/gas or solid/liquid interfaces. It allows a wide range of possible investigations, including soft and biological samples under physiological conditions (hydrated specimens). The structural information obtained using the X-rays is combined with the data gathered with the AFM (morphology and mechanical properties), providing a unique characterization of the specimen and its dynamics in situ during an experiment. In this work, lipid monolayers and bilayers in air or liquid environment have been investigated by means of AFM, both with imaging and force spectroscopy, and X-ray reflectivity. In addition, this combination allows the radiation damage induced by the beam on the sample to be studied, as has been observed on DOPC and DPPC supported lipid bilayers under physiological conditions.

  15. Probing Aggrecan Interactions with Ions by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandran, Preethi; Dimitriadis, Emilios; Basser, Peter; Horkay, Ferenc

    2010-03-01

    Aggrecan (MW 2 MDa) is a highly charged bottle-brush shape biological polymer found in the extracellular matrix of tissues. It consists of a protein backbone (400nm long), to which about 100 linear chains of negatively-charged glucosaminoglycans are attached approximately 4 nm apart. The high charge density of the aggrecan bottle-brush allows it to imbibe water, thereby maintaining tissue hydration and permeability, while also binding to cell-signaling molecules. In solution, aggrecan molecules respond differently to varying salt conditions, than other charged biological and synthetic polyelectrolytes like DNA and poly(acrylic acid) (Horkay, 2008). To probe the nature of its interactions with charged surfaces, we looked at the absorption patterns of aggrecan assemblies on controlled surfaces (polylysine, mica) under different ionic conditions, using Atomic Force Microscopy. We propose a simple model of the charge interactions, which relates the surface-adsorption patterns to the solution structures. The study may help understanding how aggrecan loss or degradation with age and joint disease affects tissue microstructure and physical properties.

  16. Scanning diamond NV center probes compatible with conventional AFM technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Tony X.; Stöhr, Rainer J.; Yacoby, Amir

    2017-10-01

    Scanning probe microscopy using nitrogen vacancy (NV) centers in diamond has become a versatile tool with applications in physics, chemistry, life sciences, and earth and planetary sciences. However, the fabrication of diamond scanning probes with high photon collection efficiency, NV centers with long coherence times, and integrated radio frequency (RF) remains challenging due to the small physical dimensions of the probes and the complexity of the fabrication techniques. In this work, we present a simple and robust method to reliably fabricate probes that can be integrated with conventional quartz tuning fork based sensors as well as commercial silicon AFM cantilevers. An integrated RF micro-antenna for NV center spin manipulation is directly fabricated onto the probe making the design versatile and compatible with virtually all AFM instruments. This integration marks a complete sensor package for NV center-based magnetometry and opens up this scanning probe technique to the broader scientific community.

  17. Vacuolar structures can be identified by AFM elasticity mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riethmueller, Christoph; Schaeffer, Tilman E.; Kienberger, Ferry; Stracke, Werner; Oberleithner, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Fluid-filled organelles like vesicles, endosomes and pinosomes are inevitable parts of cellular signalling and transport. Endothelial cells, building a barrier between blood and tissue, can form vacuolar organelles. These structures are implicated in upregulated fluid transport across the endothelium under inflammatory conditions. Vacuolar organelles have been described by transmission electron microscopy so far. Here, we present a method that images and mechanically characterizes intracellular structures in whole cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). After crosslinking the cellular proteins with the fixative glutaraldehyde, plasma membrane depressions become observable, which are scattered around the cell nucleus. Nanomechanical analysis identifies them as spots of reduced stiffness. Scanning electron microscopy confirms their pit-like appearance. In addition, fluorescence microscopy detects an analogous pattern of protein-poor spots, thereby confirming mechanical rigidity to arise from crosslinked proteins. This AFM application opens up a mechanical dimension for the investigation of intracellular organelles

  18. LET Spectrum Measurements In CR-39 PNTD With AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C. E.; DeWitt, J. M.; Benton, E. R.; Yasuda, N.; Benton, E. V.

    2011-06-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range (˜recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching (˜<1 μm) following by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features inherently present in the post-etch detector surface. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/μm. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to 1 GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  19. LET spectrum measurements in Cr-39 PNTD with AFM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Laboratory; De Witt, Joel M [OSU, PHYSICS; Benton, Eric R [OSU, PHYSICS; Yasuda, Nakahiro [NIRS, HIMAC; Benton, Eugene V [UNIV OF SAN FRANCISCO

    2010-01-01

    Energetic protons, neutrons, and heavy ions undergoing collisions with target nuclei of varying Z can produce residual heavy recoil fragments via intra-nuclear cascade/evaporation reactions. The particles produced in these non-elastic collisions generally have such extremely short range ({approx}< 10 {mu}m) that they cannot be directly observed by conventional detection methods including CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) that has been chemically etched for analysis by standard visible light microscopy. However, high-LET recoil fragments having range on the order of several cell diameters can be produced in tissue during radiotherapy using proton and carbon beams. We have developed a method to analyze short-range, high-LET tracks in CR-39 plastic nuclear track detector (PNTD) using short duration chemical etching ({approx}< 1 {mu}m) followed by automated atomic force microscope (AFM) scanning. The post-scan data processing used in this work was based on semi-automated matrix analysis opposed to traditional grey-scale image analysis. This method takes advantage of the 3-D data obtained via AFM to achieve robust discrimination of nuclear tracks from other features. Through automation of AFM scanning, sufficient AFM scan frames were obtained to attain an LET spectrum spanning the LET range from 200-1500 keV/{mu}m. In addition to our experiments, simulations were carried out with the Monte Carlo transport code, FLUKA. To demonstrate this method, CR-39 PNTD was exposed to the proton therapy beam at Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) at 60 and 230 MeV. Additionally, detectors were exposed to I GeV protons at the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). For these exposures CR-39 PNTD, Al and Cu target foils were used between detector layers.

  20. Soft Synthesis and Nano -Structural Features of Highly Crystalline Asprin An AFM-Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Morsy M.A.Sekkina; Khaled M. Elsabawy; A. El-Maghraby

    2014-01-01

    The present investigations introduce new trend of applying AFM-microscopy to visualize a real 3D-imaging of sample’s surface topography .High resolution AFM-investigations indicated that crystalline asprin has regular arrays of atomic arrangement with no violation in the bulk of asprin .TM deflection AFM- gave us good approximation to the diffusion of grain throughout the surface topology of investigated asprin . The AFM-deflection centers imaging indicated that the numbers of grains distribu...

  1. Temperature-dependent imaging of living cells by AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Espenel, Cedric; Giocondi, Marie-Cecile; Seantier, Bastien; Dosset, Patrice; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Le Grimellec, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Characterization of lateral organization of plasma membranes is a prerequisite to the understanding of membrane structure-function relationships in living cells. Lipid-lipid and lipid-protein interactions are responsible for the existence of various membrane microdomains involved in cell signalization and in numerous pathologies. Developing approaches for characterizing microdomains associate identification tools like recognition imaging with high-resolution topographical imaging. Membrane properties are markedly dependent on temperature. However, mesoscopic scale topographical information of cell surface in a temperature range covering most of cell biology experimentation is still lacking. In this work we have examined the possibility of imaging the temperature-dependent behavior of eukaryotic cells by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Our results establish that the surface of living CV1 kidney cells can be imaged by AFM, between 5 and 37 deg. C, both in contact and tapping modes. These first temperature-dependent data show that large cell structures appeared essentially stable at a microscopic scale. On the other hand, as shown by contact mode AFM, the surface was highly dynamic at a mesoscopic scale, with marked changes in apparent topography, friction, and deflection signals. When keeping the scanning conditions constant, a progressive loss in the image contrast was however observed, using tapping mode, on decreasing the temperature

  2. Sub-diffraction nano manipulation using STED AFM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenu Varghese Chacko

    Full Text Available In the last two decades, nano manipulation has been recognized as a potential tool of scientific interest especially in nanotechnology and nano-robotics. Contemporary optical microscopy (super resolution techniques have also reached the nanometer scale resolution to visualize this and hence a combination of super resolution aided nano manipulation ineluctably gives a new perspective to the scenario. Here we demonstrate how specificity and rapid determination of structures provided by stimulated emission depletion (STED microscope can aid another microscopic tool with capability of mechanical manoeuvring, like an atomic force microscope (AFM to get topological information or to target nano scaled materials. We also give proof of principle on how high-resolution real time visualization can improve nano manipulation capability within a dense sample, and how STED-AFM is an optimal combination for this job. With these evidences, this article points to future precise nano dissections and maybe even to a nano-snooker game with an AFM tip and fluorospheres.

  3. Near-Field Spectroscopy with Nanoparticles Deposited by AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Mark S.

    2008-01-01

    An alternative approach to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy involving an atomic-force microscope (AFM) entails less complexity of equipment than does a prior approach. The alternative approach has been demonstrated to be applicable to apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy of the type using an AFM and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and is expected to be equally applicable in cases in which infrared or fluorescence spectroscopy is used. Apertureless near-field optical spectroscopy is a means of performing spatially resolved analyses of chemical compositions of surface regions of nanostructured materials. In apertureless near-field spectroscopy, it is common practice to utilize nanostructured probe tips or nanoparticles (usually of gold) having shapes and dimensions chosen to exploit plasmon resonances so as to increase spectroscopic-signal strengths. To implement the particular prior approach to which the present approach is an alternative, it is necessary to integrate a Raman spectrometer with an AFM and to utilize a special SERS-active probe tip. The resulting instrumentation system is complex, and the tasks of designing and constructing the system and using the system to acquire spectro-chemical information from nanometer-scale regions on a surface are correspondingly demanding.

  4. Evaluation of deformation and fracture characteristics of nuclear reactor materials using ball indentation test technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byun, T. S.; Hong, J. H.; Lee, B. S.; Park, D. G.; Kim, J. H.; Oh, Y. J.; Yoon, J. H.; Chi, S. H.; Kuk, I. H.; Kwon, D. I.; Lee, J. H.

    1998-05-01

    The present report describes the automated ball indentation test techniques and the results of their applications. The ball indentation test technique is an innovative method for evaluating the key mechanical properties from the indentation load-depth data. In the 1st chapter, the existing technique for evaluating basic deformation (tensile) properties is described in detail, and also the application result of the technique is presented. The through-thickness variations of mechanical properties in SA 508 C1.3 reactor pressure vessel steels were measured using an automated ball indentation (ABI) technique. In the 2nd chapter, a method under development, which is similar to that in the 1st chapter, is new method is based on the theoretical solutions rather than experimental relationships. The result of the application showed that the stress-strain curves of various metals were successfully determined with the method. In the 3rd chapter, a new theoretical model was proposed to estimate the fracture toughness of ferritic steels in the transition temperature region. The key concept of the model is that the indention energy to a critical load is related to the fracture energy of the material. The theory was applied to the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) base and weld metals. (author). 24 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs

  5. Atomic mechanism of shear localization during indentation of a nanostructured metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sansoz, F.; Dupont, V.

    2007-01-01

    Shear localization is an important mode of deformation in nanocrystalline metals. However, it is very difficult to verify the existence of local shear planes in nanocrystalline metals experimentally. Sharp indentation techniques may provide novel opportunities to investigate the effect of shear localization at different length scales, but the relationship between indentation response and atomic-level shear band formation has not been fully addressed. This paper describes an effort to provide direct insight on the mechanism of shear localization during indentation of nanocrystalline metals from atomistic simulations. Molecular statics is performed with the quasi-continuum method to simulate the indentation of single crystal and nanocrystalline Al with a sharp cylindrical probe. In the nanocrystalline regime, two grain sizes are investigated, 5 nm and 10 nm. We find that the indentation of nanocrystalline metals is characterized by serrated plastic flow. This effect seems to be independent of the grain size. Serration in nanocrystalline metals is found to be associated with the formation of shear bands by sliding of aligned interfaces and intragranular slip, which results in deformation twinning

  6. A Comparison of Quasi-Static Indentation Testing to Low Velocity Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettles, Alan T.; Douglas, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    The need for a static test method for modeling low-velocity foreign object impact events to composites would prove to be very beneficial to researchers since much more data can be obtained from a static test than from an impact test. In order to examine if this is feasible, a series of static indentation and low velocity impact tests were carried out and compared. Square specimens of many sizes and thickness were utilized to cover the array of types of low velocity impact events. Laminates with a n/4 stacking sequence were employed since this is by the most common type of engineering laminate. Three distinct flexural rigidities under two different boundary conditions were tested in order to obtain damage due to large deflections, contact stresses and both to examine if the static indentation-impact comparisons are valid under the spectrum of damage modes that can be experienced. Comparisons between static indentation and low velocity impact tests were based on the maximum applied transverse load. The dependent parameters examined included dent depth, back surface crack length, delamination area and to a limited extent, load-deflection behavior. Results showed that no distinct differences could be seen between the static indentation tests and the low velocity impact tests, indicating that static indentation can be used to represent a low velocity impact event.

  7. Change detection technique for muscle tone during static stretching by continuous muscle viscoelasticity monitoring using wearable indentation tester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Naomi; Kobayashi, Yo; Sugano, Shigeki; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2017-07-01

    Static stretching is widely performed to decrease muscle tone as a part of rehabilitation protocols. Finding out the optimal duration of static stretching is important to minimize the time required for rehabilitation therapy and it would be helpful for maintaining the patient's motivation towards daily rehabilitation tasks. Several studies have been conducted for the evaluation of static stretching; however, the recommended duration of static stretching varies widely between 15-30 s in general, because the traditional methods for the assessment of muscle tone do not monitor the continuous change in the target muscle's state. We have developed a method to monitor the viscoelasticity of one muscle continuously during static stretching, using a wearable indentation tester. In this study, we investigated a suitable signal processing method to detect the time required to change the muscle tone, utilizing the data collected using a wearable indentation tester. By calculating a viscoelastic index with a certain time window, we confirmed that the stretching duration required to bring about a decrease in muscle tone could be obtained with an accuracy in the order of 1 s.

  8. Transient Tip-Sample Interactions in High-Speed AFM Imaging of 3D nano structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyvani Janbahan, A.; Sadeghian Marnani, H; Goosen, H.; Keulen, F. van

    2015-01-01

    The maximum amount of repulsive force applied to the surface plays a very important role in damage of tip or sample in Atomic Force Microscopy(AFM). So far, many investigations have focused on peak repulsive forces in tapping mode AFM in steady state conditions. However, it is known that AFM could

  9. Noncontact AFM Imaging of Atomic Defects on the Rutile TiO2 (110) Surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jeppe Vang

    2015-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) operated in the noncontact mode (nc-AFM) offers a unique tool for real space, atomic-scale characterisation of point defects and molecules on surfaces, irrespective of the substrate being electrically conducting or non-conducting. The nc-AFM has therefore in rece...

  10. Using the ultrasound and instrumented indentation techniques to measure the elastic modulus of engineering materials; Medicion del modulo de elasticidad en materiales de ingenieria utilizando la tecnica de indentacion instrumentada y de ultrasonido

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza, J. M.; Franco, E. E.; Farias, M. C. M.; Buiochi, F.; Souza, R. M.; Cruz, J.

    2008-07-01

    Currently, the acoustic and nano indentation techniques are two of the most used techniques for materials elastic modulus measurement. In this article fundamental principles and limitations of both techniques are shown and discussed. Last advances in nano indentation technique are also reviewed. an experimental study in ceramic, metallic, composite and single crystals was also done. Results shown that ultrasonic technique is capable to provide results in agreement with those reported in literature. However, ultrasonic technique does not allow measuring the elastic modulus of some small samples and single crystals. On the other hand, the nano indentation technique estimates the elastic modulus values in reasonable agreement with those measured by acoustic methods, particularly in amorphous materials, while in some policristaline materials some deviation from expected values was obtained. (Author) 29 refs.

  11. Vibrotactile perception thresholds at the sole of the foot: effects of contact force and probe indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Cheng; Griffin, Michael J

    2012-05-01

    When using vibrotactile thresholds to investigate neuropathy in the fingers, the indentation of a vibrating probe, and the force applied to a static surround around a vibrating probe, affect thresholds. This study was designed to investigate the effects on vibrotactile perception thresholds at the sole of the foot of probe indentation (i.e. height of a vibrating probe relative to a static surround) and the force applied to the static surround. Thresholds at 20 Hz (expected to be mediated by the NP I channel) and at 160 Hz (expected to be mediated by the Pacinian channel) were obtained at the hallux (i.e. greater toe) and the ball of the foot on 14 healthy subjects. In one condition, the height of the vibrating probe was varied to 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm above a static surround with 4-N force applied to the surround. In a second condition, the force applied to the surround was varied to 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 N while using a probe height of 1mm. Thresholds at 20 Hz decreased with increasing probe height from 0 to 1 mm but showed no significant variation between 2, 3, and 4mm at either the hallux or the ball of the foot. Thresholds at 160 Hz decreased with increasing probe height from 0 to 4 mm at both the hallux and the ball of the foot. Thresholds at 20 Hz obtained with 1-N surround force were higher than thresholds obtained with 2 N, but there was no significant difference with surround forces from 2 to 6 N at either the hallux or the ball of the foot. Thresholds at 160 Hz were unaffected by variations in surround force at the ball of the foot but tended to decrease with increasing force at the hallux. It is concluded that a vibrating probe flush with a static surround, and a surround force in the range 2-4 N, are appropriate when measuring vibrotactile thresholds at the hallux and the ball of the foot with a 6-mm diameter contactor and a 2-mm gap to the static surround. Copyright © 2011 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Semianalytical Solution for the Deformation of an Elastic Layer under an Axisymmetrically Distributed Power-Form Load: Application to Fluid-Jet-Induced Indentation of Biological Soft Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minhua Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluid-jet-based indentation is used as a noncontact excitation technique by systems measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues. However, the application of these devices has been hindered by the lack of theoretical solutions. This study developed a mathematical model for testing the indentation induced by a fluid jet and determined a semianalytical solution. The soft tissue was modeled as an elastic layer bonded to a rigid base. The pressure of the fluid jet impinging on the soft tissue was assumed to have a power-form function. The semianalytical solution was verified in detail using finite-element modeling, with excellent agreement being achieved. The effects of several parameters on the solution behaviors are reported, and a method for applying the solution to determine the mechanical properties of soft tissues is suggested.

  13. Evaluation of hot hardness, creep, fatigue and fracture properties of zirconia ceramics by an indentation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutty, T.R.G.; Ganguly, C.; Upadhyaya, D.D.

    1996-01-01

    Zirconia ceramics have wide range engineering applications at room and elevated temperatures. For understanding the mechanical behaviour, the indentation technique was adapted for quick evaluation of hot hardness, creep, fatigue and fracture properties. A Vicker's diamond indentor with 10 N load was employed for hot hardness and creep measurement up to 1300 deg. The fatigue data were evaluated at room temperature by repeated indentation with a constant load (10-2500N) at the same location for a dwell time of 5s until it resulted in the formation of a lateral chip on the sample surface. Thus, the number of cycles for chip formation at a specific indentation load was obtained. The fracture toughness was evaluated at room temperature with a load of 300N using a Vicker's diamond indentor. The results of hot hardness, creep, fatigue, and fracture data ol 3Y-TZP and Mg-PSZ are discussed along with their microstructural features. (authors)

  14. Analysis of the Indented Cylinder by the use of Computer Vision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buus, Ole Thomsen

    The research summarised in this PhD thesis took advantage of methods from computer vision to experimentally analyse the sorting/separation ability of a specific type of seed sorting device – known as an “indented cylinder”. The indented cylinder basically separates incoming seeds into two sub......-groups: (1) “long” seeds and (2) “short” seeds (known as length-separation). The motion of seeds being physically manipulated inside an active indented cylinder was analysed using various computer vision methods. The data from such analyses were used to create an overview of the machine’s ability to separate...... all the complexities related to that as well. The project arrived at a number of results of high scientific and practical value to the area of applied computer vision and seed processing and agricultural technology in general. The results and methodologies were summarised in one conference paper...

  15. Improving the speed of AFM by mechatronic design and modern control methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schitter, Georg

    2009-01-01

    In Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) high-performance and high-precision control of the AFM scanner and of the imaging forces is crucial. Particularly at high imaging speeds the dynamic behaviour of the scanner may cause imaging artifacts and limit the maximum imaging rate. This contribution discusses and presents recent improvements in AFM instrumentation for faster imaging by means of mechatronic design and utilizing modern control engineering methods. Combining these improvements enables AFM imaging at more than two orders of magnitudes faster than conventional AFMs. (orig.)

  16. Effect of double ion implantation and irradiation by Ar and He ions on nano-indentation hardness of metallic alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayal, P.; Bhattacharyya, D.; Mook, W. M.; Fu, E. G.; Wang, Y.-Q.; Carr, D. G.; Anderoglu, O.; Mara, N. A.; Misra, A.; Harrison, R. P.; Edwards, L.

    2013-07-01

    In this study, the authors have investigated the combined effect of a double layer of implantation on four different metallic alloys, ODS steel MA957, Zircaloy-4, Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy and stainless steel 316, by ions of two different species - He and Ar - on the hardening of the surface as measured by nano-indentation. The data was collected for a large number of indentations using the Continuous Stiffness Method or "CSM" mode, applying the indents on the implanted surface. Careful analysis of the data in the present investigations show that the relative hardening due to individual implantation layers can be used to obtain an estimate of the relative hardening effect of a combination of two separate implanted layers of two different species. This combined hardness was found to lie between the square root of the sum of the squares of individual hardening effects, (ΔHA2 + ΔHB2)0.5 as the lower limit and the sum of the individual hardening effects, (ΔHA + ΔHB) as the upper limit, within errors, for all depths measured. The hardening due to irradiation by different species of ions was calculated by subtracting the average hardness vs. depth curve of the un-irradiated or "virgin" material from that of the irradiated material. The combined hardening of the irradiated samples due to Ar and He irradiation was found to be described well by an approximate upper bound given by the simple linear sum of the individual hardening (L) and a lower bound given by the square root of the sum of the squares (R) of the individual hardening effects due to Ar and He irradiation along the full depth of the indentation. The peak of the combined hardness of Ar and He irradiated material appears at the depth predicted by both the R and the L curves, in all samples. The combined hardness increase due to Ar and He irradiation lies near the upper limit (L curve) for the ODS steel MA957, somewhere in between L and R curves for Zircaloy-4, and near the R curve for the stainless steel 316

  17. Effect of Properties and Turgor Pressure on the Indentation Response of Plant Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tvergaard, Viggo; Needleman, Alan

    2018-01-01

    The indentation of plant cells by a conical indenter is modeled. The cell wall is represented as a spherical shell consisting of a relatively stiff thin outer layer and a softer thicker inner layer. The state of the interior of the cell is idealized as a specified turgor pressure. Attention...... is restricted to axisymmetric deformations, and the wall material is characterized as a viscoelastic solid with different properties for the inner and outer layers. Finite deformation, quasi-static calculations are carried out. The effects of outer layer stiffness, outer layer thickness, turgor pressure...

  18. Strain gradient effects in periodic flat punch indenting at small scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kim Lau; Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Hutchinson, J. W.

    2014-01-01

    Experiments on soft polycrystalline aluminum have yielded evidence that, besides the required punch load, both the size and shape of imprinted features are affected by the scale of the set-up, e.g. substantial details are lost when the characteristic length is on the order of 10μm. The objective...... of this work is to clarify the role played by strain gradients on this issue, and to shed light on the underlying mechanisms. For this, indentation by a periodic array of flat punch indenters is considered, and a gradient enhanced material model that allows for a numerical investigation of the fundamentals...

  19. Polarity influence on the indentation punching of thin {111} GaAs foils at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patriarche, G; Largeau, L; Riviere, J P; Bourhis, E Le

    2005-01-01

    Thin {111} GaAs substrates were deformed by a Vickers indenter at 350 deg. C-370 deg. C under loads ranging between 0.4 and 1.9 N. Optical microscopy and interferometry were used to observe the indented and opposite faces of the thin foils and hence to investigate the plastic flow through the samples. Attention was paid to the polarity (A or B) of the specimen surface, as GaAs is known to show a large difference between α and β dislocations mobilities. A model considering the influence of polarity is proposed to describe the material flow throughout thin samples

  20. Nano Indentation Inspection of the Mechanical Properties of Gold Nitride Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armen Verdyan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and the local mechanical properties of gold nitride thin films were studied by atomic force microscope (AFM. Gold nitride films were deposited for the first time on silicon substrate without any buffer layer at room temperature by reactive pulsed laser ablation deposition (RPLD. The films were fabricated on (100 Si wafers by RPLD technique in which KrF excimer laser was used to ablate a gold target in N2 atmosphere (0.1 GPa-100 Pa and ambient temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and atomic force microscopy inspections showed that the films were flat plane with rms roughness in the range of 35.1 nm-3.6 nm, depending on the deposition pressure. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS and energy dispersion spectroscopy (EDS used to detect the nitrogen concentration in the films, have revealed a composition close to Au3N. The film

  1. Electrical characterisation of semiconductor structures using AFM techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovac jr, J.; Kovac, J.; Hotovy, J.; Novotny, I.; Skriniarova, J.; Dutkova, E.; Balaz, P.

    2011-01-01

    The microscopic dimensions appear to be a fundamental limitation to many common measurement techniques. The use of Current-Atomic Force Microscopy (I-AFM) bids a possibility to acquire topography image along with the current flow mappings which can be lapped over in resulting image as presented in this paper. A current distribution on the ZnO surface of p-Si/n- ZnO diode structure with CdS or ZnS nanocrystalline quantum dot clusters at the interface has been measured. The resulting images show a conductivity mapping different from topography what induces a conductive channels at the edges of the ZnO grains. We have successfully used I-AFM method where conductive AFM tip is scanning over the surface of the sample to create a topography image along with a current flow mapping of p-Si substrate covered with CdS or ZnS nanocrystalline clusters overlapped by 100 nm thick n-ZnO layer. The measured current mappings of both samples revealed a formation of conductive channels between the clusters of quantum dots when the sample is forward biased. We are able to create 3D topography images of combined with the forward biased current mapping textures which gives complex information about local conductivity and using this method it should be possible to find hidden current leaks in the samples for example defects in most semiconductor materials. A drift current generated in p-n junction was recorded when the sample was reverse biased while the sample has been exposed to light. Possible UV light source should cause a higher reverse current due to high bandgap of ZnS clusters which is a motivation to further research. The devices fabricated from these structures have the potential applications for solar cells or broadband photodetectors. (authors)

  2. AFM AND XPS Characterization of Zinc-Aluminum Alloy Coatings with Attention to Surface Dross and Flow Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Felipe A.; Alarcon, Nelson A.; Toledo, Pedro G.

    Surfaces of various zinc-aluminum alloy (Zn-Al) coated steel samples are studied with attention to foreign surface dross by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS/ESCA). AFM topographic maps of zinc-aluminum alloy surfaces free of dross reveal the perfect nanoscale details of two kinds of dendrites: branched and globular. In all magnifications the dendrites appear smooth and, in general, very clean. XPS analysis of the extreme surface of a Zn-Al sample reveals Al, Zn, Si and O as the main components. The XPS results show no segregation or separation of phases other than those indicated by the ternary Al-Zn-Si diagram. For surfaces of Zn-Al plagued with impurities, high resolution AFM topographic maps reveal three situations: (1) areas with well-defined dendrites, relatively free of dross; (2) areas with small, millimeter-sized black spots known as dross; and (3) areas with large black stains, known as flow lines. Dendrite deformation and dross accumulation increase notably in the neighborhood, apparently clean to the naked eye, of dross or flow lines. XPS results of areas with dross and flow lines indicate unacceptable high concentration of Si and important Si phase separation. These results, in the light of AFM work, reveal that dross and flow lines are a consequence of a high local concentration of Si from high melting point silica and silicate impurities in the Zn-Al alloy source.

  3. AFM characterization of protein net formation on a fibrous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assis O.B.G.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Lysozyme protein net is set on a glass fiber support using the self-assembly technique. Enzymatic film formation is followed by surface imaging via atomic force microscopy (AFM. Change in roughness as a function of deposition time is used as an indirect indicator of film formation. The objective was to form a protein film that would have no effect on the permeability of the medium, aiming at its application as a bioactive membrane or reactor suitable for bacteria and chemical interactions in aqueous media.

  4. Enhancing local absorption within a gold nano-sphere on a dielectric surface under an AFM probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talebi Moghaddam, Sina; Ertürk, Hakan; Mengüç, M. Pınar

    2016-01-01

    This study considers enhancing localized absorption by a gold nanoparticle (NP) placed over a substrate where an atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is in close proximity of the particle. The gold NP and AFM tip are interacting with a surface evanescent wave, resulting a near-field coupling between the tip and NP and consequently enhances the absorption. This concept can be used for selective heating of NPs placed over a surface that enables precise manufacturing at nanometer scales. Different tip positions are considered to identify the optimal tip location and the corresponding enhancement limits. The effects of these interactions on the absorption profiles of dielectric core/gold shell NPs are also studied. It is observed that using core–shell nanoparticles with a dielectric core leads to further enhancement of the absorption efficiency and a more uniform distribution of absorption over the shell. Discrete dipole approximation coupled with surface interactions (DDA-SI) is employed throughout the study, and it is vectorized to improve its computational efficiency. - Highlights: • Plasmonic coupling between solid or core-shell nanoparticles, dielectric surface and Si AFM tip is investigated for achieving localized heating for nano-manufacturing. • Absorption efficiency enhancement limits for core-shell and solid nanoparticles are identified using an AFM tip for surface evanescent wave heating. • The effect of tip location, relative to surface wave direction is outlined, identifying optimal locations, and heat absorption distribution over core-shell and solid nanoparticles. • While using a Si AFM tip enhances absorption, using a dielectric core result in further enhancement in absorption with a more uniform distribution. • DDA-SI-v developed by vectorizing the formulations of DDA-SI for improved computational efficiency.

  5. Experimental study of low-velocity impact on foam-filled Kraft paper honeycomb structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadir, N. Abd; Aminanda, Y.; Ibrahim, M. S.; Mokhtar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Low-velocity impact tests of unfilled and foam-filled Kraft paper honeycomb are carried out to investigate the effect of foam, indenter size and location of indentation on maximum or peak force and energy absorption capability. In this study, three indenter sizes (10mm, 12mm, 15mm) and three different locations of indentation (vertical edge, double wall and single wall) were used and compared. The test results show that the foam is given a significant increment of peak force and specific energy absorption to the honeycomb structure subjected to indentation load. The peak force and energy absorption capability also effected by indenter size which due to the contact area of indentation. As for the location of indentation, vertical edge gives highest peak force and energy absorption by the fact that vertical edge is the intersection of three walls of honeycomb cell.

  6. Deformation and strain distribution in plasma sprayed nickel-aluminum coating loaded by a spherical indenter

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Prchlík, L.; Písačka, Jan; Sampath, S.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 360, 1-2 (2003), s. 264-274 ISSN 0921-5093 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK1010104 Keywords : indentation, stress-strain relationship, plasma spray Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.365, year: 2003

  7. Determination of the individual phase properties from the measured grid indentation data

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Haušild, P.; Materna, A.; Kocmanová, L.; Matějíček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 22 (2016), s. 3538-3548 ISSN 0884-2914 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36566G Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Composite * Tungsten * Steel * indentation Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 1.673, year: 2016 http://dx. doi . org /10.1557/jmr.2016.375

  8. Assessment with indentation techniques of the local mechanical behavior of joints in polymer parts

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lach, R.; Hutař, Pavel; Veselý, P.; Nezbedová, E.; Knésl, Zdeněk; Koch, T.; Bierogel, C.; Grellmann, W.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, 11-12 (2013), s. 900-905 ISSN 0032-2725 R&D Projects: GA ČR GC101/09/J027 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : weld ed joints * weld lines * microindentation techniques * nanoindentation techniques * hardness * indentation modulus Subject RIV: JL - Materials Fatigue, Friction Mechanics Impact factor: 0.617, year: 2013

  9. Interference of lithospheric folding in western Central Asia by simultaneous Indian and Arabian plate indentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.W.H.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/069161836; Burov, E.; Tesauro, M.; Sokoutis, D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/298809214; Kaban, M.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale intraplate deformation of the crust and the lithosphere in Central Asia as a result of the indentation of India has been extensively documented. In contrast, the impact of continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia on lithosphere tectonics in front of the main suture zone, has

  10. Interference of lithospheric folding in Central Asia by simultaneous Indian and Arabian plate indentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, J.H.W.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Burov, E.; Tesauro, M.; Sokoutis, D.; Kaban, M.K.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale intraplate deformation of the crust and the lithosphere in Central Asia as a result of the indentation of India has been extensively documented. In contrast, the impact of continental collision between Arabia and Eurasia on lithosphere tectonics in front of the main suture zone, has

  11. Indentation creep of heterogeneous blends poly(ethylene terephthalate)/impact modifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kolařík, Jan; Pegoretti, A.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2004), s. 113-121 ISSN 0142-9418 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA106/00/1307 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : indentation creep * thermoplastics * polymer blends Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.199, year: 2004

  12. Mechanical properties of gray and white matter brain tissue by indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budday, Silvia; Nay, Richard; de Rooij, Rijk; Steinmann, Paul; Wyrobek, Thomas; Ovaert, Timothy C; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-06-01

    The mammalian brain is composed of an outer layer of gray matter, consisting of cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons, and an inner core of white matter, consisting primarily of myelinated axons. Recent evidence suggests that microstructural differences between gray and white matter play an important role during neurodevelopment. While brain tissue as a whole is rheologically well characterized, the individual features of gray and white matter remain poorly understood. Here we quantify the mechanical properties of gray and white matter using a robust, reliable, and repeatable method, flat-punch indentation. To systematically characterize gray and white matter moduli for varying indenter diameters, loading rates, holding times, post-mortem times, and locations we performed a series of n=192 indentation tests. We found that indenting thick, intact coronal slices eliminates the common challenges associated with small specimens: it naturally minimizes boundary effects, dehydration, swelling, and structural degradation. When kept intact and hydrated, brain slices maintained their mechanical characteristics with standard deviations as low as 5% throughout the entire testing period of five days post mortem. White matter, with an average modulus of 1.89 5kPa ± 0.592 kPa, was on average 39% stiffer than gray matter, pmatter and responded less rapidly to mechanical loading. Understanding the rheological differences between gray and white matter may have direct implications on diagnosing and understanding the mechanical environment in neurodevelopment and neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Articular cartilage response to a sliding load using two different-sized spherical indenters1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schätti, Oliver R; Colombo, Vera; Torzilli, Peter A; Gallo, Luigi M

    2018-01-01

    Cartilage surface contact geometry influences the deformational behavior and stress distribution throughout the extracellular matrix (ECM) under load. To test the correlation between the mechanical and cellular response of articular cartilage when loaded with two different-sized spherical indenters under dynamic reciprocating sliding motion. Articular cartilage explants were subjected to a reciprocating sliding load using a 17.6 mm or 30.2 mm spherical ball for 2000 cycles at 10 mm/s and 4 kg axial load. Deformation of the cartilage was recorded and contact parameters were calculated according to Hertzian theory. After mechanical loading cartilage samples were collected and analyzed for ECM collagen damage, gene regulation and proteoglycan (PG) loss. Significantly higher ECM deformation and strain and lower dynamic effective modulus were found for explants loaded with the smaller diameter indenter whereas contact radius and stress remained unaffected. Also, the 17.6 mm indenter increased PG loss and significantly upregulated genes for ECM proteins and enzymes as compared to the 30.2 mm indenter. Sliding loads that increase ECM deformation/strain were found to induce enzyme-mediated catabolic processes in articular cartilage explants. These observations provide further understanding of how changes in cartilage contact mechanics under dynamic conditions can affect the cellular response.

  14. Material Flow Analysis in Indentation by Two-Dimensional Digital Image Correlation and Finite Elements Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermudo, Carolina; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Castillo López, Germán

    2017-06-21

    The present work shows the material flow analysis in indentation by the numerical two dimensional Finite Elements (FEM) method and the experimental two-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method. To achieve deep indentation without cracking, a ductile material, 99% tin, is used. The results obtained from the DIC technique depend predominantly on the pattern conferred to the samples. Due to the absence of a natural pattern, black and white spray painting is used for greater contrast. The stress-strain curve of the material has been obtained and introduced in the Finite Element simulation code used, DEFORM™, allowing for accurate simulations. Two different 2D models have been used: a plain strain model to obtain the load curve and a plain stress model to evaluate the strain maps on the workpiece surface. The indentation displacement load curve has been compared between the FEM and the experimental results, showing a good correlation. Additionally, the strain maps obtained from the material surface with FEM and DIC are compared in order to validate the numerical model. The Von Mises strain results between both of them present a 10-20% difference. The results show that FEM is a good tool for simulating indentation processes, allowing for the evaluation of the maximum forces and deformations involved in the forming process. Additionally, the non-contact DIC technique shows its potential by measuring the superficial strain maps, validating the FEM results.

  15. Crystalline cellulose elastic modulus predicted by atomistic models of uniform deformation and nanoscale indentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiawa Wu; Robert J. Moon; Ashlie Martini

    2013-01-01

    The elastic modulus of cellulose Iß in the axial and transverse directions was obtained from atomistic simulations using both the standard uniform deformation approach and a complementary approach based on nanoscale indentation. This allowed comparisons between the methods and closer connectivity to experimental measurement techniques. A reactive...

  16. A Progressive Damage Model for Predicting Permanent Indentation and Impact Damage in Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Zhaojie; Guan, Zhidong; Li, Zengshan

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, a progressive damage model was established on the basis of ABAQUS software for predicting permanent indentation and impact damage in composite laminates. Intralaminar and interlaminar damage was modelled based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) in the finite element model. For the verification of the model, low-velocity impact tests of quasi-isotropic laminates with material system of T300/5228A were conducted. Permanent indentation and impact damage of the laminates were simulated and the numerical results agree well with the experiments. It can be concluded that an obvious knee point can be identified on the curve of the indentation depth versus impact energy. Matrix cracking and delamination develops rapidly with the increasing impact energy, while considerable amount of fiber breakage only occurs when the impact energy exceeds the energy corresponding to the knee point. Predicted indentation depth after the knee point is very sensitive to the parameter μ which is proposed in this paper, and the acceptable value of this parameter is in range from 0.9 to 1.0.

  17. Electrical characterization of FIB processed metal layers for reliable conductive-AFM on ZnO microstructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pea, M. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma 00156 (Italy); Maiolo, L. [Istituto per la Microelettronica e i Microsistemi - CNR, Roma 00133 (Italy); Giovine, E. [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma 00156 (Italy); Rinaldi, A. [University of L’Aquila, International Research Center for Mathematics & Mechanics of Complex System (MEMOCS), 04012, Cisterna di Latina (Italy); ENEA, C.R. Casaccia, Santa Maria di Galeria, 00123 Rome (Italy); Araneo, R. [Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome (Italy); Notargiacomo, A., E-mail: andrea.notargiacomo@ifn.cnr.it [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie - CNR, Roma 00156 (Italy)

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contact resistance between conductive AFM tip and different metals is investigated. • FIB processed Ti and Cr areas have larger resistance than as deposited films. • Gold displays low and ohmic tip-sample resistance even after FIB processing. • Au/Ti stack on top of ZnO pillars allows reliable I–V characterization by C-AFM. - Abstract: We report on the conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) study of metallic layers in order to find the most suitable configuration for electrical characterization of individual ZnO micro-pillars fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB). The electrical resistance between the probe tip and both as deposited and FIB processed metal layers (namely, Cr, Ti, Au and Al) has been investigated. Both chromium and titanium evidenced a non homogenous and non ohmic behaviour, non negligible scanning probe induced anodic oxidation associated to electrical measurements, and after FIB milling they exhibited significantly higher tip-sample resistance. Aluminium had generally a more apparent non conductive behaviour. Conversely, gold films showed very good tip-sample conduction properties being less sensitive to FIB processing than the other investigated metals. We found that a reliable C-AFM electrical characterization of ZnO microstructures obtained by FIB machining is feasible by using a combination of metal films as top contact layer. An Au/Ti bilayer on top of ZnO was capable to sustain the FIB fabrication process and to form a suitable ohmic contact to the semiconductor, allowing for reliable C-AFM measurement. To validate the consistency of this approach, we measured the resistance of ZnO micropillars finding a linear dependence on the pillar height, as expected for an ohmic conductor, and evaluated the resistivity of the material. This procedure has the potential to be downscaled to nanometer size structures by a proper choice of metal films type and thickness.

  18. Electrical characterization of FIB processed metal layers for reliable conductive-AFM on ZnO microstructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pea, M.; Maiolo, L.; Giovine, E.; Rinaldi, A.; Araneo, R.; Notargiacomo, A.

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Contact resistance between conductive AFM tip and different metals is investigated. • FIB processed Ti and Cr areas have larger resistance than as deposited films. • Gold displays low and ohmic tip-sample resistance even after FIB processing. • Au/Ti stack on top of ZnO pillars allows reliable I–V characterization by C-AFM. - Abstract: We report on the conductive-atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) study of metallic layers in order to find the most suitable configuration for electrical characterization of individual ZnO micro-pillars fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB). The electrical resistance between the probe tip and both as deposited and FIB processed metal layers (namely, Cr, Ti, Au and Al) has been investigated. Both chromium and titanium evidenced a non homogenous and non ohmic behaviour, non negligible scanning probe induced anodic oxidation associated to electrical measurements, and after FIB milling they exhibited significantly higher tip-sample resistance. Aluminium had generally a more apparent non conductive behaviour. Conversely, gold films showed very good tip-sample conduction properties being less sensitive to FIB processing than the other investigated metals. We found that a reliable C-AFM electrical characterization of ZnO microstructures obtained by FIB machining is feasible by using a combination of metal films as top contact layer. An Au/Ti bilayer on top of ZnO was capable to sustain the FIB fabrication process and to form a suitable ohmic contact to the semiconductor, allowing for reliable C-AFM measurement. To validate the consistency of this approach, we measured the resistance of ZnO micropillars finding a linear dependence on the pillar height, as expected for an ohmic conductor, and evaluated the resistivity of the material. This procedure has the potential to be downscaled to nanometer size structures by a proper choice of metal films type and thickness.

  19. Electrochemical studies by AFM and EQCM of different methods of the hexasulfon calix[6]arene anion electrodeposition for the elaboration of new uranium detection and extraction methods in sea and elaboration of new materials anti-corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folcher, G.; Pailleret, A.; Deslouis, C.

    2005-01-01

    The sea water is a possible uranium source. The uranium concentration in it was estimate at 14 nM in the open oceans, in uranyl ion UO 2 2+ . Among the possible electrode materials to extract the uranium from sea water, the polypirrole doped with hexasulfon calix[6]arene (PPy/1) allows the elaboration of an electrochemical system of the uranium detection and extraction. This study aims to detail the electrochemical characterization of the PPy/1, in particular its structural properties and its anti-corrosion properties. (A.L.B.)

  20. First-principles calculation of the indentation strength of FeB4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bing; Sun, Hong; Chen, Changfeng

    2014-07-01

    A recent experiment [H. Y. Gou et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 157002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.157002] reported a measured Vickers hardness of over 60 GPa for FeB4, placing it as a superhard material far above all other similar ultrahard transition-metal borides, such as ReB2,WB4, and especially CrB4, which has the same crystalline structure as that of FeB4 but a much lower measured Vickers hardness of around 23 GPa. This result, however, is contradicted by theoretical calculations that predict a smaller shear modulus for FeB4 than that of CrB4, indicating that FeB4 is softer than CrB4. Here we report first-principles calculations that aim to understand the stress response of FeB4 under indentation loadings and examine whether there exists a strain-stiffening effect that might enhance the indentation strength. Our results show that there is no strain stiffening in FeB4; instead, the normal pressure beneath the indenter drives a lateral structural expansion which further stretches and weakens the boron-boron and boron-iron bonds in addition to that caused by the shear deformation in Vickers indentation tests. This effect leads to a considerably reduced strength of FeB4, producing an ideal (i.e., an upper bound) indentation strength of 17 GPa that is lower than that (27 GPa) predicted for CrB4. The present results suggest that FeB4 is unlikely to be superhard and further experimental investigation is needed to clarify this issue.

  1. Mechanical Anisotropy and Pressure Induced Structural Changes in Piroxicam Crystals Probed by In Situ Indentation and Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimunda, Praveena; Hintsala, Eric; Asif, Syed; Mishra, Manish Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The ability to correlate mechanical and chemical characterization techniques in real time is both lacking and powerful tool for gaining insights into material behavior. This is demonstrated through use of a novel nanoindentation device equipped with Raman spectroscopy to explore the deformation-induced structural changes in piroxicam crystals. Mechanical anisotropy was observed in two major faces ( 0bar{1}1 ) and (011), which are correlated to changes in the interlayer interaction from in situ Raman spectra recorded during indentation. The results of this study demonstrate the considerable potential of an in situ Raman nanoindentation instrument for studying a variety of topics, including stress-induced phase transformation mechanisms, mechanochemistry, and solid state reactivity under mechanical forces that occur in molecular and pharmaceutical solids.

  2. Characterization of Bitumen Micro-Mechanical Behaviors Using AFM, Phase Dynamics Theory and MD Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Hou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Fundamental understanding of micro-mechanical behaviors in bitumen, including phase separation, micro-friction, micro-abrasion, etc., can help the pavement engineers better understand the bitumen mechanical performances at macroscale. Recent researches show that the microstructure evolution in bitumen will directly affect its surface structure and micro-mechanical performance. In this study, the bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behaviors are studied using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM experiments, Phase Dynamics Theory and Molecular Dynamics (MD Simulation. The AFM experiment results show that different phase-structure will occur at the surface of the bitumen samples under certain thermodynamic conditions at microscale. The phenomenon can be explained using the phase dynamics theory, where the effects of stability parameter and temperature on bitumen microstructure and micro-mechanical behavior are studied combined with MD Simulation. Simulation results show that the saturates phase, in contrast to the naphthene aromatics phase, plays a major role in bitumen micro-mechanical behavior. A high stress zone occurs at the interface between the saturates phase and the naphthene aromatics phase, which may form discontinuities that further affect the bitumen frictional performance.

  3. AFM characterization of solid-supported lipid multilayers prepared by spin-coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, G; Girasole, M; Cricenti, A; Cattaruzza, F; Flamini, A; Prosperi, T; Generosi, J; Castellano, A Congiu

    2005-06-15

    Lipids are the principal components of biologically relevant structures as cellular membranes. They have been the subject of many studies due to their biological relevance and their potential applications. Different techniques, such as Langmuir-Blodgett and vesicle-fusion deposition, are available to deposit ordered lipid films on etched surfaces. Recently, a new technique of lipid film deposition has been proposed in which stacks of a small and well-controlled number of bilayers are prepared on a suitable substrate using a spin-coater. We studied the morphological properties of multi-layers made of cationic and neutral lipids (DOTAP and DOPC) and mixtures of them using dynamic mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). After adapting and optimizing, the spin-coating technique to deposit lipids on a chemically etched Silicon (1,0,0) substrate, a morphological nanometer-scale characterization of the aforementioned samples has been provided. The AFM study showed that an initial layer of ordered vesicles is formed and, afterward, depending on details of the spin-coating preparation protocol and to the dimension of the silicon substrate, vesicle fusion and structural rearrangements of the lipid layers may occur. The present data disclose the possibility to control the lipid's structures by acting on spin-coating parameters with promising perspectives for novel applications of lipid films.

  4. Characterizing viscoelastic properties of breast cancer tissue in a mouse model using indentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Suhao; Zhao, Xuefeng; Chen, Jiayao; Zeng, Jianfeng; Chen, Shuangqing; Chen, Lei; Meng, You; Liu, Biao; Shan, Hong; Gao, Mingyuan; Feng, Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading cancer forms affecting females worldwide. Characterizing the mechanical properties of breast cancer tissue is important for diagnosis and uncovering the mechanobiology mechanism. Although most of the studies were based on human cancer tissue, an animal model is still describable for preclinical analysis. Using a custom-build indentation device, we measured the viscoelastic properties of breast cancer tissue from 4T1 and SKBR3 cell lines. A total of 7 samples were tested for each cancer tissue using a mouse model. We observed that a viscoelastic model with 2-term Prony series could best describe the ramp and stress relaxation of the tissue. For long-term responses, the SKBR3 tissues were stiffer in the strain levels of 4-10%, while no significant differences were found for the instantaneous elastic modulus. We also found tissues from both cell lines appeared to be strain-independent for the instantaneous elastic modulus and for the long-term elastic modulus in the strain level of 4-10%. In addition, by inspecting the cellular morphological structure of the two tissues, we found that SKBR3 tissues had a larger volume ratio of nuclei and a smaller volume ratio of extracellular matrix (ECM). Compared with prior cellular mechanics studies, our results indicated that ECM could contribute to the stiffening the tissue-level behavior. The viscoelastic characterization of the breast cancer tissue contributed to the scarce animal model data and provided support for the linear viscoelastic model used for in vivo elastography studies. Results also supplied helpful information for modeling of the breast cancer tissue in the tissue and cellular levels. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    mismatch between Ge and Si. After tcri, the strain in the uniform two-dimensional layers is relaxed by the formation of three dimensional islands.3 Depending on the surface orientation of Si and substrate temperature (Ts), the critical thickness and the shape of the islands are found to vary. The critical thickness is ~ 3–7 ...

  6. Nanoindentation and AFM studies of PECVD DLC and reactively ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    physical vapour deposition (PVD) process has improved roughness without any loss of tribological properties. How- ever, several such films have poor adhesion with the sub- strate. Metal containing hydrogenated amorphous carbon film, on the contrary, shows reduced internal stress (Holm- berg and Mathews 1994), ...

  7. Ultra thin films of nanocrystalline Ge studied by AFM and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    peak position and an asymmetrical broadening on the lower frequency side when compared with the spectrum of the bulk Ge sample. The shift of the Raman .... resultant fit to Ic(ω) (1) (thin line) and a Lorentzian function (dotted line). Figure 6 shows Raman spectra of the samples B and C. A shoulder at 280 cm–1 can be.

  8. An optical coherence tomography (OCT)-based air jet indentation system for measuring the mechanical properties of soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan-Ping; Zheng, Yong-Ping; Wang, Shu-Zhe; Chen, Zhong-Ping; Huang, Qing-Hua; He, Yong-Hong

    2009-01-01

    A novel noncontact indentation system with the combination of an air jet and optical coherence tomography (OCT) was presented in this paper for the quantitative measurement of the mechanical properties of soft tissues. The key idea of this method is to use a pressure-controlled air jet as an indenter to compress the soft tissue in a noncontact way and utilize the OCT signals to extract the deformation induced. This indentation system provides measurement and mapping of tissue elasticity for small specimens with high scanning speed. Experiments were performed on 27 silicone tissue-mimicking phantoms with different Young's moduli, which were also measured by uniaxial compression tests. The regression coefficient of the indentation force to the indentation depth (N mm-1) was used as an indicator of the stiffness of tissue under air jet indentation. Results showed that the stiffness coefficients measured by the current system correlated well with the corresponding Young's moduli obtained by conventional mechanical testing (r = 0.89, p < 0.001). Preliminary in vivo tests also showed that the change of soft tissue stiffness with and without the contraction of the underlying muscles in the hand could be differentiated by the current measurement. This system may have broad applications in tissue assessment and characterization where alterations of mechanical properties are involved, in particular with the potential of noncontact micro-indentation for tissues.

  9. 'In vitro' assessment to instrumented indentation hardness tests in enamel of bovine teeth, before and after dental bleaching by laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Britto Junior, Francisco Meira

    2004-01-01

    The laser enamel bleaching is a common used procedure due to its satisfactory esthetic results. The possible changes on the dental structures caused by the bleaching technique are of great importance. The enamel superficial microhardness changes through instrumented indentation hardness on bovine teeth were analyzed in this present study. The samples were divided in two halves, one being the control and the other irradiated with a diode laser (808 nm) or with a Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm) to activate the Whiteness HP bleaching gel (hydrogen peroxide at 35%). It was possible to conclude that there was a statistical significant increase on the enamel superficial microhardness (Group I, sample 1 and Group II, sample 1) despite this increase did not seem to indicate a concern regarding the enamel surface resistance change. There was not a significant statistical change on the enamel microhardness on the other samples. The final conclusion is that there was no superficial enamel morphological change after these treatments. (author)

  10. Gum tragacanth stabilized green gold nanoparticles as cargos for Naringin loading: A morphological investigation through AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Komal; Imran, Muhammad; Jabri, Tooba; Ali, Imdad; Perveen, Samina; Shafiullah; Ahmed, Shakil; Shah, Muhammad Raza

    2017-10-15

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have attracted greater scientific interests for the construction of drugs loading cargos due to their biocompatibility, safety and facile surface modifications. This study deals with the fabrication of gum tragacanth (GT) green AuNPs as carrier for Naringin, a less water soluble therapeutic molecule. The optimized AuNPs were characterized through UV-vis spectroscopy, FT-IR and atomic force microscope (AFM). Naringin loaded nanoparticles were investigated for their bactericidal potentials using Tetrazolium Microplate assay. Morphological studies conducted via AFM revealed spherical shape for AuNPs with nano-range size and stabilized by GT multi-functional groups. The AuNPs acted as carrier for increased amount of Naringin. Upon loading in AuNPs, Naringin An increased in the bactericidal potentials of Naringin was observed after loading on AuNPs against various tested bacterial strains. This was further authenticated by the surface morphological analysis, showing enhanced membrane destabilizing effects of loaded Naringin. The results suggest that GT stabilized green AuNPs can act as effective delivery vehicles for enhancing bactericidal potentials of Naringin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Direct visualization of glutamate transporter elevator mechanism by high-speed AFM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Yi; Miyagi, Atsushi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Chami, Mohamed; Boudker, Olga; Scheuring, Simon

    2017-02-14

    Glutamate transporters are essential for recovery of the neurotransmitter glutamate from the synaptic cleft. Crystal structures in the outward- and inward-facing conformations of a glutamate transporter homolog from archaebacterium Pyrococcus horikoshii , sodium/aspartate symporter Glt Ph , suggested the molecular basis of the transporter cycle. However, dynamic studies of the transport mechanism have been sparse and indirect. Here we present high-speed atomic force microscopy (HS-AFM) observations of membrane-reconstituted Glt Ph at work. HS-AFM movies provide unprecedented real-space and real-time visualization of the transport dynamics. Our results show transport mediated by large amplitude 1.85-nm "elevator" movements of the transport domains consistent with previous crystallographic and spectroscopic studies. Elevator dynamics occur in the absence and presence of sodium ions and aspartate, but stall in sodium alone, providing a direct visualization of the ion and substrate symport mechanism. We show unambiguously that individual protomers within the trimeric transporter function fully independently.

  12. Casimir force experiments with quartz tuning forks and an atomic force microscope (AFM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, T

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the measurement series is to study the Casimir force, specifically the effects of different materials and geometries. The art of measuring sub-nano Newton forces has been engineered to a great extent in the material sciences, especially for the atomic force microscope. In today's scanning microscope technologies there are several common methods used to measure sub-nano Newton forces. While the commercial atomic force microscopes (AFM) mostly work with soft silicon cantilevers, there are a large number of reports from university groups on the use of quartz tuning forks to get high resolution AFM pictures, to measure shear forces or to create new force sensors. The quartz tuning fork based force sensor has a number of advantages over the silicon cantilever, but also has some disadvantages. In this report the method based on quartz tuning forks is described with respect to their usability for Casimir force measurements and compared with other successful techniques. Furthermore, a design for Casimir force measurements that was set up in Berlin will be described and practical experimental aspects will be discussed. A status report on the Casimir experiments in Berlin will be given, including the experimental setup. In order to study the details of the Casimir effect the apparatus and active surfaces have to be improved further. The surfaces have to be flatter and cleaner. For better resolution, cantilevers and tuning forks with a low spring constant have to be employed

  13. Multiple regimes of operation in bimodal AFM: understanding the energy of cantilever eigenmodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Kiracofe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the key goals in atomic force microscopy (AFM imaging is to enhance material property contrast with high resolution. Bimodal AFM, where two eigenmodes are simultaneously excited, confers significant advantages over conventional single-frequency tapping mode AFM due to its ability to provide contrast between regions with different material properties under gentle imaging conditions. Bimodal AFM traditionally uses the first two eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever. In this work, the authors explore the use of higher eigenmodes in bimodal AFM (e.g., exciting the first and fourth eigenmodes. It is found that such operation leads to interesting contrast reversals compared to traditional bimodal AFM. A series of experiments and numerical simulations shows that the primary cause of the contrast reversals is not the choice of eigenmode itself (e.g., second versus fourth, but rather the relative kinetic energy between the higher eigenmode and the first eigenmode. This leads to the identification of three distinct imaging regimes in bimodal AFM. This result, which is applicable even to traditional bimodal AFM, should allow researchers to choose cantilever and operating parameters in a more rational manner in order to optimize resolution and contrast during nanoscale imaging of materials.

  14. Effect of core thickness differences on post-fatigue indentation fracture resistance of veneered zirconia crowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhasanyah, Abdulrahman; Vaidyanathan, Tritala K; Flinton, Robert J

    2013-07-01

    Despite the excellent esthetics of veneered zirconia crowns, the incidence of chipping and fracture of veneer porcelain on zirconia crowns has been recognized to be higher than in metal ceramic crowns. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of selected variations in core thickness on the post-fatigue fracture resistance of veneer porcelain on zirconia crowns. Zirconia crowns for veneering were prepared with three thickness designs of (a) uniform 0.6-mm thick core (group A), (b) extra-thick 1.7 mm occlusal core support (group B), and (c) uniform 1.2-mm thick core (group C). The copings were virtually designed and milled by the CAD/CAM technique. Metal ceramic copings (group D) with the same design as in group C were used as controls. A sample size of N = 20 was used for each group. The copings were veneered with compatible porcelain and fatigue tested under a sinusoidal loading regimen. Loading was done with a 200 N maximum force amplitude under Hertzian axial loading conditions at the center of the crowns using a spherical tungsten carbide indenter. After 100,000 fatigue cycles, the crowns were axially loaded to fracture and maximum load levels before fracture was recorded. One-way ANOVA (P crowns. Extra-thick occlusal core support for porcelain veneer may significantly reduce the veneer chipping and fracture of zirconia crowns. This is suggested as an important consideration in the design of copings for zirconia crowns. © 2013 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Estimation of Apple Volume and Its Shape Indentation Using Image Processing Technique and Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jafarlou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical properties of agricultural products such as volume are the most important parameters influencing grading and packaging systems. They should be measured accurately as they are considered for any good system design. Image processing and neural network techniques are both non-destructive and useful methods which are recently used for such purpose. In this study, the images of apples were captured from a constant distance and then were processed in MATLAB software and the edges of apple images were extracted. The interior area of apple image was divided into some thin trapezoidal elements perpendicular to longitudinal axis. Total volume of apple was estimated by the summation of incremental volumes of these elements revolved around the apple’s longitudinal axis. The picture of half cut apple was also captured in order to obtain the apple shape’s indentation volume, which was subtracted from the previously estimated total volume of apple. The real volume of apples was measured using water displacement method and the relation between the real volume and estimated volume was obtained. The t-test and Bland-Altman indicated that the difference between the real volume and the estimated volume was not significantly different (p>0.05 i.e. the mean difference was 1.52 cm3 and the accuracy of measurement was 92%. Utilizing neural network with input variables of dimension and mass has increased the accuracy up to 97% and the difference between the mean of volumes decreased to 0.7 cm3.

  16. An Instrumented Macro-Indentation Method for Determining the Mechanical Properties of Coconut Shell (Coco Nucifera of Cameroon)

    OpenAIRE

    Njeugna, E.; Ganou, M.B.K.; Ndapeu, D.; Foba, J.N.T.; Sikame , N.R.T.; Huisken , P.W.M.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; An instrumented macro-indentation test was used to determine the viscoelastic parameters and hardness of the shell of Coco Nucifera from Cameroon in order to promote their use in the manufacture of abrasives. Samples measuring 10 mm x 10 mm x 3 mm were cut out from the bottom of the fruit, close to the natural indentations (the eye) of an approximately round-shaped fruit. The indentation load ranged from 50 to 500 N with an increment of 50 N. A comparator with digital ...

  17. AFM Surface Roughness and Topography Analysis of Lithium Disilicate Glass Ceramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pantić

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is presenting AFM analysis of surface roughness of Lithium disilicate glass ceramic (IPS e.max CAD under different finishing procedure (techniques: polishing, glazing and grinding. Lithium disilicate glass ceramics is all-ceramic dental system which is characterized by high aesthetic quality and it can be freely said that properties of material provide all prosthetic requirements: function, biocompatibility and aesthetic. Experimental tests of surface roughness were investigated on 4 samples with dimensions: 18 mm length, 14 mm width and 12 mm height. Contact surfaces of three samples were treated with different finishing procedure (polishing, glazing and grinding, and the contact surface of the raw material is investigated as a fourth sample. Experimental measurements were done using the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM of NT-MDT manufacturers, in the contact mode. All obtained results of different prepared samples are presented in the form of specific roughness parameters (Rа, Rz, Rmax, Rq and 3D surface topography.

  18. Cell mechanics as a marker for diseases: Biomedical applications of AFM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rianna, Carmela; Radmacher, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    Many diseases are related to changes in cell mechanics. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is one of the most suitable techniques allowing the investigation of both topography and mechanical properties of adherent cells with high spatial resolution under physiological conditions. Over the years the use of this technique in medical and clinical applications has largely increased, resulting in the notion of cell mechanics as a biomarker to discriminate between different physiological and pathological states of cells. Cell mechanics has proven to be a biophysical fingerprint able discerning between cell phenotypes, unraveling processes in aging or diseases, or even detecting and diagnosing cellular pathologies. We will review in this report some of the works on cell mechanics investigated by AFM with clinical and medical relevance in order to clarify the state of research in this field and to highlight the role of cell mechanics in the study of pathologies, focusing on cancer, blood and cardiovascular diseases. At the request of all authors of the paper, and with the agreement of the Proceedings Editor, an updated version of this article was published on 26 September 2016. The original version supplied to AIP Publishing contained blurred figures introduced during the PDF conversion process. Moreover, Equations (5), (6), and (7) were not correctly cited in the text. These errors have been corrected in the updated and republished article.

  19. Dynamic behavior of RNA nanoparticles analyzed by AFM on a mica/air interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajja, Sameer; Chandler, Morgan; Federov, Dmitry; Kasprzak, Wojciech K; Lushnikov, Alexander Y; Viard, Mathias; Shah, Ankit; Dang, Dylan; Dahl, Jared; Worku, Beamlak; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A; Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexey; Shapiro, Bruce A; Afonin, Kirill A

    2018-04-18

    RNA is an attractive biopolymer for engineering self-assembling materials suitable for biomedical applications. Previously, programmable hexameric RNA rings were developed for the controlled delivery of up to six different functionalities. To increase the potential for functionalization with little impact on nanoparticle topology, we introduce gaps into the double-stranded regions of the RNA rings. Molecular dynamic simulations are used to assess the dynamic behavior and the changes in the flexibility of novel designs. The changes suggested by simulations, however, cannot be clearly confirmed by the conventional techniques such as non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (native-PAGE) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Also, an in vitro analysis in primary cultures of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells does not reveal any discrepancy in immunological recognition of new assemblies. To address these deficiencies, we introduce a computer-assisted quantification strategy. This strategy is based on an algorithmic atomic force microscopy (AFM)-resolved deformation analysis of the RNA nanoparticles studied on a mica/air interface. We validate this computational method by manual image analysis and fitting it to the simulation-predicted results. The presented nanoparticle modification strategy and subsequent AFM-based analysis are anticipated to provide a broad spectrum approach for the future development of nucleic acid-based nanotechnology.

  20. Adhesive interaction measured between AFM probe and lung epithelial type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonenko, Zoya; Finot, Eric; Amrein, Matthias

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of inhaled nanoparticles entering the body through the lung is thought to be initially defined by the electrostatic and adhesive interaction of the particles with lung's wall. Here, we investigated the first step of the interaction of nanoparticles with lung epithelial cells using atomic force microscope (AFM) as a force apparatus. Nanoparticles were modeled by the apex of the AFM tip and the forces of interaction between the tip and the cell analyzed over time. The adhesive force and work of adhesion strongly increased for the first 100 s of contact and then leveled out. During this time, the tip was penetrating deeply into the cell. It first crossed a stiff region of the cell and then entered a much more compliant cell region. The work of adhesion and its progression over time were not dependent on the load with which the tip was brought into contact with the cell. We conclude that the initial thermodynamic aspects and the time course of the uptake of nanoparticles by lung epithelial cells can be studied using our experimental approach. It is discussed how the potential health threat posed by nanoparticles of different size and surface characteristics can be evaluated using the method presented

  1. Analysis of local deformation effects in resistive strain sensing of a submicron-thickness AFM cantilever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jonathan D.; Schwalb, Christian H.; Winhold, Marcel; Šńukić, Maja; Huth, Michael; Fantner, Georg E.

    2013-05-01

    Incorporating resistive strain-sensing elements into MEMS devices is a long-standing approach for electronic detection of the device deformation. As the need for more sensitivity trends the device dimensions downwards, the size of the strain-sensor may become comparable to the device size, which can have significant impact on the mechanical behaviour of the device. To study this effect, we modelled a submicron-thickness silicon nitride AFM cantilever with strain-sensing element. Using finite element analysis, we calculated the strain in the sensor elements for a deflected cantilever. The sensor element contributes to a local stiffening effect in the device structure which lowers the strain in the sensor. By varying the sensor geometry, we investigated the degree to which this effect impacts the strain. Minimizing the sensor size increases the strain, but the reduction in sensor cross-sectional area increases the resistance and expected sensor noise. The optimal sensor geometry must therefore account for this effect. We used our analysis to optimize geometric variations of nanogranular tunnelling resistor (NTR) strain sensors arranged in a Wheatstone bridge on a silicon nitride AFM cantilever. We varied the dimensions of each sensor element to maintain a constant cross-sectional area but maximize the strain in the sensor element. Through this approach, we expect a 45% increase in strain in the sensor and corresponding 20% increase in the Wheatstone bridge signal. Our results provide an important consideration in the design geometry of resistive strainsensing elements in MEMS devices.

  2. Thermally induced pure and spin polarized currents in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon based FM/normal/AFM junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari, Atousa; Esmaeilzadeh, Mahdi; Pournaghavi, Nezhat

    2018-01-01

    We study thermally induced spin resolved current in a zigzag silicene nanoribbon when the left and right leads are respectively affected by ferromagnetic (FM) and anti-ferromagnetic (AFM) exchange fields (FM/normal/AFM junction). We show that pure spin current is generated due to the leads temperature difference and the junction can work as a spin Seebeck diode. The pure spin current can be easily controlled by a perpendicular electric field and the junction, in this case, can work as a spin current switch. In addition, we study the effect of a single vacancy and show that the vacancy can slightly destroy the pure spin current property which leads to induce a weak spin polarized current. In the presence of both vacancy and electric field, current with high and tunable spin polarization can be achieved.

  3. Development of 3d micro-nano hybrid patterns using anodized aluminum and micro-indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hong Gue; Kwon, Jong Tae; Seo, Young Ho; Kim, Byeong Hee

    2008-01-01

    We developed a simple and cost-effective method of fabricating 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns in which micro-indentation is applied on the anodized aluminum substrate. Nano-patterns were formed first on the aluminum substrate, and then micro-patterns were fabricated by deforming the nano-patterned aluminum substrate. Hemispherical nano-patterns with a 150 nm-diameter on an aluminum substrate were fabricated by anodizing and alumina removing process. Then, micro-pyramid patterns with a side-length of 50 μm were formed on the nano-patterns using micro-indentation. To verify 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns, we replicated 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns by a hot-embossing process. 3D micro-nano hybrid patterns may be used in nano-photonic devices and nano-biochips applications

  4. Experimental tests of the impact of selected parameters on the indentation rolling resistances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woźniak, Dariusz; Gładysiewicz, Lech; Konieczna, Martyna

    2018-01-01

    Belt conveyors are main part of transporting systems in mines and in many other branches of industry. During conveyor belt works different types of resistances are generated. Indentation rolling resistance is the most significant component of the resistances from the perspective of energy losses and it cause the biggest costs as well. According to latest state of analyses and measurements it is well known that theoretical rolling resistance were underestimated in comparison with the measured in-situ one. In this paper new method for determination indentation rolling resistance is presented. The authors compared theoretically and experimentally established damping factors. The relation between these two values enabled to obtain more precise equation for damping function. This function is one of the most important component in calculation of the rolling resistance. In new theoretical model value of rolling resistance is nearly twice higher than this used so far.

  5. Constitutive modeling of porcine liver in indentation using 3D ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, P; Socrate, S; Zickler, T E; Howe, R D

    2009-04-01

    In this work we present an inverse finite-element modeling framework for constitutive modeling and parameter estimation of soft tissues using full-field volumetric deformation data obtained from 3D ultrasound. The finite-element model is coupled to full-field visual measurements by regularization springs attached at nodal locations. The free ends of the springs are displaced according to the locally estimated tissue motion, and the normalized potential energy stored in all springs serves as a measure of model-experiment agreement for material parameter optimization. We demonstrate good accuracy of estimated parameters and consistent convergence properties on synthetically generated data. We present constitutive model selection and parameter estimation for perfused porcine liver in indentation, and demonstrate that a quasilinear viscoelastic model with shear modulus relaxation offers good model-experiment agreement in terms of indenter displacement (0.19 mm RMS error) and tissue displacement field (0.97 mm RMS error).

  6. Construction of stess-strain curves for brittle materials by indentation in a wide temperature range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milman Yu.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A test method procedure for constructing stress-strain curves by indentation of brittle and low plastic materials under temperature ranging from 20 to 900°C was developed recently by Yu. Milman, B. Galanov et al. According to this test method procedure stress-strain curves σ - Є for Si, Ge, SiC, TiB2 and WC/Co hard alloy were constructed in the above temperature region and mechanical parameters such as elastic point, σe, yield stress, σs, etc. were extracted by using the measurement results obtained by a set of trihedral pyramid indenters with different angles at the tip, γ1, ranging from 45 to 85°C.

  7. Comparison of cyclic and impact-based reference point indentation measurements in human cadaveric tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Lamya; Van Vliet, Miranda; Bouxsein, Mary L

    2018-01-01

    Although low bone mineral density (BMD) is strongly associated with increased fracture risk, up to 50% of those who suffer fractures are not detected as high-risk patients by BMD testing. Thus, new approaches may improve identification of those at increased risk for fracture by in vivo assessment of altered bone tissue properties, which may contribute to skeletal fragility. Recently developed reference point indentation (RPI) allows for assessment of cortical bone indentation properties in vivo using devices that apply cyclic loading or impact loading, but there is little information available to assist with interpretation of RPI measurements. Our goals were to use human cadaveric tibia to determine: 1) the associations between RPI variables, cortical bone density, and morphology; 2) the association between variables obtained from RPI systems using cyclic, slow loading versus a single impact load; and 3) age-related differences in RPI variables. We obtained 20 human tibia and femur pairs from female donors (53-97years), measured total hip BMD using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, assessed tibial cortical microarchitecture using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT), and assessed cortical bone indentation properties at the mid-tibial diaphysis using both the cyclic and impact-based RPI systems (Biodent and Osteoprobe, respectively, Active Life Scientific, Santa Barbara, CA). We found a few weak associations between RPI variables, BMD, and cortical geometry; a few weak associations between measurements obtained by the two RPI systems; and no age-related differences in RPI variables. Our findings indicate that in cadaveric tibia from older women RPI measurements are largely independent of age, femoral BMD, and cortical geometry. Furthermore, measurements from the cyclic and impact loading RPI devices are weakly related to each other, indicating that each device reflects different aspects of cortical bone indentation properties

  8. Microindentation deformation of lithium dihydrogen phosphate single crystals: Microhardness measurement and indentation size effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iurchenko, Anton [Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine); Borc, Jarosław, E-mail: j.borc@pollub.pl [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Sangwal, Keshra [Department of Applied Physics, Lublin University of Technology, ul. Nadbystrzycka 38, 20-618 Lublin (Poland); Voronov, Alexei [Institute for Single Crystals, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Lenin Avenue 60, 61001 Kharkiv (Ukraine)

    2016-02-15

    The Vickers microhardness H{sub V} of the (110) and (111) as-grown faces of lithium dihydrogen phosphate (LDP) crystals was investigated as a function of applied load P. The microhardness H{sub V} of the two faces increases with load P i.e. reverse indentation size effect (reverse ISE) and the hardness of the (110) face is somewhat lower than that of the (111) face but this difference is not easily recognized for these planes due to large scatter in the data. The origin of observed ISE was analyzed using different approaches. It was found that: (1) Hays–Kendall's and Begley–Hutchinson's relations do not explain the origin of reverse ISE but Meyer's law describes the reverse ISE satisfactorily and its constants provide a link between ISE and formation of radial cracks with applied indentation load P, (2) reverse ISE is associated with tensile surface stresses, (3) despite its failure to explain reverse ISE, Begley–Hutchinson's relation is reliable to obtain load-independent hardness H{sub 0}, is 2337 MPa for LDP, and (4) the value of fracture toughness K{sub C} of LDP crystals lies between 4.7 and 12 MPa m{sup 1/2}. The load-independent hardness H{sub 0} of LDP is higher by a factor of 1.5 than that reported for undoped KDP and ADP crystals whereas its fracture toughness K{sub C} is higher by factor of about 20 than that of undoped KDP crystals. - Highlights: • Vickers indentations on the (110) and (111) faces of LDP crystals were made. • The microhardness H{sub V} was investigated as a function of applied load P. • Reverse indentation size effect was observed. • Fracture toughness K{sub C} from the radial cracks was calculated.

  9. Method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials using spherical indenters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Thomas A.

    1996-01-01

    The invention pertains a method of determining elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramics, intermetallics, metals, plastics and other hard, brittle materials which fracture prior to plastically deforming when loads are applied. Elastic and plastic mechanical properties of ceramic materials are determined using spherical indenters. The method is most useful for measuring and calculating the plastic and elastic deformation of hard, brittle materials with low values of elastic modulus to hardness.

  10. Nuclear Weapon Yield Determination through Nano Indentation of Thermally Degraded Automobile Paint

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    detonation from a test device used in Operation Teapot (dashed lines) (Plum, 1958) ...............13 8. Agilent Nano Indenter G200...2 . (Bauer, 2010) also measured the spectral output of the AXTS and compared it to that measured in Operation Teapot . As shown in Figure 7, the...800, 1200, and 1800 W (solid lines) over the spectral output at 4 different times after detonation of a test device used in Operation Teapot (dashed

  11. Effect of ion irradiation and indentation depth on the kinetics of deformation during micro-indentation of Zr-2.5%Nb pressure tube material at 25 deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bose, B. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada); Klassen, R.J., E-mail: rklassen@eng.uwo.c [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2010-04-01

    Micro-indentation creep tests were performed at 25 deg. C on radial-normal samples cut from Zr-2.5Nb CANDU pressure tube material in both the as-fabricated condition and after irradiation with 8.5 MeV Zr{sup +} ions. The average indentation stress, and hence the yield stress, was found to increase with decreasing indentation depth and with increasing levels of ion irradiation. The activation energy of the indentation creep rate and hence the, activation energy of the obstacles that limit the rate of dislocation glide, was independent of indentation depth but increased from DELTAG{sub 0} = 0.185 to 0.215 mub{sup 3} with increasing ion irradiation damage. The magnitude of the activation energy indicates that ion irradiation introduces a new type of obstacle into the microstructure which reduces the low temperature indentation creep rate of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes. This is supported by TEM images showing that Zr{sup +} ion irradiation produces small, nanometer size, dislocation loops which act as obstacles to dislocation glide and thus influence both the yield stress and the activation energy of the low-temperature thermal creep of Zr-2.5Nb pressure tube material. These findings suggest that neutron irradiation will have similar effect upon yield stress and low-temperature thermal creep as the Zr{sup +} ion irradiation since both create similar crystallographic defects in Zr-2.5Nb pressure tubes.

  12. A phenomenological method of mechanical properties definition of reactor pressure vessels (RPV) steels VVER according to the ball indentation diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakirov, M. B.; Potapov, V.V.; Massoud, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    This work presents specimen-free methods of a standard uniaxial tension diagram construction and RPV (reactor pressure vessel) steels VVER strength properties definition out of a continuous ball indentation diagram. A similarity phenomenon of uniaxial tension strain curves at a hardening area and an area of a ball indentation constitutes the ground of the methods. The methods are developed on the basis of the uniform graphic representation of elasto-plastic strain processes by indentation and tension and with the reception of the unified yield curve at a hardening area. The calculation results on the phenomenological method conducted for a wide range of RPV steels conditions of nuclear reactors have shown a good precision as far as strain curves construction by the uniaxial tension out of the elasto-plastic indentation diagram is concerned. (authors)

  13. AFM PeakForce QNM mode: Evidencing nanometre-scale mechanical properties of chitin-silica hybrid nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyakov, G; Pruvost, S; Cardoso, L; Alonso, B; Belamie, E; Duchet-Rumeau, J

    2016-10-20

    PeakForce Quantitative Nanomechanical Mapping (QNM) AFM mode was used to explore the mechanical properties of textured chitin-silica hybrid films at the nanoscale. The influence of the force applied by the tip on the sample surface was studied for standard homogeneous samples, for chitin nanorods and for chitin-silica hybrid nanocomposites. Thick films of superimposed chitin nanorods showed a monotonous increase of DMT modulus (based on the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model) owing to an increase in modulus at the interface between nanorods due to geometrical constraints of the AFM acquisition. A similar variation of DMT modulus was obtained for chitin-silica hybrid thick films related to mechanical strengthening induced by the presence of silica. This work revealed the role of the organic-inorganic interface, at the nanoscale, in the mechanical behaviour of textured materials using PeakForce QNM mode, with optimized analysis conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ultrawide band gaps in beams with double-leaf acoustic black hole indentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Liling; Cheng, Li

    2017-11-01

    Band gaps in conventional phononic crystals (PCs) are attractive for applications such as vibration control, wave manipulation, and sound absorption. Their practical implementations, however, are hampered by several factors, among which the large number of cells required and their impractically large size to ensure the stopbands at reasonably low frequencies are on the top of the list. This paper reports a type of beam carved inside with two double-leaf acoustic black hole indentations. By incorporating the local resonance effect and the Bragg scattering effect generated by a strengthening stud connecting the two branches of the indentations, ultrawide band gaps are achieved. Increasing the length of the stud or reducing the residual thickness of the indentation allows the tuning of the band gaps to significantly enlarge the band gaps, which can exceed 90% of the entire frequency range of interest. Experimental results show that with only three cells, the proposed beam allows considerable vibration energy attenuation within an ultra-broad frequency range including the low frequency range, which conventional PCs can hardly reach. Meanwhile, the proposed configuration also enhances the structural integrity, thus pointing at promising applications in vibration control and a high performance wave filter design.

  15. Assessment of surface caking of powders using the ball indentation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qinqin; Zafar, Umair; Ghadiri, Mojtaba; Bi, Jinfeng

    2017-04-15

    Powder caking is a ubiquitous problem, which could significantly decrease product quality and lead to economic losses. Hence it is important to know the conditions under which it occurs. The caking behaviour of three powder materials (PVP, HPC and CaHPO 4 ) has been investigated by the ball indentation method (BIM) as affected by relative humidity (RH), temperature and time. The resistance to powder flow, as indicated by the hardness is measured by a ball indenting the powder bed surface. The surface hardness increases with increasing RH and temperature, indicating caking of the powder bed. Moreover, the temperature and RH show a coupled effect on powder caking. Irreversible caking is formed in PVP and HPC at 75% RH; the particles coalesce and the volume of powder bed is significantly reduced with time. However, the caking of CaHPO 4 is reversible. To examine the caking mechanism of PVP and HPC, the critical glass transition RH is determined at 25°C and 45°C. The values are 63% and 53% RH for PVP and 61% and 50% RH for HPC, respectively. The glass transition moisture content in the ball indentation experiments is comparable with that determined by the dynamic vapor sorption measurement. BIM could be a fast and effective method for the assessment of powder surface caking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. TEM in situ cube-corner indentation analysis using ViBe motion detection algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, K. H.; Thomas, S.; Swenson, M. J.; Lu, Y.; Wharry, J. P.

    2018-04-01

    Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) in situ mechanical testing is a promising method for understanding plasticity in shallow ion irradiated layers and other volume-limited materials. One of the simplest TEM in situ experiments is cube-corner indentation of a lamella, but the subsequent analysis and interpretation of the experiment is challenging, especially in engineering materials with complex microstructures. In this work, we: (a) develop MicroViBE, a motion detection and background subtraction-based post-processing approach, and (b) demonstrate the ability of MicroViBe, in combination with post-mortem TEM imaging, to carry out an unbiased qualitative interpretation of TEM indentation videos. We focus this work around a Fe-9%Cr oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloy, irradiated with Fe2+ ions to 3 dpa at 500 °C. MicroViBe identifies changes in Laue contrast that are induced by the indentation; these changes accumulate throughout the mechanical loading to generate a "heatmap" of features in the original TEM video that change the most during the loading. Dislocation loops with b = ½ identified by post-mortem scanning TEM (STEM) imaging correspond to hotspots on the heatmap, whereas positions of dislocation loops with b = do not correspond to hotspots. Further, MicroViBe enables consistent, objective quantitative approximation of the b = ½ dislocation loop number density.

  17. Fragmentation of copper current collectors in Li-ion batteries during spherical indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hsin; Watkins, Thomas R.; Simunovic, Srdjan; Bingham, Philip R.; Allu, Srikanth; Turner, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Large, areal, brittle fracture of copper current collector foils was observed by 3D x-ray computed tomography (XCT) of a spherically indented Li-ion cell. This fracture was hidden and non-catastrophic to a degree because the graphite layers deformed plastically, and held the materials together so that the cracks in the foils could not be seen under optical and electron microscopy. 3D XCT on the indented cell showed “mud cracks” within the copper layer. The cracking of copper foils could not be immediately confirmed when the cell was opened for post-mortem examination. However, an X-ray radiograph on a single foil of the Cu anode showed clearly that the copper foil had broken into multiple pieces similar to the brittle cracking of a ceramic under indentation. This new failure mode of anodes on Li-ion cell has very important implications on the behavior of Li-ion cells under mechanical abuse conditions. Furthermore, the fragmentation of current collectors in the anode must be taken into consideration for the electrochemical responses which may lead to capacity loss and affect thermal runaway behavior of the cells.

  18. AFM of metallic nano-particles and nano-structures in heavily irradiated NaCl

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaynutdinov, R; Vainshtein, DI; Hak, SJ; Tolstikhina, A; Den Hartog, HW

    2003-01-01

    AFM investigations are reported for heavily, electron irradiated NaCl crystals in ultra high vacuum (UHV) in the non-contact mode-with an UHV AFM/STM Omicron system. To avoid chemical reactions between the radiolytic Na and oxygen and water, the irradiated samples were cleaved and prepared for the

  19. Sequential electrochemical oxidation and site-selective growth of nanoparticles onto AFM probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haitao; Tian, Tian; Zhang, Yong; Pan, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yong; Xiao, Zhongdang

    2008-08-19

    In this work, we reported an approach for the site-selective growth of nanoparticle onto the tip apex of an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. The silicon AFM probe was first coated with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) of octadecyltrichlorosilane (OTS) through a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. Subsequently, COOH groups were selectively generated at the tip apex of silicon AFM probes by applying an appropriate bias voltage between the tip and a flat gold electrode. The transformation of methyl to carboxylic groups at the tip apex of the AFM probe was investigated through measuring the capillary force before and after electrochemical oxidation. To prepare the nanoparticle terminated AFM probe, the oxidized AFM probe was then immersed in an aqueous solution containing positive metal ions, for example, Ag+, to bind positive metal ions to the oxidized area (COOH terminated area), followed by chemical reduction with aqueous NaBH 4 and further development (if desired) to give a metal nanoparticle-modified AFM probe. The formation of a metal nanoparticle at the tip apex of the AFM probe was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDXA).

  20. Determination of local constitutive properties of titanium alloy matrix in boron-modified titanium alloys using spherical indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreeranganathan, A.; Gokhale, A.; Tamirisakandala, S.

    2008-01-01

    The constitutive properties of the titanium alloy matrix in boron-modified titanium alloys are different from those of the corresponding unreinforced alloy due to the microstructural changes resulting from the addition of boron. Experimental and finite-element analyses of spherical indentation with a large penetration depth to indenter radius ratio are used to compute the local constitutive properties of the matrix alloy. The results are compared with that of the corresponding alloy without boron, processed in the same manner

  1. Direct manipulation of intracellular stress fibres using a hook-shaped AFM probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Machida, Shinichi; Watanabe-Nakayama, Takahiro; Harada, Ichiro; Afrin, Rehana; Nakayama, Tomonobu; Ikai, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a highly successful technique for imaging nanometre-sized samples and measuring pico- to nano-newton forces acting between atoms and molecules. When it comes to the manipulation of larger samples with forces of tens and hundreds of nano-newtons, however, the present chemistry-based modification protocols for functionalizing AFM cantilevers to achieve the formation of covalent/non-covalent linkages between the AFM probe and the sample surface do not produce strong enough bonds. For the purpose of measuring the fracture strength and other mechanical properties of stress fibres (SFs) in living as well as semi-intact fibroblast cells, we fabricated an AFM probe with a hooking function by focused ion beam technology and used the AFM probe hook to capture, pull and eventually sever a chosen SF labelled with green or red fluorescent protein.

  2. Characterization of Rockwell hardness indenter Tip using image processing and optical profiler and evaluation of measurement uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moona G.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hardness is a measure of the resistance of a material to be penetrated and eroded by sharp projections of other materials such as diamond. The process of creating sharp projections on any test surface is known as indentation. Hardness measurement of any material is the result of a complex process of deformation during indentation. The indenter tip geometry, which includes radius of curvature at the tip and tip angle, affects the hardness measurement by influencing the nature of the penetration process on the test surface, because every indenter deforms the specimen surface with a different geometry. The controlled indenter geometry can improve the consistency of hardness measurement. In this paper we report the estimation of two important geometrical parameters, radius of curvature and tip angle of a Rockwell indenter by using a simple method of image processing and compare the results with those obtained with a traceable 3D optical profiler. Evaluation of uncertainty in measuremts is carried out as per ISO guidelines (ISO-GUM and a detailed uncertainty budget is presented. The tip angle estimted is 119.95 degree. The radius of curvature is estimted to be 199.96 ± 0.80μm by image analysis which agrees well with the value estimated by using optical profiler i.e. 199.12 μm.

  3. OPPORTUNITY ESTIMATION OF OPTICAL METHOD APPLICATION IN PROBLEM OF KINEMATIC CHARACTERISTICS REGISTRATION OF DYNAMIC INDENTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeniya I. Ivanova

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. A stereoscopic method of technical vision is proposed for recording the kinematic characteristics of the dynamic indentation process in determining the physico-mechanical properties of materials. The proposed method makes it possible to determine the values of the indenter motion speed with high accuracy. Method. The method is based on the use of two high-speed video cameras immovably fixed on one flat platform. Cameras allow for synchronous recording of the indentation process. The objectives and orientation of cameras in the stereo system provide intersection of the visual fields and the required depth of the image space field. Measurement of the movement speed is performed by triangulation method. The distance between the conjugate points of the recorded object on the stereo images is inversely proportional to the distance between the pair of cameras and the corresponding point of the object in the three-dimensional space. Based on the analysis of images obtained by spatially separated cameras, the coordinates of the object point are determined. Main Results. The experimental setup consisted of two high-speed monochrome camcorders Evercam 4000-32-M, rigidly fixed through stereo. Synchronous recording was kept at a speed of 4000 frames/s with a resolution of 1280 × 860 pixels. The indenter was made in the form of a steel ball with a mass of 230 g with a diameter of 38 mm and fell onto an aluminum disk 10 mm thick from a height of 310 mm. Video images from cameras were transferred to a personal computer for processing. The analysis of the obtained data was carried out in the MATLAB system with the help of a specially written software module. The sensitivity of the proposed method made it possible to determine confidently the values of the maximum approach speed of a steel ball equal to 2.39 m/s and a rebound velocity of 1.2 m/s. The random component of the method error did not exceed 2.5%. Practical Relevance. The

  4. Fabrication and buckling dynamics of nanoneedle AFM probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beard, J D; Gordeev, S N, E-mail: jdb28@bath.ac.uk [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-04-29

    A new method for the fabrication of high-aspect-ratio probes by electron beam induced deposition is described. This technique allows the fabrication of cylindrical 'nanoneedle' structures on the atomic force microscope (AFM) probe tip which can be used for accurate imaging of surfaces with high steep features. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging showed that needles with diameters in the range of 18-100 nm could be obtained by this technique. The needles were shown to undergo buckling deformation under large tip-sample forces. The deformation was observed to recover elastically under vertical deformations of up to {approx} 60% of the needle length, preventing damage to the needle. A technique of stabilizing the needle against buckling by coating it with additional electron beam deposited carbon was also investigated; it was shown that coated needles of 75 nm or greater total diameter did not buckle even under tip-sample forces of {approx} 1.5 {mu}N.

  5. Interactions between shape-persistent macromolecules as probed by AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Blass

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Water-soluble shape-persistent cyclodextrin (CD polymers with amino-functionalized end groups were prepared starting from diacetylene-modified cyclodextrin monomers by a combined Glaser coupling/click chemistry approach. Structural perfection of the neutral CD polymers and inclusion complex formation with ditopic and monotopic guest molecules were proven by MALDI–TOF and UV–vis measurements. Small-angle neutron and X-ray (SANS/SAXS scattering experiments confirm the stiffness of the polymer chains with an apparent contour length of about 130 Å. Surface modification of planar silicon wafers as well as AFM tips was realized by covalent bound formation between the terminal amino groups of the CD polymer and a reactive isothiocyanate–silane monolayer. Atomic force measurements of CD polymer decorated surfaces show enhanced supramolecular interaction energies which can be attributed to multiple inclusion complexes based on the rigidity of the polymer backbone and the regular configuration of the CD moieties. Depending on the geometrical configuration of attachment anisotropic adhesion characteristics of the polymer system can be distinguished between a peeling and a shearing mechanism.

  6. Hot-Fire Testing of a 1N AF-M315E Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnside, Christopher G.; Pedersen, Kevin; Pierce, Charles W.

    2015-01-01

    This hot-fire test continues NASA investigation of green propellant technologies for future missions. To show the potential for green propellants to replace some hydrazine systems in future spacecraft, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is continuing to embark on hot-fire test campaigns with various green propellant blends. NASA completed a hot-fire test of a 1N AF-M315E monopropellant thruster at the Marshall Space Flight Center in the small altitude test stand located in building 4205. The thruster is a ground test article used for basic performance determination and catalyst studies. The purpose of the hot-fire testing was for performance determination of a 1N size thruster and form a baseline from which to study catalyst performance and life with follow-on testing to be conducted at a later date. The thruster performed as expected. The result of the hot-fire testing are presented in this paper and presentation.

  7. UV laser ablation of intraocular lenses: SEM and AFM microscopy examination of the biomaterial surface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyratou, E.; Asproudis, I.; Tsoutsi, D.; Bacharis, C.; Moutsouris, K.; Makropoulou, M.; Serafetinides, A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Several new materials and patterns are studied for the formation and etching of intraocular lenses (IOLs), in order to improve their optical properties, to reduce the diffractive aberrations and to decrease the incidence of posterior capsular opacification. The aim of this study is to investigate the use of UV (λ = 266 nm) laser pulses to ablate the intraocular lenses materials, and thus to provide an alternative to conventional surface shaping techniques for IOLs fabrication. Ablation experiments were conducted using various polymer substrates of hydrophobic acrylic IOLs and PMMA IOLs. We investigated the ablation efficiency and the morphology of the ablated area by imaging the surface modification with atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The morphological appearance of IOL samples reveals the effect of a photochemical and photothermal ablation mechanism.

  8. Nanomanipulation, nanotribology and nanomechanics of Au nanorods in dry and liquid environments using an AFM and depth sensing nanoindenter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Dave; Bhushan, Bharat

    2014-06-07

    Nano-objects in dry and liquid conditions have shown reductions in friction and wear on the macroscale. In this research, for the first time, Au nanorods were studied on the nanoscale under dry conditions and submerged in water for their effect on friction and wear reduction. The data were compared with spherical Au nanoparticles. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) experiments on the nanoscale were performed in single-nano-object contact with an AFM tip, where nano-objects were laterally manipulated, and multiple-nano-object contact with a tip attached to a glass sphere sliding over several nano-objects. Nanoscale and macroscale wear tests with an AFM and ball-on-flat tribometer were performed to relate friction and wear reduction on both scales. Results indicate that Au nano-objects contribute to friction and wear reduction due to the reduced contact area and possible rolling and sliding on the nanoscale. Compression tests (global deformation) using a nanoindenter with a flat punch were used to investigate the mechanical behavior under load and its relation to friction and wear reduction. Repeat compression tests of nano-objects were performed which showed a strain hardening effect and increased pop-ins during subsequent loads.

  9. Simultaneous topographic and amperometric membrane mapping using an AFM probe integrated biosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanca, Sarmiza Elena; Csaki, Andrea; Urban, Matthias; Nietzsche, Sandor; Biskup, Christoph; Fritzsche, Wolfgang

    2011-02-15

    The investigation of the plasma membrane with intercorrelated multiparameter techniques is a prerequisite for understanding its function. Presented here, is a simultaneous electrochemical and topographic study of the cell membrane using a miniaturized amperometric enzymatic biosensor. The fabrication of this biosensor is also reported. The biosensor combines a scanning force microscopy (AFM) gold-coated cantilever and an enzymatic transducer layer of peroxidases (PODs). When these enzymes are brought in contact with the substrate, the specific redox reaction produces an electric current. The intensity of this current is detected simultaneously with the surface imaging. For sensor characterization, hydroquinone-2-carboxylic acid (HQ) is selected as an intrinsic source of H(2)O(2). HQ has been electrochemically regenerated by the reduction of antraquinone-2-carboxylic acid (AQ). The biosensor reaches the steady state value of the current intensity in 1 ± 0.2s. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Investigation of Streptococcus mutans biofilm growth on modified Au(111)-surfaces using AFM and electrochemistry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Jingdong; Ulstrup, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Biofilms of the bacterium Streptococcus mutans constitute perhaps the most important direct cause of human dental caries formation. We have studied S. mutans biofilm formation and properties on Au(111)-surfaces modified by self-assembled molecular monolayers (SAMs) of different thiol...... (hexadecanethiol, MHD) or hydrophilic (mercapto-hexadecanoic acid, MHDA) end groups. The voltammetric reductive desorption (RD) peaks of the thiol-based SAMs in the absence and presence of biofilms and growth medium was in focus as a sensitive probe of the SAM local environment.AFM showed that S. mutans had grown...... with growth medium or of the growth medium alone. The RD peak potential of the hydrophilic MHDA surface remained, further largely unaffected but the RD peak of the hydrophobic MHD SAM is distinctly shifted compared to the MHD SAM alone. The shifts were further in different directions for the S. mutans biofilm...

  11. Electrochemical Single‐Molecule AFM of the Redox Metalloenzyme Copper Nitrite Reductase in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hao, Xian; Zhang, Jingdong; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager

    2012-01-01

    We studied the electrochemical behavior of the redox metalloenzyme copper nitrite reductase (CNiR, Achromobacter xylosoxidans) immobilized on a Au(111)‐electrode surface modified by a self‐assembled cysteamine molecular monolayer (SAM) using a combination of cyclic voltammetry and electrochemically......‐controlled atomic force microscopy (in situ AFM). The enzyme showed no voltammetric signals in the absence of nitrite substrate, whereas a strong reductive electrocatalytic signal appeared in the presence of nitrite. Such a pattern is common in protein film and monolayer voltammetry and points to conformational...... in the presence of nitrite. No change in size was observed in the absence of nitrite over the same potential range. The enzyme size variation is suggested to offer clues to the broadly observed substrate triggering in metalloenzyme monolayer voltammetry....

  12. Multiparametric AFM reveals turgor-responsive net-like peptidoglycan architecture in live streptococci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saar Dover, Ron; Bitler, Arkady; Shimoni, Eyal; Trieu-Cuot, Patrick; Shai, Yechiel

    2015-05-01

    Cell-wall peptidoglycan (PG) of Gram-positive bacteria is a strong and elastic multi-layer designed to resist turgor pressure and determine the cell shape and growth. Despite its crucial role, its architecture remains largely unknown. Here using high-resolution multiparametric atomic force microscopy (AFM), we studied how the structure and elasticity of PG change when subjected to increasing turgor pressure in live Group B Streptococcus. We show a new net-like arrangement of PG, which stretches and stiffens following osmotic challenge. The same structure also exists in isogenic mutants lacking surface appendages. Cell aging does not alter the elasticity of the cell wall, yet destroys the net architecture and exposes single segmented strands with the same circumferential orientation as predicted for intact glycans. Together, we show a new functional PG architecture in live Gram-positive bacteria.

  13. Membrane Surface Nanostructures and Adhesion Property of T Lymphocytes Exploited by AFM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Hongsong

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The activation of T lymphocytes plays a very important role in T-cell-mediated immune response. Though there are many related literatures, the changes of membrane surface nanostructures and adhesion property of T lymphocytes at different activation stages have not been reported yet. However, these investigations will help us further understand the biophysical and immunologic function of T lymphocytes in the context of activation. In the present study, the membrane architectures of peripheral blood T lymphocytes were obtained by AFM, and adhesion force of the cell membrane were measured by acquiring force–distance curves. The results indicated that the cell volume increased with the increases of activation time, whereas membrane surface adhesion force decreased, even though the local stiffness for resting and activated cells is similar. The results provided complementary and important data to further understand the variation of biophysical properties of T lymphocytes in the context of in vitro activation.

  14. Transient bioimpedance monitoring of mechanotransduction in artificial tissue during indentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Cheneler

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanotransduction is of fundamental importance in cell physiology, facilitating sensing in touch and hearing as well as tissue development and wound healing. This study used an impedance sensor to monitor the effective resistance and permittivity of artificial tissues, alginate hydrogel with encapsulated fibroblasts, which were kept viable through the use of a bespoke microfluidic system. The observed transient impedance responses upon the application of identical compressive normal loads differed between acellular hydrogels and hydrogels in which fibroblasts were encapsulated. These differences resulted from changes in the conductivity and permeability of the hydrogel due to the presence of the encapsulated fibroblasts, and transient changes in ion concentrations due to mechanotransduction effects.

  15. Initial Growth Process of Magnetron Sputtering 321 Stainless Steel Films Observed by Afm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yongzhong; Wu, Wei; Liu, Dongliang; Chen, Jian; Sun, Yali

    To investigate the initial morphological evolution of 321 stainless steel (SS) films, we examined the effect of sputtering time on the morphology of 321 SS film. In this study, a group of samples were prepared at nine different sputtering times within 20 s using radio-frequency (r.f.) magnetron sputtering and characterized by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Only globular-like grains were formed on mica substrates within 6 s, whose average grain size is ~ 21-44 nm. Meanwhile, few grains with larger size are subject to settle at the defect sites of mica substrates. At 8 s, we found large columnar crystallites with the average grain size of 61 nm. From 10 to 14 s, islands grew continuously and coalesced in order to form an interconnected structure containing irregular channels or grooves, with a depth of ~ 3.5-5 nm. Up to 16 s, a nearly continuous film was formed and some new globular-like grains were again present on the film. Study of the AFM image at 20 s suggests that the watercolor masking method designed by us is an effective method, by which we can prepare thin films with steps for the measurement of the thickness of continuous thin films. It is also found that the coverage rate of films increases with the increase in sputtering time (from 2 to 16 s). On the other hand, the increase in root mean square (RMS) roughness is much more significant from 6 to 10 s, and there is a maximum value, 2.81 nm at 10 s due to more islands during deposition. However, RMS roughness decreases with the decrease in length and width of channels or grooves from 10 to 16 s. Especially, a lower RMS roughness of 0.73 nm occurs at 16 s, because of the continuous film produced with a large coverage rate of 98.43%.

  16. Modification of AFM Tips for Facilitating Picking-up of Nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Wang; Hai-Jun, Yang; Hua-Bin, Wang; Hai, Li; Xin-Yan, Wang; Ying, Wang; Jun-Hong, Lü; Bin, Li; Yi, Zhang; Jun, Hu

    2008-01-01

    The radius of atomic force microscope (AFM) tip is a key factor that influences nonspecific interactions between AFM tip and nanoparticles. Generally, a tip with larger radius contributes to a higher efficiency of picking up nanoparticles. We provide two methods for modifying the AFM tip: one is to wear a tip apex on a solid substrate and the other is to coat a tip with poly (dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). Both the approaches can enhance the adhesion force between the tip and nanoparticles by increasing tip radius. The experimental results show that a modified tip, compared to an unmodified one, achieves six-fold efficiency improvement in the capture of targeted colloidal gold nanoparticles. (general)

  17. Exploring the elasticity and adhesion behavior of cardiac fibroblasts by atomic force microscopy indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Codan, B.; Del Favero, G. [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); Martinelli, V. [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy); International Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, Trieste (Italy); Long, C.S.; Mestroni, L. [University of Colorado Cardiovascular Institute, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, CO (United States); Sbaizero, O., E-mail: sbaizero@units.it [Department of Engineering and Architecture, University of Trieste (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    AFM was used to collect the whole force–deformation cell curves. They provide both the elasticity and adhesion behavior of mouse primary cardiac fibroblasts. To confirm the hypothesis that a link exists between the membrane receptors and the cytoskeletal filaments causing therefore changing in both elasticity and adhesion behavior, actin-destabilizing Cytochalsin D was administrated to the fibroblasts. From immunofluorescence observation and AFM loading/unloading curves, cytoskeletal reorganization as well as a change in the elasticity and adhesion was indeed observed. Elasticity of control fibroblasts is three times higher than that for fibroblasts treated with 0.5 μM Cytochalasin. Moreover, AFM loading–unloading curves clearly show the different mechanical behavior of the two different cells analyzed: (i) for control cells the AFM cantilever rises during the dwell time while cells with Cytochalasin fail to show such an active resistance; (ii) the maximum force to deform control cells is quite higher and as far as adhesion is concern (iii) the maximum separation force, detachment area and the detachment process time are much larger for control compared to the Cytochalasin treated cells. Therefore, alterations in the cytoskeleton suggest that a link must exist between the membrane receptors and the cytoskeletal filaments beneath the cellular surface and inhibition of actin polymerization has effects on the whole cell mechanical behavior as well as adhesion. - Highlights: • The whole AFM force–deformation cell curves were analyzed. • They provide information on both the elasticity and adhesion behavior. • Actin-destabilizing Cytochalasin D was administrated to the fibroblasts. • Change in elasticity and adhesion was ascribed to cytoskeletal reorganization. • A link exists between the membrane receptors and the cytoskeletal filaments.

  18. Simultaneous AFM and fluorescence imaging: A method for aligning an AFM-tip with an excitation beam using a 2D galvanometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moores, A. N.; Cadby, A. J.

    2018-02-01

    Correlative fluorescence and atomic force microscopy (AFM) imaging is a highly attractive technique for use in biological imaging, enabling force and mechanical measurements of particular structures whose locations are known due to the specificity of fluorescence imaging. The ability to perform these two measurements simultaneously (rather than consecutively with post-processing correlation) is highly valuable because it would allow the mechanical properties of a structure to be tracked over time as changes in the sample occur. We present an instrument which allows simultaneous AFM and fluorescence imaging by aligning an incident fluorescence excitation beam with an AFM-tip. Alignment was performed by calibrating a 2D galvanometer present in the excitation beam path and using it to reposition the incident beam. Two programs were developed (one manual and one automated) which correlate sample features between the AFM and fluorescence images, calculating the distance required to translate the incident beam towards the AFM-tip. Using this method, we were able to obtain beam-tip alignment (and therefore field-of-view alignment) from an offset of >15 μm to within one micron in two iterations of the program. With the program running alongside data acquisition for real-time feedback between AFM and optical images, this offset was maintained over a time period of several hours. Not only does this eliminate the need to image large areas with both techniques to ensure that fields-of-view overlap, but it also raises the possibility of using this instrument for tip-enhanced fluorescence applications, a technique in which super-resolution images have previously been achieved.

  19. Comparison of the aerodynamics of bridge cables with helical fillets and a pattern-indented surface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleissl, K.; Georgakis, C.T.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the aerodynamics of bridge cables with helical fillets and a pattern-indented surface are examined. To this end, an extensive wind-tunnel test campaign was undertaken to measure the static force coefficients about the critical Reynolds number region, with varying relative cable...... cable was found to have a much slower flow transition for near normal flow and relatively large lift force components for the yawed positions. Flow visualizations confirmed the existence of specific flow structures which are often associated with the presence of lower drag or large lift forces...

  20. Chirality and grain boundary effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-20

    We investigate chirality and grain boundary (GB) effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil using molecular dynamics simulations. The models of graphene with different chirality angles, different numbers of layers and tilt GBs were established. It was found that the chirality angle of few-layer graphene had a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of graphene/nickel systems, and this turns out to be more significant when the number of layers is greater than one. The enhancement to the contact stiffness, elastic capacity and the load bearing capacity of graphene with tilt GBs was lower than that of pristine graphene.

  1. Indentation in the Right Ventricle by an Incomplete Pericardium on 3-Dimensional Reconstructed Computed Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hak Ju Kim

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 17-year-old girl who presented with an indentation in the right ventricle caused by an incomplete pericardium on preoperative 3-dimensional reconstructed computed tomography. She was to undergo surgery for a partial atrioventricular septal defect and secundum atrial septal defect. Preoperative electrocardiography revealed occasional premature ventricular beats. We found the absence of the left side of the pericardium intraoperatively, and this absence caused strangulation of the diaphragmatic surface of the right ventricle. After correcting the lesion, the patient’s rhythm disturbances improved.

  2. Chirality and grain boundary effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yuping; Lv, Jiajiang; Liu, Sheng

    2018-04-01

    We investigate chirality and grain boundary (GB) effects on indentation mechanical properties of graphene coated on nickel foil using molecular dynamics simulations. The models of graphene with different chirality angles, different numbers of layers and tilt GBs were established. It was found that the chirality angle of few-layer graphene had a significant effect on the load bearing capacity of graphene/nickel systems, and this turns out to be more significant when the number of layers is greater than one. The enhancement to the contact stiffness, elastic capacity and the load bearing capacity of graphene with tilt GBs was lower than that of pristine graphene.

  3. Fracture Toughness Evaluation of a Ni2MnGa Alloy Through Micro Indentation Under Magneto-Mechanical Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goanţă, Viorel; Ciocanel, Constantin

    2017-12-01

    Ni2MnGa is a ferromagnetic alloy that exhibits the shape memory effect either induced by an externally applied magnetic field or mechanical stress. Due to the former, the alloy is commonly called magnetic shape memory alloy or MSMA. The microstructure of the MSMA consists of tetragonal martensite variants (three in the most general case) that are characterized by a magnetization vector which is aligned with the short side of the tetragonal unit cell. Exposing the MSMA to a magnetic field causes the magnetization vector to rotate and align with the external field, eventually leading to variant reorientation. The variant reorientation is observed macroscopically in the form of recoverable strain of up to 6% [1, 2]. As the magnetic field induced reorientation happens instantaneously [1, 3], MSMAs are suitable for fast actuation, sensing, or power harvesting applications. However, actuation applications are limited by the maximum actuation stress of the material that is about 3.5MPa at approximately 2 to 3% reorientation strain. During MSMA fatigue magneto-mechanical characterization studies [4, 5] it was observed that cracks nucleate and grow on the surface of material samples, after a relatively small number of cycles, leading to loss in material performance. This triggered the need for understanding the mechanisms that govern crack nucleation and growth in MSMAs, as well as the nature of the material, i.e. ductile or brittle. The experimental study reported in this paper was carried out to determine material's fracture toughness, the predominant crack growth directions, and the orientation of the cracks relative to the mechanical loading direction and to the material's microstructure. A fixture has been developed to allow Vickers micro indentation of 3mm by 3mm by 20mm Ni2MnGa samples exposed to different levels of magnetic field and/or mechanical stress. Using the measured characteristics of the impression generated during micro indentation, the lengths of

  4. Continuous FEM simulation of the nanoindentation. Actual indenter tip geometries, material elastoplastic deformation laws and universal hardness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouzakis, K.D.; Michailidis, N.; Hadjiyiannis, S.; Skordaris, G. [Mechanical Engineering Dept., Aristoteles Univ. of Thessaloniki (Greece); Erkens, G. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2002-09-01

    The precise knowledge of materials mechanical properties is always a core issue in every technical application. Through a developed finite elements method (FEM) continuous simulation of the nanoindentation, the applied force course versus the penetration depth is adequately simulated during the loading and unloading phases of this test, and the corresponding material stress-strain curves, as well as the universal hardness, are stepwise defined. Furthermore, the actual tip geometries of various indenters are approached and through equivalent magnitudes described. The results show that the defined material elastoplastic deformation characteristics are independent of the indenter type, as Vickers or Berkovich, since the existing indenter tip form deviations from their ideal geometry are considered. Furthermore, using the developed FEM-based nanoindentation simulation, the influence of the indenter tip geometry on the defined constitutive laws and the universal hardness is sufficiently elucidated. Various materials stress-strain curves and universal hardness courses versus the indentation depth, determined by means of the developed procedure, are presented. (orig.)

  5. Characterization of the mechanical properties of a dermal equivalent compared with human skin in vivo by indentation and static friction tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahouani, H; Pailler-Mattei, C; Sohm, B; Vargiolu, R; Cenizo, V; Debret, R

    2009-02-01

    The study of changes in skin structure with age is becoming all the more important with the increase in life. The atrophy that occurs during aging is accompanied by more profound changes, with a loss of organization within the elastic collagen network and alterations in the basal elements. The aim of this study is to present a method to determine the mechanical properties of total human skin in vivo compared with dermal equivalents (DEs) using indentation and static friction tests. A new bio-tribometer working at a low contact pressure for the characterization the mechanical properties of the skin has been developed. This device, based on indentation and static friction tests, also allows to characterize the skin in vivo and reconstructed DEs in a wide range of light contact forces, stress and strain. This original bio-tribometer shows the ability to assess the skin elasticity and friction force in a wide range of light normal load (0.5-2 g) and low contact pressure (0.5-2 kPa). The results obtained by this approach show identical values of the Young's modulus E(*) and the shear modulus G(*) of six DEs obtained from a 62-year-old subject (E(*)=8.5+/-1.74 kPa and G(*)=3.3+/-0.46 kPa) and in vivo total skin of 20 subjects aged 55 to 70 years (E(*)=8.3+/-2.1 kPa, G(*)=2.8+/-0.8 kpa).

  6. 1N AF-M315E Green Propellant Thruster Technology Qualification (GPTTQ)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development and flight qualification of a 1N AF-M315E thruster. The projects aims to conduct initial heavyweight GR-1 testing to optimize the injector design and the...

  7. BOREAS AFM-06 NOAA/ETL 35 GHz Cloud/Turbulence Radar GIF Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The BOREAS AFM-06 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) operated a 35 GHz cloud-sensing radar...

  8. A Multifunctional Frontloading Approach for Repeated Recycling of a Pressure-Controlled AFM Micropipette.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Roder

    Full Text Available Fluid force microscopy combines the positional accuracy and force sensitivity of an atomic force microscope (AFM with nanofluidics via a microchanneled cantilever. However, adequate loading and cleaning procedures for such AFM micropipettes are required for various application situations. Here, a new frontloading procedure is described for an AFM micropipette functioning as a force- and pressure-controlled microscale liquid dispenser. This frontloading procedure seems especially attractive when using target substances featuring high costs or low available amounts. Here, the AFM micropipette could be filled from the tip side with liquid from a previously applied droplet with a volume of only a few μL using a short low-pressure pulse. The liquid-loaded AFM micropipettes could be then applied for experiments in air or liquid environments. AFM micropipette frontloading was evaluated with the well-known organic fluorescent dye rhodamine 6G and the AlexaFluor647-labeled antibody goat anti-rat IgG as an example of a larger biological compound. After micropipette usage, specific cleaning procedures were tested. Furthermore, a storage method is described, at which the AFM micropipettes could be stored for a few hours up to several days without drying out or clogging of the microchannel. In summary, the rapid, versatile and cost-efficient frontloading and cleaning procedure for the repeated usage of a single AFM micropipette is beneficial for various application situations from specific surface modifications through to local manipulation of living cells, and provides a simplified and faster handling for already known experiments with fluid force microscopy.

  9. Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    ARL-MR-0965 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for...Optimization of Easy Atomic Force Microscope (ezAFM) Controls for Semiconductor Nanostructure Profiling by Satwik Bisoi Science and...REPORT TYPE Memorandum Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 2017 July 05–2017 August 18 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Optimization of Easy Atomic Force

  10. AFM capabilities in characterization of particles and surfaces: from angstroms to microns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starostina, N; Brodsky, M; Prikhodko, S; Hoo, C M; Mecartney, M L; West, P

    2008-01-01

    Scanning probe microscopy (SPM), invented 25 years ago, is now routinely employed as a surface characterization technique. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is the most widely used form of SPM, since AFM can be used in ambient conditions with minimal sample preparation. Examples of applications relevant to cosmetics include, but are not limited to, hair and skin roughness measurements and powder particle and nano-emulsion characterization. AFM is well suited for individual particle characterization, especially for measurements of volume, height, size, shape, aspect ratio, and particle surface morphology. Statistical distributions for a large set of particles can be generated through single-particle analysis techniques (i.e., ensemble-like information). AFM is better capable of resolving complex particle-size distributions than dynamic light-scattering (DLS). Single-particle analysis techniques with AFM can be more cost- and time-effective than analyses using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). However, AFM offers resolution that is comparable to or greater than SEM or transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and routinely allows direct measurements of the particle height and volume and produces images easily displayed in a quantified 3D format.

  11. Influence of Hydroxyapatite Nano-particles on the Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Orthopedic Cement-Based Nano-composites Measured by Nano-indentation and Nano-scratch Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgharzadeh Shirazi, H.; Ayatollahi, M. R.; Naimi-Jamal, M. R.

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the mechanical and tribological properties of a commercially available bone cement by incorporating nano-sized hydroxyapatite using nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments. In order to achieve this goal, the nano-composite cement samples with different amounts of commercial nano-hydroxyapatite (HAc), as a bone compatible nano-filler, were prepared via vacuum mixing method. The results indicated that nano-indentation and nano-scratch experiments are acceptable methods for measuring the mechanical and tribological properties of orthopedic cement-based nano-composites. Moreover, it was found that the nano-composite of 10 wt.% HAc exhibits the optimum performance compared to the other nano-composite samples in terms of mechanical and tribological properties. These findings can play an important role in achieving the goal of clinical and biomechanical function optimization of bone cement, especially in the field of orthopedic surgery.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of Aluminum Honeycombs Subjected to Dynamic Indentation and Compression Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S.M. Ayman Ashab

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical behavior of aluminum hexagonal honeycombs subjected to out-of-plane dynamic indentation and compression loads has been investigated numerically using ANSYS/LS-DYNA in this paper. The finite element (FE models have been verified by previous experimental results in terms of deformation pattern, stress-strain curve, and energy dissipation. The verified FE models have then been used in comprehensive numerical analysis of different aluminum honeycombs. Plateau stress, σpl, and dissipated energy (EI for indentation and EC for compression have been calculated at different strain rates ranging from 102 to 104 s−1. The effects of strain rate and t/l ratio on the plateau stress, dissipated energy, and tearing energy have been discussed. An empirical formula is proposed to describe the relationship between the tearing energy per unit fracture area, relative density, and strain rate for honeycombs. Moreover, it has been found that a generic formula can be used to describe the relationship between tearing energy per unit fracture area and relative density for both aluminum honeycombs and foams.

  13. Static Indentation Load Capacity of the Superelastic 60NiTi for Rolling Element Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    DellaCorte, Christopher; Moore, Lewis E., III; Clifton, Joshua S.

    2012-01-01

    The nickel-rich, binary nickel-titanium alloys, such as 60NiTi (60Ni-40Ti by wt%), are emerging as viable materials for use in mechanical components like rolling element bearings and gears. 60NiTi is a superelastic material that simultaneously exhibits high hardness and a relatively low elastic modulus (approx.100 GPa). These properties result in the potential to endure extremely high indentation loads such as those encountered in bearings, gears and other mechanical components. In such applications, quantifying the load that results in permanent deformation that can affect component performance and life is important. In this paper, the static load capacity is measured by conducting indentation experiments in which 12.7 mm diameter balls made from the ceramic Si3N4 are pressed into highly polished, hardened 60NiTi flat plates. Hertz stress calculations are used to estimate contact stress. The results show that the 60NiTi surface can withstand an approximately 3400 kN load before significant denting (>0.6 microns deep) occurs. This load capacity is approximately twice that of high performance bearing steels suggesting that the potential exists to make highly resilient bearings and components from such materials.

  14. Depth-sensing nano-indentation on a myelinated axon at various stages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Liao, Jiunn-Der [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chou-Ching K [Department of Neurology, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Ju, Ming-Shaung, E-mail: jdliao@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, 1 University Road, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2011-07-08

    A nano-mechanical characterization of a multi-layered myelin sheath structure, which enfolds an axon and plays a critical role in the transmission of nerve impulses, is conducted. Schwann cells co-cultured in vitro with PC12 cells for various co-culture times are differentiated to form a myelinated axon, which is then observed using a transmission electron microscope. Three major myelination stages, with distinct structural characteristics and thicknesses around the axon, can be produced by varying the co-culture time. A dynamic contact module and continuous depth-sensing nano-indentation are used on the myelinated structure to obtain the load-on-sample versus measured displacement curve of a multi-layered myelin sheath, which is used to determine the work required for the nano-indentation tip to penetrate the myelin sheath. By analyzing the harmonic contact stiffness versus the measured displacement profile, the results can be used to estimate the three stages of the multi-layered structure on a myelinated axon. The method can also be used to evaluate the development stages of myelination or demyelination during nerve regeneration.

  15. Effect of processing on fracture toughness of silicon carbide as determined by Vickers indentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dannels, Christine M.; Dutta, Sunil

    1989-01-01

    Several alpha-SiC materials were processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIPing) and by sintering an alpha-SiC powder containing boron and carbon. Several beta-SiC materials were processed by HIPing a beta-SiC powder with boron and carbon additions. The fracture toughnesses K(sub 1c) of these beta- and alpha-SiC materials were estimated from measurements of Vickers indentations. The three formulas used to estimate K(sub 1c) from the indentation fracture patterns resulted in three ranges of K(sub 1c) estimates. Furthermore, each formula measured the effects of processing differently. All three estimates indicated that fine-grained HIPed alpha-SiC has a higher K(sub 1c) than coarsed-grained sintered alpha-SiC. Hot isostatically pressed beta-SiC, which had an ultrafine grain structure, exhibited a K(sub 1c) comparable to that of HIPed alpha-SiC.

  16. The indentation of pressurized elastic shells: from polymeric capsules to yeast cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vella, D.

    2011-08-10

    Pressurized elastic capsules arise at scales ranging from the 10 m diameter pressure vessels used to store propane at oil refineries to the microscopic polymeric capsules that may be used in drug delivery. Nature also makes extensive use of pressurized elastic capsules: plant cells, bacteria and fungi have stiff walls, which are subject to an internal turgor pressure. Here, we present theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations of the indentation of a linearly elastic shell subject to a constant internal pressure. We show that, unlike unpressurized shells, the relationship between force and displacement demonstrates two linear regimes. We determine analytical expressions for the effective stiffness in each of these regimes in terms of the material properties of the shell and the pressure difference. As a consequence, a single indentation experiment over a range of displacements may be used as a simple assay to determine both the internal pressure and elastic properties of capsules. Our results are relevant for determining the internal pressure in bacterial, fungal or plant cells. As an illustration of this, we apply our results to recent measurements of the stiffness of baker\\'s yeast and infer from these experiments that the internal osmotic pressure of yeast cells may be regulated in response to changes in the osmotic pressure of the external medium.

  17. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  18. Stress Mapping in Glass-to-Metal Seals using Indentation Crack Lengths

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchheit, Thomas E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Component & Systems Analysis; Strong, Kevin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Newton, Clay S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Diebold, Thomas Wayne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Material Mechanics and Tribology; Bencoe, Denise N. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Electronic, Optical and Nano; Stavig, Mark E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Science; Jamison, Ryan Dale [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Transportation System Analysis

    2017-08-01

    Predicting the residual stress which develops during fabrication of a glass-to-metal compression seal requires material models that can accurately predict the effects of processing on the sealing glass. Validation of the predictions requires measurements on representative test geometries to accurately capture the interaction between the seal materials during a processing cycle required to form the seal, which consists of a temperature excursion through the glass transition temperature of the sealing glass. To this end, a concentric seal test geometry, referred to as a short cylinder seal, consisting of a stainless steel shell enveloping a commercial sealing glass disk has been designed, fabricated, and characterized as a model validation test geometry. To obtain data to test/validate finite element (FE) stress model predictions of this geometry, spatially-resolved residual stress was calculated from the measured lengths of the cracks emanating from radially positioned Vickers indents in the glass disk portion of the seal. The indentation crack length method is described, and the spatially-resolved residual stress determined experimentally are compared to FE stress predictions made using a nonlinear viscoelastic material model adapted to inorganic sealing glasses and an updated rate dependent material model for 304L stainless steel. The measurement method is a first to achieve a degree of success for measuring spatially resolved residual stress in a glass-bearing geometry and a favorable comparison between measurements and simulation was observed.

  19. Factors influencing the stability of AFm and AFt in the Ca?Al?S?O?H system at 25 ?C

    OpenAIRE

    Feng, Pan; Miao, Changwen; Bullard, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    The stabilities of Al2O3?Fe2O3-mono (AFm) and ?tri (AFt) phases in the Ca?Al?S?O?H system at 25 ?C are examined using Gibbs energy minimization as implemented by GEM-Selektor software coupled with the Nagra/PSI thermodynamic database. Equilibrium phase diagrams are constructed and compared to those reported in previous studies. The sensitivity of the calculations to the assumed solid solubility products, highlighted by the example of hydrogarnet, is likely the reason why some studies, includi...

  20. An elevated-temperature depth-sensing instrumented indentation apparatus for investigating thermo-mechanical behaviour of thermal barrier coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Zhaoliang; Yu, Miao; Liu, Yanchao; Xu, Baosheng; He, Rujie; Pei, Yongmao; Zhao, Hongwei; Fang, Daining

    2017-04-01

    In our study, an elevated-temperature depth-sensing instrumented indentation apparatus was designed and developed to investigate thermo-mechanical response of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs). A furnace was used to heat the test region up to 1600 °C and a heat protection design was proposed to protect electronic devices from high temperature environment. Load was applied by a precise loading motor and a piezoelectric actuator in high (0-440 N) and low (0-40 N) load ranges, respectively. A loading shielding scheme was designed to protect the low load sensor during the high loading process. In order to obtain reliable test data, the as-developed apparatus was calibrated at room and elevated temperatures. It is found that the developed apparatus was suitable to obtain the intended data. After that, two typical TBCs were tested from 600 to 1500 °C, and the load-depth curves were presented to show the main functions and usability of the measuring system.