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Sample records for afluria csl limited

  1. Randomized trial to compare the safety and immunogenicity of CSL Limited's 2009 trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine to an established vaccine in United States children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Rebecca C; Hu, Wilson; Houchin, Vonda G; Eder, Frank S; Jackson, Kenneth C; Hartel, Gunter F; Sawlwin, Daphne C; Albano, Frank R; Greenberg, Michael

    2014-12-12

    A trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (CSL's TIV, CSL Limited) was licensed under USA accelerated approval regulations for use in persons≥18 years. We performed a randomized, observer-blind study to assess the safety and immunogenicity of CSL's TIV versus an established US-licensed vaccine in a population≥6 months to vaccination history determined the dosing regimen (one or two vaccinations). Subjects received CSL's TIV (n=739) or the established vaccine (n=735) in the autumn of 2009. Serum hemagglutination-inhibition titers were determined pre-vaccination and 30 days after the last vaccination. No febrile seizures or other vaccine-related SAEs were reported. After the first vaccination for Cohorts A and B, respectively, the relative risks of fever were 2.73 and 2.32 times higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Irritability and loss of appetite (for Cohort A) and malaise (for Cohort B) were also significantly higher for CSL's TIV compared to the established vaccine. Post-vaccination geometric mean titers (GMTs) for CSL's TIV versus the established vaccine were 385.49 vs. 382.45 for H1N1; 669.13 vs. 705.61 for H3N2; and 100.65 vs. 93.72 for B. CSL's TIV demonstrated immunological non-inferiority to the established vaccine in all cohorts.

  2. Mobile Seamless Technology Enhanced CSL Oral Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Lin, Yen-Ting

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at investigating how mobile seamless technology can be used to enhance the pragmatic competence of learners of Chinese as a second language (CSL). 34 overseas CSL learners participated in this study. They were randomly assigned into two groups: the classroom group, executing language tasks in fake contexts in a traditional…

  3. Automata-Based CSL Model Checking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996. The presented decision procedure, however, has exponential complexity. In this paper, we...... probability can then be approximated in polynomial time (using uniformization). This makes the present work the centerpiece of a broadly applicable full CSL model checker. Recently, the decision algorithm by Aziz et al. was shown to be incorrect in general. In fact, it works only for stratified CTMCs...

  4. Efficient CSL Model Checking Using Stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lijun; Jansen, David N.; Nielson, Flemming;

    2012-01-01

    For continuous-time Markov chains, the model-checking problem with respect to continuous-time stochastic logic (CSL) has been introduced and shown to be decidable by Aziz, Sanwal, Singhal and Brayton in 1996 [ 1, 2]. Their proof can be turned into an approximation algorithm with worse than expone...

  5. Dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirne, Andrea; Bassi, Angelo

    2015-01-01

    Collapse models explain the absence of quantum superpositions at the macroscopic scale, while giving practically the same predictions as quantum mechanics for microscopic systems. The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is the most refined and studied among collapse models. A well-known problem of this model, and of similar ones, is the steady and unlimited increase of the energy induced by the collapse noise. Here we present the dissipative version of the CSL model, which guarantees a finite energy during the entire system's evolution, thus making a crucial step toward a realistic energy-conserving collapse model. This is achieved by introducing a non-linear stochastic modification of the Schrödinger equation, which represents the action of a dissipative finite-temperature collapse noise. The possibility to introduce dissipation within collapse models in a consistent way will have relevant impact on the experimental investigations of the CSL model, and therefore also on the testability of the quantum superposition principle. PMID:26243034

  6. Emergence of inflationary perturbations in the CSL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leon, Gabriel [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria-PabI, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Bengochea, Gabriel R. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), UBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-01-15

    The inflationary paradigm is the most successful model that explains the observed spectrum of primordial perturbations. However, the precise emergence of such inhomogeneities and the quantum-to-classical transition of the perturbations has not yet reached a consensus among the community. The continuous spontaneous localization model (CSL), in the cosmological context, might be used to provide a solution to the mentioned issues by considering a dynamical reduction of the wave function. The CSL model has been applied to the inflationary universe before and different conclusions have been obtained. In this letter, we use a different approach to implement the CSL model during inflation. In particular, in addition to accounting for the quantum-to-classical transition, we use the CSL model to generate the primordial perturbations, that is, the dynamical evolution provided by the CSL model is responsible for the transition from a homogeneous and isotropic initial state to a final one lacking such symmetries. Our approach leads to results that can be clearly distinguished from preceding works. Specifically, the scalar and tensor power spectra are not time-dependent, and one retains the amplification mechanism of the CSL model. Moreover, our framework depends only on one parameter (the CSL parameter) and its value is consistent with cosmological and laboratory observations. (orig.)

  7. Dissecting and circumventing the requirement for RAM in CSL-dependent Notch signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott E Johnson

    Full Text Available The Notch signaling pathway is an intercellular communication network vital to metazoan development. Notch activation leads to the nuclear localization of the intracellular portion (NICD of the Notch receptor. Once in the nucleus, NICD binds the transcription factor CSL through a bivalent interaction involving the high-affinity RAM region and the lower affinity ANK domain, converting CSL from a transcriptionally-repressed to an active state. This interaction is believed to directly displace co-repressor proteins from CSL and recruit co-activator proteins. Here we investigate the consequences of this bivalent organization in converting CSL from the repressed to active form. One proposed function of RAM is to promote the weak ANK:CSL interaction; thus, fusion of CSL-ANK should bypass this function of RAM. We find that a CSL-ANK fusion protein is transcriptionally active in reporter assays, but that the addition of RAM in trans further increases transcriptional activity, suggesting another role of RAM in activation. A single F235L point substitution, which disrupts co-repressor binding to CSL, renders the CSL-ANK fusion fully active and refractory to further stimulation by RAM in trans. These results suggest that in the context of a mammalian CSL-ANK fusion protein, the main role of RAM is to displace co-repressor proteins from CSL.

  8. On the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in the CSL model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donadi, Sandro; Deckert, Dirk-André; Bassi, Angelo

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous photon emission in the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is studied one more time. In the CSL model each particle interacts with a noise field that induces the collapse of its wave function. As a consequence of this interaction, when the particle is electrically charged, it radiates. As discussed in Adler (2013) the formula for the emission rate, to first perturbative order, contains two terms: one is proportional to the Fourier component of the noise field at the same frequency as that of the emitted photon and one is proportional to the zero Fourier component of the noise field. As discussed in previous works, this second term seems unphysical. In Adler (2013) it was shown that the unphysical term disappears when the noise is confined to a bounded region and the final particle's state is a wave packet. Here we investigate the origin of this unphysical term and why it vanishes according to the previous prescription. We will see that perturbation theory is formally not valid in the large time limit since the effect of the noise accumulates continuously in time. Therefore either one performs an exact calculation (or at least in some way includes higher order terms) as we do here, or one finds a way to make a perturbative calculation meaningful, e.g., by confining the system as in Adler (2013).

  9. On the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in the CSL model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous photon emission in the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is studied one more time. In the CSL model each particle interacts with a noise field that induces the collapse of its wave function. As a consequence of this interaction, when the particle is electrically charged, it radiates. As discussed in Adler (2013) the formula for the emission rate, to first perturbative order, contains two terms: one is proportional to the Fourier component of the noise field at the same frequency as that of the emitted photon and one is proportional to the zero Fourier component of the noise field. As discussed in previous works, this second term seems unphysical. In Adler (2013) it was shown that the unphysical term disappears when the noise is confined to a bounded region and the final particle’s state is a wave packet. Here we investigate the origin of this unphysical term and why it vanishes according to the previous prescription. We will see that perturbation theory is formally not valid in the large time limit since the effect of the noise accumulates continuously in time. Therefore either one performs an exact calculation (or at least in some way includes higher order terms) as we do here, or one finds a way to make a perturbative calculation meaningful, e.g., by confining the system as in Adler (2013). -- Highlights: •We compute the electromagnetic radiation emission in collapse models. •Under only the dipole approximation, the equations of motion are solved exactly. •The electromagnetic interaction must be treated exactly. •In order to obtain the correct emission rate the particle must be bounded

  10. On the spontaneous emission of electromagnetic radiation in the CSL model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donadi, Sandro, E-mail: sandro.donadi@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste Section, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy); Deckert, Dirk-André, E-mail: deckert@math.ucdavis.edu [Department of Mathematics, University of California, One Shields Ave, 95616 Davis (United States); Bassi, Angelo, E-mail: bassi@ts.infn.it [Department of Physics, University of Trieste, Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Trieste Section, Via Valerio 2, 34127 Trieste (Italy)

    2014-01-15

    Spontaneous photon emission in the Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model is studied one more time. In the CSL model each particle interacts with a noise field that induces the collapse of its wave function. As a consequence of this interaction, when the particle is electrically charged, it radiates. As discussed in Adler (2013) the formula for the emission rate, to first perturbative order, contains two terms: one is proportional to the Fourier component of the noise field at the same frequency as that of the emitted photon and one is proportional to the zero Fourier component of the noise field. As discussed in previous works, this second term seems unphysical. In Adler (2013) it was shown that the unphysical term disappears when the noise is confined to a bounded region and the final particle’s state is a wave packet. Here we investigate the origin of this unphysical term and why it vanishes according to the previous prescription. We will see that perturbation theory is formally not valid in the large time limit since the effect of the noise accumulates continuously in time. Therefore either one performs an exact calculation (or at least in some way includes higher order terms) as we do here, or one finds a way to make a perturbative calculation meaningful, e.g., by confining the system as in Adler (2013). -- Highlights: •We compute the electromagnetic radiation emission in collapse models. •Under only the dipole approximation, the equations of motion are solved exactly. •The electromagnetic interaction must be treated exactly. •In order to obtain the correct emission rate the particle must be bounded.

  11. Abortive lytic reactivation of KSHV in CBF1/CSL deficient human B cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara A Scholz

    Full Text Available Since Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV establishes a persistent infection in human B cells, B cells are a critical compartment for viral pathogenesis. RTA, the replication and transcription activator of KSHV, can either directly bind to DNA or use cellular DNA binding factors including CBF1/CSL as DNA adaptors. In addition, the viral factors LANA1 and vIRF4 are known to bind to CBF1/CSL and modulate RTA activity. To analyze the contribution of CBF1/CSL to reactivation in human B cells, we have successfully infected DG75 and DG75 CBF1/CSL knock-out cell lines with recombinant KSHV.219 and selected for viral maintenance by selective medium. Both lines maintained the virus irrespective of their CBF1/CSL status. Viral reactivation could be initiated in both B cell lines but viral genome replication was attenuated in CBF1/CSL deficient lines, which also failed to produce detectable levels of infectious virus. Induction of immediate early, early and late viral genes was impaired in CBF1/CSL deficient cells at multiple stages of the reactivation process but could be restored to wild-type levels by reintroduction of CBF1/CSL. To identify additional viral RTA target genes, which are directly controlled by CBF1/CSL, we analyzed promoters of a selected subset of viral genes. We show that the induction of the late viral genes ORF29a and ORF65 by RTA is strongly enhanced by CBF1/CSL. Orthologs of ORF29a in other herpesviruses are part of the terminase complex required for viral packaging. ORF65 encodes the small capsid protein essential for capsid shell assembly. Our study demonstrates for the first time that in human B cells viral replication can be initiated in the absence of CBF1/CSL but the reactivation process is severely attenuated at all stages and does not lead to virion production. Thus, CBF1/CSL acts as a global hub which is used by the virus to coordinate the lytic cascade.

  12. Fission Yeast CSL Transcription Factors: Mapping Their Target Genes and Biological Roles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Převorovský

    Full Text Available Cbf11 and Cbf12, the fission yeast CSL transcription factors, have been implicated in the regulation of cell-cycle progression, but no specific roles have been described and their target genes have been only partially mapped.Using a combination of transcriptome profiling under various conditions and genome-wide analysis of CSL-DNA interactions, we identify genes regulated directly and indirectly by CSL proteins in fission yeast. We show that the expression of stress-response genes and genes that are expressed periodically during the cell cycle is deregulated upon genetic manipulation of cbf11 and/or cbf12. Accordingly, the coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis is perturbed in cells with genetically manipulated CSL protein levels, together with other specific defects in cell-cycle progression. Cbf11 activity is nutrient-dependent and Δcbf11-associated defects are mitigated by inactivation of the protein kinase A (Pka1 and stress-activated MAP kinase (Sty1p38 pathways. Furthermore, Cbf11 directly regulates a set of lipid metabolism genes and Δcbf11 cells feature a stark decrease in the number of storage lipid droplets.Our results provide a framework for a more detailed understanding of the role of CSL proteins in the regulation of cell-cycle progression in fission yeast.

  13. Effects of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL on laying hen performance

    OpenAIRE

    Luigi Guidobono Cavalchini; Carla Orsi; Viviana Ferrazzi; Stefano Marelli; Maria Grazia Mangiagalli; Alberto Giardini; Daniele Gallazzi

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of dietary addition of probiotic strain Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL on hen performance and egg quality, 160 commercial Hy-Line Brown pullets, 17 weeks old, were divided in control group (C) (N=80) and treated group (T) (N=80), with 4 alternate replicates of 20 animals each per group. C was fed with a “standard diet”, whereas the T group received the same diet with an inclusion of 1x109 CFU kg-1 of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (freeze dried...

  14. Evaluating CSL/CFL Website Usability: A User-Centered Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chung-Kai; Hsin, Ching-O; Chiu, Chiung-Hui

    2010-01-01

    With the widespread availability of Internet and computer technology, on-line web-based learning has become prevalent in the field of teaching Chinese as a second/foreign language (CSL/CFL). This study examined the concepts of usability and types of design elements that help construct an effective web-based learning environment, as well as their…

  15. Neutrino emissivity and bulk viscosity of iso-CSL quark matter in neutron stars

    OpenAIRE

    Blaschke, D.; Berdermann, J.

    2007-01-01

    We present results for neutrino emissivities and bulk viscosities of a two-flavor color superconducting quark matter phase with isotropic color-spin-locked (iso-CSL) single-flavor pairing which fulfill the constraints on quark matter derived from cooling and rotational evolution of compact stars. We compare with results for the phenomenologically successful, but yet heuristic 2SC+X phase.

  16. Quasi-matter bounce and inflation in the light of the CSL model

    CERN Document Server

    Leon, Gabriel; Landau, Susana J

    2016-01-01

    The Continuous Spontaneous Localization (CSL) model has been proposed as a possible solution to the quantum measurement problem by modifying the Schr\\"{o}dinger equation. In this work, we apply the CSL model to two cosmological models of the early Universe: the matter bounce scenario and slow roll inflation. In particular, we focus on the generation of the classical primordial inhomogeneities and anisotropies that arise from the dynamical evolution, provided by the CSL mechanism, of the quantum state associated to the quantum fields. In each case, we obtained a prediction for the shape and the parameters characterizing the primordial spectra (scalar and tensor), i.e. the amplitude, the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. We found that there exist CSL parameter values, allowed by other non-cosmological experiments, for which our predictions for the angular power spectrum of the CMB temperature anisotropy are consistent with the best fit canonical model to the latest data released by the Planck Colla...

  17. N-termini of fungal CSL transcription factors are disordered, enriched in regulatory motifs and inhibit DNA binding in fission yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Převorovský

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: CSL (CBF1/RBP-Jκ/Suppressor of Hairless/LAG-1 transcription factors are the effector components of the Notch receptor signalling pathway, which is critical for metazoan development. The metazoan CSL proteins (class M can also function in a Notch-independent manner. Recently, two novel classes of CSL proteins, designated F1 and F2, have been identified in fungi. The role of the fungal CSL proteins is unclear, because the Notch pathway is not present in fungi. In fission yeast, the Cbf11 and Cbf12 CSL paralogs play antagonistic roles in cell adhesion and the coordination of cell and nuclear division. Unusually long N-terminal extensions are typical for fungal and invertebrate CSL family members. In this study, we investigate the functional significance of these extended N-termini of CSL proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identify 15 novel CSL family members from 7 fungal species and conduct bioinformatic analyses of a combined dataset containing 34 fungal and 11 metazoan CSL protein sequences. We show that the long, non-conserved N-terminal tails of fungal CSL proteins are likely disordered and enriched in phosphorylation sites and PEST motifs. In a case study of Cbf12 (class F2, we provide experimental evidence that the protein is proteolytically processed and that the N-terminus inhibits the Cbf12-dependent DNA binding activity in an electrophoretic mobility shift assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides insight into the characteristics of the long N-terminal tails of fungal CSL proteins that may be crucial for controlling DNA-binding and CSL function. We propose that the regulation of DNA binding by Cbf12 via its N-terminal region represents an important means by which fission yeast strikes a balance between the class F1 and class F2 paralog activities. This mode of regulation might be shared with other CSL-positive fungi, some of which are relevant to human disease and biotechnology.

  18. Gravitational lensing by cosmic strings: what we learn from the CSL-1 case

    CERN Document Server

    Sazhin, M V; Capaccioli, M; Longo, G; Paolillo, M; Covone, G; Grogin, N A; Schreier, E J

    2006-01-01

    Cosmic strings were postulated by Kibble in 1976 and, from a theoretical point of view, their existence finds support in modern superstring theories, both in compactification models and in theories with extended additional dimensions. Their eventual discovery would lead to significant advances in both cosmology and fundamental physics. One of the most effective ways to detect cosmic strings is through their lensing signatures which appear to be significantly different from those introduced by standard lenses (id est, compact clumps of matter). In 2003, the discovery of the peculiar object CSL-1 (Sazhin et al.2003) raised the interest of the physics community since its morphology and spectral features strongly argued in favour of it being the first case of gravitational lensing by a cosmic string. In this paper we provide a detailed description of the expected observational effects of a cosmic string and show, by means of simulations, the lensing signatures produced on background galaxies. While high angular r...

  19. The barley genome sequence assembly reveals three additional members of the CslF (1,3;1,4-β-glucan synthase gene family.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Schreiber

    Full Text Available An important component of barley cell walls, particularly in the endosperm, is (1,3;1,4-β-glucan, a polymer that has proven health benefits in humans and that influences processability in the brewing industry. Genes of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl F gene family have been shown to be involved in (1,3;1,4-β-glucan synthesis but many aspects of the biosynthesis are still unclear. Examination of the sequence assembly of the barley genome has revealed the presence of an additional three HvCslF genes (HvCslF11, HvCslF12 and HvCslF13 which may be involved in (1,3;1,4-β-glucan synthesis. Transcripts of HvCslF11 and HvCslF12 mRNA were found in roots and young leaves, respectively. Transient expression of these genes in Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in phenotypic changes in the infiltrated leaves, although no authentic (1,3;1,4-β-glucan was detected. Comparisons of the CslF gene families in cereals revealed evidence of intergenic recombination, gene duplications and translocation events. This significant divergence within the gene family might be related to multiple functions of (1,3;1,4-β-glucans in the Poaceae. Emerging genomic and global expression data for barley and other cereals is a powerful resource for characterising the evolution and dynamics of complete gene families. In the case of the CslF gene family, the results will contribute to a more thorough understanding of carbohydrate metabolism in grass cell walls.

  20. GAIA Instrument Space Enviromnmental Qualification At CSL Premises: A Challenging Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grodent, Christophe; Tychon, Isabelle; Jamotton, Pierre; Delrez, Christophe; Urboiti, Eduardo; Jung, Philippe; Decourbey, Eric

    2012-07-01

    GAIA is a global space astrometry mission. It will catalogue a billion stars, producing 10 000 times more data than Hipparcos. It will have the equivalent sensitivity of measuring the diameter of a coin at the moon surface, monitoring each of its target stars more than 80 times over a five-year period. It will precisely chart their positions, distances, movements, and changes in brightness. It is expected to discover hundreds of thousands of new celestial objects, such as extra-solar planets and failed stars called brown dwarfs. A launch is foreseen in 2013, with a Soyouz rocket from the French Guyana launch site. During the 2011-2012 timeframe, the overall payload module (PLM) together with sub-systems like the Radial Velocity Spectrometer (RVS) and the Deployable Sunshield Assembly (DSA) are tested and validated at CSL premises. The measurement of the deployment of the Sunshield Assembly, at cold temperature, is presented and the functionality checks are detailed. The RVS sub-system is submitted to thermal cycles in the Focal 3 chamber and a dedicated test set-up in the Focal 2 chamber is specifically developed for measuring the optical performance under the required thermal vacuum environment. These tests have been carried out begin of 2012. Finally, the overall PLM (more than 700 Kg with a diameter higher than 3.5m) will be tested during summer-autumn 2012 period in the CSL Focal 6.5 chamber. More than 40 days under vacuum are foreseen, with a permanent 24/24h human survey. A new test set-up is designed and manufactured. A dedicated thermal tent will surround the instrument, made of two independent telescopes, together with the AC flat mirrors and the Focal Plane Assembly (FPA). In order to fulfil the mechanical stability requirements, a bench called “TVIS” (Thermal Vacuum Interface Structure) has been developed and any parasitic vibration is strongly reduced via three vacuum compatible optimized isolation springs with their own damping material. The

  1. Development of a citation style language CSL to describe the formatting of citations, notes and bibliographies of agricultural scientific articles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Cervantes Beyra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El desarrollo de ficheros de estilos bibliográficos que puedan ser acoplados a gestores de información científica, es una opción viable para reducir los errores en forma de los artículos que se presentan en las revistas de corte agropecuario. En ocasiones, los comités editoriales se ven envueltos en tediosos trabajos de corrección bibliográfica que muchas veces terminan con la devolución de numerosos documentos por este motivo. Los estilos CSL (procesadores de citas, notas y bibliografías permiten realizar el asentamiento automático de las referencias utilizadas según las exigencias de cada revista y pueden ser cargados por una amplia gama gestores de reconocida preferencia; por lo que constituyen una potente e indispensable herramienta en la elaboración de documentos científicos. Es por ello que el objetivo de este trabajo fue confeccionar un lenguaje de estilo de citas CSL basado en la norma ISO 690:2010 para asentar la bibliografía de los artículos presentados en la Revista Ciencias Técnicas Agropecuarias (RCTA. Para la confección del mismo se utilizó el esquema CSL v1.0, con lenguaje XML, formato de codificación de caracteres utf-8 y tipo de citas en texto autor-año. Las operaciones de edición y validación se realizaron a través del editor de texto plano Notepad++ v4.7.5, el Visual CSL Editor (online y el Validator.nu (online. Como resultado se obtuvo un fichero CSL compatible con 25 gestores bibliográficos que permite asentar de manera automática la bibliografía de los artículos científicos agropecuarios de RCTA, según las directrices de la norma ISO 690:2010.

  2. Quantitative proteomic analysis of the effects of a GalNAc/Man-specific lectin CSL on yeast cells by label-free LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuai; Li, Linge; Tong, Changqing; Zhao, Qiancheng; Lukyanov, Pavel A; Chernikov, Oleg V; Li, Wei

    2016-04-01

    A Ca(2+)-dependent GalNAc/Man-specific lectin (CSL) from Cyclina sinensis was isolated, and its stimulatory action was characterized in yeast. CSL showed a potent effect on the production of ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this work, the changes in the protein expression profiles of S. cerevisiae after 24h of incubation with CSL were analyzed using label-free quantitative proteomics. A total of 1410 proteins were identified, but only 117 proteins showed significant differences in normalized volume (p<0.05). Among the latter proteins, 24 proteins were up-regulated, and 93 were down-regulated. Analysis of the proteome revealed that CSL triggered changes in the concentrations of some enzymes, such as increased expression of hexokinase, glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and enolase and decreased expression of dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase and aldehyde dehydrogenase. These results indicate that CSL can cause some changes in the metabolic pathway involved in ethanol synthesis in S. cerevisiae. These data may help us understand the stimulatory mechanism of lectin in the fermentation process.

  3. The Effects of Wiki-Based Recursive Process Writing on Chinese Narrative Essays for Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) Students in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Kuen; Gong, Cheng; Tay, Boon Pei

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the effects of using wiki-based process writing in Singapore's Chinese as a Second Language (CSL) scenarios. A group of 32 Secondary 1 (Seventh Grade) students ("Students") received various forms of online scaffolding at different steps of the writing process over two years. A whole set of teaching materials on 45…

  4. Effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL and Cassava Wastewater (CW on Chitin and Chitosan Production by Cunninghamella elegans and Their Physicochemical Characteristics and Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Raquel Ramos Berger

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbiological processes were used for chitin and chitosan production with Cunninghamella elegans UCP/WFCC 0542 grown in different concentrations of two agro-industrial wastes, corn steep liquor (CSL and cassava wastewater (CW established using a 22 full factorial design. The polysaccharides were extracted by alkali-acid treatment and characterized by infrared spectroscopy, viscosity, thermal analysis, elemental analysis, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The cytotoxicity of chitosan was evaluated for signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane of chicken eggs. The highest biomass (9.93 g/L was obtained in trial 3 (5% CW, 8% CSL, the greatest chitin and chitosan yields were 89.39 mg/g and 57.82 mg/g, respectively, and both were obtained in trial 2 (10% CW, 4% CSL. Chitin and chitosan showed a degree of deacetylation of 40.98% and 88.24%, and a crystalline index of 35.80% and 23.82%, respectively, and chitosan showed low molecular weight (LMW 5.2 × 103 Da. Chitin and chitosan can be considered non-irritating, due to the fact they do not promote vascular change. It was demonstrated that CSL and CW are effective renewable agroindustrial alternative substrates for the production of chitin and chitosan.

  5. [{sup 11}C]S.L.(25.1188), a new radioligand to study the monoamine oxidase type B with PET: preclinical characterisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saba, W.; Valette, H.; Peyronneau, M.A.; Bramoulle, Y.; Coulon, C.; Dolle, F.; Bottlaender, M. [Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, IIBM/DSV, 91 - Orsay (France); Curet, O.; George, P. [Sanofi-Aventis, 92 - Bagneux (France)

    2008-02-15

    Introduction. - Monoamine oxidase (M.A.O.) is a flavin containing enzyme, that catalyzes the oxidative deamination of various amines and neurotransmitters. Two isoforms exist, M.A.O.-A and M.A.O.-B. Variations in M.A.O. activity may be associated to human disease such as Parkinson and Alzheimer disease. Few radiotracers have been developed for M.A.O. PET studies such as [{sup 11}C]deprenyl, an irreversible M.A.O.-B inhibitor. Recently an oxazolidinone derivative, S.L.- 25.1188 ((S)-5-methoxy-methyl-3-[6-(4,4,4-tri-fluoro butoxy)- benzo[d]isoxazol-3-yl]-oxazolidin-2-one), belonging to a new generation of selective and reversible M.A.O.-B inhibitors was developed and showed in vitro a high selectivity for M.A.O.B. [1]. The aim of this study was to characterize [{sup 11}C]S.L.- 25.1188 as radioligand for in vivo PET examination of M.A.O.-B. Materials and methods. - PET studies of the brain distribution were carried out in male Papio anubis baboons. Selectivity and reversibility of [{sup 11}C]S.L.-25.1188 binding for M.A.O.-B was assessed by pre-treatment or displacement experiments (30 min before and after tracer injection, respectively) using reference ligands for M.A.O.-B (deprenyl: 2 mg/kg i.v. and lazabemide: 0.5 mg/kg i.v.) or by displacement experiments using unlabelled S.L.-25.1188 (1 mg/kg, i.v., 30 min after tracer injection). Distribution volume (D.V.) was calculated using 2-tissue-compartment model. The saturable binding following pre-treatment with deprenyl was considered as the specific binding. Results. - After injection, [1{sup 1C}]S.L.-25.1188 presents a rapid phase of distribution in blood (about 5 min), followed by a elimination with T1/2 of 75 min. The Blood to plasma concentration ratio was constant during the experimentation (0.9 {+-} .04) consistent with a similar kinetic of [{sup 11}C]S.L.- 25.1188 in both blood and plasma. Metabolism analysis showed that [{sup 11}C]S.L.-25.1188 is stable in vivo. In the brain, uptake in different areas was

  6. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL (Lactobacillus acidophilus) for laying hens

    OpenAIRE

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP)

    2014-01-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus D2/CSL is the trade name for a preparation of a strain of Lactobacillus acidophilus. EFSA was requested to re-evaluate the additive when used in feed for laying hens at a minimum dose of 1 × 109 CFU/kg feed and to assess the safety and efficacy of its use in water for drinking for the same species. The identity of L. acidophilus has been established and no resistance to clinically relevant antibiotics has been detected. The strain satisfies the requirements for the q...

  7. 二宽度CSL代数与套代数的因子分解%Factorization of Width-two CSL Algebras and Nest Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨有龙; 吴艳

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we show that the invertible operator T, which is a bounded linear functional on a separable Hilbert space H, could factor as T = US, where U is unitary and S belongs to width-two CSL algebra algψ (ψ=M∨N) when nest M or N is a countable nest, or S belongs to algψ-1 when nests M and N are countable nests. For the factorization of nest,we obtain that T factors as T = US where S ∈ DN-1 and U is unitary as N be a countable nest.

  8. An in vivo comparison of the efficacy of CSL box jellyfish antivenom with antibodies raised against nematocyst-derived Chironex fleckeri venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, Kelly L; Isbister, Geoffrey K; Jacoby, Tamara; Seymour, Jamie E; Hodgson, Wayne C

    2009-06-01

    Although CSL box jellyfish antivenom (AV) remains the primary treatment for Chironex fleckeri envenoming, there has been considerable debate regarding its clinical effectiveness. Animal studies have shown that AV is largely ineffective in preventing C. fleckeri-induced cardiovascular collapse. This study examined the effectiveness of CSL box jellyfish AV (ovine IgG), raised against 'milked' venom, and polyclonal rabbit IgG antibodies (Ab) raised against nematocyst-derived venom. A venom dose of 30microg/kg, i.v., which causes an initial presser response (34+/-5mmHg; n=7) followed by cardiovascular collapse, was used in all experiments. A bolus dose of AV (3000U/kg, i.v.) or Ab (12mg; i.e. an equivalent protein 'load' to 3000U/kg AV), administered 15min prior to a bolus dose of venom, did not significantly attenuate the effects of venom. The venom response was also not significantly attenuated when AV (3000U/kg) was given as a bolus dose 10-60min prior to venom infusion. However, when the venom was incubated with either AV (3000U/kg) or Ab (12mg) for 3h prior to infusion, the effect of the venom was almost abolished. The results of this study demonstrate that antibodies raised against both 'milked' and nematocyst-derived venom are able to neutralise the cardiovascular collapse produced by the venom. However, large amounts of AV are required and must be preincubated with the venom to be protective. This indicates a very rapid action of the toxin(s) and that AV is unlikely to be clinically effective because it cannot be administered early enough. PMID:19429250

  9. 2015赛季中国足球超级联赛各球队攻防能力分析%An analysis of each team’s attack and defense ability in 2015 CSL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑞丽; 商祥; 徐晓阳

    2016-01-01

    运用文献资料、录像观察、数理统计以及RSR秩和比评价等研究方法,对2015赛季中超联赛各球队的攻防能力进行分析。结果表明:中超各参赛队实力有较大差距,根据RSR值分析结果划分为5个等级;2支降级球队与对手存在很大差距,在进攻能力上,进球指标与其他球队差异具有非常显著性差异(P<0.01),控球率以及角球次数等指标与对手差异显著(P<0.05);在防守能力上,抢断成功次数与对手差异高度显著(P<0.01),失球数指标与对手差异显著(P<0.05)。%Using the methods of literature review, video watching , mathematical statistics and RSR to analyze and estimate the attack and defense ability of each team in 2015 CSL games, and providing theoretical basis to improve the technique level in CSL. The results indicate that there are great different among teams. According to the RSR data, the teams are divided into five grades. There are extremely significant differences between the offensive capacity of two demotion teams and other teams, including goals (P<0.01), and there are significant differences between the offensive capacity of two demotion teams and other teams, including ball controlling percentage and corner kick times (P<0.05);There are extremely significant differences in the defensive capacity between Hengda and its adversaries including tackles success ratio(P<0.01).there are extremely significant differences in the defensive capacity between Hengda and its adversaries including goals against(P<0.01).

  10. Analysis of Attack and Defense Ability of Each Team and CompetitionPatter in 2015 CSL%2015赛季中超联赛CSL各球队攻防实力对比与竞争格局分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江瑞丽; 赵鲁南; 王朝信

    2016-01-01

    In the report, the methods of literature review, video watching, TOPSIS and RSR were used to analyze and overall merit the attack and defense ability in 2015CSL games,dialysis Chinese football competition patter.The results indicated that in today's our country the football landscape pattern not changed, taking over the world the sport in HengDa team;World sport strength pattern is still not balanced, according to the RSR data, there are three levels;there are extremely significant differences between the offensive capacity of three levels teams ,including shooting times(P<0.01),and there are significant differences between the offensive capacity of three levels teams,including goals,tackles the success rate,pass the threat ball time and corner kick times (P<0.05);there are extremely significant differences in the defensive capacity including goals against(P<0.01).there are extremely significant differences in the defensive capacity including fouls times and save the ball success rate (P<0.01). Attack and defense ability are balanced and strength can acquire good achievement,in contrast,it is not satisfactory in CSL ranks.%运用文献资料、录像观察、TOPSIS以及RSR秩和比评价等方法,对2015赛季中超各球队攻防指标进行分析并综合评价,探析中超联赛的竞争格局,研究结果:当今中国足球格局没有发生变化,恒大继续夺冠;中国足球实力格局仍不平衡,各参赛队在综合攻防实力上可分为3个等级;在进攻能力上,3个等级球队在射门次数指标上差异具有非常显著性(P<0.01),进球、控球率、传威胁球次数以及角球次数等指标差异具有显著性(P<0.05);在防守能力上,失球数差异具有高度显著性(P<0.01),犯规、扑救成功率等指标差异具有显著性( P<0.05)。中超联赛竞争格局表现在攻守能力较强且较均衡的球队在联赛中取得较好的成绩,而攻守不平衡的球队在联赛中的排名不理想。

  11. Modern Chinese Punctuation and CSL Reading Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stan

    1988-01-01

    Provides a brief history of Chinese punctuation and detailed analysis of modern Chinese punctuation. Three tables show: 1) uniquely Chinese punctuation markers; 2) markers graphemically identical and functionally similar to Western markers; and 3) markers graphemically identical but functionally different from Western markers. Each punctuation…

  12. 教师认知视角下的职前汉语教师语法教学信念研究%Grammar Teaching Beliefs Held by Pre-service CSL Teachers: A Study from the Perspective of Teacher Cognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汲传波; 刘芳芳

    2012-01-01

    The study is conducted with the participation of pre-service CSL their grammar teaching beliefs. On the whole, data from the questionnaire show CSL teachers not only accept the general principles of communicative language Teachers to explore that the pre-service teaching, but also treasure the value of traditional of grammar teaching. The two individual differences, major contexts and teaching experiences, all make no significant difference in their beliefs about grammar teaching. However, the difference is only identified in their inductive beliefs from the dimension of gender. Based upon these findings, the implications for Chinese as a Second Language teacher education is discussed at the end of the paper.%本研究以职前汉语教师为调查对象,研究了他们的语法教学信念特点。结果表明,总体而言,他们既接受交际语法教学的原则,又肯定传统语法教学的价值。就个体差异而言,职前汉语教师的本科专业背景、有无教学经验在六类语法教学信念上不存在显著差异;不同性别的职前汉语教师仅在归纳信念上存在显著差异。基于这些发现,本文讨论了该调查对国际汉语教师培养的启示。

  13. On limit and limit setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorney, J E

    1994-01-01

    This article investigates the role of limit and limit setting within the psychoanalytic situation. Limit is understood to be a boundary between self and others, established as an interactional dimension of experience. Disorders of limit are here understood within the context of Winnicott's conception of the "anti-social tendency." Limit setting is proposed as a necessary and authentic response to the patient's acting out via holding and empathic responsiveness, viewed here as a form of boundary delineation. It is proposed that the patient attempts to repair his or her boundary problem through a seeking of secure limits within the analyst. The setting of secure and appropriate limits must arise from a working through of the analyst's own countertransference response to the patient. It is critical that this response be evoked by, and arise from, the immediate therapeutic interaction so that the patient can experience limit setting as simultaneously personal and authentic. PMID:7972580

  14. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  15. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  16. Limited Neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten Ebbe Juul

    2006-01-01

    Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."......Article Concerning the prospect of a kind of limited neutrality in place of the standard liberal egalitarian "neutrality of justification."...

  17. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  18. Limiting Skepticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendricks, Vincent Fella; Symons, John

    2011-01-01

    Skeptics argue that the acquisition of knowledge is impossible given the standing possibility of error. We present the limiting convergence strategy for responding to skepticism and discuss the relationship between conceivable error and an agent’s knowledge in the limit. We argue that the skeptic...... must demonstrate that agents are operating with a bad method or are in an epistemically cursed world. Such demonstration involves a significant step beyond conceivability and commits the skeptic to potentially convergent inquiry...

  19. Regression Analysis of Each Team’s Technical Indica-tors and Competition Results of CSL in Season ;2014%2014赛季CSL各球队比赛技术指标与比赛成绩的逐步回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王朝信; 陈翀; 康金明

    2015-01-01

    采用文献资料法、录像观察法以及数理统计法等研究方法,对2014赛季CSL16支球队240场比赛的20项常规技术指标与比赛积分进行统计,并按照比赛技术指标(自变量)对比赛积分(因变量)的大小进行逐步回归分析,研究结果显示:进入逐步回归方程的相关比赛技术指标的依次顺序是控球率、进球数与失球数。另外,根据2014赛季CSL各球队比赛积分的实际情况,将16支球队划分为4个层次,对处于不同层次的球队进行Kruskal-Wallis检验,发现不同层次球队的控球率的 Asymp. Sig.=0.0330.05、进球数的Asymp. Sig.=0.12>0.05、失球数的 Asymp. Sig.=0.019 0. 05 , Asymp. Sig. of the goal number equals 0. 12 > 0. 05, Asymp. Sig. of the conceding rate equals 0. 019 <0. 05, Asymp. Sig. of the competition scores equals 0. 019 <0. 05. For conceding number and score indicators,the re-sults of these two tests both show that P<0. 05,which im-plies that teams of different levels are greatly different in conceding number and competition scores.

  20. Right Hemisphere and Left Hemisphere: Pedagogical Implications for CSL Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickel, Stanley L.

    Students can be taught to read Chinese more efficiently and accurately by using the specific capabilities of the right and left hemispheres of the brain. The right hemisphere is the site of image and pattern recognition, and students can be taught to use those capacities to process individual characters efficiently by watching for the element of…

  1. Model checking conditional CSL for continuous-time Markov chains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Yang; Xu, Ming; Zhan, Naijun;

    2013-01-01

    probabilistic operator. CCSL allows us to express a richer class of properties for CTMCs. Based on a parameterized product obtained from the CTMC and an automaton extracted from a given CCSL formula, we propose an approximate model checking algorithm and analyse its complexity....

  2. HOME Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HOME Income Limits are calculated using the same methodology that HUD uses for calculating the income limits for the Section 8 program. These limits are based on...

  3. Limits to adaptation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Kirstin; Berkhout, Frans; Preston, Benjamin L.; Klein, Richard J. T.; Midgley, Guy; Shaw, M. Rebecca

    2013-04-01

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society's responses to climate change.

  4. An Adaptive TVD Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Yih Nen; Payne, Uon Jan

    1995-05-01

    An adaptive TVD limiter, based on a limiter approximating the upper boundary of the TVD range and that of the third-order upwind TVD scheme, is developed in this work. The limiter switches to the comprressive limiter near a discontinuity, to the third-order TVD scheme's limiter in the smooth region, and to a weighted averaged scheme in the transition region between smooth and high gradient solutions. Numerical experiments show that the proposed scheme works very well for one-dimensional scalar equation problems but becomes less effective in one- and two-dimensional Euler equation problems. Further study is required for the two-dimensional scalar equation problems.

  5. Limit loads in nozzles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The static method for the evaluation of the limit loads of a perfectly elasto-plastic structure is presented. Using the static theorem of Limit Analysis and the Finite Element Method, a lower bound for the colapso load can be obtained through a linear programming problem. This formulation if then applied to symmetrically loaded shells of revolution and some numerical results of limit loads in nozzles are also presented. (Author)

  6. Limit analysis via creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper it is presented a variational method for the limit analysis of an ideal plastic solid. This method has been denominated as Modified Secundary Creep and enables to find the collapse loads through a minimization of a functional and a limit process. Given an ideal plastic material it is shown how to determinate the associated secundary creep constitutive equation. Finally, as an application, it is found the limit load in an pressurized von Mises rigid plastic sphere. (Author)

  7. Friction Generated Limit Cycles

    OpenAIRE

    Ohlsson, Henrik; Åström, Karl Johan

    2001-01-01

    This paper treats limit cycles caused by friction. The goal has been to explain phenomena that have been observed experimentally in mechatronic systems. Experiments have shown that oscillations of qualitatively different types can be obtained simply by changing controller specifications. Stiction is important in some cases but not in others. Necessary conditions for limit cycle are given for the case where stiction is important. Conditions for local stability of the limit cycles are also pres...

  8. Limitations to sharing entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jeong San; Sanders, Barry C

    2011-01-01

    We discuss limitations to sharing entanglement known as monogamy of entanglement. Our pedagogical approach commences with simple examples of limited entanglement sharing for pure three-qubit states and progresses to the more general case of mixed-state monogamy relations with multiple qudits.

  9. Limits to Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Janne Hedegaard

    2012-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that a theoretical identification of the limit to inclusion is needed in the conceptual identification of inclusion. On the one hand, inclusion is formulated as a vision that is, in principle, limitless. On the other hand, there seems to be an agreement that inclusion has a limit in the pedagogical practice. However,…

  10. Numerical Limit Analysis:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars

    2007-01-01

    Limit State analysis has a long history and many prominent researchers have contributed. The theoretical foundation is based on the upper- and lower-bound theorems which give a very comprehensive and elegant formulation on complicated physical problems. In the pre-computer age Limit State analysi...

  11. Universal Limits on Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Krauss, L M

    2004-01-01

    The physical limits to computation have been under active scrutiny over the past decade or two, as theoretical investigations of the possible impact of quantum mechanical processes on computing have begun to make contact with realizable experimental configurations. We demonstrate here that the observed acceleration of the Universe can produce a universal limit on the total amount of information that can be stored and processed in the future, putting an ultimate limit on future technology for any civilization, including a time-limit on Moore's Law. The limits we derive are stringent, and include the possibilities that the computing performed is either distributed or local. A careful consideration of the effect of horizons on information processing is necessary for this analysis, which suggests that the total amount of information that can be processed by any observer is significantly less than the Hawking-Beckenstein entropy associated with the existence of an event horizon in an accelerating universe.

  12. The Hugoniot Elastic Limit Decay Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billingsley, J. P.

    1997-07-01

    The Hugoniot Elastic Limit(HEL) precursor decay in shock loaded solids has been the subject of considerable experimental and theoretical investigation. Comparative evidence is presented to show that the elastic precursor wave particle velocity, UPHEL, for certain materials decays asymptotically with propagation distance to the DeBroglie velocity, V1, level. This is demonstrated for the following materials: iron, aluminum alloy 6061-T6, plexiglas(PMMA), nickel alloy(MAR-M200), and lithium flouride(LiF). The DeBroglie velocity, V1, equals h/2md, where h is Planck's Constant, m is the mass of one atom, and d is the closest distance between atoms. Thus a relationship has been established between a microscopically derived velocity, V1, and a macroscopically observed velocity, UPHEL.

  13. Tokamak pump limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent experiments with a scoop limiter without active internal pumping have been carried out in the PDX tokamak with up to 6MW of auxiliary neutral beam heating. Experiments have also been done with a rotating head pump limiter in the PLT tokamak in conjunction with RF plasma heating. Extensive experiments have been done in the ISX-B tokamak and first experiments have been completed with the ALT-I limiter in TEXTOR. The pump limiter modules in these latter two machines have internal getter pumping. Experiments in ISX-B are with ohmic and auxiliary neutral beam heating. The results in ISX-B and TEXTOR show that active density control and particle removal is achieved with pump limiters. In ISX-B, the boundary layer (or scape-off layer) plasma partially screens the core plasma from gas injection. In both ISX-B and TEXTOR, the pressure internal to the module scales linearly with plasma density but in ISX-B, with neutral beam injection, a nonlinear increase is observed at the highest densities studied. Plasma plugging is the suspected cause. Results from PDX suggest that a region may exist in which core plasma energy confinement improves using a pump limiter during neutral beam injection. Asymmetric radial profiles and an increased edge electron temperature are observed in discharges with improved confinement. The injection of small amounts of neon into ISX-B has more clearly shown an improved electron core energy confinement during neutral beam injection. While carried out with a regular limiter, this Z-mode of operation is ideal for use with pump limiters and should be a way to achieve energy confinement times similar to values for H-mode tokamak plasmas. The implication of all these results for the design of a reactor pump limiter is described

  14. Novel limiter pump topologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, J.H.

    1981-01-01

    The use of limiter pumps as the principle plasma exhaust system of a magnetic confinement fusion device promises significant simplification, when compared to previously investigating divertor based systems. Further simplifications, such as the integration of the exhaust system with a radio frequency heating system and with the main reactor shield and structure are investigated below. The integrity of limiters in a reactor environment is threatened by many mechanisms, the most severe of which may be erosion by sputtering. Two novel topolgies are suggested which allow high erosion without limiter failure.

  15. HOME Rent Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — In accordance with 24 CFR Part 92.252, HUD provides maximum HOME rent limits. The maximum HOME rents are the lesser of: The fair market rent for existing housing...

  16. SIS - Annual Catch Limit

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Annual Catch Limit (ACL) dataset within the Species Information System (SIS) contains information and data related to management reference points and catch data.

  17. Limited Denial of Participation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — A Limited Denial of Participation (LDP) is an action taken by a HUD Field Office or the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Single Family (DASSF) or Multifamily (DASMF)...

  18. Limited Income and Resources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Information for those with limited income and resources (those who may qualify for or already have the Low Income Subsidy to lower their prescription drug coverage...

  19. HUD Program Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Income limits used to determine the income eligibility of applicants for assistance under three programs authorized by the National Housing Act. These programs are...

  20. The quantum geometric limit

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2012-01-01

    This letter analyzes the limits that quantum mechanics imposes on the accuracy to which spacetime geometry can be measured. By applying the fundamental physical bounds to measurement accuracy to ensembles of clocks and signals moving in curved spacetime -- e.g., the global positioning system -- I derive a covariant version of the quantum geometric limit: the total number of ticks of clocks and clicks of detectors that can be contained in a four volume of spacetime of radius r and temporal extent t is less than or equal to rt/\\pi x_P t_P, where x_P, t_P are the Planck length and time. The quantum geometric limit bounds the number of events or `ops' that can take place in a four-volume of spacetime: each event is associated with a Planck-scale area. Conversely, I show that if each quantum event is associated with such an area, then Einstein's equations must hold. The quantum geometric limit is consistent with and complementary to the holographic bound which limits the number of bits that can exist within a spat...

  1. Force Limit System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlik, Ralph; Krause, David; Bremenour, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The Force Limit System (FLS) was developed to protect test specimens from inadvertent overload. The load limit value is fully adjustable by the operator and works independently of the test system control as a mechanical (non-electrical) device. When a test specimen is loaded via an electromechanical or hydraulic test system, a chance of an overload condition exists. An overload applied to a specimen could result in irreparable damage to the specimen and/or fixturing. The FLS restricts the maximum load that an actuator can apply to a test specimen. When testing limited-run test articles or using very expensive fixtures, the use of such a device is highly recommended. Test setups typically use electronic peak protection, which can be the source of overload due to malfunctioning components or the inability to react quickly enough to load spikes. The FLS works independently of the electronic overload protection.

  2. Limits on nonlinear electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouché, M.; Battesti, R.; Rizzo, C.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test nonlinear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.

  3. The Limits of Laughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mindess, Harvey

    1983-01-01

    Three incidents which elucidate the limits of laughter are described. Most persons enjoy humor as comic relief, but when humor strikes a blow at something they hold dear, they find it very hard to laugh. People are upset by an irreverent attitude toward things they hold in esteem. (RM)

  4. Tightening Home Purchase Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    More Chinese cities will limit home purchase to cool the red-hot real estate market In June 2011,the average house price in 100 Chinese cities was 8,856 yuan ($1,373)per square meter.Of these cities,house prices in 75 of them increased

  5. Occupational dose equivalent limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper considers methods of limiting individual radiation risks by recognizing the variation of risk with age at exposure, taking into account both somatic and genetic risks and proposes a simple formula for controlling individual cumulative exposure and hence risk. (Author)

  6. Pushing the Photon Limit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wientjes, Emilie; Renger, Jan; Cogdell, Richard; Hulst, van Niek F.

    2016-01-01

    Nanoantennas are well-known for their effective role in fluorescence enhancement, both in excitation and emission. Enhancements of 3-4 orders of magnitude have been reported. Yet in practice, the photon emission is limited by saturation due to the time that a molecule spends in singlet and especi

  7. Limits of Lubrication in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, David Dam

    of temperature and contact pressure. The numerical models have been calibrated regarding friction and thermal contact resistance based on experimental results from actual testing conditions. It has been found that predictions of limits of lubrication are possible by numerical means and that the FE...... by strategic surfaces in comparison to normal stainless steel surfaces implying a larger extent of bi-axial stretching. Numerical simulations have been applied in order to evaluate limits of lubrication in the simulative strip reduction based on predictions of critical parameters appearing in terms......-models corresponds well to experimental results in terms of lubricant film breakdown and subsequently pick-up development. Punching and blanking have been investigated regarding tribological conditions in case of using stainless steel workpiece materials. However, this has called for development of a new test method...

  8. Auctions with Limited Commitment

    OpenAIRE

    Qingmin Liu; Konrad Mierendorff; Xianwen Shi

    2013-01-01

    We study auction design in the standard symmetric independent private values environment, where the seller lacks the commitment power to withhold an unsold object off the market. The seller has a single object and can conduct an infinite sequence of standard auctions with reserve prices to maximize her expected profit. In each period, the seller can commit to a reserve price for the current period but cannot commit to future reserve prices. We analyze the problem with limited commitment throu...

  9. Limits of proton conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreuer, Klaus-Dieter; Wohlfarth, Andreas

    2012-10-15

    Parasitic current seems to be the cause for the "highest proton conductivity" of a material reported to date. Kreuer and Wohlfarth verify this hypothesis by measuring the conductivity of the same materials after preparing them in a different way. They further explain the limits of proton conductivity and comment on the problems of determining the conductivity of small objects (e.g., whiskers, see picture).

  10. Limiting Similarity Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Szabo, P; Meszena, G.

    2005-01-01

    We reinvestigate the validity of the limiting similarity principle via numerical simulations of the Lotka-Volterra model. A Gaussian competition kernel is employed to describe decreasing competition with increasing difference in a one-dimensional phenotype variable. The simulations are initiated by a large number of species, evenly distributed along the phenotype axis. Exceptionally, the Gaussian carrying capacity supports coexistence of all species, initially present. In case of any other, d...

  11. Limitations in forensic odontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Kavitha

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of using dental evidence in forensic investigation has kindled so much interest in the recent past that forensic odontology is even suggested as the single positive identification method to solve certain forensic cases. In this process, the shortcomings in forensic odontology though few are overlooked. These discrepancies associated with various methods are to be weighed cautiously to make forensic odontology a more accurate, reliable, and reproducible investigatory science. In this paper, we present our understanding of the limitations in various methods employed in forensic odontology.

  12. Limitation of Auditors' Liability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Werlauff, Erik; Foged-Ladefoged, Lise Kolding

    2014-01-01

    The article examines the question of whether rules on the limitation of auditors’ liability within the perspective of EU law are needed, and if so, which rules can provide an appropriate balance between the potential injured party’s interests and those of the auditing sector, including with respect...... to the fact that the insurance premiums associated with an unlimited liability must of course make the auditor’s tasks more expensive. Relevant EU recommendations and a comparative glance at other EU countries’ proposed solutions to the problem are included....

  13. Orind Refractories Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mr R. Mishra; Group Manging Director

    2005-01-01

    @@ "Sight can be acquired, Vision cannot". Orind Refractories Limited (ORIND), China was formed with this rare vision. At a time when the world was testing the tepid waters of China; Mr. Ravin Jhunjhunwala, Chairman of ORIND and the management of ORIND India had looked over the Great Wall to begin a journey of success. Incorported on 18th August 1994 with an initial investment of USD 5 million, ORL caters to the ever-demanding needs of the steel industry and beyond. Incidentally ORIND was the first wholly owned India company to set up base in China. Pesently, ORIND China has a 616 strong work force including 23 expatriates.

  14. Limitations of inclusive fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Benjamin; Nowak, Martin A; Wilson, Edward O

    2013-12-10

    Until recently, inclusive fitness has been widely accepted as a general method to explain the evolution of social behavior. Affirming and expanding earlier criticism, we demonstrate that inclusive fitness is instead a limited concept, which exists only for a small subset of evolutionary processes. Inclusive fitness assumes that personal fitness is the sum of additive components caused by individual actions. This assumption does not hold for the majority of evolutionary processes or scenarios. To sidestep this limitation, inclusive fitness theorists have proposed a method using linear regression. On the basis of this method, it is claimed that inclusive fitness theory (i) predicts the direction of allele frequency changes, (ii) reveals the reasons for these changes, (iii) is as general as natural selection, and (iv) provides a universal design principle for evolution. In this paper we evaluate these claims, and show that all of them are unfounded. If the objective is to analyze whether mutations that modify social behavior are favored or opposed by natural selection, then no aspect of inclusive fitness theory is needed.

  15. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  16. Smoothness of limit functors

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Benedictus Margaux

    2015-05-01

    Let be a scheme. Assume that we are given an action of the one dimensional split torus $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ on a smooth affine -scheme $\\mathfrak{X}$. We consider the limit (also called attractor) subfunctor $\\mathfrak{X}_{}$ consisting of points whose orbit under the given action `admits a limit at 0’. We show that $\\mathfrak{X}_{}$ is representable by a smooth closed subscheme of $\\mathfrak{X}$. This result generalizes a theorem of Conrad et al. (Pseudo-reductive groups (2010) Cambridge Univ. Press) where the case when $\\mathfrak{X}$ is an affine smooth group and $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ acts as a group automorphisms of $\\mathfrak{X}$ is considered. It also occurs as a special case of a recent result by Drinfeld on the action of $\\mathbb{G}_{m,S}$ on algebraic spaces (Proposition 1.4.20 of Drinfeld V, On algebraic spaces with an action of $\\mathfrak{G}_{m}$, preprint 2013) in case is of finite type over a field.

  17. Limits to biofuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson S.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Biofuel production is dependent upon agriculture and forestry systems, and the expectations of future biofuel potential are high. A study of the global food production and biofuel production from edible crops implies that biofuel produced from edible parts of crops lead to a global deficit of food. This is rather well known, which is why there is a strong urge to develop biofuel systems that make use of residues or products from forest to eliminate competition with food production. However, biofuel from agro-residues still depend upon the crop production system, and there are many parameters to deal with in order to investigate the sustainability of biofuel production. There is a theoretical limit to how much biofuel can be achieved globally from agro-residues and this amounts to approximately one third of todays’ use of fossil fuels in the transport sector. In reality this theoretical potential may be eliminated by the energy use in the biomass-conversion technologies and production systems, depending on what type of assessment method is used. By surveying existing studies on biofuel conversion the theoretical limit of biofuels from 2010 years’ agricultural production was found to be either non-existent due to energy consumption in the conversion process, or up to 2–6000TWh (biogas from residues and waste and ethanol from woody biomass in the more optimistic cases.

  18. Speed Limits for Entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Hartman, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We show that in any relativistic system, entanglement entropy obeys a speed limit set by the entanglement in thermal equilibrium. The bound is derived from inequalities on relative entropy with respect to a thermal reference state. Thus the thermal state constrains far-from-equilibrium entanglement dynamics whether or not the system actually equilibrates, in a manner reminiscent of fluctuation theorems in classical statistical mechanics. A similar shape-dependent bound constrains the full nonlinear time evolution, supporting a simple physical picture for entanglement propagation that has previously been motivated by holographic calculations in conformal field theory. We discuss general quantum field theories in any spacetime dimension, but also derive some results of independent interest for thermal relative entropy in 1+1d CFT.

  19. Physical limits to magnetogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meister, Markus

    2016-01-01

    This is an analysis of how magnetic fields affect biological molecules and cells. It was prompted by a series of prominent reports regarding magnetism in biological systems. The first claims to have identified a protein complex that acts like a compass needle to guide magnetic orientation in animals (Qin et al., 2016). Two other articles report magnetic control of membrane conductance by attaching ferritin to an ion channel protein and then tugging the ferritin or heating it with a magnetic field (Stanley et al., 2015; Wheeler et al., 2016). Here I argue that these claims conflict with basic laws of physics. The discrepancies are large: from 5 to 10 log units. If the reported phenomena do in fact occur, they must have causes entirely different from the ones proposed by the authors. The paramagnetic nature of protein complexes is found to seriously limit their utility for engineering magnetically sensitive cells. PMID:27529126

  20. 极限%Limit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛振邦

    2012-01-01

    Limit is the theoretical basis of higher mathematics. It defines the basic concept of differential and integral calculus. Therefore,it is the indispensible step to learn higher mathematics.%极限是高等数学的理论基础,用它定义了微积分的基本概念,因此说极限是步入高等数学殿堂的门槛.从中学到大学,很多学生都感到学习高等数学的不适应性.欲尽快适应,需认识数学的特点和极限的本质,同时要解决两个问题:一是学习方法的转变,二是思维方式的转变.

  1. Clinical limitations of Invisalign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Xiem; Ling, Paul H

    2007-04-01

    Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment are increasingly motivated by esthetic considerations. The majority of these patients reject wearing labial fixed appliances and are looking instead to more esthetic treatment options, including lingual orthodontics and Invisalign appliances. Since Align Technology introduced the Invisalign appliance in 1999 in an extensive public campaign, the appliance has gained tremendous attention from adult patients and dental professionals. The transparency of the Invisalign appliance enhances its esthetic appeal for those adult patients who are averse to wearing conventional labial fixed orthodontic appliances. Although guidelines about the types of malocclusions that this technique can treat exist, few clinical studies have assessed the effectiveness of the appliance. A few recent studies have outlined some of the limitations associated with this technique that clinicians should recognize early before choosing treatment options.

  2. The Limits to Relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averill, M.; Briggle, A.

    2006-12-01

    Science policy and knowledge production lately have taken a pragmatic turn. Funding agencies increasingly are requiring scientists to explain the relevance of their work to society. This stems in part from mounting critiques of the "linear model" of knowledge production in which scientists operating according to their own interests or disciplinary standards are presumed to automatically produce knowledge that is of relevance outside of their narrow communities. Many contend that funded scientific research should be linked more directly to societal goals, which implies a shift in the kind of research that will be funded. While both authors support the concept of useful science, we question the exact meaning of "relevance" and the wisdom of allowing it to control research agendas. We hope to contribute to the conversation by thinking more critically about the meaning and limits of the term "relevance" and the trade-offs implicit in a narrow utilitarian approach. The paper will consider which interests tend to be privileged by an emphasis on relevance and address issues such as whose goals ought to be pursued and why, and who gets to decide. We will consider how relevance, narrowly construed, may actually limit the ultimate utility of scientific research. The paper also will reflect on the worthiness of research goals themselves and their relationship to a broader view of what it means to be human and to live in society. Just as there is more to being human than the pragmatic demands of daily life, there is more at issue with knowledge production than finding the most efficient ways to satisfy consumer preferences or fix near-term policy problems. We will conclude by calling for a balanced approach to funding research that addresses society's most pressing needs but also supports innovative research with less immediately apparent application.

  3. LIMITED LIABILITY DALAM LIMITED LIABILITY PADA KONSTRUKSI PERUSAHAAN KELOMPOK PIRAMIDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sulistiowati

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Applicability of limited liability in corporate groups with pyramid construction creates a legal loophole in the form of a limited liability within a limited liability. To prevent moral hazard, it is necessary to stipulate new law that limits the number of levels in a corporate group. Berlakunya limited liability pada perusahaan kelompok dengan konstruksi piramida menciptakan celah hukum berupa limited liability dalam limited liability. Untuk mencegah munculnya moral hazard dari pemegang akhir atau induk perbuatan, perlu dilakukan terobosan hukum pembatasan jumlah lapisan anak perusahaan dalam konstruksi perusahaan kelompok.

  4. The limits of deterrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this contribution is to propose a better insight of the validity of the theory of deterrence, and of related doctrines in more complex and more various situations than in the past: emergence of powers like China and India, of new nuclear States like North Korea and Pakistan, of countries planning to acquire nuclear weapons like Iran, and possibility of a new wave of nuclear proliferation in Middle-East and north-eastern Asia. It also aims at providing arguments in the debates on the struggle against nuclear proliferation and on the future of deterrence. The author first presents and comments the principles of deterrence, and illustrates them by more or less recent historical situations (Iran during the war with Iraq, USA after Pearl Harbour, Arab-Israeli wars, Iraq, and so on). He notably outlines that the notion of deterrence is present in Islamic culture, and that Iran has well integrated it in its defence strategy. Examples of statements and behaviours of other Arab leaders are discussed. The author also briefly indicates how the deterrence strategy is present in the official doctrines of Russia, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. In a second part, based on various examples, the author analyses the practical limitations of deterrence by distinguishing the psychological dimension (bounded rationality, political leaders suffering from various psychological problems, importance of the ideological and spiritual dimension, values prevailing on interests, the case of Iran), and the strategic dimension (good understanding of the enemy, sensitivity of the threat of massive damages, existence of a single decision centre and of an efficient communication). The author finally proposes seven recommendations for better deterrence efficiency

  5. Limits to Tidal Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, C.

    2008-12-01

    Ocean tides have been proposed as a source of renewable energy, though the maximum available power may be shown to be only a fraction of the present dissipation rate of 3.5 TW, which is small compared with global insolation (nearly 105 TW), wind dissipation (103 TW), and even human power usage of 15 TW. Nonetheless, tidal power could be a useful contributor in some locations. Traditional use of tidal power, involving the trapping of water behind a barrage at high tide, can produce an average power proportional to the area of the headpond and the square of the tidal range; the power density is approximately 6 W per square meter for a tidal range of 10 m. Capital costs and fears of environmental damage have put barrage schemes in disfavor, with interest turning to the exploitation of strong tidal currents, using turbines in a manner similar to wind turbines. There is a limit to the available power, however, as adding turbines reduces the flow, ultimately reducing the power. For sinusoidal forcing of flow in a channel connecting two large open basins, the maximum available power may be shown to be given approximately by 0.2ρ g a Q_max, where ρ is the water density, g gravity, a the amplitude of the tidal sea level difference along the channel, and Q_max is the maximum volume flux in the natural state. The same formula applies if the channel is the entrance to a semi-enclosed basin, with a now the amplitude of the external tide. A flow reduction of approximately 40% is typically associated with the maximum power extraction. The power would be reduced if only smaller environmental changes are acceptable, and reduced further by drag on supporting structures, dissipation in turbine wakes, and internal inefficiencies. It can be suggested that the best use of strong, cold, tidal currents is to provide cooling water for nuclear reactors.

  6. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a...

  7. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Asger Mortensen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because the silicon absorbs strongly.

  8. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    CERN Document Server

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Niels Asger; 10.3390/s91108382

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min{Dn} > eta with n+i*eta being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window of silicon the detection limit becomes almost independent on the filling fraction, while in the visible, the detection limit depends strongly on the filling fraction because silicon absorbs strongly.

  9. Material Limitations on the Detection Limit in Refractometry

    OpenAIRE

    Niels Asger Mortensen; Sanshui Xiao; Peder Skafte-Pedersen; Pedro S. Nunes

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the detection limit for refractometric sensors relying on high-Q optical cavities and show that the ultimate classical detection limit is given by min {Δn} ≳ η with n + iη being the complex refractive index of the material under refractometric investigation. Taking finite Q factors and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a...

  10. Material limitations on the detection limit in refractometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skafte-Pedersen, Peder; Nunes, Pedro; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2009-01-01

    and filling fractions into account, the detection limit declines. As an example we discuss the fundamental limits of silicon-based high-Q resonators, such as photonic crystal resonators, for sensing in a bio-liquid environment, such as a water buffer. In the transparency window (λ ≳ 1100 nm) of silicon...

  11. Welfare Dynamics Under Time Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger; Charles Michalopoulos

    1999-01-01

    Among the most important changes brought about by the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA) is the imposition of time limits. In this paper, we analyze a simple model in which a potential welfare recipient chooses how to allocate her time-limited endowment of benefits so as to maximize her expected lifetime utility. Not surprisingly, the model reveals that time limits provide an incentive for the consumer to conserve, or bank, her benefits. More inte...

  12. Limit cycles in quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, Patrick

    2015-04-27

    In this thesis we investigate Limit Cycles in Quantum Systems. Limit cycles are a renormalization group (RG) topology. When degrees of freedom are integrated out, the coupling constants flow periodically in a closed curve. The presence of limit cycles is restricted by the necessary condition of discrete scale invariance. A signature of discrete scale invariance and limit cycles is log-periodic behavior. The first part of this thesis is concerned with the study of limit cycles with the similarity renormalization group (SRG). Limit cycles are mainly investigated within conventional renormalization group frameworks, where degrees of freedom, which are larger than a given cutoff, are integrated out. In contrast, in the SRG potentials are unitarily transformed and thereby obtain a band-diagonal structure. The width of the band structure can be regarded as an effective cutoff. We investigate the appearance of limit cycles in the SRG evolution. Our aim is to extract signatures as well as the scaling factor of the limit cycle. We consider the 1/R{sup 2}-potential in a two-body system and a three-body system with large scattering lengths. Both systems display a limit cycle. Besides the frequently used kinetic energy generator we apply the exponential and the inverse generator. In the second part of this thesis, Limit Cycles at Finite Density, we examine the pole structure of the scattering amplitude for distinguishable fermions at zero temperature in the medium. Unequal masses and a filled Fermi sphere for each fermion species are considered. We focus on negative scattering lengths and the unitary limit. The properties of the three-body spectrum in the medium and implications for the phase structure of ultracold Fermi gases are discussed.

  13. Solubility limits on radionuclide dissolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerrisk, J.F.

    1984-12-31

    This paper examines the effects of solubility in limiting dissolution rates of a number of important radionuclides from spent fuel and high-level waste. Two simple dissolution models were used for calculations that would be characteristics of a Yucca Mountain repository. A saturation-limited dissolution model, in which the water flowing through the repository is assumed to be saturated with each waste element, is very conservative in that it overestimates dissolution rates. A diffusion-limited dissolution model, in which element-dissolution rates are limited by diffusion of waste elements into water flowing past the waste, is more realistic, but it is subject to some uncertainty at this time. Dissolution rates of some elements (Pu, Am, Sn, Th, Zr, Sm) are always limited by solubility. Dissolution rates of other elements (Cs, Tc, Np, Sr, C, I) are never solubility limited; their release would be limited by dissolution of the bulk waste form. Still other elements (U, Cm, Ni, Ra) show solubility-limited dissolution under some conditions. 9 references, 3 tables.

  14. Delving into Limits of Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cory, Beth; Smith, Ken W.

    2011-01-01

    Limits are foundational to the central concepts of calculus. However, the authors' experiences with students and educational research abound with examples of students' misconceptions about limits and infinity. The authors wanted calculus students to understand, appreciate, and enjoy their first introduction to advanced mathematical thought. Thus,…

  15. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogger, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    Time limits represent a substantial departure from previous welfare policy. Theory suggests that their effects should vary according to the age of the youngest child of the family. I test this prediction using data from the Current Population Survey and find that time limits indeed have larger effects on families with younger children. I further…

  16. Tokamak plasma interaction with limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of plasma purity is first discussed in terms of the general requirements of controlled thermonuclear fusion. The tokamak approach to fusion and its inherent problem of plasma contamination are introduced. A main source of impurities is due to the bombardment of the limiter by energetic particles and thus the three main aspects of the plasma-limiter interaction are reviewed, boundary plasma conditions, fuelling/recycling and impurity production. The experiments, carried out on the DITE tokamak at Culham Laboratory, UK, investigated these three topics and the results are compared with predicted behaviour; new physical phenomena are presented in all three areas. Simple one-dimensional fluid equations are found to adequately describe the SOL plasma, except in regard to the pre-sheath electric field and ambipolarity; that is, the electric field adjacent to the limiter surface appears to be weak and the associated plasma flow can be non-ambipolar. Recycling of fuel particles from the limiter is observed to be near unity at all times. The break-up behaviour of recycled and gas puffed D2 molecules is dependent on the electron temperature, as expected. Impurity production at the limiter is chemical erosion of graphite being negligible. Deposition of limiter and wall-produced impurities is found on the limiter. The spatial distributions of impurities released from the limiter are observed and are in good agreement with a sputtered atom transport code. Finally, preliminary experiments on the transport of impurity ions along field lines away from the limiter have been performed and compared with simple analytic theory. The results suggest that the pre-sheath electric field in the SOL is much weaker than the simple fluid model would predict

  17. Fundamental Limits of Ultrathin Metasurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Arbabi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    We present universal theoretical limits on the operation and performance of non-magnetic passive ultrathin metasurfaces. In particular, we prove that their local transmission, reflection, and polarization conversion coefficients are confined to limited regions of the complex plane. As a result, full control over the phase of the light transmitted through such metasurfaces cannot be achieved if the polarization of the light is not to be affected at the same time. We also establish fundamental limits on the maximum polarization conversion efficiency of these metasurfaces, and show that they cannot achieve more than 25% polarization conversion efficiency in transmission.

  18. Physical limits to biochemical signaling

    CERN Document Server

    Bialek, W

    2003-01-01

    Many crucial biological processes operate with surprisingly small numbers of molecules, and there is renewed interest in analyzing the impact of noise associated with these small numbers. Twenty--five years ago, Berg and Purcell showed that bacterial chemotaxis, where a single celled organism must respond to small changes in concentration of chemicals outside the cell, is limited directly by molecule counting noise, and that aspects of the bacteria's behavioral and computational strategies must be chosen to minimize the effects of this noise. Here we revisit and generalize their arguments to estimate the physical limits to signaling processes within the cell, and argue that recent experiments are consistent with performance approaching these limits.

  19. A cidade: limite do mundo

    OpenAIRE

    Borges Abel, António

    2010-01-01

    A cidade é hoje, por força do desenvolvimento das NTIC, uma cidade alargada ou, se se preferir, uma “aldeia global”. Porém, se sob o ponto de vista da comunicação, os limites da cidade se confundem com os limites do mundo, sob o ponto de vista da cidade física, geográfica, o “capitalismo cognitivo” força cada vez mais aquela a não conhecer limites, a transformar a hibridez num novo conceito e numa nova realidade espacial, pulverizando a anterior realidade: a cidade como contraponto do camp...

  20. Limit laws for Zipf's law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this communication we establish stochastic limit laws leading from Zipf's law to Pareto's and Heaps' laws. We consider finite ensembles governed by Zipf's law and study their asymptotic statistics as the ensemble size tends to infinity. A Lorenz-curve analysis establishes three types of limit laws for the ensembles' statistical structure: 'communist', 'monarchic', and Paretian. Further considering a dynamic setting in which the ensembles grow stochastically in time, a functional central limit theorem analysis establishes a Gaussian approximation for the ensembles' stochastic growth. The Gaussian approximation provides a generalized and corrected formulation of Heaps' law. (fast track communication)

  1. The plastic limit of clays

    OpenAIRE

    Haigh, Stuart K.; Vardanega, Paul J.; Bolton, Malcolm D.

    2013-01-01

    The plastic limit of soils was first described by Atterberg in 1911. The thread-rolling test was standardised at the US Public Roads Bureau in the 1920s and 1930s, and has subsequently become one of the standard tests of soil mechanics. This paper reviews the original definitions of plastic limit as proposed by Atterberg, and proposes that the brittle failure observed in the plastic limit test is caused by either air entry or cavitation in the clay. Critical state soil mechanics is used to sh...

  2. The Limits to Giving Back

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jade S. Sasser

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this thematic section, authors consider the limitations on giving back that they faced in field research, or saw others face. For some authors, their attempts at giving back were severely limited by the scope of their projects, or their understandings of local cultures or histories. For others, very specific circumstances and historical interventions of foreigners in certain places can limit how and to what extent a researcher is able to have a reciprocal relationship with the participating community. Some authors, by virtue of their lesser positions of power relative to those that they were studying, simply decided not to give back to those communities. In each article it becomes apparent that how and in what ways people give back is unique (and limited both to their personal values and the contexts in which they do research.

  3. Multifamily Tax Subsidy Income Limits

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Multifamily Tax Subsidy Projects (MTSP) Income Limits were developed to meet the requirements established by the Housing and Economic Recovery Act of 2008 (Public...

  4. Brassicas limited in weed control

    OpenAIRE

    Kristiansen, Mr P

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the limitations of using brassica cover crops for weed control. A brief overview of the role of cover crops is provided, followed by a short review of research looking at brassica cover crops.

  5. Limit cycles of effective theories

    OpenAIRE

    Glazek, Stanislaw D.

    2006-01-01

    A simple example is used to show that renormalization group limit cycles of effective quantum theories can be studied in a new way. The method is based on the similarity renormalization group procedure for Hamiltonians. The example contains a logarithmic ultraviolet divergence that is generated by both real and imaginary parts of the Hamiltonian matrix elements. Discussion of the example includes a connection between asymptotic freedom with one scale of bound states and the limit cycle with a...

  6. Penrose Limits and Spacetime Singularities

    OpenAIRE

    Blau, Matthias; Borunda, Monica; O'Loughlin, Martin; Papadopoulos, George

    2003-01-01

    We give a covariant characterisation of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix $A(u)$ is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyer ``power-law type''), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschil...

  7. Time Limits and Welfare Use

    OpenAIRE

    Jeff Grogger

    2000-01-01

    Time limits are a central component of recent welfare reforms and represent a substantial departure from previous policy. However, several recent studies suggest that they have had no effect on welfare use. In this paper I attempt to reconcile those findings with results from Grogger and Michalopoulos, who find time limits to have substantial effects that vary by the age of the youngest child in the family. Using data from the Current Population Survey, I obtain results similar to those of pr...

  8. Time Limits : Effects on Recall

    OpenAIRE

    Hirano, Kinue

    2000-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of differing time limits and the level of language proficiency on the written recalls of 66 Japanese EFL undergraduates. Results showed that different time limits affected total recall, but not main ideas recalled. Regardless of proficiency level, the 20-minute group (Group 2) recalled a greater number of idea units than the 8-minute group (Group 1). However, no significant difference was found between Groups 1 and 2 regarding the recall of main ideas, alth...

  9. Statistical limitations on molecular evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid I

    2002-06-01

    Complexity of functions evolving in an evolution process are expected to be limited by the time length of an evolution process among other factors. This paper outlines a general method of deriving function-complexity limitations based on mathematical statistics and independent from details of a biological or genetic mechanism of the evolution of the function. Limitations on the emergence of life are derived, these limitations indicate a possibility of a very fast evolution and are consistent with "RNA world" hypothesis. The discussed method is general and can be used to characterize evolution of more specific biological organism functions and relate functions to genetic structures. The derived general limitations indicate that a co-evolution of multiple functions and species could be a slow process, whereas an evolution of a specific function might proceed very fast, so that no trace of intermediate forms (species) is preserved in fossil records of phenotype or DNA structure; this is consistent with a picture of "punctuated equilibrium". PMID:12023805

  10. Generalized Geometric Quantum Speed Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Diego Paiva; Cianciaruso, Marco; Céleri, Lucas C.; Adesso, Gerardo; Soares-Pinto, Diogo O.

    2016-04-01

    The attempt to gain a theoretical understanding of the concept of time in quantum mechanics has triggered significant progress towards the search for faster and more efficient quantum technologies. One of such advances consists in the interpretation of the time-energy uncertainty relations as lower bounds for the minimal evolution time between two distinguishable states of a quantum system, also known as quantum speed limits. We investigate how the nonuniqueness of a bona fide measure of distinguishability defined on the quantum-state space affects the quantum speed limits and can be exploited in order to derive improved bounds. Specifically, we establish an infinite family of quantum speed limits valid for unitary and nonunitary evolutions, based on an elegant information geometric formalism. Our work unifies and generalizes existing results on quantum speed limits and provides instances of novel bounds that are tighter than any established one based on the conventional quantum Fisher information. We illustrate our findings with relevant examples, demonstrating the importance of choosing different information metrics for open system dynamics, as well as clarifying the roles of classical populations versus quantum coherences, in the determination and saturation of the speed limits. Our results can find applications in the optimization and control of quantum technologies such as quantum computation and metrology, and might provide new insights in fundamental investigations of quantum thermodynamics.

  11. Impossibility - The Limits of Science and the Science of Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, John D.

    1999-10-01

    In Impossibility , John D. Barrow--one of our most elegant and accomplished science writers--argues convincingly that there are limits to human discovery, that there are things that are ultimately unknowable, undoable, or unreachable. Barrow first examines the limits of the human mind: our brain evolved to meet the demands of our immediate environment, and much that lies outside this small circle may also lie outside our understanding. He investigates practical impossibilities, such as those imposed by complexity, uncomputability, or the finiteness of time, space, and resources. Is the universe finite or infinite? Can information be transmitted faster than the speed of light? The book also examines deeper theoretical restrictions on our ability to know, including Godel's theorem, which proved that there were things that could not be proved. Finally, having explored the limits imposed on us from without, Barrow considers whether there are limits we should impose upon ourselves. Weaving together this intriguing tapestry, Barrow illuminates some of the most profound questions of science, from the possibility of time travel to the very structure of the universe.

  12. Ultimate physical limits to computation

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, S

    1999-01-01

    Computers are physical systems: what they can and cannot do is dictated by the laws of physics. In particular, the speed with which a physical device can process information is limited by its energy, and the amount of information that it can process is limited by the number of degrees of freedom it possesses. The way in which it processes information is determined by the forces of nature that the computer has at its disposal. This paper explores the fundamental physical limits of computation as determined by the speed of light c, the quantum scale as given by Planck's constant h, and the gravitational constant G. As an example, quantitative bounds are put to the computational power of an `ultimate laptop' with a mass of one kilogram confined to a volume of one liter.

  13. Limitations on quantum key repeaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäuml, Stefan; Christandl, Matthias; Horodecki, Karol; Winter, Andreas

    2015-04-23

    A major application of quantum communication is the distribution of entangled particles for use in quantum key distribution. Owing to noise in the communication line, quantum key distribution is, in practice, limited to a distance of a few hundred kilometres, and can only be extended to longer distances by use of a quantum repeater, a device that performs entanglement distillation and quantum teleportation. The existence of noisy entangled states that are undistillable but nevertheless useful for quantum key distribution raises the question of the feasibility of a quantum key repeater, which would work beyond the limits of entanglement distillation, hence possibly tolerating higher noise levels than existing protocols. Here we exhibit fundamental limits on such a device in the form of bounds on the rate at which it may extract secure key. As a consequence, we give examples of states suitable for quantum key distribution but unsuitable for the most general quantum key repeater protocol.

  14. On Setting Limits for Supersymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simeon, Paul; Toback, David

    2004-10-01

    When searching for new particles two separate production mechanisms from the same theory may produce the same final state. For example, in gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking with \\chi^0_1arrow γ tildeG at least two production mechanisms, \\chi^0_1\\chi^±1 and \\chi^0_2\\chi^±_1, can cascade to produce events with two photons and missing transverse energy. If there is no discovery one wants to set the best possible limits. While it seems obvious that the goal is to find the lowest possible cross section limit, one should be careful and focus on excluding the largest amount of parameter space for a theory. We show that the combined cross section limit from both (or all) production mechanisms that produce the same final state is the most sensitive way to attempt to exclude a theory.

  15. Shrinkage limit of soil mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrinkage limit, one of the Atterberg limits, is widely linked with many plasticity-based soil behaviors. However, in a great majority of these cases, such correlations have been found to exhibit poor performance. Recently, it has been brought out that the shrinkage limit of a natural soil does not depend upon plasticity characteristics, and it is primarily governed by the relative grain size distribution of the soil. The present study confirms this mechanism with the results obtained using clay-clay, clay-non-cohesive soil, and non-cohesive soil mix systems. The present study gains importance from the point of view of criteria with respect to the design of back fill materials to be used in various applications, such as nuclear waste disposal projects

  16. An exact limit of ABJM

    CERN Document Server

    Bianchi, Marco S

    2016-01-01

    We study planar ABJM in a limit where one coupling is negligible compared to the other. We provide a recipe for exactly solving the expectation value of bosonic BPS Wilson loops on arbitrary smooth contours, or the leading divergence for cusped ones, using results from localization. As an application, we compute the exact (generalized) cusp anomalous dimension and Bremsstrahlung function and use it to determine the interpolating $h$-function. We finally prove a conjecture on the exact form of the dilatation operator in a closed sector, hinting at the integrability of this limit.

  17. Reconnectable Network with Limited Resources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史维更

    1991-01-01

    The reachability of a strongly connected network may be destroyed after link damage.Since many networks are directed or equivalent directed,connected by directed links with the potential for reversal.Therefore the reachability can be restored by reversing the direction of links.[1] has studied this matter under unlimited resources (transmitter and receiver) condition.In this paper the reconnectability of a network with limited number of receivers and transmitters is discussed.Also a linear time algorithm is given to find a reconnected reversal for limited receivers and transmitters.

  18. Energy-limited escape revised

    OpenAIRE

    Salz, M.; Schneider, P. C.; Czesla, S.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.

    2015-01-01

    Gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience photoevaporative mass loss. The energy-limited escape concept is generally used to derive estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our photoionization hydrodynamics simulations of the thermospheres of hot gas planets show that the energy-limited escape concept is valid only for planets with a gravitational potential lower than $\\log_\\mathrm{10}\\left( -\\Phi_{\\mathrm{G}}\\right) < 13.11~$erg$\\,$g$^{-1}$ because in these planets th...

  19. Penser aux/les limites de nos limites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Lévy

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Le mot « frontière » a beaucoup de succès, dans son sens propre mais plus encore comme métaphore d’une multitude de réalités qui ont à voir avec les limites, c’est-à-dire avec notre propension à découper le monde en objets séparables. Mais on constate une grande indétermination entre concept et métaphore et un usage trop facile de mélanges entre ceux-ci. Il faut donc d’abord admettre que la matérialité n’est qu’une des composantes de notre monde, mais que l’immatériel n’est pas l’irréel, le simulé ou le métaphorique. Après un détour par une théorie des limites et ses limites et une distinction entre le topographique (continu et le topologique (discontinu appliquée à l’intérieur et aux limites d’une aire, deux exemples sont développés qui visent à montrer que, si l’on trouve des frontières, ce n’est pas forcément là où on les attend et que l’appréciation juste de la place des frontières suppose la prise en compte de bien d’autres considérations que la seule limitation volontaire et brutale du franchissement d’une ligne imaginaire tracée au sol.Think about limits and the limits of our limitsThe word “boundary” has been very successful in its literal sense but even more so as a metaphor of a multitude of realities involving limits, that is, with regards to our tendency to divide the world into separable objects. However, one can observe a considerable uncertainty between the concept and the metaphor and an utilisation too easy of various mixtures of them. It becomes necessary therefore to first admit that materiality is only one of the components of our world whilst the immaterial is not unreal, simulated or metaphoric. After a detour consisting of examining a theory of limits and its limits and making the distinction between the topographic (continuous and the topologic (discontinuous applied to the interior and the limits of an area, two examples are developed which aim to

  20. ITER operating limit definition criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciattaglia, S. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: sergio.ciattaglia@tech.efda.org; Barabaschi, P. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Carretero, J.A. [Empresarios Agrupados, Magallanes, 3 28015 Madrid (Spain); Chiocchio, S. [JWS Garching, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Hureau, D. [AREVA NP, Tour AREVA, 92084 - Paris, La Defense Cedex (France); Girard, J.Ph.; Gordon, C. [ITER-JWS, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France); Portone, A. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Muenchen (Germany); Rodrigo, L. Rodriguez [EFDA CSU C/JosepPla, n 2, Torres Diagonal Litoral, Bldg B3. E-08019-Barcelona (Spain); Roldan, C. [CIEMAT, Avd. Complutense, 22-E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Saibene, G. [EFDA-CSU Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Uzan-Elbez, J. [Agence ITER-France, Cadarache, St Paul Lez Durance F-13108 (France)

    2009-12-15

    The operating limits and conditions (OLCs) are operating parameters and conditions, chosen among all system/components, which, together, define the domain of the safe operation of ITER in all foreseen ITER states (operation, maintenance, commissioning). At the same time they are selected to guarantee the required operation flexibility which is a critical factor for the success of an experimental machine such as ITER. System and components that are important for personnel or public safety (safety important class, SIC) are identified considering their functional importance in the overall plant safety analysis. SIC classification has to be presented already in the preliminary safety analysis report and approved by the licensing authority before manufacturing and construction. OLCs comprise the safety limits that, if exceeded, could result in a potential safety hazard, the relevant settings that determine the intervention of SIC systems, and the operational limits on equipment which warn against or stop a functional deviation from a planned operational status that could challenge equipment and functions. Some operational conditions, e.g. in-Vacuum Vessel (VV) radioactive inventories, will be controlled through procedures. Operating experience from present tokamaks, in particular JET, and from nuclear plants, is considered to the maximum possible extent. This paper presents the guidelines for the development of the ITER OLCs with particular reference to safety limits.

  1. Global limits of gauged supergravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hohm, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    World-volume actions for multiple M2 and D2 branes are constructed by taking the limit of 2 + 1 dimensional gauged supergravities to globally supersymmetric N = 8 theories on flat space. The embedding tensor formalism adopted for the classification of gauged supergravities is thereby shown to provid

  2. Limitations of Agile Software Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Turk, Dan; France, Robert; Rumpe, Bernhard

    2014-01-01

    Software developers and project managers are struggling to assess the appropriateness of agile processes to their development environments. This paper identifies limitations that apply to many of the published agile processes in terms of the types of projects in which their application may be problematic.

  3. Aluminum honeycomb impact limiter study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaksh, M.C.; Thompson, T.C. (Nuclear Assurance Corp., Norcross, GA (United States)); Nickell, R.E. (Applied Science and Technology, Inc., Poway, CA (United States))

    1991-07-01

    Design requirements for a cask transporting radioactive materials must include the condition of the 30-foot free fall of the cask onto an unyielding surface. To reduce the deceleration loads to a tolerable level for all the components of the cask, a component (impact limiter) is designed to absorb the kinetic energy. The material, shape, and method of attachment of the impact limiter to the cask body comprises the design of the impact limiter. The impact limiter material of interest is honeycomb aluminum, and the particular design examined was for the NAC Legal Weight Truck cask (NAC-LWT) for spent fuel from light water reactors. The NAC-LWT has a design weight of 52,000 pounds, and it has a nominal length of 200 inches. The report describes the numerical calculations embodied in the FADE program to determine the accelerations and crush strain resulting from an arbitrary height and angle of orientation. Since the program serves as a design tool, static tests are performed to assess the effect of the shell containing the honeycomb aluminum. The static tests and their results are contained in the study. The static tests are used to demonstrate for licensing purposes the level of accelerations imposed on the cask during a 30-foot drop. 3 refs., 41 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Games With Limited Communication Structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talman, A.J.J.; Yamamoto, Y.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider cooperative transferable utility games with limited communication structure, called graph games. Agents are able to cooperate with each other only if they can communicate directly or indirectly with each other. For the class of acyclic graph games recently the average tree

  5. Economic Downturn Limits Conference Travel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    2009-01-01

    Attendance is down at many academic and professional conferences in higher education this year, and next year's numbers are expected to be far worse, as campus budgets take further beatings. With many colleges limiting travel to professors or administrators who are speaking at events they are attending, will anyone be left in the audience? A new…

  6. Historical Drawbacks of Limited Liability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis Boyle

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited liability is a human invention which has facilitated enormous economic growth around the world, particularly since the time of its general application in advanced countries during the nineteenth century. The individual legal identity of companies, coupled with the limited liability of their owners, has provided protection for investors from the risks associated with their investments. It has thus contributed to increase the sources of capital available to finance projects which might otherwise have been considered unviable. However, the legal protection offered to investors has negative consequences for other participants in economies. Speculation in stock markets often damages society. It is very important to study the drawbacks of limited liability and to suggest modifications to achieve a more stable, less volatile, economic growth in the world. Although this article goes to some lengths to recognise the work of authors who emphasise the positive historical economic contribution of limited lability, its main objective is to provoke a reflection around texts which point out the drawbacks and propose solutions.

  7. Explosion limits for combustible gases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Min-ming; WU Guo-qing; HAO Ji-fei; DAI Xin-lian

    2009-01-01

    Combustible gases in coal mines are composed of methane, hydrogen, some multi-carbon alkane gases and other gases. Based on a numerical calculation, the explosion limits of combustible gases were studied, showing that these limits are related to the concentrations of different components in the mixture. With an increase of C4H10 and C6H14, the Lower ExplosionLimit (LEL) and Upper Explosion-Limit (UEL) of a combustible gas mixture will decrease clearly. For every 0.1% increase in C4H10 and C6H14, the LEL decreases by about 0.19% and the UEL by about 0.3%. The results also prove that, by increasing the amount of H2, the UEL of a combustible gas mixture will increase considerably. If the level of H2 increases by 0.1%, the UEL will increase by about 0.3%. However, H2 has only a small effect on the LEL of the combustible gas mixture. Our study provides a theoretical foundation for judging the explosion risk of an explosive gas mixture in mines.

  8. Illustrating the Central Limit Theorem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, Mimi

    2016-01-01

    Statistics is enjoying some well-deserved limelight across mathematics curricula of late. Some statistical concepts, however, are not especially intuitive, and students struggle to comprehend and apply them. As an AP Statistics teacher, the author appreciates the central limit theorem as a foundational concept that plays a crucial role in…

  9. Active inrush-current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kichak, R. A.

    1977-01-01

    By stretching turn-on time from approximately 1 to 200 ms, effects of inrush current (and of associated large current spikes) and current rate of rise (dl/dt) are made potentially less severe. Limiter arrangement consists of time-variable impedance connected in series between input dc power source return and power circuit of converter.

  10. Globalization and limit to growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global financial crisis is not the only concern the world should have. From oil and other commodities new challenges arise, that could be difficult to face properly and could provide another limit to growth. This Malthusian feature of the 21. century emerges clearly if one focuses on climate change.

  11. Fano-noise-limited CCDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janesick, James; Elliott, Tom; Bredthauer, Richard; Chandler, Charles; Burke, Barry

    1988-01-01

    Recent developments of scientific CCDs have produced sensors that achieve ultra low read noise performance (less than 2 electrons rms) and near perfect charge transfer efficiency (0.9999996) without the addition of a fat-zero. This progress has now made it possible to achieve Fano-noise-limited performance in the soft X-ray where the detector's energy resolution is primarily limited by the statistical variation in the charge generated by the interacting X-ray photon. In this paper, Fano-noise-limited test data is presented for two different CCD types and a CCD derived estimate of the Fano factor is determined. By evaluating ultra low-modulation images (less than 1 electron peak-to-peak) it is shown that the CCD's global CTE is now superior to its read noise floor. To capitalize on this capability CCD manufacturers are now focusing their attention on reducing the noise floor below the 1 electron level thereby matching the sensor's CTE performance. This improvement, if accomplished, will push Fano-noise-limited performance for the CCD into the extreme ultra-violet.

  12. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs ref

  13. Environmental risk limits for zinc

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodar CWM; SEC

    2007-01-01

    Environmental Riks Limits (ERLs) were derived for zinc. ERLs serve as advisory values to set environmental quality standards in the Netherlands. The ERLs for zinc closely follow the outcomes of earlier discussions on zinc within the Water Framework Directive and EC Regulation 793/93. The ERLs refer

  14. Limits of time in cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Rugh, Svend E

    2016-01-01

    We provide a discussion of some main ideas in our project about the physical foundation of the time concept in cosmology. It is standard to point to the Planck scale (located at $\\sim 10^{-43}$ seconds after a fictitious "Big Bang" point) as a limit for how far back we may extrapolate the standard cosmological model. In our work we have suggested that there are several other (physically motivated) interesting limits -- located at least thirty orders of magnitude before the Planck time -- where the physical basis of the cosmological model and its time concept is progressively weakened. Some of these limits are connected to phase transitions in the early universe which gradually undermine the notion of 'standard clocks' widely employed in cosmology. Such considerations lead to a 'scale problem' for time which becomes particularly acute above the electroweak phase transition (before $\\sim 10^{-11}$ seconds). Other limits are due to problems of building up a cosmological reference frame, or even contemplating a s...

  15. 78 FR 37930 - Lending Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-25

    ... assets. The interim final rule amended part 32 to provide national banks and savings associations with... credit risk management practices by clearing member banks, makes it unlikely that applying the rule to... revisions. The interim final rule consolidated the lending limits rules applicable to national banks...

  16. Detection limits for radioactivity counting

    OpenAIRE

    Manić G.; Manić Vesna M.; Vesić D.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, the detection limits for radioactivity counting are determined. Several decision rules are presented and applied to calculate the critical value. The value obtained by the best approximation for the alpha particles counting was used to evaluate the minimum detectable concentration in water, soil and air.

  17. Detection limits for radioactivity counting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manić G.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the detection limits for radioactivity counting are determined. Several decision rules are presented and applied to calculate the critical value. The value obtained by the best approximation for the alpha particles counting was used to evaluate the minimum detectable concentration in water, soil and air.

  18. Setting time limits on tests

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    It is shown how the time limit on a test can be set to control the probability of a test taker running out of time before completing it. The probability is derived from the item parameters in the lognormal model for response times. Examples of curves representing the probability of running out of ti

  19. Limitation and life in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, Marvin; Smith, T. Scott

    1986-08-01

    ``The Earth is the very quintescence of the human condition...,'' says Hannah Arendt. Georg Simmel writes: ``The stranger is by nature no `owner of soil'—soil not only in the physical, but also in the figurative sense of a life-substance which is fixed, if not in a point in space, at least in an ideal point of social environment.'' How will no longer being Earthbound affect persons' experience of themselves and of others? Space colonization offers an opportunity for new self-definition by the alteration of existing limits. Thus ``limitation'' is a useful concept for exploring the physical, social and psychological significance of the colonization of space. Will people seek the security of routine, of convention, of hierarchy as in the military model governing our present-day astronauts? or will they seek to maximize the freedom inherent in extraordinary living conditions—as bohemians, deviants, travelers?

  20. Binary optics: Trends and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farn, Michael W.; Veldkamp, Wilfrid B.

    1993-08-01

    We describe the current state of binary optics, addressing both the technology and the industry (i.e., marketplace). With respect to the technology, the two dominant aspects are optical design methods and fabrication capabilities, with the optical design problem being limited by human innovation in the search for new applications and the fabrication issue being limited by the availability of resources required to improve fabrication capabilities. With respect to the industry, the current marketplace does not favor binary optics as a separate product line and so we expect that companies whose primary purpose is the production of binary optics will not represent the bulk of binary optics production. Rather, binary optics' more natural role is as an enabling technology - a technology which will directly result in a competitive advantage in a company's other business areas - and so we expect that the majority of binary optics will be produced for internal use.

  1. Quantum Diffusion-Limited Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Johnson, David B

    2011-01-01

    Though classical random walks have been studied for many years, research concerning their quantum analogues, quantum random walks, has only come about recently. Numerous simulations of both types of walks have been run and analyzed, and are generally well-understood. Research pertaining to one of the more important properties of classical random walks, namely, their ability to build fractal structures in diffusion-limited aggregation, has been particularly noteworthy. However, only now has research begun in this area in regards to quantum random motion. The study of random walks and the structures they build has various applications in materials science. Since all processes are quantum in nature, it is important to consider the quantum variant of diffusion-limited aggregation. Recognizing that Schr\\"odinger equation and a classical random walk are both diffusion equations, it is possible to connect and compare them. Using similar parameters for both equations, we ran various simulations aggregating particles....

  2. Containing Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation

    CERN Document Server

    Duminil-Copin, Hugo; Yadin, Ariel; Yehudayoff, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Internal Diffusion Limited Aggregation (IDLA) is a model that describes the growth of a random aggregate of particles from the inside out. Shellef proved that IDLA processes on supercritical percolation clusters of integer-lattices fill Euclidean balls, with high probability. In this article, we complete the picture and prove a limit-shape theorem for IDLA on such percolation clusters, by providing the corresponding upper bound. The technique to prove upper bounds is new and robust: it only requires the existence of a "good" lower bound. Specifically, this way of proving upper bounds on IDLA clusters is more suitable for random environments than previous ways, since it does not harness harmonic measure estimates.

  3. Swimming as a limit cycle

    CERN Document Server

    Jacobs, Henry O

    2012-01-01

    Steady swimming can be characterized as both periodic and stable. These characteristics are the very definition of limit cycles, and so we ask "Can we view swimming as a limit cycle?" In this paper we will find that the answer is "yes". We will define a class of dissipative systems which correspond to the passive dynamics of a body immersed in a Navier-Stokes fluid (i.e. the dynamics of a dead fish). Upon performing reduction by symmetry we will find a hyperbolically stable fixed point which corresponds to the stability of a dead fish in stagnant water. Given a periodic force on the shape of the body we will invoke the persistence theorem to assert the existence of a loop which approximately satisfies the exact equations of motion. If we lift this loop with a phase reconstruction formula we will find that the lifted loops are not loops, but stable trajectories which represent regular periodic motion reminiscent of swimming.

  4. Mesures à la limite quantique

    OpenAIRE

    Heidmann, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    Doctoral Bien que les principes de base de la mesure en mécanique quantique soient connus depuis longtemps, ce n'est que récemment que les expériences ont été confrontées à ses conséquences. Les effets d'action en retour de la mesure et les limites quantiques associées sont aujourd'hui des notions essentielles dans un certain nombre d'expériences ultrasensibles, et la possibilité d'aller au-delà de ces limites par différentes techniques de compression du bruit ou de mesure non destructive ...

  5. Penrose Limits and Spacetime Singularities

    CERN Document Server

    Blau, Matthias; O'Loughlin, M; Papadopoulos, G; Blau, Matthias; Borunda, Monica; Loughlin, Martin O'; Papadopoulos, George

    2003-01-01

    We give a covariant characterisation of the Penrose plane wave limit: the plane wave profile matrix $A(u)$ is the restriction of the null geodesic deviation matrix (curvature tensor) of the original spacetime metric to the null geodesic, evaluated in a comoving frame. We also consider the Penrose limits of spacetime singularities and show that for a large class of black hole, cosmological and null singularities (of Szekeres-Iyers ``power-law type''), including those of the FRW and Schwarzschild metrics, the result is a singular homogeneous plane wave with profile $A(u)\\sim u^{-2}$, the scale invariance of the latter reflecting the power-law behaviour of the singularities.

  6. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  7. Fiscal Limits in Advanced Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Eric M. Leeper; Walker, Todd B

    2011-01-01

    Aging populations in advanced economies are placing ever-increasing demands on government spending in the form of old-age benefits. Economies that have promised substantially more benefits than they have made provision to finance are heading into a prolonged era of fiscal stress. Unresolved fiscal stress raises the possibility that the economies will hit their fiscal limits where taxes and spending no longer adjust to stabilize debt. In such economies, monetary policy may lose its ability to ...

  8. Limit laws for exponential families

    OpenAIRE

    Balkema, August A.; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Resnick, Sidney I.

    1999-01-01

    For a real random variable [math] with distribution function [math] , define ¶ [math] ¶ The distribution [math] generates a natural exponential family of distribution functions [math] , where ¶ [math] ¶ We study the asymptotic behaviour of the distribution functions [math] as [math] increases to [math] . If [math] then [math] pointwise on [math] . It may still be possible to obtain a non-degenerate weak limit law [math] by choosing suitable scaling and centring constants [math] an...

  9. Protection limits on free speech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2014-01-01

    Freedom of speech is one of the basic rights of citizens should receive broad protection, but in the real context of China under what kind of speech can be protected and be restricted, how to grasp between state power and free speech limit is a question worth considering. People tend to ignore the freedom of speech and its function, so that some of the rhetoric cannot be demonstrated in the open debates.

  10. Goniometry in limited joint mobility

    OpenAIRE

    Gopinath, S.; Manoj, K.; Rubiya

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To study about the utility of goniometry in screening for limited joint mobility (LJM) in patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected data of 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic without any complications were used. Baseline neuropathy assessments, namely monofilament and biothesiometry were done. Range of movement around the ankle joint and 1 st metatarsal joint was done using goniometry. Both the results were compar...

  11. Tiling Spaces are Inverse Limits

    OpenAIRE

    Sadun, Lorenzo

    2002-01-01

    Let M be an arbitrary Riemannian homogeneous space, and let Omega be a space of tilings of M, with finite local complexity (relative to some symmetry group Gamma) and closed in the natural topology. Then Omega is the inverse limit of a sequence of compact finite-dimensional branched manifolds. The branched manifolds are (finite) unions of cells, constructed from the tiles themselves and the group Gamma. This result extends previous results of Anderson and Putnam, of Ormes, Radin and Sadun, of...

  12. Computation Beyond the Turing Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegelmann, Hava T.

    1995-04-01

    Extensive efforts have been made to prove the Church-Turing thesis, which suggests that all realizable dynamical and physical systems cannot be more powerful than classical models of computation. A simply described but highly chaotic dynamical system called the analog shift map is presented here, which has computational power beyond the Turing limit (super-Turing); it computes exactly like neural networks and analog machines. This dynamical system is conjectured to describe natural physical phenomena.

  13. China Rare Earth Holdings Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    China Rare Earth Holdings Limited is a large trans-area corporation and a public company listed in Hong Kong Stock Exchange (Name: China Rare Earth, Code: 0769), with headquarter in Hong Kong. Located on the bank of beautiful Taihu Lake, the subsidiary in Yinxing covers area of 200,000 m2. It has nearly 1,000 employees, 30% of whom are technical staffs. After self-administration and effort, the company passed ISO 9001: 2000 and ISO 14000 Certificaitons.

  14. Axions - Motivation, limits and searches

    OpenAIRE

    Raffelt, Georg G.

    2006-01-01

    The axion solution of the strong CP problem provides a number of possible windows to physics beyond the standard model, notably in the form of searches for solar axions and for galactic axion dark matter, but in a broader context also inspires searches for axion-like particles in pure laboratory experiments. We briefly review the motivation for axions, astrophysical limits, their possible cosmological role, and current searches for axions and axion-like particles.

  15. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  16. Application of fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumann, A.

    2007-11-30

    This report presents the results of a study commissioned by the Department for Business, Enterprise and Industry (BERR; formerly the Department of Trade and Industry) into the application of fault current limiters in the UK. The study reviewed the current state of fault current limiter (FCL) technology and regulatory position in relation to all types of current limiters. It identified significant research and development work with respect to medium voltage FCLs and a move to high voltage. Appropriate FCL technologies being developed include: solid state breakers; superconducting FCLs (including superconducting transformers); magnetic FCLs; and active network controllers. Commercialisation of these products depends on successful field tests and experience, plus material development in the case of high temperature superconducting FCL technologies. The report describes FCL techniques, the current state of FCL technologies, practical applications and future outlook for FCL technologies, distribution fault level analysis and an outline methodology for assessing the materiality of the fault level problem. A roadmap is presented that provides an 'action agenda' to advance the fault level issues associated with low carbon networks.

  17. Workshop on confidence limits. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The First Workshop on Confidence Limits was held at CERN on 17-18 January 2000. It was devoted to the problem of setting confidence limits in difficult cases: number of observed events is small or zero, background is larger than signal, background not well known, and measurements near a physical boundary. Among the many examples in high-energy physics are searches for the Higgs, searches for neutrino oscillations, Bs mixing, SUSY, compositeness, neutrino masses, and dark matter. Several different methods are on the market: the CLs methods used by the LEP Higgs searches; Bayesian methods; Feldman-Cousins and modifications thereof; empirical and combined methods. The Workshop generated considerable interest, and attendance was finally limited by the seating capacity of the CERN Council Chamber where all the sessions took place. These proceedings contain all the papers presented, as well as the full text of the discussions after each paper and of course the last session which was a discussion session. The list of participants and the 'required reading', which was expected to be part of the prior knowledge of all participants, are also included. (orig.)

  18. Limit theories and continuous orbifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Restuccia, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Relativistic QFTs are in general defined by a collection of effective actions, describing the dynamics of quantum fields at different energy scales. The consequent natural idea of a space of theories is still a rather imprecise notion, since a detailed knowledge or a classification of QFTs is out of reach. In two dimensions the situation is in a better shape: in this context CFTs are under control in many instances, and we know sequences of rational theories emerging as end-points of RG flows. The present thesis explores the behaviour of sequences of rational two-dimensional CFTs when the central charge approaches its supremum. After a review of various notions useful to study limit theories, like the concept of averaged fields and the construction of continuous orbifolds, we analyse in detail the limit of sequences of N=2 supersymmetric CFTs that are connected by RG flows. The limit is not unique, since with extended Virasoro symmetry one can choose different scalings for the labels of the spectrum in the li...

  19. Limits to the growth debate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, L.

    The first two major studies sponsored by the club of Rome were the report of the Meadows team at MIT, The Limits to Growth, published in 1972, and the Mesarovic and Pestel report, Mankind at the Turning Point, published in 1974. When the Club of Rome met in Philadelphia in April of 1976, its pronouncements reflected a frame of mind quite different from that of 1972. Recently, Herman Kahn and his colleagues at the Hudson Institute have published The Next 200 Years, a book evidently inspired as much by antagonism to the limits-to-growth school of thought as by affirmative faith in its own vision of technological optimism. The author discusses the content of the studies and summarizes his own position in four areas. (1) While no trend of growth of anything can continue indefinitely in the real world, there are not global physical limits to economic growth within a time frame susceptible to plausible foresight or relevant to policy making. (2) In some world regions, notably South Asia and tropical Africa, population growth rates do indeed threaten to create a kind of Malthusian trap, and the rapid reduction of fertility is critically important to their development prospects and urgent in time. (3) For other parts of the world, both rates and directions of growth will be more influenced by changes in preferences for consumption and in attitudes toward production than by physical constraints, although higher energy costs and environmental pressures will also be important influences in generating such changes in growth patterns. (4) Probable changes in directions of growth will generate new and important issues in international economic and political relations, with both dangers and opportunities for the evolving world order. (MCW)

  20. Limits to Global Groundwater Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graaf, I. D.; Van Beek, R.; Sutanudjaja, E.; Wada, Y.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    In regions with frequent water stress and large aquifer systems, groundwater is often used as an additional fresh water source. For many regions of the world groundwater abstraction exceeds groundwater recharge and persistent groundwater depletion occurs. The most direct effect of groundwater depletion is declining of water tables, leading to reduced groundwater discharge needed to sustain base-flow to e.g. rivers. Next to that, pumping costs increase, wells dry up and land subsidence occurs. These problems are expected to increase in the near future due to growing population and climate changes. This poses the urgent question of what the limits are of groundwater consumption worldwide. We simulate global water availability (5 arc-minute resolution, for 1960-2050) using the hydrological model PCR-GLOBWB (van Beek et al. 2011), coupled to a groundwater model based on MODFLOW (de Graaf et al. 2015), allowing for groundwater - surface water interactions. The groundwater model includes a parameterization of world's confined and unconfined aquifer systems needed for a realistic simulation of groundwater head dynamics. Water demands are included (from Wada et al. 2014). We study the limits to water consumption, focusing on locally attainable groundwater and groundwater levels critical to rivers to sustain low flows. We show an increasing trend (1960-2050) in groundwater head declines, due to increase in groundwater demand. Also, stream flow will decrease and low flow conditions will occur more frequent and will be longer in duration in the near future, especially for irrigated areas. Next to that, we provide a global overview of the years it takes until groundwater gets unattainable for e.g. a local farmer (100 m below land-surface used as a proxy), and estimate the increase in pumping cost for the near future. The results show where and when limits of groundwater consumption are reached globally.

  1. Combination trading with limit orders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Schellhorn

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available We model the exchange of commodities that are contingent upon each other, when traders place mostly limit orders. Examples include: 1 a market of financial futures where future spreads are also traded, 2 a market of mutual funds and stocks, 3 a market of options and stocks, under the viewpoint that they are both combinations of Arrow-Debreu securities. We prove that consistent prices are optimal. We develop a fixed-point algorithm to compute an optimal price and allocation. The algorithm combines ideas from contraction mapping theory and from homotopy theory. It is much faster than a traditional linear programming approach.

  2. Taming Limits with Approximate Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Qadir, Junaid; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Wang, Liang; Crowcroft, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Internet is the linchpin of modern society, which the various threads of modern life weave around. But being a part of the bigger energy-guzzling industrial economy, it is vulnerable to disruption. It is widely believed that our society is exhausting its vital resources to meet our energy requirements, and the cheap fossil fuel fiesta will soon abate as we cross the tipping point of global oil production. We will then enter the long arc of scarcity, constraints, and limits---a post-peak "long...

  3. Thermodynamic effects on limited cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical data are presented for limited cavitation on hemispherical-nosed bodies in water and Freon 113. The experiments were conducted with 0.25 inch and 0.50 inch diameter models over a temperature range and velocity range of 80-260 deg F and 40-130fps, respectively. In general the experimental data do not display the decrease in cavitation number with temperature as predicted by the theory. It is feld that at least part of the differences between experimental and theoretical data are due to the effects of non condensable gas, laminar separation and boundary layer transition

  4. The Limit of Large Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Peiju

    2011-01-01

    On Feb 21(st),the industry was shocked by the news that AP Moller-Maersk placed an order of 10 container ships of 18,000 TEU with the South Korean ship yards.The order brings the development of large vessels to a new climax and at the same time puts forward a series of research subjects to the industry,such as what is the limit for the development of large vessels,whether ship safety can be guaranteed,and etc.

  5. Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.

    1989-01-01

    It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.

  6. Food irradiation, profits and limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The utility of the irradiation to overcome diverse problems of lost nutritious, it has been demonstrated in multiple investigation works, that its have confirmed the value and the inoculation of the irradiated foods. The quantity of energy applied to each food, is in function of the wanted effect. In this document a guide with respect to the practical application and the utility of the irradiation process in different foods, as well as the suggested dose average is shown. Among the limitations of the use of this technology, its are the costs and not being able to apply it to some fresh foods. (Author)

  7. Limited Attention and Discourse Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Walker, M A

    1995-01-01

    This squib examines the role of limited attention in a theory of discourse structure and proposes a model of attentional state that relates current hierarchical theories of discourse structure to empirical evidence about human discourse processing capabilities. First, I present examples that are not predicted by Grosz and Sidner's stack model of attentional state. Then I consider an alternative model of attentional state, the cache model, which accounts for the examples, and which makes particular processing predictions. Finally I suggest a number of ways that future research could distinguish the predictions of the cache model and the stack model.

  8. Flooding-limited thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper stratification in the cold leg due to high-pressure injection in a stagnated loop of a pressurized water reactor is considered. The working hypothesis is that at high injection Froude numbers, the extent of mixing approaches a limit controlled only by the flooding condition at the cold-leg exit. Experimental data available support this hypothesis. Predictions for reactor conditions indicate a stratification of ∼ 40 degrees C. As a consequence, the downcomer plume would be rather weak (with a low Froude number) and would be expected to decay quickly

  9. Modern Cosmology: Assumptions and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jai-Chan

    2012-06-01

    Physical cosmology tries to understand the Universe at large with its origin and evolution. Observational and experimental situations in cosmology do not allow us to proceed purely based on the empirical means. We examine in which sense our cosmological assumptions in fact have shaped our current cosmological worldview with consequent inevitable limits. Cosmology, as other branches of science and knowledge, is a construct of human imagination reflecting the popular belief system of the era. The question at issue deserves further philosophic discussions. In Whitehead's words, ``philosophy, in one of its functions, is the critic of cosmologies.'' (Whitehead 1925).

  10. CSS3 pushing the limits

    CERN Document Server

    Greig, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Push CSS3 and your design skills to the limit-and beyond! Representing an evolutionary leap forward for CSS, CSS3 is chock-full of new capabilities that dramatically expand the boundaries of what a styling language can do. But many of those new features remain undocumented, making it difficult to learn what they are and how to use them to create the sophisticated sites and web apps clients demand and users have grown to expect. Until now. This book introduces you to all of CSS3's new and advanced features, and, with the help of dozens of real-world examples and live

  11. 36 CFR 4.21 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 4.21 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.21 Speed limits. (a) Park area speed limits are as follows: (1) 15 miles per hour... superintendent may designate a different speed limit upon any park road when a speed limit set forth in...

  12. Performance limits of heliostat fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kribus, A.; Krupkin, V.; Yogev, A. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel). Environmental Sciences and Energy Research Dept.; Spirkl, W. [Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany). Sektion Physik

    1998-11-01

    Geometric and thermodynamic arguments are used to derive upper limits on the performance of a solar energy collection system, consisting of an axisymmetric heliostat field, a solar tower, secondary optics and a black receiver. Performance limits on collected power, concentration, and work output are presented. Performance of tower systems with several secondary optics options is compared: tower-top Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC), Tailored Edge-Ray Concentrator (TERC) approximated by a cone, and Cassegrainian with ground-level CPC or Compound Elliptic Concentrator (CEC). Optimized ray tracing is used to generate the design parameters of the secondary concentrators that yield the highest optical efficiency. The results show that the tower-top Cone provides the best performance regarding both concentration and efficiency, except for very large fields. The Cassegrainian designs come in second, but become equal and even better than the Cone for large fields. The results for the Cassegrainian are sensitive to the value of the reflectivity, due to the additional reflections incurred. The choice of a CEC is better than a CPC for the terminal concentration in a Cassegrainian system, but the difference is small. The suitability of the different design options for high-temperature solar applications is discussed. The recommendations regarding optical configuration depend on field size, as well as on application-specific constraints.

  13. Hamiltonian mechanics limits microscopic engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, James; Gilz, Lukas; Thesing, Eike

    2015-05-01

    We propose a definition of fully microscopic engines (micro-engines) in terms of pure mechanics, without reference to thermodynamics, equilibrium, or cycles imposed by external control, and without invoking ergodic theory. This definition is pragmatically based on the observation that what makes engines useful is energy transport across a large ratio of dynamical time scales. We then prove that classical and quantum mechanics set non-trivial limits-of different kinds-on how much of the energy that a micro-engine extracts from its fuel can be converted into work. Our results are not merely formal; they imply manageable design constraints on micro-engines. They also suggest the novel possibility that thermodynamics does not emerge from mechanics in macroscopic regimes, but rather represents the macroscopic limit of a generalized theory, valid on all scales, which governs the important phenomenon of energy transport across large time scale ratios. We propose experimental realizations of the dynamical mechanisms we identify, with trapped ions and in Bose-Einstein condensates (``motorized bright solitons'').

  14. Energy-limited escape revised

    CERN Document Server

    Salz, M; Czesla, S; Schmitt, J H M M

    2016-01-01

    Gas planets in close proximity to their host stars experience photoevaporative mass loss. The energy-limited escape concept is generally used to derive estimates for the planetary mass-loss rates. Our photoionization hydrodynamics simulations of the thermospheres of hot gas planets show that the energy-limited escape concept is valid only for planets with a gravitational potential lower than $\\log_\\mathrm{10}\\left( -\\Phi_{\\mathrm{G}}\\right) < 13.11~$erg$\\,$g$^{-1}$ because in these planets the radiative energy input is efficiently used to drive the planetary wind. Massive and compact planets with $\\log_\\mathrm{10}\\left( -\\Phi_{\\mathrm{G}}\\right) \\gtrsim 13.6~$erg$\\,$g$^{-1}$ exhibit more tightly bound atmospheres in which the complete radiative energy input is re-emitted through hydrogen Ly$\\alpha$ and free-free emission. These planets therefore host hydrodynamically stable thermospheres. Between these two extremes the strength of the planetary winds rapidly declines as a result of a decreasing heating eff...

  15. Measurement limits in flash thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Steven M.; Lhota, James R.; Ahmed, Tasdiq

    2009-05-01

    Although active thermography has traditionally been regarded as a qualitative NDT method, its potential for quantitative measurement of thermophysical properties including wall thickness, flaw size and depth, thermal diffusivity or effusivity has been the subject of numerous investigations. Enabled by improvements in IR camera technology and fast, abundant and inexpensive computing power for advanced signal processing, measurement results have been reported using a variety of excitation and signal processing schemes. Results are often presented as a correlation between thermography data and nominal properties or independent measurements by another "validated" method. However, given the diffusion mechanism that underlies thermography, and the quantization and sampling conditions implicit in using an IR camera as a temperature sensor, there are definite limits to what can be achieved in a thermography measurement. While many benefits can be achieved with improved instrumentation, efficient energy insertion or optimized signal processing, ultimately, the limits imposed by diffusion and instrumentation take precedence, and cannot be circumvented. In this paper, the effects of camera frame rate and sensitivity on measurement of the thickness of a slab are examined, using basic 1-dimensional diffusion approximations.

  16. DC superconducting fault current limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tixador, P.; Villard, C.; Cointe, Y.

    2006-03-01

    There is a lack of satisfying solutions for fault currents using conventional technologies, especially in DC networks, where a superconducting fault current limiter could play a very important part. DC networks bring a lot of advantages when compared to traditional AC ones, in particular within the context of the liberalization of the electric market. Under normal operation in a DC network, the losses in the superconducting element are nearly zero and only a small, i.e. a low cost, refrigeration system is then required. The absence of zero crossing of a DC fault current favourably accelerates the normal zone propagation. The very high current slope at the time of the short circuit in a DC grid is another favourable parameter. The material used for the experiments is YBCO deposited on Al2O3 as well as YBCO coated conductors. The DC limitation experiments are compared to AC ones at different frequencies (50-2000 Hz). Careful attention is paid to the quench homogenization, which is one of the key issues for an SC FCL. The University of Geneva has proposed constrictions. We have investigated an operating temperature higher than 77 K. As for YBCO bulk, an operation closer to the critical temperature brings a highly improved homogeneity in the electric field development. The material can then absorb large energies without degradation. We present tests at various temperatures. These promising results are to be confirmed over long lengths.

  17. Goniometry in limited joint mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gopinath

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To study about the utility of goniometry in screening for limited joint mobility (LJM in patients attending a secondary level Diabetic Clinic. Materials and Methods: Randomly selected data of 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic without any complications were used. Baseline neuropathy assessments, namely monofilament and biothesiometry were done. Range of movement around the ankle joint and 1 st metatarsal joint was done using goniometry. Both the results were compared. Inclusion Criteria: Selected 100 patients attending a secondary level diabetic clinic and on regular follow-up were included in the study. Exclusion Criteria: Sick patients requiring parenteral feeds, IV antibiotics, co-morbid conditions such as microvascular complication, autonomic gastroparesis, and diabetic foot infections were excluded from the study. Conclusion: Goniometric screening for LJM is a cheap and effective screening tool for detecting early structural deformity producing a higher plantar pressure and ulcer, and thereby preventing them at early stage.

  18. Mathematical methods for hydrodynamic limits

    CERN Document Server

    Masi, Anna

    1991-01-01

    Entropy inequalities, correlation functions, couplings between stochastic processes are powerful techniques which have been extensively used to give arigorous foundation to the theory of complex, many component systems and to its many applications in a variety of fields as physics, biology, population dynamics, economics, ... The purpose of the book is to make theseand other mathematical methods accessible to readers with a limited background in probability and physics by examining in detail a few models where the techniques emerge clearly, while extra difficulties arekept to a minimum. Lanford's method and its extension to the hierarchy of equations for the truncated correlation functions, the v-functions, are presented and applied to prove the validity of macroscopic equations forstochastic particle systems which are perturbations of the independent and of the symmetric simple exclusion processes. Entropy inequalities are discussed in the frame of the Guo-Papanicolaou-Varadhan technique and of theKipnis-Oll...

  19. Pericytes limit tumor cell metastasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xian, Xiaojie; Håkansson, Joakim; Ståhlberg, Anders;

    2006-01-01

    Previously we observed that neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) deficiency in beta tumor cells facilitates metastasis into distant organs and local lymph nodes. Here, we show that NCAM-deficient beta cell tumors grew leaky blood vessels with perturbed pericyte-endothelial cell-cell interactions...... and deficient perivascular deposition of ECM components. Conversely, tumor cell expression of NCAM in a fibrosarcoma model (T241) improved pericyte recruitment and increased perivascular deposition of ECM molecules. Together, these findings suggest that NCAM may limit tumor cell metastasis by stabilizing...... the microvessel wall. To directly address whether pericyte dysfunction increases the metastatic potential of solid tumors, we studied beta cell tumorigenesis in primary pericyte-deficient Pdgfb(ret/ret) mice. This resulted in beta tumor cell metastases in distant organs and local lymph nodes, demonstrating a role...

  20. Proposition Algebra with Projective Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Bergstra, J A

    2008-01-01

    Sequential logic deviates from propositional logic by taking into account that atomic propositions yield different Boolean values at different times during the sequential evaluation of a single proposition. Reactive valuations capture this dynamics of a proposition's environment. This logic is phrased as an equationally specified algebra rather than in the form of proof rules. It is strictly more general than Boolean algebra to the extent that the classical connectives fail to be expressively complete in the sequential case. The proposition algebra PRA is developed in a fashion similar to the process algebra ACP and the program algebra PGA via an algebraic specification which has a meaningful initial algebra for which a range of courser congruences are considered important as well. In addition infinite objects (that is propositions, processes and programs respectively) are preferably dealt with by means of an inverse limit construction which allows the transfer of knowledge concerning finite objects to facts ...

  1. The Limits of Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Foadi, Roshan; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a toy model implementing the proposal of using a custodial symmetry to protect the Z b_L bbar_L coupling from large corrections. This "doublet-extended standard model" adds a weak doublet of fermions (including a heavy partner of the top quark) to the particle content of the standard model in order to implement an O(4) x U(1)_X = SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x P_LR x U(1)_X symmetry in the top-quark mass generating sector. This symmetry is softly broken to the gauged SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y electroweak symmetry by a Dirac mass M for the new doublet; adjusting the value of M allows us to explore the range of possibilities between the O(4)-symmetric (M to 0) and standard-model-like (M to infinity) limits.

  2. The Limits of Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Chivukula, R Sekhar; Foadi, Roshan; Simmons, Elizabeth H

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a toy model implementing the proposal of using a custodial symmetry to protect the Zbb coupling from large corrections. This "doublet-extended standard model" adds a weak doublet of fermions (including a heavy partner of the top quark) to the particle content of the standard model in order to implement an O(4) x U(1)_X = SU(2)_L x SU(2)_R x P_{LR} x U(1)_X symmetry that protects the Zbb coupling. This symmetry is softly broken to the gauged SU(2)_L x U(1)_Y electroweak symmetry by a Dirac mass M for the new doublet; adjusting the value of M allows us to explore the range of possibilities between the O(4)-symmetric (M to 0) and standard-model-like (M to infinity) limits.

  3. THE LIMITS OF ESP TESTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norica-Felicia BUCUR

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Global market forces have determined not only higher education institutions all over the world to include ESP courses in their curriculum to enhance their students’ future employability, but also public and private organisations to offer their employees the opportunity to attend ESP courses in order to meet the continuously growing ESP needs. From this perspective, ESP compentence could become a subcomponent of one of the key competences for lifelong learning, communication in foreign languages. Therefore assessing ESP competence seems to acquire paramount importance since stakeholders need accurate information about the ESP learners’ abilities to cope with specific language tasks. This article offers a concise overview of the principles and practices of ESP assessment, a detailed description of the features of ESP tests, while focusing particularly on the limits of ESP tests in order to identify possible solutions to overcome them.

  4. Quantum parallelism may be limited

    CERN Document Server

    Ozhigov, Yu I

    2016-01-01

    We consider quantum formalism limited by the classical simulating computer with the fixed memory. The memory is redistributed in the course of modeling by the variation of the set of classical states and the accuracy of the representation of amplitudes. This computational description completely preserves the conventional formalism and does not contradicts to experiments, but it makes impossible fast quantum algorithms. This description involves the slow down of quantum evolutions with the growth of the dimension of the minimal subspace containing entangled states, which arise in the evolution. This slow down is the single difference of the proposed formalism from the standard one; it is negligible for the systems from the usual experiments, including those in which many entangled particle participate, but grows rapidly in the attempt to realize the scalable quantum computations, which require the unlimited parallelism. The experimental verification of this version of quantum formalism is reduced to the fixati...

  5. Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Pradhan, Parthapratim

    2013-01-01

    We study Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCO) in extremal Kerr spacetime which lie close (in terms of the radial coordinate) to the event horizon and compare these with similar orbits in the near-extremal situation. Extremization of the effective potential for timelike circular orbits shows the existence of a stable circular geodesics in the extremal spacetime, precisely {\\it on} the event horizon in terms of the radial coordinate. This type of geodesics is unstable in the corresponding near-extremal spacetime as we show here, testifying to differences between the extremal limit of a generic Kerr spacetime and the exactly extremal geometry. Another aspect of the extremization of the effective potential for null circular orbits shows the existence of an unstable circular geodesic due to the axisymmetry of the spacetime in the extremal Kerr black hole. We attempt to relate this to the fact that the extremal Kerr black hole spacetime possesses no outer trapped surface.

  6. Collider limits on leptophilic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguila, Francisco del; Yamamoto, Yasuhiro [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Chala, Mikael [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Santiago, Jose [Granada Univ. (Spain). CAFPE; Granada Univ. (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos; European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), Geneva (Switzerland)

    2014-11-15

    In order to observe leptophilic interactions at the LHC we must require at least four leptons, which may be in particular neutrinos, in the final state. If they are mediated by a resonance in the di-leptonic channel, this must be of spin 1 to be produced through a renormalizable coupling. We study the LHC reach for such a vector boson allowing for arbitrary couplings, what in practice means for arbitrary couplings to muons because lepton flavor violating couplings are constrained by rare processes, couplings to electrons by LEP and LHC is not sensitive to final states involving taus in this case. This makes the ILC complementary as it will provide the best limits on Z' couplings to tau leptons. A prominent example is the case of the anomaly-free Z' coupling to the muon minus tau lepton number L{sub μ}-L{sub τ}. If no departure from the Standard Model is observed at the LHC, the most stringent bounds on this vector boson are provided from events with only three charged leptons plus missing energy. Masses of the order of 1 TeV can be probed at the high-luminosity phase of the LHC for Z' couplings of order one. Generic four-lepton operators parametrizing leptophilic interactions can be also restricted using three and four (or two at the ILC) charged lepton samples, but the corresponding limits are marginal, if meaningful, because the resonant behavior appears to be essential for the signal to be significant.

  7. Prospective Optimization with Limited Resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snider, Joseph; Lee, Dongpyo; Poizner, Howard; Gepshtein, Sergei

    2015-09-01

    The future is uncertain because some forthcoming events are unpredictable and also because our ability to foresee the myriad consequences of our own actions is limited. Here we studied how humans select actions under such extrinsic and intrinsic uncertainty, in view of an exponentially expanding number of prospects on a branching multivalued visual stimulus. A triangular grid of disks of different sizes scrolled down a touchscreen at a variable speed. The larger disks represented larger rewards. The task was to maximize the cumulative reward by touching one disk at a time in a rapid sequence, forming an upward path across the grid, while every step along the path constrained the part of the grid accessible in the future. This task captured some of the complexity of natural behavior in the risky and dynamic world, where ongoing decisions alter the landscape of future rewards. By comparing human behavior with behavior of ideal actors, we identified the strategies used by humans in terms of how far into the future they looked (their "depth of computation") and how often they attempted to incorporate new information about the future rewards (their "recalculation period"). We found that, for a given task difficulty, humans traded off their depth of computation for the recalculation period. The form of this tradeoff was consistent with a complete, brute-force exploration of all possible paths up to a resource-limited finite depth. A step-by-step analysis of the human behavior revealed that participants took into account very fine distinctions between the future rewards and that they abstained from some simple heuristics in assessment of the alternative paths, such as seeking only the largest disks or avoiding the smaller disks. The participants preferred to reduce their depth of computation or increase the recalculation period rather than sacrifice the precision of computation.

  8. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. Stockman

    2001-01-26

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO{sub 2} partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility

  9. Pure Phase Solubility Limits: LANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural and engineered system at Yucca Mountain (YM) defines the site-specific conditions under which one must determine to what extent the engineered and the natural geochemical barriers will prevent the release of radioactive material from the repository. Most important mechanisms for retention or enhancement of radionuclide transport include precipitation or co-precipitation of radionuclide-bearing solid phases (solubility limits), complexation in solution, sorption onto surfaces, colloid formation, and diffusion. There may be many scenarios that could affect the near-field environment, creating chemical conditions more aggressive than the conditions presented by the unperturbed system (such as pH changes beyond the range of 6 to 9 or significant changes in the ionic strength of infiltrated waters). For an extended period of time, the near-field water composition may be quite different and more extreme in pH, ionic strength, and CO2 partial pressure (or carbonate concentration) than waters at some distance from the repository. Reducing conditions, high pH (up to 11), and low carbonate concentration may be present in the near-field after reaction of infiltrating groundwater with engineered barrier systems, such as cementitious materials. In the far-field, conditions are controlled by the rock-mass buffer providing a near-neutral, oxidizing, low-ionic-strength environment that controls radionuclide solubility limits and sorption capacities. There is the need for characterization of variable chemical conditions that affect solubility, speciation, and sorption reactions. Modeling of the groundwater chemistry is required and leads to an understanding of solubility and speciation of the important radionuclides. Because experimental studies cannot be performed under the numerous potential chemical conditions, solubility limitations must rely on geochemical modeling of the radionuclide's chemistry. Fundamental thermodynamic properties, such as solubility products

  10. 50 CFR 660.232 - Limited entry daily trip limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited entry daily trip limit (DTL... limit (DTL) fishery for sablefish. (a) Limited entry DTL fisheries both north and south of 36° N. lat... restrictions and limits of the limited entry daily and/or weekly trip limit (DTL) fishery for...

  11. IDENTIDADES MASCULINAS: LIMITES E POSSIBILIDADES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May-Lin Wang

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho toma por base uma abordagem psicossocial para discorrer sobre os limites impostos pelos estereótipos de gênero à construção de uma identidade masculina, em contraposição às possibilidades de subjetivação, num cenário cultural de pluralidade identitária. Ênfase é dada à socialização estereotipada dos meninos, num processo no qual se verifica uma espécie de superposição do contexto socio-histórico em que cresceram os pais àquele no qual o menino é socializado, acentuando determinadas crenças sobre gênero. O modelo tradicional de virilidade, que imperava inquestionável até bem pouco tempo, ignorando as necessidades afetivas e valorizando características como a competitividade, a preocupação com o desempenho, o autoritarismo, a dominação e a opressão, vem sendo questionado como pilar maior da identidade masculina tradicional.

  12. Exploring life's limits: Deep geobiochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A. D.

    2014-12-01

    N-dimensional chemical space on Earth and beyond produces diverse habitats for microbial activity. Hydrothermal environments cover a wide range of habitable space up to and including life's known limits and provide a window into deep geological, geochemical, and biological processes. Hydrothermal water compositions, as sampled from and measured in terrestrial hot springs on Earth's surface, vary in chemical constituent speciation and concentrations over orders of magnitude in a plethora of geochemical parameters with biological significance, including hydronium ion, sulfide, iron, zinc, magnesium, manganese, and molybdenum. Proteins provide a link between geochemistry and microbial activity by catalyzing chemical reactions. Proteins extracted and identified by tandem mass spectrometry from 13 hot spring sediments and biofilms - covering pH values from 2-9 and diverse geochemical compositions - function as efflux transporters, permeases, electron transporters, and others, suggesting that these processes were present in the environment and occurring at the time of sampling. Metalloenzymes have been identified, including the iron protein rubrerythrin, thought to be involved in oxidative stress protection in anaerobic bacteria and archaea, as well as proteins involved in macronutrient processing (carbon, phosphorus, nitrogen, and sulfur). The melding of biochemistry with geochemistry shows potential for quantifying microbial activity in deep environments by demonstrating the presence - and as techniques improve, relative abundances - of reaction-catalyzing enzymes. Moreover, using hot spring sources and their outflow channels as chemical and biological models of geologic time helps decipher the origin and co-evolution of life and geochemistry.

  13. Agriculture: access to technology limited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    From country to country and even regionally, the roles of women in agriculture vary, but most of their labor is in unpaid subsistence production and their contributions tend to be underestimated, according to the results of the [UN] Secretary-General's report. Depending on circumstances, they have complementary roles with men, sharing or dividing tasks in the production of crops, care of animals, and forestry management. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, women contribute 60-80% of labor in food production for both household consumption and sale, while in Malaysia the women account for only 35% of the agricultural labor force, and in Ireland the participation rate is only 10.4%. Although women make this important amount of labor contributions to agricultural production, "development policies tend to favor export crops to earn foreign exchange and the agricultural research tends to address the improvement of production and technologies for commercial production". This results in limited access for women to technical knowledge and innovations, including irrigation, machinery, farming techniques and extension services. This is strengthened by the fact that most of the extension services target farmers who own land and can obtain credit to invest in input and technology. PMID:12293737

  14. Anisotropic diffusion-limited aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M N; Hentschel, H G E; Family, F

    2004-06-01

    Using stochastic conformal mappings, we study the effects of anisotropic perturbations on diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) in two dimensions. The harmonic measure of the growth probability for DLA can be conformally mapped onto a constant measure on a unit circle. Here we map m preferred directions for growth to a distribution on the unit circle, which is a periodic function with m peaks in [-pi,pi) such that the angular width sigma of the peak defines the "strength" of anisotropy kappa= sigma(-1) along any of the m chosen directions. The two parameters (m,kappa) map out a parameter space of perturbations that allows a continuous transition from DLA (for small enough kappa ) to m needlelike fingers as kappa--> infinity. We show that at fixed m the effective fractal dimension of the clusters D(m,kappa) obtained from mass-radius scaling decreases with increasing kappa from D(DLA) approximately 1.71 to a value bounded from below by D(min) = 3 / 2. Scaling arguments suggest a specific form for the dependence of the fractal dimension D(m,kappa) on kappa for large kappa which compares favorably with numerical results. PMID:15244564

  15. Limits to Drift Chamber Resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Riegler, Werner

    1998-01-01

    ATLAS (A Large Toroidal LHC Apparatus) will be a general-purpose experiment at the Large Hadron Collider that will be operational at CERN in the year 2004. The ATLAS muon spectrometer aims for a momentum resolution of 10% for a transverse momentum of pT=1TeV. The precision tracking devices in the muon system will be high pressure drift tubes (MDTs) with a single wire resolution of 1100 chambers covering an area of ≈ 2500m2. The high counting rates in the spectrometer as well as the aim for excellent spatial resolution and high efficiency put severe constraints on the MDT operating parameters. This work describes a detailed study of all the resolution limiting factors in the ATLAS environment. A ’full chain’ simulation of the MDT response to photons and charged particles as well as quantitative comparisons with measurements was performed. The good agreement between simulation and measurements resulted in a profound understanding of the drift chamber processes and the individual contributions to the spat...

  16. Photon and graviton mass limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  17. 49 CFR 218.35 - Yard limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Yard limits. 218.35 Section 218.35 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Trains and Locomotives § 218.35 Yard limits. (a) After August 1, 1977, yard limits must be designated by— (1) Yard limit signs, and (2) Timetable, train...

  18. The role of limiter in Egyptor Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Ei-Sisi, A B

    2002-01-01

    In Egyptor Tokamak, the limiter is used for separation of the plasma from the vessel. In this work an overview of limiter types, and construction of limiter in Egyptor Tokamak is discussed. Also simulation results of the radial electron density distribution in case of limiter are presented. The results of the simulation are in agreement with the experimental and analytical results.

  19. Tracial Limit of C*-algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shan Wen HU; Hua Xin LIN; Yi Feng XUE

    2003-01-01

    A new limit of C*-algebras, the tracial limit, is introduced in this paper. We show thata separable simple C*-algebra 4 is a tracial limit of C*-algebras in Z(k) if and only if A has tracialtopological rank no more than k. We present several known results using the notion of tracial limits.

  20. Limited Deposit Insurance Coverage and Bank Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Shy, Oz; Stenbacka, Rune; Yankov, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Deposit insurance designs in many countries place a limit on the coverage of deposits in each bank. However, no limits are placed on the number of accounts held with different banks. Therefore, under limited deposit insurance, some consumers open accounts with different banks to achieve higher or full deposit insurance coverage. We compare three regimes of deposit insurance: No deposit insurance, unlimited deposit insurance, and limited deposit insurance. We show that limited deposit insuranc...

  1. Newtonian limits of warp drive spacetimes

    OpenAIRE

    Natario, Jose

    2004-01-01

    We find a class of warp drive spacetimes possessing Newtonian limits, which we then determine. The same method is used to compute Newtonian limits of the Schwarzschild solution and spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker cosmological models.

  2. A MODEL OF MINIMUM SIZE LIMIT REGULATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Homans, Frances R.; Ruliffson, Jane A.

    1998-01-01

    Minimum size limits have become an increasingly popular management tool in recreational fisheries. This popularity stems from the potential of minimum size limits to accomplish the twin goals of limiting overfishing and improving fishing quality through increasing the average size of fish caught. The success of minimum size limits in achieving these objectives depends in a complicated way on both the behavior of anglers and the biological mechanisms that guide the growth of the fish populatio...

  3. 12 CFR 24.4 - Investment limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investment limits. 24.4 Section 24.4 Banks and... ENTITIES, COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT PROJECTS, AND OTHER PUBLIC WELFARE INVESTMENTS § 24.4 Investment limits. (a) Limits on aggregate outstanding investments. A national bank's aggregate outstanding investments...

  4. 36 CFR 1004.21 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 1004.21 Section 1004.21 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.21 Speed limits. (a) Speed limits in the area administered by the Presidio Trust are as follows: (1) 15 miles...

  5. 50 CFR 38.13 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limits. 38.13 Section 38.13 Wildlife... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM MIDWAY ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE Prohibitions § 38.13 Speed limits. No person on Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge will exceed the speed limit for automobiles,...

  6. Multiple Limit Cycles in an Immune System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xun-cheng Huang; Le-min Zhu; Minaya Villasana

    2008-01-01

    The nonlinear oscillatory phenomenon has been observed in the system of immune response, which corresponds to the limit cycles in the mathematical models. We prove that the system simulating an immune response studied by Huang has at least three limit cycles in the system. The conditions for the multiple limit cycles are useful in analyzing the nonlinear oscillation in immune response.

  7. 49 CFR 663.9 - Audit limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Audit limitations. (a) An audit under this part is limited to verifying compliance with (1) Applicable... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit limitations. 663.9 Section 663.9... audit under this part includes, where appropriate, a copy of a manufacturer's self...

  8. 47 CFR 73.1725 - Limited time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Limited time. 73.1725 Section 73.1725... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1725 Limited time. (a) Operation is applicable only to... stations on the channel. (b) No authorization will be granted for: (1) A new limited time station; (2)...

  9. Primordial magnetic field limits from cosmological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study limits on a primordial magnetic field arising from cosmological data, including that from big bang nucleosynthesis, cosmic microwave background polarization plane Faraday rotation limits, and large-scale structure formation. We show that the physically relevant quantity is the value of the effective magnetic field, and limits on it are independent of how the magnetic field was generated.

  10. 12 CFR 616.6600 - Leasing limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leasing limit. 616.6600 Section 616.6600 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM LEASING § 616.6600 Leasing limit. All leases made by Farm Credit System institutions shall be subject to the lending and leasing limit in subpart...

  11. 47 CFR 80.559 - Licensing limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing limitations. 80.559 Section 80.559... MARITIME SERVICES Operational Fixed Stations § 80.559 Licensing limitations. Operational fixed stations are subject to the following licensing limitations: (a) A maximum of four frequencies will be assigned....

  12. 47 CFR 87.451 - Licensing limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing limitations. 87.451 Section 87.451... Operational Fixed Stations § 87.451 Licensing limitations. Operational fixed stations are subject to the following licensing limitations: (a) A maximum of four frequencies will be assigned. (b) Stations will...

  13. Optimizing discrete control systems with phase limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakhverdian, S.B.; Abramian, A.K.

    1981-01-01

    A new method is proposed for solving discrete problems of optimizing control systems with limitations on the phase coordinates. Results are given from experimental research which demonstrate the need to introduce tangential limitations independent of the method of accounting for the phase limitations.

  14. Hopf limit cycles estimation in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barquin, J.; Gomez, T.; Pagola, L.F. [Univ. Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica

    1995-11-01

    This paper addresses the computation of the Hopf limit cycle. This limit cycle is associated to the appearance of an oscillatory instability in dynamical power systems. An algorithm is proposed to estimate the dimensions and shape of this limit cycle. The algorithm is computationally efficient and is able to deal with large power systems. 7 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  15. 47 CFR 18.307 - Conduction limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduction limits. 18.307 Section 18.307 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL INDUSTRIAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND MEDICAL EQUIPMENT Technical... conducted limits shall preclude the need to show compliance with the field strength limits below 30...

  16. 50 CFR 648.145 - Possession limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 648.145 Section 648.145... Fishery § 648.145 Possession limit. (a) No person shall possess more than 25 black sea bass, in, or... that is not eligible for a black sea bass moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit....

  17. 50 CFR 648.125 - Possession limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 648.125 Section 648.125... § 648.125 Possession limit. (a) No person shall possess more than 10 scup in, or harvested from, the EEZ... moratorium permit are subject to this possession limit. The owner, operator, and crew of a charter or...

  18. The density limit in JET diverted plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, D.J.; Clement, S.; Gottardi, N.; Gowers, C.; Harbour, P.; Loarte, A.; Horton, L.; Lingertat, J.; Lowry, C.G.; Saibene, G.; Stamp, M.; Stork, D. [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Monk, R. [Royal Holloway Coll., London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    In JET limiter plasmas the density limit is associated with radiated power fractions of 100% and, in plasmas with carbon limiters, it is invariably disruptive. However, in discharges with solid beryllium limiters the limit is identified with the formation of a MARFE and disruptions are less frequent. In addition, the improved conditioning of the vessel arising from the use of beryllium has significantly improved the density limit scaling, so that the maximum density rises with the square root of the input power. In diverted plasmas several confinement regimes exist, making the characterization of the density limit more complex. While the density limit in L-mode plasmas is generally disruptive, the limit in ELMy and ELM-free H-modes generally prompts a return to the L-mode and a disruption is not inevitable. The density limit does rise with the increasing power, but the L-to-H transition complicates the analysis. Nevertheless, at low plasma currents (<2 MA), densities significantly above the Greenwald limit can be achieved, while at higher currents power handling limitations have constrained the range of density which can be achieved. (authors). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Flux-limited diffusion with relativistic corrections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recently reported flux-limited diffusion theory is extended to include relativistic terms, correct to first order in the fluid velocity. We show that this diffusion theory is fully flux limited, and yields the correct result for the radiative flux in the classical diffusion limit, namely a Fick's law component plus a v/c convective term

  20. 45 CFR 3.26 - Speed limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Speed limit. 3.26 Section 3.26 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION CONDUCT OF PERSONS AND TRAFFIC ON THE NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH FEDERAL ENCLAVE Traffic Regulations § 3.26 Speed limit. The speed limit is 25 miles...

  1. Existence of Multiagent Equilibria with Limited Agents

    CERN Document Server

    Bowling, M; 10.1613/jair.1332

    2011-01-01

    Multiagent learning is a necessary yet challenging problem as multiagent systems become more prevalent and environments become more dynamic. Much of the groundbreaking work in this area draws on notable results from game theory, in particular, the concept of Nash equilibria. Learners that directly learn an equilibrium obviously rely on their existence. Learners that instead seek to play optimally with respect to the other players also depend upon equilibria since equilibria are fixed points for learning. From another perspective, agents with limitations are real and common. These may be undesired physical limitations as well as self-imposed rational limitations, such as abstraction and approximation techniques, used to make learning tractable. This article explores the interactions of these two important concepts: equilibria and limitations in learning. We introduce the question of whether equilibria continue to exist when agents have limitations. We look at the general effects limitations can have on agent b...

  2. The Translation of Numerals and its Limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴贤雯

    2013-01-01

    Through probing into the diversity of numerals’functions in language use which gives prominence to the importance of numeral translation, this paper aims to analyze the limits of numeral translation and explain the cause for these limits. The analy-sis of the limits in numeral translation is guided by the principle of functional equivalence. It is discussed that in numeral transla-tion, the limits on different levels of culture, image, sound and form arise when the full functional equivalence can not be achieved. Furthermore, this paper finds that the differences in culture and formal structure as well as the semantic fuzziness are three reasons for the presence of limits in numeral translation. However, the author suggests that these limits in numeral transla-tion can be adjusted with the further development of research on translation methodology and the deep infiltration of different cultures.

  3. Investigation of pulsed voltage limiters characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karimov A. V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A new method for measuring the voltage limit is offered. It has been designed to measure high-power pulsed current of voltage limiters. The error of this method is half as much as the error of the known method of direct measurement. The investigation of dependence of power capability of single-crystal and double-crystal voltage limiters and of the pulsed operation time on pulse duration.

  4. Nuclear Physics Around the Unitarity Limit

    CERN Document Server

    König, Sebastian; Hammer, H -W; van Kolck, U

    2016-01-01

    We argue that many features of the structure of nuclei can be understood in the unitarity limit, where the two-nucleon S-waves have bound states at zero energy. In this limit, the only dimensionful parameter, related to the breaking of scale invariance to a discrete scaling symmetry, is set by the triton binding energy. For A <= 4 nucleons, we demonstrate that the spectrum can be obtained as a controlled perturbative expansion around the unitarity limit.

  5. Limit Cycle Oscillations in Pacemaker Cells

    CERN Document Server

    Endresen, L P; Endresen, Lars Petter; Skarland, Nils

    1999-01-01

    In recent decades, several mathematical models describing the pacemaker activity of the rabbit sinoatrial node have been developed. We demonstrate that it is not possible to establish the existence, uniqueness, and stability of a limit cycle oscillation in those models. Instead we observe an infinite number of limit cycles. We then display numerical results from a new model, with a limit cycle that can be reached from many different initial conditions.

  6. The Limitations and Application Methods of Suggestopedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗苗; 宋宝梅

    2015-01-01

    For a long time,college English teaching was mainly teacher-centered.Teachers played a dominant role in the classroom whereas students played a passive role.The"Suggestopedia"theory is such an effective way.However,there exist some limitations when apply the Suggestopedia theory.Teachers must pay attention to these limitations when apply the Suggestopedia theory.This thesis not only presents the limitations but also give some advises to the proper application of Suggestopedia Theory in teaching.

  7. The Limitations and Application Methods of Suggestopedia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李苗苗; 宋宝梅

    2015-01-01

    For a long time,college English teaching was mainly teacher-centered.Teachers played a dominant role in the classroom whereas students played a passive role.The"Suggestopedia" theory is such an effective way.However,there exist some limitations when apply the Suggestopedia theory.Teachers must pay attention to these limitations when apply the Suggestopedia theory.This thesis not only presents the limitations but also give some advises to the proper application of Suggestopedia Theory in teaching.

  8. Biological measurement beyond the quantum limit

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Michael A; Daria, Vincent; Knittel, Joachi; Hage, Boris; Bachor, Hans-A; Bowen, Warwick P

    2012-01-01

    Quantum noise places a fundamental limit on the per photon sensitivity attainable in optical measurements. This limit is of particular importance in biological measurements, where the optical power must be constrained to avoid damage to the specimen. By using non-classically correlated light, we demonstrated that the quantum limit can be surpassed in biological measurements. Quantum enhanced microrheology was performed within yeast cells by tracking naturally occurring lipid granules with sensitivity 2.4 dB beyond the quantum noise limit. The viscoelastic properties of the cytoplasm could thereby be determined with a 64% improved measurement rate. This demonstration paves the way to apply quantum resources broadly in a biological context.

  9. Inproved grade length limitation of freeways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XING En-hui; PEI Yu-long

    2006-01-01

    A method of ascertaining grade length limitation of freeways in mountain terrain is presented. The relationship models between 15th percentile speeds and grades were built through the surveys and analyses of operation speeds on 7 typical sections of 3 freeways in mountain terrain. Using 15th percentile and 85th percentile as speed limitations, the methods of determining admitted velocities were put forward according to the grades. Deceleration distances of longitudinal slopeways were analyzed utilizing the theories of vehicle. According to the results of analysis, grade length limitation was loosed. Finally the values of grade length limitation for freeways were put forward. The results could be used as references for freeway design.

  10. SHORT CIRCUIT CURRENT LIMITER IN AC NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Short circuit is a serious fault in power network.Some novelcircuit topologies of current limiter using power electronic technology have been developed,which can limit the fault current to any desired level without much penalty.The operating principle and control strategies of such current limiters are discussed in detail.Simulation and experimental results are given to verify the performance of the current limiter,which can meet the requirements set for locations of bus tie,feeder,as well as the main transformer in the distribution network.

  11. Fundamental gravitational limitations to quantum computing

    CERN Document Server

    Gambini, R; Pullin, J; Gambini, Rodolfo; Porto, Rafael A.; Pullin, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    Lloyd has considered the ultimate limitations physics places on quantum computers. He concludes in particular that for an ``ultimate laptop'' (a computer of one liter of volume and one kilogram of mass) the maximum number of operations per second is bounded by $10^{51}$. The limit is derived considering ordinary quantum mechanics. Here we consider additional limits that are placed by quantum gravity ideas, namely the use of a relational notion of time and fundamental gravitational limits that exist on time measurements. We then particularize for the case of an ultimate laptop and show that the maximum number of operations is further constrained to $10^{47}$ per second.

  12. Impact limiter retention using a tape joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories has developed the Beneficial Uses Shipping System (BUSS) cask for the transportation of up to a megacurie of radiation source capsules. This work was done under contract to the Department of Energy. The BUSS cask employs polyurethane foam impact limiters that fit onto the ends of the cask. A foam impact limiter takes energy out of the system during a hypothetical accident condition by allowing foam crush and large deformations to occur. This, in turn, precludes high stresses or deformations from occurring in the cask. Depending on the nature of the impact limiters and large deformations experienced, retaining the limiters on a cask during a 9 meter regulatory drop poses a design challenge. Impact limiter retention becomes a concern to ensure the cask does not experience higher decelerations during secondary impacts without impact limiters in place. During the 9 meter drop, the impact limiters absorb the energy required to confine the cask deceleration to acceptable levels. However, if the impact limiters were removed from the cask due to initial impact, higher cask stress levels could occur during any secondary or rebound effects. A tape joint has been designed to solve the problem of retaining impact limiters onto the BUSS cask during impact loadings

  13. Fundamental Quantum Limit to Waveform Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Tsang, Mankei

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the inception of gravitational-wave detectors, limits imposed by quantum mechanics to the detection of time-varying signals have been a subject of intense research and debate. Drawing insights from quantum information theory, quantum detection theory, and quantum measurement theory, here I prove a general lower limit to the average error probability for waveform detection with a quantum system. In the case of optomechanical force detection, I derive analytic expressions for the limit in some cases of interest and discuss how the limit can be approached using quantum control techniques.

  14. Implementing Risk-Limiting Audits in California

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Joseph L.; Miratrix, Luke W.; Stark, Philip B.; Briones, Melvin; Ginnold, Elaine; Oakley, Freddie; Peaden, Martin; Pellerin, Gail; Stanionis, Tom; Webber, Tricia

    2009-01-01

    Risk-limiting post-election audits limit the chance of certifying an electoral outcome if the outcome is not what a full hand count would show. Building on previous work, we report on pilot risk-limiting audits in four elections during 2008 in three California counties: one during the February 2008 Primary Election in Marin County and three during the November 2008 General Elections in Marin, Santa Cruz and Yolo Counties. We explain what makes an audit risk-limiting and how existing and pro...

  15. 32 CFR 935.132 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 935.132 Section 935.132 National... WAKE ISLAND CODE Motor Vehicle Code § 935.132 Speed limits. Each person operating a motor vehicle on Wake Island shall operate it at a speed— (a) That is reasonable, safe, and proper, considering time...

  16. 33 CFR 401.28 - Speed limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Speed limits. 401.28 Section 401... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Seaway Navigation § 401.28 Speed limits. (a) The maximum speed over the bottom for a vessel of more than 12 m in overall length shall be regulated so as not...

  17. Tokamak advanced pump limiter experiments and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experiments with pump limiter modules on several operating tokamaks establish such limiters as efficient collectors of particles and has demonstrated the importance of ballistic scattering as predicted theoretically. Plasma interaction with recycling neutral gas appears to become important as the plasma density increases and the effective ionization mean free path within the module decreases. In limiters with particle collection but without active internal pumping, the neutral gas pressure is found to vary nonlinearly with the edge plasma density at the highest densities studies. Both experiments and theory indicate that the energy spectrum of gas atoms in the pump ducting is non-thermal, consistent with the results of Monte Carlo neutral atom transport calculations. The distribution of plasma power over the front surface of such modules has been measured and appears to be consistent with the predictions of simple theory. Initial results from the latest experiment on the ISX-B tokamak with an actively pumped limiter module demonstrates that the core plasma density can be controlled with a pump limiter and that the scrape-off layer plasma can partially screen the core plasma from gas injection. The results from module pump limiter experiments and from the theory and design analysis of advanced pump limiters for reactors are used to suggest the major features of a definitive, axisymmetric, toroidal belt pump limiter experiment

  18. 14 CFR 142.31 - Advertising limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 142.31 Section 142...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES TRAINING CENTERS General § 142.31 Advertising limitations. (a) A certificate holder may not conduct, and may not advertise to conduct, any training, testing, and checking...

  19. 14 CFR 141.23 - Advertising limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising limitations. 141.23 Section 141...) SCHOOLS AND OTHER CERTIFICATED AGENCIES PILOT SCHOOLS General § 141.23 Advertising limitations. (a) The... certificate may not advertise that the school is certificated unless it clearly differentiates between...

  20. Optical limiting in semiconductor-doped glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindra, K. S.; Oak, S. M.; Rustagi, K. C.

    1996-02-01

    We report optical limiting at 527 nm in two Schott semiconductor-doped glasses OG530 and OG515. These two glasses show quite contrasting nonlinear optical behaviour. The glass OG515 shows strong clamping while OG530 shows no clamping in optical limiting inspite of having much larger nonlinear refractive index. Similarly OG530 exhibits saturation of absorption while OG515 does not.

  1. 14 CFR 43.16 - Airworthiness limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airworthiness limitations. 43.16 Section 43.16 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE, PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, REBUILDING, AND ALTERATION § 43.16 Airworthiness limitations. Each...

  2. Visualizing the Central Limit Theorem through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Central Limit Theorem is one of the most important concepts taught in an introductory statistics course, however, it may be the least understood by students. Sure, students can plug numbers into a formula and solve problems, but conceptually, do they really understand what the Central Limit Theorem is saying? This paper describes a simulation…

  3. 26 CFR 1.856-2 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... gain from the sale or other disposition of real property for the 30-percent-of-gross-income limitation... or taxes, does not constitute the acquisition of “other property” for purposes of this subparagraph... TAXES Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.856-2 Limitations. (a) Effective date. The provisions of part...

  4. 47 CFR 24.133 - Emission limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 24.133 Section 24.133... SERVICES Narrowband PCS § 24.133 Emission limits. (a) The power of any emission shall be attenuated below... the lesser attenuation. (b) The measurements of emission power can be expressed in peak or...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1323 - Emission limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.1323 Section 90.1323... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Wireless Broadband Services in the 3650-3700 MHz Band § 90.1323 Emission limits. (a) The power of any emission outside a licensee's frequency band(s) of operation shall be...

  6. 40 CFR 63.802 - Emission limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission limits. 63.802 Section 63.802... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS FOR SOURCE CATEGORIES (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Wood Furniture Manufacturing Operations § 63.802 Emission limits. (a) Each owner or...

  7. 40 CFR 61.162 - Emission limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emission limits. 61.162 Section 61.162... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Inorganic Arsenic Emissions From Glass Manufacturing Plants § 61.162 Emission limits. (a) The owner or operator of an...

  8. 47 CFR 90.669 - Emission limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emission limits. 90.669 Section 90.669... 896-901/935-940 Mhz Band § 90.669 Emission limits. (a) On any frequency in an MTA licensee's spectrum block that is adjacent to a non-MTA frequency, the power of any emission shall be attenuated below...

  9. 5 CFR 185.147 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations. 185.147 Section 185.147 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PROGRAM FRAUD CIVIL REMEDIES § 185.147 Limitations. (a) The notice of hearing with respect to a claim or statement must be served...

  10. Bargaining with Many Players: A Limit Result

    OpenAIRE

    Klaus Kultti; Hannu Vartiainen

    2008-01-01

    We provide a simple characterization of the stationary subgame perfect equilibrium of an alternating offers bargaining game when the number of players increases without a limit. Core convergence literature is emulated by increasing the number of players by replication. The limit allocation is interpreted in terms of Walrasian market for being the first proposer.

  11. Back to Classics: Teaching Limits through Infinitesimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Todor D.

    2001-01-01

    Criticizes the method of using calculators for the purpose of selecting candidates for L, for the limit value of a function. Suggests an alternative: a working formula for calculating the limit value L of a real function in terms of infinitesimals. (Author/ASK)

  12. Central Limit Theorem for Coloured Hard Dimers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Simonetta Bernabei

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We study the central limit theorem for a class of coloured graphs. This means that we investigate the limit behavior of certain random variables whose values are combinatorial parameters associated to these graphs. The techniques used at arriving this result comprise combinatorics, generating functions, and conditional expectations.

  13. 46 CFR 45.185 - Tow limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tow limitations. 45.185 Section 45.185 Shipping COAST... Barges on Lake Michigan Routes § 45.185 Tow limitations. (a) Barges must not be manned. (b) No more than three barges per tow on the Milwaukee, St. Joseph, and Muskegon routes. (c) Barges must not be more...

  14. 47 CFR 15.315 - Conducted limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES Unlicensed Personal Communications Service Devices § 15.315 Conducted limits. An unlicensed PCS device that is designed to be connected to the public utility (AC) power line must meet the limits specified in § 15.207....

  15. Common Cause Abduction : Its Scope and Limits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dziurosz-Serafinowicz, Patryk

    2012-01-01

    Patryk Dziurosz-Serafmowicz, Common Cause Abduction: Its Scope and Limits This article aims to analyze the scope and limits of common cause abduction which is a version of explanatory abduction based on Hans Reichenbach's Principle of the Common Cause. First, it is argued that common cause abduction

  16. 50 CFR 20.33 - Possession limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Possession limit. 20.33 Section 20.33...) TAKING, POSSESSION, TRANSPORTATION, SALE, PURCHASE, BARTER, EXPORTATION, AND IMPORTATION OF WILDLIFE AND PLANTS (CONTINUED) MIGRATORY BIRD HUNTING Possession § 20.33 Possession limit. No person shall...

  17. 47 CFR 95.1019 - Marketing limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing limitations. 95.1019 Section 95.1019 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PERSONAL RADIO SERVICES Low Power Radio Service (LPRS) General Provisions § 95.1019 Marketing limitations....

  18. 47 CFR 95.1219 - Marketing limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES Medical Device Radiocommunication Service (MedRadio) § 95.1219 Marketing limitations. Transmitters intended for operation in the MedRadio Service may be marketed and sold only for the permissible... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marketing limitations. 95.1219 Section...

  19. Performance Limitation of Subband Adaptive Equalisers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamod, H.; Weiss, S.; Rupp, M.; Hanzo, L.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this reported work was identifying and quantifying limitation for the subband adaptive equalisers. The derived Wiener solution is compared against simulations for the subband equaliser, and it is verified that aliasing caused in the subband decimation can be considered equivalent to channel noise. Finally, how this limitation can be mitigated by careful system design is discussed.

  20. 45 CFR 5.35 - Time limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... call or write to confirm that we have the request and to learn its status if you have not heard from us... circumstances” include situations when we: (1) Search for and collect records from field facilites, archives, or... Denial of Records § 5.35 Time limits. (a) General. FOIA sets certain time limits for us to decide...

  1. Back to Classics: Teaching Limits Through Infinitesimals

    CERN Document Server

    Todorov, Todor D

    2011-01-01

    The usual $\\epsilon,\\delta$-definition of the limit of a function (whether presented at a rigorous or an intuitive level) requires a "candidate $L$" for the limit value. Thus, we have to start our first calculus course with "guessing" instead of "calculating". In this paper we criticize the method of using calculators for the purpose of selecting candidates for $L$. We suggest an alternative: a working formula for calculating the limit value L of a real function in terms of infinitesimals. Our formula, if considered as a definition of limit, is equivalent to the usual $\\epsilon,\\delta$-definition but does not involve a candidate $L$ for the limit value. As a result, the Calculus becomes to "calculate" again as it was originally designed to do.

  2. Reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, J M; Neves, M Ventim; Rodrigues, A L [Centre of Technology and Systems Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Nova University of Lisbon Monte de Caparica, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Suarez, P; Alvarez, A, E-mail: jmmp@fct.unl.p [' Benito Mahedero' Group of Electrical Applications of Superconductors Escuela de IngenierIas Industrials, University of Extremadura Avenida de Elvas s/n, 06006 Badajoz (Spain)

    2010-06-01

    The inductive fault current limiter is less compact and harder to scale to high voltage networks than the resistive one. Nevertheless, its simple construction and mechanical robustness make it attractive in low voltage grids. Thus, it might be an enabling technology for the advent of microgrids, low voltage networks with dispersed generation, controllable loads and energy storage. A new methodology for reverse engineering of inductive fault current limiters based on the independent analysis of iron cores and HTS cylinders is presented in this paper. Their electromagnetic characteristics are used to predict the devices' hysteresis loops and consequently their dynamic behavior. Previous models based on the separate analysis of the limiters' components were already derived, e.g. in transformer like equivalent models. Nevertheless, the assumptions usually made may limit these models' application, as shown in the paper. The proposed methodology obviates these limitations. Results are validated through simulations.

  3. Pumped limiter results on TFR Tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pump limiter experiments are carried out in the TFR Tokamak. The pump limiter is located in the outer part of the torus, its double- throat head is made of graphite tiles and it is pumped by a 2000 ls-1 titanium sublimation pump. The first attempts showed that the exhaust efficiency of this pump limiter was low (ε = 1.5% of the total plasma particle efflux). To improve these results, a new limiter head with a single longer throat has been built; particles were better trapped and the pumping provided an important decrease of the recycling coefficient. Geometric features mainly explain the increase by a factor 3.5 of the exhaust efficiency (ε = 5.5%). Ion temperature of the order of a few eV has been deduced from Doppler broadening measurements at the neutralizer plate of the pump limiter

  4. Well limit behaviors of term rewriting systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Shilong; SUI Yuefei; XU Ke

    2007-01-01

    The limit behaviors of computations have not been fully explored.It is necessary to consider such limit behaviors when we consider the properties of infinite objects in computer science,such as infinite logic programs,the symbolic solutions of infinite polynomial equations.Usually,we can use finite objects to approximate infinite objects,and we should know what kinds of infinite objects are approximable and how to approximate them effectively.A sequence {Rκ:κω}of term rewriting systems has the well limit behavior if under the condition that the sequence has the Set-theoretic limit or the distance-based limit,the sequence {Th(Rκ):κ∈ω} of corresponding theoretic closures of Rκ has the set-theoretic or distance-based limit,and limκ→∞ Th(Rκ) is equal to the theoretic closure of the limit of {Rκ:κ∈ω).Two kinds of limits of term rewriting systems are considered:one is based on the set-theoretic limit,the other is on the distance-based limit.It is proved thatgiven a sequence {Rκ:κ∈ω) of term rewriting systems Rκ,if there is a well-founded ordering (-<) on terms such that every Rκ is (-<)-well-founded,and the set-theoretic limit of {Rκ:κ∈ω).exists,then {Rκ:κ∈ω).has the well limit behavior;and if (1) there is a well-founded ordering(-<)on terms such that every Rκ is(-<-well-founded,(2) there is a distance d on terms which is closed under substitutions and contexts and (3) {Rκ:κ∈ω).is Cauchy under d then {Rκ:κ∈ω).has the well limit behavior.The results are used to approximate the least Herbrand models of infinite Horn logic programs and real Horn logic programs,and the solutions and Cr(o)bner bases of (infinite) sets of real polynomials by sequences of (finite) sets of rational polynomials.

  5. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  6. Density Limits in Toroidal Magnetic Confinement Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Martin

    2001-10-01

    The density limit represents one of the fundamental operating boundaries for magnetic confinement devices - one with practical importance to the goal of fusion power. With fusion reactivity maximized at a plasma temperature on the order of 10 keV and a reaction rate scaling as n^2, an optimum density can be calculated which is not guaranteed to be achievable in any given device. Unlike operational limits for plasma current or pressure, the density limit cannot be explained by magneto-hydrodynamics alone. There is general agreement that the proximate cause for the disruptive limit in the tokamak is cooling of the plasma edge and subsequent current profile shrinkage. The edge cooling may be dominated by atomic physics processes or as suggested in recent experiments, by anomalous transport. A similar picture is emerging for the reversed field pinch (RFP), while the limit in stellarators is apparently due to loss of thermal equilibrium from radiation. Empirical scaling laws in which the maximum plasma density is proportional to the average current density have been fairly successful in predicting the limit for subsequent experiments. Surprisingly, the density limits found in tokamaks and RFPs are virtually identical. Currentless stellarators reach similar density limits, though the expression needs to be recast in terms of the rotational transform. While scaling laws have done a reasonable job in describing data from many recent experiments, they can only give hints at the underlying physics. Understanding the mechanism for the density limit is crucial for extrapolating machine performance into untested regimes and so far, a completely satisfactory theory has not emerged. It seems likely that robust, reliable predictions will only come from the development of a first-principles theory backed up by detailed experimental observations. The extensive work already accomplished and reviewed here should provide a solid basis for such development.

  7. Limit theorems for 2D invasion percolation

    CERN Document Server

    Damron, Michael

    2010-01-01

    We prove limit theorems and variance estimates for quantities related to ponds and outlets for 2D invasion percolation. We first exhibit several properties of a sequence (O(n)) of outlet variables, the n-th of which gives the number of outlets in the box centered at the origin of side length 2^n. The most important of these properties describe the sequence's renewal structure and exponentially fast mixing behavior. We use these to prove a central limit theorem and strong law of large numbers for (O(n)). We then show consequences of these limit theorems for the pond radii and outlet weights.

  8. Extreme Physics and Informational/Computational Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Sia, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.disia@univr.it, E-mail: 10alla33@virgilio.it [Department of Computer Science, Faculty of Science, Verona University, Strada Le Grazie 15, I-37134 Verona (Italy) and Faculty of Computer Science, Free University of Bozen, Piazza Domenicani 3, I-39100 Bozen-Bolzano (Italy)

    2011-07-08

    A sector of the current theoretical physics, even called 'extreme physics', deals with topics concerning superstring theories, multiverse, quantum teleportation, negative energy, and more, that only few years ago were considered scientific imaginations or purely speculative physics. Present experimental lines of evidence and implications of cosmological observations seem on the contrary support such theories. These new physical developments lead to informational limits, as the quantity of information, that a physical system can record, and computational limits, resulting from considerations regarding black holes and space-time fluctuations. In this paper I consider important limits for information and computation resulting in particular from string theories and its foundations.

  9. Optimal Disturbance Accommodation with Limited Model Information

    CERN Document Server

    Farokhi, F; Johansson, K H

    2011-01-01

    The design of optimal dynamic disturbance-accommodation controller with limited model information is considered. We adapt the family of limited model information control design strategies, defined earlier by the authors, to handle dynamic-controllers. This family of limited model information design strategies construct subcontrollers distributively by accessing only local plant model information. The closed-loop performance of the dynamic-controllers that they can produce are studied using a performance metric called the competitive ratio which is the worst case ratio of the cost a control design strategy to the cost of the optimal control design with full model information.

  10. Inviscid incompressible limits on expanding domains

    OpenAIRE

    Feireisl, E.; Nečasová, Š. (Šárka); Y. Sun

    2014-01-01

    We consider the inviscid incompressible limit of the compressible Navier-Stokes system on a large domain, the radius of which becomes infinite in the asymptotic limit. We show that the limit solutions satisfy the incompressible Euler system on the whole physical space R3 as long as the radius of the domain is larger than the speed of acoustic waves inversely proportional to the Mach number. The rate of convergence is estimated in terms of the Mach and Reynolds numbers and the radius of the fa...

  11. Cosmological Background torsion limits from Lorentz violation

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia de Andrade, L C

    2001-01-01

    Cosmological limits on Lorentz invariance breaking in Chern-Simons $(3+1)-dimensional$ electrodynamics are used to place limits on torsion. Birefrigence phenomena is discussed by using extending the propagation equation to Riemann-Cartan spacetimes instead of treating it in purely Riemannian spaces. The parameter of Lorentz violation is shown to be proportional to the axial torsion vector which allows us to place a limit on cosmological background torsion from the Lorentz violation constraint which is given by $ 10^{-33} eV <|S^{\\mu}| < 10^{-32} eV$ where $|S^{\\mu}|$ is the axial torsion vector.

  12. Fractional Diffusion Limit for Collisional Kinetic Equations

    KAUST Repository

    Mellet, Antoine

    2010-08-20

    This paper is devoted to diffusion limits of linear Boltzmann equations. When the equilibrium distribution function is a Maxwellian distribution, it is well known that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a diffusion equation. In this paper, we consider situations in which the equilibrium distribution function is a heavy-tailed distribution with infinite variance. We then show that for an appropriate time scale, the small mean free path limit gives rise to a fractional diffusion equation. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

  13. The limits for life under multiple extremes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Jesse P; Gheeraert, Nicolas; Tsigelnitskiy, Dmitry; Cockell, Charles S

    2013-04-01

    Life on Earth is limited by physical and chemical extremes that define the 'habitable space' within which it operates. Aside from its requirement for liquid water, no definite limits have been established for life under any extreme. Here, we employ growth data published for 67 prokaryotic strains to explore the limitations for microbial life under combined extremes of temperature, pH, salt (NaCl) concentrations, and pressure. Our review reveals a fundamental lack of information on the tolerance of microorganisms to multiple extremes that impedes several areas of science, ranging from environmental and industrial microbiology to the search for extraterrestrial life. PMID:23453124

  14. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narasimhan, T.N.

    2001-12-20

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenancewithin the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior isinherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptivemanagement, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science isneeded.

  15. Limiting Spectral Distribution of Sample Autocovariance Matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Basak, Anirban; Sen, Sanchayan

    2011-01-01

    The empirical spectral distribution (ESD) of the sample variance covariance matrix of i.i.d. observations under suitable moment conditions converges almost surely as the dimension tends to infinity. The limiting spectral distribution (LSD) is universal and is known in closed form with support [0, 4]. In this article we show that the ESD of the sample autocovariance matrix converges as the dimension increases, when the time series is a linear process with reasonable restriction on the coefficients. This limit does not depend on the distribution of the underlying driving i.i.d. sequence but in contrast to the sample variance covariance matrix, its support is unbounded. The limit moments are certain functions of the autocovariances. This limit is inconsistent in the sense that it does not coincide with the spectral distribution of the theoretical autocovariance matrix. However, if we consider a suitably tapered version of the autocovariance matrix, then its LSD also exists and is consistent. We also discuss the ...

  16. The computation of Buehler confidence limits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG; Xiangzhong; CHEN; Jiading

    2005-01-01

    In medicine and industry, small sample size often arises owing to the high test cost. Then exact confidence inference is important. Buehler confidence limit is a kind of exact confidence limit for the function of parameters in a model. It can be always defined if the order in sample space is given. But the computing problem is often difficult, especially for the cases with high dimension parameter or with incomplete data. This paper presents an algorithm to compute the Buehler confidence limits by EM algorithm. This is the firsttime usage of EM algorithm on Buehler confidence limits, but the algorithm is often used for maximum likelihood estimate in literatures. Three computation examples are given to illustrate the method.

  17. Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) Permit Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A federal Scallop License Limitation Program (SLLP) license is required onboard any vessel deployed in scallop fisheries in Federal waters off Alaska (except for...

  18. 48 CFR 16.301-3 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... cost-reimbursement contracts is prohibited for the acquisition of commercial items (see parts 2 and 12). ... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Cost-Reimbursement Contracts 16.301-3 Limitations. (a) A...

  19. Cities, Towns and Villages - City Limit (polygon)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Data available online through GeoStor at http://www.geostor.arkansas.gov. Arkansas Cities: This data set contains all of the city limit boundaries within the state...

  20. Limitations of science and adaptive management

    OpenAIRE

    Narasimhan, T. N.

    2001-01-01

    Adaptive management consists in patterning human sustenance within the constraints of Earth and biological systems whose behavior is inherently uncertain and difficult to control. For successful adaptive management, a mind-set recognizing the limitations of science is needed.

  1. Some Limit Theorems in Geometric Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yeh Lam; Yao-hui Zheng; Yuan-lin Zhang

    2003-01-01

    Geometric process (GP) was introduced by Lam[4,5], it is defined as a stochastic process {Xn, n =1, 2,...} for which there exists a real number a > 0, such that {an-1Xn, n = 1, 2,...} forms a renewal process (RP). In this paper, we study some limit theorems in GP. We first derive the Wald equation for GP and then obtain the limit theorems of the age, residual life and the total life at t for a GP. A general limit theorem for Sn with a > 1 is also studied. Furthermore, we make a comparison between GP and RP, including the comparison of their limit distributions of the age, residual life and the total life at t.

  2. Health Outcomes Survey - Limited Data Set

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Medicare Health Outcomes Survey (HOS) limited data sets (LDS) are comprised of the entire national sample for a given 2-year cohort (including both respondents...

  3. Does decoherence in the thermodynamic limit exist?

    CERN Document Server

    Frasca, M

    2002-01-01

    We consider the Jaynes-Cummings model for N particles in the thermodynamic limit showing how it can produce decoherence on a Schr\\"odinger cat state. This mechanism can be observed in current experiments with cavities.

  4. Sensitivity Limitations for Multivariable Linear Filtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven R. Weller

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines fundamental limitations in performance which apply to linear filtering problems associated with multivariable systems having as many inputs as outputs. The results of this paper quantify unavoidable limitations in the sensitivity of state estimates to process and measurement disturbances, as represented by the maximum singular values of the relevant transfer matrices. These limitations result from interpolation constraints imposed by open right half-plane poles and zeros in the transfer matrices linking process noise and output noise with state estimates. Using the Poisson integral inequality, this paper shows how sensitivity limitations and tradeoffs in multivariable filtering problems are intimately related to the directionality properties of the open right half-plane poles and zeros in these transfer matrices.

  5. Recognizing limitations in eddy current testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper addresses known limitations and constraints in eddy current nondestructive testing. Incomplete appreciation for eddy current limitations is believed to have contributed to both under-utilization and misapplication of the technique. Neither situation need arise if known limitations are recognized. Some, such as the skin depth effect, are inherent to electromagnetic test methods and define the role of eddy current testing. Others can be overcome with available technology such as surface probes to find circumferential cracks in tubes and magnetic saturation of ferromagnetic alloys to eliminate permeability effects. The variables responsible for limitations in eddy current testing are discussed and where alternative approaches exist, these are presented. Areas with potential for further research and development are also identified

  6. Southern Hemisphere Ice Limits, 1973-1978

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weekly Southern Ocean ice limits, have been digitized from U.S. Navy Fleet Weather Facility ice charts, at the Max-Planck Institut fur Meteorologie, Hamburg....

  7. 26 CFR 1.851-2 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TAXES Regulated Investment Companies and Real Estate Investment Trusts § 1.851-2 Limitations. (a... manufacturing or of any other general classification of industry, but issuers shall be construed to be...

  8. Optical limiting by chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Q. Wang; Zhang, Chungping; Gross, Richard; Birge, Robert

    1993-05-01

    Measurements of effective nonlinearity of a chemically enhanced bacteriorhodopsin film are presented, using 2-scan method. Optical limiting properties and the film's nonlinear transmission properties of the film are also studied.

  9. Limit Interchange and L'Hopital's Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Michael W.

    2011-01-01

    Conventional application of these two calculus staples is stretched here, somewhat recreationally, but also to raise solid questions about the role of limit interchange in analysis--without, however, delving any deeper than first-year Calculus.

  10. Stable convergence and stable limit theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Häusler, Erich

    2015-01-01

    The authors present a concise but complete exposition of the mathematical theory of stable convergence and give various applications in different areas of probability theory and mathematical statistics to illustrate the usefulness of this concept. Stable convergence holds in many limit theorems of probability theory and statistics – such as the classical central limit theorem – which are usually formulated in terms of convergence in distribution. Originated by Alfred Rényi, the notion of stable convergence is stronger than the classical weak convergence of probability measures. A variety of methods is described which can be used to establish this stronger stable convergence in many limit theorems which were originally formulated only in terms of weak convergence. Naturally, these stronger limit theorems have new and stronger consequences which should not be missed by neglecting the notion of stable convergence. The presentation will be accessible to researchers and advanced students at the master's level...

  11. The Crosshole Sonic Logging (CSL) Measurement System to Measure the Quality of Physical Model of Bored Pile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibit, Denniswara; Handayani, Gunawan

    2016-08-01

    The crosshole sonic logging measurement to measure the quality of bored piles is presented in this paper. The development of crosshole measurement system on physical bored pile modeling was carried out. The diameter of the concrete model was around 1 m and the height of the model was 1 m. In the model two holes were constructed to simulate the crosshole measurement system in the field. The two holes were filled with water and then two transducers were lowered in the holes. The transducers were built from audio speaker and microphone and they were sealed by rubber material so that the transducers were water proof. The speaker transducer acted as transmitter and the microphone transducer acted as receiver. The acoustic wave transmitted from the speaker penetrated in the concrete material and received by receiver. By analyzing the waveform arrived at the receiver by means of datalogger we determine the condition the concrete pile i.e. whether there were cavities in the concrete etc.

  12. Limit calculation in MSSM Higgs boson searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, Joram; Caspart, Rene; Colombo, Fabio; Boer, Wim de; Frensch, Felix; Friese, Raphael; Gilbert, Andrew; Mueller, Thomas; Quast, Guenter; Treiber, Benjamin; Wolf, Roger [Institut fuer Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), KIT (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    After run one of the LHC Supersymmetry still remains one of the favorite theories for physics beyond the Standard Model. In the minimal realization of Supersymmetry, the minimal supersymmetric Standard Model, five Higgs bosons exist. In my presentation I present limit calculation approaches for MSSM Higgs boson searches. The talk focuses on model dependent limit calculation by combining different charged and neutral MSSM Higgs boson searches.

  13. Gulf of Mexico mud toxicity limitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, H.E.; Beardmore, D.H. (Phillips Petroleum Co., Bartlesville, OK (USA)); Stewart, W.S. (Drilling Specialties Co. (US))

    1989-10-01

    Because of the Environmental Protection Agency's recent toxicity limits on drilling mud discharges for offshore Gulf of Mexico, Phillips Petroleum conducted a mud toxicity study based on both field and lab tests. The study, discussed in this article, found the polyanionic cellulose-sulfomethylated quebracho-chrome lignosulfonate mud Phillips had been using would comfortably pass the toxicity limitations. The study also found barite and thinners were of low toxicity, and hydrocarbons and surfactants were highly toxic.

  14. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    CERN Document Server

    Hadasz, L; Hadasz, Leszek; Jaskolski, Zbigniew

    2006-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: one bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  15. Semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadasz, Leszek [Physikalisches Institut, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universitaet, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany); M. Smoluchowski Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, W. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Cracow (Poland)]. E-mail: hadasz@th.if.uj.edu.pl; Jaskolski, Zbigniew [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Wroclaw, pl. M. Borna 9, 50-204 Wroclaw (Poland)]. E-mail: jask@ift.uni.wroc.pl

    2006-11-27

    The semiclassical limit of the FZZT Liouville theory on the upper half plane with bulk operators of arbitrary type and with elliptic boundary operators is analyzed. We prove the Polyakov conjecture for an appropriate classical Liouville action. This action is calculated in a number of cases: One bulk operator of arbitrary type, one bulk and one boundary, and two boundary elliptic operators. The results are in agreement with the classical limits of the corresponding quantum correlators.

  16. Compression limits in cascaded quadratic soliton compression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Morten; Bang, Ole; Krolikowski, Wieslaw;

    2008-01-01

    Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency.......Cascaded quadratic soliton compressors generate under optimal conditions few-cycle pulses. Using theory and numerical simulations in a nonlinear crystal suitable for high-energy pulse compression, we address the limits to the compression quality and efficiency....

  17. Very Massive Stars and the Eddington Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Crowther, Paul A; Walborn, Nolan R; Yusof, N

    2012-01-01

    We use contemporary evolutionary models for Very Massive Stars (VMS) to assess whether the Eddington limit constrains the upper stellar mass limit. We also consider the interplay between mass and age for the wind properties and spectral morphology of VMS, with reference to the recently modified classification scheme for O2-3.5If*/WN stars. Finally, the death of VMS in the local universe is considered in the context of pair instability supernovae.

  18. The Separate Universe Approach to Soft Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Kenton, Zachary

    2016-01-01

    We develop a formalism for calculating soft limits of $n$-point inflationary correlation functions using separate universe techniques. Our method naturally allows for multiple fields and leads to an elegant diagrammatic approach. As an application we focus on the trispectrum produced by inflation with multiple light fields, giving explicit formulae for all possible single- and double-soft limits. We also investigate consistency relations and present an infinite tower of inequalities between soft correlation functions which generalise the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality.

  19. Revisiting Uraltsev's BPS limit for Heavy Quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Heinonen, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the recent experimental data of the values of the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters, in particular the spin-orbit and Darwin terms, we argue that nature actually may be close to a limit of QCD which has been suggested by Uraltsev more than ten years ago. Assuming that this limit is not accidental, we derive the relations among the Heavy Quark Expansion parameters that occur up to the order 1/mb^5.

  20. The Fragility of Limit Order Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Alasdair Brown

    2013-01-01

    Limit order markets - where a subset of traders provide liquidity on a discretionary basis - are the dominant exchange mechanism for financial assets. We analyse the resilience of these markets using Betfair limit order book trading on the Wimbledon Tennis Championships. As matches go inplay, the risk involved in liquidity provision intensifies, as the value of bets can change substantially in a matter of seconds, and, at the end of the match, certain bets are worthless. Our headline result i...

  1. Limits and Signatures of Relativistic Spaceflight

    CERN Document Server

    Yurtsever, Ulvi

    2015-01-01

    While special relativity imposes an absolute speed limit at the speed of light, our Universe is not empty Minkowski spacetime. The constituents that fill the interstellar/intergalactic vacuum, including the cosmic microwave background photons, impose a lower speed limit on any object travelling at relativistic velocities. Scattering of cosmic microwave phtotons from an ultra-relativistic object may create radiation with a characteristic signature allowing the detection of such objects at large distances.

  2. 50 CFR 622.37 - Size limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...), TL. (iii) Cubera, dog, gray, mahogany, and yellowtail snappers and schoolmaster—12 inches (30.5 cm), TL. (iv) Red snapper -16 inches (40.6 cm), TL, for a fish taken by a person subject to the bag limit... to the bag limit specified in § 622.39(b)(1)(ii)—22 inches (55.9 cm), TL. (iv) Red grouper—(A) For...

  3. MMSE Limitations of Subband Adaptive Equalisers

    OpenAIRE

    Mohamad, H.; Weiss, S.; Rupp, M.

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution, we investigate limitations of the minimum mean square error (MMSE) solution for subband adaptive equalisers due to aliasing and error in power complementarity. By deriving the Wiener solution for the subband equaliser and comparing it against simulations, we verify that aliasing caused in the subband decimation can be considered equivalent to channel noise. We discuss how these limitations can be mitigated by careful system design.

  4. Supply and demand law under limited information

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2005-01-01

    We present a model for the supply-demand law with quality and limited information capability. We postulate that imperfect information permeates in almost all economic transactions to varying degrees. Through a simple model we outline a research agenda that re-examines many standard issues in economics. Our analysis shows that whereas imperfect information can be improved, it leads to new uncertainties so that the perfect information limit can never be reached. As a corollary neoclassical perf...

  5. Activity limitation in joint hypermobility syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, A.

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the role of fear and avoidance in chronic pain, focusing in particular on their role in activity limitation. It examines the existing fear-avoidance models, in particular Vlaeyen and Linton's (2000) model, it reviews the evidence for this model, and considers it in the context of models of fear and avoidance in other psychological disorders. Evidence is reviewed for other factors which contribute to activity limitation in chronic pain. In the context of this evidence, it ...

  6. LIMITING BEHAVIOR OF UNIFORM RECURSIVE TREES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Chun; Feng Qunqiang; Liu Jie

    2007-01-01

    The authors consider the limiting behavior of various branches in a uniform recursive tree with size growing to infinity. The limiting distribution of ζn,m, the number of branches with size m in a uniform recursive tree of order n, converges weakly to a Poisson distribution with parameter 1/m with convergence of all moments. The size of any large branch tends to infinity almost surely.

  7. Environmental radiation standards and risk limitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Environmental Protection Agency and Nuclear Regulatory Commission have established environmental radiation standards for specific practices which correspond to limits on risk to the public that vary by several orders of magnitude and often are much less than radiation risks that are essentially unregulated, e.g., risks from radon in homes. This paper discusses a proposed framework for environmental radiation standards that would improve the correspondence with limitation of risk. This framework includes the use of limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime, rather than limits on dose equivalent to whole body or any organ for each year of exposure, and consideration of exposures of younger age groups as well as adults; limits on annual effective dose equivalent averaged over a lifetime no lower than 0.25 mSv (25 mrem) per practice; maintenance of all exposures as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA); and establishment of a generally applicable de minimis dose for public exposures. Implications of the proposed regulatory framework for the current system of standards for limiting public exposures are discussed. 20 refs

  8. Cryogenic Dark Matter Search: limits and projections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results from the second run of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search experiment in the Soudan Underground Laboratory yields new exclusion limits on the coherent WIMPnucleon scalar cross-sections for WIMP masses above 15 GeV/c2. Two towers, each consisting of six detectors, were operated in the mine for 74.5 live days, doubling the previous Ge exposure to 34 kg-d after cuts for recoil energies of 10-100 keV. When combined with the data from the first run at Soudan, the new upper limit is 1.6 x 10-43 cm2 for a 60 GeV WIMP using the standard dark-matter halo and nuclear physics WIMP model. This is a factor of 2.5 lower than our previous limit and a factor of 10 lower than any other experiment. Limits from the Si data (12 kg-d) are less stringent, but extend the excluded region for low mass WIMPs. CDMS also has sensitivity to spin-dependent limits

  9. The Cognitive Limits to Economic Cluster Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Carrol

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in the social dimensions of economic clusters. The literature now includes select examples of social network analysis plus an extensive discussion of learning regions. Unfortunately, much of this work treats the network as the primary unit of analysis. It may be that network attributes such as density, centrality, and power are primarily dependent on human limitations and not instituted factors. In other words, a human’s limited ability to process information may be a better determinant of cluster success than economic or network theory. The purpose of this paper is to highlight human limits in cluster formation. To do this, we draw on recent developments in the cognitive psychology and communications literatures. We explain that many of the factors that lead to underperforming cluster policies are the result of a human’s inability to develop and sustain a large number of social interactions. Any cluster policy must be cognizant of such limitations and carefully address these limits in the formation of the initial strategy.

  10. Limiting factors in caribou population ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Klein

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Caribou and wild reindeer populations fluctuate over time. On this fact there is general agreement. Factors responsible for population limitation and subsequent declines have been examined within the framework of animal population theory. There is, however, little agreement when factors limiting specific populations are generalized to Rangifer populations over broad geographic regions. Comparative examinations of wild Rangifer populations worldwide discloses that factors that have regulated those populations are highly variable between populations, apparently as a reflection of the differences in environmental variables unique to each population. Examples exist of populations where major regulating factors have been climatic extremes, predation, hunting mortality, food limitation, insects, parasites, disease, interspecific competition, and human developmental impacts or combinations of these factors. This diversity of limiting factors affecting caribou and wild reindeer populations is a reflection of the ecologial complexity of the species, a concept that has often been ignored in past efforts to reach management decisions by extrapolation from the limited localized knowledge available on the species.

  11. Thermal Nature of Concentration Limits of Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabdenov, K. O.; Baitasov, T. M.

    2015-05-01

    An explanation is proposed for the concentration limits of slow combustion of gas mixtures due to the diffusional-thermal instability of a flame and the leading role of the thermal effect of mixture combustion. Basic to this explanation are the following experimental facts obtained for a wide class of mixtures: the concentration limits of slow combustion of a mixture and of its detonation are closely coinciding and depend strongly on the stoichiometric composition of mixture; there is an approximate symmetry relation between the upper and lower combustion limits. It is shown that the flame temperature of gas mixtures depends on their stoichiometric composition and that as their stoichiometric relation deviates from unity, the state of mixture combustion approaches the stability threshold beyond which a stationary flame cannot exist.

  12. Occupational Exposures and Chronic Airflow Limitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Dimich-Ward

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent literature was reviewed to evaluate whether chronic airflow limitation is associated with occupational exposures to dusts. Only those studies that controlled for the effects of smoking were included. There is compelling evidence that exposure to inorganic dusts, such as from coal and hardrock mining or asbestos, are associated with the development of chronic airflow limitation, independently of pneumoconiosis. Nonsmoking gold miners are particularly at high risk of airflow obstruction and emphysema. Findings from studies of organic dusts, such as exposures to wood, cotton, grain or other agricultural dusts, or to mixed dust exposures, were less consistent but tended to show positive dose-response associations. In the majority of studies, no statistical interaction was shown between dust exposures and smoking; however, the effects of the dust exposures were often more pronounced. An occupational history should be considered, in addition to a smoking history, as an integral part of an investigation of chronic airflow limitation in a patient.

  13. Limitation of computational resource as physical principle

    CERN Document Server

    Ozhigov, Y I

    2003-01-01

    Limitation of computational resources is considered as a universal principle that for simulation is as fundamental as physical laws are. It claims that all experimentally verifiable implications of physical laws can be simulated by the effective classical algorithms. It is demonstrated through a completely deterministic approach proposed for the simulation of biopolymers assembly. A state of molecule during its assembly is described in terms of the reduced density matrix permitting only limited tunneling. An assembly is treated as a sequence of elementary scatterings of simple molecules from the environment on the point of assembly. A decoherence is treated as a forced measurement of quantum state resulted from the shortage of computational resource. All results of measurements are determined by a choice from the limited number of special options of the nonphysical nature which stay unchanged till the completion of assembly; we do not use the random numbers generators. Observations of equal states during the ...

  14. Multiple Soft Limits of Cosmological Correlation Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Joyce, Austin; Simonović, Marko

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q^2) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  15. Multiple soft limits of cosmological correlation functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joyce, Austin [Enrico Fermi Institute and Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Khoury, Justin [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Simonović, Marko, E-mail: ajoy@uchicago.edu, E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: msimonov@sissa.it [SISSA, via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy)

    2015-01-01

    We derive novel identities satisfied by inflationary correlation functions in the limit where two external momenta are taken to be small. We derive these statements in two ways: using background-wave arguments and as Ward identities following from the fixed-time path integral. Interestingly, these identities allow us to constrain some of the O(q{sup 2}) components of the soft limit, in contrast to their single-soft analogues. We provide several nontrivial checks of our identities both in the context of resonant non-Gaussianities and in small sound speed models. Additionally, we extend the relation at lowest order in external momenta to arbitrarily many soft legs, and comment on the many-soft extension at higher orders in the soft momentum. Finally, we consider how higher soft limits lead to identities satisfied by correlation functions in large-scale structure.

  16. Long pulse operation with actively cooled limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present here the major results obtained with actively cooled plasma facing components during long pulse operation (plasma duration >3 x surface temperature time constant=steady-state). Shots up to 120 s have been achieved in Tore Supra when the plasma was leaning on the large inner toroidal actively cooled limiter with a moderate deposited power density heat flux (up to 0.3 MW/m2). For larger power density heat flux up to 4.5 MW/m2 (design value), modular limiters have been used. A prerequisite for any actively cooled limiter is the absence of any cooling defect (crack parallel to the surface in the tile or non-correct bonding). If a defect is present it leads to a super-brilliance event (with its corresponding local power heat flux increase) which propagates. This deleterious effect is unfortunately a runaway effect. (orig.)

  17. The financial-economical risk limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report makes part of a series of eight reports which have been drawn up in behalf of the dutch Policy Notition Radiation Standards (BNS). In this report the results are presented of an investigation into a financial-economic risk limit. An inventarization has been made of how the concept economical damage is used in various policy domains. It is investigated if therewith use has been made of a financial-economic risk limit. The height of this limit has been assessed. In order to give a checklist of the aspects which have to be taken into account in the calculation of the financial-economic damage, the character of the low probability-high consequence needs to be mentioned nearer. (author). 49 refs.; 4 figs.; 4 tabs

  18. Performance limits for Synthetic Aperture Radar.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2006-02-01

    The performance of a Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) system depends on a variety of factors, many which are interdependent in some manner. It is often difficult to ''get your arms around'' the problem of ascertaining achievable performance limits, and yet those limits exist and are dictated by physics, no matter how bright the engineer tasked to generate a system design. This report identifies and explores those limits, and how they depend on hardware system parameters and environmental conditions. Ultimately, this leads to a characterization of parameters that offer optimum performance for the overall SAR system. For example, there are definite optimum frequency bands that depend on weather conditions and range, and minimum radar PRF for a fixed real antenna aperture dimension is independent of frequency. While the information herein is not new to the literature, its collection into a single report hopes to offer some value in reducing the ''seek time''.

  19. Family caregivers and limitations in social activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B; Montgomery, A

    1990-03-01

    Constriction of social and personal activities is one of the most frequently noted consequences of caring for a frail elder. This study analyzed the correlates of perceived limitations in social activities using data from a national sample of the frail elderly and their caregivers. Two research issues were addressed: 1) What differences in demographic, family, and caregiving attributes are associated with variation in perceived restricted social activities? and, 2) How does the process influencing restriction of social activities vary by family relationship of the caregiver? Higher levels of elder dependency and task demands were characteristic of those who reported social limitations, and daughters and wives were more likely to report such limitations than sons and husbands. Subjective assessment of time and task demands, however, were more important influences than objective caregiving activities for all family caregivers.

  20. Family caregivers and limitations in social activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B; Montgomery, A

    1990-03-01

    Constriction of social and personal activities is one of the most frequently noted consequences of caring for a frail elder. This study analyzed the correlates of perceived limitations in social activities using data from a national sample of the frail elderly and their caregivers. Two research issues were addressed: 1) What differences in demographic, family, and caregiving attributes are associated with variation in perceived restricted social activities? and, 2) How does the process influencing restriction of social activities vary by family relationship of the caregiver? Higher levels of elder dependency and task demands were characteristic of those who reported social limitations, and daughters and wives were more likely to report such limitations than sons and husbands. Subjective assessment of time and task demands, however, were more important influences than objective caregiving activities for all family caregivers. PMID:2180010

  1. Photon Feedback: Screening and the Eddington Limit

    CERN Document Server

    Socrates, Aristotle

    2013-01-01

    Bright star-forming galaxies radiate well below their Eddington Limit. The value of the flux-mean opacity that mediates the radiation force onto matter is orders of magnitude smaller than the UV or optical dust opacity. On empirical grounds, it is shown that high-redshift ULIRGs radiate at two orders of magnitude below their Eddington Limit, while the local starbursters M82 and Arp 220 radiate at a few percent of their Eddington Limit. A simple model for the radiative transfer of UV and optical light in dust-rich environments is considered. Radiation pressure on dust does not greatly affect the large-scale gas dynamics of star-forming galaxies.

  2. PHOTON FEEDBACK: SCREENING AND THE EDDINGTON LIMIT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Socrates, Aristotle [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Sironi, Lorenzo, E-mail: socrates@ias.edu, E-mail: lsironi@cfa.harvard.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Bright star-forming galaxies radiate well below their Eddington limits. The value of the flux-mean opacity that mediates the radiation force onto matter is orders of magnitude smaller than the UV or optical dust opacity. On empirical grounds, it is shown that high-redshift ULIRGs radiate at two orders of magnitude below their Eddington limits, while the local starbursters M82 and Arp 220 radiate at a few percent of their Eddington limits. A model for the radiative transfer of UV and optical light in dust-rich environments is considered. Radiation pressure on dust does not greatly affect the large-scale gas dynamics of star-forming galaxies.

  3. The limits of human athletic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J

    2005-01-01

    For each individual, there is a limit to the capacity to perform exercise. The limitation, however, depends on the nature of the task and is also influenced by a number of other factors. Muscle strength is determined largely by muscle mass, specifically muscle cross-sectional area, but is also influenced by neural drive and biomechanical factors. Endurance performance depends on both cardiovascular capacity and the metabolic characteristics of the skeletal muscles. These factors are determined in part by genetic endowment: the elite sprinter has a high proportion of Type 2 muscle fibres while the leg muscles of the successful marathon runner are composes mainly of Type 1 fibres. Whatever the genetic potential, expression of this depends on the intensity, duration and frequency of the applied training stimulus, diet and other factors. The limitation may also depend on environmental factors, such as altitude and temperature.

  4. Numerical Limit Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Paaske

    For more than half a century, limit state analysis based on the extremum principles have been used to assess the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures. Extensi- ve research within the field has lead to several techniques for performing such analysis manually. While these manual...... limit state analysis problems. The work focuses on determination of the load bearing capacity of reinforced concrete structures by employing the lower bound theorem and a finite element method using equilibrium elements is developed. The recent year’s development within the field of convex optimization...... is applied to solve the limit state problems. Three different element types have been developed and tested. The first is a solid tetra- hedral element with a linear stress distribution. The tri-axial stress state in the element is decomposed into concrete and reinforcement stresses, to which separate yield...

  5. Beyond the diffraction limit via optical amplification

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerer, Aglae N

    2016-01-01

    In a previous article we suggested a method to overcome the diffraction limit behind a telescope. We refer to theory and recent numerical simulations, and test whether it is indeed possible to use photon amplification to enhance the angular resolution of a telescope or a microscope beyond the diffraction limit. An essential addition is the proposal to select events with above-average ratio of stimulated to spontaneous photons. We find that the diffraction limit of a telescope is surpassed by a factor ten for an amplifier gain of 200, if the analysis is restricted to a tenth of the incoming astronomical photons. A gain of 70 is sufficient with a hundredth of the photons.

  6. Physical limits on cellular directional mechanosensing

    CERN Document Server

    Bouffanais, Roland; Yue, Dick K P

    2013-01-01

    Many eukaryotic cells are able to perform directional mechanosensing by directly measuring minute spatial differences in the mechanical stress on their membranes. Here, we explore the limits of a single mechanosensitive channel activation using a two-state double-well model for the gating mechanism. We then focus on the physical limits of directional mechanosensing by a single cell having multiple mechanosensors and subjected to a shear flow inducing a nonuniform membrane tension. Our results demonstrate that the accuracy in sensing the mechanostimulus direction not only increases with cell size and exposure to a signal, but also grows for cells with a near-critical membrane prestress. Finally, the existence of a nonlinear threshold effect, fundamentally limiting the cell's ability to effectively perform directional mechanosensing at a low signal-to-noise ratio, is uncovered.

  7. Low temperature limit of lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Nagata, K; Motoki, S

    2012-01-01

    We study the low temperature limit of lattice QCD by using a reduction formula for a fermion determinant. The reduction formula, which is useful in finite density lattice QCD simulations, contains a reduced matrix defined as the product of $N_t$ block-matrices. It is shown that eigenvalues of the reduced matrix follows a scaling law with regard to the temporal lattice size $N_t$. The $N_t$ scaling law leads to two types of expressions of the fermion determinant in the low temperature limit; one is for small quark chemical potentials, and the other is for larger quark chemical potentials.

  8. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered

  9. Average Shape of Transport-Limited Aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2005-08-01

    We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.

  10. Superconducting fault current limiter for railway transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, L. M., E-mail: LMFisher@niitfa.ru; Alferov, D. F.; Akhmetgareev, M. R.; Budovskii, A. I.; Evsin, D. V.; Voloshin, I. F.; Kalinov, A. V. [National Technical Physics and Automation Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    A resistive switching superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) for DC networks with voltage of 3.5 kV and nominal current of 2 kA is developed. The SFCL consists of two series-connected units: block of superconducting modules and high-speed vacuum breaker with total disconnection time not more than 8 ms. The results of laboratory tests of superconducting SFCL modules in current limiting mode are presented. The recovery time of superconductivity is experimentally determined. The possibility of application of SFCL on traction substations of Russian Railways is considered.

  11. Central Limit Theorem for Nonlinear Hawkes Processes

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, Lingjiong

    2012-01-01

    Hawkes process is a self-exciting point process with clustering effect whose jump rate depends on its entire past history. It has wide applications in neuroscience, finance and many other fields. Linear Hawkes process has an immigration-birth representation and can be computed more or less explicitly. It has been extensively studied in the past and the limit theorems are well understood. On the contrary, nonlinear Hawkes process lacks the immigration-birth representation and is much harder to analyze. In this paper, we obtain a functional central limit theorem for nonlinear Hawkes process.

  12. Limit theorems for fragmentation processes with immigration

    CERN Document Server

    Knobloch, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we extend two limit theorems which were recently obtained for fragmentation processes to such processes with immigration. More precisely, in the setting with immigration we consider a limit theorem for the process counted with a random characteristic as well as the asymptotic behaviour of an empirical measure associated with the stopping line corresponding to the first blocks, in their respective line of descent, that are smaller than a given size. In addition, we determine the asymptotic decay rate of the size of the largest block in a homogeneous fragmentation process with immigration. The techniques used to proves these results are based on submartingale arguments.

  13. Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole

    CERN Document Server

    Majid, Shahn

    2010-01-01

    We show that the recent `quantum' black hole wave operator in the $\\kappa$-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime has a natural scaling limit $\\lambda_p\\to 0$ at the event horizon. Here $\\lambda_p$ is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent `skin' of some $\\omega\\over\

  14. Self-Similarity Limits of Genomic Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Z B

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that metric representation of DNA sequences is one-to-one. By using the metric representation method, suppression of nucleotide strings in the DNA sequences is determined. For a DNA sequence, an optimal string length to display genomic signature in chaos game representation is obtained by eliminating effects of the finite sequence. The optical string length is further shown as a self- similarity limit in computing information dimension. By using the method, self-similarity limits of bacteria complete genomic signatures are further determined.

  15. Limits on Non-Linear Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Fouché, M; Rizzo, C

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we set a framework in which experiments whose goal is to test QED predictions can be used in a more general way to test non-linear electrodynamics (NLED) which contains low-energy QED as a special case. We review some of these experiments and we establish limits on the different free parameters by generalizing QED predictions in the framework of NLED. We finally discuss the implications of these limits on bound systems and isolated charged particles for which QED has been widely and successfully tested.

  16. The economics of the limited access order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Besouw, Bram; Ansink, Erik; van Bavel, Bas

    2015-01-01

    Violence and coercion are key to understanding economic and social interactions in any society. This premise was used by North et al. (2009) to distinguish three `patterns of social organization' that societies have used to solve the problem of violence. We model one of these, the `limited access or

  17. Polybinary modulation for bandwidth limited optical links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vegas Olmos, Juan José; Jurado-Navas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Optical links using traditional modulation formats are reaching a plateau in terms of capacity, mainly due to bandwidth limitations in the devices employed at the transmitter and receivers. Advanced modulation formats, which boost the spectral efficiency, provide a smooth migration path towards e...

  18. Printing colour at the optical diffraction limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Karthik; Duan, Huigao; Hegde, Ravi S; Koh, Samuel C W; Wei, Jennifer N; Yang, Joel K W

    2012-09-01

    The highest possible resolution for printed colour images is determined by the diffraction limit of visible light. To achieve this limit, individual colour elements (or pixels) with a pitch of 250 nm are required, translating into printed images at a resolution of ∼100,000 dots per inch (d.p.i.). However, methods for dispensing multiple colourants or fabricating structural colour through plasmonic structures have insufficient resolution and limited scalability. Here, we present a non-colourant method that achieves bright-field colour prints with resolutions up to the optical diffraction limit. Colour information is encoded in the dimensional parameters of metal nanostructures, so that tuning their plasmon resonance determines the colours of the individual pixels. Our colour-mapping strategy produces images with both sharp colour changes and fine tonal variations, is amenable to large-volume colour printing via nanoimprint lithography, and could be useful in making microimages for security, steganography, nanoscale optical filters and high-density spectrally encoded optical data storage.

  19. Flexible moldable conductive current-limiting materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, John Joseph; Djordjevic, Miomir B.; Hanna, William Kingston

    2002-01-01

    A current limiting PTC device (10) has two electrodes (14) with a thin film of electric conducting polymer material (20) disposed between the electrodes, the polymer material (20) having superior flexibility and short circuit performance, where the polymer material contains short chain aliphatic diepoxide, conductive filler particles, curing agent, and, preferably, a minor amount of bisphenol A epoxy resin.

  20. Improving homogeneity by dynamic speed limit systems.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nes, N. van Brandenberg, S. & Twisk, D.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Homogeneity of driving speeds is an important variable in determining road safety; more homogeneous driving speeds increase road safety. This study investigates the effect of introducing dynamic speed limit systems on homogeneity of driving speeds. A total of 46 subjects twice drove a route along 12

  1. Two Different Epistemologies about Limit Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Joong; Kang, Hyangim; Lee, Hyun-Joo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate characteristics of limit concepts through the simultaneous use of historical and experimental epistemologies. Based on a historical epistemology which is an investigation of historical developments in a mathematical concept raised in the history of mathematics, four different developments of limit…

  2. Emission efficiency limit of Si nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpens, R.; Luxembourg, S.L.; Weeber, A.W.; Gregorkiewicz, T.

    2016-01-01

    One of the important obstacles on the way to application of Si nanocrystals for development of practical devices is their typically low emissivity. In this study we explore the limits of external quantum yield of photoluminescence of solid-state dispersions of Si nanocrystals in SiO2. By making use

  3. 40 CFR 264.94 - Concentration limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 264.94 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF HAZARDOUS WASTE TREATMENT, STORAGE, AND DISPOSAL FACILITIES Releases From Solid Waste Management Units § 264.94 Concentration limits. (a) The Regional Administrator...

  4. Temperature limit values for gripping cold surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malchaire, J.; Geng, Q.; Den Hartog, E.; Havenith, G.; Holmer, I.; Piette, A.; Powell, S.L.; Rintamäki, H.; Rissanen, S.

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. At the request of the European Commission and in the framework of the European Machinery Directive, research was conducted jointly in five different laboratories to develop specifications for surface temperature limit values for the gripping and handling of cold items. Methods. Four hund

  5. 78 FR 75679 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-12

    .... A congressional investigation determined that prices of crude oil had risen precipitously and that... per barrel of crude oil, which was then at $70.\\25\\ Subsequently, Congress found similar price... oil, soybean oil, and lard); 18 FR 443, Jan. 22, 1953 (orders setting limits for cottonseed...

  6. 34 CFR 300.809 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations. 300.809 Section 300.809 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN...

  7. Remote Ischemic Conditioning: Its Benefits and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloner, Robert A

    2016-03-01

    This editorial describes benefits and limitations of remote ischemic conditioning. Remote ischemic conditioning was shown to reduce myocardial intact size in at least 4 sizeable clinical trials of acute myocardial infarction. It was not effective in recent studies of cardiac surgery. Reasons for these differences are discussed.

  8. No oxygen delivery limitation in hepatic encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedde, Albert; Keiding, Susanne; Vilstrup, Hendrik;

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a condition of reduced brain functioning in which both blood flow and brain energy metabolism declined. It is not known whether blood flow or metabolism is the primary limiting factor of brain function in this condition. We used calculations of mitochondrial oxygen tension...

  9. Kinetic theory of diffusion-limited nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, T.; Bonvalet, M.; Blavette, D.

    2016-05-01

    We examine binary nucleation in the size and composition space {R,c} using the formalism of the multivariable theory [N. V. Alekseechkin, J. Chem. Phys. 124, 124512 (2006)]. We show that the variable c drops out of consideration for very large curvature of the new phase Gibbs energy with composition. Consequently nuclei around the critical size have the critical composition, which is derived from the condition of criticality for the canonical variables and is found not to depend on surface tension. In this case, nucleation kinetics can be investigated in the size space only. Using macroscopic kinetics, we determine the general expression for the condensation rate when growth is limited by bulk diffusion, which accounts for both diffusion and capillarity and exhibits a different dependence with the critical size, as compared with the interface-limited regime. This new expression of the condensation rate for bulk diffusion-limited nucleation is the counterpart of the classical interface-limited result. We then extend our analysis to multicomponent solutions.

  10. Incremental Integrity Checking: Limitations and Possibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Henning; Martinenghi, Davide

    2005-01-01

    to query containment, we show that no procedure exists that always returns the best incremental test (aka simplification of integrity constraints), and this according to any reasonable criterion measuring the checking effort. In spite of this theoretical limitation, we develop an effective procedure...

  11. Contributions of Psychology to Limiting Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Psychology can make a significant contribution to limiting the magnitude of climate change by improving understanding of human behaviors that drive climate change and human reactions to climate-related technologies and policies, and by turning that understanding into effective interventions. This article develops a framework for psychological…

  12. BRITEdge 11-1 limited objective experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Roeting, Bill; Menza, Charles

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of a limited objective experiment to demonstrate the capability of ROVER technology to provide real-time full motion video surveillance of the US -- Mexican border in support of US Customs and Border Protection (CBP) agents.

  13. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NA

    2004-11-22

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  14. 14 CFR 125.93 - Airplane limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Airplane limitations. 125.93 Section 125.93...: AIRPLANES HAVING A SEATING CAPACITY OF 20 OR MORE PASSENGERS OR A MAXIMUM PAYLOAD CAPACITY OF 6,000 POUNDS OR MORE; AND RULES GOVERNING PERSONS ON BOARD SUCH AIRCRAFT Airplane Requirements § 125.93...

  15. Assessing Exercise Limitation Using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael K. Stickland

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is an important physiological investigation that can aid clinicians in their evaluation of exercise intolerance and dyspnea. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max is the gold-standard measure of aerobic fitness and is determined by the variables that define oxygen delivery in the Fick equation (V˙O2 = cardiac output × arterial-venous O2 content difference. In healthy subjects, of the variables involved in oxygen delivery, it is the limitations of the cardiovascular system that are most responsible for limiting exercise, as ventilation and gas exchange are sufficient to maintain arterial O2 content up to peak exercise. Patients with lung disease can develop a pulmonary limitation to exercise which can contribute to exercise intolerance and dyspnea. In these patients, ventilation may be insufficient for metabolic demand, as demonstrated by an inadequate breathing reserve, expiratory flow limitation, dynamic hyperinflation, and/or retention of arterial CO2. Lung disease patients can also develop gas exchange impairments with exercise as demonstrated by an increased alveolar-to-arterial O2 pressure difference. CPET testing data, when combined with other clinical/investigation studies, can provide the clinician with an objective method to evaluate cardiopulmonary physiology and determination of exercise intolerance.

  16. 47 CFR 78.101 - Power limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... that use Automatic Transmitter Power Control (ATPC) shall not exceed the EIRP specified on the station... power delivered to an antenna shall be the minimum amount of power necessary to carry out the... +35 18,800 to 19,700 +55 1 The power delivered to the antenna is limited to −3 dBW. 2...

  17. Limit points of the monotonic schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Salomon, J

    2005-01-01

    Many numerical simulations in quantum (bilinear) control use the monotonically convergent algorithms of Krotov (introduced by Tannor), Zhu & Rabitz or the general form of Maday & Turinici. This paper presents an analysis of the limit set of controls provided by these algorithms and a proof of convergence in a particular case.

  18. The History of the Limits to Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen; Ragnarsdóttir, Kristín Vala; Peet, John

    2010-01-01

    The report The Limits to Growth was in many ways a breakthrough in the way the future was debated and analysed as far as the physical economy was concerned. The paper describes how the very title seems to have offended many people, leading a cohort of critics to reject the report as a doomsday...

  19. Diffusion limited growth in laminar flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.M.H. Merks; A.G. Hoekstra; J.A. Kaandorp; P.M.A. Sloot

    2003-01-01

    In the diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model, pioneered by Witten and Sander (Phys. Rev. Lett.47, 1400 (1981)), diffusing particles irreversibly attach to a growing cluster which is initiated with a single solid seed. This process generates clusters with a branched morphology. Advectiondiffusion

  20. 41 CFR 109-50.204 - Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Condition Codes 1 and 4, as defined in 41 CFR 101-43.4801(e), meet this criteria. Serviceability of... DISPOSAL AUTHORITIES 50.2-Math and Science Equipment Gift Program § 109-50.204 Limitations. (a) Excess and... the appropriate gift instrument where the book value of an item of equipment exceeds $25,000 or...

  1. 40 CFR 35.148 - Award limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Award limitations. 35.148 Section 35.148 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Air Pollution Control (section 105) §...

  2. Limits of noise squeezing in Kerr effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bajer, J; Tanas, R

    2002-01-01

    It is well known that the optical Kerr effect can be a source of highly squeezed light, however the analytical limit of the noise suppression has not been found yet. The process is reconsidered and an analytical estimation of the optimal quadrature noise level is presented. The validity of the new scaling law is checked numerically and analytically.

  3. Lower confidence limits for structure reliability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jiading; LI Ji

    2006-01-01

    For a class of data often arising in engineering,we have developed an approach to compute the lower confidence limit for structure reliability with a given confidence level.Especially,in a case with no failure and a case with only one failure,the concrete computational methods are presented.

  4. 48 CFR 2944.203 - Consent limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Consent limitations. 2944.203 Section 2944.203 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR CONTRACT MANAGEMENT... rationale), signed by the contracting officer, and included in the contract file....

  5. Governing economies in areas of limited statehood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jacob; Varming, Kirstine Strøh

    This DIIS–GOVSEA working paper reviews key debates within economic anthropology and related academic disciplines explaining how economic life is governed in areas of limited statehood. The paper briefly introduces some of the origins of economic anthropology before going into deeper discussions o...

  6. Limits of Legal Action: The Cherokee Cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgren, Jill L.; Shattuck, Petra T.

    1978-01-01

    The article examines the limits of legal action in light of the experience of the Cherokee Nation in the nineteenth century. Their lawsuits, the cause of national controversy and ultimately detrimental to the Cherokee, raise questions about the effectiveness of litigation in solving divisive political conflict. (Author/NQ)

  7. Inferring Company Structure from Limited Available Information

    CERN Document Server

    Andreica, Mugurel Ionut; Andreica, Romulus

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present several algorithmic techniques for inferring the structure of a company when only a limited amount of information is available. We consider problems with two types of inputs: the number of pairs of employees with a given property and restricted information about the hierarchical structure of the company. We provide dynamic programming and greedy algorithms for these problems.

  8. Food Cravings Consume Limited Cognitive Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Grigg, Megan

    2008-01-01

    Using Tiffany's (1990) cognitive model of drug use and craving as a theoretical basis, the present experiments investigated whether cravings for food expend limited cognitive resources. Cognitive performance was assessed by simple reaction time (Experiment 1) and an established measure of working memory capacity, the operation span task…

  9. Practical roadmap and limits to nanostructured photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunt, Richard R; Osedach, Timothy P; Brown, Patrick R; Rowehl, Jill A; Bulović, Vladimir

    2011-12-22

    The significant research interest in the engineering of photovoltaic (PV) structures at the nanoscale is directed toward enabling reductions in PV module fabrication and installation costs as well as improving cell power conversion efficiency (PCE). With the emergence of a multitude of nanostructured photovoltaic (nano-PV) device architectures, the question has arisen of where both the practical and the fundamental limits of performance reside in these new systems. Here, the former is addressed a posteriori. The specific challenges associated with improving the electrical power conversion efficiency of various nano-PV technologies are discussed and several approaches to reduce their thermal losses beyond the single bandgap limit are reviewed. Critical considerations related to the module lifetime and cost that are unique to nano-PV architectures are also addressed. The analysis suggests that a practical single-junction laboratory power conversion efficiency limit of 17% and a two-cell tandem power conversion efficiency limit of 24% are possible for nano-PVs, which, when combined with operating lifetimes of 10 to 15 years, could position them as a transformational technology for solar energy markets.

  10. 27 CFR 10.4 - Jurisdictional limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS COMMERCIAL BRIBERY Scope of Regulations § 10.4 Jurisdictional limits. (a.... In the case of malt beverages, this part applies to transactions between an employee, officer, or... similar transactions between an employee, officer, or representative of a trade buyer in such State and...

  11. Metamaterial localized resonance sensors: prospects and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Claus; Xiao, Sanshui; Mortensen, Asger;

    2010-01-01

    The prospects and limitations of metamaterial localized resonance sensors are investigated theoretically and experimentally. Gold split-ring resonators are employed as the model system where the light induced LC-resonance yields a figure-of-merit, sensitivity divided by linewidth, up to 54...

  12. Tellurium purification: various techniques and limitations

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D S Prasad; Ch Sudheer; N R Munirathnam; T L Prakash

    2002-11-01

    Limitations and techniques to purify tellurium metal especially using non-chemical techniques such as vacuum distillation and zone refining are discussed. It was found that the clean environments, design, handling and cleaning of quartz ware are equally important in achieving the desired purity levels.

  13. Formability Limit Curves under Stretch-Bending

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinez Lopez, A.; Boogaard, van den A.H.

    2011-01-01

    A common strategy for stabilizing the greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere was the introduction of new emissions limits for cars, and light commercial vehicles. For that reason the automotive industry is facing new challenges in order to fulfill these considerations. One of the strategies

  14. 47 CFR 74.735 - Power limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... larger ERP. Applications proposing the use of directional antenna systems must be accompanied by the... Booster Stations § 74.735 Power limitations. (a) The maximum peak effective radiated power (ERP) of an...-13; and (2) 150 kW for UHF channels 14-69. (b) The maximum ERP of a digital low power TV,...

  15. Floral adaptation and diversification under pollen limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Lawrence D; Aizen, Marcelo A

    2010-02-12

    Pollen limitation (PL) of seed production creates unique conditions for reproductive adaptation by angiosperms, in part because, unlike under ovule or resource limitation, floral interactions with pollen vectors can contribute to variation in female success. Although the ecological and conservation consequences of PL have received considerable attention in recent times, its evolutionary implications are poorly appreciated. To identify general influences of PL on reproductive adaptation compared with those under other seed-production limits and their implications for evolution in altered environments, we derive a model that incorporates pollination and post-pollination aspects of PL. Because PL always favours increased ovule fertilization, even when population dynamics are not seed limited, it should pervasively influence selection on reproductive traits. Significantly, under PL the intensity of inbreeding does not determine whether outcrossing or autonomous selfing can evolve, although it can affect which response is most likely. Because the causes of PL are multifaceted in both natural and anthropogenically altered environments, the possible outcrossing solutions are diverse and context dependent, which may contribute to the extensive variety of angiosperm reproductive characteristics. Finally, the increased adaptive options available under PL may be responsible for positive global associations between it and angiosperm diversity. PMID:20047878

  16. Radioactive decays at limits of nuclear stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfützner, M.; Karny, M.; Grigorenko, L. V.;

    2012-01-01

    , and their relative probabilities. When approaching limits of nuclear stability, new decay modes set in. First, beta decays are accompanied by emission of nucleons from highly excited states of daughter nuclei. Second, when the nucleon separation energy becomes negative, nucleons start being emitted from the ground...

  17. LISA: Mars and the limits of life

    OpenAIRE

    Galletta, G.; D'Alessandro, M.; G. Bertoloni; Fanti, G.; Dainese, E.; Pelizzo, M.; F. Ferri; Pavarin, D; Bettanini, C.; G. Bianchini; Debei, S.

    2007-01-01

    We describe the results of the first tests made on LISA, a simulator of planetary environments designed and built in Padua, dedicated to the study of the limit of bacterial life on the planet Mars. Tests on the cryogenic circuit, on the UV illumination and on bacterial coltures at room temperature that shall be used as references are described.

  18. LISA: Mars and the limits of life

    CERN Document Server

    Galletta, G; Bertoloni, G; Fanti, G; Dainese, E; Pelizzo, M; Ferri, F; Pavarin, D; Bettanini, C; Bianchini, G; Debei, S

    2007-01-01

    We describe the results of the first tests made on LISA, a simulator of planetary environments designed and built in Padua, dedi. to the study of the limit of bacterial life on the planet Mars. Tests on the cryogenic circuit, on the UV illumination and on bacterial coltures at room temperature that shall be used as references are described.

  19. Is the wash-off process of road-deposited sediment source limited or transport limited?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hongtao; Chen, Xuefei; Hao, Shaonan; Jiang, Yan; Zhao, Jiang; Zou, Changliang; Xie, Wenxia

    2016-09-01

    An in-depth understanding of the road-deposited sediments (RDS) wash-off process is essential to estimation of urban surface runoff pollution load and to designing methods to minimize the adverse impacts on the receiving waters. There are two debatable RDS wash-off views: source limited and transport limited. The RDS build-up and wash-off process was characterized to explore what determines the wash-off process to be source limited or transport limited based on twelve RDS sampling activities on an urban road in Beijing. The results showed that two natural rain events (2.0mm and 23.2mm) reduced the total RDS mass by 30%-40%, and that finer particles (wash-off load. Both single- and multi-rain events caused the RDS particle grain size to become coarser, while dry days made the RDS particle grain size finer. These findings indicated that the bulk RDS particles wash-off tends to be transport limited, but that finer particles tend to be source limited. To further explore and confirm the results of the field experiment, a total of 40 simulated rain events were designed to observe the RDS wash-off with different particle size fractions. The finer particles have a higher wash-off percentage (Fw) than the coarser particles, and the Fw values provide a good view to characterize the wash-off process. The key conclusions drawn from the combined field and simulated experiments data are: (i) Finer and coarser particle wash-off processes tend to be source limited and transport limited, respectively. (ii) The source and transport limited processes occur during the initial period (the first flush) and later periods, respectively. (iii) The smaller and larger rain events tend to be transport limited and source limited, respectively. Overall, the wash-off process is generally a combination of source and transport limited processes. PMID:27135567

  20. MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimerdes, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can limit the performance and degrade the confinement of tokamak plasmas. The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), unique for its capability to produce a variety of poloidal plasma shapes, has been used to analyse various instabilities and compare their behaviour with theoretical predictions. These instabilities are perturbations of the magnetic field, which usually extend to the plasma edge where they can be detected with magnetic pick-up coils as magnetic fluctuations. A spatially dense set of magnetic probes, installed inside the TCV vacuum vessel, allows for a fast observation of these fluctuations. The structure and temporal evolution of coherent modes is extracted using several numerical methods. In addition to the setup of the magnetic diagnostic and the implementation of analysis methods, the subject matter of this thesis focuses on four instabilities, which impose local and global stability limits. All of these instabilities are relevant for the operation of a fusion reactor and a profound understanding of their behaviour is required in order to optimise the performance of such a reactor. Sawteeth, which are central relaxation oscillations common to most standard tokamak scenarios, have a significant effect on central plasma parameters. In TCV, systematic scans of the plasma shape have revealed a strong dependence of their behaviour on elongation {kappa} and triangularity {delta}, with high {kappa}, and low {delta} leading to shorter sawteeth with smaller crashes. This shape dependence is increased by applying central electron cyclotron heating. The response to additional heating power is determined by the role of ideal or resistive MHD in triggering the sawtooth crash. For plasma shapes where additional heating and consequently, a faster increase of the central pressure shortens the sawteeth, the low experimental limit of the pressure gradient within the q = 1 surface is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The

  1. One-dimensional long-range diffusion-limited aggregation III -- The limit aggregate

    CERN Document Server

    Amir, Gideon

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of the limit aggregate (the union of all finite-time aggregates) of the one-dimensional long range diffusion limited aggregation process defined in [arXiv:0910.4416] . We show (under some regularity conditions) that for walks with finite third moment the limit aggregate has renewal structure and positive density, while for walks with finite variance the renewal structure no longer exists and the limit aggregate has 0 density. We define a tree structure on the aggregates and show some results on the degrees and number of ends of these random trees.

  2. THE MOND LIMIT FROM SPACETIME SCALE INVARIANCE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) limit is shown to follow from a requirement of spacetime scale invariance of the equations of motion for nonrelativistic, purely gravitational systems, i.e., invariance of the equations of motion under (t, r) → (λt, λr) in the limit a 0 → ∞. It is suggested that this should replace the definition of the MOND limit based on the low-acceleration behavior of a Newtonian-MOND interpolating function. In this way, the salient, deep-MOND results-asymptotically flat rotation curves, the mass-rotational-speed relation (baryonic Tully-Fisher relation), the Faber-Jackson relation, etc.,-follow from a symmetry principle. For example, asymptotic flatness of rotation curves reflects the fact that radii change under scaling, while velocities do not. I then comment on the interpretation of the deep-MOND limit as one of 'zero mass': rest masses, whose presence obstructs scaling symmetry, become negligible compared to the 'phantom', dynamical masses-those that some would attribute to dark matter. Unlike the former masses, the latter transform in a way that is consistent with the symmetry. Finally, I discuss the putative MOND-cosmology connection in light of another, previously known symmetry of the deep-MOND limit. In particular, it is suggested that MOND is related to the asymptotic de Sitter geometry of our universe. It is conjectured, for example that in an exact de Sitter cosmos, deep-MOND physics would exactly apply to local systems. I also point out, in this connection, the possible relevance of a de Sitter-conformal-field-theory (dS/CFT) duality.

  3. Expanding the limits of the pollen-limitation concept: effects of pollen quantity and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, Marcelo A; Harder, Lawrence D

    2007-02-01

    Pollination commonly limits seed production, as addition of pollen to stigmas often increases fecundity. This response is usually interpreted as evidence that plants' stigmas receive too few pollen grains to maximize ovule fertilization (quantity limitation); however, many genetic studies demonstrate that poor-quality pollen can also reduce seed production (quality limitation). We explore both aspects of pollen limitation theoretically with a dose-response model that incorporates a saturating negative-exponential relation of seed production to pollen receipt. This relation depends on aspects of ovule production, pollen import, pollen-pistil interactions and seed development, all of which can contribute to pollen limitation. Our model reveals that quantity limitation is restricted to the lowest range of pollen receipt, for which siring success per pollen grain is high, whereas quality limitation acts throughout the range of pollen receipt if plants do not import the highest-quality pollen. In addition to pollinator availability and efficiency, quantity limitation is governed by all post-pollination aspects of seed production. In contrast, quality limitation depends on the difference in survival of embryos sired by naturally delivered pollen vs. by pollen of maximal quality. We briefly illustrate the distinction between these two components of pollen limitation with results from the mistletoe Tristerix corymbosus. Our model also shows that the standard pollen-supplementation technique neither estimates the total intensity of pollen limitation nor distinguishes between its quantity and quality components. As an alternative, we propose a methodological protocol that requires both measurement of seed production following excess pollination with only outcross pollen and quantification of the dose-response relation of seed output to pollen receipt. This method estimates both the total extent of pollen limitation and its two components. Finally, we consider the influences

  4. Sea-land limits: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afranio R. de Mesquita

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The limits between sea and land were estimated at "Pulso" beach located in the Southeastern Brazilian shelf (φ = 23°33/17.4886"S; Λ = 045° 13'13.0504"W - WGS84, between the island of São Sebastião and the city of Ubatuba, SP, Brazil. The relative sea level of the year 1831 at "Pulso" beach, as per Brazilian law Number 9760 dated from 1946, was estimated and materialized. The retro-estimation allowed the demarcation of the Legal Sea-Land Limits at "Pulso" beach as per the terms of the law. The accuracy of the procedure for the transference of the long-term sea level from the research station of Ubatuba to "Pulso" beach was assessed by parallel work of geometrical leveling referred to the IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics geodetic network. The motivation, the hypotheses (Brest, Cananeia and IPCC and the methods here used are described, together with a short history of the Legal Sea-Land Limits. The results indicated that the legal Sea-Land Limits at "Pulso" beach are well within the beach area. They were determined as per law 9760, and there is the need to reactivate the national network of sea level gauge.Os limites entre mar e terra foram estimados na praia chamada Pulso, localizada na costa sudeste do Brasil (φ = 23°33'17, 4886"S; Λ = 045°13'13, 0504"W entre a Ilha de São Sebastião e a cidade de Ubatuba, no Estado de São Paulo, SP, Brasil. O nível relativo do mar do ano de 1831 na praia do Pulso, ou "Praia do Pulso" (PP, foi estimado e materializado, de acordo com a Lei brasileira Número 9760 de 1946. A acurácia do procedimento foi acompanhada por trabalho paralelo de nivelamento geométrico referido ao sistema nacional de geodésia do IBGE (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. A motivação, as hipóteses (Brest, Cananeia e IPCC e os métodos utilizados são descritos, acompanhados por um breve histórico dos "Terrenos de Marinha". Os resultados indicaram que os limites em (PP estão bem dentro

  5. Theme II. Speed limits and the driver. Advisory speed limits: Should they be expanded or not?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1985-01-01

    According to Dutch legislation, advisory speed limits should only be used on curves with a small radius, although there has been an increasing demand in recent years for w wider application of advisory speed limits. The behaviour of drivers on curves and the forces working on the vehicle and its occ

  6. Doublet III limiter performance and implications for mechanical design and material selection for future limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabado, M.M.; Marcus, F.B.; Trester, P.W.; Wesley, J.C.

    1979-10-01

    The plasma limiter system for Doublet III is described. Initially, high-Z materials, Ta-10W for the primary limiter and Mo for the backup limiters, were selected as the most attractive metallic candidates from the standpoint of thermal and structural properties. For the purpose of evaluating the effect of material Z on plasma performance, the nonmagnetic, Ni-base alloy Inconel X-750 was selected for a medium-Z limiter material. Graphite, a low-Z material, will likely be the next limiter material for evaluation. Design and material selection criteria for the different Z ranges are presented. The performance of the high-Z limiters in Doublet III is reviewed for an operation period that included approximately 5000 plasma shots. Changes in surface appearance and metallurgical changes are characterized. Discussion is presented on how and to what extent the high-Z elements affected the performance of the plasma based on theory and measurements in Doublet III. The fabrication processes for the Inconel X-750 limiters are summarized, and, last, observations on early performance of the Inconel limiters are described. (MOW)

  7. Impact limiter tests of four commonly used materials and establishment of an impact limiter data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In designing a package for transporting hazardous or radioactive materials, there are a number of components whose design can lead to the success or failure to meet regulatory requirements for Type B packages. One of these components is the impact limiter. The primary purpose of the impact limiter is to protect the package and its contents from sudden deceleration. It can also act as a thermal barrier. The package is protected by the impact limiter's ability to act as an energy absorber. The crush strength of most impact limiting materials is determined by a standard quasistatic (QS) method. However it has been observed that there are a number of factors that affect crush strength. The material being used as an impact limiter may appear incompressible because of one or more of these factors. Factors that determine compressive strength of impact limiter materials are; the material density; the thickness of the impact limiter material. There must be adequate material to absorb the impact and not go into lockup, lockup up occurs when the free volume of the material is eliminated and the crush strength sharply increases; the angle of impact; and the loading rate and operating temperature. All of these are interactive and therefore difficult to model. It is the intent of tests discussed in this paper to determine the dependency of crush strength to loading rate and angle of impact to the basic grain direction of two different densities of four impact limiting materials

  8. The limits to solar thermal electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential and limits of solar thermal power systems depend primarily on their capacity to meet electricity demand in mid-winter, and the associated cost, storage and other implications. Evidence on output and costs is analysed. Most attention is given to central receivers. Problems of low radiation levels, embodied energy costs, variability and storage are discussed and are found to set significant difficulties for large scale solar thermal supply in less than ideal latitudes and seasons. It is concluded that for solar thermal systems to meet a large fraction of anticipated global electricity demand in winter would involve prohibitive capital costs. - Highlights: • Output and capital cost data for various solar thermal technologies is examined. • Special attention is given to performance in winter. • Attention is also given to the effect of solar intermittency. • Implications for storage are considered. • It is concluded that there are significant limits to solar thermal power

  9. Linearity Limits of Biased 1337 Trap Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Balling, Petr

    2015-01-01

    The upper power limit of linear response of light trap detectors was recently measured [2,3]. We have completed this measurement with test of traps with bias voltage at several visible wavelengths using silicon photodiodes Hamamatsu S1337 1010 and made a brief test of S5227 1010. Bias extends the linearity limit by factor of more than 10 for very narrow beams and more than 30 for wide beams [5]. No irreversible changes were detected even for the highest irradiance of 33 W/cm2 at 406nm. Here we present measurement of minimal bias voltage necessary for 99%, 99.8% and 99.95% linearity for several beam sizes.

  10. Metamaterial polarization converter analysis: limits of performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markovich, Dmitry L.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zalkovskij, Maksim;

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the theoretical limits of a metamaterial-based converter with orthogonal linear eigenpolarizations that allow linear-to-elliptical polarization transformation with any desired ellipticity and ellipse orientation. We employ the transmission line approach providing a needed...... level of the design generalization. Our analysis reveals that the maximal conversion efficiency for transmission through a single metamaterial layer is 50 %, while the realistic reflection configuration can give the conversion efficiency up to 90 %. We show that a double layer transmission converter...... and a single layer with a ground plane can have 100 % polarization conversion efficiency. We tested our conclusions numerically reaching the designated limits of efficiency using a simple metamaterial design. Our general analysis provides useful guidelines for the metamaterial polarization converter design...

  11. Technical Limits of ICT for Enterprises' Innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radim Brixi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with technical limits of ICT for enterprises' innovations. ICT is now a key asset for the competitiveness of enterprises. It became the main stream of doing business well. These days we come to era where enterprises are fully dependant on ICT. We would try to describe more deeply the impacts of such a dependence and underlying problems. In context of the necessary new innovations of enterprises, we will focus more on the negative aspects of being dependent on ICT with the technological architecture of hard systems. Based on the need to apply a systems approach we will also provide a suggestion as to how to model these limits in a system's manner.

  12. Limited Feedback Precoding for Massive MIMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Su

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The large-scale array antenna system with numerous low-power antennas deployed at the base station, also known as massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO, can provide a plethora of advantages over the classical array antenna system. Precoding is important to exploit massive MIMO performance, and codebook design is crucial due to the limited feedback channel. In this paper, we propose a new avenue of codebook design based on a Kronecker-type approximation of the array correlation structure for the uniform rectangular antenna array, which is preferable for the antenna deployment of massive MIMO. Although the feedback overhead is quite limited, the codebook design can provide an effective solution to support multiple users in different scenarios. Simulation results demonstrate that our proposed codebook outperforms the previously known codebooks remarkably.

  13. Apparent solubility limit of nuclear glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most nuclear glass alteration models are based on a first-order kinetic law of the general type r = r0(l-Csi/C*) or r = r0(l-Q/K). It is generally assumed that the establishment of quasi steady-state concentrations in solution corresponds to an intrinsic glass solubility limit that may be expressed either in terms of the dissolved silicon concentration C* or as an ion activity product at saturation K. Experimental research over the last five years in France has shown that the quasi steady-state concentrations observed in solution do not correspond to a thermodynamic solubility limit with respect to the glass. This assertion is supported by a large body of experimental evidence that is discussed in this paper. The signification of the C* parameter is therefore reconsidered, and its implications on long-term behavior modeling are discussed. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  14. Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits

    CERN Document Server

    McManus, Ryan; Peñarrubia, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar fi...

  15. Limiting soft particle production and QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ochs, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    We present some basic elements of the treatment of particle multiplicities in jets from high energy collisions within perturbative QCD. Then we discuss the universal features of the inclusive particle spectrum for the limiting case of momentum p\\to 0 (or p_T\\to 0) as expected from soft QCD gluon bremsstrahlung. The energy independence of the invariant particle density in this limit I_0=E dN/d^3p|_{p\\to 0} is predicted as well as the dependence of this quantity on the the colour factors characteristic of the underlying partonic processes. These properties are first recalled from e+e- collisions and then extended to pp and nuclear collisions according to Ref. 1. Present data support these predictions. It will be interesting to see whether new incoherent contributions show up in the new energy regime of LHC.

  16. Pitfalls and limitations of CT in neurodiagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite initial skepticism in some quarters, the value and efficacy of computed tomography of the brain was quickly established. CT has emerged as the primary diagnostic screening modality for the detection of intracranial pathology. Accuracy of localization of structural abnormalities of the brain by CT often exceeds that which can be obtained by cerebral angiography or other invasive diagnostic procedure. Frequently CT can also provide information permitting characterization of the nature of the disease process. Accumulated experience with CT scanning of the head indicates that even this remarkable diagnostic tool has its limitations. However, the limitations of CT are probably fewer in number and less in severity than those associated with any other neurological diagnostic modality

  17. Redshift-space limits of bound structures

    CERN Document Server

    D"unner, R; Meza, A; Araya, P A; Quintana, H; D\\"unner, Rolando; Reisenegger, Andreas; Meza, Andr\\'es; Araya, Pablo A.; Quintana, Hern\\'an

    2006-01-01

    An exponentially expanding Universe, possibly governed by a cosmological constant, forces gravitationally bound structures to become more and more isolated, eventually becoming causally disconnected from each other and forming so-called "island universes". This new scenario reformulates the question about which will be the largest structures that will remain gravitationally bound, together with requiring a systematic tool that can be used to recognize the limits and mass of these structures from observational data, namely redshift surveys of galaxies. Here we present a method, based on the spherical collapse model and N-body simulations, by which we can estimate the limits of bound structures as observed in redshift space. The method is based on a theoretical criterion presented in a previous paper that determines the mean density contrast that a spherical shell must have in order to be marginally bound to the massive structure within it. Understanding the kinematics of the system, we translated the real-spac...

  18. Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that the 'quantum' black hole wave operator in the κ-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime introduced in [1] has a natural scaling limit λp → 0 at the event horizon. Here λp is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent 'skin' of some ω/ν Planck lengths just inside the event horizon for ω > 0 and just outside for ω < 0, where v is the frequency associated to the Schwarzschild radius. We use bessel and hypergeometric functions to analyse propagation through the event horizon and skin in both directions. The analysis confirms a finite redshift at the horizon for positive frequency modes in the exterior.

  19. Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majid, Shahn, E-mail: s.majid@qmul.ac.uk [Queen Mary University of London School of Mathematics, Mile End Rd, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom)

    2011-03-01

    We show that the 'quantum' black hole wave operator in the {kappa}-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime introduced in [1] has a natural scaling limit {lambda}{sub p} {yields} 0 at the event horizon. Here {lambda}{sub p} is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent 'skin' of some {omega}/{nu} Planck lengths just inside the event horizon for {omega} > 0 and just outside for {omega} < 0, where v is the frequency associated to the Schwarzschild radius. We use bessel and hypergeometric functions to analyse propagation through the event horizon and skin in both directions. The analysis confirms a finite redshift at the horizon for positive frequency modes in the exterior.

  20. Scaling Limit of the Noncommutative Black Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majid, Shahn

    2011-03-01

    We show that the 'quantum' black hole wave operator in the κ-Minkowski or bicrossproduct model quantum spacetime introduced in [1] has a natural scaling limit λp → 0 at the event horizon. Here λp is the Planck time and the geometry at the event horizon in Planck length is maintained at the same time as the limit is taken, resulting in a classical theory with quantum gravity remnants. Among the features is a frequency-dependent 'skin' of some Planck lengths just inside the event horizon for ω > 0 and just outside for ω < 0, where v is the frequency associated to the Schwarzschild radius. We use bessel and hypergeometric functions to analyse propagation through the event horizon and skin in both directions. The analysis confirms a finite redshift at the horizon for positive frequency modes in the exterior.

  1. Gulf Canada Resources Limited 1998 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of operations in 1998 and financial information from Gulf Canada Resources Limited is provided to keep shareholders abreast of company performance. Gulf Canada Resources Limited explores for, develops, produces and markets conventional and synthetic crude oil, natural gas and natural gas liquids. In 1998, the company's main operating centres were in western Canada (where it owns a nine per cent interest in the Syncrude Joint Venture), Indonesia, the North Sea and Australia. The report summarizes the company's energy resource activities, presents a detailed review of operations, and provides consolidated financial statements, and common share information. Although Gulf Canada Resources sold $ 1.2 billion worth of non-producing assets during the year, year end proved reserves of 838 million barrels of oil equivalent were less than ten per cent lower than a year earlier, reflecting reserve additions of 100 million barrels of oil equivalent. tabs., figs

  2. Limitations in global information on species occurrences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Meyer

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Detailed information on species distributions is crucial for answering central questions in biogeography, ecology, evolutionary biology and conservation. Millions of species occurrence records have been mobilized via international data-sharing networks, but inherent biases, gaps and uncertainties hamper broader application. In my PhD thesis, I presented the first comprehensive analyses of global patterns and drivers of these limitations across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. Integrating 300 million occurrence records for terrestrial vertebrates and plants with comprehensive taxonomic databases, expert range maps and regional checklists, I demonstrated extensive taxonomic, geographical and temporal biases, gaps and uncertainties. I identified key socio-economic drivers of data bias across different taxonomic groups and spatial scales. The results of my dissertation provide an empirical baseline for effectively accounting for data limitations in distribution models, as well as for prioritizing and monitoring efforts to collate additional occurrence information.

  3. Limitations of typhoid vaccination for travellers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen, J; Mara, N; Nathwani, D

    1996-12-01

    Around one-third of travellers to endemic areas receive pre-travel typhoid vaccination, increasingly with the new parenteral vaccination Typhim Vi (Mérieux). More than 200 cases of Salmonella typhi and S. paratyphi infection are imported into the UK each year. Despite the widespread use of immunisation, non-specialist clinicians and the travelling public do not appear to fully appreciate the limitations of currently available vaccination. These limitations are not adequately highlighted in either the Green Book of Immunisation against Infectious Diseases (HMSO, 1992) or the new handbook Health Information for Overseas Travel (HMSO, 1995) which are important sources of reference for clinicians and practice nurses. This may delay consideration of diagnosis and presentation for treatment in immunised travellers.

  4. Intercell Interference Coordination through Limited Feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjia Liu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the applications of multicell transmission schemes to the downlink of future wireless communication networks. A multicell multiple-input multiple output-(MIMOs based scheme with limited coordination among neighboring base stations (BSs is proposed to effectively combat the intercell interference by taking advantage of the degreesoffreedom in the spatial domain. In this scheme, mobile users are required to feedback channel-related information to both serving base station and interfering base station. Furthermore, a chordal distance-based compression scheme is introduced to reduce the feedback overhead. The performance of the proposed scheme is investigated through theoretical analysis as well as system level simulations. Both results suggest that the so-called “intercell interference coordination through limited feedback” scheme is a very good candidate for improving the cell-edge user throughput as well as the average cell throughput of the future wireless communication networks.

  5. HerMES: The SPIRE confusion limit

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, H T; Levenson, L; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Chapin, E; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dwek, E; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Marsden, G; Marshall, J; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Perez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rangwala, N; Rigopoulou, D; Rizzo, D; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Scott, Douglas; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wiebe, D; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2010-01-01

    We report on the sensitivity of SPIRE photometers on the Herschel Space Observatory. Specifically, we measure the confusion noise from observations taken during the Science Demonstration Phase of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. Confusion noise is defined to be the spatial variation of the sky intensity in the limit of infinite integration time, and is found to be consistent among the different fields in our survey at the level of 5.8, 6.3 and 6.8 mJy/beam at 250, 350 and 500 microns, respectively. These results, together with the measured instrument noise, may be used to estimate the integration time required for confusion-limited maps, and provide a noise estimate for maps obtained by SPIRE.

  6. Astrophysical limits on light NMSSM neutralinos

    CERN Document Server

    Vasquez, Daniel Albornoz; Boehm, Celine

    2011-01-01

    It was recently shown that light LSP neutralinos could be found in the framework of the NMSSM. These candidates would escape known Particle Physics constraints even though they are relatively light. We now investigate the astrophysical limits which can be set on these particles. We show, in particular, that the FERMI observation of dwarf spheroidal galaxies enable to constrain the parameter space associated with these candidates and the expected radio emission in the inner Milky Way should be significant. Combined with the XENON100 experimental limits, our results illustrate the complementarity between direct and indirect searches for dark matter. Yet, our findings also suggest that probing light neutralinos in the NMSSM scenario will be very difficult because the sensitivity of both dark matter direct and indirect detection experiments would have to be improved by at least six order of magnitude compared to present values in order to explore the entire parameter space. Finally, we show that the parameter spa...

  7. Technical presentation: BGM Cryogenic Engineering Limited

    CERN Multimedia

    Caroline Laignel - FI Department

    2006-01-01

    13 - 14 June 2006 TECHNICAL PRESENTATION BGM Cryogenic Engineering Limited 09:00 - 18:00, 60-2-016, Main Building. Presentation on BGM: 11:00 - 12:00, 60-2-016, Main Building. BGM Cryogenic Engineering Limited manufactures assemblies, sub-assemblies and machined components for the cryogenic technology sector. The primary markets served include superconducting magnets used in the healthcare sector (eg MRI body scanners), spectroscopy and NMR equipment for numerous R & D and technology applications, high vacuum applications and particle physics research. BGM has specialist assembly capability including stainless steel and aluminium welding, vacuum testing, electromechanical assembly and metal finishing. BGM offers a ‘one stop shop'facility to satisfy any customer requirement. Through our design partner we can offer a full design and modelling service, including 3D modelling and production of 2D drawings on your own borders. We can conduct heat load and force calculations and advise on the best...

  8. Sparse regularization in limited angle tomography

    CERN Document Server

    Frikel, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the reconstruction problem of limited angle tomography. Such problems arise naturally in applications like digital breast tomosynthesis, dental tomography, electron microscopy etc. Since the acquired tomographic data is highly incomplete, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed and the traditional reconstruction methods, such as filtered backprojection (FBP), do not perform well in such situations. To stabilize the reconstruction procedure additional prior knowledge about the unknown object has to be integrated into the reconstruction process. In this work, we propose the use of the sparse regularization technique in combination with curvelets. We argue that this technique gives rise to an edge-preserving reconstruction. Moreover, we show that the dimension of the problem can be significantly reduced in the curvelet domain. To this end, we give a characterization of the kernel of limited angle Radon transform in terms of curvelets and derive a characterization of solutions obtained thr...

  9. The time-limited hot line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, M T; Wimberley, E T

    1993-05-01

    Although long-term hot lines that focus on crisis intervention will undoubtedly dominate as an organizational model, time-limited approaches will be used with increasing frequency. The primary impetus behind their proliferation is the increasing visibility of the electronic media, particularly television, in investigating and reporting pressing health, mental health, and human services problems. As the mass media increasingly produces special reports, documentaries, and docudramas directed toward social problems and issues, local health and human services agencies will become increasingly motivated to provide a forum for public response. The time-limited issue- or problem-oriented hot line is the ideal vehicle for public response as well as for extending the human services network. This type of hot line also offers social workers a unique opportunity to share important mental health information through the media. PMID:8511660

  10. Flux Limiter Lattice Boltzmann for Compressible Flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈峰; 许爱国; 张广财; 李英骏

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new flux limiter scheme with the splitting technique is successfully incorporated into a multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann (LB) model for shacked compressible flows. The proposed flux limiter scheme is efficient in decreasing the artificial oscillations and numerical diffusion around the interface. Due to the kinetic nature, some interface problems being difficult to handle at the macroscopic level can be modeled more naturally through the LB method. Numerical simulations for the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability show that with the new model the computed interfaces are smoother and more consistent with physical analysis. The growth rates of bubble and spike present a satisfying agreement with the theoretical predictions and other numerical simulations.

  11. Altitudinal distribution limits of aquatic macroinvertebrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Philip B.; Morabowen, Andrés; Andino, Patricio;

    2015-01-01

    altitudinal patterns in population densities, (ii) transplants of the five taxa upstream of their natural altitudinal limit to test the short-term (14days) effect on survival, and (iii) in situ experiments of locomotory activity as a proxy for animal response to relatively small differences in temperature (5...... relatively small differences in temperature and oxygen may produce effects explaining ecological patterns, and depending on the taxon, either water temperature or oxygen saturation, without clear interacting effects, are important drivers of altitudinal limits.......; larvae of Andesiops (Ephemeroptera), Claudioperla, (Plecoptera), Scirtes (Coleoptera) and Anomalocosmoecus (Trichoptera), and the amphipod Hyalella in an Ecuadorian glacier-fed stream (4100-4500ma.s.l.). The following were performed: (i) quantitative benthic sampling at three sites to determine...

  12. Quantum limited heterodyne detection of spin noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronenberger, S.; Scalbert, D.

    2016-09-01

    Spin noise spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying spin relaxation in semiconductors. In this article, we propose an extension of this technique based on optical heterodyne detection of spin noise, which provides several key advantages compared to conventional spin noise spectroscopy: detection of high frequency spin noise not limited by detector bandwidth or sampling rates of digitizers, quantum limited sensitivity even in case of very weak probe power, and possible amplification of the spin noise signal. Heterodyne detection of spin noise is demonstrated on insulating n-doped GaAs. From measurements of spin noise spectra up to 0.4 Tesla, we determined the distribution of g-factors, Δg/g = 0.49%.

  13. From Limits to Growth to Limitless Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication of the Club of Rome’s landmark report ‘The Limits to Growth’ in 1972 shook the intellectual foundations of social theory and challenged the very premises on which modern economy and prosperity are based. Once set in motion, it led to a revolutionary re-evaluation of human aspirations and economic activities. Among its many consequences, it has stimulated creative minds to look freshly at the underlying processes governing the wealth and welfare of nations. The article then traces their creative impact on the mind of one of the most original economic theorists of our age – Orio Giarini.[*] As ‘The Limits to Growth’ alarmed the world by the unsustainability and dire consequences of unbridled economic growth, Giarini offers a correspondingly affirmative vision of economics with unlimited potential for wealth and welfare.

  14. Potentials and Limitations of MEO SAR

    OpenAIRE

    Matar, Jalal; López Dekker, Francisco; Krieger, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the various aspects of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) missions in Medium Earth Orbits (MEO). It covers the design of suitable orbits and their corresponding coverage, with emphasis on repeat ones. Furthermore, it analyses the changes in performance as altitude increases, while addressing the potentials and limitations of high orbits. Throughout the paper one interesting orbit, repeating its ground track every 3 days and providing near-global coverage, is studied.

  15. Diffusion-Limited Reactions in Crowded Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Dorsaz, N.; De Michele, C.; Piazza, F; De Los Rios, P.; Foffi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Diffusion-limited reactions (DLR) are usually described within the Smoluchowski theory, which neglects interactions between the diffusing components. We propose a first extension of such frame- work that incorporates excluded-volume effects, considering hard diffusing agents in the presence of an absorbing sink. For large values of the absorber-to-diffuser size ratio Rs, the encounter rate obtained from the simulations is in very good agreement with a simple generalization of the Smolu- chows...

  16. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, Søren; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    Giant field enhancement and field singularities are a natural consequence of the commonly employed local-response framework. We show that a more general nonlocal treatment of the plasmonic response leads to new and possibly fundamental limitations on field enhancement with important consequences ...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (1010)....

  17. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy: nonlocal limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, Giuseppe; Raza, S.; Xiao, Sanshui;

    2012-01-01

    Giant field enhancement and field singularities are a natural consequence of the commonly employed local-response framework. We show that a more general nonlocal treatment of the plasmonic response leads to new and possibly fundamental limitations on field enhancement with important consequences ...... by periodic arrays of half-cylinders (up to 120 nm in radius), we find no enhancement factors exceeding 10 orders of magnitude (10(10)). (C) 2012 Optical Society of America...

  18. Effectiveness and Limitations of Statistical Spam Filters

    CERN Document Server

    Banday, M Tariq

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the techniques involved in the design of the famous statistical spam filters that include Naive Bayes, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency, K-Nearest Neighbor, Support Vector Machine, and Bayes Additive Regression Tree. We compare these techniques with each other in terms of accuracy, recall, precision, etc. Further, we discuss the effectiveness and limitations of statistical filters in filtering out various types of spam from legitimate e-mails.

  19. Limited Quadricepsplasty for Contracture during Femoral Lengthening

    OpenAIRE

    Khakharia, Saurabh; Fragomen, Austin T.; Rozbruch, S. Robert

    2009-01-01

    Extension contracture of the knee is a common complication of femoral lengthening. Knee flexion exercises to stretch the contracture with physical therapy can be effective but take a prolonged amount of time to work and place increased stress across the patellofemoral joint. We developed a minimal-incision limited quadricepsplasty surgical technique to treat knee extension contracture secondary to femoral lengthening and retrospectively reviewed 16 patients treated with this procedure. The me...

  20. Metamaterial Polarization Converter Analysis: Limits of Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Markovich, Dmitry L.; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zalkovskij, Maksim; Malureanu, Radu; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the theoretical limits of a metamaterial converter that allows for linear-to- elliptical polarization transformation with any desired ellipticity and ellipse orientation. We employ the transmission line approach providing a needed level of the design generalization. Our analysis reveals that the maximal conversion e?ciency for transmission through a single metamaterial layer is 50%, while the realistic re ection con?guration can give the conversion e?ciency up to 90%....

  1. Practical Roadmap and Limits to Nanostructured Photovoltaics

    OpenAIRE

    Lunt, Richard R.; Rowehl, Jill A.; Osedach, Timothy Paul; Brown, Patrick Richard; Bulovic, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    The significant research interest in the engineering of photovoltaic (PV) structures at the nanoscale is directed toward enabling reductions in PV module fabrication and installation costs as well as improving cell power conversion efficiency (PCE). With the emergence of a multitude of nanostructured photovoltaic (nano-PV) device architectures, the question has arisen of where both the practical and the fundamental limits of performance reside in these new systems. Here, the former is address...

  2. An Internet enabled impact limiter material database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a detailed explanation of the construction of an interest enabled database, also known as a database driven web site. The data contained in the internet enabled database are impact limiter material and seal properties. The technique used in constructing the internet enabled database presented in this paper are applicable when information that is changing in content needs to be disseminated to a wide audience

  3. Is IPT Time-Limited Psychodynamic Psychotherapy?

    OpenAIRE

    Markowitz, John C.; Svartberg, Martin; Swartz, Holly A.

    1998-01-01

    Interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) has sometimes but not always been considered a psychodynamic psychotherapy. The authors discuss similarities and differences between IPT and short-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (STPP), comparing eight aspects: 1) time limit, 2) medical model, 3) dual goals of solving interpersonal problems and syndromal remission, 4) interpersonal focus on the patient solving current life problems, 5) specific techniques, 6) termination, 7) therapeutic stance, and 8) empir...

  4. A Central Limit Theorem for Punctuated Equilibrium

    OpenAIRE

    Bartoszek, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Current evolutionary biology models usually assume that a phenotype undergoes gradual change. This is in stark contrast to biological intuition, which indicates that change can also be punctuated - the phenotype can jump. Such a jump can especially occur at speciation, i.e. dramatic change occurs that drives the species apart. Here we derive a central limit theorem for punctuated equilibrium. We show that, if adaptation is fast, for weak convergence to hold, dramatic change has to be a rare e...

  5. Limit theorems for sequences of random trees

    OpenAIRE

    Balding, David; Ferrari, Pablo A.; Fraiman, Ricardo; Sued, Mariela

    2004-01-01

    We consider a random tree and introduce a metric in the space of trees to define the ``mean tree'' as the tree minimizing the average distance to the random tree. When the resulting metric space is compact we have laws of large numbers and central limit theorems for sequence of independent identically distributed random trees. As application we propose tests to check if two samples of random trees have the same law.

  6. Semiclassical Limit and Time in Quantum Cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Bak, D; Kim, S K; Soh, K S; Yee, J H; Bak, Dongsu; Kim, Sang Pyo; Kim, Sung Ku; Soh, Kwang-Sup; Yee, Jae Hyung

    2000-01-01

    We propose a method to recover the time variable and the classical evolution of the Universe from the minisuperspace wave function of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Defining a Hamilton-Jacobi characteristic function $W$ as the imaginary part of the $\\ln \\Psi$ we can recover the classical solution, and quantum corrections. The key idea is to let the energy of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation vanish only after the semiclassical limit is taken.

  7. Reconciling Speed Limits with Design Speeds

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa-Medina, Alberto Miguel; Tarko, Andrzej P.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, context-sensitive highway design has been promoted to ensure that designers consider the environmental, scenic, aesthetic, historic, community, and preservation aspects of the road. Context-sensitive design may lead to situations where the current design standards cannot be met because of restricting local conditions. Indiana has road sections designed and built some time ago. In a considerable number of roads with the statutory limit of 55 mph (90 km/h), the road geometry do...

  8. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or

  9. Networks and Our Limited Information Horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Rosvall, M.; K. Sneppen

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we quantify our limited information horizon, by measuring the information necessary to locate specific nodes in a network. To investigate different ways to overcome this horizon, and the interplay between communication and topology in social networks, we let agents communicate in a model society. Thereby they build a perception of the network that they can use to create strategic links to improve their standing in the network. We observe a narrow distribution of links when the c...

  10. Doppler cooling to the Quantum limit

    OpenAIRE

    Chalony, Maryvonne; Kastberg, Anders; Klappauf, Bruce; Wilkowski, David

    2011-01-01

    Doppler cooling on a narrow transition is limited by the noise of single scattering events. It shows novel features, which are in sharp contrast with cooling on a broad transition, such as a non-Gaussian momentum distribution, and divergence of its mean square value close to the resonance. We have observed those features using 1D cooling on an intercombination transition in strontium, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations. We also find that for...

  11. Diffusion Limited Aggregation: Algorithm optimization revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, F. L.; Ribeiro, M. S.

    2011-08-01

    The Diffusion Limited Aggregation (DLA) model developed by Witten and Sander in 1978 is useful in modeling a large class of growth phenomena with local dependence. Besides its simplicity this aggregation model has a complex behavior that can be observed at the patterns generated. We propose on this work a brief review of some important proprieties of this model and present an algorithm to simulate a DLA aggregates that simpler and efficient compared to others found in the literature.

  12. Limits on CPT violation from solar neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Diaz, Jorge S

    2016-01-01

    Violations of CPT invariance can induce neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions. We study this effect for solar neutrinos and use the upper bound on the solar neutrino-to-antineutrino transition probability from the KamLAND experiment to constrain CPT-symmetry-violating coefficients of the general Standard-Model Extension. The long propagation distance from the Sun to the Earth allows us to improve existing limits by factors ranging from about a thousand to $10^{11}$.

  13. On the limits of DTN monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Ramiro, Victor; Lochin, Emmanuel; Sénac, Patrick; Rakotoarivelo, Thierry

    2013-01-01

    Compared to wired networks, Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networks (DTN) are challenging to monitor due to their lack of infrastructure and the absence of end-to-end paths. This work studies the feasibility, limits and convergence of monitoring such DTNs. More specifically, we focus on the efficient monitoring of intercontact time distribution (ICT) between DTN participants. Our contribution is two-fold. First we propose two schemes to sample data using monitors deployed within the DTN. In partic...

  14. Factorization violation in the multiparton collinear limit

    OpenAIRE

    Catani, Stefano; de Florian, Daniel; Rodrigo, German

    2012-01-01

    We present an all-order generalized factorization formula for QCD scattering amplitudes in kinematical configurations where two or more momenta of the external partons become collinear. The singular behaviour of the scattering amplitudes in the collinear limit is encoded by collinear splitting matrices. In the space-like region and beyond the tree level, the collinear splitting matrices depend also on the momenta and quantum numbers of the non-collinear partons, thus breaking strict collinear...

  15. Electronic editions – possibilities, limitations, perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Martin

    2010-01-01

    The thesis "Electronic Editions – Possibilities, Limitations, Perspectives" presents concepts and technologies for electronic editions in the field of German language and literature. The thesis focuses on describing forms of information contained by written texts that extend beyond the literal information content, and on the possibilities that exist for encoding this information in electronic editions and thus opening it up to electronic evaluation. It begins with a survey of existing electro...

  16. Econet wireless Zimbawe Limited: Building the future

    OpenAIRE

    Duarte, Maria Flor

    2016-01-01

    In February 2015, when Econet Wireless Zimbabwe Limited, EWZL, the market leader of the telecommunications sector in Zimbabwe, published the financial results, the management team was worried about the shareholders’ reaction. With over 60% market share in its core business (the voice and SMS market), it has achieved remarkable results due to the great diversification strategy. However, the share price was continuously falling due to exogenous factors that were pressuring margins and threateni...

  17. Electronic Refrigeration at the Quantum Limit

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, Andrey V.; Helle, Meri; Meschke, Matthias; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka P.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate quantum limited electronic refrigeration of a metallic island in a low temperature micro-circuit. We show that matching the impedance of the circuit enables refrigeration at a distance, of about 50 um in our case, through superconducting leads with a cooling power determined by the quantum of thermal conductance. In a reference sample with a mismatched circuit this effect is absent. Our results are consistent with the concept of electromagnetic heat transport. We observe and an...

  18. Limited joint mobility in diabetes mellitus.

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, R R; Hawkins, S.J.; Maddison, P J; Reckless, J P

    1985-01-01

    The relationship of limited joint mobility and finger joint contractures in diabetics to age of onset, duration, and control of diabetes has not been established. We measured the mobility of metacarpophalangeal, wrist, elbow, and ankle joints and assessed the prevalence of finger joint contractures in 254 young diabetics and 110 controls. The presence of microvascular disease was assessed by ophthalmoscopy and urine analysis for proteinuria. An estimate of long-term diabetic control was obtai...

  19. Basis for limiting exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the uncertainty about the size of the risk from radiation, it is assumed that all doses are potentially harmful with the probability of harm proportional to the dose, without threshold. Canada participates in the work of UNSCEAR, and the Canadian Atomic Energy Control Board follows the recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in setting its dose limits, encouraging the application of the ALARA (as low as reasonably achievable) concept through its licensing and compliance activities

  20. Limit theorems for self-similar tilings

    CERN Document Server

    Bufetov, Alexander I

    2012-01-01

    We study deviation of ergodic averages for dynamical systems given by self-similar tilings on the plane and in higher dimensions. The main object of our paper is a special family of finitely-additive measures for our systems. An asymptotic formula is given for ergodic integrals in terms of these finitely-additive measures, and, as a corollary, limit theorems are obtained for dynamical systems given by self-similar tilings.

  1. Strategic analysis of International Forest Products Limited

    OpenAIRE

    Modesto, Robin M.

    2005-01-01

    International Forest Products Limited is a sawmilling company that produces softwood lumber for sale in domestic and international markets including the United States and Japan. Production facilities located in British Columbia, Washington and Oregon produce nearly 1.5 billion board feet of lumber annually. Timber is secured through Crown forest tenure holdings and external open market purchases. This paper includes: a strategic analysis of the firm; an industry analysis; a strategic fit anal...

  2. Corruption as an Alternative to Limit Pricing

    OpenAIRE

    Raluca Elena Buia

    2011-01-01

    We explore to what extent bribery can be an alternative way of fighting rivals� entry on the market when there is uncertainty about the degree of corruption in the public sector. For high levels of corruption, �covert� fight through bribery is the optimal choice of an incumbent. For low degree of corruption, instead, the incumbent prefers to act strategically but overtly by playing a limit pricing game.

  3. Modified Hanoi Towers Groups and Limit Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Makisumi, Shotaro; Steinhurst, Benjamin

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the $k$-peg Hanoi automorphisms and Hanoi self-similar groups, a generalization of the Hanoi Towers groups, and give conditions for them to be contractive. We analyze the limit spaces of a particular family of contracting Hanoi groups, $H_c^{(k)}$, and show that these are the unique maximal contracting Hanoi groups under a suitable symmetry condition. Finally, we provide partial results on the contraction of Hanoi groups with weaker symmetry.

  4. Upwelling limitation by onshore geostrophic flow

    OpenAIRE

    Marchesiello, Patrick; Estrade, P.

    2010-01-01

    Although coastal upwelling has now been the subject of many studies. the only available dynamical upwelling index is derived from a simple relation between upwelling intensity and alongshore winds stress In this study. we first present a primitive equation model simulation of the New Caledonia island legion to show that upwelling intensity can be limited by onshore geostrophic flow Then, we propose a new analytical model accounting for the effect of onshore geostrophic flow on the structure o...

  5. Divertor and scoop limiter experiments on PDX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGuire, K.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, M.; Bol, K.; Boyd, D.; Buchenauer, D.; Budny, R.; Cavallo, A.; Couture, P.; Crowley, T.

    1985-01-01

    Routine operation in the enhanced energy confinement (or H-mode) regime during neutral beam injection was achieved by modifying the PDX divertor hardware to inhibit the influx of neutral gas from the divertor region to the main plasma chamber. A particle scoop limiter has been studied as a mechanical means of controlling particles at the plasma edge, and neutral beam heated discharges with this limiter show similar confinement times (normalized to tau/sub E//I/sub p/) to average H-mode plasmas. Two new instabilities are observed near the plasma edge in PDX during H-mode operation. The first, a quasicoherent fluctuation, occurred in bursts at well-defined frequencies (..delta omega../..omega.. less than or equal to 0.1) in the range 50 to 180 kHz, and had no obvious effects on confinement. The second instability, the edge relaxation phenomena (ERP), did cause deterioration in the global confinement time. The ERP's are characterized by sharp spikes in the divertor plasma density, H/sub ..cap alpha../ emission, and on the x-ray signals they appear as sawtoothlike relaxations at the plasma edge with an inversion radius near the separatrix. Attempts to obtain high ..beta../sub T/ in the H-mode discharges were hampered by a deterioration in the H-mode confinement and major disruptions which limited the achievable ..beta../sub T/. A study of the stability of both the limiter L-mode and divertor H-mode discharges close to the theoretical ..beta.. boundary, showed that the major disruptions observed there are sometimes caused by a fast growing m/n = 1/1 mode with no observable external precursor oscillations.

  6. Divertor and scoop limiter experiments on PDX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Routine operation in the enhanced energy confinement (or H-mode) regime during neutral beam injection was achieved by modifying the PDX divertor hardware to inhibit the influx of neutral gas from the divertor region to the main plasma chamber. A particle scoop limiter has been studied as a mechanical means of controlling particles at the plasma edge, and neutral beam heated discharges with this limiter show similar confinement times (normalized to tau/sub E//I/sub p/) to average H-mode plasmas. Two new instabilities are observed near the plasma edge in PDX during H-mode operation. The first, a quasicoherent fluctuation, occurred in bursts at well-defined frequencies (Δω/ω less than or equal to 0.1) in the range 50 to 180 kHz, and had no obvious effects on confinement. The second instability, the edge relaxation phenomena (ERP), did cause deterioration in the global confinement time. The ERP's are characterized by sharp spikes in the divertor plasma density, H/sub α/ emission, and on the x-ray signals they appear as sawtoothlike relaxations at the plasma edge with an inversion radius near the separatrix. Attempts to obtain high β/sub T/ in the H-mode discharges were hampered by a deterioration in the H-mode confinement and major disruptions which limited the achievable β/sub T/. A study of the stability of both the limiter L-mode and divertor H-mode discharges close to the theoretical β boundary, showed that the major disruptions observed there are sometimes caused by a fast growing m/n = 1/1 mode with no observable external precursor oscillations

  7. Singular limits of the equations of magnetohydrodynamics

    OpenAIRE

    P. Kukučka

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the asymptotic limit for solutions to the equations of magnetohydrodynamics, specifically, the Navier-Stokes-Fourier system describing the evolution of a compressible, viscous, and heat conducting fluid coupled with the Maxwell equations governing the behavior of the magnetic field, when Mach number and Alfv,n number tends to zero. The introduced system is considered on a bounded spatial domain in R(3), supplemented with conservative boundary conditions. Convergence towards...

  8. Philosophical and Pragmatic Limitations of Business Ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Borkowski, Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    There are three working theses formulated and proved in the paper. First, business ethics as a science not wishful thinking, encounters the following, impossible to overcome, difficulties: Lack of a precise definition of business ethics, Ethical relativism, Strong competition on national, international, and global market, Shareholders’ interests vs. social responsibility of a company, Objective (based on scientific laws) limitations of business ethics, Ethical codes vs. the rul...

  9. Advanced Interference Management Technique: Potentials and Limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Namyoon; Heath Jr, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    Interference management has the potential to improve spectrum efficiency in current and next generation wireless systems (e.g. 3GPP LTE and IEEE 802.11). Recently, new paradigms for interference management have emerged to tackle interference in a general class of wireless networks: interference shaping and interference exploitation. Both approaches offer better performance in interference-limited communication regimes than traditionally thought possible. This article provides a high-level ove...

  10. Nuclei at the limits of particle stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The properties and synthesis of nuclei at the limits of particle stability are reviewed. Nuclear reactions were induced and studied by means of the 'exotic' nuclear beams, i.e. beams of radioactive drip-line nuclei. The beams are mostly generated in heavy-ion projectile fragmentation. The cases of both neutron-rich and proton-rich nuclei are discussed. (K.A.) 270 refs.; 13 figs.; 1 tab

  11. Dietary biomarkers: advances, limitations and future directions

    OpenAIRE

    Hedrick Valisa E; Dietrich Andrea M; Estabrooks Paul A; Savla Jyoti; Serrano Elena; Davy Brenda M

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The subjective nature of self-reported dietary intake assessment methods presents numerous challenges to obtaining accurate dietary intake and nutritional status. This limitation can be overcome by the use of dietary biomarkers, which are able to objectively assess dietary consumption (or exposure) without the bias of self-reported dietary intake errors. The need for dietary biomarkers was addressed by the Institute of Medicine, who recognized the lack of nutritional biomarkers as a ...

  12. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  13. Limitations in dual-task performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pannebakker, Merel Mathilde

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, the effect of information-processing overload on working-memory dependent information processing was examined using dual-task paradigms. The experiments described strengthen the importance of a functional explanation for dual-task limitations. First, it showed evidence for a unified coding medium (as put forward in the theory of event coding; Hommel, Müsseler, Aschersleben, & Prinz, 2001) in which features, operations and responses are available and can influence each other. A...

  14. The limitations of QALY: a literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Pettitt, DA; Raza, S; Naughton, B; Roscoe, A; Ramakrishnan, A; Ali, A.; Davies, B.; Dopson, S; Hollander, G.; Smith, JA; Brindley, DA

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is a recognised metric used to evaluate new and innovative healthcare treatments and optimise resource allocation via rational and explicit methodologies. This review examines present limitations of the QALY metric and foreseeable challenges linked to the advancement of regenerative medicine. Methods: The extant literature was reviewed through electronic searches of four key databases; namely Medline, EMBASE, Econlit and Cochr...

  15. Body composition and functional limitation in COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katz Patricia P

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low body mass index has been associated with increased mortality in severe COPD. The impact of body composition earlier in the disease remains unclear. We studied the impact of body composition on the risk of functional limitation in COPD. Methods We used bioelectrical impedance to estimate body composition in a cohort of 355 younger adults with COPD who had a broad spectrum of severity. Results Among women, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a lower risk of self-reported functional limitation after controlling for age, height, pulmonary function impairment, race, education, and smoking history (OR 0.45 per 0.50 increment in lean-to-fat ratio; 95% CI 0.28 to 0.74. Among men, a higher lean-to-fat ratio was associated with a greater distance walked in 6 minutes (mean difference 40 meters per 0.50 ratio increment; 95% CI 9 to 71 meters. In women, the lean-to-fat ratio was associated with an even greater distance walked (mean difference 162 meters per 0.50 increment; 95% CI 97 to 228 meters. In women, higher lean-to-fat ratio was also associated with better Short Physical Performance Battery Scores. In further analysis, the accumulation of greater fat mass, and not the loss of lean mass, was most strongly associated with functional limitation among both sexes. Conclusion Body composition is an important non-pulmonary impairment that modulates the risk of functional limitation in COPD, even after taking pulmonary function into account. Body composition abnormalities may represent an important area for screening and preventive intervention in COPD.

  16. The practice research network: benefits and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    EL-GUEBALY, NADY; Atkinson, Mark J

    2004-01-01

    The 5-year experience of the Canadian Psychiatric Association's practice research network (PRN) in providing a window on physician practices in typical clinical settings is reviewed. The strenghts of the PRN reside in the active participation of clinicians in self-monitoring as well as in the instrument adaptability and flexibility in addressing current issues of national relevance, including identification of educational needs. The PRN limitations are in the fact that the r...

  17. Assignation of limited resources in pediatrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garduño Espinosa Armando

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Limited resources assignation is fundamental in the development of health services and since they will never be enough, justice is- sues arise. Many distributive justice theories are discussed: liberal, equilable and utilitarian, as well as ethic principles and cost-benefit relation, that is, the consequences. Palliative medicine is suggested as a strategy to reduce the cost of hospitable care and to enhance its designation.

  18. Experimental Realization of a Reflective Optical Limiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Jarrett H.; Goldsmith, John H.; Browning, Andrew T.; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I.; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Makri, Eleana; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2016-06-01

    Optical limiters transmit low-intensity light, while blocking laser radiation with excessively high irradiance or fluence. A typical optical limiter involves a nonlinear material which is transparent at low light intensity and becomes opaque when the light intensity exceeds a certain level. Most of the high-level radiation is absorbed by the nonlinear material causing irreversible damage. This fundamental problem could be solved if the state of the nonlinear material changed from transparent to highly reflective (not absorptive) when the intensity becomes too high. None of the known nonlinear optical materials display such a property. A solution can be provided by a nonlinear photonic structure. In this communication, we report the experimental realization of a reflective optical limiter. The design is based on a planar microcavity composed of alternating SiO2 and Si3N4 layers with a single GaAs defect layer in the middle. At low intensity, the planar microcavity displays a strong resonant transmission via a cavity mode. As the intensity increases, two-photon absorption in GaAs kicks in, initially resulting in the microcavity-enhanced light absorption. A further increase in light intensity, though, suppresses the cavity mode along with the resonant transmission; the entire planar microcavity turns highly reflective within a broad frequency range covering the entire photonic band gap. This seemingly counterintuitive behavior is a general feature of resonant transmission via a cavity mode with purely nonlinear absorption.

  19. At the limit of polychromatic microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a high-energy 3rd generation source like the Advanced Photon Source (APS), it is possible to push the performance of polychromatic microdiffraction far beyond current levels and to approach the intrinsic limit of the technique based on sample damage and the diffraction limit of X-rays. We describe ongoing efforts to improve the spatial, temporal and momentum transfer resolution of polychromatic microdiffraction on beamline 34-ID-E at the APS. The goal of this effort is to provide high-resolution images of 3D crystal structures over sufficient volumes and with sufficient detail to clarify the underlying physics of inhomogeneous structure and evolution on mesoscopic length scales. The performance of a high-speed amorphous Si area detector system and the ongoing development of advanced focusing optics will be described and discussed in light of the ultimate limits set by the physics of X-rays and materials, and in light of opportunities to field specialized insertion devices and optics for polychromatic microdiffraction.

  20. Generalised derived limits for radioisotopes of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Generalised Derived Limits (GDLs) are evaluated for plutonium isotopes in materials from the terrestrial and aquatic environments and for discharge to atmosphere. They are intended for use as convenient reference levels against which the results of environmental monitoring can be compared and atmospheric discharges assessed. GDLs are calculated using assumptions concerning the habits and location of the critical group of exposed individuals in the population. They are intended for use when the environmental contamination or discharge to atmosphere is less than about 5% of the GDL. If the level of environmental contamination or discharge to the atmosphere exceeds this percentage of the GDL it does not necessarily mean that the dose equivalents to members of the public are approaching the dose equivalent limit. It is rather an indication that it may be appropriate to obtain a more specific derived limit for the particular situation by reviewing the values of the parameters involved in the calculation. GDL values are specified for plutonium radionuclides in air, water, soil, sediments and various foodstuffs derived from the terrestrial and aquatic environments. GDLs are also given for plutonium radionuclides on terrestrial surfaces and for their discharge to atmosphere. (author)

  1. MHD stability limits in the TCV Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimerdes, H. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas (CRPP), CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2001-07-01

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities can limit the performance and degrade the confinement of tokamak plasmas. The Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV), unique for its capability to produce a variety of poloidal plasma shapes, has been used to analyse various instabilities and compare their behaviour with theoretical predictions. These instabilities are perturbations of the magnetic field, which usually extend to the plasma edge where they can be detected with magnetic pick-up coils as magnetic fluctuations. A spatially dense set of magnetic probes, installed inside the TCV vacuum vessel, allows for a fast observation of these fluctuations. The structure and temporal evolution of coherent modes is extracted using several numerical methods. In addition to the setup of the magnetic diagnostic and the implementation of analysis methods, the subject matter of this thesis focuses on four instabilities, which impose local and global stability limits. All of these instabilities are relevant for the operation of a fusion reactor and a profound understanding of their behaviour is required in order to optimise the performance of such a reactor. Sawteeth, which are central relaxation oscillations common to most standard tokamak scenarios, have a significant effect on central plasma parameters. In TCV, systematic scans of the plasma shape have revealed a strong dependence of their behaviour on elongation {kappa} and triangularity {delta}, with high {kappa}, and low {delta} leading to shorter sawteeth with smaller crashes. This shape dependence is increased by applying central electron cyclotron heating. The response to additional heating power is determined by the role of ideal or resistive MHD in triggering the sawtooth crash. For plasma shapes where additional heating and consequently, a faster increase of the central pressure shortens the sawteeth, the low experimental limit of the pressure gradient within the q = 1 surface is consistent with ideal MHD predictions. The

  2. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  3. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  4. On the Confidence Limit of Hilbert Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Norden

    2003-01-01

    Confidence limit is a routine requirement for Fourier spectral analysis. But this confidence limit is established based on ergodic theory: For stationary process, temporal average equals the ensemble average. Therefore, one can divide the data into n-sections and treat each section as independent realization. Most natural processes in general, and climate data in particular, are not stationary; therefore, there is a need for the Hilbert Spectral analysis for such processes. Here ergodic theory is no longer applicable. We propose to use various adjustable parameters in the shifting processes of the Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method to obtain an ensemble of Intrinsic Mode Function 0 sets. Based on such an ensemble, we introduce a statistical measure in. a form of confidence limits for the Intrinsic Mode Functions, and consequently, the Hilbert spectra. The criterion of selecting the various adjustable parameters is based on the orthogonality test of the resulting M F sets. Length-of-day data from 1962 to 2001 will be used to illustrate this new approach. Its implication in climate data analysis will also be discussed.

  5. Animal models of preeclampsia; uses and limitations.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McCarthy, F P

    2012-01-31

    Preeclampsia remains a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and has an unknown etiology. The limited progress made regarding new treatments to reduce the incidence and severity of preeclampsia has been attributed to the difficulties faced in the development of suitable animal models for the mechanistic research of this disease. In addition, animal models need hypotheses on which to be based and the slow development of testable hypotheses has also contributed to this poor progress. The past decade has seen significant advances in our understanding of preeclampsia and the development of viable reproducible animal models has contributed significantly to these advances. Although many of these models have features of preeclampsia, they are still poor overall models of the human disease and limited due to lack of reproducibility and because they do not include the complete spectrum of pathophysiological changes associated with preeclampsia. This review aims to provide a succinct and comprehensive assessment of current animal models of preeclampsia, their uses and limitations with particular attention paid to the best validated and most comprehensive models, in addition to those models which have been utilized to investigate potential therapeutic interventions for the treatment or prevention of preeclampsia.

  6. Upper Limit for Regional Sea Level Projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jevrejeva, Svetlana; Jackson, Luke; Riva, Riccardo; Grinsted, Aslak; Moore, John

    2016-04-01

    With more than 150 million people living within 1 m of high tide future sea level rise is one of the most damaging aspects of warming climate. The latest Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report (AR5 IPCC) noted that a 0.5 m rise in mean sea level will result in a dramatic increase the frequency of high water extremes - by an order of magnitude, or more in some regions. Thus the flood threat to the rapidly growing urban populations and associated infrastructure in coastal areas are major concerns for society. Hence, impact assessment, risk management, adaptation strategy and long-term decision making in coastal areas depend on projections of mean sea level and crucially its low probability, high impact, upper range. With probabilistic approach we produce regional sea level projections taking into account large uncertainties associated with Greenland and Antarctica ice sheets contribution. We calculate the upper limit (as 95%) for regional sea level projections by 2100 with RCP8.5 scenario, suggesting that for the most coastlines upper limit will exceed the global upper limit of 1.8 m.

  7. Power extraction from aeroelastic limit cycle oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunnmon, J. A.; Stanton, S. C.; Mann, B. P.; Dowell, E. H.

    2011-11-01

    Nonlinear limit cycle oscillations of an aeroelastic energy harvester are exploited for enhanced piezoelectric power generation from aerodynamic flows. Specifically, a flexible beam with piezoelectric laminates is excited by a uniform axial flow field in a manner analogous to a flapping flag such that the system delivers power to an electrical impedance load. Fluid-structure interaction is modeled by augmenting a system of nonlinear equations for an electroelastic beam with a discretized vortex-lattice potential flow model. Experimental results from a prototype aeroelastic energy harvester are also presented. Root mean square electrical power on the order of 2.5 mW was delivered below the flutter boundary of the test apparatus at a comparatively low wind speed of 27 m/s and a chord normalized limit cycle amplitude of 0.33. Moreover, subcritical limit cycles with chord normalized amplitudes of up to 0.46 were observed. Calculations indicate that the system tested here was able to access over 17% of the flow energy to which it was exposed. Methods for designing aeroelastic energy harvesters by exploiting nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena and potential improvements to existing relevant aerodynamic models are also discussed.

  8. Nonlinear phonon interferometry at the Heisenberg limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Hil F. H.; Patil, Yogesh Sharad; Chang, Laura; Chakram, Srivatsan; Vengalattore, Mukund

    2016-05-01

    Interferometers operating at or close to quantum limits of precision have found wide application in tabletop searches for physics beyond the standard model, the study of fundamental forces and symmetries of nature and foundational tests of quantum mechanics. The limits imposed by quantum fluctuations and measurement backaction on conventional interferometers (δϕ 1 /√{ N}) have spurred the development of schemes to circumvent these limits through quantum interference, multiparticle interactions and entanglement. Here, we realize a prominent example of such schemes, the so-called SU(1,1) interferometer, in a fundamentally new platform in which the interfering arms are distinct flexural modes of a millimeter-scale mechanical resonator. We realize up to 15.4(3) dB of noise squeezing and demonstrate the Heisenberg scaling of interferometric sensitivity (δϕ 1 / N), corresponding to a 6-fold improvement in measurement precision over a conventional interferometer. We describe how our work extends the optomechanical toolbox and how it presents new avenues for studies of optomechanical sensing and studies of nonequilibrium dynamics of multimode optomechanical systems. This work was supported by the DARPA QuASAR program through a grant from the ARO, the ARO MURI on non-equilibrium manybody dynamics and an NSF INSPIRE award.

  9. Experimental Realization of a Reflective Optical Limiter

    CERN Document Server

    Vella, Jarrett H; Browning, Andrew T; Limberopoulos, Nicholaos I; Vitebskiy, Ilya; Makri, Eleana; Kottos, Tsampikos

    2015-01-01

    Optical limiters transmit low-intensity light, while blocking laser radiation with excessively high intensity or fluence. A typical passive optical limiter absorbs most of the high level radiation, which can cause irreversible damage. In this communication we report the first experimental realization of a reflective optical limiter, which does not absorb the high-level laser radiation, but rather reflects it back to space. The design is based on a periodic layered structure composed of alternating SiO2 and Si3N4 layers with a single GaAs defect layer in the middle. At low intensities, the layered structure displays a strong resonant transmission via the localized defect mode. At high intensities, the two-photon absorption in the GaAs layer suppresses the localized mode along with the resonant transmission, the entire layered structure turns highly reflective within a broad frequency range covering the entire photonic band gap of the periodic layered structure. By contrast, a stand-alone GaAs layer would absor...

  10. Combined SM Higgs Limits at the Tevatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krumnack, N.

    2009-10-01

    We combine results from CDF and D{sup 0} on direct searches for a standard model (SM) Higgs boson (H) in p{bar p} collisions at the Fermilab Tevatron at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. Compared to the previous Higgs Tevatron combination, more data and new channels WH {yields} {tau}{nu}b{bar b}, VH {yields} {tau}{tau}b{bar b}/jj{tau}{tau}, VH {yields} jjb{bar b}, t{bar t}H {yields} t{bar t}b{bar b} have been added. Most previously used channels have been reanalyzed to gain sensitivity. We use the latest parton distribution functions and gg {yields} H theoretical cross sections when comparing our limits to the SM predictions. With 2.0-3.6 fb{sup -1} of data analyzed at CDF, and 0.9-4.2 fb{sup -1} at D{sup 0}, the 95% C.L. upper limits on Higgs boson production are a factor of 2.5 (0.86) times the SM cross section for a Higgs boson mass of m{sub H} = 115 (165) GeV/c{sup 2}. Based on simulation, the corresponding median expected upper limits are 2.4 (1.1). The mass range excluded at 95% C.L. for a SM Higgs has been extended to 160 < m{sub H} < 170 GeV/c{sup 2}.

  11. LIMITS ON QUAOAR'S ATMOSPHERE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Gwyn, Stephen; Kavelaars, J. J. [Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 W. Saanich Rd. Victoria, BCV9E 2E7 (Canada); Trujillo, Chad; Stephens, Andrew W. [Gemini Observatory, Northern Operations Center, 670 N A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Gimeno, German [Gemini Observatory, Southern Operations Center, c/o AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Brown, Michael E., E-mail: wesley.fraser@nrc.ca [California Institute of Technology, Division of Geological and Planetary Sciences, 1200 E. California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)

    2013-09-10

    Here we present high cadence photometry taken by the Acquisition Camera on Gemini South, of a close passage by the {approx}540 km radius Kuiper belt object, (50000) Quaoar, of a r' = 20.2 background star. Observations before and after the event show that the apparent impact parameter of the event was 0.''019 {+-} 0.''004, corresponding to a close approach of 580 {+-} 120 km to the center of Quaoar. No signatures of occultation by either Quaoar's limb or its potential atmosphere are detectable in the relative photometry of Quaoar and the target star, which were unresolved during closest approach. From this photometry we are able to put constraints on any potential atmosphere Quaoar might have. Using a Markov chain Monte Carlo and likelihood approach, we place pressure upper limits on sublimation supported, isothermal atmospheres of pure N{sub 2}, CO, and CH{sub 4}. For N{sub 2} and CO, the upper limit surface pressures are 1 and 0.7 {mu}bar, respectively. The surface temperature required for such low sublimation pressures is {approx}33 K, much lower than Quaoar's mean temperature of {approx}44 K measured by others. We conclude that Quaoar cannot have an isothermal N{sub 2} or CO atmosphere. We cannot eliminate the possibility of a CH{sub 4} atmosphere, but place upper surface pressure and mean temperature limits of {approx}138 nbar and {approx}44 K, respectively.

  12. The Low Noise Limit in Gene Expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy D Dar

    Full Text Available Protein noise measurements are increasingly used to elucidate biophysical parameters. Unfortunately noise analyses are often at odds with directly measured parameters. Here we show that these inconsistencies arise from two problematic analytical choices: (i the assumption that protein translation rate is invariant for different proteins of different abundances, which has inadvertently led to (ii the assumption that a large constitutive extrinsic noise sets the low noise limit in gene expression. While growing evidence suggests that transcriptional bursting may set the low noise limit, variability in translational bursting has been largely ignored. We show that genome-wide systematic variation in translational efficiency can-and in the case of E. coli does-control the low noise limit in gene expression. Therefore constitutive extrinsic noise is small and only plays a role in the absence of a systematic variation in translational efficiency. These results show the existence of two distinct expression noise patterns: (1 a global noise floor uniformly imposed on all genes by expression bursting; and (2 high noise distributed to only a select group of genes.

  13. Geophysical limits to global wind power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvel, Kate; Kravitz, Ben; Caldeira, Ken

    2013-02-01

    There is enough power in Earth's winds to be a primary source of near-zero-emission electric power as the global economy continues to grow through the twenty-first century. Historically, wind turbines are placed on Earth's surface, but high-altitude winds are usually steadier and faster than near-surface winds, resulting in higher average power densities. Here, we use a climate model to estimate the amount of power that can be extracted from both surface and high-altitude winds, considering only geophysical limits. We find wind turbines placed on Earth's surface could extract kinetic energy at a rate of at least 400TW, whereas high-altitude wind power could extract more than 1,800TW. At these high rates of extraction, there are pronounced climatic consequences. However, we find that at the level of present global primary power demand (~ 18TW ref. ), uniformly distributed wind turbines are unlikely to substantially affect the Earth's climate. It is likely that wind power growth will be limited by economic or environmental factors, not global geophysical limits.

  14. Development of limiting decay heat values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of tools are used in the assessment of decay heat during an outage of the CANDU-6. Currently, the technical basis for all of these tools is 'CANDU Channel Decay Power', Reference 1. The methods used in that document were limited to channel decay powers. However, for most outage support analysis, decay heat limits are based on bundle heats. Since the production of that document in 1977, new versions of codes, and updates of general-purpose and CANDU-specific libraries have become available. These tools and libraries have both a more formal technical basis than Reference 1, and also a more formal validation base. Using these tools it is now possible to derive decay heat with more specific input parameters, such as fuel composition, heat per unit of fuel, and irradiation history, and to assign systematically derived uncertainty allowances to such decay heat values. In particular, we sought to examine a broad range of likely bundle histories, and thus establish a set of limiting bundle decay beat values, that could serve as a bounding envelope for use in Nuclear Safety Analysis. (author)

  15. Limited data speaker identification

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H S Jayanna; S R Mahadeva Prasanna

    2010-10-01

    In this paper, the task of identifying the speaker using limited training and testing data is addressed. Speaker identification system is viewed as four stages namely, analysis, feature extraction, modelling and testing. The speaker identification performance depends on the techniques employed in these stages. As demonstrated by different experiments, in case of limited training and testing data condition, owing to less data, existing techniques in each stage will not provide good performance. This work demonstrates the following: multiple frame size and rate (MFSR) analysis provides improvement in the analysis stage, combination of mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC), its temporal derivatives $(\\Delta,\\Delta \\Delta)$, linear prediction residual (LPR) and linear prediction residual phase (LPRP) features provides improvement in the feature extraction stage and combination of learning vector quantization (LVQ) and gaussian mixture model – universal background model (GMM–UBM) provides improvement in the modelling stage. The performance is further improved by integrating the proposed techniques at the respective stages and combining the evidences from them at the testing stage. To achieve this, we propose strength voting (SV), weighted borda count (WBC) and supporting systems (SS) as combining methods at the abstract, rank and measurement levels, respectively. Finally, the proposed hierarchical combination (HC) method integrating these three methods provides significant improvement in the performance. Based on these explorations, this work proposes a scheme for speaker identification under limited training and testing data.

  16. Bases for establishing radiation exposure limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is an essential requirement of good radiation protection that all unnecessary exposure of people should be avoided and that any necessary exposure, whether of workers or of members of the general public, should be minimized. It is, however, an additional requirement that such necessary exposures should not exceed certain stated limits. These principles are based on the possibility that even the smallest exposures may involve some risk of harm, that any risk of harm should be justifiable by the circumstances necessitating it, and that risk should always be limited to an appropriately low level. The bases for establishing exposure limits must therefore involve an assessment of the risk involved in any form of radiation exposure, and an opinion as to the degree of safety that should be ensured in circumstances which necessitate any occupational or public exposure to radiation. There is increasing quantitative evidence on the frequency on which harm, and particularly the induction of malignancies, may be caused in people exposed to radiation at high doses; and somewhat clearer bases than previously for inferring the possible frequencies at low doses. It is therefore easier to assess the degree of safety ensured by restricting radiation exposure to particular levels. It is clear also that a comparable degree of safety should be ensured whether the radiation exposure involves the whole body more of less uniformly, or individual tissues or organs selectively. The ''weighting'' factors appropriate to irradiation of particular tissues from internal emitters can thus be defined in terms of their likely individual contributions to the harm of whole-body irradiation. In this way the limits for different modes of exposure by external or internal radiation can be related so as to ensure that protection should be equally effective for different distributions of absorbed dose in the body. In particular, the over-simplified concept of a single critical organ determining the

  17. Limiting characteristics of the superconducting fault current limiter applied to the neutral line of conventional transformer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Fault current limiter was used a high-speed interrupter. •High-speed interrupter was operated to bypass to the current limiter line. •The size of the fault current was limited to about 80% after the fault occurred. •The fault current was limited quickly within a half-cycle after the fault occurred. -- Abstract: The increased electricity demands influenced by the recent industrial development make the electric power distribution system more comprehensive, and the risks are high to cause failures to steady state electric line due to the extended range of fault at the time of fault occurrence. Also, the high performance and the high precision electric appliances that sensitive to switching surge and fault current expose vulnerability of reduced life span and increased fault occurrence ratio. Therefore, this thesis analyzed the fault limiting characteristics by the fault types by applying the superconducting fault current limiter to the neutral line of the transformer in order to reduce the fault currents that flow such high performance appliances. A current transformer (CT) that detects the fault current in the simulated power distribution system, a switching control system that is self-developed and a transformer are used in constructing a circuit. When a fault occurs, the initial fault current is restricted by the superconducting fault current limiter and simultaneously detours the fault current by operating the SCR contact of the switching control system through the detection by CT. This thesis analyzed the limiting characteristics of the superconducting fault current limiter that are applied to the neutral line of the transformer by the fault types

  18. Limiter H-mode experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, C.E. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bretz, N.L.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Bitter, M.; Budny, R.; Cohen, S.A.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; LeBlanc, B.; Manos, D.M.; Meade, D.; Paul, S.F.; Scott, S.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Towner, H.H.; Wieland, R.M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bateman, G.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chu, T.K.; Co

    1991-05-01

    Limiter H-modes with centrally peaked density profiles have been obtained in TFTR using a highly conditioned graphite limiter. The transition to these centrally peaked H-modes takes place from the supershot to the H-mode rather than the usual L- to H-mode transition observed on other tokamaks. Bidirectional beam heating is required to induce the transition. Density peaking factors, n{sub e}(0)/, greater than 2.3 are obtained and at the same time the H-mode characteristics are similar to those of limiter H-modes on other tokamaks, while the global confinement, {tau}{sub E}, can be >2.5 times L-mode scaling. The transport analysis of the data shows that transport in these H-modes is similar to that of supershots within the inner 0.6 m core of the plasma, but the stored electron energy (calculated using measured values of T{sub e} and n{sub e}) is higher for the H-mode at the plasma edge. Microwave scattering data for the edge plasma shows broad spectra at k = 5.5 cm{sup {minus}1} which begin at the drop in D{sub {alpha}} radiation and are strongly shifted in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. At the same time, beam emission spectroscopy (BES) shows a coherent mode near the boundary which propagates in the ion direction with m = 15--20 at 20--30 kHz. During the ELM event these apparent rotations cease and Mirnov fluctuations in the frequency range of 50--500 kHz increase in intensity. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  19. Limiter H-mode experiments on TFTR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bush, C. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Bretz, N.L.; Fredrickson, E.D.; McGuire, K.M.; Nazikian, R.; Park, H.K.; Schivell, J.; Taylor, G.; Bitter, B.; Budny, R.; Cohen, S.A.; Kilpatrick, S.J.; LeBlanc, B.; Manos, D.M.; Meade, D.; Paul, S.F.; Scott, S.D.; Stratton, B.C.; Synakowski, E.J.; Towner, H.H.; Weiland, R.M.; Arunasalam, V.; Bateman, G.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Boivin, R.; Cavallo, A.; Cheng, C.Z.; Chu, T.K.; Cowl

    1990-12-15

    Limiter H-modes with centrally peaked density profiles have been obtained in TFTR using a highly conditioned graphite limiter. The transition to these centrally peaked H-modes takes place from the supershot to the H-mode rather than the usual L- to H-mode transition observed on other tokamaks. Bi-directional beam heating is required to induce the transition. Density peaking factors, n{sub e}(0)/{l angle}n{sub e}{r angle}, >2.3 are obtained and at the same time the H-mode characteristics are similar to those of limiter H-modes on other tokamaks and the global confinement, {tau}{sub E}, can be >2.5 times L-mode scaling. The TRANSP analysis shows that transport in these H-modes is similar to that of supershots within the inner 60 cm of the plasma, but the stored electron energy (calculated using measured values of T{sub e} and n{sub e}) is higher for the H-mode at the plasma edge. Microwave scattering near the edge shows broad spectra at k = 5.5 cm{sup {minus}1} which begin at the drop in D{sub {alpha}} radiation and are strongly shifted in the electron diamagnetic drift direction. At the same time beam emission spectroscopy shows a coherent mode near the boundary with m = 15--20 at 20--30 kHz which is propagating in the ion direction. During an ELM event these apparent rotations cease and Mirnov fluctuations in the 50--500 kHz increase in intensity.

  20. Numerical determination of the forming limit diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pepelnjak

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: At present the industrial practice demands a reliable determination of forming limits which assuresthe prediction of properly selecting the forming process in a digital environment. Therefore, technological limitsdefined with the forming limit diagrams (FLDs have to be known. The experimental evaluation of FLDs forsheet metal is time consuming and demands expensive equipment. The experimental work could be omitted bypredicting the FLD with numerical simulations.Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents a methodology to determine the entire range of the FLDfor sheet metal in a digital environment. The Marciniak testing procedure simulated with the FEM programABAQUS was selected to determine the FLD. To assure the reliability of the developed method, differentmaterials were analysed: two types of deep drawing steel, an aluminium 3000 alloy, and a Ti-alloy. The selectedmaterials have different mechanical properties and sheet thicknesses ranging from 0.5 mm to 1.23 mm. For theverification of numerically obtained results parallel experimental determinations of the FLDs were performedshowing a good correlation between the FLDs obtained by both approaches.Findings: A specially developed method for the evaluation of the thickness strain as a function of time as well asthe first and the second time derivation of the thickness strain enable the determination of the onset of necking.Research limitations/implications: The presented method of the digital evaluation of the FLDs is still ina developmental phase and needs further improvements for industrial practice. However, in some cases thenumerical approach had already been used for a fast prediction of the FLD prior to performing the experiments.At the current level the developed program still needs an expert to support it in some critical decisions.Originality/value: Considering some methodological improvements and automation procedures the developedmethod could be used in everyday practice.

  1. Thermodynamically reversible generalization of diffusion limited aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Souza, R M; Margolus, N H

    1999-07-01

    We introduce a lattice gas model of cluster growth via the diffusive aggregation of particles in a closed system obeying a local, deterministic, microscopically reversible dynamics. This model roughly corresponds to placing the irreversible diffusion limited aggregation model (DLA) in contact with a heat bath. Particles release latent heat when aggregating, while singly connected cluster members can absorb heat and evaporate. The heat bath is initially empty, hence we observe the flow of entropy from the aggregating gas of particles into the heat bath, which is being populated by diffusing heat tokens. Before the population of the heat bath stabilizes, the cluster morphology (quantified by the fractal dimension) is similar to a standard DLA cluster. The cluster then gradually anneals, becoming more tenuous, until reaching configurational equilibrium when the cluster morphology resembles a quenched branched random polymer. As the microscopic dynamics is invertible, we can reverse the evolution, observe the inverse flow of heat and entropy, and recover the initial condition. This simple system provides an explicit example of how macroscopic dissipation and self-organization can result from an underlying microscopically reversible dynamics. We present a detailed description of the dynamics for the model, discuss the macroscopic limit, and give predictions for the equilibrium particle densities obtained in the mean field limit. Empirical results for the growth are then presented, including the observed equilibrium particle densities, the temperature of the system, the fractal dimension of the growth clusters, scaling behavior, finite size effects, and the approach to equilibrium. We pay particular attention to the temporal behavior of the growth process and show that the relaxation to the maximum entropy state is initially a rapid nonequilibrium process, then subsequently it is a quasistatic process with a well defined temperature. PMID:11969759

  2. Airflow limitation is accompanied by diaphragm dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellebrandová, L; Chlumský, J; Vostatek, P; Novák, D; Rýznarová, Z; Bunc, V

    2016-07-18

    Chronic airflow limitation, caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or by asthma, is believed to change the shape and the position of the diaphragm due to an increase in lung volume. We have made a comparison of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of diaphragm in supine position with pulmonary functions, respiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. We have studied the differences between patients with COPD, patients with asthma, and healthy subjects. Most interestingly we found the lung hyperinflation leads to the changes in diaphragmatic excursions during the breathing cycle, seen in the differences between the maximal expiratory diaphragm position (DPex) in patients with COPD and control group (p=0.0016). The magnitude of the diaphragmatic dysfunction was significantly related to the airflow limitation expressed by the ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 s to slow vital capacity (FEV(1)/SVC), (%, p=0.0007); to the lung hyperinflation expressed as the ratio of the residual volume to total lung capacity (RV/TLC), (%, p=0.0018) and the extent of tidal volume constrain expressed as maximal tidal volume (V(Tmax)), ([l], p=0.0002); and the ratio of tidal volume to slow vital capacity (V(T)/SVC), (p=0.0038) during submaximal exercise. These results suggest that diaphragmatic movement fails to contribute sufficiently to the change in lung volume in emphysema. Tests of respiratory muscle function were related to the position of the diaphragm in deep expiration, e.g. neuromuscular coupling (P(0.1)/V(T)) (p=0.0232). The results have shown that the lung volumes determine the position of the diaphragm and function of the respiratory muscles. Chronic airflow limitation seems to change the position of the diaphragm, which thereafter influences inspiratory muscle function and exercise tolerance. There is an apparent relationship between the position of the diaphragm and the pulmonary functions and exercise tolerance. PMID:27070746

  3. Chiral logarithms in the massless limit tamed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivel, Nikolai; Polyakov, Maxim V; Vladimirov, Alexei

    2008-12-31

    We derive nonlinear recursion relations for the leading chiral logarithms (LLs) in massless theories. These relations not only provide a very efficient method of computation of LLs (e.g., the 33-loop contribution is calculated in a dozen of seconds on a PC) but also equip us with a powerful tool for the summation of the LLs. Our method is not limited to chiral perturbation theory only; it is pertinent to any nonrenormalizable effective field theory such as, for instance, the theory of critical phenomena, low-energy quantum gravity, etc.

  4. Roothaan approach in the thermodynamic limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A systematic method for the solution of the Hartree-Fock equations in the thermodynamic limit is presented. The approach is seen to be a natural extension of the one usually employed in the finite-fermion case, i.e., that developed by Roothaan. The new techniques developed here are applied, as an example, to neutron matter, employing the so-called V1 Bethe homework potential. The results obtained are, by far, superior to those that the ordinary plane-wave Hartree-Fock theory yields

  5. Is Science Nearing Its Limits ? Summarizing Dialogue

    CERN Document Server

    Luminet, J -P

    2008-01-01

    In 2007 an international conference engaged a reflection on the present conditions for sciences and scientific practice, to initiate a dialogue between science, philosophy, epistemology and sociology. Starting from many examples taken from the history of sciences and the present status of astrophysics, cosmology and fundamental physics, I analyze various issues such as the possible limits of theoretical and technological advances, the paradox of non-verifiability in string theory, incompleteness, the role of imagination in scientific research along with educational aspects, the epistemological value of the Ockham's razor principle for constraining theories, and our undersanding of man's place in Creation.

  6. Ethnomathematics and the limits of culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pais, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Research in ethnomathematics has become predominantly focused on "local cultures" and non-scholarized forms of mathematics, thus becoming less a critical reflection on the sociopolitical roots of academic mathematics and the place it occupies in the popular imagination and in schooling, and more ...... the limitations of culture when confronting the economic role of schooling.......Research in ethnomathematics has become predominantly focused on "local cultures" and non-scholarized forms of mathematics, thus becoming less a critical reflection on the sociopolitical roots of academic mathematics and the place it occupies in the popular imagination and in schooling, and more...

  7. Limiting the liability of the nuclear operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the questioning of a fundamental principle of the special nuclear third party liability regime by certain NEA countries: the limitation of the nuclear operator's liability. This regime, set up since the late fifties at European then at worldwide level, had until now been widely adopted in the national legislation of most of the countries with a nuclear power programme. The author analyses the different arguments in favour of restoring unlimited liability for the nuclear operator and attempts to define its implications for the future of the nuclear third party liability regime in NEA countries. (NEA)

  8. ARE THERE LIMITS TO TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firdaus Firdaus

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Although TQM could solve every problems but it does not mean that TQM is unlimited. There are several limitations on TQM application, some examples from international cases is taken to show the failure of TQM implementation. The understanding of TQM philosophy is really necessary. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Meskipun TQM dapat menyelesaikan semua masalah tetapi bukan berarti bahwa TQM tanpa batas. Ada beberapa keterbatasan penerapan TQM yang berujung pada beberapa kasus dunia yang dapat diambil sebagai contoh dari kegagalan penerapan TQM secara baik dan benar. Untuk itu diperlukan pemahaman filosophi TQM secara tepat. Kata kunci: total quality management, keterbatasan TQM

  9. Doppler cooling to the quantum limit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalony, M; Kastberg, A; Klappauf, B; Wilkowski, D

    2011-12-01

    Doppler cooling on a narrow transition is limited by the noise of single scattering events. It shows novel features, which are in sharp contrast with cooling on a broad transition, such as a non-gaussian momentum distribution, and divergence of its mean square value close to the resonance. We have observed those features using 1D cooling on an intercombination transition in strontium, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations. We also find that for very a narrow transition, cooling can be improved using a dipole trap, where the clock shift is canceled. PMID:22242994

  10. Doppler cooling to the Quantum limit

    CERN Document Server

    Chalony, Maryvonne; Klappauf, Bruce; Wilkowski, David

    2011-01-01

    Doppler cooling on a narrow transition is limited by the noise of single scattering events. It shows novel features, which are in sharp contrast with cooling on a broad transition, such as a non-Gaussian momentum distribution, and divergence of its mean square value close to the resonance. We have observed those features using 1D cooling on an intercombination transition in strontium, and compared the measurements with theoretical predictions and Monte Carlo simulations. We also find that for very a narrow transition, cooling can be improved using a dipole trap, where the clock shift is canceled.

  11. Classical limit for semirelativistic Hartree systems

    KAUST Repository

    Aki, Gonca L.

    2008-01-01

    We consider the three-dimensional semirelativistic Hartree model for fast quantum mechanical particles moving in a self-consistent field. Under appropriate assumptions on the initial density matrix as a (fully) mixed quantum state we prove by using Wigner transformation techniques that its classical limit yields the well known relativistic Vlasov-Poisson system. The result holds for the case of attractive and repulsive mean-field interactions, with an additional size constraint in the attractive case. © 2008 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Chimera states: limits and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, Daniel; Panaggio, Mark

    2015-03-01

    ``Chimera states'' are surprising patterns that can be found in systems of identical coupled oscillators, where synchrony and incoherence seem to stably coexist in a spatially asymmetrical state. The existence and stability of chimera states in a variety of settings relevant to real-world systems remains an active topic of research. Here I summarize what is known and present preliminary results for interesting limits including small and large-N, small and large coupling lag, as well as near-local and near-global coupling.

  13. Unit size limitations in smaller power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The developing nations have generally found it an economic necessity to accept the minimum commercial size limit of 600 MWe. Smaller reactor sizes tendered as 'one off' specials carry high specific cost penalties which considerably weaken the competitiveness of nuclear versus conventional thermal plants. The revised IAEA market survey for nuclear power in developing countries (1974 edition) which takes account of the recent heavy escalation in oil prices, indicates a reasonable market for smaller size reactors in the range 150 MWe to 400 MWe, but until this market is approached seriously by manufacturers, the commercial availability and economic viability of smaller size reactors remains uncertain. (orig.)

  14. Limitations on Dimensional Regularization in Renyi Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Bao, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Dimensional regularization is a common method used to regulate the UV divergence of field theoretic quantities. When it is used in the context of Renyi entropy, however, it is important to consider whether such a procedure eliminates the statistical interpretation thereof as a measure of entanglement of states living on a Hilbert space. We therefore examine the dimensionally regularized Renyi entropy of a 4d unitary CFT and show that it admits no underlying Hilbert space in the state-counting sense. This gives a concrete proof that dimensionally regularized Renyi entropy cannot always be obtained as a limit of the Renyi entropy of some finite-dimensional quantum system.

  15. Quantum limit in resonant vacuum tunneling transducers

    CERN Document Server

    Onofrio, Roberto

    2010-01-01

    We propose an electromechanical transducer based on a resonant-tunneling configuration that, with respect to the standard tunneling transducers, allows larger tunneling currents while using the same bias voltage. The increased current leads to an increase of the shot noise and an increase of the momentum noise which determine the quantum limit in the system under monitoring. Experiments with micromachined masses at 4.2 K could show dominance of the momentum noise over the Brownian noise, allowing observation of the quantum-mechanical noise at the mesoscopic scale.

  16. Magnetocaloric effect: Overcoming the magnetic limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plaza, E.J.R. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, Zeferino Vaz s/n, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro-UERJ, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier, 524, 20550-013 RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: plaza@ifi.unicamp.br; Campoy, J.C.P. [Instituto de Fisica ' Gleb Wataghin' , Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, Zeferino Vaz s/n, 13083-970 Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2009-03-15

    We have studied anomalous peaks observed in magnetocaloric -{delta}S(T) curves for systems that undergo first-order magnetostructural transitions. The origin of those peaks, which can exceed the conventional magnetic limit, R ln(2J+1), is discussed on thermodynamic bases by introducing an additional-exchange contribution (due to exchange constant variation arising from magnetostructural transition). We also applied a semiphenomenological model to include this additional-exchange contribution in Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 2}Ge{sub 2}- and MnAs-based systems, obtaining excellent results for the observed magnetocaloric effect.

  17. Magnetocaloric effect: Overcoming the magnetic limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plaza, E. J. R.; Campoy, J. C. P.

    2009-03-01

    We have studied anomalous peaks observed in magnetocaloric -Δ S( T) curves for systems that undergo first-order magnetostructural transitions. The origin of those peaks, which can exceed the conventional magnetic limit, R ln(2 J+1), is discussed on thermodynamic bases by introducing an additional-exchange contribution (due to exchange constant variation arising from magnetostructural transition). We also applied a semiphenomenological model to include this additional-exchange contribution in Gd 5Si 2Ge 2- and MnAs-based systems, obtaining excellent results for the observed magnetocaloric effect.

  18. Brainy light sensors with no diffraction limitations

    CERN Document Server

    Caulfild, H J; Ludman, J; Ludman, Jacques

    2007-01-01

    In total ignorance of what a scene contains, imaging systems are extremely useful. But if we know the scene will be comprised of no more than a few distant point sources, nonimaging systems may achieve better accuracy in a smaller, more rugged, and less expensive manner. We show here that those advantages can be realized in a wide variety of designs. All can beat the diffraction limit under the proper circumstances. We call these sensors "brainy" in analogy to anima; vision which uses poor optics processed by a wonderful computer - a brain.

  19. Chiral logarithms in the massless limit tamed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivel, Nikolai; Polyakov, Maxim V; Vladimirov, Alexei

    2008-12-31

    We derive nonlinear recursion relations for the leading chiral logarithms (LLs) in massless theories. These relations not only provide a very efficient method of computation of LLs (e.g., the 33-loop contribution is calculated in a dozen of seconds on a PC) but also equip us with a powerful tool for the summation of the LLs. Our method is not limited to chiral perturbation theory only; it is pertinent to any nonrenormalizable effective field theory such as, for instance, the theory of critical phenomena, low-energy quantum gravity, etc. PMID:19437635

  20. HerMES: The SPIRE confusion limit

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, H T; Schulz, B.; Levenson, L.; Amblard, A.; Arumugam, V.; Aussel, H.; Babbedge, T.; Blain, A.; Bock, J.; Boselli, A.; Buat, V.; Castro-Rodriguez, N.; Cava, A.; Chanial, P.; Chapin, E.

    2010-01-01

    We report on the sensitivity of SPIRE photometers on the Herschel Space Observatory. Specifically, we measure the confusion noise from observations taken during the Science Demonstration Phase of the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. Confusion noise is defined to be the spatial variation of the sky intensity in the limit of infinite integration time, and is found to be consistent among the different fields in our survey at the level of 5.8, 6.3 and 6.8 mJy/beam at 250, 350 and 500 m...