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Sample records for aflatoxins series iv

  1. Aflatoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic secondary metabolites produced primarily by the filamentous fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin biosynthesis is a quite complex process involving many intermediates and enzymes, regulated at multi-levels. Scientists from biochemist...

  2. Comparison of Russian and IVS intensive series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurdubov, S. L.

    2013-08-01

    The article presents results of first comparison the Russian National UT1-UTC estimation program Ru-U and IVS-intensive international campaign. It is shown that the Ru-U sessions are performing with good accuracy and results can be included into international VLBI data processing scheme. Comparison of different distributions shows that the problem of correlation lack between single delay formal errors and UT1 estimations are presented both in Ru-U and IVS-intensive series.

  3. Bypass of Aflatoxin B[subscript 1] Adducts by the Sulfolobus solfataricus DNA Polymerase IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin; Stone, Michael P. (Vanderbilt)

    2012-07-18

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is oxidized to an epoxide in vivo, which forms an N7-dG DNA adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG). The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG can rearrange to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative. Both AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and the {beta}-anomer of the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct yield G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the latter is more mutagenic. We show that the Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) bypasses AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG in an error-free manner but conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including misinsertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations observed in E. coli. Three ternary (Dpo4-DNA-dNTP) structures with AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adducted template:primers have been solved. These demonstrate insertion of dCTP opposite the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, and correct vs incorrect insertion of dATP vs dTTP opposite the 5'-template neighbor dT from a primed AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG:dC pair. The insertion of dTTP reveals hydrogen bonding between the template N3 imino proton and the O{sup 2} oxygen of dTTP, and between the template T O{sup 4} oxygen and the N3 imino proton of dTTP, perhaps explaining why this polymerase does not efficiently catalyze phosphodiester bond formation from this mispair. The AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG maintains the 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety observed in DNA. The bond between N7-dG and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety remains in plane with the alkylated guanine, creating a 16{sup o} inclination of the AFB{sub 1} moiety with respect to the guanine. A binary (Dpo4-DNA) structure with an AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adducted template:primer also maintains 5'-intercalation of the AFB{sub 1} moiety. The {beta}-deoxyribose anomer is observed. Rotation about the FAPY C5-N{sup 5} bond orients the bond between N{sup 5} and C8 of the AFB{sub 1} moiety out of plane in the 5'-direction, with respect to the FAPY base. The formamide group extends in the 3'-direction. This improves

  4. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for IV Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G.; Silverman, Timothy J.; Marion, Bill; Kurtz, Sarah R.

    2015-06-14

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting IV curves or constructing full series-resistance-free IV curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on micro-inverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. Automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  5. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  6. Shunt and series resistance of photovoltaic module evaluated from the I-V curve; I-V tokusei kara hyokashita taiyo denchi no shunt teiko to chokuretsu teiko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, K.; Kawamura, H.; Yamanaka, S.; Kawamura, H.; Ono, H. [Meijo University, Nagoya (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    With an objective of discussing I-V characteristics when a shadow has appeared on part of a photovoltaic module, evaluations were given as a first stage of the study on saturation current, shunt resistance and series resistance for the solar cell module. As a result of measuring change in amount of power generated in a sunny day with a shadow appearing over the solar cell module, reduction in power generation capability of about 23% was verified. In other words, the I-V characteristics of the solar cell module change largely because of existence of the shadow caused on the module. The I-V characteristics curve may be expressed and calculated as a function of the shunt resistance and series resistance. By curve-fitting measurement data for a case of changing insolation without existence of partial shadow, values of the shunt resistance and series resistance were derived. As a result, it was found that the calculations agree well with measurements. It was made also clear that each parameter shows temperature dependence. 6 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Real-Time Series Resistance Monitoring in PV Systems Without the Need for I-V Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deceglie, Michael G. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Marion, Bill [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Sarah R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    We apply the physical principles of a familiar method, suns-Voc, to a new application: the real-time detection of series resistance changes in modules and systems operating outside. The real-time series resistance (RTSR) method that we describe avoids the need for collecting I-V curves or constructing full series resistance-free I-V curves. RTSR is most readily deployable at the module level on microinverters or module-integrated electronics, but it can also be extended to full strings. We found that automated detection of series resistance increases can provide early warnings of some of the most common reliability issues, which also pose fire risks, including broken ribbons, broken solder bonds, and contact problems in the junction or combiner box. We also describe the method in detail and describe a sample application to data collected from modules operating in the field.

  8. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of a novel series of glycosylated platinum(iv) complexes as antitumor agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qingpeng; Huang, Zhonglv; Ma, Jing; Lu, Xiaolin; Zhang, Li; Wang, Xin; George Wang, Peng

    2016-06-21

    A new series of glycosylated Pt(iv) complexes were designed, synthesized and evaluated for antitumor activities in vitro and in vivo. The incorporation of glycosyl groups to the Pt(iv) system has much influence on the antitumor abilities. Four lead compounds with activities comparable or even superior to cisplatin and oxaliplatin are screened out. These Pt(iv) complexes could be reduced to release Pt(ii) complexes and cause the death of tumour cells. The apoptosis-inducing properties of these compounds are similar to cisplatin. The accumulation of the glycosylated Pt(iv) complexes in cells and DNA is higher than cisplatin and oxaliplatin. The in vivo assay demonstrates that the tested compounds inhibit the growth of HepG2 tumors with low toxicity.

  9. Systematic studies in Turnera (Turneraceae. IV. Series Leiocarpae, Conciliatae and Sessilifoliae ESTUDIOS SISTEMÁTICOS EN TURNERA (TURNERACEAE. IV. SERIES LEIOCARPAE, CONCILIATAE Y SESSILIFOLIAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Arbo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the revision of the series Leiocarpae Urb. is presented, and Turnera callosa Urb. is chosen as lectotype. This series has a distribution similar to that of the genus Turnera in America, most species living in the Chaquean biogeographical region. It has 55 species, the following taxa being new: T. angelicae, T. dasytricha var. crinita, T. diamantinae, T. emendata, T. fissifolia, T. glabrata, T. gouveiana, T. humilis, T. iterata, T. jobertii, T. luetzelburgii var. dubia, T. melochioides var. rugosa, T. paradoxa, T. patens, T. rosulata, T. vallsii, T. venezuelana and T. vicaria. Two new series are also proposed, Conciliatae Arbo for T. rubrobracteata Arbo, a species with an unusual combination of characters, which does not fit in any other series, and Sessilifoliae Arbo, including T. dichotomaand T. revoluta which were excluded from Series Capitatae; the comparative analysis with the members of Leiocarpae has demonstrated that they neither belong to the last series. Keys to identify the different series of the genus and keys for the species of each series treated are provided, as well as morphological descriptions, illustrations and distribution maps

    En este trabajo se presenta la revisión de la serie Leiocarpae Urb., seleccionándose a Turnera
    callosa Urb. como lectotypus. Esta serie tiene una distribución similar a la del género Turnera
    en América; presenta 55 especies, la mayoría de las cuales vive en la región biogeográfica
    Chaqueña. Son nuevos los siguientes taxones: T. angelicae, T. dasytricha var. crinita,
    T. diamantinae, T. emendata, T. fissifolia, T. glabrata, T. gouveiana, T. humilis, T. iterata,
    T. jobertii, T

  10. Aflatoxins in ginseng roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Ovidio, Kathleen; Trucksess, Mary; Weaver, Carol; Horn, Erin; McIntosh, Marla; Bean, George

    2006-02-01

    Ginseng roots can be infected by molds during growth, harvest and storage and result in contamination with mycotoxins. In this study, an analytical method for the determination of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2), a group of structurally similar mycotoxins, in ginseng root was developed. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (8?+?2), diluted and passed through an immunoaffinity column packed with antibodies specific for aflatoxins. The purified extract was then derivatized with a mixture of water, trifluoroacetic acid and acetic acid. Aflatoxins were then separated and quantified by reverse phase liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of total aflatoxins at 2, 4, 8 and 16 ng/g added to toxin-free 4 to 5-year old dried sliced Wisconsin ginseng were 92, 77, 91 and 83% respectively; and relative standard deviations were 3.6, 8.0, 6.9 and 2.0% respectively. A total of 11 wild simulated and 12 cultivated ginseng root samples were analysed for aflatoxins. All cultivated roots were found to be free of aflatoxin contamination. Two of the wild simulated roots contained total aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) at 15.1 and 15.2 ng/g. One moldy ginseng root purchased from a grocery store was found to be contaminated with aflatoxins at 16 ng/g.

  11. Mucopolysaccharidoses type IV A (Morquio syndrome: A case series of three siblings

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    P Rekka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS are a family of inherited metabolic diseases that results from the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes involved in the degradation of the glycosaminoglycans (mucopolysaccharides. Despite the well-documented oral and dental findings of MPS type IV, there is not much literature documented about the incidence of this disorder among siblings in the same family. This report outlines the clinical and radiographic findings found in three siblings with Morquio syndrome.

  12. A series of novel oxovanadium(IV) complexes: Synthesis, spectral characterization and antimicrobial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahani, M. K.; Pandey, S. K.; Pandey, O. P.; Sengupta, S. K.

    2014-09-01

    Oxovanadium(IV) complexes have been synthesized by reacting vanadyl sulfate with Schiff bases derived from 4-amino-5-(substitutedphenoxyacetic acid)-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol and benzil. All these complexes are soluble in DMF and DMSO; low molar conductance values indicate that they are non-electrolytes and characterized by elemental analysis, spectral techniques (UV-Vis, IR, EPR and XRD) and magnetic moment measurements. The EPR spectra indicate that the free electron is in dxy orbital. In vitro antifungal activity of ligands and synthesized compounds was determined against fungi Aspergillus niger, Colletotrichum falcatum and Colletotrichum pallescence and in vitro antibacterial activity was determined by screening the compounds against Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) bacterial strains. The antimicrobial activities have shown that the activity increases upon complexation.

  13. Use of aflatoxin-producing ability medium to distinguish aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing ability medium was tested for its ability to distinguish aflatoxin-positive from aflatoxin-negative strains of Aspergillus flavus in naturally occurring populations from corn at harvest. All of the aflatoxin-positive strains and some of the aflatoxin-negative strains produced aflatoxins when cultured on cracked corn. Although the data indicate that aflatoxin-producing ability medium is not entirely reliable in distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flav...

  14. The skaergaard layered series. Part IV. reaction-transport simulations of foundered blocks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnenthal, Eric L.; McBirney, Alexander R.

    1996-01-02

    During the middle stages of crystallization of the Skaergaard Layered Series large numbers of blocks became detached from the Upper Border Series and settled into the mush of crystals on the floor. It has been recognized for some time that these blocks now have compositions and textures that differ markedly from those of the units from which they came. They tend to be more plagioclase rich and seem to have lost mafic components to the surrounding gabbro. Numerical simulations coupling crystallization, melting, and heat and mass transfer for a multicomponent system show how the blocks reacted with the mush in which they were emplaced. Enhanced cooling and crystallization of a compositionally stratified mush adjacent to the blocks resulted in patterns of melt compositions similar to those of layering around the blocks. Volume changes during crystallization and melting induced convection of the interstitial melt leading to changes in the bulk compositions of the blocks and the surrounding mush. Inhomogeneities such as inclusions are likely to facilitate the onset of compositional convection in a chemically stratified solidification zone.

  15. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  16. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  17. Aflatoxins in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Pietri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The aflatoxin group is comprised of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. In addition, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a hydroxylated metabolite of AFB1, is excreted in the milk of dairy cows consuming an AFB1-contaminated ration. AFB1 has shown extreme acute and chronic toxicity and carcinogenic activity in animals; the acute toxicity of AFM1 is nearly equal to that of AFB1, but its potential carcinogenic hazard is about one order of magnitude less than that of AFB1. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified AFB1 as a human carcinogen (group 1 and AFM1 as a possible carcinogen (group 2A. Recently, the possibility of a synergistic carcinogenic interaction between HBV chronic infection and dietary exposure to AFB1 arose from the observation of their co-existence in countries with high incidences of HCC and was confirmed by further experimental and epidemiological studies. However, the carcinogenic potency of AFB1 is considered much lower in populations where chronic hepatitis infections are rare. For the first time in 2003, significant problems arose in Italy, due to the aflatoxin contamination of maize. The summer was extremely hot and dry and A. flavus is very competitive under these conditions as the plants are stressed. Maize grain is normally utilized in the food supply for dairy cows and as such led to the severe and widespread contamination of milk with AFM1. In the following years (2004-2006, different climatic conditions as well as better compliance with guidelines by farmers, led to a dramatic reduction of the problem.

  18. Diverse inhibitors of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert A; Boston, Rebecca S; Payne, Gary A

    2008-03-01

    Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, extensive research has been focused on identifying compounds that inhibit its biosynthesis. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts containing activity inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis have been reported. Only recently, however, have tools been available to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these inhibitors affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many inhibitors are plant-derived and a few may be amenable to pathway engineering for tissue-specific expression in susceptible host plants as a defense against aflatoxin contamination. Other compounds show promise as protectants during crop storage. Finally, inhibitors with different modes of action could be used in comparative transcriptional and metabolomic profiling experiments to identify regulatory networks controlling aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  19. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin. 983.4 Section 983.4 Agriculture Regulations... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.4 Aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is one of a group of mycotoxins produced by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring compounds...

  20. THE ROLE OF POSTHARVEST MACHINERIES AND PACKAGING IN MINIMIZING AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION IN PEANUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffi Paramawati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available As a tropical country with relatively high humidity and temperature, Indonesia is struggling with aflatoxin which frequently contaminates peanut. Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic toxic substance that could cause liver cancer. Due to the increasing concern on food safety, the Indonesian Drugs and Foods Agency specifies the maximum aflatoxin allowed in peanut as much as 20 ppb. However, researches showed that aflatoxin contamination in peanut in Indonesia is much higher than the threshold. The study was carried out to observe the effect of using postharvest machineries and packaging  treatments on aflatoxin contamination in peanut. Reduction of postharvest processes was conducted by using series of machineries, e.g. thresher, dryer, and sheller. Packaging treatments, e.g. vacuum plastic pack, hermetic glass chamber, and polyethylene (PE plastic wrap were carried out during storage at ambient temperature (25-27°C. The results showed that using machineries in postharvest handling produced peanut free from aflatoxin contamination. However, without effective packaging, the aflatoxin level would increase during storage. Hermetic packaging could protect peanut from the mold as indicated by low level of aflatoxin contamination.

  1. A ligand field series for the 4f-block from experimental and DFT computed Ce(IV/III) electrochemical potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogart, Justin A; Lewis, Andrew J; Boreen, Michael A; Lee, Heui Beom; Medling, Scott A; Carroll, Patrick J; Booth, Corwin H; Schelter, Eric J

    2015-03-16

    Understanding of the sensitivity of the reduction potential of cerium(IV) cations to ligand field strength has yet to benefit from systematic variation of the ligand environment. Detailed analyses for a series of seven cerium(IV) tetrakis(pyridyl-nitroxide) compounds and their cerium(III) analogues in varying ligand field strengths are presented. Electrochemical, spectroscopic, and computational results reveal a close correlation of electronic properties with ligand substituents. Together with electrochemical data for reported eight-coordinate compounds, DFT calculations reveal a broad range of the cerium(IV/III) redox potentials correlated to ligand field strengths, establishing a semiempirical, predictive model for the modulation of cerium redox thermodynamics and ligand field strengths. Applications over a variety of scientific disciplines make use of the fundamental redox thermodynamics of cerium. Such applications will benefit from a combined experimental and theoretical approach for assessing redox cycling of cerium compounds.

  2. Gravitational effects from a series of IVS R&D VLBI-sessions with observations close to the Sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinkelmann, R.; Soja, B.; Schuh, H.

    2015-08-01

    In 2011 and 2012 the IVS observed twelve VLBI research and development (R&D) sessions that include successful observations as angularly close as 3.9° from the heliocenter. Among others, one purpose of these IVS-R&D sessions was to achieve an improvement in the determination of the PPN parameter γ . Besides, by analyzing this specific set of IVS sessions, it was for the first time possible to measure the dispersive effect of the Solar corona with VLBI (Soja et al., 2014). In this work we assess the formal error of the γ-parameter and the contributions of the various terms to the partial derivative of the γ-parameter. Furthermore, we investigate the size of the gravitational delays caused by: (i) Solar monopole field at rest and with approximately linear translation, (ii) rotation of the Solar monopole field, (iii) Solar gravitational field quadrupole expansion, and (iv) Solar higher order term.

  3. Stability of aflatoxins in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A

    2012-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.

  4. Development of Methods for Determination of Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lijuan; Chen, Min; Ying, Yibin

    2016-12-09

    Aflatoxins can cause damage to the health of humans and animals. Several institutions around the world have established regulations to limit the levels of aflatoxins in food, and numerous analytical methods have been extensively developed for aflatoxin determination. This review covers the currently used analytical methods for the determination of aflatoxins in different food matrices, which includes sampling and sample preparation, sample pretreatment methods including extraction methods and purification methods of aflatoxin extracts, separation and determination methods. Validation for analysis of aflatoxins and safety considerations and precautions when doing the experiments are also discussed.

  5. Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA): an analysis of the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario. Executive summary for Federal Region IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honea, B.; Hillsman, E.

    1979-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has hypothesized a number of alternate energy futures as part of its energy planning and analysis programs. In this report, which is part of DOE's Regional Issue Identification and Assessment (RIIA) Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory examines how a proposed energy future called the Mid-Range Projection Series C Scenario would affect Federal Region IV (Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee). This scenario, to be called the Series C Scenario, assumes a medium supply and a medium demand for fuel through 1990, and it incorporates the fuel switching provisions of the Energy Supply and Environmental Coordination Act. The report portrays the major regional environmental, human health and safety, socioeconomic, and institutional effects that might result from the implementation of the Series C Scenario.

  6. Chemistry and Biology of Aflatoxin-DNA Adducts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Michael P.; Banerjee, Surajit; Brown, Kyle L.; Egli, Martin (Vanderbilt)

    2012-03-27

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungal contaminant of stored rice, wheat, corn, and other grainstuffs, and peanuts. This is of concern to human health because it produces the mycotoxin aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}), which is genotoxic and is implicated in the etiology of liver cancer. AFB{sub 1} is oxidized in vivo by cytochrome P450 to form aflatoxin B{sub 1} epoxide, which forms an N7-dG adduct (AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG) in DNA. The latter rearranges to a formamidopyrimidine (AFB{sub 1}-FAPY) derivative that equilibrates between {alpha} and {beta} anomers of the deoxyribose. In DNA, both the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts intercalate above the 5'-face of the damaged guanine. Each produces G {yields} T transversions in Escherichia coli, but the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct is more mutagenic. The Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 DNA polymerase IV (Dpo4) provides a model for understanding error-prone bypass of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG and AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adducts. It bypasses the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct, but it conducts error-prone replication past the AFB{sub 1}-FAPY adduct, including mis-insertion of dATP, consistent with the G {yields} T mutations characteristic of AFB{sub 1} mutagenesis in E. coli. Crystallographic analyses of a series of binary and ternary complexes with the Dpo4 polymerase revealed differing orientations of the N7-C8 bond of the AFB{sub 1}-N7-dG adduct as compared to the N{sup 5}-C8 bond in the AFB{sub 1}-{beta}-FAPY adduct, and differential accommodation of the intercalated AFB{sub 1} moieties within the active site. These may modulate AFB{sub 1} lesion bypass by this polymerase.

  7. Exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in human body fluids. A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Latiff, Aishah A; Ahmad, Nurul Izzah; Rosma, Ahmad

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic secondary fungal metabolites mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. Human exposure to aflatoxins may result directly from ingestion of contaminated foods, or indirectly from consumption of foods from animals previously exposed to aflatoxins in feeds. This paper focuses on exposure measurement of aflatoxins and aflatoxin metabolites in various human body fluids. Research on different metabolites present in blood, urine, breast milk, and other human fluids or tissues including their detection techniques is reviewed. The association between dietary intake of aflatoxins and biomarker measurement is also highlighted. Finally, aspects related to the differences between aflatoxin determination in food versus the biomarker approach are discussed.

  8. Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiujiang

    2012-01-01

    Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving aflatoxin contamination. PMID:23202305

  9. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  10. 7 CFR 983.150 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Rules and Regulations § 983.150 Aflatoxin regulations. (a) Maximum level. No... within the production area are exempt from the aflatoxin regulation of this section. (d) Aflatoxin... and analyzed using High Pressure Liquid Chromatograph (HPLC), Vicam Method (Aflatest), or other...

  11. 7 CFR 983.50 - Aflatoxin regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin regulations. 983.50 Section 983.50..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Regulations § 983.50 Aflatoxin regulations. The committee shall establish, with the approval of the Secretary, such aflatoxin sampling, analysis, and inspection requirements...

  12. Association of Aflatoxin and Gallbladder Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koshiol, Jill; Gao, Yu-Tang; Dean, Michael

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones. METHODS: We measured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine adducts in plasma sampl...

  13. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  14. Aflatoxins and child health in Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. de Vries

    1989-01-01

    textabstractIn this thesis it has become evident that aflatoxin contamination is wide spread in tropical Kenya. The source of aflatoxins is in the food consumed by these people. It is sad to reflect that if western standards for aflatoxin contamination (11) were applied to the food consumed by our p

  15. Electric and Hybrid Vehicle System Research and Development Project: Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment. Volume IV. Series systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popinski, Z.

    1979-09-30

    In the Hybrid Vehicle Potential Assessment Task three major powertrain configurations (parallel, parallel with flywheel, and series) were studied. An evaluation of the series configuration is presented. The series configuration has the advantage that the engine is mechanically uncoupled from the wheels and can be operated at its best economy point much of the time. The mechanical energy produced by the engine is converted through a generator into electrical energy which is used to drive the motor or charge the batteries. This configuration offers a good degree of flexibility. It has the disadvantage that substantial losses of energy occur since the mechanical energy from the engine passes through several components before being used to drive the wheels. The energy produced by the engine is reduced by the product of efficiencies of components connected in series. Trade-offs involved in the study of the series configuration were directed toward establishing the size of the engine, motor and generator to meet vehicle acceleration performance; determining what level to operate the engine, and determining when to use the battery. These results were then used in the electric range simulation.

  16. Contemporary American Success Stories. Famous People of Asian Ancestry. Volume IV. A Mitchell Lane Multicultural Biography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvis, Barbara J.

    This collection of biographical sketches presents role models of Asian American descent for American children. As part of the five-volume series written at a reading level for grades five to six, the success stories of the individuals profiled in this volume, and who have encountered racial prejudice and discrimination, remind all of the unique…

  17. Contemporary American Success Stories: Famous People of Hispanic Heritage. Volume IV. A Mitchell Lane Multicultral Biography Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvis, Barbara J.

    The term "Hispanic" is an umbrella term that encompasses people from many nationalities, all races, and many social and cultural groups. Hispanics are also collectively called Latinos. The biographies in this series represent the diversity of Hispanic heritage in the United States. The people featured are contemporary figures of…

  18. Aflatoxin Accumulation in a Maize Diallel Cross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Paul Williams

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, occur naturally in maize. Contamination of maize grain with aflatoxin is a major food and feed safety problem and greatly reduces the value of the grain. Plant resistance is generally considered a highly desirable approach to reduction or elimination of aflatoxin in maize grain. In this investigation, a diallel cross was produced by crossing 10 inbred lines with varying degrees of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation in all possible combinations. Three lines that previously developed and released as sources of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation were included as parents. The 10 parental inbred lines and the 45 single crosses making up the diallel cross were evaluated for aflatoxin accumulation in field tests conducted in 2013 and 2014. Plants were inoculated with an A. flavus spore suspension seven days after silk emergence. Ears were harvested approximately 60 days later and concentration of aflatoxin in the grain determined. Parental inbred lines Mp717, Mp313E, and Mp719 exhibited low levels (3–12 ng/g of aflatoxin accumulation. In the diallel analysis, both general and specific combining ability were significant sources of variation in the inheritance of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. General combining ability effects for reduced aflatoxin accumulation were greatest for Mp494, Mp719, and Mp717. These lines should be especially useful in breeding for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Breeding strategies, such as reciprocal recurrent selection, would be appropriate.

  19. AFLATOXIN LEVELS IN LOCALLy GROWN MAIZE FROM MAKUENI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-07-07

    Jul 7, 2008 ... Makueni District and to correlate aflatoxin levels to maize drying and storage practices. Also, ... Conclusion: High levels of aflatoxin in homegrown and purchased maize suggested that aflatoxin ..... Agriculture and Food Safety.

  20. Kajian Transformasi Visual Desain Karakter Eevee pada Game Pokémon Series Generasi I-V

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Isma Aryani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Pokémon game series is a representation of the media culture that offers a world of simulation by creating signs through storyline, gameplay, environment, as well as game characters, so that it becomes a part of digital culture. The design of Pokémon character, in this case is Eevee, is able to generate its fans curiosity and addiction resulted from the application of Manga-matrix method, color theory and morphological-forced-connections technique through the visual transformation of character design itself. This study is a qualitative research that conducted through the application of Manga-matrix principle including internal and external factors on the characters, similarity analysis or the relation among the theories connected to visual element and the interpretation of character meaning, and the combination of character design theories as the reflection of the Satoshi Tajiri as well as Japanese society’s ideology or thinking pattern in cultural implementation. The analysis shows that Eevee’s changing form still contains similarity with its existence of additional elements creates variety of forms in Eevee’s character visualization. Those Eevee’s form variety becomes the essence of the creation of the character as the media that introduces the visual transformation of character design in a game, in this matter is the Pokémon game series.

  1. Current Understanding on Aflatoxin Biosynthesis and Future Perspective in Reducing Aflatoxin Contamination

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Traditional molecular techniques have been used in research in discovering the genes and enzymes that are involved in aflatoxin formation and genetic regulation. We cloned most, if not all, of the aflatoxin pathway genes. A consensus gene cluster for aflatoxin biosynthesis was discovered in 2005. The factors that affect aflatoxin formation have been studied. In this report, the author summarized the current status of research progress and future possibilities that may be used for solving afla...

  2. Aflatoxins in black tea in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouretedal, Zohreh; Mazaheri, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are highly toxic, and carcinogenic secondary fungal metabolites and have been detected in various food commodities. In this regard, 40 black tea samples including domestic and imported black tea were analysed for aflatoxin contamination by high-performance liquid chromatography using a post-column derivatisation procedure (Kobra cell) with fluorescence detection. Samples were randomly collected in 2010 from Tehran markets. The results revealed that 30 among 40 samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (27.5% of the total). Mean AFB1 content was 10.0 ng/g and mean of aflatoxin total was 12.07 ng/g for the 11 contaminated samples.

  3. Quantitative correlation of aflatoxin biomarker with dietary intake of aflatoxin in Tanzanian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routledge, Michael N; Kimanya, Martin E; Shirima, Candida P; Wild, Christopher P; Gong, Yun Yun

    2014-08-01

    The association between aflatoxin intake from maize-based weaning food and aflatoxin albumin adducts (AF-alb) was investigated in 148 Tanzanian children aged between 12 and 22 months, at 2 visits 6 months apart. At the first visit (storage season) there was a significant correlation at the individual level between AF-alb (geometric mean 43.2 pg/mg albumin) and aflatoxin intake (geometric mean 81.7 ng/kg b.w./d) through maize-based weaning food (r = 0.51, p aflatoxin intake from maize in weaning food. Exposure levels suggest children may be at risk from aflatoxin associated health effects.

  4. Computational search for aflatoxin binding proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liu, Jinfeng; Zhang, Lujia; He, Xiao; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2017-10-01

    Aflatoxin is one of the mycotoxins that contaminate various food products. Among various aflatoxin types (B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1), aflatoxin B1 is the most important and the most toxic one. In this study, through computational screening, we found that several proteins may bind specifically with different type of aflatoxins. Combination of theoretical methods including target fishing, molecular docking, molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, MM/PBSA calculation were utilized to search for new aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. A recently developed method for calculating entropic contribution to binding free energy called interaction entropy (IE) was employed to compute the binding free energy between the protein and aflatoxin B1. Through comprehensive comparison, three proteins, namely, trihydroxynaphthalene reductase, GSK-3b, and Pim-1 were eventually selected as potent aflatoxin B1 binding proteins. GSK-3b and Pim-1 are drug targets of cancers or neurological diseases. GSK-3b is the strongest binder for aflatoxin B1.

  5. Aflatoxins in Iran: Nature, Hazards and Carcinogenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DD Farhud

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that mycotoxin contamination of agricultural products is a challenge for individual's health espe­cially in developing countries. Improper production and storage of foods, prepare conditions for aflatoxin production in crops, especially rice, wheat, pistachio, walnut, almond, etc which are the main sources of foods for people. Feeding live­stock by contaminated bread is another way of human exposure to mycotoxins, especially aflatoxin and because of expen­sive methods for detecting and analyzing aflatoxin in laboratory; it is not measured in foods. This manuscript is a review of some Iranian and nonIranian reports about aflatoxin, its exposure ways, its adverse effect on human health and nutrition, as well as methods for reducing its exposure. Based on studies on foods, aflatoxin exposure is high in Iran. Since livestock feeding by contaminated bread is one of the potential ways for milk contamination, we should control and reduce aflatoxin contamination by improving production process, storage condition and livestock feeding as soon as possible. Pistachio is one of the most important exporting products of Iran and to maintain Iran's position in exporting of this product, specific regulations on lowering its contamination with aflatoxin should be considered seriously. Finally, effective controlling of all food and feedstuffs which are vulnerable to aflatoxin contamination is necessary to prevent its effects.

  6. Aflatoxins, hepatocellular carcinoma and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Arvin; Parsi, Mansour A

    2013-03-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths worldwide, primarily affecting populations in the developing countries. Aflatoxin, a food contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is a known human carcinogen that has been shown to be a causative agent in the pathogenesis of HCC. Aflatoxin can affect a wide range of food commodities including corns, oilseeds, spices, and tree nuts as well as milk, meat, and dried fruit. Many factors affect the growth of Aspergillus fungi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in food. Drought stress is one of the factors that increase susceptibility of plants to Aspergillus and thus aflatoxin contamination. A recent drought is thought to be responsible for finding of trace amounts of aflatoxin in some of the corn harvested in the United States. Although it's too soon to know whether aflatoxin will be a significant problem, since United States is the world's largest corn producer and exporter, this has raised alarm bells. Strict regulations and testing of finished foods and feeds in the United States should prevent a major health scare, and prevent human exposure to deleterious levels of aflatoxin. Unfortunately, such regulations and testing are not in place in many countries. The purpose of this editorial is to summarize the current knowledge on association of aflatoxin and HCC, encourage future research and draw attention to this global public health issue.

  7. Biological control of aflatoxin contamination of crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-ni YIN; Lei-yan YAN; Jin-hua JIANG; Zhong-hua MA

    2008-01-01

    Aflatoxins produced primarily by two closely related fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are mutagenic and carcinogenic in animals and humans. Of many approaches investigated to manage aflatoxin contamination, biological control method has shown great promise. Numerous organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and nontoxigenic fungal strains of A.flavus and A. parasiticus, have been tested for their ability in controlling aflatoxin contamination. Great successes in reducing aflatoxin contamination have been achieved by application of nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus in fields of cotton, peanut, maize and pistachio. The nontoxigenic strains applied to soil occupy the same niches as the natural occurring toxigenic strains. They, therefore, are capable of competing and displacing toxigenic strains. In this paper, we review recent development in biological control of aflatoxin contamination.

  8. Kenyan perceptions of aflatoxin: an analysis of raw milk consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Walke, Maria; Mtimet, Nadhem; Baker, Derek; Lindahl, Johanna; Hartmann, Monika; Grace, Delia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a human health threat concern in many developing countries. This study examines Kenyan milk consumers’ behaviour toward aflatoxin by way of choice experiments. Further, willingness to pay for different types of milk and aflatoxin status awareness were assessed. Four attributes were selected to describe milk products: smell, colour, price and aflatoxin-free certification. Results indicate that awareness of aflatoxin is relatively high, and that consumers are willing to pay a signi...

  9. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible ...

  10. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  11. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled.

  12. Association of Aflatoxin and Gallbladder Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiol, Jill; Gao, Yu-Tang; Dean, Michael; Egner, Patricia; Nepal, Chirag; Jones, Kristine; Wang, Bingsheng; Rashid, Asif; Luo, Wen; Van Dyke, Alison L; Ferreccio, Catterina; Malasky, Michael; Shen, Ming-Chang; Zhu, Bin; Andersen, Jesper B; Hildesheim, Allan; Hsing, Ann W; Groopman, John

    2017-08-01

    Aflatoxin, which causes hepatocellular carcinoma, may also cause gallbladder cancer. We investigated whether patients with gallbladder cancer have higher exposure to aflatoxin than patients with gallstones. We measured aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-lysine adducts in plasma samples from the Shanghai Biliary Tract Cancer case-control study, conducted from 1997 through 2001. We calculated age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and the population-attributable fraction for 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs 250 patients with gallstones without cancer (controls). In 54 patients with gallbladder cancer, tumor tissue was examined for the R249S mutation in TP53, associated with aflatoxin exposure, through targeted sequencing. The AFB1-lysine adduct was detected in 67 (32%) of 209 patients with gallbladder cancer and 37 (15%) of the 250 controls (χ(2) P aflatoxin was 20% (95% CI, 15%-25%). In a case-control study of patients with gallbladder cancer and gallstones vs patients with gallstones without cancer, we associated exposure to aflatoxin (based on plasma level of AFB1-lysine) with gallbladder cancer. Gallbladder cancer does not appear associate with the R249S mutation in TP53. If aflatoxin is a cause of gallbladder cancer, it may have accounted for up to 20% of the gallbladder cancers in Shanghai, China, during the study period, and could account for an even higher proportion in high-risk areas. If our findings are verified, reducing aflatoxin exposure might reduce the incidence of gallbladder cancer. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.

  14. Aflatoxin Control in Maize by Trametes versicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzia Scarpari

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus flavus is a well-known ubiquitous fungus able to contaminate both in pre- and postharvest period different feed and food commodities. During their growth, these fungi can synthesise aflatoxins, secondary metabolites highly hazardous for animal and human health. The requirement of products with low impact on the environment and on human health, able to control aflatoxin production, has increased. In this work the effect of the basidiomycete Trametes versicolor on the aflatoxin production by A. flavus both in vitro and in maize, was investigated. The goal was to propose an environmental loyal tool for a significant control of aflatoxin production, in order to obtain feedstuffs and feed with a high standard of quality and safety to enhance the wellbeing of dairy cows. The presence of T. versicolor, grown on sugar beet pulp, inhibited the production of aflatoxin B1 in maize by A. flavus. Furthermore, treatment of contaminated maize with culture filtrates of T. versicolor containing ligninolytic enzymes, showed a significant reduction of the content of aflatoxin B1.

  15. Global population structure and adaptive evolution of aflatoxin producing fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    We employed interspecific principal component analyses for six different categories (geography, species, precipitation, temperature, aflatoxin chemotype profile, and mating type) and inferred maximum likelihood phylogenies for six combined loci, including two aflatoxin cluster regions (aflM/alfN and...

  16. Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M H; Pakfetrat, S

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20 µg kg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p < 0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2) = 0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively.

  17. Aflatoxin B1 producing potential of Aspergillus flavus strains isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food and feed. (Reddy and .... plates were then observed under UV light at 365 nm and compared with standard aflatoxin spotted ..... Mycotoxin production on rice, pulses and oilseeds.

  18. Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessing the impact of aflatoxin consumption on animal health and ... However, the ability of the livestock sector to contribute to improving nutritional security is ... information on the impact of aflatoxins on livestock health and productivity, with ...

  19. Compound list: aflatoxin B1 [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aflatoxin B1 AFB1 00165 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aflatoxin..._B1.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aflatoxin_B1.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  20. 7 CFR 996.11 - Negative aflatoxin content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Negative aflatoxin content. 996.11 Section 996.11 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing... aflatoxin content. Negative aflatoxin content means 15 parts per billion (ppb) or less for peanuts that have...

  1. 7 CFR 983.5 - Aflatoxin inspection certificate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin inspection certificate. 983.5 Section 983.5 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing..., ARIZONA, AND NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.5 Aflatoxin inspection certificate. Aflatoxin inspection...

  2. The threats to food safety and biocontrol of aflatoxins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are a serious food safety concern for human and animal health. Great attention should be paid to the dietary exposure to these toxins in order to reduce the risk of aflatoxin contamination in the food chain. Although the research on aflatoxins was started more than 50 years ago, it is sti...

  3. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  4. Prophage induction and mutagenicity of a series of anti-tumour platinum(II) and platinum(IV) co-ordination complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattern, I.E.; Cocchiarella, L.; Kralingen, C.G. van; Lohman, P.H.M.

    1982-01-01

    Eleven platinum compounds with nitrogen donor ligands, previously tested for anti-tumour activity were studied for induction of prophage lambda and for mutagenicity in the Ames assay, with various strains of Salmonella. The compounds included cis and trans isomers of Pt(II) and Pt(IV) complexes and

  5. Transformation of adsorbed aflatoxin B1 on smectite at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins cause liver damage and suppress immunity. Smectites can be used to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins through adsorption. To further reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins and to eliminate the treatments of aflatoxin-loaded smectites, degrading the adsorbed aflatoxin to nontoxic or less ...

  6. Identification and reduction of urinary aflatoxin metabolites in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, A K; Huebner, H J; Phillips, T D; Bauer, J E

    2004-11-01

    Hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) is a phyllosilicate clay commonly used as an anticaking agent in animal feeds. HSCAS tightly and selectively adsorbs aflatoxin. In 1998, 55 dogs died in Texas after eating dog food containing aflatoxin (150-300 ppb). The corn in the diets was contaminated with aflatoxin. Six dogs were given a low-level, sub-clinical dose of aflatoxin B(1). On average, 71.5% of aflatoxin M(1) cleared within 6 h after dosing, increasing to 90.4% after 12 h. Aflatoxin M(1) was no longer detectable in urine after 48 h. Aflatoxin P(1) was not found in urine compared to large amounts of M(1) and trace amounts of Q(1). In a crossover study, six dogs randomly fed a commercial dog food (no-clay control) or coated with HSCAS (0.5% by weight) were subsequently administered a sub-clinical dose of aflatoxin B(1). Diets were switched and the process repeated. The HSCAS-coated diet significantly reduced urinary aflatoxin M(1) by 48.4%+/-16.6 SD versus the control diet. In conclusion, HSCAS protects dogs fed diets with even minimal aflatoxin contamination. Despite regular and careful ingredient screening for aflatoxin, low concentrations may reach the final product undetected. Therefore, HSCAS may provide the pet food industry further assurance of canine diet safety.

  7. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in maize of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin and ochratoxin levels were determined in maize samples collected from store houses of 15 districts belonging to three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. Toxins were extracted by Aflaochra immunoaffinity columns and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean moisture content of maize kernels was recorded above the safe storage level of 15%. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 and B2 contamination was found in 97.3% and 78.9% of the collected samples, respectively. Aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2 and ochratoxin A were not detected in any sample. Among positive samples, 77.3% contained aflatoxin B1 and 28% aflatoxin B2, exceeding the legal limits as set by the European Union (EU) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). It was concluded that a significant number of samples contained aflatoxin B1 and B2 above the legal limits.

  8. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  9. A survey of urinary aflatoxin in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyathi, C B; Mutiro, C F; Hasler, J A; Chetsanga, C J

    1987-12-01

    In this study, 1228 urine samples were collected from different centres in Zimbabwe and were analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The urine samples were extracted with chloroform and analysed by thin layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography. The most commonly observed contaminant was aflatoxin M1, at an average concentration of 4.2 ng/ml of urine. Although the national average of urine samples contaminated was 4.3%, there were areas in which up to 10% of the urine samples were contaminated.

  10. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and its conjugated metabolites by rat gastrointestinal microfloras.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Rat cecal microflora from high- and low-fiber-fed animals hydrolyzed aflatoxin conjugates to metabolites indistinguishable from aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin P1, but aflatoxicol was not a transformation product.

  11. Aflatoxin Exposure During Pregnancy, Maternal Anemia, and Adverse Birth Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Humphrey, Jean H; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2017-04-01

    AbstractPregnant women and their developing fetuses are vulnerable to multiple environmental insults, including exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin that may contaminate as much as 25% of the world food supply. We reviewed and integrated findings from studies of aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy and evaluated potential links to adverse pregnancy outcomes. We identified 27 studies (10 human cross-sectional studies and 17 animal studies) assessing the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and adverse birth outcomes or anemia. Findings suggest that aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy may impair fetal growth. Only one human study investigated aflatoxin exposure and prematurity, and no studies investigated its relationship with pregnancy loss, but animal studies suggest aflatoxin exposure may increase risk for prematurity and pregnancy loss. The fetus could be affected by maternal aflatoxin exposure through direct toxicity as well as indirect toxicity, via maternal systemic inflammation, impaired placental growth, or elevation of placental cytokines. The cytotoxic and systemic effects of aflatoxin could plausibly mediate maternal anemia, intrauterine growth restriction, fetal loss, and preterm birth. Given the widespread exposure to this toxin in developing countries, longitudinal studies in pregnant women are needed to provide stronger evidence for the role of aflatoxin in adverse pregnancy outcomes, and to explore biological mechanisms. Potential pathways for intervention to reduce aflatoxin exposure are urgently needed, and this might reduce the global burden of stillbirth, preterm birth, and low birthweight.

  12. Potential of lactic acid bacteria in aflatoxin risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Sara H; Joutsjoki, Vesa; Korhonen, Hannu J

    2015-08-17

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous mycotoxins contaminating food and feed. Consumption of contaminated food and feed can cause a severe health risk to humans and animals. A novel biological method could reduce the health risks of aflatoxins through inhibiting mold growth and binding aflatoxins. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in fermented food production. LAB are known to inhibit mold growth and, to some extent, to bind aflatoxins in different matrices. Reduced mold growth and aflatoxin production may be caused by competition for nutrients between bacterial cells and fungi. Most likely, binding of aflatoxins depends on environmental conditions and is strain-specific. Killed bacteria cells possess consistently better binding abilities for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) than viable cells. Lactobacilli especially are relatively well studied and provide noticeable possibilities in binding of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in food. It seems that binding is reversible and that bound aflatoxins are released later on (Haskard et al., 2001; Peltonen et al., 2001). This literature review suggests that novel biological methods, such as lactic acid bacteria, show potential in mitigating toxic effects of aflatoxins in food and feed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of series resistance and cooling conditions on I-V characteristics of SiC merged PiN Schottky diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hapka, Aneta, E-mail: hapka@ie.tu.koszalin.pl [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, J. J. Sniadeckich 2, Koszalin, Postal Code: 75-453 (Poland); Janke, Wlodzimierz; Krasniewski, Jaroslaw [Department of Electronics and Computer Science, Koszalin University of Technology, J. J. Sniadeckich 2, Koszalin, Postal Code: 75-453 (Poland)

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents the exemplary electro-thermal models of merged PiN Schottky diode - a diode with the parallel PiN junction, protecting the device against the uncontrolled voltage rise, causing so-called thermal runaway. In the presented models, the conductivity modulation effect in the PiN junction is taken into account. The influence of the PiN junction on the non-isothermal I-V characteristics of MPS diodes, for various cooling conditions, is discussed. It is shown, that the thermal runaway is possible, in spite of presence of protecting PiN junction.

  14. Asteroids IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Patrick; DeMeo, Francesca E.; Bottke, William F.

    . Asteroids, like planets, are driven by a great variety of both dynamical and physical mechanisms. In fact, images sent back by space missions show a collection of small worlds whose characteristics seem designed to overthrow our preconceived notions. Given their wide range of sizes and surface compositions, it is clear that many formed in very different places and at different times within the solar nebula. These characteristics make them an exciting challenge for researchers who crave complex problems. The return of samples from these bodies may ultimately be needed to provide us with solutions. In the book Asteroids IV, the editors and authors have taken major strides in the long journey toward a much deeper understanding of our fascinating planetary ancestors. This book reviews major advances in 43 chapters that have been written and reviewed by a team of more than 200 international authorities in asteroids. It is aimed to be as comprehensive as possible while also remaining accessible to students and researchers who are interested in learning about these small but nonetheless important worlds. We hope this volume will serve as a leading reference on the topic of asteroids for the decade to come. We are deeply indebted to the many authors and referees for their tremendous efforts in helping us create Asteroids IV. We also thank the members of the Asteroids IV scientific organizing committee for helping us shape the structure and content of the book. The conference associated with the book, "Asteroids Comets Meteors 2014" held June 30-July 4, 2014, in Helsinki, Finland, did an outstanding job of demonstrating how much progress we have made in the field over the last decade. We are extremely grateful to our host Karri Muinonnen and his team. The editors are also grateful to the Asteroids IV production staff, namely Renée Dotson and her colleagues at the Lunar and Planetary Institute, for their efforts, their invaluable assistance, and their enthusiasm; they made life as

  15. Aflatoxins: biosynthesis, occurrence, toxicity, and remedies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrar, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Pasha, Imran; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Saeed, Farhan; Waqas, Khalid

    2013-01-01

    Food contagion with aflatoxins is the modern concern and has received a great awareness during the last few decades. The intermittent incidence of these toxins in agricultural commodities has negative role on the economy of the affected regions where harvest and postharvest techniques for the prevention of mold growth, are seldom practiced. Aflatoxins are difuranocoumarin derivatives produced by a polyketide pathway by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus via polyketide pathway which are highly hepatotoxic, hepatocarcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic in nature and contaminate a wide variety of important agricultural commodities before, during, and after harvest in various environmental conditions. The production of aflatoxins in innate substrates depends upon the various factors, that is, type of substrate, fungal species, moisture contents of the substrate, minerals, humidity, temperature, and physical damage of the kernels. These toxins cause several ailments such as cancer, hepatitis, mutation abnormalities, and reproduction disorders. Minimization and inactivation of aflatoxins contaminants through proper crop management at farm level and with physical, chemical, and biological techniques are the limelight of the article.

  16. Aflatoxin-Exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a Novel System for the Generation of Aflatoxin Synthesis Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummadidala, Phani M.; Chen, Yung Pin; Beauchesne, Kevin R.; Miller, Kristen P.; Mitra, Chandrani; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Moeller, Peter D. R.; Ferry, John L.; Decho, Alan W.; Chanda, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here, we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle-, and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:27375561

  17. Aflatoxin-exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a novel system for the generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani M Gummadidala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle- and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, LaeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism.

  18. Banana peel: an effective biosorbent for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Zahid Hussain; Fletcher, Mary T; Sumbal, Gul Amer; Sherazi, Syed Tufail Hussain; Giles, Cindy; Bhanger, Muhammad Iqbal; Nizamani, Shafi Muhammad

    2016-05-01

    This work reports the application of banana peel as a novel bioadsorbent for in vitro removal of five mycotoxins (aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) and ochratoxin A). The effect of operational parameters including initial pH, adsorbent dose, contact time and temperature were studied in batch adsorption experiments. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and point of zero charge (pHpzc) analysis were used to characterise the adsorbent material. Aflatoxins' adsorption equilibrium was achieved in 15 min, with highest adsorption at alkaline pH (6-8), while ochratoxin has not shown any significant adsorption due to surface charge repulsion. The experimental equilibrium data were tested by Langmuir, Freundlich and Hill isotherms. The Langmuir isotherm was found to be the best fitted model for aflatoxins, and the maximum monolayer coverage (Q0) was determined to be 8.4, 9.5, 0.4 and 1.1 ng mg(-1) for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 respectively. Thermodynamic parameters including changes in free energy (ΔG), enthalpy (ΔH) and entropy (ΔS) were determined for the four aflatoxins. Free energy change and enthalpy change demonstrated that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous. Adsorption and desorption study at different pH further demonstrated that the sorption of toxins was strong enough to sustain pH changes that would be experienced in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that biosorption of aflatoxins by dried banana peel may be an effective low-cost decontamination method for incorporation in animal feed diets.

  19. A Case Series of Survival Outcomes in Patients with Advanced-stage IIIb/IV Non-small-cell Lung Cancer Treated with HangAm-Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bang Sun-Hwi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC represents approximately 80% of all lung cancers. Unfortunately, at their time of diagnosis, most patients have advanced to unresectable disease with a very poor prognosis. The oriental herbal medicine HangAm-Plus (HAP has been developed for antitumor purposes, and several previous studies have reported its therapeutic effects. In this study, the efficacy of HAP was evaluated as a third-line treatment for advanced-stage IIIb/IV NSCLC. Methods: The study involved six patients treated at the East- West Cancer Center (EWCC from April 2010 to October 2011. Inoperable advanced-stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients received 3,000 or 6,000 mg of HAP on a daily basis over a 12-week period. Computed tomography (CT scans were obtained from the patients at the time of the initial administration and after 12 weeks of treatment. We observed and analyzed the patients overall survival (OS and progression-free survival (PFS. Results: Of the six patients, three expired during the study, and the three remaining patients were alive as of October 31, 2011. The OS ranged from 234 to 512 days, with a median survival of 397 days and a one-year survival rate of 66.7%. In the 12-week-interval chest CT assessment, three patients showed stable disease (SD, and the other three showed progressive disease (PD. The PFS of patients ranged from 88 to 512 days, the median PFS being 96 days. Longer OS and PFS were correlated with SD. Although not directly comparable, the OS and the PFS of this study were greater than those of the docetaxel or the best supportive care group in other studies. Conclusion: HAP may prolong the OS and the PFS of inoperable stage IIIb/IV NSCLC patients without significant adverse effects. In the future, more controlled clinical trials with larger samples from multi-centers should be conducted to evaluate the efficacy and the safety of HAP.

  20. PENGARUH PENYIMPANAN KACANG TANAH DI RUMAHTANGGA TERHADAP KANDUNGAN AFLATOXIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhilal Muhilal

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Pengaruh penjimpanan katjang tanah dirumah tangga terhadap kandungan aflatoxin. (The aflatoxin contents of home-stored peanuts. To determine the limit of storage time of peanut at homes to prevent contamination by aflatoxin, samples of peanut were stored at homes in urban and rural communities. It was found that peanut started to contain aflatoxin in the tenth week, and by the 14th week the content had exceeded the safe level of 30 ppb. Drying peanut to eight per cent water content then storing them in tins with waxed covers may prevent aflatoxin contami­nation for 20 weeks. Aflatoxin ialah racun yang dihasilkan oleh cendawan Aspergillus flavus (1 yang banyak terdapat pada bahan makanan yang bercendawan. Bahaya toxin ini ialah dapat mengakibatkan kerusakan hati yang biasanya disusul oleh kematian dalam waktu singkat. Bila racun ini terkonsumsi dalam jumlah sedikit tetapi dalam waktu lama, akibat yang khas ialah kanker hati primer (2.

  1. Salter-Harris type III and IV displaced fracture of the hallux in young gymnasts: A series of four cases at 1-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perugia, Dario; Fabbri, Mattia; Guidi, Marco; Lepri, Marco; Masi, Vincenzo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe four exceptional cases of Salter-Harris type III and IV fractures of the proximal phalanx of the hallux in young high-level gymnasts. All gymnasts underwent the same mechanism of injury of hyperadduction, which indicates a role of the abductor hallucis muscle in the genesis and displacement of these fractures. An open reduction and internal fixation was performed to achieve an anatomical reduction and avoid chronic disability. At 1-year follow-up, all patients had an excellent American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score (100 points), and there was no shortening or angulation of the first ray and no evidence of degenerative joint disease on X-ray. Moreover, all the gymnasts had returned to pre-injury levels of sporting activity. To our knowledge, there are no previous studies that address these types of injuries and how they are handled in gymnasts.

  2. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

    2012-01-01

    High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian

  3. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

    2012-01-01

    High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Hols

  4. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N2, 0.1% O2 and 1% O2, 21% O2, then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min, a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB1 of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B1 was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G1. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics.

  5. Genetic Features of Aflatoxin-Associated Hepatocellular Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weilong; He, Huan; Zang, Mengya; Wu, Qifeng; Zhao, Hong; Lu, Ling-Ling; Ma, Peiqing; Zheng, Hongwei; Wang, Nengjin; Zhang, Ying; He, Siyuan; Chen, Xiaoyan; Wu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Xiaoyue; Cai, Jianqiang; Liu, Zhihua; Sun, Zongtang; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Qu, Chunfeng; Jiao, Yuchen

    2017-07-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin is an important risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, little is known about the genomic features and mutations of aflatoxin-associated HCCs compared with HCCs not associated with aflatoxin exposure. We investigated the genetic features of aflatoxin-associated HCC that can be used to differentiate them from HCCs not associated with this carcinogen. We obtained HCC tumor tissues and matched non-tumor liver tissues from 49 patients, collected from 1990 through 2016, at the Qidong Liver Cancer Hospital Institute in China-a high-risk region for aflatoxin exposure (38.2% of food samples test positive for aflatoxin contamination). Somatic variants were identified using GATK Best Practices Pipeline. We validated part of the mutations from whole-genome sequencing and whole-exome sequencing by Sanger sequencing. We also analyzed genomes of 1072 HCCs, obtained from 5 datasets from China, the United States, France, and Japan. Mutations in 49 aflatoxin-associated HCCs and 1072 HCCs from other regions were analyzed using the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute mutational signatures framework with non-negative matrix factorization. The mutation landscape and mutational signatures from the aflatoxin-associated HCC and HCC samples from general population were compared. We identified genetic features of aflatoxin-associated HCC, and used these to identify aflatoxin-associated HCCs in datasets from other regions. Tumor samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry to determine microvessel density and levels of CD34 and CD274 (PD-L1). Aflatoxin-associated HCCs frequently contained C>A transversions, the sequence motif GCN, and strand bias. In addition to previously reported mutations in TP53, we found frequent mutations in the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor B1 gene (ADGRB1), which were associated with increased capillary density of tumor tissue. Aflatoxin-associated HCC tissues contained high-level potential mutation

  6. Theoretical characterization of aflatoxins and their phototoxic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Rita C.; Eriksson, Leif A.

    2006-05-01

    Key molecular properties are calculated for the 8 most common aflatoxins at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level. Special attention is given the possibility of aflatoxins to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is concluded that the excited triplet states of the aflatoxins have properties that make them very potent ROS generators, in addition to direct photoinduced addition reactions. The elevated toxicity of aflatoxin B1 is discussed in terms of its lower ionization potential, and the coincidence of higher lying triplet states with dominant low-lying singlet excitations, which enables rapid intersystem crossing and decay along the triplet channel to the T 1 state.

  7. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Spadaro, Davide; Prelle, Ambra; Vallauri, Dario; Cavallero, Maria Chiara; Garibaldi, Angelo; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2016-04-26

    Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N₂, 0.1% O₂ and 1% O₂, 21% O₂), then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W) and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min) were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min), a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB₁ of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B₁ and G₁ were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B₂ and G₂, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B₁ was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G₁. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics.

  8. PCR detection of aflatoxin producing fungi and its limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Robert E

    2012-05-01

    Unlike bacterial toxins that are primarily peptides and are therefore encoded by a single gene, fungal toxins such as the aflatoxins are multi-ring structures and therefore require a sequence of structural genes for their biological synthesis. There is therefore no specific PCR for any one of the four biologically produced aflatoxins. Unfortunately, the structural genes presently in use for PCR detection of aflatoxin producing fungi are also involved in the synthesis of other fungal toxins such as sterigmatocystin by Aspergillus versicolor and Aspergillus nidulans and therefore lack absolute specificity for aflatoxin producing fungi (Table 1). In addition, the genomic presence of several structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis does not guarantee the production of aflatoxin by all isolates of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. The most widely used DNA target regions for discriminating Aspergillus species are those of the rDNA complex, mainly the internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (ITS1 and ITS2) and the variable regions in the 5'-end of the 28S rRNA gene. Since these sequence regions are unrelated to the structural genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis there successful amplification can be used for species identification but do not confirm aflatoxin production. This review therefore presents the various approaches and limitations in the use of the PCR in attempting to detect aflatoxin producing fungi.

  9. Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and binding of aflatoxin by lactic acid bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflatoxin M1 in raw milk and binding of aflatoxin by lactic acid bacteria

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is potential human carcinogen. Its presence in milk and dairy products represents risk for human health. Therefore, this study was carried out in order to determine thedegree of microbiological contamination by mold, and the potential presence of aflatoxin M1 in 60 raw milk samples, randomly taken from individual producers from different regions of the continental Croatia. The most common genera isolated fungi were Geotrichum (78.3 %, Aspergillus (32.4 % and Penicillium (27.0 %. From total of 60 studied milk samples, 86.66 % were positive for the presence of aflatoxin M1, and 6.66 % of samples were above the prescribed limits. Lactic acid bacteria used in fermented dairy products as a starter culture may play a role in reduction of aflatoxin in foods and nutrients. In this paper the ability of lactic acid bacteria: Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103, Lactobacillus delbrueckii S1 and Lactobacillus plantarum A1 to bind aflatoxin M1 was investigated. Standard strain L. rhamnosus GG (ATCC 53103 and L. delbrueckii S1 can significantly (P50 % compared to L. plantarum A1, which binds AFM1 between 18.7 to 28.7 %.

  10. Hepatitis infections, aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    The incidence rates of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC show large geographic variations, globally reflecting the prevalence of two main aetiologic factors, hepatitis B (HBV and/or C (HCV virus infection and exposure to high levels of aflatoxin in the diet (Chen et al. 1997. The highest incidence rates are observed in regions where most of the population is exposed to both factors, such as in parts of eastern Asia and in sub-Saharan Africa (Parkin et al. 2001. These high incidences are consistent with the fact that HBV chronicity and exposure to aflatoxin have a multiplicative effect of risk for HCC. Depending on aetiology and geographic area, mutations in TP53 show striking differences in prevalence and pattern. In Europe and the US, where alcohol is a major risk factor in addition to viral infections, mutations occur in about 25% of HCC and show as much diversity in their type and codon position as in most other epithelial cancers. However, in high incidence areas such as Mozambique, Senegal, The Gambia (Africa and Qidong county (China, TP53 is mutated in over 50% of the cases and the vast majority of these mutations are a single missense, hotspot mutation at codon 249, AGG to AGT, resulting in the substitution of arginine into serine (249ser. This mutation is uncommon in regions where aflatoxin is not present at significant levels in the diet. In areas of intermediate exposure to aflatoxin, as for example in Thailand, the prevalence of the 249ser mutation is intermediate between high- and low-incidence areas. Thus, there is a dose-dependent relationship between exposure to aflatoxin, incidence of HCC and prevalence of 249ser mutation. Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites produced by several varieties of molds, mainly Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticum. These molds contaminate a wide range of traditional agricultural products in countries

  11. Streptomyces-Aspergillus flavus interactions: impact on aflatoxin B accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Zhu, Y; Mathieu, F

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the potential of Streptomyces sp. as biocontrol agents against aflatoxins in maize. As such, we assumed that Streptomyces sp. could provide a complementary approach to current biocontrol systems such as Afla-guard(®) and we focused on biocontrol that was able to have an antagonistic contact with A. flavus. A previous study showed that 27 (out of 38) Streptomyces sp. had mutual antagonism in contact with A. flavus. Among these, 16 Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin content to below 17% of the residual concentration. We selected six strains to understand the mechanisms involved in the prevention of aflatoxin accumulation. Thus, in interaction with A. flavus, we monitored by RT-qPCR the gene expression of aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS. All the Streptomyces sp. were able to reduce aflatoxin concentration (24.0-0.2% residual aflatoxin B1). They all impacted on gene expression, but only S35 and S38 were able to repress expression significantly. Indeed, S35 significantly repressed aflM expression and S38 significantly repressed aflR, aflM and aflP. S6 reduced aflatoxin concentrations (2.3% residual aflatoxin B1) and repressed aflS, aflM and enhanced aflR expression. In addition, the S6 strain (previously identified as the most reducing pure aflatoxin B1) was further tested to determine a potential adsorption mechanism. We did not observe any adsorption phenomenon. In conclusion, this study showed that Streptomyces sp. prevent the production of (aflatoxin gene expression) and decontamination of (aflatoxin B1 reduction) aflatoxins in vitro.

  12. The interface states and series resistance effects on the forward and reverse bias I-V, C-V and G/{omega}-V characteristics of Al-TiW-Pd{sub 2}Si/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uslu, H.; Altindal, S.; Aydemir, U. [Department of Physics, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Doekme, I., E-mail: ilbilgedokme@gazi.edu.t [Science Education Department, Gazi Education Faculty, Gazi University, 06500 Ankara (Turkey); Afandiyeva, I.M. [Baku State University, Baku (Azerbaijan)

    2010-07-30

    Illumination intensity effects on the electrical characteristics of Al-TiW-Pd{sub 2}Si/n-Si Schottky structures have been investigated in this study for the first time. The electrical parameters such as ideality factor (n), zero-bias-barrier height ({Phi}{sub B0}), series resistance (R{sub s}), depletion layer width (W{sub D}) and dopping concentration (N{sub D}) of Al-TiW-Pd{sub 2}Si/n-Si Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) have been investigated by using the forward and reverse bias current-voltage (I-V), capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G/{omega}-V) measurements in dark and under illumination conditions at room temperature. The values of C and G/{omega} increase with increasing illumination intensity due to the illumination induced electron-hole pairs in the depletion region. The density of interface states (N{sub ss}) distribution profiles as a function of (E{sub c} - E{sub ss}) was extracted from the forward I-V measurements by taking into account the bias dependence of the effective barrier heights ({Phi}{sub e}) for device in dark and under various illumination intensities. The high values of N{sub ss} were responsible for the nonideal behavior of I-V, C-V and G/{omega} characteristics. The values of R{sub s} obtained from Cheung and Nicollian methods decrease with increasing illumination intensity. The high values of n and R{sub s} have been attributed to the particular distribution of N{sub ss}, surface preparation, inhomogeneity of interfacial layer and barrier height at metal/semiconductor (M/S) interface. As a result, the characteristics of SBD are affected not only in N{sub ss} but also in R{sub s}, and these two parameters strongly influence the electrical parameters.

  13. Het voorkomen van aflatoxine M1 in babyvoedingsmiddelen bereid op basis van melk(producten) ; Nederlandse monsters getrokken in 1989 en 1994

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sizoo EA; Egmond HP van; ARO

    1997-01-01

    Twee series babyvoedingsmiddelen bereid op basis van melkproducten werden onderzocht op het voorkomen van aflatoxine M1. 46 monsters waren verzameld in de maand september 1989 en 34 monsters waren verzameld in de periode februari - maart 1994. Een nieuwe HPLC analysemethode, waarin extracten

  14. Effect of almond processing on levels and distribution of aflatoxins in finished products and byproducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Perrone, Giancarlo; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2014-06-18

    The fate of aflatoxins during processing of contaminated almonds into nougat, pastries, and almond syrup was evaluated by testing the effect of each processing step (blanching, peeling, roasting, caramelization, cooking, and water infusion) on the distribution and levels of aflatoxins. Blanching and peeling did not reduce total aflatoxins that were distributed between peeled almonds (90-93%) and skins (7-10%). Roasting of peeled almonds reduced up to 50% of aflatoxins. Up to 70% reduction of aflatoxins was observed during preparation and cooking of almond nougat in caramelized sugar. Aflatoxins were substantially stable during preparation and cooking of almond pastries. The whole process of almond syrup preparation produced a marked increase of total aflatoxins (up to 270%) that were distributed between syrup (18-25%) and spent almonds (75-82%). The increase of total aflatoxins was probably due to the activation of almond enzymes during the infusion step that released free aflatoxins from masked aflatoxins.

  15. The occurrence of aflatoxins in selected spices and dried fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Stanisławczyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic substances formed by fungi which are a potential danger for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination with the aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in selected spices and dried fruits available in trade in the Podkarpackie province. The studies confirm the widespread occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in spices, spices mixtures and dried fruits, however, in none of the tested samples there was exceeded the permissible concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2. The highest content of aflatoxin B1 was determined in red pepper and universal spices mixture while the smallest in figs and raisins. The monitoring of aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2  showed similar results. The highest level was determined in universal spices mixture and in red pepper.

  16. The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul Craig

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated. PMID:24455429

  17. Effect of supplementing lactating goats fed on aflatoxin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    to milk without causing any change in composition of milk. Key words: Activated charcoal, aflatoxin, aflatoxin excretion, bentonite, milk contamination. Introduction ... on fluorescence properties on thin layer plates, four types of ..... mixed function oxidases, to a group of hydroxylated .... in human nutrition and health. European.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness of Aflatoxin Control Methods: Economic Incentives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sectors in U.S. crop industries – growers, elevators, handlers/shellers, processors, distributors, and consumers – are affected by aflatoxin contamination of commodities, and have the potential to control it. Aflatoxin control methods at both preharvest and postharvest levels have been dev...

  19. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with met...

  20. Determination of aflatoxins in food using LC/MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahl, Martin; Jørgensen, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method is described for the determination of aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2) in food with the use of aflatoxin M-1 as an internal standard. The method works well with matrices such as those of figs...

  1. Determination of aflatoxin in processed dried cassava root

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, Gbemenou Joselin Benoit; Katerere, David R.; Adjovi, Yann

    2010-01-01

    A new method that uses HPLC with a photochemical reactor for enhanced detection was developed and validated for the determination of aflatoxins in cassava flour. Samples were spiked with a mixture of four aflatoxins at 5, 10, and 20 microg/kg mixed with either 1 or 5 g NaCI and extracted with met...

  2. A new series of bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)tungsten(IV), -(V), -(VI) complexes as reaction centre models of tungsten enzymes: preparation, crystal structures and spectroscopic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Hatakeda, Kohei; Toyota, Kazuo; Tatemoto, Susumu; Kubo, Minoru; Ogura, Takashi; Itoh, Shinobu

    2013-03-07

    The carbomethoxy substituted dithiolene ligand (L(COOMe)) enabled us to develop a series of new bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)tungsten complexes including W(IV)O, W(IV)(OSiBuPh(2)), W(VI)O(2), W(VI)O(OSiBuPh(2)) and W(VI)O(S) core structures. By using these tungsten complexes, a systematic study of the terminal monodentate ligand effects has been performed on the structural, spectroscopic properties and reactivity. The structure and spectroscopic properties of the tungsten complexes have also been compared to those of the molybdenum complexes coordinated by the same ligand to investigate the effects of the metal ion (W vs. Mo). X-ray crystallographic analyses of the tungsten(IV) complexes have revealed that the tungsten centres adopt a distorted square pyramidal geometry with a dithiolene ligand having an ene-1,2-dithiolate form. On the other hand, the dioxotungsten(VI) complex exhibits an octahedral structure consisting of the bidentate L(COOMe) and two oxo groups, in which π-delocalization was observed between the W(VI)O(2) and ene-1,2-dithiolate units. The tungsten(IV) and dioxotungsten(VI) complexes are isostructural with the molybdenum counter parts. DFT calculation study of the W(VI)O(S) complex has indicated that the W=S bond of 2.2 Å is close to the bond length between the tungsten centre and ambiguously assigned terminal monodentate atom in aldehyde oxidoreductase of the tungsten enzyme. Resonance Raman (rR) spectrum of the W(VI)O(S) complex has shown the two inequivalent L(COOMe) ligands with respect to their bonding interactions with the tungsten centre, reproducing the appearance of two ν(C=C) stretches in the rR spectrum of aldehyde oxidoreductase. Sulfur atom transfer reaction from the W(VI)O(S) complex to triphenylphosphines has also been studied kinetically to demonstrate that the tungsten complex has a lower reactivity by about one-order of magnitude, when compared with its molybdenum counterpart.

  3. Patulin & ergosterol: new quality parameters together with aflatoxins in hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Raci; Otağ, Mustafa; Kadakal, Çetin

    2014-05-01

    Hazelnuts of three different categories, mouldy, hidden mould and sound (undamaged), were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from five hazelnut processing plants located in a major hazelnut producing area in the Black Sea region in Turkey. All aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sound hazelnuts were contaminated with trace or zero amounts of aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts were contaminated with high (246-510ppb; 141-422ppb) aflatoxin levels, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 content was significantly correlated with the patulin and ergosterol contents in mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts. However, there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts.

  4. Occurrence of aflatoxins in human foodstuffs in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loetter, L.H.; Kroehm, H.J.

    1988-02-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of Aspergillus spp and have been reported as contaminants in a number of foodstuffs, namely corn, rice, peanuts, and cereals. In the Republic of South Africa, aflatoxin levels in human foodstuffs are limited to a maximum of 10 ..mu..g/kg for the total and 5 ..mu..g/kg for aflatoxin B/sub 1/. During 1985 and 1986, samples of sorghum beer, sorghum cereal, peanuts, peanut butter and maize meal were purchased from supermarkets in Johannesburg and analyzed for aflatoxins. A total of 414 samples were analyzed during the survey. In 1985, roughly a third of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins, with no levels in excess of the legal limit. In 1986 the percentage of contaminated samples rose significantly, but the levels of contamination remained low, with only one sample exceeding the legal maximum.

  5. Value Added Processing of Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal: Aflatoxin Sequestration During Protein Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficacy of a bentonite clay, Astra-Ben 20A (AB20A), to sequester aflatoxin from contaminated (~110 ppb) peanut meal during protein extraction was studied. Aqueous peanut meal dispersions (10% w/w) were prepared varying pH, temperature, enzymatic hydrolysis conditions, and concentrations of AB2...

  6. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15, immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1. The results revealed low aflatoxin B1contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination.

  7. Aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol contents of dried figs in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, H; Nas, S

    2006-05-01

    Dried figs of three different categories, palatable, fluorescent, and cull, were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2)), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from four fig processing plants located in a major fig producing area in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Affinity column clean-up methods were employed for aflatoxins. All aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Palatable figs contaminated with trace amounts of aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Fluorescent figs were contaminated with high (117.9-471.9 ppb) aflatoxin levels and cull figs with high patulin (39.3-151.6 ppb) and ergosterol (4.5-18 ppm) levels. The total aflatoxins content was significantly correlated with the patulin content (r(2) = 0.813, p < 0.002) and the ergosterol content (r(2) = 0.920, p < 0.002) only in fluorescent figs. However there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of fluorescent figs. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between the contents of any two of the three substances in cull figs. This is the first report on the presence of patulin and its co-occurrence with aflatoxin in dried figs.

  8. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Aiza; Kanwal, Kinza; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg) and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked) was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity. PMID:27781067

  9. Multiclonal plastic antibodies for selective aflatoxin extraction from food samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayram, Engin; Yılmaz, Erkut; Uzun, Lokman; Say, Rıdvan; Denizli, Adil

    2017-04-15

    Herein, we focused on developing a new generation of monolithic columns for extracting aflatoxin from real food samples by combining the superior features of molecularly imprinted polymers and cryogels. To accomplish this, we designed multiclonal plastic antibodies through simultaneous imprinting of aflatoxin subtypes B1, B2, G1, and G2. We applied Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and spectrofluorimetry to characterize the materials, and conducted selectivity studies using ochratoxin A and aflatoxin M1 (a metabolite of aflatoxin B1), as well as other aflatoxins, under competitive conditions. We determined optimal aflatoxin extraction conditions in terms of concentration, flow rate, temperature, and embedded particle amount as up to 25ng/mL for each species, 0.43mL/min, 7.0, 30°C, and 200mg, respectively. These multiclonal plastic antibodies showed imprinting efficiencies against ochratoxin A and aflatoxin M1 of 1.84 and 26.39, respectively, even under competitive conditions. Finally, we tested reusability, repeatability, reproducibility, and robustness of columns throughout inter- and intra-column variation studies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Survey of aflatoxins in Kashkineh: A traditional Iranian food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, M; Rezapour, S; Rezapour, P

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that can contaminate human and animal foods, including corn, wheat, rice, peanuts, and many other crops resulting in the illness or death of human and animal consumers. The aim of this study was to detect aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and total aflatoxin in Kashkineh, a traditional Iranian food. Materials and Methods This survey was conducted to detect aflatoxins on 41 samples of Kashkineh. The samples were randomly collected from traditional bazaars and supermarkets of Khorramabad city of Iran. The presence and quantity of aflatoxins was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The average concentrations of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 in all samples and in a mixed sample of all samples were not detectable (ND). The only sample that showed aflatoxin contamination was sample number 29 of which the AFB1 concentration was 0.64 ng/g. Conclusion Although some people believe Kashkineh is carcinogenic due to toxins, this study showed kashkineh is not contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:22347598

  11. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity.

  12. Survey of Aflatoxins in Kashkineh: A traditional Iranian Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezapour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that can contaminate human and animal foods, including corn, wheat, rice, peanuts, and many other crops resulting in the illness or death of human and animal consumers. The aim of this study was to detect aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and total aflatoxin in Kashkineh, a traditional Iranian food.Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted to detect aflatoxins on 41 samples of Kashkineh. The samples were randomly collected from traditional bazaars and supermarkets of Khorramabad city of Iran. The presence and quantity of aflatoxins was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The average concentrations of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 in all samples and in a mixed sample of all samples were not detectable (ND. The only sample that showed aflatoxin contamination was sample number 29 of which the AFB1 concentration was 0.64 ng/g.Conclusion: Although some people believe Kashkineh is carcinogenic due to toxins, this study showed kashkineh is not contaminated with aflatoxins.

  13. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  14. Invited review: Microbe-mediated aflatoxin decontamination of dairy products and feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sejeong; Lee, Heeyoung; Lee, Soomin; Lee, Jeeyeon; Ha, Jimyeong; Choi, Yukyung; Yoon, Yohan; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2017-02-01

    Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, and Aspergillus nomius contaminate corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, tree nuts, figs, ginger, nutmeg, and milk. They produce aflatoxins, especially aflatoxin B1, which is classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. Many studies have focused on aflatoxin removal from food or feed, especially via microbe-mediated mechanisms-either adsorption or degradation. Of the lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG efficiently binds aflatoxin B1, and a peptidoglycan in the bacterium cell wall plays an important role. This ability of L. rhamnosus GG should be applied to the removal of aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin can be removed using other aflatoxin-degrading microorganisms, including bacterial and fungal strains. This review explores microbe-associated aflatoxin decontamination, which may be used to produce aflatoxin-free food or feed. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Zinc Chelators on Aflatoxin Production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wee, Josephine; Day, Devin M.; Linz, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Zinc concentrations strongly influence aflatoxin accumulation in laboratory media and in food and feed crops. The presence of zinc stimulates aflatoxin production, and the absence of zinc impedes toxin production. Initial studies that suggested a link between zinc and aflatoxin biosynthesis were presented in the 1970s. In the present study, we utilized two zinc chelators, N,N,N′,N′-tetrakis (2-pyridylmethyl) ethane-1,2-diamine (TPEN) and 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) to explore the effect of zinc limitation on aflatoxin synthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus. TPEN but not DMPS decreased aflatoxin biosynthesis up to six-fold depending on whether A. parasiticus was grown on rich or minimal medium. Although we observed significant inhibition of aflatoxin production by TPEN, no detectable changes were observed in expression levels of the aflatoxin pathway gene ver-1 and the zinc binuclear cluster transcription factor, AflR. Treatment of growing A. parasiticus solid culture with a fluorescent zinc probe demonstrated an increase in intracellular zinc levels assessed by increases in fluorescent intensity of cultures treated with TPEN compared to controls. These data suggest that TPEN binds to cytoplasmic zinc therefore limiting fungal access to zinc. To investigate the efficacy of TPEN on food and feed crops, we found that TPEN effectively decreases aflatoxin accumulation on peanut medium but not in a sunflower seeds-derived medium. From an application perspective, these data provide the basis for biological differences that exist in the efficacy of different zinc chelators in various food and feed crops frequently contaminated by aflatoxin. PMID:27271668

  16. A review of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins continue to pose a health concern via human exposure to contaminated food. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), may be found in the milk of dairy cattle and other mammals. In humans, AFM1 is excreted through the feces, urine, and in the case of lactating mothers, also in breast milk after consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food. Concentration of AFM1 in milk is a function of several factors, namely: animal type, milking day, milk yield, season...

  17. Aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin levels in stored cassava chips as affected by processing practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Essono, G.; Ayodele, M.; Akoa, A.

    2009-01-01

    two months and contaminated by a wide array of harmful microbes. In order to assess persistence of toxigenic fungi in cassava chips, aflatoxin-producing fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus nomius, and Aspergillus parasiticus) and aflatoxins were contrasted at regular intervals in home......-stored cassava chips collected in two locations of southern Cameroon throughout a two-month monitoring period. Three hundred and forty-six isolates of aflatoxin-producing fungi were found to be associated with all samples. A. flavus contaminated more samples in both types of chips (267 isolates in 53 samples...

  18. Aflatoxins in animal feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beheshti, Hamed Reza; Asadi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    One hundred and forty-six samples of animal feed (barley, n = 60; wheat bran, n = 22; wheat dry pulp, n = 29; and canola meal, n = 35) were collected in 2011 from Mashhad (Khorasan, Iran). Aflatoxins (AFs) were determined in these samples after immunoaffinity column clean-up by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination was found in 28 samples: in five of the barley samples (8.3%) at a mean level of 0.48 µg·kg(-1), in two wheat bran samples (9.0%) at a mean level of 0.88 µg·kg(-1), in 10 wheat dry pulp samples (34.5%) at a mean level of 0.30 µg·kg(-1) and in 11 canola meal samples (31.4%) at a mean level of 0.92 µg·kg(-1). AFB1 levels were below the maximum levels of Iran regulations (5 µg·kg(-1)) and the EU maximum limit (5 µg·kg(-1)).

  19. Presence of aflatoxins in cereals from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kos Jovana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFs, one of the most toxic and the strongest natural carcinogens can be found in a variety of food commodities, including cereals. For that purpose, the aim of this study was to investigate occurrence of AFs (AFB1, AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 in 130 cereal samples. AFs content was determined by direct competitive Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA method. Samples with AFs content higher than 1 μg/kg were analyzed again with confirmatory High Performance Liquid Chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD. Analyses showed that none of the analyzed wheat (30, barley (20, oats (20 and rye (20 samples was contaminated with AFs. On the other hand, among 40 analyzed maize samples 24 of them (60% were contaminated in the following way: 6 (25% samples had AFs concentration between 1 and 10 μg/kg, 14 (58% samples between 10 and 50 μg/kg and 4 (17% between 50 and 70.3 μg/kg. The most predominant aflatoxin was AFB1 which was detected in all contaminated maize samples. AFG1, AFB2 and AFG2 were found in 12, 5 and 1 sample, respectively. This study represents the first investigation of the occurrence of AFs in five different cereals from Serbia.

  20. Excretion of Aflatoxin M1 in milk of goats fed diet contaminated by Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Battacone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the excretion of aflatoxin M1(AFM1 in milk of three goats fed a single dose (0.8mg/head of pure aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The values of AFM1 concentration excreted in milk was highly variable among goats, even if the pattern of excretion over time was very similar among the three animals. AFM1 was first detected at the milking performed 1h after the AFB1 administration. The highest values of AFM1 concentration in milk were reached 3 and 6h after the AFB1 intake. The trend of clearance of AFM1 in milk over time was expressed by a decreasing exponential equation. AFM1 concentration was below the EU maximum allowed level (50 ng/L in milk collected 36 h after the AFB1 administration.

  1. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  2. Inhibition of Fungal Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis by Diverse Botanically ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    effects on A. flavus growth and AFB1 production. Fungal spores were cultured ... Keywords: Polyphenols, Quercetin, Aflatoxin B1, Inhibition, Antioxidation. Tropical Journal of ..... agents used in animal feed or food processing areas. However,.

  3. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  4. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard; Tang, Dianping; Knopp, Dietmar

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety.

  5. Purification of aflatoxin B1 antibody for the development of aflatoxin biosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prihantoro, E. A. B.; Saepudin, E.; Ivandini, T. A.

    2017-07-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is produced from agricultural products especially peanuts overgrown with aspergillus flavus during the post-harvest process. Aflatoxin is classified as a highly toxic and carcinogenic substance to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), WHO. This research was conducted to develop the AFB1 biosensor using antibody that specifically binds to aflatoxin B1. This antibody was produced by injecting an AFB1 hapten-protein (immunogen) to a rabbit. Antibody was obtained from rabbit's blood serum and purified using Protein A affinity chromatography and precipitation at the isoelectric point. The result showed that purification using protein A contains antibody of 4.0 mg/mL, whereas purification using precipitation at isoelectric pH contains antibody of 0.3 mg/mL. The pure antibody was tested for its specificity against AFB1, tetrahydrofuran (THF), dimethyl formamide (DMF), bovine serum albumin (BSA), and ethanol. The result revealed that THF, BSA, and ethanol were bound to antibody, while DMF showed no interaction. It was concluded that the polyclonal antibody which have been successfully purified from rabbit's blood serum using protein A affinity chromatography and precipitation methods showed an unspecific identification.

  6. Bioremediation of aflatoxins by some reference fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shiekh, Hussein H; Mahdy, Hesham M; El-Aaser, Mahmoud M

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus RCMB 002001 (2) producing four types of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was used in this study as an aflatoxin-producer. Penicillium griseofulvum, P. urticae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a non-toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus were found to be able to exhibit growth on aflatoxin B1-containing medium up to a concentration of 500 ppb. It was also found that several fungal strains exhibited the growth in co-culture with A. parasiticus, natural aflatoxins producer, and were able to decreased the total aflatoxin concentration, resulting in the highest inhibition percentage of 67.2% by T viride, followed by P. lilacinus, P. griseofulvum, S. cerevisiae, C. utilis, P. urticae, Rhizopus nigricans and Mucor rouxii with total aflatoxin inhibition percentage of 53.9, 52.4, 52, 51.7, 44, 38.2 and 35.4%, respectively. The separation of bioremediation products using GC/MS revealed that the toxins were degraded into furan moieties.

  7. Aflatoxin-exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a novel system for the generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter th...

  8. Comprehensive Assessment of Maize Aflatoxin Levels in Eastern Kenya, 2005—2007

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnni H. Daniel; Lauren W. Lewis; Yanique A. Redwood; Stephanie Kieszak; Robert F. Breiman; W. Dana Flanders; Carlos Bell; John Mwihia; George Ogana; Sopiato Likimani; Masja Straetemans; Michael A. McGeehin

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aflatoxin, a potent fungal toxin, contaminates 25% of crops worldwide. Since 2004, 477 aflatoxin poisonings associated with eating contaminated maize have been documented in Eastern Kenya, with a case-fatality rate of 40...

  9. Area-wide programs for aflatoxin mitigation: treatment to cotton can be cost effective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological control of aflatoxin contamination with atoxigenic genotypes of Aspergillus flavus is currently used commercially on several crops including corn, peanut, and pistachio. However, biopesticides utilizing this technology were first developed and registered for use in preventing aflatoxin co...

  10. Residue of Aflatoxin and Its Metabolites on Various Animal Products and Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaella Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins especially aflatoxin B1 is mycotoxins that must be concerned. When consumed by livestock, it becomes aflatoxin M1 and other metabolites in animal products that harmful for public health. This paper provides information of aflatoxins residues and their metabolites in a variety of animal origin food (milk, meat and eggs and the prevention of their occurrence. Aflatoxin residues were found in a variety of livestock and dairy products in various countries including Indonesia. Due to its stability in any processing or storage methods, preventing aflatoxins enter the food chain is essential. Implementing the regulatory limits for aflatoxins in feed and food should be made to avoid further effect on human health. Information and extensive monitoring of aflatoxins should be carried out not only in milk but also in many different types of animal products (buffalo, quail, sheep and goat, as the data in Indonesia is not yet available.

  11. Aspergillus section Flavi community structure in Zambia influences aflatoxin contamination of Maize and Groundnut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are cancer-causing, immuno-suppressive mycotoxins that frequently contaminate important staples in Zambia including maize and groundnut. Several species within Aspergillus section Flavi have been implicated as causal agents of aflatoxin contamination in Africa. However, Aspergillus popula...

  12. 6553 Volume 12 No. 5 August 2012 AFLATOXINS IN BODY FLUIDS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DIMIE

    2012-08-05

    Aug 5, 2012 ... aflatoxins and protein- energy malnutrition (PEM) by measurements of ... in patients with kwashiorkor as compared to other groups [7]. ... concentration of aflatoxins in autopsy lung, kidney and liver specimens from children.

  13. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R. M.; Mahmoud, Mohamed A.; Al-Othman, Monira R.; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F.

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method. PMID:25705718

  14. AFLATOXIN B1 RESIDUES IN EGGS AND FLESH OF LAYING HENS FED AFLATOXIN B1 CONTAMINATED DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saqer Mohammad Herzallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 and total Aflatoxins (AFT contaminated feed effect on aflatoxins residue level in eggs, muscles (breast, leg, organs (liver, kidney, gizzard and excreted aflatoxins in chicken litter of layer hens were monitored. Laying hens were on four levels of aflatoxins for 6 weeks and monitored weekly for the change in both AFB1 and AFT levels. Pronouncedly, the AFB1 and AFT were detected in eggs, muscles (legs, breast, organs (liver, kidney and gizzard and litter in noticeable amounts. Total Aflatoxin (AFT level was lowest in chicken breast (0.63 ppb and highest in liver (2.12 ppb and gizzard (1.22 ppb of chicken fed diet with 965.12 ppb. Whereas, AFB1 residue was 0.66 ppb in eggs, 1.59 ppb in liver tissues of hens given feed contaminated with 894.12 ppb. Residue level of AFB1 was high in liver and kidney of all treatments. The chicken breast tissues were lowest in AFB1 and AFT of values 0.72 and 0.63, respectively. Eggs production was significantly (p<0.05 affected with AFB1 contaminated feed and egg production was decreased by more than 30%.

  15. Use of Selected Essential Oils to Control Aflatoxin Contaminated Stored Cashew and Detection of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abeer R. M. Abd El-Aziz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm, which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method.

  16. Use of selected essential oils to control aflatoxin contaminated stored cashew and detection of aflatoxin biosynthesis gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Aziz, Abeer R M; Mahmoud, Mohamed A; Al-Othman, Monira R; Al-Gahtani, Munirah F

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus spp. associated with cashew from the regions of Riyadh, Dammam, and Abha were isolated and three different culture media were used to qualitatively measure aflatoxin production by Aspergillus via UV light (365 nm), which was expressed as positive or negative. The obtained data showed that six isolates of A. flavus and four isolates of A. parasiticus were positive for aflatoxin production, while all isolates of A. niger were negative. Five commercially essential oils (thyme, garlic, cinnamon, mint, and rosemary) were tested to determine their influence on growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus by performing high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that the tested essential oils caused highly significant inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production in A. flavus and A. parasiticus. The extent of the inhibition of fungal growth and aflatoxin production was dependent on the type and concentration of essential oils applied. The results indicate that cinnamon and thyme oils show strong antimicrobial potential. PCR was used with four sets of primer pairs for nor-1, omt-1, ver-1, and aflR genes, enclosed in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The interpretation of the results revealed that PCR is a rapid and sensitive method.

  17. Stark broadening of B IV spectral lines

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrijevic, Milan S; Simic, Zoran; Kovacevic, Andjelka; Sahal-Brechot, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Stark broadening parameters for 157 multiplets of helium like boron (B IV) have been calculated using the impact semiclassical perturbation formalism. Obtained results have been used to investigate the regularities within spectral series. An example of the influence of Stark broadening on B IV lines in DO white dwarfs is given.

  18. Comparing determination methods of detection and quantification limits for aflatoxin analysis in hazelnut

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Hazelnut is a type of plant that grows in wet and humid climatic conditions. Adverse climatic conditions result in the formation of aflatoxin in hazelnuts during the harvesting, drying, and storing processes. Aflatoxin is considered an important food contaminant, which makes aflatoxin analysis important in the international produce trade. For this reason, validation is important for the analysis of aflatoxin in hazelnuts. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) are two ...

  19. Aflatoxin B₁ degradation by a Pseudomonas strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-10-23

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB₁, AFB₂ and AFM₁ by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB₁ effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn²⁺ and Cu²⁺ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg²⁺, Li⁺, Zn²⁺, Se²⁺, Fe³⁺ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB₁ was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB₁. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB₁ by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin.

  20. Cancer risks posed by aflatoxin M1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D P; Cullen, J M; Hsieh, L S; Shao, Y; Ruebner, B H

    1985-01-01

    The suspect milk-borne carcinogen, aflatoxin M1 (AFM), was produced and isolated from the rice culture of the fungus Aspergillus flavus NRRL3251 for confirmation and determination of the potency of its carcinogenicity in the male adult Fischer rat. The carcinogen was mixed into an agar-based, semisynthetic diet at 0, 0.5, 5, and 50 ppb (microgram/kg) and was fed to groups of animals continuously for 19-21 months. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB), of which AFM is a metabolite, at 50 ppb was used as a positive control. Hepatocarcinogenicity of AFM was detected at 50 ppb, but not at 5 or 0.5 ppb, with a potency of 2-10% that of AFB. A low incidence of intestinal adenocarcinomas was found in the AFM 50 ppb group, but not in any other groups. At 0.5 ppb, the action level enforced by the U.S.A. Food and Drug Administration, AFM induced no liver lesions in the rats but stimulated the animals' growth. On the average, the rats in the 0.5 ppb group weighed 11% (p less than 0.001) more than those in the control group. This increased growth was associated with increased feed intake. Based on the biological activity of AFM at the relevant low doses and the estimated level of human exposure to AFM through consumption of milk, the cancer risk posed by this contaminant for human adults is assessed to be very low. For infants, further studies are warranted because milk constitutes the major ingredient of the infant diet and because infant animals have been shown to be more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of AFB than adult animals.

  1. Modulating role of Semecarpus anacardium L. nut milk extract on aflatoxin B(1) biotransformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premalatha, B; Sachdanandam, P

    2000-01-01

    As part of a substantial effort to curtail the adverse health effects posed by aflatoxin B(1), studies have been conducted to elucidate the possible mechanism for the anticarcinogenic action of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. Rats are monitored for levels of urinary, serum and liver biomarkers, namely, unmetabolised aflatoxin B(1), and its metabolites aflatoxin M(1), and aflatoxin Q(1), over the course of 2 weeks with nut extract therapy following a single-exposure to aflatoxin B(1). Due to the administration of nut extract, the excretion of unmetabolised aflatoxin B(1) was increased in day 1 urine when compared with rats without drug treatment. In serum and liver which were collected on day 16 and the rest of periodical urine samples showed aflatoxin B(1) and its metabolites in undetectable levels. The nut extract administration induced cytochrome P(450), glutathione, and glutathione-S-transferase levels in liver homogenates of aflatoxin B(1)-treated rats. These data seem to indicate that anticarcinogenic action by Semecarpus anacardium nut extract is possibly via suppression of aflatoxin B(1)activation and through interaction with microsomal-activating components. Previous evidence from this laboratory about the potency of Semecarpus anacardium nut extract against aflatoxin B(1)-induced hepatocellular carcinoma together with the present results suggest that extremely effective therapeutic protection can be achieved by this drug against aflatoxin B(1)-mediated ill effects. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  2. 7 CFR 93.14 - Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of... Nuts, Corn and Other Oilseeds § 93.14 Fees for aflatoxin analysis and fees for testing of other mycotoxins. (a) The fee charged for any laboratory analysis for aflatoxins and other mycotoxins shall be...

  3. Aflatoxin contamination of groundnut and maize in Zambia: observed and potential concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize and groundnut, important staples in Zambia, are susceptible to aflatoxin-producing fungi. Aflatoxins are potent human carcinogens also associated with stunting and immunosuppression. Although health and economic burdens of aflatoxins are well known, patterns of contamination in maize and grou...

  4. 75 FR 68681 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA... adopting, as a final rule, without change, an interim rule that modified the aflatoxin sampling and testing... interim rule streamlined the aflatoxin sampling and testing procedures under the order's rules and...

  5. 75 FR 43045 - Pistachios Grown in California, Arizona, and New Mexico; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-23

    ...; Modification of the Aflatoxin Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule modifies the aflatoxin sampling and testing regulations... aflatoxin sampling and testing procedures under the order's rules and regulations for pistachios to be...

  6. Understanding Nonaflatoxigenicity of Aspergillus sojae: A Windfall of Aflatoxin Biosynthesis Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus section Flavi includes aflatoxin-producing and nonproducing fungi. A. sojae is unable to produce aflatoxins and is generally recognized as safe for food fermentation. However, because of its taxonomical relatedness to aflatoxin-producing A. parasiticus and A. flavus, it is necessary to...

  7. Laboratory screening of a peanut recombinant inbred line population for aflatoxin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin is considered to be serious impediment for crop production in the Southern US resulting from infection by Aspergillus flavus. Aflatoxin contamination is a health concern. To date, the only successful methods of remediating aflatoxin contamination include proper storage conditions for har...

  8. Degeneration of aflatoxin gene cluster in Aspergillus flavus from Africa and North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspergillus flavus is the primary causal agent of food and feed contamination with the toxic fungal metabolites aflatoxins. Aflatoxin-producing potential of A. flavus is known to vary among isolates. The genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthesis are clustered together and the order of genes within th...

  9. Aflatoxin contamination in corn sold for wildlife feed in texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, Nicholas R; Peper, Steven T; Downing, Carson D; Kendall, Ronald J

    2017-05-01

    Supplemental feeding with corn to attract and manage deer is a common practice throughout Texas. Other species, including northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), are commonly seen feeding around supplemental deer feeders. In many cases, supplemental feeding continues year-round so feed supply stores always have supplemental corn in stock. Fluctuating weather and improper storage of corn can lead to and/or amplify aflatoxin contamination. Due to the recent decline of bobwhites throughout the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas, there has been interest in finding factors such as toxins that could be linked to their decline. In this study, we purchased and sampled supplemental corn from 19 locations throughout this ecoregion to determine if aflatoxin contamination was present in individual bags prior to being dispersed to wildlife. Of the 57 bags sampled, 33 bags (approximately 58%) contained aflatoxin with a bag range between 0.0-19.91 parts per billion (ppb). Additionally, three metal and three polypropylene supplemental feeders were each filled with 45.4 kg of triple cleaned corn and placed in an open field to study long-term aflatoxin buildup. Feeders were sampled every 3 months from November 2013-November 2014. Average concentration of aflatoxin over the year was 4.08 ± 2.53 ppb (±SE) in metal feeders, and 1.43 ± 0.89 ppb (±SE) in polypropylene feeders. The concentration of aflatoxins is not affected by the type of feeder (metal vs polypropylene), the season corn was sampled, and the location in the feeder (top, middle, bottom) where corn is sampled. It is unlikely that corn used in supplemental feeders is contributing to the bobwhite decline due to the low levels of aflatoxin found in purchased corn and long-term storage of corn used in supplemental feeders.

  10. Pulmonary aspergillosis and aflatoxins in chronic lung diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sana; Malik, Abida; Shahid, Mohd; Bhargava, Rakesh

    2013-10-01

    Fungal infections of lung have become increasingly common during the last few decades. Aspergillosis and the role of aflatoxins in various chronic lung diseases have not been extensively studied. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples and sera from 40 patients of chronic lung diseases were analyzed for galactomannan antigen (GM) and aflatoxin by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Direct microscopy and culture of BAL samples were also done to detect the Aspergillus species. Results revealed that 15 (37.5 %) of the 40 patients had growth of Aspergillus on BAL culture. Out of these culture-positive cases, 13 (86.7 %) patients were positive for galactomannan antigen also. About 62.5 % cases did not show growth of Aspergillus in BAL culture. However, galactomannan antigen could be detected in 20 % of these patients. Overall, 20 % patients were diagnosed as proven invasive fungal disease (IFD), 32.5 % were of probable IFD, 17.5 % of possible IFD. Aspergillus growth was observed in 100 % of proven and 53.8 % of probable IFD cases. Galactomannan antigen was found in 100 % cases of proven and 76.9 % of probable IFD. Ten (25 %) patients were found to be positive for aflatoxins. It was detected in 6 (40 %) of culture-positive cases. About 62.5 % of the cases with proven IFD and 46.1 % of probable IFD had aflatoxin in their samples. Aflatoxin positivity was found to be more in patients with proven IFD than in probable IFD, and higher level of aflatoxins was detected in cases with proven IFD. Significant difference was observed in aflatoxin positivity among food grain workers when compared to other occupations.

  11. Determination of aflatoxins and zearalenone in different culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Dante Javier; Oliver, Guillermo

    2004-01-01

    Some molds produce desirable changes in food, but most are merely esthetically undesirable. There has also been an increasing awareness that certain metabolic products of some molds commonly found on foods and feed are dangerous to humans and animals. These toxin substances, mycotoxins, are secondary metabolites produced by different fungi, especially Aspergillus, Penicillium, Fusarium, and, to a lesser degree, Alternaria. The most important toxins for humans are aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, fumonisins, certain trichothecenes, and zearalenone. Aflatoxins are fungal metabolites produced by different Aspergillus species: A. flavus, A. parasiticus, and A. nomius. The most commonly encountered aflatoxins are B1, B2, G1, G2, M1, and M2, but aflatoxin B1 is the most frequently found in contaminated samples, and aflatoxins B2, G1, and G2 are generally not reported in the absence of AFB1. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) considers that aflatoxins are carcinogenic (hepatocarcinogenic) to humans (group 1) and animals. Zearalenone is an estrogenic mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium (F. acuminatum, F. culmorum, F. equiseti, F. graminearum, F. verticilliodes, F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. rosum, F. solani, F. semitectum, and F. sporotrichioides) that primarily colonize different cereal grains. Several reports were noted on the occurrence of ZEA along with various combinations of group B trichothecenes, fumonisins, aflatoxins, and ochratoxins. In most cases, the levels of ZEA were considered to be low; however, the toxicological significance is not known. This toxin is not classifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans (group 3) by the IARC, but ZEA was implied in precocious sexual development in children in Puerto Rico and a breast enlargement in young boys in Italy.

  12. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption.

  13. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B₁-lysine albumin biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groopman, John D; Egner, Patricia A; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illustrates exposure over the first 1000 days of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groopman, John D.; Egner, Patricia A.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A.; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illus trates exposure over the first 1000 days of life. PMID:25308602

  15. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production.

  16. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaraeyat, R; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D; Khalaj, V

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  17. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yahyaraeyat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora essential oil (EO on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1, aflatoxinB2 (AFB2, aflatoxinG1 (AFG1, aflatoxinG2 (AFG2 and aflatoxin total (AFTotal production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  18. Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Dellafiora

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials. The present work dealt with the degradation of aflatoxin B1 and M1 by laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor. The enzymes–substrate interaction for various enzyme isoforms was investigated through 3D molecular modeling techniques. Structural differences among the isoforms have been pinpointed, which may cause different patterns of interaction between aflatoxin B1 and M1. The possible formation of different products of degradation can be argued accordingly. Moreover, the laccase gamma isoform was identified as the most suitable for protein engineering aimed at ameliorating the substrate specificity. Overall, 3D modeling proved to be an effective analytical tool to assess the enzyme–substrate interaction and provided a solid foothold for supporting the search of degrading enzyme at the early stage.

  19. Degradation of Aflatoxins by Means of Laccases from Trametes versicolor: An In Silico Insight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellafiora, Luca; Galaverna, Gianni; Reverberi, Massimo; Dall’Asta, Chiara

    2017-01-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials. The present work dealt with the degradation of aflatoxin B1 and M1 by laccase enzymes from Trametes versicolor. The enzymes–substrate interaction for various enzyme isoforms was investigated through 3D molecular modeling techniques. Structural differences among the isoforms have been pinpointed, which may cause different patterns of interaction between aflatoxin B1 and M1. The possible formation of different products of degradation can be argued accordingly. Moreover, the laccase gamma isoform was identified as the most suitable for protein engineering aimed at ameliorating the substrate specificity. Overall, 3D modeling proved to be an effective analytical tool to assess the enzyme–substrate interaction and provided a solid foothold for supporting the search of degrading enzyme at the early stage. PMID:28045427

  20. Nanoparticle-based immunosensors and immunoassays for aflatoxins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xu; Niessner, Reinhard [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany); Tang, Dianping [Key Laboratory of Analysis and Detection for Food Safety, MOE & Fujian Province, Department of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Knopp, Dietmar, E-mail: dietmar.knopp@ch.tum.de [Institute of Hydrochemistry and Chair of Analytical Chemistry, Technische Universität München, Marchioninistrasse 17, D-81377 München (Germany)

    2016-03-17

    Aflatoxins are naturally existing mycotoxins produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, present in a wide range of food and feed products. Because of their extremely high toxicity and carcinogenicity, strict control of maximum residue levels of aflatoxins in foodstuff is set by many countries. In daily routine, different chromatographic methods are used almost exclusively. As supplement, in several companies enzyme immunoassay-based sample testing as primary screening is performed. Recently, nanomaterials such as noble metal nanoparticles, magnetic particles, carbon nanomaterials, quantum dots, and silica nanomaterials are increasingly utilized for aflatoxin determination to improve the sensitivity and simplify the detection. They are employed either as supports for the immobilization of biomolecules or as electroactive or optical labels for signal transduction and amplification. Several nanoparticle-based electrochemical, piezoelectric, optical, and immunodipstick assays for aflatoxins have been developed. In this review, we summarize these recent advances and illustrate novel concepts and promising applications in the field of food safety. - Highlights: • Novel concepts and promising applications of nanoparticle-based immunological methods for the determination of aflatoxins. • Inclusion of most important nanomaterials and hybrid nanostructures. • Inclusion of electrochemical, optical and mass-sensitive biosensors as well as optical and immunochromatographic assays.

  1. Aflatoxin: A 50-Year Odyssey of Mechanistic and Translational Toxicology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kensler, Thomas W.; Roebuck, Bill D.; Wogan, Gerald N.; Groopman, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery 50 years ago, the aflatoxins have become recognized as ubiquitous contaminants of the human food supply throughout the economically developing world. The adverse toxicological consequences of these compounds in populations are quite varied because of a wide range of exposures leading to acute effects, including rapid death, and chronic outcomes such as hepatocellular carcinoma. Furthermore, emerging studies describe a variety of general adverse health effects associated with aflatoxin, such as impaired growth in children. Aflatoxin exposures have also been demonstrated to multiplicatively increase the risk of liver cancer in people chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV) illustrating the deleterious impact that even low toxin levels in the diet can pose for human health. The public health impact of aflatoxin exposure is pervasive. Aflatoxin biomarkers of internal and biologically effective doses have been integral to the establishment of the etiologic role of this toxin in human disease through better estimates of exposure, expanded knowledge of the mechanisms of disease pathogenesis, and as tools for implementing and evaluating preventive interventions. PMID:20881231

  2. Structural Diversity and Biochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketney Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all mycotoxins, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is considered to be the most carcinogenic, and it has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Group 1 of human carcinogen. It signifies a high hazard because it contaminates a diversity of agricultural products such as nuts and derivatives, peanuts/hazelnuts, grains, seeds, cottonseed, milk, dairy food. In milk AFB1 is metabolized to aflatoxin M (AFM1 which is 4-hydroxy derivative of AFB1, it is formed in the liver and excreted in the milk into the mammary glands of both human and lactating animals which have been fed with AFB1 contaminated diet. After the food contamination, one part of the aflatoxin B1 which was present in the food is eliminated through the milk. At the molecular level aflatoxin biosynthesis involves several levels of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control, so the main stages subsequent biochemical and genetic constituents of aflatoxin biosynthesis have been demonstrated recently. Recent studies over the last few decades have shown that the metabolism of AFB is an essential component of hepatocarcinogenic, however it was shown that AFB1 is metabolized by cytochrome P450 oxidised to intermediates and other metabolites Therefore, the biotransformation process may also lead to the formation of carcinogenic metabolites.

  3. Natural Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Commercial Spices in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 sample of spices (red pepper, black pepper, turmeric and cinnamon, commercialized in Iran, was analyzed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with a fluorescence detector (FD. A mixture of acetonitrile–methanol–water (17:29:54; v/v was used as the mobile phase and an immunoaffinity column (IAC applied as a cleanup method. All kinds of spice samples were spiked with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 at levels of 1, 10, and 30 ng/g and recovery values were determined. Results showed recoveries ranged from 76.4±5.6 to 98.3±3.2 for AFG1 in cinnamon (spiked at 1ng/g and AFB2 in turmeric (spiked at 10ng/g respectively. Thirty-two out of 80 (40% samples were contaminated with aflatoxins ranged from 0.85±0.10 to 24.60±0.12. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in all of the contaminated samples at the highest concentration as compared with other aflatoxins. Red pepper was significantly (p≤0.05 more contaminated than other spices.

  4. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture.

  5. Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Juliana H C; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Galleti, Silvia R; Facanali, Roseane; Marques, Márcia O M; Felício, Joana D

    2010-01-31

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25 degrees C at the following different concentrations of the essential oil (from 0.0 to 30mug/mL). The essential oil inhibited fungal growth to different extents depending on the concentration, and completely inhibited aflatoxin production at concentrations above 0.10microg/mL. The analysis of the oil by GC/MS showed that its main components are precocene II (46.35%), precocene I (42.78%), cumarine (5.01%) and Trans-caryophyllene (3.02%). Comparison by transmission electron microscopy of the fungal cells, control and those incubated with different concentrations of essential oil, showed ultra-structural changes which were concentration dependent of the essential oil of A. conyzoides. Such ultra-structural changes were more evident in the endomembrane system, affecting mainly the mitochondria. Degradation was also observed in both surrounding fibrils. The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  6. Aflatoxin B1: Mechanism of mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites that frequently contaminate corn, peanuts and other products. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the most potent of these, is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system into a number of hydroxylated metabolites and glutathione conjugates in the process of conversion to more hydrophilic forms for urinary excretion. Unfortunately, one of these metabolites is the aflatoxin-8,9-epoxide that is produced in two forms, endo and exo. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are able to conjugate and detoxify this reactive intermediate. Species differences in susceptibility to the effects of AFB1 are partially related to differences in expression of specific GSTs that are able to conjugate the epoxide to glutathione. The exo epoxide is able to intercalate into DNA and this is followed by reaction of the C8 position of the epoxide with the N7 position of guanine.

    NMR studies of oligonucleotide duplexes containing the adduct have demonstrated that the adduct exists with the aromatic portion intercalated on the 5' face of the guanine residue with Watson-Crick base pairing maintained.

    However, this covalent adduct is chemically unstable due to the charge on the ribose ring. As a result, the guanine can be released from the DNA leaving an apurinic site. This released guanine adduct can be detected in the urine and serves as a biomarker of exposure to AFB1. Alternatively, the ribose ring opens forming a stable formamidopyrimidine (FAPY adduct. This adduct somewhat stabilizes the DNA duplex. Time course studies in animals have demonstrated that the N7 adduct is rapidly removed, probably because it causes more distortion in the helix, while the FAPY adduct is more

  7. Human aflatoxin exposure in Kenya, 2007: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yard, Ellen E.; Daniel, Johnni H.; Lewis, Lauren S.; Rybak, Michael E.; Paliakov, Ekaterina M.; Kim, Andrea A.; Montgomery, Joel M.; Bunnell, Rebecca; Abudo, Mamo Umuro; Akhwale, Willis; Breiman, Robert F.; Sharif, Shahnaaz K.

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins contaminate approximately 25% of agricultural products worldwide. They can cause liver failure and liver cancer. Kenya has experienced multiple aflatoxicosis outbreaks in recent years, often resulting in fatalities. However, the full extent of aflatoxin exposure in Kenya has been unknown. Our objective was to quantify aflatoxin exposure across Kenya. We analysed aflatoxin levels in serum specimens from the 2007 Kenya AIDS Indicator Survey – a nationally representative, cross-sectional serosurvey. KAIS collected 15,853 blood specimens. Of the 3180 human immunodeficiency virus-negative specimens with ≥1 mL sera, we randomly selected 600 specimens stratified by province and sex. We analysed serum specimens for aflatoxin albumin adducts by using isotope dilution MS/MS to quantify aflatoxin B1-lysine, and normalised with serum albumin. Aflatoxin concentrations were then compared by demographic, socioeconomic and geographic characteristics. We detected serum aflatoxin B1-lysine in 78% of serum specimens (range = Aflatoxin exposure did not vary by sex, age group, marital status, religion or socioeconomic characteristics. Aflatoxin exposure varied by province (p aflatoxin exposure is a public health problem throughout Kenya, and it could be substantially impacting human health. Wide-scale, evidence-based interventions are urgently needed to decrease exposure and subsequent health effects. PMID:23767939

  8. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species...... of Emericella only one species produced aflatoxin. Strains originating from the same geographical source material had different patterns of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin production on different media, indicating that epigenetic factors may be involved in the regulation of aflatoxin production. However, two...... cultures from the same original genet were very similar. Conclusions: Emericella astellata can produce small amounts of sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1 and B-2. Significance and Impact of the Study: Emericella has been used extensively in genetic studies and therefore the isolates producing aflatoxin...

  9. Immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a potential aflatoxin decontaminating agent in pistachio nuts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahaie

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the binding ability of Saccharomayces cerevisiae to aflatoxin in pistachio nuts. The obtained results indicate that S. cerevisiae has an aflatoxin surface binding ability of 40% and 70% (with initial aflatoxin concentrations of 10 and 20 ppb in the exponential phase. Acid treatments increase this ability to approximately 60% and 73% for the two concentrations of aflatoxin, respectively. Heat treatments also enhance surface binding to 55% and 75%, respectively. Binding appears to be a physical phenomenon that saturates within the first 2-3 hours of the process. The obtained results indicate that yeast immobilization for toxin reduction on aflatoxin-contaminated pistachios had no effect on qualitative characteristics, such as color, texture, and peroxide value. Yeast cells, viable or nonviable, are effective for aflatoxin binding, and this property could lead to a promising solution to aflatoxin contamination in high-risk foods.

  10. Natural co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol in poultry feed in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shar, Z H; Sumbal, G A; Sherazi, S T H; Bhanger, M I; Nizamani, S M

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred and fifteen broiler poultry feed samples were analysed over the time period of one year for the co-occurrence of aflatoxins and deoxynivalenol (DON). These were determined by GC-MS and ELISA, respectively. LOD values for aflatoxins and DON were 0.5 and 5 µg/kg, respectively. From all investigated 215 poultry feed samples, aflatoxins and DON co-occurred in 100 samples (46%). DON was detected in 114 samples while 100 samples also were positive for aflatoxins. Mean concentrations of positive samples for aflatoxins and DON were 18 and 807 µg/kg, respectively. Twenty-one DON-positive and 42 aflatoxin positive samples were contaminated above the EU maximum legal limits of 1000 µg/kg and 20 µg/kg, respectively. The present study provided useful data on aflatoxin and DON contamination, which may be helpful for future strategies to control contamination and to formulate standards in poultry feeds.

  11. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  12. Novel assays and sensor platforms for the detection of aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, Chris M

    2002-01-01

    The importance of the aflatoxins from food safety and economic standpoints has continued to drive the development of new analytical methods for these mycotoxins. Currently the widely used methods for measurement of aflatoxins fall into two groups, the established chromatographic methods and traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Recently substantial progress has been made in the application of new technologies to the monitoring of aflatoxins. In particular, several research groups have developed biosensors for detection ofthe toxins as well as presumptive tests for fungal infection. Biosensors have been developed in a variety of formats including surface plasmon resonance, fiber optic probes, and microbead-based assays. The sensitivity and selectivity of the biosensors and of the presumptive tests has reached the level the where the application of these techniques to the screening of foods warrants further investigation.

  13. INVESTIGATION ON THE AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF MILK IN TEHRAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Karim

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey Aflatoxin contamination of fifty two samples of raw milk and nine samples of commercial milk were determined by T.L.C. Method. The results showed that 92.31% of the samples of raw milk and all the samples of commercial milk were contaminated by Aflatoxin M1 and M2. None of the samples contained Alatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. The maximum amounts of 23/. g/lit and 20.1 g/lit were found in raw and commercial milk respectively. Recommendation to prevent Aflatoxin contamination in raw milk and necessity for preparation the standards for milk, milk products and foods were suggested in this paper.

  14. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Redzwan eSabran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global

  15. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd.-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community

  16. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd-Redzwan, Sabran; Jamaluddin, Rosita; Abd-Mutalib, Mohd Sokhini; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-11-13

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving of contaminated noodles. Since then, extensive research on aflatoxin has been conducted in Malaysia. The food commodities such as peanuts, cereals, spices, and their products are the main commodities commonly found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Surprisingly, some of the contaminated foods had levels greater than the permissible limit adopted by the Malaysian Food Regulation 1985. Besides, exposure assessment through the measurement of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples is still in its infancy stage. Nevertheless, some studies had reported the presence of these biomarkers. In fact, it is postulated that Malaysians are moderately exposed to aflatoxin compared to those high risk populations, where aflatoxin contamination in the diets is prevalent. Since the ingestion of aflatoxin could be the integral to the development of liver cancer, the incidence of cancer attributable by dietary aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia has also been reported and published in the literatures. Regardless of these findings, the more important task is to monitor and control humans from being exposed to aflatoxin. The enforcement of law is insufficient to minimize human exposure to aflatoxin. Preventive strategies include agricultural, dietary, and clinical measures should be implemented. With the current research on aflatoxin in Malaysia, a global networking for research collaboration is needed to expand the knowledge and disseminate the information to the global scientific community.

  17. Effect of methionine and lactic acid bacteria as aflatoxin binder on broiler performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istiqomah, Lusty; Damayanti, Ema; Julendra, Hardi; Suryani, Ade Erma; Sakti, Awistaros Angger; Anggraeni, Ayu Septi

    2017-06-01

    The use of aflatoxin binder product based amino acids, lacic acid bacteria, and natural product gived the opportunity to be an alternative biological decontamination of aflatoxins. A study was conducted to determine the efficacy of aflatoxin binder administration (amino acid methionine and lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus plantarum G7)) as feed additive on broiler performance. In this study, 75 Lohmann unsexed day old chicks were distributed randomly into 5 units of cages, each filled with 15 broilers. Five cages were assigned into 5 treatments groups and fed with feed contained aflatoxin. The treatments as follow: P1 (aflatoxin feed without aflatoxin binder), P3 (aflatoxin feed + 0.8% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P4 (aflatoxin feed + 1.2% of methionine + 1% of LAB), P5 (aflatoxin feed + 1% of LAB), and K0 (commercial feed). The measurement of aflatoxin content in feed was performed by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay method using AgraQuant® Total Aflatoxin Assay Romer Labs procedure. The experimental period was 35 days with feeding and drinking ad libitum. LAB was administered into drinking water, while methionine into feed. Vaccination program of Newcastle Disease (ND) was using active vaccine at 4 and 18 day old, while Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) was given at 8 day old. Parameter of body weight was observed weekly, while feed consumption noted daily. The result showed that aflatoxin in feed for 35 days period did not significantly affect the body weight gain and feed conversion. The lowest percentage of organ damage at 21 day old was found in P5 treatment (55%), while at 35day old was found in P4 treatment (64%). It could be concluded that technological process of detoxifying aflatoxin could be applied in an attempt to reduce the effect on the toxicity of aflatoxin in poultry feed.

  18. Relationships between in vivo and in vitro aflatoxin production: reliable prediction of fungal ability to contaminate maize with aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Claudia; Cotty, Peter J

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic mycotoxins frequently produced by Aspergillus flavus. Contamination of maize with aflatoxins imposes both economic and health burdens in many regions. Identification of the most important etiologic agents of contamination is complicated by mixed infections and varying aflatoxin-producing potential of fungal species and individuals. In order to know the potential importance of an isolate to cause a contamination event, the ability of the isolate to produce aflatoxins on the living host must be determined. Aflatoxin production in vitro (synthetic and natural media) was contrasted with in vivo (viable maize kernels) in order to determine ability of in vitro techniques to predict the relative importance of causal agents to maize contamination events. Several media types and fermentation techniques (aerated, non-aerated, fermentation volume) were compared. There was no correlation between aflatoxin production in viable maize and production in any of the tested liquid fermentation media using any of the fermentation techniques. Isolates that produced aflatoxins on viable maize frequently failed to produce detectable (limit of detection=1ppb) aflatoxin concentrations in synthetic media. Aflatoxin production on autoclaved maize kernels was highly correlated with production on viable maize kernels. The results have important implications for researchers seeking to either identify causal agents of contamination events or characterize atoxigenic isolates for biological control. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B₁ in Starter Broiler Chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-08-26

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B₁ in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B₁ residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver's ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  20. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Ertekin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1, aflatoxin G2 (AFG2 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31. The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort.

  1. Single aflatoxin contaminated corn kernel analysis with fluorescence hyperspectral image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2010-04-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, among others. Aflatoxin contaminated corn is toxic to domestic animals when ingested in feed and is a known carcinogen associated with liver and lung cancer in humans. Consequently, aflatoxin levels in food and feed are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food and 100 ppb in feed for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests including thin-layer chromatography (TCL) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). These analytical tests require the destruction of samples, and are costly and time consuming. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, nondestructive way is crucial to the grain industry, particularly to corn industry. Hyperspectral imaging technology offers a non-invasive approach toward screening for food safety inspection and quality control based on its spectral signature. The focus of this paper is to classify aflatoxin contaminated single corn kernels using fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. Field inoculated corn kernels were used in the study. Contaminated and control kernels under long wavelength ultraviolet excitation were imaged using a visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral camera. The imaged kernels were chemically analyzed to provide reference information for image analysis. This paper describes a procedure to process corn kernels located in different images for statistical training and classification. Two classification algorithms, Maximum Likelihood and Binary Encoding, were used to classify each corn kernel into "control" or "contaminated" through pixel classification. The Binary Encoding approach had a slightly better performance with accuracy equals to 87% or 88% when 20 ppb or 100 ppb was used as classification threshold, respectively.

  2. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  3. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-05-12

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2-50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort.

  4. Aflatoxin detection in whole corn kernels using hyperspectral methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Chen, Xue-Wen

    2004-03-01

    Hyperspectral (HS) data for the inspection of whole corn kernels for aflatoxin is considered. The high-dimensionality of HS data requires feature extraction or selection for good classifier generalization. For fast and inexpensive data collection, only several features (λ responses) can be used. These are obtained by feature selection from the full HS response. A new high dimensionality branch and bound (HDBB) feature selection algorithm is used; it is found to be optimum, fast and very efficient. Initial results indicate that HS data is very promising for aflatoxin detection in whole kernel corn.

  5. Occurrence of aflatoxins contamination in brown rice from pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas A...

  6. Aflatoxin regulations and global pistachio trade: insights from social network analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations' aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996-2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations.

  7. Aflatoxin Regulations and Global Pistachio Trade: Insights from Social Network Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bui-Klimke, Travis R.; Guclu, Hasan; Kensler, Thomas W.; Yuan, Jian-Min; Wu, Felicia

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins, carcinogenic toxins produced by Aspergillus fungi, contaminate maize, peanuts, and tree nuts in many regions of the world. Pistachios are the main source of human dietary aflatoxins from tree nuts worldwide. Over 120 countries have regulations for maximum allowable aflatoxin levels in food commodities. We developed social network models to analyze the association between nations’ aflatoxin regulations and global trade patterns of pistachios from 1996–2010. The main pistachio producing countries are Iran and the United States (US), which together contribute to nearly 75% of the total global pistachio market. Over this time period, during which many nations developed or changed their aflatoxin regulations in pistachios, global pistachio trade patterns changed; with the US increasingly exporting to countries with stricter aflatoxin standards. The US pistachio crop has had consistently lower levels of aflatoxin than the Iranian crop over this same time period. As similar trading patterns have also been documented in maize, public health may be affected if countries without aflatoxin regulations, or with more relaxed regulations, continually import crops with higher aflatoxin contamination. Unlike the previous studies on maize, this analysis includes a dynamic element, examining how trade patterns change over time with introduction or adjustment of aflatoxin regulations. PMID:24670581

  8. Aflatoxin Contamination in Wheat Flour Samples from Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghasemi Kebria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the high toxicity of aflatoxin and its effects on public health, determination of aflatoxin level in Wheat flour samples in the Golestan province, north of Iran was investigated. To examine the effect of seasonal changes, summer and winter sampling was performed with standard sampling methods. Methods: A total of 200 flour samples were collected from 25 factories. HPLC method with immunoaffinity chromatography was used to measure aflatoxin types (G2, G1, B2 and B1. Statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson correlation test, One-way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Mean total aflatoxin levels of samples were 0.82 and 1.99 ng/g in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 levels were detected in 3.1%, 7.4% over permissible limits by worldwide regulations in samples collected in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxins in winter were higher than summer. The highest frequency of aflatoxin contamination in winter was B2 (98% and in summer G1 (51%. The relationship between humidity and rate of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin was significant in winter. Results of multivariate regression were showed the strongest relationship with humidity and aflatoxin level. Despite the contamination of flour samples, there was no contamination higher than the standard limit of Iran Standard Institute. But it was significantly higher than similar studies from other regions. Conclusions: Therefore, with regard to negative impacts of aflatoxin on health, aflatoxin contamination should be considered in future programs. Decrease of aflatoxin contamination may be made practical through reducing wheat storage duration and controlling humidity.

  9. Use of electron beam on aflatoxins degradation in coconut agar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: vrogovschi@ipen.br; Aquino, Simone; Goncalez, Edlayne [Instituto Biologico (IB-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas

    2009-07-01

    The fungi Aspergillus flavus are capable of producing toxic metabolites, such as aflatoxin, that is one of the most important human carcinogens, according to the 'International Agency for Research on Cancer'. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of electron beam irradiation on degradation of aflatoxin B1 present in laboratorial residues with a dose of 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. The fungi were cultivated in potato dextrose agar (PDA) for 7 days and transferred to a coconut agar medium, incubated at a temperature of 25 deg C for 14 days to produce the laboratorial wastes (coconut agar) containing aflatoxins. The samples were conditioned in petri dish for radiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Electron Accelerator with 0 kGy and 5.0 kGy. Aflatoxin B{sub 1} was extracted with chloroform and separated on a thin layer chromatography plate (TLC) with chloroform: acetone (9:1). All the control and irradiated samples were analyzed in a Shimadzu Densitometer. The detection limit of this methodology is 0.1{mu}g kg{sup -1}. The results indicate that the irradiated samples had a reduction of 75.49 % in the analyzed dose. (author)

  10. Molecular detection of mycobiota and aflatoxin contamination of chili

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gherbawy Youssuf A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsicum annuum grows in warm areas. Pepper production conditions require the drying of fruits by sunlight. During the drying processes, the crop is exposed to contamination by microorganisms, especially fungi. In this article, the isolation of mycobiota from retail markets and food restaurants of Taif city was studied. Crushed chili showed a high fungal load compared to chili sauce and chili powder, while chili powder showed a high occurrence of total aflatoxins (AFs. Aspergillus, Eurotium and Penicillium were the most common genera isolated from chili samples. Thirty-four samples (out of 60 were naturally contaminated with AFs ranging from 20 to 200 ppb. The total aflatoxin potential of 35 isolates of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. tamarri were studied. Seventy percent of A. flavus isolates were aflatoxigenic. The frequencies of aflatoxin biosynthesis genes aflR, nor-1, ver-1 and omtA were studied in aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus species collected in this study. All aflatoxigenic isolates (21 and 1 non-aflatoxigenic isolate of A. flavus showed DNA fragments that correspond to the complete set of the targeted genes. In conclusion, the high co-occurrence of Aspergillus species capable of producing aflatoxins, particularly in chili samples, suggests the need for more efficient control during processing and storage to reduce fungal contamination.

  11. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  12. Aflatoxin Contamination of the Milk Supply: A Pakistan Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Aslam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Improving both quality and quantity of food available is a pressing need especially when one eighth of the world’s population consumes less energy than is required for maintenance and is exposed to contaminated food, both of which lead to greater susceptibility to diseases. The Pakistani population depends heavily on milk for nutritional needs and 10% of household income is spent on milk. This commodity requires continuous monitoring and care from its site of production by smallholder dairy producers through to urban consumers along tradition milk marketing chains. Feed ingredients used as concentrate feed to enhance milk production are often contaminated with mycotoxins, which, after ingestion, are transferred into milk. Aflatoxins can contribute to the causation of liver cancers, immune system disorders, and growth-related issues in children. Moreover, deaths in both humans and animals have also been reported after ingestion of aflatoxin-contaminated food. Studies have shown contamination of food and feed ingredients with mycotoxins, especially aflatoxins. This review places the dairy industry into context, summarizes how milk and milk products are contaminated with aflatoxins, and discusses the present legislative regulation of milk quality implemented in Pakistan. There is a need to eliminate fungus-susceptible animal feed ingredients, which are the source of mycotoxins so prevalent in the milk marketed to the consumer in Pakistan.

  13. Aflatoxins ingestion and canine mammary tumors: There is an association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frehse, M S; Martins, M I M; Ono, E Y S; Bracarense, A P F R L; Bissoqui, L Y; Teixeira, E M K; Santos, N J R; Freire, R L

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the presence of mycotoxins on dogs feed and to explore the potential association between mycotoxins exposure and the chance of mamary tumors in a case-control study. The study included 256 female dogs from a hospital population, 85 with mammary tumors (case group) and 171 without mammary tumors (control group). An epidemiological questionnaire was applied to both groups, and the data were analyzed by the EpiInfo statistical package. For the study, 168 samples of the feed offered to dogs were analyzed for the presence of aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone by high-performance liquid chromatography. Mycotoxins were found in 79 samples (100%) in the case group and 87/89 (97.8%) in the control group. Mycotoxins were detected in all types of feed, regardless feed quality. Level of aflatoxin B1 (p = 0.0356, OR = 2.74, 95%, CI 1.13 to 6.60), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (p = 0.00007, OR = 4.60, 95%, CI = 2.16 to 9.79), and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) (p = 0.0133, OR = 9.91, 95%, CI 1.21 to 81.15) were statistically higher in case of mammary cancer. In contrast, neutering was a protective factor for mammary cancer (p = 0.0004, OR = 0.32, 95%, CI = 0.17 to 0.60).

  14. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  15. Rapid extraction of aflatoxin from creamy and crunchy peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Victor A

    2005-01-01

    A rapid extraction technique was developed for the isolation and subsequent liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in creamy and crunchy peanut butter. Peanut buftter samples were extracted with a methanol 15% sodium chloride (7 + 3) solution followed by a second extraction with methanol. The extract was subjected to a cleanup using a Vicam Aflatest immunoaffinity column. Control samples for both smooth and crunchy peanut butter were fortified at 4 different levels for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. The average aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 recoveries from smooth peanut buffer were 95.2, 89.9, 94.1, and 62.4%, respectively, and 92.4, 84.3, 85.5, and 53.7%, respectively, from crunchy peanut butter. This extraction method and the official AOAC Method 991.31 produced comparable results for peanut butter samples. This method provides a rapid, specific, and easily controlled assay for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanut butter with minimal solvent usage. Organic solvent consumption was decreased by 85% and hazardous waste production was decreased by 80% in comparison with the AOAC method. Along with the decreased solvent consumption, significant savings in time were observed.

  16. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  17. Extracts of Agave americana inhibit aflatoxin production in Aspergillus parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toxigenic fungi invade crops prior to harvest as well as during storage and produce harmful, even carcinogenic toxins such as aflatoxins. Since consumers demand safe commodities, and due to enhanced public awareness of the dangers of many synthetic fungicides, the importance of investigating alterna...

  18. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Juliana Fonseca Moreira; Peluzio, Joenes Mucci; Prado, Guilherme; Madeira, Jovita Eugênia Gazzinelli Cruz; Silva, Marize Oliveira; de Morais, Paula Benevides; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Pimenta, Raphael Sanzio; Nicoli, Jacques Robert

    2015-01-01

    Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20) were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1%) followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.). All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains. PMID:26221629

  19. Use of Probiotics to Control Aflatoxin Production in Peanut Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Fonseca Moreira da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic microorganisms (Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii, S. cerevisiae UFMG 905, and Lactobacillus delbrueckii UFV H2b20 were evaluated as biological control agents to reduce aflatoxin and spore production by Aspergillus parasiticus IMI 242695 in peanut. Suspensions containing the probiotics alone or in combinations were tested by sprinkling on the grains followed by incubation for seven days at 25°C. All probiotic microorganisms, in live and inactivated forms, significantly reduced A. parasiticus sporulation, but the best results were obtained with live cells. The presence of probiotics also altered the color of A. parasiticus colonies but not the spore morphology. Reduction in aflatoxin production of 72.8 and 65.8% was observed for S. boulardii and S. cerevisiae, respectively, when inoculated alone. When inoculated in pairs, all probiotic combinations reduced significantly aflatoxin production, and the best reduction was obtained with S. boulardii plus L. delbrueckii (96.1% followed by S. boulardii plus S. cerevisiae and L. delbrueckii plus S. cerevisiae (71.1 and 66.7%, resp.. All probiotics remained viable in high numbers on the grains even after 300 days. The results of the present study suggest a different use of probiotics as an alternative treatment to prevent aflatoxin production in peanut grains.

  20. Minicolumn detection methods for aflatoxin in raw peanuts: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shotwell, O L; Holaday, C E; Athnasios, A K; Ayres, J L; Baxley, J R; Bean, G A; Chisholm, T; Edds, G T; Erickson, R; Holaday, C E; Johnson, H S; Lowie, D M; Minyard, J P; Nesheim, S; Rashmawi, K J; Romer, T R; Shannon, G M; Soloman, W; Teague, R T; Wilson, D M

    1981-05-01

    The Holaday-Velasco method and a modified Holaday method have been compared. The former method combines the speed and simplicity of the Holaday extraction and cleanup with the sensitivity of the minicolumn originally described by Velasco. The combination method has been approved by the AOAC and the AACC for determining aflatoxin in corn. The Holaday method was modified by substituting toluene for benzene in the solvent partition, and methylene chloride for chloroform in the minicolumn development to eliminate use of hazardous solvents. The neutral alumina in the Holaday minicolumn was changed from activity V to activity III to provide a more stable column. At aflatoxin levels in raw peanuts of 13-20 ng/g, the presence of aflatoxin was missed by the modified Holaday method in 4 analyses (3 laboratories) of 42 reported. There were no misses in this contamination range by the Holaday-Velasco method. There were no misses by either method with samples containing greater than 20 ng total aflatoxins/g. Analysis of uncontaminated raw peanuts by the modified Holaday method resulted in 2 false positives of 14 reports; the Holaday-Velasco method produced no false positive reports from 15 analyses of uncontaminated peanuts. The Holaday-Velasco method was adopted official first action for peanuts.

  1. Aflatoxin conducive and non-conducive growth conditions reveal new gene associations with aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Michael S; Conners, Shannon B; Tachdjian, Sabrina; Kelly, Robert M; Payne, Gary A

    2005-06-01

    Research on aflatoxin (AF) production has traditionally focused on defining the AF biosynthetic pathway with the goal of identifying potential targets for intervention. To understand the effect of nitrogen source, carbon source, temperature, and pH on the regulation of AF biosynthesis, a targeted cDNA microarray consisting of genes associated with AF production over time was employed. Expression profiles for genes involved in AF biosynthesis grouped into five clades. A putative regulon was identified consisting of 20 genes that were induced in the conducive nitrogen and pH treatments and the non-conducive carbon and temperature treatments, as well as four other putative regulons corresponding to each of the four variables studied. Seventeen genes exhibited consistent induction/repression profiles across all the experiments. One of these genes was consistently downregulated with AF production. Overexpression of this gene resulted in repression of AF biosynthesis. The cellular function of this gene is currently unresolved.

  2. Use of isotope-labeled aflatoxins for LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution analysis of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervino, Christian; Asam, Stefan; Knopp, Dietmar; Rychlik, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2008-03-26

    Aflatoxins are a group of very carcinogenic mycotoxins that can be found on a wide range of food commodities including nuts, cereals, and spices. In this study, the first LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the determination of aflatoxins in foods was developed. The development of this method was enabled by easily accessible isotope-labeled (deuterated) aflatoxins B2 and G2, which were synthesized by catalytic deuteration of aflatoxin B1 and G1, purified, and well-characterized by NMR and MS. All four aflatoxins of interest (B1, B2, G1, and G2) were quantified in food samples by using these two labeled internal standards. The response factors (RF) of the linear calibrations were revealed to be matrix independent for labeled aflatoxin B2/aflatoxin B2 and labeled aflatoxin G2/aflatoxin G2. For labeled aflatoxin B 2/aflatoxin B 1 and labeled aflatoxin B2/aflatoxin G1 matrix-matched calibration was performed for the model matrices almonds and wheat flour, showing significant differences of the RFs. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined by applying a statistical approach in the presence of the two model matrices, yielding 0.31 microg/kg (aflatoxin B1), 0.09 microg/kg (aflatoxin B2), 0.38 microg/kg (aflatoxin G1), and 0.32 microg/kg (aflatoxin G2) for almonds (similar LODs were obtained for wheat flour). Recovery rates were between 90 and 105% for all analytes. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 12% (aflatoxin B1), 3.6% (aflatoxin B2), 14% (aflatoxin G1), and 4.8% (aflatoxin G2) were obtained from interassay studies. For further validation, a NIST standard reference food sample was analyzed for aflatoxins B1 and B2. The method was successfully applied to determine trace levels of aflatoxins in diverse food matrices such as peanuts, nuts, grains, and spices. Aflatoxin contents in these samples ranged from about 0.5 to 6 microg/kg.

  3. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa.

  4. Exposure to aflatoxins in Japan: risk assessment for aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita-Konishi, Y; Sato, T; Saito, S; Nakajima, M; Tabata, S; Tanaka, T; Norizuki, H; Itoh, Y; Kai, S; Sugiyama, K; Kamata, Y; Yoshiike, N; Kumagai, S

    2010-03-01

    The intake of total aflatoxins (AFT) and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) from food in Japan was estimated from AFT and AFB(1) concentration and frequency data in 24 foods (884 samples) from a 3-year retail market survey from the summer of 2004 to the winter of 2006, and by food consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey performed in 2005. The AFT and AFB(1) survey revealed that peanut, peanut products, cocoa, chocolate, pistachio, white pepper, red pepper, almond, job's tears, buckwheat and corn grits are considered to be contributors of AFT (or AFB(1)) intake in Japan (maximum AFB(1) (AFT) levels ranged from 0.21 to 28.0 microg kg(-1) (from 0.21 to 9.0 microg kg(-1))) in AFT-contaminated food. A probabilistic approach using the Monte Carlo method was carried out to simulate an estimate of the AFT (or AFB(1)) intake distributions in each age group in Japan. In this study, AFB(1) intake ranged from 0.003 to 0.004 ng kg(-1) body weight day(-1) (from lower to upper limits), and the potential risk for cancer using a formula devised by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) was estimated at 0.00004-0.00005 person/year/100,000 persons, even though this was in the higher levels (95.0th percentile) of the consumer population. The results suggest that the current dietary intake of AFB(1) in Japan has no appreciable effect on health.

  5. Aflatoxins, discolouration and insect damage in dried cowpea and pigeon pea in Malawi and the effectiveness of flotation/washing operation in eliminating the aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Singano, Lazarus; Pungulani, Lawrent; Mvula, Naomi; Matumba, Annie; Singano, Charles; Matita, Grey

    2017-05-01

    Aflatoxin contamination and biodeterioration were examined in 302 samples of dry cowpeas and pigeon peas that were randomly purchased from 9 districts of the Southern Region of Malawi during July and November 2015. Further, the impact of flotation/washing on aflatoxin levels on the pulses was elucidated. Aflatoxin analyses involved immunoaffinity column (IAC) clean-up and HPLC quantification with fluorescence detection (FLD) while legume biodeterioration assessments were done by visual inspection. Aflatoxins were frequently detected in cowpea (24%, max., 66 μg/kg) and pigeon pea (22%, max., 80 μg/kg) samples that were collected in the month of July. Lower aflatoxin incidence of 15% in cowpeas (max., 470 μg/kg) and 14% in pigeon peas (max., 377 μg/kg) was recorded in the November collection. Overall, aflatoxin levels were significantly higher in the pulses that were collected in November. However, there were no significant differences in the total aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) + AFB2 + AFG1 + AFG2) levels between the two types of pulses. Remarkably, in 76.2% of the aflatoxin positive cowpea and in 41.7% of the aflatoxin positive pigeon pea samples, aflatoxin G1 concentration exceeded aflatoxin B1. Insect damage percentage averaged at 18.1 ± 18.2% (mean ± SD) in the cowpeas and 16.1 ± 19.4% in pigeon peas. Mean discolouration percentage (number of pulses) of the cowpeas and pigeon peas was found to be at 6.7 ± 4.9 and 8.7 ± 6.2%, respectively. Washing and discarding the buoyant fraction was highly efficient in reducing aflatoxin levels; only 5.2 ± 11.1% of the initial aflatoxin level was found in the cleaned samples. In conclusion, cowpeas and pigeon peas sold on the local market in Malawi may constitute a hazard especially if floatation/washing step is skipped.

  6. Identification of resistance to aflatoxin accumulation and yield potential in maize hybrids in the Southeast Regional Aflatoxin Trials (SERAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins pose a serious health hazard to humans and livestock, requiring significant economic cost in identifying and disposing of contaminated grain. Since 2003, a multi-environmental trial of public breeding maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids across multiple programs in the southeastern United States h...

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. associated with groundnut production in subsistence farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Author: Ncube, E. Flett, B.C. Waalwijk, C. Viljoen, A. Vol 27 Issue 2 Publication: 2010 Page: 195-198 : Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. in groundnut kernels. Forty-six groundnut samples were collected from subsistence farmers in three provinces of South

  8. Occurrence of aflatoxins and aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. associated with groundnut production in subsistence farming systems in South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ncube, E.; Flett, B.C.; Waalwijk, C.; Viljoen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: Author: Ncube, E. Flett, B.C. Waalwijk, C. Viljoen, A. Vol 27 Issue 2 Publication: 2010 Page: 195-198 : Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus spp. in groundnut kernels. Forty-six groundnut samples were collected from subsistence farmers in three provinces of South

  9. Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, G; Russo, R; Marzocco, S; Velotto, S; Autore, G; Severino, L

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are natural contaminants frequently found both in food and feed. Many of them exert immunomodulatory properties in mammals; therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate immune-effects of AFB1, AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2, alone and differently combined, in J774A.1 murine macrophages. MTT assay showed that AFB1, alone and combined with AFB2, possess antiproliferative activity only at the highest concentration; such effect was not shown by their hydroxylated metabolites, AFM1 and AFM2, respectively. However, the immunotoxic effects of the aflatoxins evaluated in the current study may be due to the inhibition of production of active oxygen metabolites such as NO. Cytofluorimetric assay in macrophages exposed to aflatoxins (10-100 μM) revealed that their cytoxicity is not related to apoptotic pathways. Nevertheless, a significant increase of the S phase cell population accompanied by a decrease in G0/G1 phase cell population was observed after AFB1 treatment. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that aflatoxins could compromise the macrophages functions; in particular, co-exposure to AFB1, AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2 may exert interactions which can significantly affect immunoreactivity.

  10. Aflatoxin levels in corn available as wild turkey feed in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweitzer, S H; Ouist, C F; Grimes, G L; Forest, D L

    2001-07-01

    Samples of corn available as wildlife feed from retailers throughout Georgia (USA) were collected during April 1997 and analyzed for aflatoxin to determine if levels harmful to wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) were present. Three of 31 (10%) samples collected from a 40-country area were positive. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay qualitatively determined that two samples contained from 0 to 20 ppb aflatoxin. A chromatography analysis of a third sample measured 380 ppb total aflatoxin. A small percentage of our sample of wildlife feed collected during one season contained levels of aflatoxin that may cause harm to turkeys, especially poults. However, because aflatoxin levels ranging from 100 to 400 ppb may cause liver dysfunction and immunosuppression in turkey poults and other wildlife, grains known to be contaminated with aflatoxin at levels unacceptable for domestic animal feeds (> or =100 ppb) should not be sold as wildlife feed. Further analyses of grains sold as wildlife feed should be conducted to address this potential problem.

  11. Effect of ozone on aflatoxins detoxification and nutritional quality of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Ma, Fei; Li, Pei-Wu; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Wang, Yan-Ru; Xu, Bao-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity. Aflatoxins may be found in a wide range of agri-products, especially in grains, oilseeds, corns, and peanuts. In this study, the conditions for detoxifying peanuts by ozonation were optimised. Aflatoxins in peanuts at moisture content of 5% (w/w) were sensitive to ozone and easily degraded when reacted with 6.0mg/l of ozone for 30min at room temperature. The detoxification rates of the total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 65.8% and 65.9%, respectively. The quality of peanut samples was also evaluated in this research. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in the polyphenols, resveratrol, acid value (AV), and peroxide value (PV) between treated and untreated samples. The results suggested that ozonation was a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification in peanuts.

  12. Quantitative Determination of Aflatoxin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Wheat Silos in Golestan Province, North of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMJOO, Mohadeseh; SALAMAT, Faezeh; RAJABLI, Niloofar; HAJIHOSEEINI, Reza; NIKNEJAD, Farhad; KOHSAR, Faramarz; JOSHAGHANI, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxins that contaminate crops. They are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Wheat (Tricitumaestivum) is one of the most important staple foods used in Iran, and the environmental conditions in the north of Iran are favorable to fungal growth. This study was designed in order to determine the aflatoxin concentration in wheat samples from silos in Golestan Province north of Iran. Methods: Samples were collected from three silos of Golestan province. First, aflatoxins were isolated using immunoaffinity chromatography. Then the aflatoxin concentrations were determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and fluorescence detector. Results: Ten out of 34 samples (29.4% of samples) were contaminated by aflatoxins.No concentration was found above permitted aflatoxin levels in Iran (15 ng/g). In one sample (2.9%), aflatoxin B1 was seen over the permissible limits in Iran. The highest level found in samples for total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 were 7.08 ng/g, 6.91 ng/g, 0.29 ng/g, 1.37 ng/g and 0.23 ng/g, respectively. No correlation was found between humidity levels in wheat samples contained aflatoxin and wheat samples without aflatoxin. Conclusion: Despite the total aflatoxins determined in samples were below the permissible limits in Iran, the 29% aflatoxin contamination rate can negatively affect health factors and it should not be neglected. So, it is predictable that if the storage duration of samples increases, the aflatoxin contamination levels will increase. PMID:27516997

  13. Transcriptional Response of Yeast to Aflatoxin B1: Recombinational Repair Involving RAD51 and RAD1

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The potent carcinogen aflatoxin B1 is a weak mutagen but a strong recombinagen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aflatoxin B1 exposure greatly increases frequencies of both heteroallelic recombination and chromosomal translocations. We analyzed the gene expression pattern of diploid cells exposed to aflatoxin B1 using high-density oligonucleotide arrays comprising specific probes for all 6218 open reading frames. Among 183 responsive genes, 46 are involved in either DNA repair or in control of cel...

  14. Population Attributable Risk of Aflatoxin-Related Liver Cancer: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Marsh, Gary M.; Wu, Felicia

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 4 billion people worldwide are exposed to dietary aflatoxins, which cause liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma, HCC) in humans. However, the population attributable risk (PAR) of aflatoxin-related HCC remains unclear. Methods In our systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological studies, summary odds ratios (ORs) of aflatoxin-related HCC with 95% confidence intervals were calculated in HBV+ and HBV− individuals, as well as the general population. We calculated the PAR of aflatoxin-related HCC for each study as well as the combined studies, accounting for HBV status. Results 17 studies with 1680 HCC cases and 3052 controls were identified from 479 articles. All eligible studies were conducted in China, Taiwan, or sub-Saharan Africa. The PAR of aflatoxin-related HCC was estimated at 17% (14–19%) overall, and higher in HBV+ (21%) than HBV− (8.8%) populations. If the one study that contributed most to heterogeneity in the analysis is excluded, the summarized OR of HCC with 95% CI is 73.0 (36.0–148.3) from the combined effects of aflatoxin and HBV, 11.3 (6.75–18.9) from HBV only, and 6.37 (3.74–10.86) from aflatoxin only. The PAR of aflatoxin-related HCC increases to 23% (21–24%). The PAR has decreased over time in certain Taiwanese and Chinese populations. Conclusions In high exposure areas, aflatoxin multiplicatively interacts with HBV to induce HCC; reducing aflatoxin exposure to non-detectable levels could reduce HCC cases in high-risk areas by about 23%. The decreasing PAR of aflatoxin-related HCC reflects the benefits of public health interventions to reduce aflatoxin and HBV. PMID:22405700

  15. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  16. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Milk and Milk Products in Iran: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of molds and have adverse effects on humans, animals, and crops. Those can cause illnesses and economic losses. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is one of the mycotoxins produced from the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. It can be found in milk or milk products obtained from livestock that have ingested contaminated feed. In this paper, recent studies were reviewed in aflatoxin M1 contamination in milk and milk products in Iran.

  17. Comprehensive Assessment of Maize Aflatoxin Levels in Eastern Kenya, 2005–2007

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxin, a potent fungal toxin, contaminates 25% of crops worldwide. Since 2004, 477 aflatoxin poisonings associated with eating contaminated maize have been documented in Eastern Kenya, with a case-fatality rate of 40%. Objective: We characterized maize aflatoxin contamination during the high-risk season (April–June) after the major harvests in 2005, 2006 (aflatoxicosis outbreak years), and 2007 (a non-outbreak year). Methods: Households were randomly selected each year from th...

  18. Dothistroma pini, a Forest Pathogen, Contains Homologs of Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Pathway Genes

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Homologs of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes have been identified in the pine needle pathogen Dothistroma pini. D. pini produces dothistromin, a difuranoanthraquinone toxin with structural similarity to the aflatoxin precursor versicolorin B. Previous studies with purified dothistromin suggest a possible role for this toxin in pathogenicity. By using an aflatoxin gene as a hybridization probe, a genomic D. pini clone was identified that contained four dot genes with similarity to genes in aflatox...

  19. Association between Aflatoxin M1 and Liver Disease in HBV/HCV Infected Persons in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are common food contaminants in tropical developing countries. Extensive aflatoxin consumption has been shown to be highly associated with liver disease. A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between aflatoxin and liver disease in Kumasi, Ghana. A questionnaire was administered to examine socio-demographic characteristics and food storage and consumption practices, and urine sampl...

  20. Determinants of formation of aflatoxin-albumin adducts: a seven-township study in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxins is one of the major risk factors for hepatocellular carcinoma. Individual susceptibility to aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis may be modulated by both genetic and environmental factors affecting metabolism. A cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate determinants of the formation of aflatoxin covalently bound to albumin (AFB1-albumin adducts). A total of 474 subjects who were free of liver cancer and cirrhosis and were initially selected as controls f...

  1. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tchouanguep, Félicité M; Moundipa, Paul F; Tchana, Angele N.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver...

  2. Dillapiol and Apiol as specific inhibitors of the biosynthesis of aflatoxin G1 in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Rezaee, Mohammad-Bagher; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2007-09-01

    Dillapiol was isolated from the essential oil of dill as a specific inhibitor of aflatoxin G1 production. It inhibited aflatoxin G1 production by Aspergillus parasiticus with an IC50 value of 0.15 microM without inhibiting aflatoxin B1 production or fungal growth. Apiol and myristicin, congeners of dillapiol, showed similar activity with IC50 values of 0.24 and 3.5 microM, respectively.

  3. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Hadad Esper; Edlayne eGonçalez; Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques; Roberto Carlos Felicio; Joana D'arc Felicio

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with ...

  4. Production of M-/GM-group aflatoxins catalyzed by the OrdA enzyme in aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabe, Kimiko; Chihaya, Naomi; Hatabayashi, Hidemi; Kito, Masako; Hoshino, Sachiko; Zeng, Hongmei; Cai, Jingjing; Nakajima, Hiromitsu

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus produces the minor aflatoxins M(1) (AFM(1)), M(2) (AFM(2)), GM(1) (AFGM(1)), and GM(2) (AFGM(2)), as well as the major aflatoxins B(1) (AFB(1)), B(2) (AFB(2)), G(1) (AFG(1)), and G(2) (AFG(2)). Feeding of A. parasiticus with aspertoxin (12c-hydroxyOMST) caused AFM(1) and AFGM(1), and cell-free experiments using the microsomal fraction of A. parasiticus and aspertoxin caused production of AFM(1), indicating that aspertoxin is a precursor of AFM(1) and AFGM(1). Feeding of the same fungus with O-methylsterigmatocystin (OMST) caused AFM(1) and AFGM(1) together with AFB(1) and AFG(1); feeding with dihydroOMST (DHOMST) caused AFM(2) and AFGM(2) together with AFB(2) and AFG(2). Incubation of either the microsomal fraction or OrdA enzyme-expressing yeast with OMST caused production of aspertoxin together with AFM(1) and AFB(1). These results demonstrated that the OrdA enzyme catalyzes both 12c-hydroxylation reaction from OMST to aspertoxin and the successive reaction from aspertoxin to AFM(1). In contrast, feeding of the fungus with AFB(1) did not produce any AFM(1), demonstrating that M-/GM-aflatoxins are not produced from B-/G-aflatoxins. Furthermore, AFM(1) together with AFB(1) and AFG(1) was also produced from 11-hydroxyOMST (HOMST) in feeding experiment of A. parasiticus, whereas no aflatoxins were produced when used the ordA deletion mutant. These results demonstrated that OrdA enzyme can also catalyze 12c-hydroxylation of HOMST to produce 11-hydroxyaspertoxin, which serves as a precursor for the production of AFM(1) and AFGM(1). The same pathway may work for the production of AFM(2) and AFGM(2) from DHOMST and dihydroHOMST through the formation of dihydroaspertoxin and dihydro-11-hydroxyaspertoxin, respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. A mini review on aflatoxin exposure in Malaysia: past, present and future

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    This mini review article described the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia, including its presence in the foodstuffs and the detection of aflatoxin biomarkers in human biological samples. Historically, the exposure of aflatoxin in Malaysia can be dated in 1960s where an outbreak of disease in pig farms caused severe liver damage to the animals. Later, an aflatoxicosis case in Perak in 1988 was reported and caused death to 13 children, as up to 3 mg of aflatoxin was present in a single serving o...

  6. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins.

  7. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    and kojic acid, or are used in oriental food fermentation processes and as hosts for heterologous gene expression. A polyphasic approach was applied using morphological characters, extrolite data and partial calmodulin, beta-tubulin and ITS sequences to examine the evolutionary relationships within...... insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B-1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including...

  8. Carcinogenesis switched on by DNA cross-link between complementary bases aroused by aflatoxin and N-nitroso compounds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Qianhuan; LU Ping; PENG Shaohua; ZHANG Qingrong

    2003-01-01

    The di-region theory put forward by Dai Qianhuan, a molecular mechanism of chemical carcinogenesis, concluded that the carcinogenesis induced by most of the environmental carcinogens is switched on by the cross-linking between DNA complementary bases aroused by the bifunctional alkylation of their metabolic intermediates. It was evidenced in this paper with DNA filter elution method that one carcinogenic mycotoxin, aflatoxin G1, four carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds, N-nitrosodiethyl-amine, N-nitrosodibutyl-amine, N-nitrosomorpholine and N-nitrosopyrrolidine, one carcinogenic diazo color, 4-dimethylaminodiazobenzene and one carcinogenic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound, quinoline, all induced DNA interstrands cross-linking with dosage correlation after metabolic activation. However, the non-carcinogens in corresponding series for control, aflatoxin B2, N-nitroso-diphenylamine, 4′-bromo-4-dimethylaminodiazobenzene and isoquinoline, cannot induce DNA interstrands cross-linking at all in the same condition. A method for the determination of cross-linking ratio between DNA complementary bases in total DNA interstrands cross-linking, which has no monitoring measure as yet, has been established for the first time based upon a 24 hour repairing experiment. The DNA complementary pair cross-linking ratio induced by a metabolized carcinogen is correlated with its carcinogenic potential. It may be concluded that the mutations including point and frameshift mutagenesis induced by aflatoxin and other carcinogens are switched on by their corresponding cross-linking base pair between complementary bases. Therefore, the di-region theory is a reasonable molecular mechanism for chemical, endogenous and physical carcinogenesis.

  9. THE EFFECT OF PHYTIC ACID, ZINC AND SOYBEAN EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH AND AFLATOXIN B1 PRODUCTION BY Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    Sardjono, Sardjono

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that aflatoxin contamination in soybean was relatively low, but it was not guaranteed that soybean products is free from aflatoxin contamination. Naturally, soybean containing phytic acid and it bound zinc and protein. Zinc (Zn) is an important mineral for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Previous research indicated that some soybean products such as kecap was contaminated by aflatoxin. It might be Aspergillus flavus involved during kecap fermentation and it produced phytase for p...

  10. Comparison of Two Inoculation Methods for Evaluating Maize for Resistance to Aspergillus flavus Infection and Aflatoxin Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    W. Paul Williams; Michael N. Alpe; Gary L. Windham; Seval Ozkan; J Erik Mylroie

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin, the most potent carcinogen found in nature, is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus and occurs naturally in maize, Zea mays L. Growing maize hybrids with genetic resistance to aflatoxin contamination are generally considered a highly desirable way to reduce losses to aflatoxin. Developing resistant hybrids requires reliable inoculation methods for screening maize germplasm for resistance to A. flavus infection and aflatoxin accumulation. The side-needle technique is a widely u...

  11. Isolation of methyl syringate as a specific aflatoxin production inhibitor from the essential oil of Betula alba and aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of its related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jermnak, Usuma; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Sugiyama, Yasumasa; Tsuyuki, Rie; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2012-02-15

    Methyl syringate was isolated from the essential oil of Betula alba as an aflatoxin production inhibitor. It inhibited aflatoxin production of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus with IC(50) values of 0.9 and 0.8 mM, respectively, without significantly inhibiting fungal growth. Methyl syringate reduced mRNA levels of genes (aflR, pksA, and omtB) [corrected] encoding proteins required for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Methyl gallate, methyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate, and methyl 3-O-methylgallate inhibited both aflatoxin production and fungal growth of A. parasiticus and A. flavus. However, their acids and syringic acid did not inhibit aflatoxin production and growth of A. parasiticus significantly, although gallic acid inhibited aflatoxin production of A. flavus with selectivity. The 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of methyl syringate was much weaker than that of gallic acid. These results showed that methyl syringate has a unique inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production with a different mode of action from that of gallic acid.

  12. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Zivoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  13. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivoli, Rosanna; Gambacorta, Lucia; Piemontese, Luca; Solfrizzo, Michele

    2016-01-19

    The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted) from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B₁ and B₂ were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB₁ + AFB₂, whereas AFG₁ and AFG₂ were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%-19.9% of total peeled kernels) removed 97.3%-99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%-99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB₁ + AFB₂ measured in rejected fractions (15%-18% of total kernels) ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01-0.05 µg/kg) was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB₁ and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  14. Sampling hazelnuts for aflatoxin: Effects of sample size and accetp/reject limit on reducing risk of misclassifying lots

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 100 countries have established regulatory limits for aflatoxin in food and feeds. Because these limits vary widely among regulating countries, the Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants (CCFAC) began work in 2004 to harmonize aflatoxin limits and sampling plans for aflatoxin in alm...

  15. Uncommon occurrence ratios of aflatoxin B1, B 2, G 1, and G 2 in maize and groundnuts from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Sulyok, Michael; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Van Poucke, Christof; De Saeger, Sarah; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    We report an unusual aflatoxin profile in maize and groundnuts from Malawi, with aflatoxin G1 found routinely at equal or even higher levels than aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ratio in a contaminated sample is generally greater than 50% of total aflatoxin (sum of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2). In Malawi, the aflatoxin occurrence ratios were determined by examining LC-MS/MS and HPLC fluorescence detection (FLD) data of 156 naturally contaminated raw maize and 80 groundnut samples collected in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that natural aflatoxin occurrence ratio differed. In 47% of the samples, the concentration of AFG1 was higher than that of AFB1. The mean concentration percentages of AFB1/AFB2/AFG1/AFG2 in reference to total aflatoxins were found to be 47:5:43:5%, respectively. The AFG1 and AFB1 50/50 trend was observed in maize and groundnuts and was consistent for samples collected in both years. If the AFB1 measurement was used to check compliance of total aflatoxin regulatory limit set at 10, 20, 100, and 200 μg/kg with an assumption that AFB1≥50% of the total aflatoxin content, 8, 13, 24, and 26% false negative rates would have occurred respectively. It is therefore important for legislation to consider total aflatoxins rather than AFB1 alone.

  16. Aflatoxin contamination of dried red chilies: Contrasts between the United States and Nigeria, two markets differing in regulation enforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried red chilies are among the world’s most consumed spices. From farm to fork, chilies go through cropping, harvest, drying, processing and storage. Chilies are susceptible to infection by aflatoxin producing fungi and subsequent contamination by aflatoxins at every stage. Aflatoxins are highly re...

  17. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fowler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  18. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Justin; Li, Wei; Bailey, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg) both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4). After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin. PMID:26343723

  19. Aflatoxin M1 Contamination in Ice-Cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kazemi Darsanaki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 that it can be found in milk and dairy products. In this study, ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay technique was used for detection of AFM1 in ice-cream in Guilan province (Northern Iran. A total of 90 ice-cream samples was randomly obtained from different supermarkets. In 62 of the 90 ice-cream samples examined (68.88%, the presence of AFM1 was detected in concentrations between 8.4 -147.7 ng/l. The mean level of AFM1 in positive samples was 40.36 ng/l. AFM1 levels in 11 samples (12.22% were higher than the maximum tolerance limit (50 ng/l accepted by ISIRI, European Community and Codex Alimentarius.

  20. Radiation degradation of biological residues (Aflatoxins) produced in food laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogovschi, Vladimir D.; Aquino, Simone; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Trindade, Reginaldo A.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (brazil)]. E-mails: vladrogo@yahoo.com.br; villavic@ipen.br; Zorzete, Patricia; Correa, Benedito [Universidade de Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Biomedicas]. E-mail: correabe@usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Some molds have the capacity to produce substances that are toxic and generally cancer-causing agents, such as aflatoxins, that stand between the most important carcinogenic substances (class one of the agents which are certainly carcinogenous for human people according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer). Aspergillus spp. is present in world-wide distribution, with predominance in tropical and subtropical regions growing in any substratum. The aim of this work is establish a minimum dose of radiation that degrades aflatoxins produced by fungi Aspergillus spp. The Aspergillus spp. colonies will be cultivated in coconut agar medium and the samples will be conditioned in appropriate bags for irradiation treatment of contaminated material and processed in the Gammacell 220 with dose of 20 kGy. (author)

  1. Effect of Bread Making Process on Aflatoxin Level Changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafar Milani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat flour is a commodity with a high risk of aflatoxins (AFs contamination. During the bread making there are many processes that can affect the AFs stability. The effect of bread making process using different yeast types on AFs levels was investigated. For this purpose, standards of AFs including B and Gwere added to flour and then bread loaves were prepared. Three types of commercially available yeast including active dry yeast, instant dry yeast and compressed yeast were used for dough preparation. AFs levels in flour, dough, and bread were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with fluorescence detector. The results showed that maximum reduction in aflatoxin levels observed during first proof while the least decline was seen for the baking stage. The order of AFs reduction in bread making process was AFB1>AFB2>AFG1. Furthermore, the results indicated that the most effective yeast for AFs reduction was instant dry yeast.

  2. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felicia Wu

    Full Text Available Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1, B(2, G(1, and G(2 differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  3. Aflatoxin Regulations in a Network of Global Maize Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000–2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards. PMID:23049773

  4. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Selected Processed Foods from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ashrafuzzaman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 125 (ready to eat processed food samples (70 intended for infant and 55 for adult intake belonging to 20 different food categories were analyzed for aflatoxins contamination using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC with fluorescent detection. A solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water was used for the extraction followed by immunoaffinity clean-up to enhance sensitivity of the method. The limit of detection (LOD (0.01–0.02 ng·g−1 and limit of quantification (LOQ (0.02 ng·g−1 was established for aflatoxins based on signal to noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1, respectively. Of the processed food samples tested, 38% were contaminated with four types of aflatoxins, i.e., AFB1 (0.02–1.24 μg·kg−1, AFB2 (0.02–0.37 μg·kg−1, AFG1 (0.25–2.7 μg·kg−1 and AFG2 (0.21–1.3 μg·kg−1. In addition, the results showed that 21% of the processed foods intended for infants contained AFB1 levels higher than the European Union permissible limits (0.1 μg·kg−1, while all of those intended for adult consumption had aflatoxin contamination levels within the permitted limits.

  5. Aflatoxin regulations in a network of global maize trade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Guclu, Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, food supplies often contain unavoidable contaminants, many of which adversely affect health and hence are subject to regulations of maximum tolerable levels in food. These regulations differ from nation to nation, and may affect patterns of food trade. We soughtto determine whether there is an association between nations' food safety regulations and global food trade patterns, with implications for public health and policymaking. We developed a network model of maize trade around the world. From maize import/export data for 217 nations from 2000-2009, we calculated basic statistics on volumes of trade; then examined how regulations of aflatoxin, a common contaminant of maize, are similar or different between pairs of nations engaging in significant amounts of maize trade. Globally, market segregation appears to occur among clusters of nations. The United States is at the center of one cluster; European countries make up another cluster with hardly any maize trade with the US; and Argentina, Brazil, and China export maize all over the world. Pairs of nations trading large amounts of maize have very similar aflatoxin regulations: nations with strict standards tend to trade maize with each other, while nations with more relaxed standards tend to trade maize with each other. Rarely among the top pairs of maize-trading nations do total aflatoxin standards (standards based on the sum of the levels of aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2)) differ by more than 5 µg/kg. These results suggest that, globally, separate maize trading communities emerge; and nations tend to trade with other nations that have very similar food safety standards.

  6. Aflatoxin B₁ and aflatoxins in ground red chilli pepper after drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ali; Bindak, Recep; Erkmen, Osman

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 180 red chilli pepper (RCP) berry samples were obtained from two different croplands of Gaziantep and Kahramanmaraş (Turkey) in August, September and October. RCP berry samples were dried under sunlight and grinded. Ground red chilli pepper (GRCP) samples were analysed for aflatoxins (AFs, sum of B1, B2, G1 and G2) and AFB1 contamination. According to the results, in 49 of 180 samples, AFB1 and in 37 samples, AFs were higher than legal limits. The lowest amounts of AFs and AFB1 were obtained in August and the highest amounts in October. χ(2) analysis showed that there were no significant differences (p > 0.05) between cities among 3 months according to number of samples with AFs and AFB1 above legal limits. According to the Duncan multiple-range test, there was no significant difference between all months. Strict measures are necessary to produce high-quality GRCP. RCP berry must be treated to reduce moulds before production of GRCP.

  7. Effect of irradiation on aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hitoshi; Jintana Bunnak; Guzman, Z.M. de; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment)

    1991-10-01

    The effects of repeated exposure to gamma irradiation on Aspergillus flavus var. columnaris S46 was studied in terms of the development of increased radioresistance and mutations. Original D{sub 10} value was obtained as 0.22 kGy and increased a little after 6 times exposure at a dose of 0.8 kGy. Mutation ratios such as morphological changes and aflatoxin production were not remarkably changed even after 6 times exposure. A little stimulation of production of aflatoxin B{sub 1} occurred by irradiation of spores of strains S46, E11 and E14 at 0.4 and 0.6 kGy in Synthetic Low Salts broth after incubation for 10 days at 25degC. The levels of aflatoxin B{sub 1} was also increased 13 to 40% by incubation of irradiated spores of S46 strain at 1 kGy on autoclaved polished rice, black pepper and red pepper. However, these stimulation effects were not Observed after infection of these cultivates of irradiated sores to fresh media. (author).

  8. Metabolism of aflatoxin B-1 in cotton bolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellon, J.E.; Lee, L.S. (Dept. of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungus capable of producing the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (AFB-1) when it infects developing cotton seed. Although high levels of toxin can readily be isolated from internal tissues of infected seeds, very low toxin levels are observed in the fiber-linter matrix. In order to test the hypothesis that constituents associated with the lint of the host plant are metabolizing aflatoxin, {sup 14}C-AFB-1 was introduced into cotton bolls (30 days postanthesis). Other sets of bolls received inoculations of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus plus exogenous {sup 14}C-AFB-1. In addition to the exogenously applied {sup 14}C-AFB-1, at least two new labelled metabolites were recovered from the test bolls. One of these metabolites was very polar and remained on the origin of the thin layer analysis system. Test bolls which received both A. flavus and AFB-1 produced significantly lower levels of this polar metabolite. Results indicated that some constituent(s) associated with cotton fiber may metabolize fungal-produced aflatoxin, rather than inhibit its formation.

  9. Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymeric capillary columns for isolation of aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szumski, Michał; Grzywiński, Damian; Prus, Wojciech; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2014-10-17

    Monolithic molecularly imprinted polymers extraction columns have been prepared in fused-silica capillaries by UV or thermal polymerization in a two-step process. First, a poly-(trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate) (polyTRIM) core monolith was synthesized either by UV or thermal polymerization. Then it was grafted with the mixture of methacrylic acid (MAA) as a functional monomer, ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linking agent, 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin (DMC) as an aflatoxin-mimicking template, toluene as a porogen solvent and 2,2-azobis-(2-methylpropionitrile) (AIBN) as an initiator of the polymerization reaction. Different thermal condition of the photografting and different concentrations of the grafting mixture were tested during polymerization. The extraction capillary columns were evaluated in the terms of their hydrodynamic and chromatographic properties. Retention coefficients for aflatoxin B1 and DMC were used for assessment of the selectivity and imprinting factor. The obtained results indicate that the temperature of photografting and concentration of the grafting mixture are key parameters that determine the quality of the prepared MIPs. From the MIP columns characterized by the highest permeability the column of the highest imprinting factor was applied for isolation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 from the model aqueous sample followed by on-line chromatographic separation. The process was performed using a micro-MISPE-microLC-LIF system of a novel design, which allowed for detection of the eluates from the sample preparation part as well as from the chromatographic separation.

  10. Phase separation phenomena in solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide). IV. Thermodynamic parameters for solutions in a series of homologous solvents: Toluene to hexylbenzene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenhen, D.M.; Bakker, A.; Broens, L.; Berg, van den J.W.A.; Smolders, C.A.

    1984-01-01

    Melting-point curves for solutions of poly(2,6-dimethyl-1,4-phenylene oxide) (PPO) in a series of homologous solvents (toluene to n-hexylbenzene) have been obtained from visual and differential scanning calorimetry measurements. The measured melting points were used to calculate thermodynamic intera

  11. Mycobiota and identification of aflatoxin gene cluster in marketed spices in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, G. J. B.; Adjovi, Y. C.; Tokpo, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    of Aspergillus were dominant on all marketed dried and milled spices irrespective of country. Gene characterization and amplification analysis showed that most of the Aspergillus flavus isolates possess the cluster genes for aflatoxin production. Aflatoxin B1 assessment by Thin Layer Chromatography showed...

  12. Measurement and assessment of aflatoxin B1 and its producing molds in Iranian sausages and burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Maktabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most well-known hepatocarcinogens in humans. Contamination of raw materials, used in the production of sausages and burgers, with aflatoxin producing molds can lead to increased level of aflatoxin in the final products and can impose hazards to human health. Unfortunately, aflatoxin is resistant to heating and freezing processes, etc. and can remain in these products untile consumption. Methods: During a six-month period, 45 sausage and 53 burger samples from valid brands across the country were randomly purchased from the stores. The samples were analyzed for AFB1 by ELISA technique. Meanwhile, the number of molds was calculated and aflatoxin producing molds were identified by direct and slide culture methods. Results: The findings showed that 2 susage samples (4.9% and 3 burger samples (6.3% were contaminated with >1 ng/g aflatoxin. Moreover, 4 burger samples (8.9% contaminated with mold included aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, mucor, and penicillium while, none of the susage samples showed mold contamination. Conclusion: The Iranian meat products had a relative aflatoxin B1 contamination during the study period, but the contamination rate was low and in allowable range. Standard hygienic preparation and packaging of meat products molds is recommended to reduce fungal contamination, especially aflatoxin-producing molds.

  13. In Vitro and In Vivo Assessment of Humic Acid as an Aflatoxin Binder in Broiler Chickens

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    van Rensburg, C. Jansen; Van Rensburg, C. E. J; Van Ryssen, J. B. J; Casey, N. H; Rottinghaus, G. E

    2006-01-01

    ..., and 11.9 mg of AFB1/g of oxihumate at pH 3, 5, and 7, respectively, were calculated. The in vivo efficacy of oxihumate as an aflatoxin binder in male broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin-contaminated feed from 7 to 42 d of age was also assessed...

  14. Sexuality generates diversity in the aflatoxin gene cluster: evidence on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    The worldwide costs associated with aflatoxin monitoring and crop losses are in the hundreds of millions of dollars. Aflatoxins also account for considerable health risks, even in countries where food contamination is regulated. Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus are the most common agents of af...

  15. Screening a strain of Aspergillus niger and optimization of fermentation conditions for degradation of aflatoxin B₁.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Xue, Beibei; Li, Mengmeng; Mu, Yang; Chen, Zhihui; Li, Jianping; Shan, Anshan

    2014-11-13

    Aflatoxin B₁, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B₁ after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B₁ after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB). Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B₁ degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B₁ was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B₁ degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B₁ degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B₁ degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  16. Determination of aflatoxins in raw grain and seeds at ppt levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    A chemical cleanup procedure for low-level quantitative determination of aflatoxins in major economically important agricultural commodities using HPLC has been developed. Samples were extracted and the extracts were purified on a minicolumn packed with Florisil. Aflatoxins were quantified by HPLC w...

  17. Modelling approach to limit aflatoxin B1 contamination in dairy cattle compound feed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouzembrak, Y.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Feeding dairy cattle with safe compound feed helps farmers to ensure food safety. However, several ingredients often used in compound feed production can be contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which may result into milk contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Given the number of ingredients and their

  18. Genetic characterization of the maize lipoxygenase gene family in relation to aflatoxin accumuation resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a globally important staple food crop. It is prone to contamination by aflatoxin, a secondary carcinogenic metabolite produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. An efficient approach to combat the accumulation of aflatoxin is the development of germplasm resistant to infection...

  19. Transport via xylem and accumulation of aflatoxin in seeds of groundnut plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snigdha, M; Hariprasad, P; Venkateswaran, G

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds in the absence of any aflatoxigenic fungi leads to a hypothesis that aflatoxins are present naturally in soil and is transferred to seeds through uptake by roots. A survey was conducted on the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in agricultural soils, among nine main groundnut-growing regions of Karnataka state, India. All 71 soil samples collected in this survey were contaminated with aflatoxins esp. AFB1. An in vitro xylem sap experiment proved the ability of groundnut plant roots to absorb AFB1, and transport to aerial plant parts via the xylem. Hydroponics experiment also proved the uptake of AFB1 by the roots and their translocation to shoot. Uptake was affected by the initial concentration of toxin and pH of the medium. Among the 14 varieties screened, GPBD4 and MLT.K.107 (III) recorded highest and least AFB1 uptake, respectively. The above results were validated using a greenhouse experiment. Here, the aflatoxin absorbed by root gradually transferred to shoot that was later found in seeds towards the end of experiment. Thus, the groundnut seeds can also get contaminated with aflatoxin by direct uptake of aflatoxin through conducting tissue in addition to fungal infection. The present study revealed the novel mode of aflatoxin contamination in groundnut seeds without fungal infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto…

  1. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of and Aspergillus flavus Aflatoxin Accumulation Resistance in Maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marilyn L. Warburton; Juliet D. Tang; Gary L. Windham; Leigh K. Hawkins; Seth C. Murray; Wenwei Xu; Debbie Boykin; Andy Perkins; W. Paul Williams

    2015-01-01

    Contamination of maize (Zea mays L.) with aflatoxin, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus Link, has severe health and economic consequences. Efforts to reduce aflatoxin accumulation in maize have focused on identifying and selecting germplasm with natural host resistance factors, and several maize lines with significantly...

  2. RNAseq analysis reveals oxidative stress responses of Aspergillus flavus related to stress tolerance and aflatoxin production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination by Aspergillus flavus is exacerbated by drought stress in the field. Given that reactive oxygen species (ROS) both accumulate in plant tissues during drought and can stimulate aflatoxin production in vitro, we examined the responses of toxigenic isolates of A. flavus to oxida...

  3. Evaluation of African-bred maize germplasm lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins, produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus, contaminate maize grain and threatens human food and feed safety. Plant resistance is considered the best strategy for reducing aflatoxin accumulation. Six maize germplasm lines, TZAR101-TZAR106, were released by the IITA-SRRC maize breeding col...

  4. Atoxigenic Aspergillus flavus endemic to Italy for biocontrol of aflatoxins in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effective biological control of aflatoxin­producing Aspergillus flavus with atoxigenic members of that species requires suitable A. flavus well adapted to and resident in target agroecosystems. Eighteen atoxigenic isolates of A. flavus endemic in Italy were compared for ability to reduce aflatoxin c...

  5. Efficacy of water dispersible formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus for aflatoxin management in corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field experiments were conducted in 2011 and 2012 to evaluate the efficacy of water dispersible granule (WDG) formulations of biocontrol strains of Aspergillus flavus in controlling aflatoxin contamination of corn. In 2011, when aflatoxin was present at very high levels, no WDG treatment provided s...

  6. Effect of contamination of diets with aflatoxins on growing ducks and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski-Meissner, H T

    1983-08-01

    Growing Alabio ducks and White Leghorn chickens were used in a growth study in which diets containing either soybean meal (SBM), peanut meal (PNM) or fish meal (FM) as protein sources were contaminated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus providing the following aflatoxin levels: 0, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms aflatoxin B1 equivalent per kg ration. There were no differences in responses of growing ducks and chickens (at age of 28 days) to the various protein sources at the zero aflatoxin level. However diets contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and containing 50 micrograms/kg aflatoxin B1 equivalent or more significantly reduced body weight gain and utilisation of dietary protein in ducks as compared with chickens. The higher the aflatoxin content above 50 micrograms/kg the greater was the difference in performance between ducks and chickens. Dietary aflatoxins caused liver damage in ducks while no damage was recorded in chickens. Ducks fed diets containing SBM or PNM were more affected by the same concentration of aflatoxins than those fed diets with FM. When intensification of duck husbandry is envisaged, particularly in humid tropical regions, measures to avoid the deleterious ill effects of aflatoxins are needed.

  7. Process Development for Spray Drying a Value-Added Extract from Aflatoxin Contaminated Peanut Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peanut meal, the primary byproduct of commercial oil crushing operations, is an excellent source of protein though aflatoxin contamination often limits applications for this material. Naturally aflatoxin contaminated (59 ppb) peanut meal dispersions were adjusted to pH 2.1 or pH 9.1, with or without...

  8. Effect of Aflatoxin Contaminated Feed on Energy Reservesof Fish Labeo Rohita(Hamilton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durre Shahwar Ruby

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Effect of aflatoxin contaminated feed on glycogen content of liver,blood glucose, total serum protein and blood urea of the fish Labeo rohita was studied. The result revealed that administration of aflatoxin decreased liver glycogen and tatal serum protein but blood level of glucose and urea increased.

  9. Assessment of Adoption Gaps in Management of Aflatoxin Contamination of Groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, G. D. S.; Popat, M. N.

    2010-01-01

    One of the major impediments for diversification of groundnut ("Arachis Hypogaea" L.) as food crop is aflatoxin contamination. The study was conducted with an objective to assess the adoption gaps in aflatoxin management practices of groundnut (AMPG) and the farmer's characteristics influencing these gaps. The study used an expost-facto…

  10. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by Use of UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2015-10-21

    This work developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products, which was then used to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the United States. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled, and amended with (13)C17-labeled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography, and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3 → 241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3 → 285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105-111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analyzed ranged from snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds.

  11. RNA interference reduces aflatoxin accumulation by Aspergillus flavus in peanut seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are among the most powerful carcinogens in nature. They are produced by the fungal pathogen Aspergillus flavus Link and other Aspergillus species. Aflatoxins accumulate in many crops, including rice, wheat, oats, pecans, pistachios, soybean, cassava, almonds, peanuts, beans, corn and cot...

  12. Oral administration of piperine for the control of aflatoxin intoxication in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalita B. Gagini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are mycotoxins that have important toxic effects on human and animal health, even if consumed at low doses. The oral administration of piperine (1.12 mg/kg during 23 days in rats seemingly interfered with the toxicity of aflatoxins, decreasing hepatic injuries and the leukocyte depletion in experimentally intoxicated animals.

  13. Biochemical and molecular aspects of mammalian susceptibility to aflatoxin B{sub 1} carcinogenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massey, T.E.; Stewart, R.K. [Queen`s Univ., Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Daniels, J.M. [Environmental Health Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1}) is a fungal toxin that has been implicated as a causative agent in human hepatic and extrahepatic carcinogenesis. In this review, the mechanisms involved in AFB{sub 1} toxicity are delineated, in order to describe the features that make a specific cell, tissue, or species susceptible to the mycotoxin. Important considerations include: (i) different mechanisms for bioactivation of AFB{sub 1} to its ultimate carcinogenic epoxide metabolite; (ii) the balance between bioactivation to and detoxification of the epoxide; (iii) the interaction of AFB{sub 1} epoxide with DNA and the mutational events leading to neoplastic transformation; (iv) the role of cytotoxicity in AFB{sub 1} carcinogenesis; (v) the significance of nonepoxide metabolites in toxicity; and (vi) the contribution of mycotoxin-unrelated disease processes. Although considerable controversy remains about the importance of specific events, a great deal has been learned about biochemical and molecular actions of AFB{sub 1}. 157 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Evaluating the skill of seasonal weather forecasts in predicting aflatoxin contamination of groundnut in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brak, B.; Challinor, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the

  15. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods.

  16. Kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and G2 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERA DONDUR

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of aflatoxins B1 and G2 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite at pH 2 and 7, in aqueous electrolyte at 37°C were studied. For both aflatoxins, the adsorption process begins with a fast reaction whereby most of the toxin is adsorbed in the first few minutes. This fast process is followed by the significantly slower process of aflatoxin bonding at active centers of mineral adsorbent. The initial rate method showed that the fast adsorption process of aflatoxin B1 and G2, at both pH values is a first order reaction, while the slow adsorption process of these aflatoxins is a zero order reaction. The adsorption indexes and adsorption rates for both examined toxins were pH dependent. In the investigated initial toxins concentration ranges (500–3000 µg/dm3, high adsorption indexes were achieved (> 80 %.

  17. Present and future directions of translational research on aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Gerald N; Kensler, Thomas W; Groopman, John D

    2012-01-01

    The aflatoxins were discovered in toxic peanut meal causing "turkey X" disease, which killed large numbers of turkey poults, ducklings and chicks in the UK in the early 1960s. Extracts of toxic feed induced the symptoms in experimental animals, and purified metabolites with properties identical to aflatoxins B(1) and G(1) (AFB(1) and AFG(1)) were isolated from Aspergillus flavus cultures. Structure elucidation of aflatoxin B(1) was accomplished and confirmed by total synthesis in 1963. AFB(1) is a potent liver carcinogen in rodents, non-human primates, fish and birds, operating through a genotoxic mechanism involving metabolic activation to an epoxide, formation of DNA adducts and, in humans, modification of the p53 gene. Aflatoxins are unique among environmental carcinogens, in that elucidation of their mechanisms of action combined with molecular epidemiology provides a foundation for quantitative risk assessment; extensive evidence confirms that contamination of the food supply by AFB(1) puts an exposed population at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Molecular biomarkers to quantify aflatoxin exposure in individuals were essential to link aflatoxin exposure with liver cancer risk. Biomarkers were validated in populations with high HCC incidence in China and The Gambia, West Africa; urinary AFB(1)-N (7)-Guanine excretion was linearly related to aflatoxin intake, and levels of aflatoxin-serum albumin adducts also reflected aflatoxin intake. Two major cohort studies employing aflatoxin biomarkers identified their causative role in HCC etiology. Results of a study in Shanghai men strongly support a causal relationship between HCC risk and the presence of biomarkers for aflatoxin and HBV infection, and also show that the two risk factors act synergistically. Subsequent cohort studies in Taiwan confirm these results. IARC classified aflatoxin as a Group 1 human carcinogen in 1993, based on sufficient evidence in humans and experimental

  18. Aflatoxins: A Global Concern for Food Safety, Human Health and Their Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pradeep; Mahato, Dipendra K.; Kamle, Madhu; Mohanta, Tapan K.; Kang, Sang G.

    2017-01-01

    The aflatoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus spp., are widely spread in nature and have severely contaminated food supplies of humans and animals, resulting in health hazards and even death. Therefore, there is great demand for aflatoxins research to develop suitable methods for their quantification, precise detection and control to ensure the safety of consumers’ health. Here, the chemistry and biosynthesis process of the mycotoxins is discussed in brief along with their occurrence, and the health hazards to humans and livestock. This review focuses on resources, production, detection and control measures of aflatoxins to ensure food and feed safety. The review is informative for health-conscious consumers and research experts in the fields. Furthermore, providing knowledge on aflatoxins toxicity will help in ensure food safety and meet the future demands of the increasing population by decreasing the incidence of outbreaks due to aflatoxins. PMID:28144235

  19. Vitamin E ameliorates aflatoxin-induced biochemical changes in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To assess the effect of aflatoxin on biochemical changes in the testis of mice and the possibility of amelioration by vitamin E treatment. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered with 25 or 50 tg of aflatoxin/animal/day (750 or 1500 μg/kg body weight) for 45 days. The testis was isolated and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a significant, dose-dependent reduction in DNA, RNA, protein, sialic acid contents and the activities of succinic dehydrogenase, adenosine triphosphatase and alkaline phosphatase in the testis of aflatoxintreated mice as compared to the vehicle control. However, the acid phosphatase activity was significantly increased in the aflatoxin-treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/animal/day) treatment significantly ameliorated the aflatoxin-induced changes, except the acid and alkaline phosphatase activities in the high dose group. Conclusion: Vitamin E treatment ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced changes in the testis of mice.

  20. An empirical evaluation of three vibrational spectroscopic methods for detection of aflatoxins in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Davis, Jessica; Herrman, Timothy J; Murray, Seth C; Deng, Youjun

    2015-04-15

    Three commercially available vibrational spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were evaluated to help users determine the spectroscopic method best suitable for aflatoxin analysis in maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on their relative efficiency and predictive ability. Spectral differences of Raman and FTIR spectra were more marked and pronounced among aflatoxin contamination groups than those of FT-NIR spectra. From the observations and findings in our current and previous studies, Raman and FTIR spectroscopic methods are superior to FT-NIR method in terms of predictive power and model performance for aflatoxin analysis and they are equally effective and accurate in predicting aflatoxin concentration in maize. The present study is considered as the first attempt to assess how spectroscopic techniques with different physical processes can influence and improve accuracy and reliability for rapid screening of aflatoxin contaminated maize samples.

  1. Detection of Aflatoxin in Zea mays L. from Indian Markets by Competitive ELISA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harish Chandra Jyotsana Bahuguna and Ajay Singh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are a family of related bisfuranocoumarin compounds produced by fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. It has been reported that out of the known strains of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, only about one-half produce toxins. In present study the occurrence of total aflatoxin contamination in Indian maize samples collected from local market of Lucknow city were investigated by competitive ELISA technique. The result showed that the fungal count ranges from 1.0 × 102 to 3.6 × 106 cfu/gm. However; no significant correlation could be established within fungal count and the aflatoxin level. Total aflatoxin content ranges from 9.0 to 250 ppb. However 7 samples do not have any trace of total aflatoxin level.

  2. The Evaluation of Aflatoxin M1 Level in Collected Raw Milk for Pasteurized Dairy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Sadeghi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are fungal toxins that have carcinogenic, cellular mutations and malformation effects. Aflatoxin M1 resists pasteurization, autoclave and the other methods that make foodstuff healthy. This study aims to determine the contents of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk of milk factories in Kermanshah province.Materials and Methods: This research is carried out through the descriptive-cross sectional method. Among the raw milk received by four pasteurized milk factories in Kermanshah, coded by (A, B, C, D labels, six samples, totally 320 samples (80 samples from each factory, were taken within four seasons. The concentration of aflatoxin M1 was examined by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The mean difference was analyzed statistically through t-test using SPSS software. Results: The content of aflatoxin was higher than Codex standard (0.5 µg/l in 295 samples. The total mean was 1.21, which exceeds two times the Codex standard. The highest and lowest contents of aflatoxin M1 were observed in “Factory D” in spring and in “Factory A” in autumn, respectively. There was a significant difference between contamination of aflatoxin M1 and different seasons (p< 0.05.Conclusion: High content of aflatoxin M1 in raw milk is worrying. Measuring the content of aflatoxin M1 is essential to reduce the toxin entering the daily food of animals and the other related factors. The considerable difference of aflatoxin M1 content between Factory D and Factory A can be attributed to the amount of the local milk and the industrial milk received by the factories.

  3. Occurrence of aflatoxin in some of the food and feed in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koirala P

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are many contaminants like aflatoxin present in food products. Aflatoxin in comparison to many other contaminants is very toxic and also carcinogenic. There are reports of outbreak of aflatoxin toxicity in many parts of the world. AIM: To find out the level of aflatoxin in common food and feed. SETTING: The study was conducted in 16 districts of the Eastern region of Nepal. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Samples were collected from retailers and whole sellers from 1995 to 2003. Common food items that had high chances of infestation were collected. Food sample were taken to the laboratory to estimate the level of aflatoxin. The thin layer chromatography method was used to detect aflatoxin in the samples and comparison of fluorescence of sample spot with fluorescence of standard for estimation. RESULT: There were 832 samples for aflatoxin detection and estimation. One-third samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. The highest percentage of contamination was found in peanut butter/vegetable oil (42.5% and the lowest in areca nut (25%. Highest proportion of cornflakes samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin by more than the recommended value (30 ppb and contamination in peanut was the lowest. CONCLUSION: People consume many common food items that contain aflatoxin. It is of high importance for the concerned department to give attention to this important public health issue. Even in small doses, continuous consumption can lead to many health problems. So it is of paramount importance to detect and control these contaminants in food items.

  4. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    OpenAIRE

    Yahyaraeyat, R.; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D.; V Khalaj

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial...

  5. The PCP SYS IV Management System: Technical Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, John T.; Felty, J. Michael

    This paper is the second in a three-part series on SYS IV, an instructional management system developed by the PLATO Curriculum Project (PCP) that incorporates some of the features of the previous SYS systems. Focus is primarily on the new features that make the system unique. Following a brief background section explaining the purpose of SYS IV,…

  6. [The relationships of intelligence and memory assessed using the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepach, A C; Daseking, M; Petermann, F; Waldmann, H C

    2013-11-01

    This study examines the relationships of intelligence and memory scores derived from WAIS-IV and WMS-IV. We were especially interested in the reciprocal predictive values of the test scales. A sample of 137 healthy adults with an age range between 16 and 69 years was assessed with the WAIS-IV and the WMS-IV. The test order was balanced. Pearson correlations were conducted on the subtest and scale level. A series of 14 linear regression models was tested with memory performance as predictor for intelligence and vice versa. A model including the 3 main memory scales of the WMS-IV was able to predict the global IQ best. It nevertheless explained only 46% of the variance. The memory and intelligence measures show significant relationships, but also represent distinct functions. WAIS-IV and WMS-IV complement one another. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2014.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  8. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2016.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  9. NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — NNDSS - Table IV. Tuberculosis - 2015.This Table includes total number of cases reported in the United States, by region and by states, in accordance with the...

  10. Biotechnological advances for combating Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin contamination in crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Sunkara, Sowmini; Bhatnagar-Panwar, Madhurima; Waliyar, Farid; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic and immunosuppressive byproducts of Aspergillus spp. that contaminate a wide range of crops such as maize, peanut, and cotton. Aflatoxin not only affects crop production but renders the produce unfit for consumption and harmful to human and livestock health, with stringent threshold limits of acceptability. In many crops, breeding for resistance is not a reliable option because of the limited availability of genotypes with durable resistance to Aspergillus. Understanding the fungal/crop/environment interactions involved in aflatoxin contamination is therefore essential in designing measures for its prevention and control. For a sustainable solution to aflatoxin contamination, research must be focused on identifying and improving knowledge of host-plant resistance factors to aflatoxin accumulation. Current advances in genetic transformation, proteomics, RNAi technology, and marker-assisted selection offer great potential in minimizing pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination in cultivated crop species. Moreover, developing effective phenotyping strategies for transgenic as well as precision breeding of resistance genes into commercial varieties is critical. While appropriate storage practices can generally minimize post-harvest aflatoxin contamination in crops, the use of biotechnology to interrupt the probability of pre-harvest infection and contamination has the potential to provide sustainable solution.

  11. In Vitro Testing to Aflatoxin Binding by Glucomannan Yeast Product and Glucomannan Extract from Amorphophallus oncophyllus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Susanto

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of research was to test the capability of glucomannan yeast product (GYP and glucomannan resulted from Amorphophallus oncophyllus extraction (GRE to bind aflatoxin in in vitro testing. Before in vitro testing, both GYP and GRE were analyzed to determine proximate analysis, glucose, and mannose concentrations. In vitro testing used aflatoxin, binder and gastro intestinal fluid in 3% ringer solution. The weights of binders were 41.05; 82.1; 123.15; and 164.2 mg and weight of aflatoxin was 0.1642 µg of each tube. The results showed that the percentage of aflatoxin bound increased by the increasing weight either glucomannan from yeast product or glucomannan resulted from A. oncophylus extraction. The percentages of aflatoxin binding with binder of both glucomannan yeast product were 19.72%; 21.51%; 42.25%; 46.35% and glucomannan from A. oncophyllus extraction were 4.08%; 28.72%; 36.73%; and 89.07%, consecutively. There were positive correlations (P<0.05 between the weight of binder and the percentage of aflatoxin bound, with coefficient correlations of GYP was 0.9602 and of GRE was 0.9338. In regression modeling, linear equation of GYP was Yp= -6.92 + 12.03x and of GRE was Ye= -31.53+21.07x. It is concluded that in vitro testing of glucomannan product of extraction from A. oncophyllus can bind aflatoxin.

  12. Monitoring of Aflatoxin contamination at market food chain in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina A. Rahmianna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is a cheapest source of protein especially for developing countries communities and mostly it obtained from traditional markets. Earlier studies showed that aflatoxin incidence was relatively less at the farmer/trader levels while it is significantly higher at retail levels especially in traditional markets. Present study was conducted to understand the factors leading to the post-harvest building up of aflatoxin in peanuts sold in traditional market and in supermarket. This study was carried out at Pasuruan regency, East Java Province, Indonesia from March 2005 to June 2006. During study period peanut grains were collected from wholesalers, retailers and supermarkets at three months interval. In each sampling point, 2kg of grains was obtained and then was divided into eight parts for the analysis of parameters namely seed moisture content, physical quality, Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The results showed that seed water contents at wholesalers, collectors, and retailers in traditional wet markets were almost lower than 10%. They were thus ‘safe’ from aflatoxin B1 contamination as seed moisture contents were below the aflatoxin risk zone. Time of sampling did not affect the level of aflatoxin B1 contamination. Under controlled condition generated from air-tight container, the influence of seed moisture content and A. flavus infection on aflatoxin production was significant.

  13. Autoxidated linolenic acid inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus via oxylipin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Shijuan; Liang, Yating; Zhang, Jindan; Chen, Zhuang; Liu, Chun-Ming

    2015-08-01

    Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus species are among the most toxic and carcinogenic compounds in nature. Although it has been known for a long time that seeds with high oil content are more susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis remains controversial. Here we demonstrate in A. flavus that both the saturated stearic acid (C18:0) and the polyunsaturated linolenic acid (C18:3) promoted aflatoxin production, while C18:3, but not C18:0, inhibited aflatoxin biosynthesis after exposure to air for several hours. Further experiments showed that autoxidated C18:3 promoted mycelial growth, sporulation, and kojic acid production, but inhibited the expression of genes in the AF biosynthetic gene cluster. Mass spectrometry analyses of autoxidated C18:3 fractions that were able to inhibit aflatoxin biosynthesis led to the identification of multiple oxylipin species. These results may help to clarify the role of fatty acids in aflatoxin biosynthesis, and may explain why controversial results have been obtained for fatty acids in the past. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Interventions targeting child undernutrition in developing countries may be undermined by dietary exposure to aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sinead; Gong, Yun Yun; Routledge, Michael

    2017-06-13

    Child undernutrition, a form of malnutrition, is a major public health burden in developing countries. Supplementation interventions targeting the major micronutrient deficiencies have only reduced the burden of child undernutrition to a certain extent, indicating that there are other underlying determinants that need to be addressed. Aflatoxin exposure, which is also highly prevalent in developing countries, may be considered an aggravating factor for child undernutrition. Increasing evidence suggests that aflatoxin exposure can occur in any stage of life, including in utero through a trans-placental pathway and in early childhood (through contaminated weaning food and family food). Early life exposure to aflatoxin is associated with adverse effects on low birth weight, stunting, immune suppression, and the liver function damage. The mechanisms underlying impaired growth and aflatoxin exposure are still unclear but intestinal function damage, reduced immune function, and alteration in the insulin-like growth factor axis caused by the liver damage are the suggested hypotheses. Given the fact that both aflatoxin and child undernutrition are common in sub-Saharan Africa, effective interventions aimed at reducing undernutrition cannot be satisfactorily achieved until the interactive relationship between aflatoxin and child undernutrition is clearly understood, and an aflatoxin mitigation strategy takes effect in those vulnerable mothers and children.

  15. Dietary exposure to aflatoxin and micronutrient status among young children from Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Sinead; Chen, Gaoyun; Sylla, Abdoulaye; Routledge, Michael N; Gong, Yun Yun

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin exposure coincides with micronutrient deficiencies in developing countries. Animal feeding studies have postulated that aflatoxin exposure may be exacerbating micronutrient deficiencies. Evidence available in human subjects is limited and inconsistent. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between aflatoxin exposure and micronutrient status among young Guinean children. A total of 305 children (28.8 ± 8.4 months) were recruited at groundnut harvest (rainy season), of which 288 were followed up 6 months later postharvest (dry season). Blood samples were collected at each visit. Aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels were measured by ELISA. Vitamin A, vitamin E and β-carotene concentrations were measured using HPLC methods. Zinc was measured by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Aflatoxin exposure and micronutrient deficiencies were prevalent in this population and were influenced by season, with levels increasing between harvest and postharvest. At harvest, children in the highest aflatoxin exposure group, compared to the lowest, were 1.98 (95%CI: 1.00, 3.92) and 3.56 (95%CI: 1.13, 11.15) times more likely to be zinc and vitamin A deficient. Although children with high aflatoxin exposure levels were more likely to be zinc and vitamin A deficient, further research is necessary to determine a cause and effect relationship. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-10-23

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize.

  17. Sequence breakpoints in the aflatoxin biosynthesis gene cluster and flanking regions in nonaflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Perng-Kuang; Horn, Bruce W; Dorner, Joe W

    2005-11-01

    Aspergillus flavus populations are genetically diverse. Isolates that produce either, neither, or both aflatoxins and cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) are present in the field. We investigated defects in the aflatoxin gene cluster in 38 nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates collected from southern United States. PCR assays using aflatoxin-gene-specific primers grouped these isolates into eight (A-H) deletion patterns. Patterns C, E, G, and H, which contain 40 kb deletions, were examined for their sequence breakpoints. Pattern C has one breakpoint in the cypA 3' untranslated region (UTR) and another in the verA coding region. Pattern E has a breakpoint in the amdA coding region and another in the ver1 5'UTR. Pattern G contains a deletion identical to the one found in pattern C and has another deletion that extends from the cypA coding region to one end of the chromosome as suggested by the presence of telomeric sequence repeats, CCCTAATGTTGA. Pattern H has a deletion of the entire aflatoxin gene cluster from the hexA coding region in the sugar utilization gene cluster to the telomeric region. Thus, deletions in the aflatoxin gene cluster among A. flavus isolates are not rare, and the patterns appear to be diverse. Genetic drift may be a driving force that is responsible for the loss of the entire aflatoxin gene cluster in nonaflatoxigenic A. flavus isolates when aflatoxins have lost their adaptive value in nature.

  18. Biosorption of B-aflatoxins Using Biomasses Obtained from Formosa Firethorn [Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata Rehder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Adriana Ramales-Valderrama

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2 using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-aflatoxin standards and incubated at 40 °C for up to 24 h. A standard biosorption methodology was employed and aflatoxins were quantified by an immunoaffinity column and UPLC methodologies. The biosorbent-aflatoxin interaction mechanism was investigated from a combination of zeta potential (ζ, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The highest aflatoxin uptakes were 86% and 82% at 6 h using leaves and the mixture of leaves/berries biomasses, respectively. A moderate biosorption of 46% was attained when using berries biomass. From kinetic studies, the biosorption process is described using the first order adsorption model. Evidence from FTIR spectra suggests the participation of hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, amide, phosphate and ketone groups in the biosorption and the mechanism was proposed to be dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged functional groups and the positively charged aflatoxin molecules. Biosorption by P. koidzumii biomasses has been demonstrated to be an alternative to conventional systems for B-aflatoxins removal.

  19. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Furukawa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control.

  20. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  1. Biosorption of B-aflatoxins Using Biomasses Obtained from Formosa Firethorn [Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramales-Valderrama, Rosa Adriana; Vázquez-Durán, Alma; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2016-07-13

    Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB₁ and AFB₂) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v) in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-aflatoxin standards and incubated at 40 °C for up to 24 h. A standard biosorption methodology was employed and aflatoxins were quantified by an immunoaffinity column and UPLC methodologies. The biosorbent-aflatoxin interaction mechanism was investigated from a combination of zeta potential (ζ), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest aflatoxin uptakes were 86% and 82% at 6 h using leaves and the mixture of leaves/berries biomasses, respectively. A moderate biosorption of 46% was attained when using berries biomass. From kinetic studies, the biosorption process is described using the first order adsorption model. Evidence from FTIR spectra suggests the participation of hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, amide, phosphate and ketone groups in the biosorption and the mechanism was proposed to be dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged functional groups and the positively charged aflatoxin molecules. Biosorption by P. koidzumii biomasses has been demonstrated to be an alternative to conventional systems for B-aflatoxins removal.

  2. Inhibitory Activities of Alkyl Syringates and Related Compounds on Aflatoxin Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furukawa, Tomohiro; Iimura, Kurin; Kimura, Taichi; Yamamoto, Toshiyoshi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors of aflatoxin production of aflatoxigenic fungi are useful for preventing aflatoxin contamination in crops. As methyl syringate weakly inhibits aflatoxin production, aflatoxin production inhibitory activities of additional alkyl syringates with alkyl chains from ethyl to octyl were examined. Inhibitory activity toward aflatoxin production of Aspergillus flavus became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains on the esters became longer. Pentyl, hexyl, heptyl, and octyl syringates showed strong activity at 0.05 mM. Heptyl and octyl parabens, and octyl gallate also inhibited aflatoxin production as strongly as octyl syringate. Alkyl parabens and alkyl gallates inhibit the complex II activity of the mitochondrial respiration chain; thus, whether alkyl syringates inhibit complex II activity was examined. Inhibitory activities of alkyl syringates toward complex II also became stronger as the length of the alkyl chains increased. The complex II inhibitory activity of octyl syringate was comparable to that of octyl paraben and octyl gallate. These results suggest that alkyl syringates, alkyl parabens, and alkyl gallates, including commonly used food additives, are useful for aflatoxin control. PMID:27338472

  3. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardon-Xicotencatl, Samantha; Díaz-Torres, Roberto; Marroquín-Cardona, Alicia; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW) on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01) during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize. PMID:26512692

  4. Biosorption of B-aflatoxins Using Biomasses Obtained from Formosa Firethorn [Pyracantha koidzumii (Hayata) Rehder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramales-Valderrama, Rosa Adriana; Vázquez-Durán, Alma; Méndez-Albores, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxin adsorption onto biomaterials is considered as a promising alternative for decontamination without harmful chemicals. In this research, the adsorption of B-aflatoxins (AFB1 and AFB2) using Pyracantha koidzumii biomasses (leaves, berries and the mixture of leaves/berries) from aqueous solutions was explored. The biosorbent was used at 0.5% (w/v) in samples spiked with 100 ng/mL of B-aflatoxin standards and incubated at 40 °C for up to 24 h. A standard biosorption methodology was employed and aflatoxins were quantified by an immunoaffinity column and UPLC methodologies. The biosorbent-aflatoxin interaction mechanism was investigated from a combination of zeta potential (ζ), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The highest aflatoxin uptakes were 86% and 82% at 6 h using leaves and the mixture of leaves/berries biomasses, respectively. A moderate biosorption of 46% was attained when using berries biomass. From kinetic studies, the biosorption process is described using the first order adsorption model. Evidence from FTIR spectra suggests the participation of hydroxyl, amine, carboxyl, amide, phosphate and ketone groups in the biosorption and the mechanism was proposed to be dominated by the electrostatic interaction between the negatively charged functional groups and the positively charged aflatoxin molecules. Biosorption by P. koidzumii biomasses has been demonstrated to be an alternative to conventional systems for B-aflatoxins removal. PMID:27420096

  5. Detoxification of Aflatoxin-Contaminated Maize by Neutral Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Jardon-Xicotencatl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, a group of extremely toxic mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius, can occur as natural contaminants of certain agricultural commodities, particularly maize. These toxins have been shown to be hepatotoxic, carcinogenic, mutagenic and cause severe human and animal diseases. The effectiveness of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water (NEW on aflatoxin detoxification was investigated in HepG2 cells using several validation methodologies such as the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, the induction of lipid peroxidation, the oxidative damage by means of glutathione modulation, the Ames test and the alkaline Comet assay. Our results showed that, after the aflatoxin-contaminated maize containing 360 ng/g was soaked in NEW (60 mg/L available chlorine, pH 7.01 during 15 min at room temperature, the aflatoxin content did not decrease as confirmed by the immunoaffinity column and ultra performance liquid chromatography methods. Aflatoxin fluorescence strength of detoxified samples was similar to untreated samples. However, aflatoxin-associated cytotoxicity and OPEN ACCESS Toxins 2015, 7 4295 genotoxicity effects were markedly reduced upon treatment. According to these results, NEW can be effectively used to detoxify aflatoxin-contaminated maize.

  6. The case for aflatoxins in the causal chain of gallbladder cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foerster, Claudia; Koshiol, Jill; Guerrero, Ariel R; Kogan, Marcelo J; Ferreccio, Catterina

    2016-01-01

    Chronic aflatoxin exposure has long been related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, its association with gallbladder cancer (GBC) was postulated. Here we present the data supporting this hypothesis in Chile, the country with the highest GBC mortality worldwide with age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) of 10.3 in women and 5.04 in men. The highest GBC rates occur in Southern Chile (ASMR=18), characterized by: high Amerindian ancestry, associated with high bile acid synthesis and gallstones; high poverty and high cereal agriculture, both associated with aflatoxin exposure. Aflatoxins have been detected in imported and locally grown foods items. We estimated population dietary exposure ranging from 0.25 to 35.0 ng/kg-body weight/day. The only report on human exposure in Chile found significantly more aflatoxin biomarkers in GBC than in controls (Odds Ratio=13.0). The hypothesis of aflatoxin-GBC causal link in the Chilean population is supported by: genetically-determined rapid cholesterol excretion and high gallstones prevalence (49.4%); low prevalence of HCC (ASMR=4.9) and low HBV infection (0.15%) the main co-factor of aflatoxins in HCC risk. If the association between aflatoxins and GBC were confirmed, public health interventions based on food regulation could have a substantial public health impact.

  7. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  8. Characterization of small RNA populations in non-transgenic and aflatoxin-reducing-transformed peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Imana L; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S; Orner, Valerie A; Powell, Joseph L; Lamb, Marshall C; Arias, Renee S

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B1 than the controls. The objective was to determine the putative involvement of the small RNA populations in aflatoxin reduction. In total, 41 known microRNA (miRNA) families and many novel miRNAs were identified. Among those, 89 known and 10 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transformed lines. We furthermore found two small interfering RNAs derived from the inverted repeat, and 39 sRNAs that mapped without mismatches to the genome of A. flavus and were present only in the transformed lines. This information will increase our understanding of the effectiveness of RNAi and enable the possible improvement of the RNAi technology for the control of aflatoxins.

  9. Electrochemical immunochip sensor for aflatoxin M1 detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Charlie O; Lanyon, Yvonne H; Manning, Mary; Arrigan, Damien W M; Tothill, Ibtisam E

    2009-07-01

    An investigation into the fabrication, electrochemical characterization, and development of a microelectrode array (MEA) immunosensor for aflatoxin M(1) is presented in this paper. Gold MEAs (consisting of 35 microsquare electrodes with 20 microm x 20 microm dimensions and edge-to-edge spacing of 200 microm) together with on-chip reference and counter electrodes were fabricated using standard photolithographic methods. The MEAs were then characterized by cyclic voltammetry, and the behavior of the on-chip electrodes were evaluated. The microarray sensors were assessed for their applicability to the development of an immunosensor for the analysis of aflatoxin M(1) directly in milk samples. Following the sensor surface silanization, antibodies were immobilized by cross-linking with 1,4-phenylene diisothiocyanate (PDITC). Surface characterization was conducted by electrochemistry, fluorescence microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). A competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) assay format was developed on the microarray electrode surface using the 3,3,5',5'-tetramethylbenzidine dihyrochloride (TMB)/H(2)O(2) electrochemical detection scheme with horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as the enzyme label. The performance of the assay and the microarray sensor were characterized in pure buffer conditions before applying to the milk samples. With the use of this approach, the detection limit for aflatoxin M(1) in milk was estimated to be 8 ng L(-1), with a dynamic detection range of 10-100 ng L(-1), which meets present legislative limits of 50 ng L(-1). The milk interference with the sensor surface was also found to be minimal. These devices show high potential for development of a range of new applications which have previously only been detected using elaborate instrumentation.

  10. Distribution of aflatoxins in corn fractions visually segregated for defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedade Fabiana Segatti

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aflatoxin distribution in corn fractions obtained after visual segregation for defects in 30 samples, known to be contaminated, was studied. Each sample was passed through a 5.0 mm round holes sieve, graded for defects and then segregated in sound kernels (regular kernels and non-sound kernels (injured, germinated, fermented, moldy, heated, insect damaged, immature, broken, hollow, fermented up to ¼, discolored, extraneous materials, and injured by other causes, as defined by the Brazilian Official Grading rules for corn. The non-sound kernels showed the highest contamination levels in all samples. The contamination levels of non-sound kernels (20% of total weight ranged from 23 to 1,365 µg/kg of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2 and were higher than sound kernels (p<1% ranging from not detected (ND to 126 µg/kg and in 87% of these the aflatoxin contents were lower than 20 µg/kg. Statistically significant correlation indexes were found among the percentage of defective groups like fermented, heated and sprouted kernels or the total injured kernels, and the estimated contamination levels for the sound and non sound fractions. It was concluded that the non-sound kernels fraction, even being small in weight, has contributed with 84% of the estimated contamination of the samples. The segregation of the non-sound kernels would favor a reduction in the contamination of corn lots. The poorer quality corn types (types 3 and Bellow Standart have predominated among samples of the experiment.

  11. Novel Aflatoxin-Degrading Enzyme from Bacillus shackletonii L7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Food and feed contamination by aflatoxin (AFB1 has adverse economic and health consequences. AFB1 degradation by microorganisms or microbial enzymes provides a promising preventive measure. To this end, the present study tested 43 bacterial isolates collected from maize, rice, and soil samples for AFB1-reducing activity. The higher activity was detected in isolate L7, which was identified as Bacillus shackletonii. L7 reduced AFB1, AFB2, and AFM1 levels by 92.1%, 84.1%, and 90.4%, respectively, after 72 h at 37 °C. The L7 culture supernatant degraded more AFB1 than viable cells and cell extracts; and the degradation activity was reduced from 77.9% to 15.3% in the presence of proteinase K and sodium dodecyl sulphate. A thermostable enzyme purified from the boiled supernatant was designated as Bacillus aflatoxin-degrading enzyme (BADE. An overall 9.55-fold purification of BADE with a recovery of 39.92% and an activity of 3.85 × 103 U·mg−1 was obtained using chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. BADE had an estimated molecular mass of 22 kDa and exhibited the highest activity at 70 °C and pH 8.0, which was enhanced by Cu2+ and inhibited by Zn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Li+. BADE is the major protein involved in AFB1 detoxification. This is the first report of a BADE isolated from B. shackletonii, which has potential applications in the detoxification of aflatoxins during food and feed processing.

  12. Novel Aflatoxin-Degrading Enzyme from Bacillus shackletonii L7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liang; Eisa Ahmed, Mohamed Farah; Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Wang, Yan; Yang, Hongping; Liu, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Food and feed contamination by aflatoxin (AF)B1 has adverse economic and health consequences. AFB1 degradation by microorganisms or microbial enzymes provides a promising preventive measure. To this end, the present study tested 43 bacterial isolates collected from maize, rice, and soil samples for AFB1-reducing activity. The higher activity was detected in isolate L7, which was identified as Bacillus shackletonii. L7 reduced AFB1, AFB2, and AFM1 levels by 92.1%, 84.1%, and 90.4%, respectively, after 72 h at 37 °C. The L7 culture supernatant degraded more AFB1 than viable cells and cell extracts; and the degradation activity was reduced from 77.9% to 15.3% in the presence of proteinase K and sodium dodecyl sulphate. A thermostable enzyme purified from the boiled supernatant was designated as Bacillus aflatoxin-degrading enzyme (BADE). An overall 9.55-fold purification of BADE with a recovery of 39.92% and an activity of 3.85 × 103 U·mg−1 was obtained using chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. BADE had an estimated molecular mass of 22 kDa and exhibited the highest activity at 70 °C and pH 8.0, which was enhanced by Cu2+ and inhibited by Zn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Li+. BADE is the major protein involved in AFB1 detoxification. This is the first report of a BADE isolated from B. shackletonii, which has potential applications in the detoxification of aflatoxins during food and feed processing. PMID:28098812

  13. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Hillaris, Alexander; Nindos, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts which extend to the hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type IV IP bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprised 48 Interplanetary type IV bursts observed by the Wind/WAVES in the 13.825 MHz?20 KHz frequency range. The dynamic spec tra of the RSTN, DAM, ARTEMIS-IV, CULGOORA, Hiraiso and IZMIRAN Radio-spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona; these were supplemented with SXR ?ux recordings from GOES and CME data from LASCO. Positional information for the coronal bursts were obtained by the Nan\\c{c}ay radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs and SXR ?ares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact; their duration was on average 106 min. This type of events were, mostly, associated with M and X class ?ares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs; 32 of these events had CME...

  14. Occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut products determined by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanovska-Dimzoska Biljana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection using immunoaffinity column clean-up was a method described for determination of aflatoxins (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in peanuts and peanut based products. The validation of the procedure was performed. Good coefficient of correlation was found for all aflatoxins in the range of 0.9993-0.9999. Limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ ranged from 0.003-0.005 mg/kg and 0.009-0.023 mg/kg, respectively, which was acceptable. The mean recovery for total aflatoxins was 88.21%. The method also showed acceptable precision values in the range of 0.171-2.626% at proposed concentration levels for all four aflatoxins. RSDR values (within laboratory reproducibility calculated from the results showed good correlation between two analysts for all aflatoxins and they ranged from 4.93-11.87%. The developed method was applied for the determination of aflatoxins in 27 samples of peanuts and peanut based products. The results showed that 21 peanut samples (77.7% were below LOD of the method. Three samples had positive results over the MRL. There was one extreme value recorded for the total aflatoxins in peanut (289.2 mg/kg and two peanut based products, peanut snack and peanut, with total content of aflatoxins being 16.3 mg/kg and 8.0 mg/kg, respectively. The obtained results demonstrated that the procedure was suitable for the de­termination of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut based products and it could be implemented for the routine analysis.

  15. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for determination of aflatoxin M1 based on magnetic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atanasova, M. K.; Ivanova, N. V.; Godjevargova, T. I.

    2017-02-01

    A sensitive enzyme immunoassay with magnetic nanoparticles (Method A) for the quantitative determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk was developed. This immunoassay was based on the immobilization of monoclonal antibody (mAb) on the modified magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs-NH2). It was observed that for each mg of the MNPs, 25 µg of antibody was immobilized. Both aflatoxin M1 in the sample and aflatoxin M1-BSA-peroxidase conjugate competed for the immobilized antibody. The proposed Method A was compared with other method (B). The Method B was based on the immobilization of aflatoxin M1-BSA conjugate on the MNPs-NH2, which competed with the aflatoxin M1 in the sample for binding to the added mAb. The binding of mAb to the aflatoxin M1-BSA-MNPs-NH2 was detected using a target secondary IgG-peroxidase antibody. The analytical characteristics of the two methods were compared. Real milk samples were investigated for present of aflatoxin M1. Two methods were based on the use of MNPs as a solid support for covalently immunoreagents immobilization. A comfortable separation of bound and free fraction of the tracer can be performed only through a simple collection of the MNPs by a permanent magnet. The application of MNPs helps to eliminate non-specific binding and to retain higher activity of bound biomolecules. The development of a MNPs-based ELISA for determination of aflatoxin M1 has a great potential to supersede the traditional ELISA for aflatoxin M1 diagnosis.

  16. Potential economic losses to the USA corn industry from aflatoxin contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, N.J.; Bowers, E.; Hurburgh, C.; Wu, F.

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonize food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the United States corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the US and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from $52.1 million to $1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years. PMID:26807606

  17. Population structure and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus Sect. Flavi from maize in Nigeria and Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Giancarlo; Haidukowski, Miriam; Stea, Gaetano; Epifani, Filomena; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Leslie, John F; Logrieco, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxins are highly toxic carcinogens that contaminate crops worldwide. Previous studies conducted in Nigeria and Ghana found high concentrations of aflatoxins in pre- and post-harvest maize. However, little information is available on the population structure of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi in West Africa. We determined the incidence of Aspergillus Sect. Flavi and the level of aflatoxin contamination in 91 maize samples from farms and markets in Nigeria and Ghana. Aspergillus spp. were recovered from 61/91 maize samples and aflatoxins B1 and/or B2 occurred in 36/91 samples. Three samples from the farms also contained aflatoxin G1 and/or G2. Farm samples were more highly contaminated than were samples from the market, in terms of both the percentage of the samples contaminated and the level of mycotoxin contamination. One-hundred-and-thirty-five strains representative of the 1163 strains collected were identified by using a multilocus sequence analysis of portions of the genes encoding calmodulin, β-tubulin and actin, and evaluated for aflatoxin production. Of the 135 strains, there were 110 - Aspergillus flavus, 20 - Aspergillus tamarii, 2 - Aspergillus wentii, 2 - Aspergillus flavofurcatus, and 1 - Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus. Twenty-five of the A. flavus strains and the A. parvisclerotigenus strain were the only strains that produced aflatoxins. The higher contamination of the farm than the market samples suggests that the aflatoxin exposure of rural farmers is even higher than previously estimated based on reported contamination of market samples. The relative infrequency of the A. flavus SBG strains, producing small sclerotia and high levels of both aflatoxins (B and G), suggests that long-term chronic exposure to this mycotoxin are a much higher health risk in West Africa than is the acute toxicity due to very highly contaminated maize in east Africa. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. [Dietary exposure assessment of aflatoxin of foodstuff and edible oil from Shenzhen residents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke; Qiu, Fen; Jiang, Lixin; Yang, Mei

    2014-07-01

    To assess the dietary exposure aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins of foodstuff and edible oil in Shenzhen residents. Aflatoxins in the samples were determined by the immuno-affinity column clean-up plus UPLC. The aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins dietary exposure were calculated by the level of aflatoxins contamination in the food and consumption of dietary. The average diary aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure of the man of the 2 to 6, 7 to 14, 15 to 50 and > 50 age group in Shenzhen were 0.320, 0.385, 0.401 and 0.398 ng/(kg BW x d), the results of the woman were 0.282, 0.222, 0.367 and 0.470 ng/(kg BW x d) respectively. The total average daily dietary aflatoxin B1 exposure of the man were 0.012, 0.015, 0.016 and 0.016 ng/(kg BW x d) about each age group. The results of the woman were 78.4, 167, 113 and 103 ng/(kg BW d). According to the the average levels of consumption and the high levels of consumption, the risk of AFB, of the man were 0.012,0.015, 0.016, 0. 016 and 3.0, 8.2, 4.1, 4.4 cancer patient per one hundred thousand, respectively. The results of the woman were 0.010, 0.009, 0.014, 0.018 and 2.9, 6.7, 4.4, 4.0 cancer patient per one hundred thousand, respectively. 7 to 14 age group compared with adults age group face higher exposure levels. The rice and peanut oil are most primary aflatoxin dietary exposure sources in Shenzhen.

  19. [Adsorption of aflatoxin on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Jia; Kang, Fu-Xing; Gao, Yan-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of a typical biogenic toxin aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids (M(r) aflatoxin B1 until amounting to the maximal capacity, and then the adsorbed aflatoxin B1 slowly released into solution and reached the sorption equilibrium state after 12 h. The sorption isotherm of aflatoxin B1 by montmorillonite could be well described by Langmiur model, while the sorption isotherm by humic acid-modified montmorillonite was well fitted by using the Freundlich model. The modification of the montmorillonite with humic acids obviously enhanced its adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1, and the amounts of aflatoxin adsorbed by modified montmorillonite were obviously higher than those by montmorillonite. The sorption enhancement by humic acid modification was attributed to (1) the enlarged adsorption sites which owed to the surface collapse of crystal layers induced by organic acids, and (2) the binding of aflatoxin with the humic acid sorbed on mineral surface. In addition, the adsorption amounts of aflatoxin by montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite increased with the increase of pH values in solution, and more significant enhancement was observed for the latter than the former, which attributed to the release of humic acids from the modified montmorillonite with the high pH values in solution. This indicates that increasing the pH values resulted in the enhanced hydrophilic property and the release of the organic acids presented in modified montmorillonite, and more sorption sites were available for aflatoxin on the modified montmorillonite. Results of this work would strengthen our understanding of the behavior and fate of biological contaminants in the environment.

  20. Aflatoxin B1 adsorption by the natural aluminosilicates - concentrate of montmorillonite and zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Marija A.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 adsorption by the concentrate of bentonite clay - montmorillonite and the natural zeolite - clinoptilolite and was investigated at the initial toxin concentration 4 ppm, with different amonunts of solid phase in suspension (10, 5, 2 and 1 mg/10 mL and different pH values - 3, 7 and 9. Results indicated that for both minerals, decreasing the amount of solid phase in suspension, decrease the amount of active sites relevant for adsorption of aflatoxin B1. Thus, for concentrate of montnorillonite, at the lowest level of solid phase in suspension (1 mg/10 mL, aflatoxin B1 adsorption indexes were 97% at pH 3, 88% at pH 7 and 82% at pH 9, while for the natural zeolite, adsorption of toxin was 9% at pH 3 and 7% at pH 7 and 9. Since inorganic cations in minerals are mainly responsible for aflatoxin B1 adsorption, even the natural zeolite - clinoptilite has much higher cation exchange capacity (the content of inorganic exchangeable cations compared to the concentrate of montmorillonite, adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by this mineral is much lower. Comparing the molecular dimensions of aflatoxin B1 molecule with the dimension of channels of clinoptilolite and interlamellar space of montmorillonite it is obvious that this toxin is adsorbed only at the external surface of clinoptilolite while in the montmorillonite all active sites are equally available for its adsorption. Thus, the concentrate of montmorillonite posess by higher adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1. Results presented in this paper confirmed the fact the differences in the structure of minerals led to their different efficiency for adsorption of aflatoxin B1. Mineralogical and chemical composition, determination of cation exchange capacity, etc., are very important parameters influencing the effectiveness of minerals as aflatoxin B1 adsorbents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 451-03-2802-IP Tip1/142, br. 172018 i br. 34013

  1. Occurrence of aflatoxin in three maize (Zea mays L.) hybrids over 5 years in Northern Mississippi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkins, Leigh K; Windham, Gary L; Williams, W Paul

    2008-03-01

    Aflatoxins are produced as secondary metabolites under conducive climatic conditions by Aspergillus flavus. The incidence of aflatoxin varies with environmental conditions, genotype, and location. An expanded understanding of the interaction of the plant, fungus, and weather conditions is needed to further elucidate the field infection process of maize by A. flavus and subsequent aflatoxin contamination. One of the problems in evaluating maize hybrids for resistance to kernel infection and aflatoxin contamination is identifying a time period and environmental conditions that are most advantageous. Three maize genotypes (Pioneer Brand 3223, Mo18W x Mp313E, and Mp313E x Mp420) were evaluated from 1998 to 2002 in response to A. flavus inoculation and aflatoxin contamination and weather conditions favorable for aflatoxin contamination were identified. The highest aflatoxin levels were observed in 1998 and 2000 (1186 and 901 ng g(-1); P < 0.0001); while the lowest levels were detected in 1999 (39 ng g(-1)). Pioneer 3223 had significantly higher levels (1198 ng g(-1)) than Mp313E x Mp420 (205 ng g(-1)), and Mo18W xMp313E (161 ng g(-1); P < 0.0001). The hybrids had six weather-related variables in common that were positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation. Four of these occurred during 65-85 days after planting and were temperature-related. These results suggest that regardless of the hybrid's maturity or physiological development, the time from 65 to 85 days after planting may be indicative of a period of stress which leads to greater aflatoxin accumulation at harvest.

  2. Potential economic losses to the US corn industry from aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Nicole J; Bowers, Erin; Hurburgh, Charles; Wu, Felicia

    2016-01-01

    Mycotoxins, toxins produced by fungi that colonise food crops, can pose a heavy economic burden to the US corn industry. In terms of economic burden, aflatoxins are the most problematic mycotoxins in US agriculture. Estimates of their market impacts are important in determining the benefits of implementing mitigation strategies within the US corn industry, and the value of strategies to mitigate mycotoxin problems. Additionally, climate change may cause increases in aflatoxin contamination in corn, greatly affecting the economy of the US Midwest and all sectors in the United States and worldwide that rely upon its corn production. We propose two separate models for estimating the potential market loss to the corn industry from aflatoxin contamination, in the case of potential near-future climate scenarios (based on aflatoxin levels in Midwest corn in warm summers in the last decade). One model uses the probability of acceptance based on operating characteristic (OC) curves for aflatoxin sampling and testing, while the other employs partial equilibrium economic analysis, assuming no Type 1 or Type 2 errors, to estimate losses due to proportions of lots above the US Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) aflatoxin action levels. We estimate that aflatoxin contamination could cause losses to the corn industry ranging from US$52.1 million to US$1.68 billion annually in the United States, if climate change causes more regular aflatoxin contamination in the Corn Belt as was experienced in years such as 2012. The wide range represents the natural variability in aflatoxin contamination from year to year in US corn, with higher losses representative of warmer years.

  3. Determination of Aflatoxins G and GUsing Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALI SHEIBANI

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This work describes a rapid and sensitive ion mobility spectrometry method for the determination of aflatoxins G12 (AFG1 and AFG2. The effective instrumental parameters were investigated and optimized. After optimizing, the calibration curves for AFG1 and AFG2 were linear in the range of 1 to 300 ng. Relative standard deviation was 8 % and limit of detection was 0.5 ng. The capability of the proposed method was evaluated for the determination of AFG in spiked pistachio nut as a real sample that satisfactory results were obtained.

  4. Fourier series

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstov, Georgi P

    1962-01-01

    Richard A. Silverman's series of translations of outstanding Russian textbooks and monographs is well-known to people in the fields of mathematics, physics, and engineering. The present book is another excellent text from this series, a valuable addition to the English-language literature on Fourier series.This edition is organized into nine well-defined chapters: Trigonometric Fourier Series, Orthogonal Systems, Convergence of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Trigonometric Series with Decreasing Coefficients, Operations on Fourier Series, Summation of Trigonometric Fourier Series, Double Fourie

  5. Studies on Aflatoxin, Prenatal Exposure and Its Toxicosis in Adamawa Sate, North East of Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Of the known mycotoxins, the most important in relation to direct hazard to human health are the aflatoxins produced by a large number of Aspergillus spp. To determine the level of exposure of aflatoxin from mother to child and its mode of transfer. 70 pregnant women in the labor ward of The Federal Medical Centre Yola were investigated for their aflatoxin content by using the velasco fluorotoxinmeter which comprised of 89 samples of amniotic fluid, 213 of serum from maternal blood and 211 se...

  6. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  7. [Applications of molecular biology techniques for the control of aflatoxin contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis, V

    1993-02-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by species of Aspergillus flavus group. These toxins have received increased attention from the food industry and the general public because they shown a high toxicity against humans and animal. Different methods are applying to control the aflatoxin contamination. But these conventional methods do not seem to resolve the problem. So, new methods using techniques in biotechnology are now being developed: a) Inhibit the biosynthetic and secretory process responsible for aflatoxin contamination. b) Using biocompetitive agents that replace aflatoxigenic strains with non aflatoxigenic strains in the field. c) Using genetic engineering techniques to incorporate antifungal genes into specific plant species.

  8. Aflatoxin is not a probably human carcinogen: the published evidence is sufficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoloff, L

    1989-12-01

    Since the early 1960s, when aflatoxin, the mold-produced contaminant of a number of important food commodities, was found to be a potent hepatocarcinogen for laboratory rats, there has been a sustained search for evidence to support the regulatory presumption that aflatoxin is a probable human carcinogen. The developing laboratory evidence of differences between species in metabolism of aflatoxin and susceptibility to its oncogenic effects indicated that humans were probably refractory to aflatoxin carcinogenesis, but the early epidemiological evidence indicated otherwise. That epidemiological evidence, however, contained flaws so that Working Groups of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) meeting in 1970, 1976, and 1982, although ignoring the biochemical evidence, did consider the available epidemiological evidence insufficient for a conclusion of human carcinogenicity. During the 1970s and 1980s, studies on the connection between chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and primary liver cell cancer (PLC), the expected lesion from aflatoxin exposure, had established a very strong etiological relationship between HBV and PLC. Since all the epidemiological studies of aflatoxin and PLC conducted prior to 1982 had been of populations with endemic HBV infection, and, in addition to other flaws, had not been controlled for this confounding factor, there was a solid basis for their rejection. Most epidemiological studies in the 1980s of aflatoxin and PLC were either in the United States, where HBV-infected groups could be excluded from the study, or, when in areas of chronic HBV infection, attempts were made to include that factor. The study of U.S. populations showed no difference in mortality rates from PLC that could be attributed to aflatoxin exposure. The studies of populations with endemic HBV infection produced no convincing evidence to support a primary role for aflatoxin in the induction of human PLC, although an accessory role to HBV

  9. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    OpenAIRE

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza; Ansarin Masoud; Tahavori Ali; Ghaderi Faranak; Nemati Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 1...

  10. Carryover of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ in contaminated substrate corn into Nigerian native beer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okoye, Z.S.C.

    1986-10-01

    Aflatoxins, the toxic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and Asp. parasiticus, constitute a serious food contamination problem in Nigeria and have been detected in the blood of healthy rural blood donors and primary liver cancer patients from the Guinea savannah region where traditionally brewed cereal beer is popular. A recent survey of traditional breweries in the Jos metropolis has shown a high incidence of aflatoxin B/sub 1/ contamination of their products. The purpose of this study was to assess the efficiency of the traditional brewing in destroying aflatoxins in mould-infected substrate grains.

  11. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  12. Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers fed moldy peanut meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Yu; Zhao, Lihong; Ma, Qiugang; Li, Xiaoying; Shi, Huiqin; Zhou, Ting; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxins and the efficacy of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 for the amelioration of aflatoxicosis in broiler chickens. Six replicates of ten broilers each were assigned to one of seven dietary treatments, which were labeled C0 (basal diet); M0 (basal diet containing moldy peanut meal); C500 and C1000 (C0+500 or 1000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations, composed mainly of ANSB060); and M500, M1000 and M2000 (M0+500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparations). The concentrations of aflatoxin B₁, B₂, G₁ and G₂ in the moldy diets (M0, M500, M100 and M2000) fluctuated around 70.7±1.3, 11.0±1.5, 6.5±0.8 and 2.0±0.3 μg/kg, respectively. The results showed that the M0 diet caused a significant decrease in average daily weight gain and increased feed requirements, with a gain ratio increasing from d 8 to 42, deterioration in meat quality and aflatoxin residues in broilers' livers as compared with the C0 diet. The addition of ANSB060 to the aflatoxin-contaminated diets offset these negative effects, leading to the conclusion that ANSB060 has a protective effect on growth performance and meat quality while reducing the amount of aflatoxin residues in the livers of broilers fed naturally moldy peanut meal. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liyuan; Ma, Qiugang; Ma, Shanshan; Zhang, Jianyun; Jia, Ru; Ji, Cheng; Zhao, Lihong

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize), M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize), M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060). The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB₁ (M0) exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG) and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB₁ and AFM₁ compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05), significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  14. Ameliorating Effects of Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Functions, and Aflatoxin Residues in Ducks Fed Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyuan Zhang

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 isolated from fish gut is very effective in detoxifying aflatoxins in feed and feed ingredients. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of B. subtilis ANSB060 on growth performance, body antioxidant functions, and aflatoxin residues in ducks fed moldy maize naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. A total of 1500 18-d-old male Cherry Valley ducks with similar body weight were randomly assigned to five treatments with six replicates of 50 ducks per repeat. The experiment design consisted of five dietary treatments labeled as C0 (basal diet containing 60% normal maize, M0 (basal diet containing 60% moldy maize contaminated with aflatoxins substituted for normal maize, M500, M1000, and M2000 (M0 +500, 1000 or 2000 g/t aflatoxin biodegradation preparation mainly consisted of B. subtilis ANSB060. The results showed that ducks fed 22.44 ± 2.46 μg/kg of AFB1 (M0 exhibited a decreasing tendency in average daily gain (ADG and total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD activity in serum, and T-SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px activities in the liver significantly decreased along with the appearance of AFB1 and AFM1 compared with those in Group C0. The supplementation of B. subtilis ANSB060 into aflatoxin-contaminated diets increased the ADG of ducks (p > 0.05, significantly improved antioxidant enzyme activities, and reduced aflatoxin accumulation in duck liver. In conclusion, Bacillus subtilis ANSB060 in diets showed an ameliorating effect to duck aflatoxicosis and may be a promising feed additive.

  15. Inhibitory Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, Citral, and Eugenol on Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Expression and Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dandan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Limin; Hua, Huijuan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In order to reveal the inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde, citral, and eugenol on aflatoxin biosynthesis, the expression levels of 5 key aflatoxin biosynthetic genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. Aspergillus flavus growth and AFB1 production were completely inhibited by 0.80 mmol/L of cinnamaldehyde and 2.80 mmol/L of citral. However, at lower concentration, cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L) significantly reduced AFB1 production with inhibition rate of 68.9%, 95.4%, and 41.8%, respectively, while no effect on fungal growth. Real-time PCR showed that the expressions of aflR, aflT, aflD, aflM, and aflP were down-regulated by cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L). In the presence of cinnamaldehyde, AflM was highly down-regulated (average of 5963 folds), followed by aflP, aflR, aflD, and aflT with the average folds of 55, 18, 6.5, and 5.8, respectively. With 0.80 mmol/L of eugenol, aflP was highly down-regulated (average of 2061-folds), followed by aflM, aflR, aflD, and aflT with average of 138-, 15-, 5.2-, and 4.8-folds reduction, respectively. With 0.56 mmol/L of citral, aflT was completely inhibited, followed by aflM, aflP, aflR, and aflD with average of 257-, 29-, 3.5-, and 2.5-folds reduction, respectively. These results suggest that the reduction in AFB1 production by cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral at low concentration may be due to the down-regulations of the transcription level of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol may be employed successfully as a good candidate in controlling of toxigenic fungi and subsequently contamination with aflatoxins in practice.

  16. Interplanetary Type IV Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillaris, A.; Bouratzis, C.; Nindos, A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the characteristics of moving type IV radio bursts that extend to hectometric wavelengths (interplanetary type IV or type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts) and their relationship with energetic phenomena on the Sun. Our dataset comprises 48 interplanetary type IV bursts observed with the Radio and Plasma Wave Investigation (WAVES) instrument onboard Wind in the 13.825 MHz - 20 kHz frequency range. The dynamic spectra of the Radio Solar Telescope Network (RSTN), the Nançay Decametric Array (DAM), the Appareil de Routine pour le Traitement et l' Enregistrement Magnetique de l' Information Spectral (ARTEMIS-IV), the Culgoora, Hiraso, and the Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN) Radio Spectrographs were used to track the evolution of the events in the low corona. These were supplemented with soft X-ray (SXR) flux-measurements from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) and coronal mass ejections (CME) data from the Large Angle and Spectroscopic Coronagraph (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO). Positional information of the coronal bursts was obtained by the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH). We examined the relationship of the type IV events with coronal radio bursts, CMEs, and SXR flares. The majority of the events (45) were characterized as compact, their duration was on average 106 minutes. This type of events was, mostly, associated with M- and X-class flares (40 out of 45) and fast CMEs, 32 of these events had CMEs faster than 1000 km s^{-1}. Furthermore, in 43 compact events the CME was possibly subjected to reduced aerodynamic drag as it was propagating in the wake of a previous CME. A minority (three) of long-lived type {IV}_{{IP}} bursts was detected, with durations from 960 minutes to 115 hours. These events are referred to as extended or long duration and appear to replenish their energetic electron content, possibly from electrons escaping from the corresponding coronal

  17. Seafloor earthquake measurement system, SEMS IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzbecker, M.R.; Ehasz, J.P.; Franco, R.J.

    1997-07-01

    Staff of the Telemetry Technology Development Department (2664) have, in support of the U.S. Interior Department Mineral Management Services (MMS), developed and deployed the Seafloor Earthquake Measurement System IV (SEMS IV). The result of this development project is a series of three fully operational seafloor seismic monitor systems located at offshore platforms: Eureka, Grace, and Irene. The instrument probes are embedded from three to seven feet into the seafloor and hardwired to seismic data recorders installed top side at the offshore platforms. The probes and underwater cables were designed to survive the seafloor environment with an operation life of five years. The units have been operational for two years and have produced recordings of several minor earthquakes in that time. Sandia Labs will transfer operation of SEMS IV to MMS contractors in the coming months. 29 figs., 25 tabs.

  18. Aflatoxin M1 in Cow's Milk: Method Validation for Milk Sampled in Northern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellio, Alberto; Bianchi, Daniela Manila; Gramaglia, Monica; Loria, Andrea; Nucera, Daniele; Gallina, Silvia; Gili, Marilena; Decastelli, Lucia

    2016-02-26

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are mycotoxins produced by some species of Aspergillus. In dairy cows, ingested AFB1 is metabolized into carcinogenic AFM1 which is eliminated through milk, thus posing a risk for consumer health. Here we describe the set, validation, and application of screening (ELISA) and confirmatory (HPLC) tests carried out on milk samples collected through official control of mycotoxin levels in northern Italy over a three-year period (2012-2014). The limit of detection (LOD) was set at 5 ppt and 2 ppt for ELISA and HPLC, respectively, and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 10 ppt for confirmatory HPLC. A total of 1668 milk samples were analyzed: ELISA identified 36 (2.2%) positive milk samples that were subsequently confirmed by HPLC. The level of AFM1 in the positive samples ranged between 18 ± 2 and 208 ± 27 ppt. Of the total samples, only eight (0.5%) were found non-compliant with the EU regulatory limit (50 ppt; range 74 ± 10 to 208 ± 27 ppt). Use of ELISA and HPLC tests in series allows for high-volume analysis of samples, thus saving time and money while guaranteeing high analytical precision and accuracy.

  19. Aflatoxins in hazelnuts and dried figs: Occurrence and exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabak, Bulent

    2016-11-15

    A total of 300 samples of hazelnuts and dried fig were analysed for the incidence of any aflatoxins (AFs). High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) method was used to quantify the amounts of AFs. The limit of quantification varied from 0.21 to 0.30μgkg(-1). No AFs were detected in shells of the hazelnuts, while six raw hazelnut kernel samples (12%) and five roasted hazelnut kernel samples (8.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.09 to 11.3μgkg(-1) and from 0.17 to 11.2μgkg(-1), respectively. Sixteen dried fig samples (12.3%) contained AFs ranging from 0.1 to 28.2μgkg(-1) and a mean value of 3.8μgkg(-1). Three hazelnuts and six dried fig samples exceeded the European maximum limits (MLs) of 5 and 2μgkg(-1) for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), respectively. The contribution of hazelnuts to AFs exposure is higher than that of dried figs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of aflatoxin on lymphoid cells of weanling rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raisuddin; Singh, K P; Zaidi, S I; Saxena, A K; Ray, P K

    1990-08-01

    Aflatoxin (AF), the hepatocarcinogenic food contaminant produced by the Aspergillus flavus group of fungi, is known to interact with various vital processes, including the immune function. Effects of long-term treatment of three dose levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on lymphoid cells of weanling rats were studied. AFB1 treatment caused a reduction in body weight gain, significantly (P less than 0.01) at the 700 microgram level. There was also a significant decrease in the weight of spleen and thymus in AFB1-treated animals in comparison to control. Similarly, AFB1 depleted cell populations of thymus and bone marrow and WBC and RBC counts. There was a marked reduction in the population and phagocytic capacity of macrophages due to AFB1 administration at dose levels of 350 and 700 micrograms kg-1 body weight. Macromolecular synthesis of DNA, RNA and protein in macrophages was affected, as there was significant inhibition in the incorporation of [3H]-thymidine, [3H]-uridine and [3H]-leucine. The hampered functioning of macrophages may be due to the cytotoxic action of AFB1.

  1. Contamination of Aflatoxins in Different Kinds of Foods in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objective To study the contamination of total aflatoxins (AFs) in different kinds of foods including corn, peanut, rice,walnut, and pine nut in six provinces and two municipalities in China. Methods A total of 283 samples of corn, peanut, rice,walnut and pine nut were randomly collected from local markets in Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Hubei, Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces, as well as in Shanghai and Chongqing municipalities. The samples were ground to which acetonitrile/water solution was added. After filtering, the extract was transferred into a MycoSepTM purifying column and was pressed slowly. Then the purified liquid was derivatized with trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and assayed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results AFs were detected in 70.27% of corn samples, with a mean level of 27.44 μg/kg and the highest level of 1098.36 μg/kg. In peanut, the AFs detection rate was 23.08%, with a mean level of 0.82 μg/kg and the highest level of 28.39 μg/kg.Very few rice samples with AFs were detected. The AFs levels were very low in walnut and pine nut. Conclusion Corn is the food most seriously contaminated with AFs in China. AFB1 is the main aflatoxin which is found as a contaminant in foods.

  2. Synthesis of Polyclonal Antibodies against Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyogo Prio Wicaksono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal antibodies of aflatoxin B1 were successfully produced from New Zealand White female rabbits after immunization by the hapten of aflatoxin B1-carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AFB1-CMO conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the antigen. The hapten was synthesized using the carbodiimide method with CMO as a linker. Absorption peaks at 362, 264, and 218 nm were observed as a result of characterization with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while IR spectroscopy showed peaks at 3448 cm-1 and 1642 cm-1 attributable to the hydroxyl and nitrile groups, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed fragmentation at the m/z of 386, 368.2, and 310, which confirms that the hapten of AFB1-CMO was successfully synthesized. The hapten was then conjugated with BSA to serve as an antigen of AFB1 when it was injected into the rabbits. The specificity of the antigen towards its antibody and the confirmation of hapten-BSA conjugation were characterized using the dot blot immunoassay, which showed a BSA concentration of 1.74 mg/mL. Two weeks after the primary immunization by its antigen, agar gel precipitation testing showed that the rabbit blood serum had positive results for polyclonal antibodiest against AFB1 with the highest concentration of antibodiest of 2.19 mg/mL.

  3. IVS contribution to ITRF2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Sabine; Thaller, Daniela; Roggenbuck, Ole; Lösler, Michael; Messerschmitt, Linda

    2016-07-01

    Every few years the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) Center of the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) decides to generate a new version of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). For the upcoming ITRF2014 the official contribution of the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS) comprises 5796 combined sessions in SINEX file format from 1979.6 to 2015.0 containing 158 stations, overall. Nine AC contributions were included in the combination process, using five different software packages. Station coordinate time series of the combined solution show an overall repeatability of 3.3 mm for the north, 4.3 mm for the east and 7.5 mm for the height component over all stations. The minimum repeatabilities are 1.5 mm for north, 2.1 mm for east and 2.9 mm for height. One of the important differences between the IVS contribution to the ITRF2014 and the routine IVS combination is the omission of the correction for non-tidal atmospheric pressure loading (NTAL). Comparisons between the amplitudes of the annual signals derived by the VLBI observations and the annual signals from an NTAL model show that for some stations, NTAL has a high impact on station height variation. For other stations, the effect of NTAL is low. Occasionally other loading effects have a higher influence (e.g. continental water storage loading). External comparisons of the scale parameter between the VTRF2014 (a TRF based on combined VLBI solutions), DTRF2008 (DGFI-TUM realization of ITRS) and ITRF2008 revealed a significant difference in the scale. A scale difference of 0.11 ppb (i.e. 0.7 mm on the Earth's surface) has been detected between the VTRF2014 and the DTRF2008, and a scale difference of 0.44 ppb (i.e. 2.8 mm on the Earth's surface) between the VTRF2014 and ITRF2008. Internal comparisons between the EOP of the combined solution and the individual solutions from the AC contributions show a WRMS in X- and Y-Pole between

  4. IV access in dental practice.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fitzpatrick, J J

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous (IV) access is a valuable skill for dental practitioners in emergency situations and in IV sedation. However, many people feel some apprehension about performing this procedure. This article explains the basic principles behind IV access, and the relevant anatomy and physiology, as well as giving a step-by-step guide to placing an IV cannula.

  5. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  6. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  7. Aflatoxin status of some commercial dry dog foods in Ibadan, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ifeoluwa

    2012-06-28

    20 (%v/v) methanol-water mixture was then added and the mixture was ... Cereals, rice, fish meal, meat meal, bone, salt, vitamins and minerals, oil, additives: ... lower aflatoxin content when compared with those of birds, cattle ...

  8. Aflatoxin M1 levels in raw milk, pasteurized milk and infant formula

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Omar, Sharaf Shareef

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of contamination of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in milk samples collected from the Jordanian market was investigated by using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique...

  9. The bioload and aflatoxin content of market garri from some selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bioload and aflatoxin content of market garri from some selected states in ... in a product with varying quality and safety indices hence varying public health concern. Objectives: To investigate the microbial contamination level, presence, ...

  10. Detection of aflatoxin-contaminated grain by three granivorous bird species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Henke, S E; Fedynich, A M

    2001-04-01

    Supplemental feeding of game species and the use of backyard feeders to attract avian wildlife are common practices throughout the United States. However, these activities may expose wildlife to aflatoxins. We tested the hypothesis that wild birds would avoid consuming aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Individual northern bobwhites (Colinus virginianus), white-winged doves (Zenaida asiatica), and green jays (Cyanocorax yncas) were presented with feeders that had four compartments, which contained milo that was contaminated with aflatoxin levels of 0, 100, 500, and 1,000 microg/kg, respectively. Feed remaining was weighed at 6, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 hr after the initiation of the trial. White-winged doves and northern bobwhites did not avoid contaminated feed. However, green jays selected against aflatoxin-tainted grain. Because white-winged doves and northern bobwhites did not avoid contaminated feed, the risk of exposure to this potentially hazardous toxin exists for these species.

  11. Determination of total aflatoxines in dryed and nuted fruits present in macedinian market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajrulai-Musliu Zehra

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals are exposed to aflatoxins by consuming foods contaminated with products of fungal growth. Such exposure is difficult to avoid because fungal growth in foods is not easy to prevent. Even though heavily contaminated food supplies are not distributed at market in developed countries, concern still remains for the possible adverse effects as a consequence of long-term exposure to low levels of aflatoxins in the food supply. Thence the aim of this study was determination of total aflatoxins in dry fruits and nuts. Only products in the open market places such as peanuts, walnuts, hazelnuts, pumpkin seeds and raisins, were analysed. Nineteen of 30 analysed samples (63.33% were over the detection limit, whereas 11 of analysed samples (36,6% were the same limit.The highr then allowed value of aflatoxins concentration was determined only in one sample of walnut (21 µg/kg.

  12. Comparison of the efficiency between two sampling plans for aflatoxins analysis in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallmann, Adriano Olnei; Marchioro, Alexandro; Oliveira, Maurício Schneider; Rauber, Ricardo Hummes; Dilkin, Paulo; Mallmann, Carlos Augusto

    2014-01-01

    Variance and performance of two sampling plans for aflatoxins quantification in maize were evaluated. Eight lots of maize were sampled using two plans: manual, using sampling spear for kernels; and automatic, using a continuous flow to collect milled maize. Total variance and sampling, preparation, and analysis variance were determined and compared between plans through multifactor analysis of variance. Four theoretical distribution models were used to compare aflatoxins quantification distributions in eight maize lots. The acceptance and rejection probabilities for a lot under certain aflatoxin concentration were determined using variance and the information on the selected distribution model to build the operational characteristic curves (OC). Sampling and total variance were lower at the automatic plan. The OC curve from the automatic plan reduced both consumer and producer risks in comparison to the manual plan. The automatic plan is more efficient than the manual one because it expresses more accurately the real aflatoxin contamination in maize.

  13. Aflatoxins in Food Products in Iran: a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati, Mohammad Taghi; Mahdavi Omran, Saeid; Soleymani, Abbas; Taghizadeh Armaki, Mojtaba

    2016-01-01

    Context Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain toxigenic fungi and the most of them are aflatoxins, fumonisins, trichothecenes, ochratoxin A, patulin, and zearalenone. Evidence Acquisition In consideration of the consumption of certain farm products for animal feed and the prevalence of toxigenic fungi and mycotoxins in food, the present study was performed to evaluate this situation in Iran with a review of the literature using search engines. All published articles were selected using Iran Medex, Magiran, PubMed NCBI, and Google Scholar. Results Aflatoxins have been found in many food products in Iran. Conclusions It is necessary to detect aflatoxins in foods and food products as early as possible, before they enter human or animal bodies. There is a high consumption of milk and dairy products in Iran, and the proper management of animal foods can help to decrease the aflatoxins in milk. PMID:27679702

  14. Relative severity of aflatoxin contamination of cereal crops in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Kumar, Manjula; Leslie, John F

    2007-10-01

    Aflatoxins are a common contaminant of cereals that can cause cancer, liver disease, immune suppression, retarded growth and development, and death, depending on the level and duration of exposure. Maize is an introduced crop to Africa and there have been efforts over the last 20 years or so to replace traditional cereal crops, such as sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), with maize. We found that maize was significantly more heavily colonized by aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus spp. than either sorghum or millet, with overall aflatoxin levels being correspondingly higher. On average, Nigerians consume 138 kg cereals annually. If the primary cereal is sorghum instead of maize, then the risk of aflatoxin-related problems is reduced 4-fold; if it is pearl millet, then the risks are reduced 8-fold. Development programs and other ventures to increase maize production in marginal cropping areas of Africa should be reconsidered and, instead, efforts to improve/maintain traditional crops encouraged.

  15. Comparison of the efficiency between two sampling plans for aflatoxins analysis in maize

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Olnei Mallmann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Variance and performance of two sampling plans for aflatoxins quantification in maize were evaluated. Eight lots of maize were sampled using two plans: manual, using sampling spear for kernels; and automatic, using a continuous flow to collect milled maize. Total variance and sampling, preparation, and analysis variance were determined and compared between plans through multifactor analysis of variance. Four theoretical distribution models were used to compare aflatoxins quantification distributions in eight maize lots. The acceptance and rejection probabilities for a lot under certain aflatoxin concentration were determined using variance and the information on the selected distribution model to build the operational characteristic curves (OC. Sampling and total variance were lower at the automatic plan. The OC curve from the automatic plan reduced both consumer and producer risks in comparison to the manual plan. The automatic plan is more efficient than the manual one because it expresses more accurately the real aflatoxin contamination in maize.

  16. Presence of Aflatoxin M1 in Raw Milk for Human Consumption in Palestinian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mahmoud AL ZUHEIR

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The absences or insufficient food control program result in the occurrence of mycotoxin in milk and milk products, which poses a serious risk for humans and can be a public health concern. This study was conducted to highlight the occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in Palestine raw milk collected at farms from Tulkarm, Nablus and Jenin. Aflatoxin M1 was determined by direct competitive ELISA technique. 85 % (34 of 40 of the total examined raw milk samples tested were positive. The aflatoxin M1 contamination levels were between 3 - 80 ppt with a mean of 29.57 ppt. There was a high incidence rate with 92 % (11 of 12 and the highest means of contaminated with aflatoxin M1 in the samples tested in Tulkarm city (P ≤ 0.05. 20 % of the analyzed samples (8 of 40 exceeded the maximum permissible limit (50 ppt in European Codex, with a range of 2 - 80 ppt.

  17. The rate of Aflatoxin contamination of bread losses in Lorestan provinces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nader Azadbakht

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Azadbakht N1, Khosravinegad K2, Tarrahi MJ3 1. MSc in plant pathology, Khorramabad, Iran 2. BSc in livestock sciences, Khorramabad, Iran 3. Instrustor, Department of Epidemiology, Faculty of Health, Lorestan University of Medical Sciences , Khorramabad, Iran Abstract Background: Aflatoxins belong to a group of toxins called mycotoxins that infection with them can cause complications in humans such as immunity weakness, lung syndrome, liver cancer, esophagus cancer and hemagglutination, and are inhibitor of RNA and protein, as well as cause numorous complications in genital, respiratory and the digestive systems and because of their poisoning and carcinogenic and tumorigenic properties, cause numorous complications in livestock. This research was carried out to determine the rate of Aflatoxine contamination of bread losses in Lorestan province and its comparison with standard levels reported by WHO and FAO. Materials and methods: This study was done by field and laboratory method on 180 samples of losses dried bread in 2009 with randomized distribution in Lorestan provine and detection of samples contamination to aflatoxin was done by HPLC floresence apparatus. Data was analyzed by SPSS software (α=5%. Results: The median rate of types of aflatoxin: B1,B2,G1 and G2 total types of aflatoxin in bread losses (infected, semi-infected and safe in Lorestan were 22.5304,2.4369,0.1923,0.1022 and 25.2636 (µg/kg. Average of minimum and maximum infection to aflatoxin with all types of aflatoxin belonged to Khorramabad (42.9403 and 47.7153 µg/kg and Borujerd (1.8611 and 1.9833 respectively. Average rate of aflatoxin type B1 in infected, semi-infected and safe bread are 64.0536, 1.9167, 0.5629 (µg/kg and average rate of all types of aflatoxin in infected, and safe breads were: 72.0257,1.9990 and 05753 (µg/kg. Also rate of aflatoxin B1 in 29 out of 180 samples are more than standard level and total rate of different types of aflatoxin in 18 samples were

  18. Global Burden of Aflatoxin-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Risk Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), or liver cancer, is the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide, with prevalence 16–32 times higher in developing countries than in developed countries. Aflatoxin, a contaminant produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in maize and nuts, is a known human liver carcinogen. Objectives We sought to determine the global burden of HCC attributable to aflatoxin exposure. Methods We conducted a quantitative cancer risk ass...

  19. Chlorophyllin intervention reduces aflatoxin-DNA adducts in individuals at high risk for liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, P A; Wang, J B; Zhu, Y R; Zhang, B C; Wu, Y; Zhang, Q N; Qian, G S; Kuang, S Y; Gange, S J; Jacobson, L P; Helzlsouer, K J; Bailey, G S; Groopman, J D; Kensler, T W

    2001-12-04

    Residents of Qidong, People's Republic of China, are at high risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma, in part from consumption of foods contaminated with aflatoxins. Chlorophyllin, a mixture of semisynthetic, water-soluble derivatives of chlorophyll that is used as a food colorant and over-the-counter medicine, has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of aflatoxin hepatocarcinogenesis in animal models by blocking carcinogen bioavailability. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled chemoprevention trial, we tested whether chlorophyllin could alter the disposition of aflatoxin. One hundred and eighty healthy adults from Qidong were randomly assigned to ingest 100 mg of chlorophyllin or a placebo three times a day for 4 months. The primary endpoint was modulation of levels of aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine adducts in urine samples collected 3 months into the intervention measured by using sequential immunoaffinity chromatography and liquid chromatography-electrospray mass spectrometry. This aflatoxin-DNA adduct excretion product serves as a biomarker of the biologically effective dose of aflatoxin, and elevated levels are associated with increased risk of liver cancer. Adherence to the study protocol was outstanding, and no adverse events were reported. Aflatoxin-N(7)-guanine could be detected in 105 of 169 available samples. Chlorophyllin consumption at each meal led to an overall 55% reduction (P = 0.036) in median urinary levels of this aflatoxin biomarker compared with those taking placebo. Thus, prophylactic interventions with chlorophyllin or supplementation of diets with foods rich in chlorophylls may represent practical means to prevent the development of hepatocellular carcinoma or other environmentally induced cancers.

  20. Action of phosphine on production of aflatoxins by various Aspergillus strains isolated from foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, J; de Saint-Blanquat, G; Bailly, J R

    1987-01-01

    Phosphine is a food fumigant, used until now as an insecticide and rodenticide. The present work researches the action of phosphine treatment on growth and aflatoxin production of 23 Aspergillus strains. Production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 decreased in almost all cases by a ratio of 10 to 100. Phosphine treatment therefore seems favorable to prevent growth of various Aspergillus strains, in the context of keeping food safe. PMID:3426212

  1. Level of Aflatoxin in Some Fish Feeds from Fish Farming Processes, Feed Factories and Imported Feeds

    OpenAIRE

    ALTUĞ, Gülşen

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins that are toxic metabolites for human and animals were determined in some fish feed. Eighty-five unit samples taken from "fish farming processes", "feed factories" and "imported feeds" in 1998, 1999 and 2000 were analyzed. In the analysis, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique were used. Consequently, aflatoxin levels above 20 ppb were detected in 20 samples and from 21.2 to 42.4...

  2. Aflatoxin accumulation in whole crop maize silage as a result of aerobic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallarin, Laura; Tabacco, Ernesto; Antoniazzi, Sara; Borreani, Giorgio

    2011-10-01

    Most of the maize silage stored in horizontal silos is exposed to air and can be spoiled by fungi. Potentially toxigenic fungi have been found in maize silage, and about 300 mycotoxins have been detected. Among these mycotoxins, the most harmful for feed and food safety are aflatoxins. The aim of the study was to set up a specific method to detect aflatoxins in maize silage, and to investigate whether aflatoxin contamination in maize silage depends on the level of field contamination of the crop, and whether the occurrence of aerobic spoilage during ensiling has any effect on the final contamination of the silage. A method for the determination of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2) in maize silage using high-performance liquid chromagraphy with fluorescence detection has been developed and validated. Recoveries of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) spiked over the 0.25 to 5 µg kg(-1) range averaged 74-94%. The results of laboratory scale and farm scale ensiling experiments indicated that aflatoxins could increase when silage is exposed to air during conservation or during the feed-out phase. The method here proposed to detect aflatoxins in silages has proved to be sensitive and is able to detect levels of 0.1 and 0.5 ng mL(-1) for AFB(1) and AFG(1), and between 0.025 and 0.125 ng mL(-1) for AFB(2) and AFG(2). This study also provides evidence of aflatoxin accumulation in whole crop maize silage as a result of aerobic exposure. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Reduction of aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus in interaction with Streptomyces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheecke, C; Liboz, T; Anson, P; Diaz, R; Mathieu, F

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate aflatoxin gene expression during Streptomyces-Aspergillus interaction. Aflatoxins are carcinogenic compounds produced mainly by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. A previous study has shown that Streptomyces-A. flavus interaction can reduce aflatoxin content in vitro. Here, we first validated this same effect in the interaction with A. parasiticus. Moreover, we showed that growth reduction and aflatoxin content were correlated in A. parasiticus but not in A. flavus. Secondly, we investigated the mechanisms of action by reverse-transcriptase quantitative PCR. As microbial interaction can lead to variations in expression of household genes, the most stable [act1, βtub (and cox5 for A. parasiticus)] were chosen using geNorm software. To shed light on the mechanisms involved, we studied during the interaction the expression of five genes (aflD, aflM, aflP, aflR and aflS). Overall, the results of aflatoxin gene expression showed that Streptomyces repressed gene expression to a greater level in A. parasiticus than in A. flavus. Expression of aflR and aflS was generally repressed in both Aspergillus species. Expression of aflM was repressed and was correlated with aflatoxin B1 content. The results suggest that aflM expression could be a potential aflatoxin indicator in Streptomyces species interactions. Therefore, we demonstrate that Streptomyces can reduce aflatoxin production by both Aspergillus species and that this effect can be correlated with the repression of aflM expression. © 2015 The Authors.

  4. Stability of aflatoxin B1 in animal feed candidate reference materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, A.H.; Mazijk, van R.J.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.T.; Huf, F.A.

    1991-01-01

    Two candidate reference materials animal feed were stored at a temperature of -18°C, 4 C, 20°C and 37°C. The stability of aflatoxin B1 was studied duringa period of two years. A significant decrease in the aflatoxin B1 content was measured in the samples stared at 20°C and 37°C. In the samples

  5. Relationship between Aflatoxin Contamination and Physiological Responses of Corn Plants under Drought and Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nacer Bellaloui

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Increased aflatoxin contamination in corn by the fungus Aspergillus flavus is associated with frequent periods of drought and heat stress during the reproductive stages of the plants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between aflatoxin contamination and physiological responses of corn plants under drought and heat stress. The study was conducted in Stoneville, MS, USA under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions. Five commercial hybrids, P31G70, P33F87, P32B34, P31B13 and DKC63-42 and two inbred germplasm lines, PI 639055 and PI 489361, were evaluated. The plants were inoculated with Aspergillus flavus (K-54 at mid-silk stage, and aflatoxin contamination was determined on the kernels at harvest. Several physiological measurements which are indicators of stress response were determined. The results suggested that PI 639055, PI 489361 and hybrid DKC63-42 were more sensitive to drought and high temperature stress in the non-irrigated plots and P31G70 was the most tolerant among all the genotypes. Aflatoxin contamination was the highest in DKC63-42 and PI 489361 but significantly lower in P31G70. However, PI 639055, which is an aflatoxin resistant germplasm, had the lowest aflatoxin contamination, even though it was one of the most stressed genotypes. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed. These results suggested that the physiological responses were associated with the level of aflatoxin contamination in all the genotypes, except PI 639055. These and other physiological responses related to stress may help examine differences among corn genotypes in aflatoxin contamination.

  6. Natural occurrence of aflatoxins in peanuts and peanut butter from Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mupunga, I; Lebelo, S L; Mngqawa, P; Rheeder, J P; Katerere, D R

    2014-10-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi that may contaminate food and pose a health risk, especially in developing countries, where there is a lack of food security and quality is subsumed by food insufficiency. Aflatoxins are the most toxic known mycotoxins and are a significant risk factor for liver and kidney cancer, teratogenicity, undernutrition, and micronutrient malabsorption in both humans and animals. The main aim of the study was to determine the extent of fungal and aflatoxin contamination in peanuts and peanut butter being sold in both the formal and informal markets in Bulawayo, Zimbabwe. Eighteen peanut samples and 11 peanut butter samples were purchased from retail shops and the informal market. Fungal contamination was determined using standard mycology culture methods, while aflatoxin contamination was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Four of the six peanut samples tested for fungal contamination were infected with Aspergillus flavus/parasiticus, ranging from 3 to 20% of the kernels examined, while 27% (3 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were infected with A. flavus/parasiticus. Ninety-one percent (10 of 11) of the peanut butter samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (mean, 75.66 ng/g, and range, 6.1 to 247 ng/g), and aflatoxin B1 was the most prevalent (mean, 51.0 ng/g, and range, 3.7 to 191 ng/g). Three of the 18 peanut samples were contaminated with aflatoxins (range, 6.6 to 622 ng/g). The commercial peanut butter samples had very high aflatoxin levels, and manufacturers should be sensitized to the detrimental effects of aflatoxins and measures to reduce contamination.

  7. Household dietary exposure to aflatoxins from maize and maize products in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilonzo, Robert M; Imungi, Jasper K; Muiru, William M; Lamuka, Peter O; Njage, Patrick M Kamau

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxicosis has repeatedly affected Kenyans, particularly in the eastern region, due to consumption of contaminated maize. However, save for the cases of acute toxicity, the levels of sub-lethal exposure have not been adequately assessed. It is believed that this type of exposure does exist even during the seasons when acute toxicity does not occur. This study, therefore, was designed to assess the exposure of households to aflatoxins through consumption of maize and maize products. Twenty samples each of maize kernels, muthokoi and maize meal were randomly sampled from households in Kibwezi District of Makueni County in Eastern Kenya and analysed for aflatoxin contamination. The samples were quantitatively analysed for aflatoxin contamination using HPLC. The uncertainty and variability in dietary exposure was quantitatively modelled in Ms Excel using Monte Carlo simulation in @Risk software. Aflatoxins were found in 45% of maize kernels at between 18 and 480 μg kg⁻¹, 20% of muthokoi at between 12 and 123 μg kg⁻¹, and 35% of maize meal at between 6 and 30 μg kg⁻¹. The mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize kernels was 292 ± 1567 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹, while the mean dietary exposure to aflatoxin in maize meal and muthokoi were 59 ± 62 and 27 ± 154 ng kg⁻¹ body weight day⁻¹ respectively. The results showed that the amount and frequency of consumption of the three foods is the more important contributing factor than the mean aflatoxin concentration levels, to the risk of dietary exposure to aflatoxins.

  8. Lab-on-a-chip based biosensor for the real-time detection of aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uludag, Yıldız; Esen, Elif; Kokturk, Guzin; Ozer, Hayrettin; Muhammad, Turghun; Olcer, Zehra; Basegmez, H Imge Oktay; Simsek, Senay; Barut, Serkan; Gok, M Yagmur; Akgun, Mete; Altintas, Zeynep

    2016-11-01

    Polymers were synthesized and utilized for aflatoxin detection coupled with a novel lab-on-a-chip biosensor: MiSens and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Non-imprinted polymers (NIPs) were preferred to be designed and used due to the toxic nature of aflatoxin template and also to avoid difficult clean-up protocols. Towards an innovative miniaturized automated system, a novel biochip has been designed that consists of 6 working electrodes (1mm diameter) with shared reference and counter electrodes. The aflatoxin detection has been achieved by a competition immunoassay that has been performed using the new biochips and the automated MiSens electrochemical biosensor device. For the assay, aflatoxin antibody has been captured on the Protein A immobilized electrode. Subsequently the sample and the enzyme-aflatoxin conjugate mixture has been injected to the electrode surfaces. The final injection of the enzyme substrate results in an amperometric signal. The sensor assays for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in different matrices were also performed using enzyme link immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and HPLC for confirmation. High recovery was successfully achieved in spiked wheat samples using NIP coupled HPLC and NIP coupled MiSens biosensor [2ppb of aflatoxin was determined as 1.86ppb (93% recovery), 1.73ppb (86.5% recovery), 1.96ppb (98% recovery) and 1.88ppb (94.0% recovery) for immunoaffinity column (IAC)-HPLC, NIP-HPLC, Supel™ Tox SPE Cartridges (SUP)-HPLC and NIP-MiSens, respectively]. Aflatoxin detection in fig samples were also investigated with MiSens biosensor and the results were compared with HPLC method. The new biosensor allows real-time and on-site detection of AFB1 in foods with a rapid, sensitive, fully automated and miniaturized system and expected to have an immense economic impact for food industry.

  9. Interferences in radioimmunoassay of aflatoxins in food and fodder samples of plant origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, P.; Fukal, L.; Brezina, P.; Kas, J.

    Cross-reactions and resulting nonspecific binding of substances with structures resembling aflatoxins (derivatives of coumarin, and cinnamonic and benzoic acids, etc.) were investigated. The concentrations of these substances causing erroneously high or false positive values in radioimmunoassay were determined. One ..mu..g aflatoxin B/sub 1//kg sample may be simulated by the occurrence of 5 g coumarin, 10 g caffeic acid, 16 g chlorogenic acid, or 15 g vanillin/kg fodder or food sample.

  10. Brazil nuts are subject to infection with B and G aflatoxin-producing fungus, Aspergillus pseudonomius

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massi, Fernanda Pelisson; Cameiro Vieira, Maria Lucia; Sartori, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    The exploitation of the Brazil nut is one of the most important activities of the extractive communities of the Amazon rainforest. However, its commercialization can be affected by the presence of aflatoxins produced by fungi, namely Aspergillus section Flavi. In the present study, we investigate...... in Brazil nuts of A. pseudonomius. The G-type aflatoxins and the mycotoxin tenuazonic acid are reported here for the first time in A. pseudonomius....

  11. An Economic Surplus Evaluation of Aflatoxin-Reducing Research: A Case Study of Senegal's Confectionery Groundnut Sector

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    In international trade involving agricultural products, attempts to safeguard the health of humans, animals, and plants, have led to the imposition of sanitary and phytosanitary (SPS) standards. Due to the fact that groundnuts are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination, stringent aflatoxin standards have been imposed on groundnut trade by many developed countries. For Senegal and other groundnut exporters in the developing world, these aflatoxin standards pose a major challenge. As a result, ...

  12. Dibromidodimethyldipyridineplatinum(IV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mairéad E. Kelly

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [PtBr2(CH32(C5H5N2], the PtIV metal centre lies on a twofold rotation axis and adopts a slightly distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The structure displays weak intramolecular C—H...Br hydrogen-bonding interactions.

  13. Marketing produktu Karel IV.

    OpenAIRE

    Mikšů, Šárka

    2009-01-01

    Goal of the thesis Marketing of the product Karel IV. is to propose chanels of marketing communication and indicate possibilities of next product's development. Theoretical part is based on marketing plan and it's partition. In the practical part you can find market analysis and competing products analysis, product's evolution description and marketing research.

  14. PLATO IV Accountancy Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pondy, Dorothy, Comp.

    The catalog was compiled to assist instructors in planning community college and university curricula using the 48 computer-assisted accountancy lessons available on PLATO IV (Programmed Logic for Automatic Teaching Operation) for first semester accounting courses. It contains information on lesson access, lists of acceptable abbreviations for…

  15. Static Hot Air and Infrared Rays Roasting are Efficient Methods for Aflatoxin Decontamination on Hazelnuts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Ilenia; Dal Bello, Barbara; Zeppa, Giuseppe; Spadaro, Davide; Gullino, Maria Lodovica

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by members of Aspergillus Section Flavi that are dangerous to humans and animals. Nuts can be potentially contaminated with aflatoxins, often over the legal threshold. Food processes, including roasting, may have different effects on mycotoxins, and high temperatures have proven to be very effective in the reduction of mycotoxins. In this work, two different roasting methods—traditional static hot air roasting and infra-red rays roasting—were applied and compared for the detoxification of hazelnuts from Italy and Turkey. At the temperature of 140 °C for 40 min of exposure, detoxification was effective for both roasting techniques. Residual aflatoxins after infra-red rays treatments were lower compared to static hot air roasting. On Italian hazelnuts, residual aflatoxins were lower than 5%, while for Turkish hazelnuts they were lower than 15% after 40 min of exposure to an infra-red rays roaster. After roasting, the perisperm was detached from the nuts and analyzed for aflatoxin contents. Residual aflatoxins in the perisperm ranged from 80% up to 100%. After roasting, the lipid profile and the nutritional quality of hazelnuts were not affected. Fatty acid methyl esters analyses showed a similar composition for Italian and Turkish hazelnuts. PMID:28230792

  16. Effect of climate change on Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eMedina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the available information on the potential impact of key environmental factors and their interactions on the molecular ecology, growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in vitro and in maize grain. The recent studies which have been carried out to examine the impact of water activity x temperature on aflatoxin biosynthesis and phenotypic aflatoxin production are examined. These have shown that there is a direct relationship between the relative expression of key regulatory and structural genes under different environmental conditions which correlate directly with aflatoxin B1 production. A model has been developed to integrate the relative expression of 10 biosynthetic genes in the pathway, growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 production which was validated under elevated temperature and water stress conditions. The effect of interacting conditions of aw x temperature x elevated CO2 (2x and 3x existing levels are detailed for the first time. This suggests that while such interacting environmental conditions have little effect on growth they do have a significant impact on aflatoxin biosynthetic gene expression (structural aflD and regulatory aflR genes and can significantly stimulate the production of AFB1. While the individual factors alone have an impact, it is the combined effect of these three abiotic factors which have an impact on mycotoxin production. This approach provides data which is necessary to help predict the real impacts of climate change on mycotoxigenic fungi.

  17. Molecular Detection of Aflatoxin Producing Strains of Aspergillus Flavus from Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeela Hussain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are the potential carcinogens produced as secondary metabolites by Aspergillus flavus. They have the ability to contaminate large number of food which ultimately affect the human population. Malt extract agar was selected for the growth of control stains of fungus. The aim of the study was to develop a reliable and quick method for the detection of aflatoxin producing strains in peanuts by using molecular approaches. Total 80 samples of infected peanuts were collected from four different cities of Punjab and checked for their aflatoxin contamination. For aflatoxin detection, three target genes nor1, ver1 and aflR were selected which was involved in the aflatoxin biosynthesis. In all examined cases, 24 out of 80 (30% samples successfully amplified all three genes indicating aflatoxigenic activity. Discrimination between aflatoxigenic and non-aflatoxigenic strains were also determined on the basis of amplification of these three target DNA fragments. In this study, it was also demonstrated that only specific strains were able to produce the aflatoxin contamination in peanuts.

  18. Natural co-occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B and aflatoxins in Sicilian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Vita; Avellone, Giuseppe; Pitonzo, Rosa; Capocchiano, Valentina Giusi; Mazza, Alessia; Cicero, Nicola; Dugo, Giacomo

    2015-01-01

    The natural occurrence of ochratoxin A, ochratoxin B, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 (OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2) in red wines was investigated by HPLC/FLD after immunoaffinity column clean-up in 57 market samples produced in Sicily (Italy). The results showed a very low incidence of these mycotoxins in analysed samples, confirming the high degree of quality and safety of Sicilian red wines. The results indicated 71.9% and 64.9% positive samples for OTA and OTB respectively, with an average level of 0.13 μg l(-1), well below the European maximum permitted levels (MLs). The aflatoxin most frequently detected in the samples was AFG1, present in 57.9% of samples, while the other aflatoxins were rarely present. Recovery experiments were carried out on eight mycotoxin-free red wines spiked with OTA, OTB, AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 at two different levels. The limits of detection (LODs) in wines were 0.02 µg l(-1) for OTA, 0.04 µg l(-1) for OTB, 0.03 µg l(-1) for AFG1, AFG2 and AFB2, and 0.05 µg l(-1) for AFB1. A good correlation was found, with good performances in term of precision for the method.

  19. Aspergillus and aflatoxin in groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) and groundnut cake in Eastern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Abdi; Chala, Alemayehu; Dejene, Mashilla; Fininsa, Chemeda; Hoisington, David A; Sobolev, Victor S; Arias, Renee S

    2016-12-01

    This study was conducted to assess major Aspergillus species and aflatoxins associated with groundnut seeds and cake in Eastern Ethiopia and evaluate growers' management practices. A total of 160 groundnut seed samples from farmers' stores and 50 groundnut cake samples from cafe and restaurants were collected. Fungal isolation was done from groundnut seed samples. Aspergillus flavus was the dominant species followed by Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxin analyses of groundnut seed samples were performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography; 22.5% and 41.3% of samples were positive, with total aflatoxin concentrations of 786 and 3135 ng g(-1) from 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 samples, respectively. The level of specific aflatoxin concentration varied between 0.1 and 2526 ng g(-1) for B2 and B1, respectively. Among contaminated samples of groundnut cake, 68% exhibited aflatoxin concentration below 20 ng g(-1), while as high as 158 ng g(-1) aflatoxin B1 was recorded. The study confirms high contamination of groundnut products in East Ethiopia.

  20. Automatic detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels using dual-band imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononye, Ambrose E.; Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Brown, Robert L.; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2009-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin predominantly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasitiucus fungi that grow naturally in corn, peanuts and in a wide variety of other grain products. Corn, like other grains is used as food for human and feed for animal consumption. It is known that aflatoxin is carcinogenic; therefore, ingestion of corn infected with the toxin can lead to very serious health problems such as liver damage if the level of the contamination is high. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has strict guidelines for permissible levels in the grain products for both humans and animals. The conventional approach used to determine these contamination levels is one of the destructive and invasive methods that require corn kernels to be ground and then chemically analyzed. Unfortunately, each of the analytical methods can take several hours depending on the quantity, to yield a result. The development of high spectral and spatial resolution imaging sensors has created an opportunity for hyperspectral image analysis to be employed for aflatoxin detection. However, this brings about a high dimensionality problem as a setback. In this paper, we propose a technique that automatically detects aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels by using dual-band imagery. The method exploits the fluorescence emission spectra from corn kernels captured under 365 nm ultra-violet light excitation. Our approach could lead to a non-destructive and non-invasive way of quantifying the levels of aflatoxin contamination. The preliminary results shown here, demonstrate the potential of our technique for aflatoxin detection.

  1. Natural postharvest aflatoxin occurrence in food legumes in the smallholder farming sector of Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maringe, David Tinayeshe; Chidewe, Cathrine; Benhura, Mudadi Albert; Mvumi, Brighton Marimanzi; Murashiki, Tatenda Clive; Dembedza, Mavis Precious; Siziba, Lucia; Nyanga, Loveness Kuziwa

    2017-03-01

    Aflatoxins, mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are highly toxic and may lead to health problems such as liver cancer. Exposure to aflatoxins may result from ingestion of contaminated foods. Levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2 in samples of groundnuts (Arachis hypogaea), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) and bambara nuts (Vigna subterranean) grown by smallholder farmers in Shamva and Makoni districts, Zimbabwe, were determined at harvesting, using high performance liquid chromatography after immunoaffinity clean-up. Aflatoxins were detected in 12.5% of groundnut samples with concentrations ranging up to 175.9 µg/kg. Aflatoxins were present in 4.3% of the cowpea samples with concentrations ranging from 1.4 to 103.4 µg/kg. Due to alarming levels of aflatoxins detected in legumes versus maximum permissible levels, there is a need to assist smallholder farmers to develop harvest control strategies to reduce contamination of aflatoxins in legumes.

  2. Antifungal Activity and Aflatoxin Degradation of Bifidobacterium Bifidum and Lactobacillus Fermentum Against Toxigenic Aspergillus Parasiticus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazvini, Roshanak Daie; Kouhsari, Ebrahim; Zibafar, Ensieh; Hashemi, Seyed Jamal; Amini, Abolfazl; Niknejad, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Food and feedstuff contamination with aflatoxins (AFTs) is a serious health problem for humans and animals, especially in developing countries. The present study evaluated antifungal activities of two lactic acid bacteria (LAB) against growth and aflatoxin production of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus. The mycelial growth inhibition rate of A. parasiticus PTCC 5286 was investigated in the presence of Bifidobacterium bifidum PTCC 1644 and Lactobacillus fermentum PTCC 1744 by the pour plate method. After seven days incubation in yeast extract sucrose broth at 30°C, the mycelial mass was weighed after drying. The inhibitory activity of LAB metabolites against aflatoxin production by A. parasiticus was evaluated using HPLC method. B. bifidum and L. fermentum significantly reduced aflatoxin production and growth rate of A. parasiticus in comparison with the controls (p≤0.05). LAB reduced total aflatoxins and B1, B2, G1 and G2 fractions by more than 99%. Moreover, LAB metabolites reduced the level of standard AFB1, B2, G1 and G2 from 88.8% to 99.8% (p≤0.05). Based on these findings, B. bifidum and L. fermentum are recommended as suitable biocontrol agents against the growth and aflatoxin production by aflatoxigenic Aspergillus species. PMID:28077976

  3. REVIEW ON AFLATOXIN IN INDONESIAN FOOD- AND FEEDSTUFFS AND THEIR PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKKY SETYAWATI DHARMAPUTRA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a human carcinogen that could contaminate food- and feedstuffs, and hence is a major food qua lity problem throughout the world. Afiatoxi n is produced by certain strains of AspergillusJlavus and //. parasiticus. A number of studies have been carried out in Indonesia on atlatoxin contamination in Indonesian food- and feedstuffs and their products from 1990 up to present. They were maize, maize product, peanuts, soybean and soybean meal, black and white pepper, feed ingredients; chicken and duck feeds. Samples were collected from farmers, traders (middlemen, retailers (markets, supermarkets, exporters; poultry and duck community-based farms; and feed mi ll industries. High levels of aflatoxins were often found in maize, peanuts, chicken feed derived from markets, and duck feed. Low levels of aflatoxins were found in soybean meal and chicken feedstuff. Aflatoxins were not detected in soybean, black and white pepper. Other studies have also been carried out on the effect of carbondioxide (CO2, phosphine, black pepper extract and antagonistic fungi on aflatoxin production of A. flavus in vitro and the effect of airtight storage, phosphine, ammonium hydroxide, fermentation process, bag types, and phosphine in combination with different bag types on atlatoxin contents of maize, peanuts and soybean meal. Some of these methods reduced aflatoxin contents significantly

  4. Ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.J. Verma; Anita Nair

    2001-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of vitamin E on aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation in the testis. Methods: Adult male albino mice were orally administered 25 or 50 μg of aflatoxin in 0.2 mL olive oil per d for 45 d.The testis was isolated, blotted free of blood and processed for biochemical analysis. Results: There was a dose-dependent significantlyhigher lipid peroxidation in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice than in the controls. The levels of non-enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione, total and reduced ascorbic acid, as well as the activities of enzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase were significantly lower in the testis of aflatoxin treated mice. Vitamin E (2 mg/d per animal; orally) pretreatment significantly ameliorates the aflatoxin-induced lipid peroxidation which could be due to higher enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the testis of mice as compared with those given aflatoxin alone. Conclusion: Vitamin E pretreatment significantly ameliorates aflatoxininduced lipid peroxidation in the testis of mice.

  5. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  6. Feasibility of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for rapid detection of aflatoxins in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Herrman, Timothy J; Bisrat, Yordanos; Murray, Seth C

    2014-05-14

    Rapid and sensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for aflatoxin detection was employed for development of the models to classify and quantify aflatoxin levels in maize at concentrations of 0 to 1,206 μg/kg. Highly effective SERS substrate (Ag nanosphere) was prepared and mixed with a sample extract for SERS measurement. Strong Raman bands associated with aflatoxins and changes in maize kernels induced by aflatoxin contamination were observed in different SERS spectroscopic regions. The k-nearest neighbors (KNN) classification model yielded high classification accuracy and lower prediction error with no misclassification of contaminated samples as aflatoxin negative. The multiple linear regression (MLR) models showed a higher predictive accuracy with stronger correlation coefficients (r = 0.939-0.967) and a higher sensitivity with lower limits of detection (13-36 μg/kg) and quantitation (44-121 μg/kg) over other quantification models. Paired sample t test exhibited no statistically significant difference between the reference values and the predicted values of SERS in most chemometric models. The proposed SERS method would be a more effective and efficient analytical tool with a higher accuracy and lower constraints for aflatoxin analysis in maize compared to other existing spectroscopic methods and conventional Raman spectroscopy.

  7. Toxicity of aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptor (VDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Paola; Santini, Antonello; Fattore, Luigi; Novellino, Ettore; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    This research describes an unexpected toxicity of the aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptors. Rickets is a childhood disease, and calcium deficiency is the aetiological cause in Africa, being primarily associated with nutritional problems; in this research the contribution of aflatoxin B1 exposure during the early months of life is an interesting factor to deepen in order to prevent liver damages or the development of rickets. The results show that the expression of vitamin D receptor in osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 is significantly down-modulated by exposure to aflatoxin B1. This seems to suggest that Aflatoxin B1, toxic towards the vitamin D receptor, interferes with the actions of the vitamin D on calcium binding gene expression in the kidney and intestine. Experimental data indicate a 58% and 86% decrease if the cells are exposed to 5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL of aflatoxin B1, respectively. These results seem to indicate that natural occurrence of the aflatoxin B1 and allelic variant of vitamin D receptor on (F allele) increase the risk of developing rickets of African children.

  8. Aflatoxin-free transgenic maize using host-induced gene silencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Dhiraj; Zhang, Jianwei; Wing, Rod A.; Cotty, Peter J.; Schmidt, Monica A.

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins, toxic secondary metabolites produced by some Aspergillus species, are a universal agricultural economic problem and a critical health issue. Despite decades of control efforts, aflatoxin contamination is responsible for a global loss of millions of tons of crops each year. We show that host-induced gene silencing is an effective method for eliminating this toxin in transgenic maize. We transformed maize plants with a kernel-specific RNA interference (RNAi) gene cassette targeting the aflC gene, which encodes an enzyme in the Aspergillus aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. After pathogen infection, aflatoxin could not be detected in kernels from these RNAi transgenic maize plants, while toxin loads reached thousands of parts per billion in nontransgenic control kernels. A comparison of transcripts in developing aflatoxin-free transgenic kernels with those from nontransgenic kernels showed no significant differences between these two groups. These results demonstrate that small interfering RNA molecules can be used to silence aflatoxin biosynthesis in maize, providing an attractive and precise engineering strategy that could also be extended to other crops to improve food security. PMID:28345051

  9. Application of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) as desiccants to dry maize and reduce aflatoxin contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuge, Duncan O; Negrini, Renata; Nyakundi, Livine O; Kuate, Serge P; Bandyopadhyay, Ranajit; Muiru, William M; Torto, Baldwyn; Mezzenga, Raffaele

    2016-08-01

    The ability of superabsorbent polymers (SAP) in drying maize and controlling aflatoxin contamination was studied under different temperatures, drying times and SAP-to-maize ratios. Temperature and drying time showed significant influence on the aflatoxin formation. SAP-to-maize ratios between 1:1 and 1:5 showed little or no aflatoxin contamination after drying to the optimal moisture content (MC) of 13 %, while for ratios 1:10 and 1:20, aflatoxin contamination was not well controlled due to the overall higher MC and drying time, which made these ratios unsuitable for the drying process. Results clearly show that temperature, frequency of SAP change, drying time and SAP-to-maize ratio influenced the drying rate and aflatoxin contamination. Furthermore, it was shown that SAP had good potential for grain drying and can be used iteratively, which can make this system an optimal solution to reduce aflatoxin contamination in maize, particular for developing countries and resource-lacking areas.

  10. Detection of aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier transform near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durmuş, Efkan; Güneş, Ali; Kalkan, Habil

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites that are mainly produced by members of the Aspergillus section Flavi on many agricultural products. Certain agricultural products such as figs are known to be high risk products for aflatoxin contamination. Aflatoxin contaminated figs may show a bright greenish yellow fluorescence (BGYF) under ultraviolet (UV) light at a wavelength of 365 nm. Traditionally, BGYF positive figs are manually selected by workers. However, manual selection depends on the expertise level of the workers and it may cause them skin-related health problems due to UV radiation. In this study, we propose a non-invasive approach to detect aflatoxin and surface mould contaminated figs by using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) reflectance spectroscopy. A classification accuracy of 100% is achieved for classifying the figs into aflatoxin contaminated/uncontaminated and surface mould contaminated/uncontaminated categories. In addition, a strong correlation has been found between aflatoxin and surface mould. Combined with pattern classification methods, the NIR spectroscopy can be used to detect aflatoxin contaminated figs non-invasively. Furthermore, a positive correlation between surface mould and aflatoxin contamination leads to a promising alternative indicator for the detection of aflatoxin-contaminated figs. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Construction and preliminary evaluation of an Aspergillus flavus reporter gene construct as a potential tool for screening aflatoxin resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert L; Brown-Jenco, Carmen S; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Payne, Gary A

    2003-10-01

    Effective preharvest strategies to eliminate aflatoxin accumulation in crops are not presently available. The molecular biology of aflatoxin biosynthesis has been extensively studied, and genetic and molecular tools such as reporter gene systems for the measurement of fungal growth have been developed. A reporter construct containing the Aspergillus flavus beta-tubulin gene promoter fused to Escherichia coli beta-glucuronidase (GUS) has been shown to be a reliable tool for the indirect measurement of fungal growth in maize kernels. Since cost-saving alternative methods for the direct measurement of aflatoxin levels are needed to facilitate more widespread field and laboratory screening of maize lines, a new reporter gene construct involving the promoter region of the omtA gene of the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway was constructed and tested. Expression of GUS activity by this construct (omtA::GUS) was correlated with aflatoxin accumulation in culture. In the fungal transformant GAP26-1, which harbors this construct, aflatoxin production and GUS expression on sucrose-containing medium showed the same temporal pattern of toxin induction. Furthermore, GUS expression by GAP26-1 was shown to be associated with aflatoxin accumulation in maize kernels inoculated with this strain. Our results suggest that this and other reporter gene pathway promoter constructs may provide superior alternatives to direct aflatoxin quantification with respect to time, labor, and materials for the screening of maize lines for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation.

  12. Two novel aflatoxin-producing Aspergillus species from Argentinean peanuts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pildain, M.B.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Vaamonde, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two novel species from Aspergillus section Flavi from different species of Arachis (peanuts) in Argentina are described as Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov. and Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. Their novel taxonomic status was determined using a polyphasic taxonomic approach with phenotypic...... (morphology and extrolite profiles) and molecular (beta-tubulin and calmodulin gene sequences) characters. A. minisclerotigenes resembles Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parvisclerotigenus in producing aflatoxins B-1 and B-2, cyclopiazonic acid, kojic acid and aspergillic acid, but in addition it produces...... and parasiticolide, and some strains produce aspergillic acid. The type strain of A. arachidicola is CBS 117610(T) =IBT 25020(T) and that of A. minisclerotigenes is CBS 117635(T) =IBT 27196(T). The Mycobank accession numbers for Aspergillus minisclerotigenes sp. nov. and Aspergillus arachidicola sp. nov...

  13. Antibody immobilized cysteamine functionalized-gold nanoparticles for aflatoxin detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Aditya; Matharu, Zimple; Sumana, G.; Solanki, Pratima R. [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, Materials Physics and Engineering Division, National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Kim, C.G. [Centre for NanoBioEngineering and Spintronics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Malhotra, B.D., E-mail: bansi.malhotra@gmail.co [Department of Science and Technology Centre on Biomolecular Electronics, Biomedical Instrumentation Section, Materials Physics and Engineering Division, National Physical Laboratory (Council of Scientific and Industrial Research), Dr. K. S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi-110012 (India); Centre for NanoBioEngineering and Spintronics, Chungnam National University, Daejeon, 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-30

    Aflatoxin B{sub 1} antibody (aAFB{sub 1}) covalently attached to cysteamine functionalized-gold nanoparticles (C-AuNP) has been immobilized onto 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (MBA) based self assembled monolayer (SAM) on gold electrode (MBA/Au), for the fabrication of BSA/aAFB{sub 1}-C-AuNP/MBA/Au immunoelectrode. This immunoelectrode has been characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical characterization techniques. The electrochemical response studies reveal that the BSA/aAFB{sub 1}-C-AuNP/MBA/Au immunoelectrode can be used to detect AFB{sub 1} in the range of 10-100 ng dL{sup -1} and has sensitivity as 0.45 {mu}A ng{sup -1} dL, limit of detection as 17.90 ng dL{sup -1} and a response time of 60 s.

  14. Importance Of Aflatoxins And Fumonisins In Some Domestic Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Paola Rodríguez

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are chemical compounds of low molecular weight, produced by fungus and they produce pathological effects as in human beings as in animals. Although the total number of mycotoxins is not known, researchers has considered that thousands of potentially toxic fungal metabolites exist, within mycotoxins of great preoccupation are: Aflatoxins, Tricotecenos (Vomitoxina, Nivalenol, Neosolaniol, T2 Toxin, Diacetoxyscirpenol, Zearalenona, Fumonisinas, Ocratoxin, Citrinin, Esterigmatocistina, Ciclopiazónico Acid, Patulina, alkaloids of the Ergot, and Moniliformina. These mycotoxins are in the most of products of the livestock industry, such as corn, sorghum, soy, silages, cotton pulp and even milk.

  15. Aflatoxin M₁ in breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzupir, Amin O; Abas, Abdel Rouf A; Fadul, M Hemmat; Modwi, Abueliz K; Ali, Nima M I; Jadian, Afaf F F; Ahmed, Nuha Abd A; Adam, Smah Y A; Ahmed, Nousiba A M; Khairy, Arwa A A; Khalil, Eltahir A G

    2012-05-01

    The presence of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the breast milk of nursing Sudanese mothers was investigated using AOAC official method 980.21 as the extraction method and HPLC with fluorescence detector for separation and detection. Following informed consent, 94 breast milk samples of mothers were collected, and 51 samples were found to be positive for AFM1, with an average concentration of 0.401 ± 0.525 ng g(-1) and a maximum level of 2.561 ng g(-1). The volunteers completed a questionnaire concerning their dietary preferences. The data collected suggest that peanut butter, vegetable oils and rice are the main sources responsible for the AFM1 burden in breast milk. The toxin levels are alarmingly high, and indicate that Sudanese infants are exposed to high levels of AFM1. A wide range of harmful effects, and consequently health problems, can be expected due AFM1 toxicity.

  16. Association between Aflatoxin M1 and Liver Disease in HBV/HCV Infected Persons in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarrisa Afum

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus and are common food contaminants in tropical developing countries. Extensive aflatoxin consumption has been shown to be highly associated with liver disease. A case-control study was conducted to determine the association between aflatoxin and liver disease in Kumasi, Ghana. A questionnaire was administered to examine socio-demographic characteristics and food storage and consumption practices, and urine samples were collected to measure levels of the aflatoxin metabolite (AFM1. Two hundred and seventy-six people participated in the study; 38 had liver disease (cases, 136 had neither hepatitis B/C nor liver disease (negative controls, and 102 were hepatitis B/C positive without liver cancer (positive controls. A much higher percent of participants in each group was male (76% of cases, 88% of negative controls and 65% of positive controls. Multivariate analysis showed that age was a significant predictor for being a case when cases were compared to negative controls. The odds of being a case was 70% less for participants aged 25–34 years (odds ratios (OR 0.30; 95% confidence interval (CI 0.10–0.88 compared to those ≥45 years. For cases; Akans were seven times more likely to have AFM1 levels below the median when compared to other ethnic groups (OR 7; CI 1.41–34.68. When cases were compared to positive controls, they were 2.29 times more likely to report awareness of aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts (95% CI 1.06–4.91. Cases were also two times more likely to report awareness of aflatoxin contamination of maize than all controls combined (95% CI 1.02–4.11. However, most cases reported that aflatoxin contamination does not cause sickness in humans. This shows that there is awareness of aflatoxin contamination without proper understanding of the serious potential adverse health impacts among these study participants. These findings indicate that

  17. Occupational exposure to aflatoxin (AFB₁) in poultry production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luisa; Malta-Vacas, Joana; Sabino, Raquel; Figueredo, Paula; Almeida, Ana; Viegas, Carla; Carolino, Elisabete

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) has been recognized to produce cancer in human liver. In addition, epidemiological and laboratory studies demonstrated that the respiratory system was a target for AFB₁. Exposure occurs predominantly through the food chain, but inhalation represents an additional route of exposure. The present study aimed to examine AFB₁ exposure among poultry workers in Portugal. Blood samples were collected from a total of 31 poultry workers from six poultry farms. In addition, a control group (n = 30) was included comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks. Measurement of AFB₁ in serum was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). For examining fungi contamination, air samples were collected through an impaction method. Air sampling was obtained in pavilion interior and outside the premises, since this was the place regarded as the reference location. Using molecular methods, toxicogenic strains (aflatoxin-producing) were investigated within the group of species belonging to Aspergillus flavus complex. Eighteen poultry workers (59%) had detectable levels of AFB₁ with values ranging from <1 ng/ml to 4.23 ng/ml and with a mean value of 2 ± 0.98 ng/ml. AFB₁ was not detected in the serum sampled from any of the controls. Aspergillus flavus was the fungal species third most frequently found in the indoor air samples analyzed (7.2%) and was the most frequently isolated species in air samples containing only Aspergillus genus (74.5%). The presence of aflatoxigenic strains was only confirmed in outdoor air samples from one of the units, indicating the presence of a source inside the building in at least one case. Data indicate that AFB₁ inhalation represents an additional risk in this occupational setting that needs to be recognized, assessed, and prevented.

  18. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by a Pseudomonas Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg2+, Li+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe3+ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB1 was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB1. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin. PMID:25341538

  19. Modelling Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxins production in pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, Sonia; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, V

    2012-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are the main contaminants in pistachio nuts. AFs production in pistachio has been attributed to Aspergillus flavus. The aim of this study was to apply existing models to predict growth and AFs production by an A. flavus isolated from pistachios as a function of moisture content and storage temperature of pistachios in order to test their usefulness and complementarities. A full factorial design was used: the moisture content levels assayed were 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% and incubation temperatures were 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 37 and 42 °C. Both kinetic and probability models were built to predict growth of the strain under the assayed conditions. Among the assayed models, cardinal ones gave a good quality fit for radial growth rate data. Moreover, the progressive approach, which was developed based on a reduced number of experimental points led to an improved prediction in the validation step. This is quite significant as may allow for improved experimental designs, less costly than full factorial ones. Probability model proved to be concordant in 91% of the calibration set observations. Even though the validation set included conditions around the growth/no-growth interface, there was a 100% agreement in the predictions from the data set (n = 16, cut off = 0.5) after 60 days. Similarly, the probability for AF presence was rightly predicted in 89% of the cases. According to our results EC maximum aflatoxin levels would be surpassed in a period as short as 1 month if pistachio nuts reach 20 °C, unless %mc is ≤10%.

  20. Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Brown Rice from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ASGHAR, Muhammad Asif; IQBAL, Javed; AHMED, Aftab; KHAN, Mobeen Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas AFB2 was detected in 20 (7.6%) samples. Furthermore, AFG1 and AFG2 were not found in any sample. The contamination range of AFB1 and AFB2 was found 1.07–24.65 μg/kg and 0.52–2.62 μg/kg, respectively. Total AFs were quantified in 250 (95.4%) samples with an average of 3.89 μg/kg and contamination range was noted to be between 1.07–27.27 μg/kg. The overall results indicated that in 12 (4.6%) samples, AFs were not found within detectable limits. Furthermore, in 188 (71.7%) samples, AFs level was found below than maximum tolerated levels (MTL) as recommended by the European Union (4 μg/kg). Moreover, in 61 (23.3%) samples, AFs range was found between 4–20 μg/kg, which were fit for human consumption as per MTL (20 μg/kg) assigned by USA (FDA and FAO) and Pakistan (PSQCA). While only one sample (27.27 μg/kg) exceeded the above mention regulation limits. Conclusion Low level of AFs occurs frequently in brown rice, and can be improved using proper harvesting practices, storage and transportation conditions. The small quantities of AFs warrant performing further investigation, monitoring and routine analysis on regular basis. PMID:25988088

  1. Enhanced Design Alternative IV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. E. Kramer

    1999-05-18

    This report evaluates Enhanced Design Alternative (EDA) IV as part of the second phase of the License Application Design Selection (LADS) effort. The EDA IV concept was compared to the VA reference design using criteria from the ''Design Input Request for LADS Phase II EDA Evaluations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b) and (CRWMS M&O 1999f). Briefly, the EDA IV concept arranges the waste packages close together in an emplacement configuration known as ''line load''. Continuous pre-closure ventilation keeps the waste packages from exceeding the 350 C cladding and 200 C (4.3.13) drift wall temperature limits. This EDA concept keeps relatively high, uniform emplacement drift temperatures (post-closure) to drive water away from the repository and thus dry out the pillars between emplacement drifts. The waste package is shielded to permit human access to emplacement drifts and includes an integral filler inside the package to reduce the amount of water that can contact the waste form. Closure of the repository is desired 50 years after first waste is emplaced. Both backfill and a drip shields will be emplaced at closure to improve post-closure performance.

  2. The transfer of aflatoxin M1 in milk of ewes fed diet naturally contaminated by aflatoxins and effect of inclusion of dried yeast culture in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battacone, G; Nudda, A; Palomba, M; Mazzette, A; Pulina, G

    2009-10-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate 1) the transfer of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of dairy ewes fed diets naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1); 2) the effect of the addition of dried yeast culture in the diet on this transfer; and 3) the alteration of enzymatic activities in the liver of ewes fed diets contaminated with AFB1. Twenty-four Sarda dairy ewes were divided in 4 groups and fed a concentrate mix containing 4 amounts of wheat meal naturally contaminated with aflatoxins. The diet of the control group had no wheat meal, whereas that of treated groups had low, medium, or high amounts of contaminated wheat, which corresponded to 1.13, 2.30, and 5.03 microg of AFB1/kg of feed, respectively. The experiment lasted 14 d. On d 8 to 14 from the beginning of the trial, 12 g/d of a commercial dried yeast product (DYP) of Kluyveromyces lactis was added to the diet of each ewe. The AFM1 concentration in individual milk samples and the blood serum metabolites were measured periodically. The presence of AFM1 was first detected in milk on d 1 of administration, and then its concentration increased and approached a steady-state condition on d 3 simultaneously in all treated groups. The AFM1 in milk at the steady-state condition, which was linearly related to the AFB1 intake, was 39.72, 50.38, and 79.29 ng/L in the low-aflatoxin, medium-aflatoxin, and high-aflatoxin groups, respectively. The AFM1 concentration in milk of the high-aflatoxin group was approximately 1.5-fold greater than the European Commission maximum tolerance level (50 ng/kg). The addition of DYP to the diet did not affect the AFM1 concentration in milk. After the withdrawal of the contaminated concentrate mix, the AFM1 mean concentrations decreased quickly and were no longer detected after 3 d in all treated groups. Daily milk yield and composition did not differ because of aflatoxin treatment. Blood serum parameters (creatinine, glutamic oxalacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic

  3. Intraspecific aflatoxin inhibition in Aspergillus flavus is thigmoregulated, independent of vegetative compatibility group and is strain dependent.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwei Huang

    Full Text Available Biological control of preharvest aflatoxin contamination by atoxigenic stains of Aspergillus flavus has been demonstrated in several crops. The assumption is that some form of competition suppresses the fungus's ability to infect or produce aflatoxin when challenged. Intraspecific aflatoxin inhibition was demonstrated by others. This work investigates the mechanistic basis of that phenomenon. A toxigenic and atoxigenic isolate of A. flavus which exhibited intraspecific aflatoxin inhibition when grown together in suspended disc culture were not inhibited when grown in a filter insert-plate well system separated by a .4 or 3 µm membrane. Toxigenic and atoxigenic conidial mixtures (50∶50 placed on both sides of these filters restored inhibition. There was ∼50% inhibition when a 12 µm pore size filter was used. Conidial and mycelial diameters were in the 3.5-7.0 µm range and could pass through the 12 µm filter. Larger pore sizes in the initially separated system restored aflatoxin inhibition. This suggests isolates must come into physical contact with one another. This negates a role for nutrient competition or for soluble diffusible signals or antibiotics in aflatoxin inhibition. The toxigenic isolate was maximally sensitive to inhibition during the first 24 hrs of growth while the atoxigenic isolate was always inhibition competent. The atoxigenic isolate when grown with a green fluorescent protein (GFP toxigenic isolate failed to inhibit aflatoxin indicating that there is specificity in the touch inhibiton. Several atoxigenic isolates were found which inhibited the GFP isolate. These results suggest that an unknown signaling pathway is initiated in the toxigenic isolate by physical interaction with an appropriate atoxigenic isolate in the first 24 hrs which prevents or down-regulates normal expression of aflatoxin after 3-5 days growth. We suspect thigmo-downregulation of aflatoxin synthesis is the mechanistic basis of intraspecific

  4. Development of an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Method Specific for the Detection of G-Group Aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peiwu; Zhou, Qian; Wang, Ting; Zhou, Haiyan; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Zhaowei; Chang, Perng-Kuang; Zhang, Qi

    2015-12-28

    To detect and monitor G-group aflatoxins in agricultural products, we generated class-specific monoclonal antibodies that specifically recognized aflatoxins G₁ and G₂. Of the final three positive and stable hybridomas obtained, clone 2G6 produced a monoclonal antibody that had equal sensitivity to aflatoxins G₁ and G₂, and did not cross-react with aflatoxins B₁, B₂, or M₁. Its IC50 values for aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ were 17.18 ng·mL(-1) and 19.75 ng·mL(-1), respectively. Using this new monoclonal antibody, we developed a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CI-ELISA); the method had a limit of detection of 0.06 ng·mL(-1). To validate this CI-ELISA, we spiked uncontaminated peanut samples with various amounts of aflatoxins G₁ and G₂ and compared recovery rates with those determined by a standard HPLC method. The recovery rates of the CI-ELISA ranging from 94% to 103% were comparable to those of the HPLC (92% to 102%). We also used both methods to determine the amounts of G-group aflatoxins in five peanut samples contaminated by aflatoxin B₁-positive, and their relative standard deviations ranged from 8.4% to 17.7% (under 20%), which demonstrates a good correlation between the two methods. We further used this CI-ELISA to assess the ability of 126 fungal strains isolated from peanuts or field soils to produce G-group aflatoxins. Among these, seven stains producing different amounts of G-group aflatoxins were identified. Our results showed that the monoclonal antibody 2 G6-based CI-ELISA was suitable for the detection of G-group aflatoxins present in peanuts and also those produced by fungi.

  5. Determination of the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from milk by direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain fungi that grow on crops can produce aflatoxins, which are highly carcinogenic. One of these, aflatoxin B1 can be metabolized by mammals to aflatoxin M1, a form that retains potent carcinogenicity and which can be excreted into milk. Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to ...

  6. Seasonal milk contamination by aflatoxin m1, organophosphates and carbamates in Paraná – Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Crispim de Oliveira Ramos

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aiming to evaluate the milk contamination in the dairy production systems (DPS for mycotoxins and chemical residues of organophosphates and carbamates it was made a study encompassing 96 DPS in three regions of Parana state. There were collected samples of milk, water and food and they were evaluated for chemical residues in all samples and aflatoxin only for food and milk. Mycotoxins in food (aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2, zearalenone and ochratoxin were detected by the method of thin layer chromatography – TLC and for the determination of aflatoxin M1 was used an immunoassay kit competitive ELISA Ridascreen®. The residues of organophosphates and carbamates were performed by colorimetric method qualitatively. There were evaluated the differences between regions, periods and the sources of mycotoxin contamination. Carbamates and organophosphates were screened for their presence in milk and the sources of food and water. Then it was estimated the contributions of each mycotoxin for milk contamination, as well as their respective contaminated food. Differences were found between periods (p < 0,05 for milk contamination with aflatoxin M1 – AFM1. For carbamates and organophosphates were found different contamination sources (p < 0,01. For the carbamates the source were pesticides used to parasitic herd control and for the organophosphates pesticides used in agriculture. For food sources contamination resulting in the AFM1 contamination it was detected that aflatoxin B1 – AFB1 was the main source. The aflatoxin G1 – AFG1 showed a strong correlation (p < 0,01 with AFB1 levels suggesting causal relationship is a function of fungal strains producing both at the same time. It was also found the prevalence of aflatoxin contamination in 70% of contaminated samples and its predominant presence in relation to other mycotoxins in all kinds of foods analyzed. By identifying the checkpoints of contamination can be proposed the inclusion of practical

  7. Common African cooking processes do not affect the aflatoxin binding efficacy of refined calcium montmorillonite clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, Sarah E; Mitchell, Nicole; Mays, Travis; Brown, Kristal; Marroquin-Cardona, Alicia; Romoser, Amelia; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are common contaminants of staple crops, such as corn and groundnuts, and a significant cause of concern for food safety and public health in developing countries. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) has been implicated in the etiology of acute and chronic disease in humans and animals, including growth stunting, liver cancer and death. Cost effective and culturally acceptable intervention strategies for the reduction of dietary AFB1 exposure are of critical need in populations at high risk for aflatoxicosis. Fermented gruels consisting of cornmeal are a common source for such exposure and are consumed by both children and adults in many countries with a history of frequent, high-level aflatoxin exposure. One proposed method to reduce aflatoxins in the diet is to include a selective enterosorbent, Uniform Particle Size NovaSil (UPSN), as a food additive in contaminated foods. For UPSN to be effective in this capacity, it must be stable in complex, acidic mixtures that are often exposed to heat during the process of fermented gruel preparation. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to test the ability of UPSN to sorb aflatoxin while common cooking conditions were applied. The influence of fermentation, heat treatment, acidity, and processing time were investigated with and without UPSN. Analyses were performed using the field-practical Vicam assay with HPLC verification of trends. Our findings demonstrated that UPSN significantly reduced aflatoxin levels (47-100%) in cornmeal, regardless of processing conditions. Upon comparison of each element tested, time appeared to be the primary factor influencing UPSN efficacy. The greatest decreases in AFB1 were reported in samples allowed to incubate (with or without fermentation) for 72 hrs. This data suggests that addition of UPSN to staple corn ingredients likely to contain aflatoxins would be a sustainable approach to reduce exposure.

  8. Effects of Tarantula cubensis D6 on aflatoxin-induced injury in biochemical parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Mürsel; Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Sarıca, Zeynep Soyer

    2015-07-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites that have adverse effects on humans and animals. Tarantula cubensis D6 is used as a homeopathic medicine for different purposes. The present study investigates the effects of Tarantula cubensis D6 on the oxidant-antioxidant balance and some biochemical parameters against exposure to aflatoxin. Thirty-two Sprague-Dawley female rats were used and evenly divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control. Groups 2, 3, and 4 received 200 μl/kg.bw/day Tarantula cubensis D6 (applied subcutaneously), 400 μg/kg.bw/day total aflatoxin (approximately 80% AF B1, 10% AF B2, 6 %AF G1, and 4% AF G2), and 200 μl/kg.bw/day Tarantula cubensis D6 plus 400 μg/kg.bw/day total aflatoxin, respectively, for 28 days. At the end of 28 days, blood samples and some organs (liver, kidney, brain, and spleen) were taken from all the animals. Oxidative stress markers (MDA, SOD, CAT, GSH-Px) and some biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, BUN, creatinine, AST, ALT and ALP, total protein, albumin) were evaluated in blood samples and tissues. Aflatoxin caused negative changes in all oxidative stress parameters and some biochemical parameters (glucose, triglyceride, cholesterol, creatinine, AST, ALT, ALP, total protein, albumin). Administration of Tarantula cubensis D6 partly alleviated aflatoxin-induced negative changes. Our results indicated that Tarantula cubensis D6 partially neutralized the deleterious effects of aflatoxin. Copyright © 2015 The Faculty of Homeopathy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Non-aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus to prevent aflatoxin contamination in crops: advantages and limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a diverse assemblage of strains that include aflatoxin-producing and non-toxigenic strains with cosmopolitan distribution. The most promising strategy currently being used to reduce preharvest contamination of crops with aflatoxin is to introduce non-aflatoxin (biocontrol) A. flavus into the crop environment. Whether or not introduction of biocontrol strains into agricultural fields is enough to reduce aflatoxin contamination to levels required for acceptance of the contaminated food as fit for consumption is still unknown. There is no question that biocontrol strains are able to reduce the size of the populations of aflatoxin-producing strains but the available data suggests that at most only a four- to five-fold reduction in aflatoxin contamination is achieved. There are many challenges facing this strategy that are both short term and long term. First, the population biology of A. flavus is not well understood due in part to A. flavus’s diversity, its ability to form heterokaryotic reproductive forms, and its unknown ability to survive for prolonged periods after application. Second, biocontrol strains must be selected that are suitable for the environment, the type of crop, and the soil into which they will be introduced. Third, there is a need to guard against inadvertent introduction of A. flavus strains that could impose an additional burden on food safety and food quality, and fourth, with global warming and resultant changes in the soil nutrients and concomitant microbiome populations, the biocontrol strategy must be sufficiently flexible to adapt to such changes. Understanding genetic variation within strains of A. flavus is important for developing a robust biocontrol strategy and it is unlikely that a “one size fits all” strategy will work for preharvest aflatoxin reduction. PMID:24575088

  10. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela A. Gerbaldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B1 production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B1 producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1 to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2 to determine aflatoxin B1 natural contamination levels, and (3 to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9×105 to 4.4×109 CFU g−1. Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g−1 for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B1  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination.

  11. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  12. Moulds identification and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial codiments fermented of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian tropical climate have an opportunity for fungi growth as Aspergillus flavus Link which can produce aflatoxin within foodstuffs, include condiment of fermented shrimp. Aflatoxin B1 is the dangerous agent having roles as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. The aims of this research were known kinds of moulds and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial condiments fermented of shrimp. Two brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp were taken from traditional markets and supermarkets in Surakarta. Isolation was done by made suspension of sample in aquadets. Suspension on appropriate dilutions was grown on CDA (Czapek’s Dox Agar media with surface spread. The grown colonies were separated and grown on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar slant media. Furthermore, isolates were cultured on CDA and MEA (Malt Extract Agar media. The grown colonies were microscopes and microscopes examined and identified. Existence of aflatoxin B1 was known by Commercial RIDA Screen ELISA Kit that could detect qualitatively and quantitatively with detection sensitive < 1.7 ppb. Moulds that could be isolated from condiments fermented of shrimp were: Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Aspergillus wentii Wehmer, Aspergillus PU1 or Aspergillus PU2 and Penicillium citrinum Thom. There was aflatoxin B1 contaminated to 2 brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp that were examined. Traditional markets’ commercial condiments fermented of shrimp contained higher aflatoxin B1 than supermarkets’. The brands of commercial condiment of fermented shrimp which had better inner package quality contained lower aflatoxin B1 than the worst inner package quality of commercial condiments of fermented of shrimp.

  13. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical

  14. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dai

  15. Drought stress and aflatoxin contamination: Transcriptional responses of Aspergillus flavus to oxidative stress are related to stress tolerance and aflatoxin production capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oilseed crops such as maize and peanut are staple food crops which are vital for global food security. The contamination of these crops with carcinogenic aflatoxins during infection by Aspergillus flavus under drought stress conditions is a serious threat to the safety of these commodities. In order...

  16. Time Series

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Alana, L.A.; Moreno, A; Pérez-de-Gracia, F. (Fernando)

    2011-01-01

    The last 20 years have witnessed a considerable increase in the use of time series techniques in econometrics. The articles in this important set have been chosen to illustrate the main themes in time series work as it relates to econometrics. The editor has written a new concise introduction to accompany the articles. Sections covered include: Ad Hoc Forecasting Procedures, ARIMA Modelling, Structural Time Series Models, Unit Roots, Detrending and Non-stationarity, Seasonality, Seasonal Adju...

  17. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B1 levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during preharvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, AF accumulates in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. At least 20 different types of AFs have been identified, and of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most ubiqui...

  18. Socio-demographic and socio-economic determinants of adults’ knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sabran,Mohd Redzwan; Jamaluddin,Rosita; Abdul Mutalib,Mohd Sokhini; Abdul Rahman,Nurul ‘Aqilah

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The occurrence of food contaminants such as aflatoxin in the foodstuffs has been reported widely. Unfortunately, only a few know about the impact of aflatoxin to human health and this phenomenon let us to question the extent of public’s knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets. Thus, this study aimed to investigate determinants of adults’ knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets based on two factors namely socio-demographic and socio-economic factors. Method: A questionnaire was self-administered to 160 respondents from a faculty in Universiti Putra Malaysia. Results: Most of respondents had low level of knowledge in regard to fungal and aflatoxin contamination. Besides, the total score of knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination was significantly and positively correlated (r=0.340, P<0.0001). The multivariate analysis indicated that personal income (below US $487) was the only predictor of respondent’s knowledge (β=-0.288, P<0.001) [Odds ratio (OR)=4.996]. Nonetheless, being male and single, divorced or widowed had significant OR of 2.040 and 0.313 respectively as predictors of low level of knowledge. Conclusions: Income inequalities may have impact to the respondents in acquiring knowledge on fungal and aflatoxin contamination in the diets. Additionally, an extensive survey on aflatoxin should be warranted in order to assess the public awareness and knowledge about this food contaminant.

  19. Differences detected in vivo between samples of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following decontamination by two ammonia-based processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neal, G.E.; Judah, D.J.; Garthew, P.; Verma, A.; Latour, I.; Weir, L.; Coker, R.D.; Nagler, M.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of peanut meal, highly contaminated with aflatoxins, has been subjected to decontamination by two commercial ammonia-based processes. The original contaminated and the two decontaminated meals were fed to rats for 90 days. No lesions associated with aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis

  20. Evaluation of maize inbred lines for resistance to pre-harvest aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in the field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two important mycotoxins, aflatoxin and fumonisin, are among the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens, contaminating maize (Zea mays L.) and affecting the crop yield and quality. Resistance of maize to pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination, specifically aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus ...

  1. Degradation kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in filter paper and rough rice by using pulsed light irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rough rice is susceptible to contamination by aflatoxins, which are highly toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic compounds. To develop aflatoxin degradation technology for rice with the use of pulsed light (PL) treatment, the objective of this study was to investigate the degradation characters of aflat...

  2. Differential accumulation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in maize lines with contrasting drought tolerance and aflatoxin resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiotic stresses such as drought stress can exacerbate aflatoxin contamination of maize kernels. Previous studies showed that maize lines resistance to aflatoxin contamination tend to exhibit enhanced drought tolerance and accumulate lower levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species...

  3. Development and Characterization of an Electroless Plated Silver/Cysteine Sensor Platform for the Electrochemical Determination of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Paul Wacoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An electroless plated silver/cysteine sensor platform [Glass|silver|cysteine|aflatoxin B1|horseradish peroxidase] for the Electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 was developed and characterized. This involved four major steps: (1 an electroless deposition of silver (plating onto a glass slide, (2 immobilization of cysteine; (3 conjugation of aflatoxin B1 to cysteine groups; and (4 blocking of free cysteine groups with horseradish peroxidase (HRP. The binding of cysteine to the silver was demonstrated by the disappearance of thiol (S-H groups at 2500 cm−1 using Fourier transmittance infrared spectra (FT-IR, while the subsequent steps in the assembly of sensor platform were monitored using both FT-IR and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The sensor platform exhibited a broadened nonsymmetrical redox couple as indicated by cyclic voltammetry. The platform was further characterized for sensitivity and limit of detection. The indirect competitive immunoassay format, whereby free and immobilized aflatoxin B1 on the sensor competed for the binding site of free anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody, was used at various concentrations of aflatoxin B1. The sensor generated differential staircase voltammogram that was inversely proportional to the concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in the range of 0.06–1.1 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.08 ng/mL could be detected.

  4. A simple steady-state model for carry-over of aflatoxins from feed to cow's milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkeren, Jan C H van; Bakker, Martine I; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2006-01-01

    A simple steady-state model is derived from two kinetic one-compartment models for the disposition of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the lactating cow. The model relates daily intake of AFB1 in feed of dairy cattle and the cow's lactation status to resulting concentrations of AFM1 in

  5. Integration of fluorescence and reflectance visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images for detection of aflatoxins in corn kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin contamination in agricultural products has been an important and long-standing problem around the world. Produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus, aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic. This study investigated the integration of fluorescence and reflectance visibl...

  6. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1 was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB. Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  7. Occurrence of aflatoxins M(1) and M(2) in milk commercialized in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, N S; Iha, M H; Santos Ortolani, M R; Duarte Fávaro, R M

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites found in foods and feeds. When ruminants eat foodstuffs containing aflatoxins B(1) and B(2), these toxins are metabolized and excreted as aflatoxin M(1) and M(2) in milk. The aim was to determine the incidence of these aflatoxins in commercial milk collected from supermarkets in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, and consisting of 60 ultrahigh temperature (UHT) milk samples and 79 pasteurized milk samples. The milk samples were analysed according to method 986.16 of AOAC International. None of the milk samples analysed were contaminated with aflatoxin M(2), and aflatoxin M(1) was detected in 29 (20.9%) of samples in the range 50-240 ng l(-1). The results show that despite a high occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) in commercial pasteurized and UHT milk sold in Ribeirão Preto in 1999 and 2000, the contamination level of these toxins could not be considered a serious public health problem according to MERCOSUR Technical Regulations. However, levels in 20.9% of the milk samples exceeded the concentration of 50 ng l(-1) permitted by the European Union. Although it is not necessary to continue monitoring the incidence and levels of aflatoxins M(1) and M(2) in milk samples, surveillance could be appropriate.

  8. The preparation of milkpowder contaminated with aflatoxin M1. Investigations of the homogeneity and stability of the product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond; H.P.van; Sizoo; E.A.

    1984-01-01

    Ten behoeve van BCR werd een hoeveelheid melkpoeder bereid, langs natuurlijke weg besmet met aflatoxine M1 op een niveau van ca. 1 mug/kg. Onderzoek naar de homogeniteit van het materiaal wees uit dat aflatoxine M1 homogeen verdeeld was over de geproduceerde melkpoeder. Voorts bleek dat beware

  9. Differences detected in vivo between samples of aflatoxin-contaminated peanut meal, following decontamination by two ammonia-based processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neal, G.E.; Judah, D.J.; Garthew, P.; Verma, A.; Latour, I.; Weir, L.; Coker, R.D.; Nagler, M.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2001-01-01

    A sample of peanut meal, highly contaminated with aflatoxins, has been subjected to decontamination by two commercial ammonia-based processes. The original contaminated and the two decontaminated meals were fed to rats for 90 days. No lesions associated with aflatoxin-induced hepatocarcinogenesis we

  10. Comparing determination methods of detection and quantification limits for aflatoxin analysis in hazelnut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Şengül

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hazelnut is a type of plant that grows in wet and humid climatic conditions. Adverse climatic conditions result in the formation of aflatoxin in hazelnuts during the harvesting, drying, and storing processes. Aflatoxin is considered an important food contaminant, which makes aflatoxin analysis important in the international produce trade. For this reason, validation is important for the analysis of aflatoxin in hazelnuts. The limit of detection (LOD and limit of quantification (LOQ are two important parameters in validation. In this study, the LOD and LOQ values have been determined using the Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC Method 991.31, which is one of the most viable high-performance liquid chromatography analysis methods in the analysis of aflatoxin in hazelnuts. Several approaches can be used to calculate LOD and LOQ values. In this study, to calculate the LOD and LOQ values, the visual evaluation (empirical method, the signal-to-noise method, and calibration curve approaches were applied. The most appropriate approaches were compared. Our conclusion is that the visual evaluation method provided much more realistic LOD and LOQ values.

  11. Radiosensitivity of toxigenic Aspergillus isolated from spices and destruction of aflatoxins by gamma-irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Ishigaki, Isao (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment); Soedarman, Harsono (National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia). Centre for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation)

    1989-01-01

    Radiosensitivities of Aspergillus flavus var columnaris isolated from spices were investigated. The D{sub 10} values and induction doses were 267-293 Gy and 75-165 Gy in wet conditions, respectively. In dry conditions, the survival curves were exponential and D{sub 10} values were 538-600 Gy. The survival curves of standard strain of A. parasiticus IFO 30179 were similar both in wet and dry conditions. The necessary dose of 8 kGy for the destruction of these toxigenic Aspergillus was calculated from these values. Two of 11 strains of A. flavus var columnaris produced aflatoxins and the content of B{sub 1} was especially high. In the study of irradiation effect on aflatoxins produced on polished rice, aflatoxins G{sub 1} and B{sub 1} were more radiosensitive than G{sub 2} and B{sub 2}. However, these aflatoxins were very stable to radiation and the dose required for destruction was found to be more than 500 kGy. It is therefore concluded that the decontamination of molds by irradiation is necessary prior to their production of aflatoxins.

  12. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 142 samples including 35 almond , 26 walnut, 4 seeds of apricot, 6 sunflower seeds kernel, 6 sesame seed, 6 peanuts , 32 pistachio,13 hazelnuts and 14 cashews samples were collected from Tabriz confectionaries. The ELISA method was employed for the screening of total aflatoxins. Results: In 13 cases (28.1% of pistachios, 5.1% of walnuts and 7.1% of cashews contamination rate of higher than 15 ppb were observed. The HPLC method was applied for the confirmation of ELISA results. Aflatoxin B1 was the highest detected AFs. Conclusion: The overall results of the tested samples indicated that the rate of contamination of pistachios is higher than the other tested samples.

  13. The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Hamidi; Reza Mirnejad; Emad Yahaghi; Vahid Behnod; Ali Mirhosseini; Sajad Amani; Sara Sattari; Ebrahim Khodaverdi Darian

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine lactic acid bacteria’s capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods: In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results: Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4%and 34.7%of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions:Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1.

  14. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

  15. Development of narrow-band fluorescence index for the detection of aflatoxin contaminated corn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Ononye, Ambrose; Brown, Robert L.; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas E.

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin is produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus when the fungus invades developing corn kernels. Because of its potent toxicity, the levels of aflatoxin are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the US, allowing 20 ppb (parts per billion) limits in food, and feed intended for interstate commerce. Currently, aflatoxin detection and quantification methods are based on analytical tests. These tests require the destruction of samples, can be costly and time consuming, and often rely on less than desirable sampling techniques. Thus, the ability to detect aflatoxin in a rapid, non-invasive way is crucial to the corn industry in particular. This paper described how narrow-band fluorescence indices were developed for aflatoxin contamination detection based on single corn kernel samples. The indices were based on two bands extracted from full wavelength fluorescence hyperspectral imagery. The two band results were later applied to two large sample experiments with 25 g and 1 kg of corn per sample. The detection accuracies were 85% and 95% when 100 ppb threshold was used. Since the data acquisition period is significantly lower for several image bands than for full wavelength hyperspectral data, this study would be helpful in the development of real-time detection instrumentation for the corn industry.

  16. Pre-termination in aflR of Aspergillus sojae inhibits aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushima, K; Chang, P K; Yu, J; Abe, K; Bhatnagar, D; Cleveland, T E

    2001-05-01

    The aflR gene product is the main transcriptional regulator of aflatoxin biosynthesis in Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus flavus. Although A. sojae strains do not produce aflatoxins, they do have an aflR homologue. When compared with the aflR of A. parasiticus, the A. sojae gene contains two mutations: an HAHA motif and a premature stop codon. To investigate the functionality of the A. sojae aflR gene product, we used a GAL4 one-hybrid system in yeast. The transcription-activating activity of AflR from A. sojae was 15% of that from A. parasiticus. The introduction of an additional aflR from A. sojae into an A. parasiticus strain did not affect aflatoxin productivity. A hybrid aflR comprising the amino-terminal region of A. sojae aflR and the carboxy-terminal region of A. parasiticus aflR suppressed the effect associated with pre-termination of the A. sojae AflR. We conclude that the premature stop codon of the A. sojae aflR is the key to its functionality and leads to prevention of aflatoxin biosynthesis through loss of the transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis-related genes.

  17. Radiosensitivity of toxigenic Aspergillus isolated from spices and destruction of aflatoxins by gamma-irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Soedarman, Harsono; Ishigaki, Isao

    Radiosensitivities of Aspergillus flavus var columnaris isolated from spices were investigated. The D10 values and induction doses were 267-293 Gy and 75-165 Gy in wet conditions, respectively. In dry conditions, the survival curves were exponential and D10 values were 538-600 Gy. The survival curves of standard strain of A. parasiticus IFO 30179 were similar both in wet and dry conditions. The necessary dose of 8 kGy for the destruction of these toxigenic Aspergillus was calculated from these values. Two of 11 strains of A. flavus var columnaris produced aflatoxins and the content of B 1 was especially high. In the study of irradiation effect on aflatoxins produced on polished rice, aflatoxins G 1 and B 1 were more radiosensitive than G 2 and B 2. However, these aflatoxins were very stable to radiation and the dose required for destruction was found to be more than 500 kGy. It is therfore concluded that the decontamination of molds by irradiation is necessary prior to their production of aflatoxins.

  18. Potential of Chitinolytic Serratia marcescens Strain JPP1 for Biological Control of Aspergillus parasiticus and Aflatoxin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Serratia marcescens strain JPP1 was isolated from peanut hulls in Huai'an city, Jiangsu Province, China. Its potential to inhibit the mycelial growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the subsequent aflatoxin production was evaluated. The strain JPP1 could produce chitinase to degrade fungal cell walls, which was the main mechanism of strain JPP1 for biocontrol. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi treated with the crude chitinase revealed abnormal morphological changes. While the strain was grown in the peanut hulls-based medium, the chitinase activity reached 7.39 units. RT-PCR analysis showed that the crude chitinase repressed the transcription of genes involved in the aflatoxin gene cluster, such as aflR, aflC (pksL1, and aflO (dmtA genes. By visual agar plate assay and tip culture method, the strain JPP1 exhibited remarkable inhibitory effect on mycelia growth (antifungal ratio >95% and subsequent aflatoxin production (antiaflatoxigenic ratio >98%. An in vitro assay with seed coating agent of bacterial suspension showed that strain JPP1 effectively reduced fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin production on peanut seeds, and its antagonistic effect was superior to the common agricultural fungicide of carbendazim. These characteristics suggest that S. marcescens JPP1 strain could potentially be utilized for the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and aflatoxin in Chinese peanut main producing areas.

  19. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 from naturally contaminated maize using the edible fungus Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lauren W; Pryor, Barry M

    2017-12-01

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic secondary metabolites that can contaminate approximately 25% of crops and that cause or exacerbate multiple adverse health conditions, especially in Sub-Saharan Africa and South and Southeast Asia. Regulation and decontamination of aflatoxins in high exposure areas is lacking. Biological detoxification methods are promising because they are assumed to be cheaper and more environmentally friendly compared to chemical alternatives. White-rot fungi produce non-specific enzymes that are known to degrade aflatoxin in in situ and ex situ experiments. The aims of this study were to (1) decontaminate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in naturally contaminated maize with the edible, white-rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus (oyster mushroom) using a solid-state fermentation system that followed standard cultivation techniques, and to (2) and to assess the risk of mutagenicity in the resulting breakdown products and mushrooms. Vegetative growth and yield characteristics of P. ostreatus were not inhibited by the presence of AFB1. AFB1 was degraded by up to 94% by the Blue strain. No aflatoxin could be detected in P. ostreatus mushrooms produced from AFB1-contaminated maize. Moreover, the mutagenicity of breakdown products from the maize substrate, and reversion of breakdown products to the parent compound, were minimal. These results suggest that P. ostreatus significantly degrades AFB1 in naturally contaminated maize under standard cultivation techniques to levels that are acceptable for some livestock fodder, and that using P. ostreatus to bioconvert crops into mushrooms can reduce AFB1-related losses.

  20. Potential of chitinolytic Serratia marcescens strain JPP1 for biological control of Aspergillus parasiticus and aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yan, Pei-Sheng; Cao, Li-Xin; Ding, Qing-Long; Shao, Chi; Zhao, Teng-Fei

    2013-01-01

    Serratia marcescens strain JPP1 was isolated from peanut hulls in Huai'an city, Jiangsu Province, China. Its potential to inhibit the mycelial growth of Aspergillus parasiticus and the subsequent aflatoxin production was evaluated. The strain JPP1 could produce chitinase to degrade fungal cell walls, which was the main mechanism of strain JPP1 for biocontrol. Scanning electron microscopy of fungi treated with the crude chitinase revealed abnormal morphological changes. While the strain was grown in the peanut hulls-based medium, the chitinase activity reached 7.39 units. RT-PCR analysis showed that the crude chitinase repressed the transcription of genes involved in the aflatoxin gene cluster, such as aflR, aflC (pksL1), and aflO (dmtA) genes. By visual agar plate assay and tip culture method, the strain JPP1 exhibited remarkable inhibitory effect on mycelia growth (antifungal ratio >95%) and subsequent aflatoxin production (antiaflatoxigenic ratio >98%). An in vitro assay with seed coating agent of bacterial suspension showed that strain JPP1 effectively reduced fungal growth and subsequent aflatoxin production on peanut seeds, and its antagonistic effect was superior to the common agricultural fungicide of carbendazim. These characteristics suggest that S. marcescens JPP1 strain could potentially be utilized for the biological control of phytopathogenic fungi and aflatoxin in Chinese peanut main producing areas.

  1. Transcriptomic Analysis of Aflatoxin B1-Regulated Genes in Rat Hepatic Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 季静; 李光辉; 李君文; 陈招立; 王海勇

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are the most popular hepatotoxicants. Chronic exposure to aflatoxins leads to a wide variety of liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we analyzed the genome wide expression profiles of aflatoxin B1-induced rat hepatic epithelial cells. The expression of 325, 184 and 199 special genes was altered when exposed to 0.03, 0.1 and 0.2 μmol/L aflatoxin B1 respectively, and 239 genes were commonly expressed. After the functional analysis on these dose-special genes, we determined several key pathways related to hepatotoxicity, such as TGF-beta signaling pathway, tight junction, adherens junction, the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, ErbB signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer and axon guidance. Common genes were mainly associated with focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules. Gene ontology annotations showed a good concordance with these pathways. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR) analysis of selected genes showed similar patterns in microarrays. The toxicogenomic study provides a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of aflatoxins.

  2. Reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination and confirmation of aflatoxin M1 in cheese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hisada, K; Terada, H; Yamamoto, K; Tsubouchi, H; Sakabe, Y

    1984-01-01

    A systematic method is proposed for determination and confirmation of aflatoxin M1 in cheese by liquid chromatography (LC). A sample of cheese is extracted with chloroform, cleaned up on 2 silica gel columns followed by a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge, and chromatographed on a 5 microns octadecyl silica column with fluorometric detection. The sample extract or standard is treated with n-hexane-trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (4 + 1) for 30 min at 40 degrees C. Analysis by LC with TFA-treatment of the extract provides quantitative data. Multiple assays of 5 samples of Gouda cheese spiked with aflatoxin M1 at levels of 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05 ng/g showed average recoveries of 93.2, 91.6, and 92.4%, with coefficients of variation of 2.63, 3.97, and 4.52%, respectively. Assay of 5 naturally contaminated cheeses resulted in 0.051-0.448 ng/g of aflatoxin M1. Limit of quantitation is about 0.01 ng/g. The identity of aflatoxin M1 is confirmed by treating aflatoxin M1 or the M2a derivative with TFA-methanol (or ethanol) (3 + 1). The TFA-methanol reaction products of M2a could be detected quantitatively.

  3. Classification of corn kernels contaminated with aflatoxins using fluorescence and reflectance hyperspectral images analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengle; Yao, Haibo; Hruska, Zuzana; Kincaid, Russell; Brown, Robert; Bhatnagar, Deepak; Cleveland, Thomas

    2015-05-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by certain fungal species of the Aspergillus genus. Aflatoxin contamination remains a problem in agricultural products due to its toxic and carcinogenic properties. Conventional chemical methods for aflatoxin detection are time-consuming and destructive. This study employed fluorescence and reflectance visible near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral images to classify aflatoxin contaminated corn kernels rapidly and non-destructively. Corn ears were artificially inoculated in the field with toxigenic A. flavus spores at the early dough stage of kernel development. After harvest, a total of 300 kernels were collected from the inoculated ears. Fluorescence hyperspectral imagery with UV excitation and reflectance hyperspectral imagery with halogen illumination were acquired on both endosperm and germ sides of kernels. All kernels were then subjected to chemical analysis individually to determine aflatoxin concentrations. A region of interest (ROI) was created for each kernel to extract averaged spectra. Compared with healthy kernels, fluorescence spectral peaks for contaminated kernels shifted to longer wavelengths with lower intensity, and reflectance values for contaminated kernels were lower with a different spectral shape in 700-800 nm region. Principal component analysis was applied for data compression before classifying kernels into contaminated and healthy based on a 20 ppb threshold utilizing the K-nearest neighbors algorithm. The best overall accuracy achieved was 92.67% for germ side in the fluorescence data analysis. The germ side generally performed better than endosperm side. Fluorescence and reflectance image data achieved similar accuracy.

  4. Structures of the ozonolysis products and ozonolysis pathway of aflatoxin B1 in acetonitrile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Enjie; Shan, Changpo; Hou, Hanxue; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Minghua; Dong, Haizhou

    2012-09-12

    The ozonolysis of aflatoxin B(1) (400 μg/mL) in acetonitrile solution was conducted with an ozone concentration of 6.28 mg/L at the flow rate of 60 mL/min for different times. The results showed that ozone was an effective detoxification agent because of its powerful oxidative role. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectra were applied to confirm and identify the ozonolysis products of aflatoxin B(1). A total of 13 products were identified, and 6 of them were main products. The structural identification of these products provided effective information for understanding the ozonolysis pathway of aflatoxin B(1). Two ozonolysis pathways were proposed on the basis of the accurate mass and molecular formulas of these product ions. Nine ozonolysis products came from the first oxidative pathway based on the Criegee mechanism, and the other four products were produced from the second pathway based on the oxidative and electrophilic reactions of ozone. According to the toxicity mechanism of aflatoxin B(1) to animals, the toxicity of aflatoxin B(1) was significantly reduced because of the disappearance of the double bond on the terminal furan ring or the lactone moiety on the benzene ring.

  5. Aflatoxin contaminated chili pepper detection by hyperspectral imaging and machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atas, Musa; Yardimci, Yasemin; Temizel, Alptekin

    2011-06-01

    Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungi. They have been demonstrated to cause various health problems in humans, including immunosuppression and cancer. A class of mycotoxins, aflatoxins, has been studied extensively because they have caused many deaths particularly in developing countries. Chili pepper is also prone to aflatoxin contamination during harvesting, production and storage periods. Chemical methods to detect aflatoxins are quite accurate but expensive and destructive in nature. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging are becoming increasingly important for rapid and nondestructive testing for the presence of such contaminants. We propose a compact machine vision system based on hyperspectral imaging and machine learning for detection of aflatoxin contaminated chili peppers. We used the difference images of consecutive spectral bands along with individual band energies to classify chili peppers into aflatoxin contaminated and uncontaminated classes. Both UV and halogen illumination sources were used in the experiments. The significant bands that provide better discrimination were selected based on their neural network connection weights. Higher classification rates were achieved with fewer numbers of spectral bands. This selection scheme was compared with an information-theoretic approach and it demonstrated robust performance with higher classification accuracy.

  6. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Hieu Phuong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the contamination of maize with aflatoxins, fumonisins and zearalenone was carried out in the Southeastern and Central Highland provinces in Vietnam. Four provinces were chosen for sampling maize: Dong Nai (22, Binh Phuoc (25, Dak Lak (30 and Dak Nong (20. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2 (AFB2, G1 (AFG1, G2 (AFG2, fumonisin B1 (FB1, fumonisin B2 (FB2 and zearalenone (ZEA were analysed by HPLC in 97 maize kernel samples. Fumonisins were the most common toxins found in all samples (67%, followed by aflatoxins (55.7% and zearalenone (27.8%. The incidence of aflatoxin positive samples (61.7% in the Southeastern provinces was higher than in the Central Highlands (50%, while fumonisins and zearalenone incidences were higher in the Central Highlands. The mean level of fumonisin B1 in samples from the Central Highlands provinces (1757 µg/kg was significantly greater (p < 0.05 than in the Southeastern provinces (740 µg/kg. Importantly, the percentage of positive samples (about 70% that had over 20 µg/kg (ppb aflatoxin was very high. Moreover, many samples (53% contained more than one mycotoxin and this result highlights the difficulty of diagnosing mycotoxicoses in the field and the need for ongoing research to reduce the occurrence of mycotoxins in Vietnamese maize.

  7. Influence of riboflavin on disturbances in trytophan metabolism and hepatoma production after a single dose of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemonnier, F J; Scotto, J M; Thuong-Trieu, C

    1975-11-01

    Female Wistar rats were given a single oral dose of aflatoxin B1, either alone or with a large amount of riboflavin. Biochemical and histologic studies were performed for 30 months. Nine animals of 19 in the aflatoxin-treated group and only 5 of 18 in the riboflavin-aflatoxin-treated group developed hepatomas. The number of rats was insufficient for tests of statistical significance to be fruitful. Urinary excretion of tryptophan metabolites was studied in aflatoxin- and riboflavin-treated rats after an oral administration of 10 mg tryptophan/100 g rat. Riboflavin did not affect the percentage of aflatoxin-treated animals with abnormal urinary excretion patterns, but did increase the magnitude of the disturbances in elimination of kynurenic and xanthurenic acids. The hepatic tryptophan-oxygenase activity was increased only in the two groups given riboflavin, and the levels of nucleic acids were the same in all groups.

  8. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 in peanut meal by anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Shan, Shihua; Guan, Bin

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to biotransform aflatoxins in peanut meal. The pH of the peanut meal was adjusted above 10, and then heated for 10 min at 100 °C, 115 °C and 121 °C. The S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were precultured together in MRS broth for 48 h at 37 °C. The heated peanut meal was mixed with precultured MRS broth containing 7.0×10(8) CFU/mL of S. thermophilus and 3.0×10(3) CFU/mL of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with the ratio of 1 to 1 (weight to volume) and incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 3 days. The aflatoxin content in the peanut meal samples was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the peanut meal contained mainly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10.5±0.64 μg/kg) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (18.7±0.55 μg/kg). When heat treatment was combined with anaerobic solid fermentation, the biotransformation rate of aflatoxins in peanut meal could attain 100%. The cytotoxicity of fermented peanut meal to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells was determined by MTT assay and no significant toxicity was observed in the fermented peanut meal. Furthermore, heat treatment and anaerobic solid fermentation did not change the amino acid concentrations and profile in peanut meal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Production of ultrasensitive generic monoclonal antibodies against major aflatoxins using a modified two-step screening procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Daohong [Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062 (China); Li Peiwu [Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062 (China); Quality Inspection and Test Center for Oilseeds and Products of Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062 (China)], E-mail: peiwuli@oilcrops.cn; Zhang Qi; Zhang Wen; Huang Yanling; Ding Xiaoxia; Jiang Jun [Oil Crops Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Wuhan 430062 (China); Quality Inspection and Test Center for Oilseeds and Products of Ministry of Agriculture, Wuhan 430062 (China)

    2009-03-16

    Monoclonal antibodies (McAbs) cross-reactive with four major aflatoxins were achieved using a modified two-step screening procedure. The first step was twice modified indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and resulted in positive hybridomas and hapten-specific antibodies. The modified indirect competitive ELISA (ciELISA) was the second step, in which the competition incubation time was decreased to 30 min, aflatoxin B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} were all used as competitors, the concentrations of four aflatoxins were gradiently decreased in each screening. 2-3 subclonings were performed after every modified fusion and resulted in eight hybridomas that secreted antibodies with good cross-reactivity and high affinity to four aflatoxins. Five McAbs were chosen for further analysis. Of the five, two antibodies had similar reaction efficiency with aflatoxin B{sub 1}, B{sub 2} and G{sub 1} but showed a weak cross-reaction to G{sub 2}. Another two had almost identical reaction capability with four aflatoxins. One clone 1C11 exhibited the highest sensitivity for all four aflatoxins. The concentrations of aflatoxin B{sub 1}, B{sub 2}, G{sub 1} and G{sub 2} at 50% inhibition for 1C11 were 1.2, 1.3, 2.2 and 18.0 pg mL{sup -1} respectively. This is the most sensitive for all four major aflatoxins described so far. The results indicated that the modified two-step screening procedure had superiority and these antibodies could be used for simultaneous analysis of total aflatoxins.

  10. Adding source positions to the IVS Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, S.; Thaller, D.

    2016-12-01

    Simultaneous estimation of source positions, Earth orientation parameters (EOPs) and station positions in one common adjustment is crucial for a consistent generation of celestial and terrestrial reference frame (CRF and TRF, respectively). VLBI is the only technique to guarantee this consistency. Previous publications showed that the VLBI intra-technique combination could improve the quality of the EOPs and station coordinates compared to the individual contributions. By now, the combination of EOP and station coordinates is well established within the IVS and in combination with other space geodetic techniques (e.g. inter-technique combined TRF like the ITRF). Most of the contributing IVS Analysis Centers (AC) now provide source positions as a third parameter type (besides EOP and station coordinates), which have not been used for an operational combined solution yet. A strategy for the combination of source positions has been developed and integrated into the routine IVS combination. Investigations are carried out to compare the source positions derived from different IVS ACs with the combined estimates to verify whether the source positions are improved by the combination, as it has been proven for EOP and station coordinates. Furthermore, global solutions of source positions, i.e., so-called catalogues describing a CRF, are generated consistently with the TRF similar to the IVS operational combined quarterly solution. The combined solutions of the source positions time series and the consistently generated TRF and CRF are compared internally to the individual solutions of the ACs as well as to external CRF catalogues and TRFs. Additionally, comparisons of EOPs based on different CRF solutions are presented as an outlook for consistent EOP, CRF and TRF realizations.

  11. Effect of γ irradiation on fungal load and aflatoxins reduction in red chillies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Bhatti, Ijaz Ahmad; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Zuber, Mohammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Parveen, Ishrat

    2013-01-01

    Chillies are a very important cash crop of Pakistan. The effects of gamma irradiation on microbial load, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and total aflatoxins have been studied in chillies samples, collected from different districts of Punjab, Pakistan. Aflatoxins were analyzed using HPLC equipped with a fluorescence detector. The results revealed that among the Aspergillus species isolated, those belonging to section parasiticus were predominant. Gamma radiations of doses 2, 4 and 6 kGy were employed on fungi and chilli samples. The results have demonstrated that the dose of 6 kGy reduced the fungal load by 5 logs. Furthermore, 6 kGy reduced the level of AFB1 and total AFs in ground and whole chillies by 1-2 logs (α < 0.05).

  12. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    , variecoxanthone A, B, C, isoemericellin, kojic acid, varitriol, varioxiran, dihydroterrein, 7-hydroxyemodin, avariquinone and stromemycin. E. pluriseminata produces several unknown specific extrolites. E. venezuelensis is the first organism of marine origin reported to produce aflatoxin. Aflatoxin production by E...... media. The three species also differ in their profiles of extrolites (secondary metabolites). Emericella venezuelensis produces aflatoxin B-1, sterigmatocystin, and terrein and compounds with chromophores of the shamixanthone, emerin and desertorin type of compounds. F. variecolor produces asteltoxin....... venezuelensis makes this species an attractive model organism for the study of the regulation of this important type of carcinogenic mycotoxins in combination with the knowledge on sterigmatocystin production by E. nidulans, soon to be whole genome sequenced. The isolates were also analyzed cladistically using...

  13. The aflatoxin-affair: the invisible victims of crime in the food-sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerschke-Risch Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aflatoxin affair is an example which can be assumed as a typical offence committed in the food sector in a globalized world. In 2013 mouldy Serbian feed was distributed by an international logistics company to Germany. The exceptional danger of aflatoxin infested feed is the carry over effect, which means that harmful substances devolve into animal products like milk. Generally speaking victims are identifiable persons who have been physically injured or suffer from financial losses or psychological damage. In contrast to e.g. victims of violence we know almost nothing about the effects of victimization as a result of offences committed in the food sector. The aim of this article is to show and discuss the possible effects of the aflatoxin scandal on consumers who have been victimized. As a result it suggests that victimization effects of offences related to food in general are ignored hitherto both by policy and criminologists.

  14. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production on irradiated corn kernels: Influence of inoculum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Etcheverry, M G; Cavaglieri, L; Saenz, M; Alvarez, G; Lecumberry, S

    1998-03-01

    The influence of inoculum size on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production was examined on irradiated corn kernels.Spore concentrations were determined in serial dilutions and adjusted to 10,10(2),10(3),10(5) and 10(6) spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 production was dependent on the inoculum size. The high levels of aflatoxin B1 produced byA. parasiticus (21 and 30 mg/kg) were obtained with 10(2) and 10(3) spores/ml after 35 and 20 days incubation. There was no spore concentration influence on zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production after 10, 20 and 35 days incubation. At 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aw), the mean levels of zearalenone production were 382, 267 and 520 µg/kg and the mean levels on deoxynivalenol production were 697,465 and 782 µg/kg.

  15. Reseach advances of aflatoxins%黄曲霉毒素研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史莹华; 许梓荣; 王成章

    2004-01-01

    黄曲霉毒素对动物及人类健康危害极大,造成巨大的经济损失,黄曲霉毒素的污染已成为全球性的问题.该文就黄曲霉毒素的功能、危害、限量标准及去毒方法和分析方法作一综述.%Aflatoxins bring high risks to animals and humans, and cause great economic losses. Aflatoxin contamination is becoming a worldwide problem. This article gives a review on the function and hazard of aflatoxins, regulatory actions as well as detoxification methods. Some analytical methods are also discussed.

  16. Fungal infection and aflatoxin contamination in maize collected from Gedeo zone, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Nitin M; Washe, Alemayehu P; Minota, Tesfaye

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins contamination of maize exhibits a serious threat to human and animal health over the past few decades. To protect the safety of food commodities, regular monitoring for afltoxins in food is necessary. In the proposed study, we have followed a rapid and sensitive biosensor approach as well as thin layer chromatography method for quantification of aflatoxins. Our data demonstrate that all the samples tested were beyond the safety level of aflatoxins as determined by Food and Drug Administration and European Union. Results of fungal mycoflora evidenced the massive presence of Aspergillus species (75 %) followed by Fusarium (11 %), Penicillium (8 %) and Trichoderma (6 %) as characterized by biochemical and sporulation properties. Use of internationally developed biosensor for detection of fungal toxin in this work is the first approach that was utilized in the developing country like Ethiopia. In the end, we conclude that fungal contaminant and there metabolites are potential threat to the agricultural industry and require urgent intervention.

  17. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchana, Angele N.; Moundipa, Paul F.; Tchouanguep, Félicité M.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%); HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon. PMID:20195440

  18. New Additive for Culture Media for Rapid Identification of Aflatoxin-Producing Aspergillus Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fente, C. A.; Ordaz, J. Jaimez; Vázquez, B. I.; Franco, C. M.; Cepeda, A.

    2001-01-01

    A new reliable, fast, and simple method for the detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus strains, consisting of the addition of a cyclodextrin (a methylated β-cyclodextrin derivative) to common media used for testing mycotoxin production ability, was developed. We propose the use of this compound as an additive for fungal culture media to enhance the natural fluorescence of aflatoxins. The production of aflatoxins coincided with the presence of a bright blue or blue-green fluorescent area surrounding colonies when observed under long-wavelength (365-nm) UV light after 3 days of incubation at 28°C. The presence of aflatoxins was confirmed by extracting the medium with chloroform and examining the extracts by high-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. PMID:11571194

  19. Detection of Aflatoxin M1 in Milk from Qom (Aried and Semiaried Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Dakhili

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites fungal When animals consume contaminated feed stuff to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the toxin hydrolyzed and changed to the aflatoxin M1 and transmit to the milk consumers. Methods: seventy milk samples from different milk producers who were selling their milk to the dairy plant during two season in winter and summer and investigated by Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay (ELISA. Results: AFM1 was found in 100% of the milk samples in winter. About 15% of the samples had AFM1 greater than the maximum tolerance limit (50ng/l accepted by European Union. Mean concentrations of AFM1 in Winter, Summer were 122, 53 ng/L, respectively. Mean concentrations of AFM1 in winter and Summer samples were significantly higher (P<0.05. Conclusion: these results show that the important of periodically monitoring the occurrence of AFM1 in raw milk and dairy products in Qom province.

  20. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félicité M. Tchouanguep

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%, cow raw milk (15.9%, breast milk (4.8%, urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%, and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%; HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  1. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  2. Aflatoxin contamination in food and body fluids in relation to malnutrition and cancer status in Cameroon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchana, Angele N; Moundipa, Paul F; Tchouanguep, Félicité M

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver cancer patients (63.9%); HbsAg was also detected in 69.4% of the serum samples, but there was no association between both factors. Both AF and hepatitis B virus seem to be risk factors that could increase the incidence and prevalence rates of malnutrition and cancer in Cameroon.

  3. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    7 avr. 2016 ... d'origine endocrine chez les patients suivis au service d'endocrinologie au CHU Mohamed IV à .... insuffisance rénale; 9 sujets (21,3%) présentent une protéinurie .... grande prévalence des AVC hémorragiques et de dissection aortique ... sévère, résistante au traitement chez un jeune, ou en présence de.

  4. Diaquatetrabromidotin(IV trihydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Ye

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnBr4(H2O2]·3H2O, forms large colourless crystals in originally sealed samples of tin tetrabromide. It constitutes the first structurally characterized hydrate of SnBr4 and is isostructural with the corresponding hydrate of SnCl4. It is composed of SnIV atoms octahedrally coordinated by four Br atoms and two cis-related water molecules. The octahedra exhibit site symmetry 2. They are arranged into columns along [001] via medium–strong O—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the two lattice water molecules (one situated on a twofold rotation axis while the chains are interconnected via longer O—H...Br hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional network.

  5. The frequency of occurrence of aflatoxin M1 in milk on the territory of Vojvodina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polovinski-Horvatović Miroslava S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is one of the most common mycotoxins which can be found in milk. It represents a natural metabolite of aflatoxin B1 that occurs as a result of animal metabolism and the body's attempt to detoxificate it. It is excreted in milk, feces and urine of animals that consumed contaminated feed with aflatoxin B1. The carry-over from feed to milk depends on many factors, ranging from 0.3 to 6.2%. Aflatoxin M1 is in the first group of carcinogens according to the IRAC classification from 2002, but it is considered to have only 10% of carcinogenicity from its precursor aflatoxin B1. Legislation in member countries of European Union for this mycotoxin in milk intended for people is 0.05 μg/l, while the rest of the countries that also have legislation for this mycotoxin allow the concentration that is ten times higher, and that is 0.5 μg/l. In this paper, we have tried to provide on insight into the quality of milk, food often consumed by children, from the standpoint of mycotoxicology, and to compare the obtained data with data available from literature, from countries in the region that have similar climatic and agricultural conditions. From a total of 65 samples of processed milk, aflatoxin M1 was found in 18 samples and none of the samples exceeded the level of 0.05 μg/l, which is allowed by the legislation of the European Union.

  6. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin residues in fresh and sun-dried meat in Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufunmilayo, Gbonjubola Oyero; Oyefolu, Akeeb Bola

    2010-01-01

    In recent times, food safety and security have generally remained basic human needs, therefore because of the largely unregulated nature of the Nigerian markets, coupled with the poor housing and feeding conditions to which animals are subjected in the abattoirs, a survey for assessing potential mycotoxin exposure through meat consumption was undertaken. Eighty Samples of meat bought randomly from 5 major markets distributed in 5 local government areas of Oyo state , Nigeria were analysed for contaminating mycoflora using the plate count and micromorphological methods, while aflatoxin detection and quantification was by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC). Mycological analysis of samples revealed a higher contamination level in the sun-dried samples. Eighteen fungi species belonging to 8 genera, namely, Aspergillus, Penicilliu, Alternaria, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Neurospora, Rhizopus and yeast were identified. The predominant genus Aspergillus yielded 7 species while the potential toxicogenic fungi represented 38% of the isolated mycoflora. The genera requiring higher water activity for growth ( Alternaria, Fusarium and yeast) were not obtained from the dried meat. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 were detected in all the samples analysed. The fresh samples with the exception of the total aflatoxin G (AFG) in kidney gave the highest mean concentrations for all aflatoxins, also an exceptionally high aflatoxin content was found in all the kidney samples. Aflatoxin detection in meat should be addressed urgently to avert the possible adverse health effects like aflatoxicosis, exacerbated malnutrition, suppression of growth and immune functions on consumers. Also the animal health inspectors should pay more attention to the feeding conditions of the animals on farm and the abattoirs.

  7. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut products from local markets in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njoroge, Samuel M C; Matumba, Limbikani; Kanenga, Kennedy; Siambi, Moses; Waliyar, Farid; Maruwo, Joseph; Machinjiri, Norah; Monyo, Emmanuel S

    2017-05-01

    In Zambia, groundnut products (milled groundnut powder, groundnut kernels) are mostly sold in under-regulated markets. Coupled with the lack of quality enforcement in such markets, consumers may be at risk to aflatoxin exposure. However, the level of aflatoxin contamination in these products is not known. Compared to groundnut kernels, milled groundnut powder obscures visual indicators of aflatoxin contamination in groundnuts such as moldiness, discoloration, insect damage or kernel damage. A survey was therefore conducted from 2012 to 2014, to estimate and compare aflatoxin levels in these products (n = 202), purchased from markets in important groundnut growing districts and in urban areas. Samples of whole groundnut kernels (n = 163) and milled groundnut powder (n = 39) were analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA). Results showed substantial AFB1 contamination levels in both types of groundnut products with maximum AFB1 levels of 11,100 μg/kg (groundnut kernels) and 3000 μg/kg (milled groundnut powder). However, paired t test analysis showed that AFB1 contamination levels in milled groundnut powder were not always significantly higher (P > 0.05) than those in groundnut kernels. Even for products from the same vendor, AFB1 levels were not consistently higher in milled groundnut powder than in whole groundnut kernels. This suggests that vendors do not systematically sort out whole groundnut kernels of visually poor quality for milling. However, the overall contamination levels of groundnut products with AFB1 were found to be alarmingly high in all years and locations. Therefore, solutions are needed to reduce aflatoxin levels in such under-regulated markets.

  8. Reducing human exposure to aflatoxin through the use of clay: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, T D; Afriyie-Gyawu, E; Williams, J; Huebner, H; Ankrah, N-A; Ofori-Adjei, D; Jolly, P; Johnson, N; Taylor, J; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Xu, L; Tang, L; Wang, J-S

    2008-02-01

    Innovative sorption strategies for the detoxification of aflatoxins have been developed. NovaSil clay (NS) has been shown to prevent aflatoxicosis in a variety of animals when included in their diet. Results have shown that NS clay binds aflatoxins with high affinity and high capacity in the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in a notable reduction in the bioavailability of these toxins without interfering with the utilization of vitamins and other micronutrients. This strategy is being evaluated as a potential remedy for acute aflatoxicosis, and as a sustainable human intervention for aflatoxins via the diet. Phase I and II clinical trials confirmed the apparent safety of NS for further study in humans. A recent study in Ghanaians at high risk for aflatoxicosis has indicated that NS (at a dose level of 0.25%) is effective in decreasing biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure and does not interfere with the levels of serum vitamins A and E, and iron and zinc. In summary, enterosorption strategies/therapies based on NS clay are promising for the management of aflatoxins and as a sustainable public health intervention. The NS clay remedy is novel, inexpensive and easily disseminated. Based on the present research, aflatoxin sequestering clays should be rigorously evaluated in vitro and in vivo, and should meet the following criteria: (1) favourable thermodynamic characteristics of mycotoxin sorption, (2) tolerable levels of priority metals, dioxins/furans and other hazardous contaminants, (3) safety and efficacy in multiple animal species, (4) safety and efficacy in long-term studies, and (5) negligible interactions with vitamins, iron and zinc and other micronutrients.

  9. Sexuality Generates Diversity in the Aflatoxin Gene Cluster: Evidence on a Global Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Geromy G.; Elliott, Jacalyn L.; Singh, Rakhi; Horn, Bruce W.; Dorner, Joe W.; Stone, Eric A.; Chulze, Sofia N.; Barros, German G.; Naik, Manjunath K.; Wright, Graeme C.; Hell, Kerstin; Carbone, Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in oil-rich seed and grain crops and are a serious problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B1 being the most carcinogenic natural compound known. Sexual reproduction in these species occurs between individuals belonging to different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs). We examined natural genetic variation in 758 isolates of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes sampled from single peanut fields in the United States (Georgia), Africa (Benin), Argentina (Córdoba), Australia (Queensland) and India (Karnataka). Analysis of DNA sequence variation across multiple intergenic regions in the aflatoxin gene clusters of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes revealed significant linkage disequilibrium (LD) organized into distinct blocks that are conserved across different localities, suggesting that genetic recombination is nonrandom and a global occurrence. To assess the contributions of asexual and sexual reproduction to fixation and maintenance of toxin chemotype diversity in populations from each locality/species, we tested the null hypothesis of an equal number of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 mating-type individuals, which is indicative of a sexually recombining population. All samples were clone-corrected using multi-locus sequence typing which associates closely with VCG. For both A. flavus and A. parasiticus, when the proportions of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were significantly different, there was more extensive LD in the aflatoxin cluster and populations were fixed for specific toxin chemotype classes, either the non-aflatoxigenic class in A. flavus or the B1-dominant and G1-dominant classes in A. parasiticus. A mating type ratio close to 1∶1 in A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes was associated with higher recombination rates in the aflatoxin cluster and less pronounced chemotype differences in populations. This work shows that the reproductive nature of the population (more

  10. Effect of aflatoxin on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in Toxoplasma gondii infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. M. Al-Taee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted for the determination of the combined effect of aflatoxin and Toxoplasma gondii on malondialdehyde, glutathione levels, and stress index in sixty young inbred Swiss female albino mice BALB/C, which were randomly divided into six equal groups; Group 1(untreated control animals were maintained without any treatment; group 2 were injected intraperitonealy with T. gondii tissue cysts; groups 3 and 4 were fed diets contaminated with 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin respectively; group 5 and 6 were fed 0.5 and 1 ppm aflatoxin and injected with T. gondii tissue cysts. All animals were maintained for 40 days. One ml, containing 100 Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts was obtained from brain tissue of naturally infected local breed rabbit was injected intraperitonealy. Aflatoxins (AFs were prepared through inoculation of rice with Aspergillus parasiticus NRRL 2999 and were incorporated into the diet to provide the described level of 0.5 and 1 ppm. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were taken to determine Heterophils/lymphopcytes ratio (H/L, while brain was taken to determine glutathione and malondialdehyde concentration. Results showed that mice injected with T. gondii tissue cysts alone and those groups fed aflatoxin at both rates of 0.5 and 1 ppm were exhibited a significant (P<0.05 increase in H/L ratio, and malondialdehyde, while there is a significant (P<0.05 reduction on the level of glutathione. The results revealed that aflatoxin could exacerbate T. gondii infection and induce stress through suppression of glutathione and elevation of malondialdehyde concentration and H/L ratio.

  11. Montmorillonite modified with copper ions: Efficient adsorbent for aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of preparation of material for adsorption of aflatoxin B1, based on modification of montmorillonite with copper ions (Cu-MONT, are presented. The bentonite clay from Sokolac deposit (Šipovo, Bosnia was used as the starting raw material. After modification of concentrate of montmorillonite (MONT with copper, the content of copper in Cu-MONT, was 2.65%. It was shown that MONT, as well as the Cu-MONT were efficient in adsorption of aflatoxin B1, at different mass ratios of adsorbent : toxin, and at different pH values. It was determined that for MONT, at the mass ratio adsorbent : toxin = 5000 : 1, aflatoxin B1 adsorption index was 100% at pH 3, 98% at pH 7 and 96% at pH 9. For Cu-MONT, at the same mass ratio, the following aflatoxin B1 adsorption indexes were achieved: 98% at pH 3, 98% at pH 7 and 96% at pH 9. No differences in adsorption of this toxin by both montmorillonites with decreasing the mass ratio of adsorbent : toxin (250 : 1 were observed. That means that ion exchange of inorganic cations in montmorillonite with copper ions did not cause any changes in aflatoxin B1 adsorption, at pH 3, as well as at pH 7 and 9. It was also noticed that adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by MONT and Cu-MONT was not pH dependent.

  12. The antioxidant effects of pumpkin seed oil on subacute aflatoxin poisoning in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eraslan, Gökhan; Kanbur, Murat; Aslan, Öznur; Karabacak, Mürsel

    2013-12-01

    This study was aimed at the investigation of the antioxidant effect of pumpkin seed oil against the oxidative stress-inducing potential of aflatoxin. For this purpose, 48 male BALB/c mice were used. Four groups, each comprising 12 mice, were established. Group 1 was maintained as the control group. Group 2 was administered with pumpkin seed oil alone at a dose of 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day (∼1375mg/kg.bw/day). Group 3 received aflatoxin (82.45% AFB1 , 10.65% AFB2 , 4.13% AFG1, and 2.77% AFG2 ) alone at a dose of 625 μg/kg.bw/day. Finally, group 4 was given both 1.5 mL/kg.bw/day pumpkin seed oil and 625 μg/kg.bw/day aflatoxin. All administrations were oral, performed with the aid of a gastric tube and continued for a period of 21 days. At the end of day 21, the liver, lungs, kidneys, brain, heart, and spleen of the animals were excised, and the extirpated tissues were homogenized appropriately. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were determined in tissue homogenates. In conclusion, it was determined that aflatoxin exhibited adverse effects on most of the oxidative stress markers. The administration of pumpkin seed oil diminished aflatoxin-induced adverse effects. In other words, the values of the group, which was administered with both aflatoxin and pumpkin seed oil, were observed to have drawn closer to the values of the control group.

  13. Effects of aflatoxins on performance and exocrine pancreas of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchioro, A; Mallmann, A O; Diel, A; Dilkin, P; Rauber, R H; Blazquez, F J H; Oliveira, M G A; Mallmann, C A

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate, on a weekly basis, the effects of aflatoxins on the activity of digestive enzymes (alpha-amylase, lipase, and trypsin) in the pancreas as well as on the performance and histology of pancreas in broiler chickens over the course of 42 days. One thousand and eighty 1-day-old male Cobb broilers were divided into four treatments with 18 replicates and 15 birds per replicate (i.e., 270 broilers per treatment). Treatments were established according to the amount of aflatoxins added to the diet, as follows: T1 = 0 mg of aflatoxins per kilogram of feed (mg/kg); T2 = 0.7 mg/kg; T3 = 1.7 mg/kg; and T4 = 2.8 mg/kg. Pancreas sample collection was performed from one bird out of each replicate at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, and 42 days of experiment, which yielded a total of 18 samples per treatment on each collection. Each sample was homogenized in distilled water, frozen in liquid nitrogen, lyophilized, and stored at -20 C until analysis. Performance parameters (body weight, feed consumption, and feed conversion rate) were measured at 21, 35, and 42 days of experiment. At the end of the experiment (42 days), six birds from each treatment were randomly chosen for histologic evaluation of the pancreas. The presence of aflatoxins in the diet induced a negative effect on all performance parameters. The pancreatic activity of lipase and alpha-amylase were significantly increased in treatments T3 and T4, while the specific activity of trypsin was only affected during treatment T4. In addition, several histologic changes were observed in the pancreas of birds receiving aflatoxin-contaminated feed. Aflatoxins present in the feed determined an increase in the activity of pancreatic enzymes in broilers, affecting the digestibility of the diet, thereby leading to losses in performance and productivity.

  14. Aflatoxin M1 contamination of human breast milk in Isfahan, Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, Abbas; Pourradi, Nasibeh

    2013-01-01

    Background: During the last decades there has been great attention paid to aflatoxins. They are highly toxic, immunosuppressive, mutagenic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic compounds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), a hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), is formed in the liver and excreted into the breast milk. It is considered to cause certain hygienic risks for infant health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of the AFM1 in the breast milk using AFM1 in milk as a biomarker for exposure to aflatoxin B1 and determine the level of AFM1 contamination in the lactating mothers in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 80 lactating women randomly selected from two urban health centers. Mother's milk samples and information on food intake were collected from the participants using structured food-frequency questionnaire. Breast milk samples were tested for AFM1 by a competitive ELISA technique. Results: Our findings showed that only one sample was contaminated with AFM1 with concentrations of 6.8 ng/L. However, the AFM1 level in this sample was lower than the maximum tolerable limit (25 ng/L) accepted by the European Communities and Codex Alimentarius. Conclusion: Although the concentration of AFM1 in none of the samples was higher than the acceptable level, the presence of AFM1 in only one of them confirms the need for developing strategies to reduce exposure to aflatoxin in foods and to carry out biological monitoring of aflatoxins as a food quality control measure routinely. PMID:24524032

  15. Sexuality generates diversity in the aflatoxin gene cluster: evidence on a global scale.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geromy G Moore

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in oil-rich seed and grain crops and are a serious problem in agriculture, with aflatoxin B₁ being the most carcinogenic natural compound known. Sexual reproduction in these species occurs between individuals belonging to different vegetative compatibility groups (VCGs. We examined natural genetic variation in 758 isolates of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes sampled from single peanut fields in the United States (Georgia, Africa (Benin, Argentina (Córdoba, Australia (Queensland and India (Karnataka. Analysis of DNA sequence variation across multiple intergenic regions in the aflatoxin gene clusters of A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes revealed significant linkage disequilibrium (LD organized into distinct blocks that are conserved across different localities, suggesting that genetic recombination is nonrandom and a global occurrence. To assess the contributions of asexual and sexual reproduction to fixation and maintenance of toxin chemotype diversity in populations from each locality/species, we tested the null hypothesis of an equal number of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 mating-type individuals, which is indicative of a sexually recombining population. All samples were clone-corrected using multi-locus sequence typing which associates closely with VCG. For both A. flavus and A. parasiticus, when the proportions of MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 were significantly different, there was more extensive LD in the aflatoxin cluster and populations were fixed for specific toxin chemotype classes, either the non-aflatoxigenic class in A. flavus or the B₁-dominant and G₁-dominant classes in A. parasiticus. A mating type ratio close to 1∶1 in A. flavus, A. parasiticus and A. minisclerotigenes was associated with higher recombination rates in the aflatoxin cluster and less pronounced chemotype differences in populations. This work shows that the reproductive nature of

  16. F420H2-dependent degradation of aflatoxin and other furanocoumarins is widespread throughout the actinomycetales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauri V Lapalikar

    Full Text Available Two classes of F(420-dependent reductases (FDR-A and FDR-B that can reduce aflatoxins and thereby degrade them have previously been isolated from Mycobacterium smegmatis. One class, the FDR-A enzymes, has up to 100 times more activity than the other. F(420 is a cofactor with a low reduction potential that is largely confined to the Actinomycetales and some Archaea and Proteobacteria. We have heterologously expressed ten FDR-A enzymes from diverse Actinomycetales, finding that nine can also use F(420H(2 to reduce aflatoxin. Thus FDR-As may be responsible for the previously observed degradation of aflatoxin in other Actinomycetales. The one FDR-A enzyme that we found not to reduce aflatoxin belonged to a distinct clade (herein denoted FDR-AA, and our subsequent expression and analysis of seven other FDR-AAs from M. smegmatis found that none could reduce aflatoxin. Certain FDR-A and FDR-B enzymes that could reduce aflatoxin also showed activity with coumarin and three furanocoumarins (angelicin, 8-methoxysporalen and imperatorin, but none of the FDR-AAs tested showed any of these activities. The shared feature of the compounds that were substrates was an α,β-unsaturated lactone moiety. This moiety occurs in a wide variety of otherwise recalcitrant xenobiotics and antibiotics, so the FDR-As and FDR-Bs may have evolved to harness the reducing power of F(420 to metabolise such compounds. Mass spectrometry on the products of the FDR-catalyzed reduction of coumarin and the other furanocoumarins shows their spontaneous hydrolysis to multiple products.

  17. Bonding trends traversing the tetravalent actinide series: synthesis, structural, and computational analysis of An(IV)((Ar)acnac)4 complexes (An = Th, U, Np, Pu; (Ar)acnac = ArNC(Ph)CHC(Ph)O; Ar = 3,5-(t)Bu2C6H3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaars, David D; Gaunt, Andrew J; Hayton, Trevor W; Jones, Matthew B; Kirker, Ian; Kaltsoyannis, Nikolas; May, Iain; Reilly, Sean D; Scott, Brian L; Wu, Guang

    2012-08-06

    A series of tetravalent An(IV) complexes with a bis-phenyl β-ketoiminate N,O donor ligand has been synthesized with the aim of identifying bonding trends and changes across the actinide series. The neutral molecules are homoleptic with the formula An((Ar)acnac)(4) (An = Th (1), U (2), Np (3), Pu (4); (Ar)acnac = ArNC(Ph)CHC(Ph)O; Ar = 3,5-(t)Bu(2)C(6)H(3)) and were synthesized through salt metathesis reactions with actinide chloride precursors. NMR and electronic absorption spectroscopy confirm the purity of all four new compounds and demonstrate stability in both solution and the solid state. The Th, U, and Pu complexes were structurally elucidated by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and shown to be isostructural in space group C2/c. Analysis of the bond lengths reveals shortening of the An-O and An-N distances arising from the actinide contraction upon moving from 1 to 2. The shortening is more pronounced upon moving from 2 to 4, and the steric constraints of the tetrakis complexes appear to prevent the enhanced U-O versus Pu-O orbital interactions previously observed in the comparison of UI(2)((Ar)acnac)(2) and PuI(2)((Ar)acnac)(2) bis-complexes. Computational analysis of models for 1, 2, and 4 (1a, 2a, and 4a, respectively) concludes that both the An-O and the An-N bonds are predominantly ionic for all three molecules, with the An-O bonds being slightly more covalent. Molecular orbital energy level diagrams indicate the largest 5f-ligand orbital mixing for 4a (Pu), but spatial overlap considerations do not lead to the conclusion that this implies significantly greater covalency in the Pu-ligand bonding. QTAIM bond critical point data suggest that both U-O/U-N and Pu-O/Pu-N are marginally more covalent than the Th analogues.

  18. Chart Series

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) offers several different Chart Series with data on beneficiary health status, spending, operations, and quality...

  19. Case series

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-06-20

    Jun 20, 2013 ... Upper cervical spine injuries: a management of a series of 70 cases. El Fatemi ... women, with traffic accidents being the major traumatic cause. .... osteosynthesis is preferred to respect the biomechanics of the cervical spine ...

  20. Assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Rabbani, Tehmeena; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Jinap, S

    2014-08-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramy Sayed Yehia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Manganese peroxidase (MnP was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH42SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81UmL-1, specific activity 78 U mg-1 with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 ºC. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn2+,Cu2+,Ca2+ and K+ and inhibited by Hg+2 and Cd+2.H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1. The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90% was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL-1 enzyme activities.

  2. Aflatoxin detoxification by manganese peroxidase purified from Pleurotus ostreatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yehia, Ramy Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Manganese peroxidase (MnP) was produced from white rot edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus on the culture filtrate. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity using (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, DEAE-Sepharose and Sephadex G-100 column chromatography. The final enzyme activity achieved 81 U mL(-1), specific activity 78 U mg(-1) with purification fold of 130 and recovery 1.2% of the crude enzyme. SDS-PAGE indicated that the pure enzyme have a molecular mass of approximately 42 kDa. The optimum pH was between 4-5 and the optimum temperature was 25 °C. The pure MnP activity was enhanced by Mn(2+), Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and K(+) and inhibited by Hg(+2) and Cd(+2). H2O2 at 5 mM enhanced MnP activity while at 10 mM inhibited it significantly. The MnP-cDNA encoding gene was sequenced and determined (GenBank accession no. AB698450.1). The MnP-cDNA was found to consist of 497 bp in an Open Reading Frame (ORF) encoding 165 amino acids. MnP from P. ostreatus could detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) depending on enzyme concentration and incubation period. The highest detoxification power (90%) was observed after 48 h incubation at 1.5 U mL(-1) enzyme activities.

  3. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  4. Genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and its ammonium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Márquez, R; Tejada de Hernandez, I; Madrigal Bujaidar, E

    1995-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1 is a main contaminant in diverse agricultural products. In an attempt to reduce this problem and the hazards to human health, an AFB1 inactivating system with ammonia has been developed. In this work we evaluated the efficiency of the system in mice using micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis. Four groups of animals were fed for 8 weeks with a special diet mainly composed of maize: (1) uncontaminated; (2) uncontaminated/inactivated; (3) contaminated/inactivated; and (4) contaminated. We evaluated MN at weekly intervals in peripheral blood, and in weeks 4 and 8 SCE frequencies were quantified in bone marrow cells. The results shows that animals fed with AFB1 contaminated/inactivated maize had a 45% lower level of induced cytogenetic damage than those animals fed with AFB1 contaminated but not inactivated maize. A residual amount of AFB1 after the inactivating treatment and reconversion back to AFB1 in the organism may account for the remaining increased levels of SCE and MN.

  5. Modification of protein synthetic components by aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyman, B A; Erki, L; Biedrzycka, D W; Devlin, T M; Ch'ih, J J

    1988-04-15

    Molecular sites of perturbation by the hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the protein synthesis initiation complex were assessed using isolated hepatocytes and a cell-free activating system containing microsomes and cytoplasmic ribonucleoprotein complexes (cRPC). Ribosomal proteins showed no detectable modification by the toxin in either system. With hepatocytes, initiation factors demonstrated only slight modification by AFB1. RNAs from both hepatocytes and the cell-free system with microsomes and cRPC were modified, with poly(A)-containing RNA exhibiting at least a 5-fold higher modification than poly(A)-lacking RNA. The poly(A)-lacking RNAs were modified in the order 28S rRNA greater than 18S rRNA greater than 5-6S rRNA greater than 4S tRNA. Guanine was the target base of AFB1, but only 10% of the AFB1-GMP adducts were on guanines located in a poly(G) region. These results suggest that guanine modification in RNAs may be responsible for the observed inhibition of translational initiation by AFB1 to a greater extent than modification of either ribosomal intrinsic or associated proteins.

  6. Enhancing effects of dimethylnitrosamine on aflatoxin B hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angsubhakorn, S; Bhamarapravati, N; Romruen, K; Sahaphong, S

    1981-11-15

    In a study of possible enhancing effects of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) hepatocarcinogenesis, male Buffalo strain rats were fed diets containing 1 ppm AFB1, 25 ppm DMN, and a combination of 1 ppm AFB1 and 25 ppm DMN (AFB1 + DMN). The diets were replaced by chow pellets after 6 months, and animals were killed 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after the onset of the experiment. In the untreated control group animals were free of hepatocellular carcinoma but the treated groups fed AFB1, DMN and AFB1 plus DMN developed hepatic lesions ranging from multiple cysts, altered cell foci and neoplastic nodules to hepatocellular carcinomas. Hepatocellular carcinomas developed in 79%, 45% and 5% of rats fed AFB1 plus DMN, AFB1 and DMN respectively at the end of the experiment. Multiple cysts were also found in all periods in animals fed AFB1 plus DMN, whereas rats fed AFB1 and DMN separately developed a few multiple cysts by the end of the experiment. These findings suggest that DMN potentiates the hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AFB1 in rats.

  7. Infants exposure to aflatoxin M₁ as a novel foodborne zoonosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tras, Wael F; El-Kady, Nevein N; Tayel, Ahmed A

    2011-11-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin M(1) (AFM(1)) in infant formula milk powder (IFMP) and maternal breast milk (MBM) was investigated as a risk factor affects the health of newborns in Egypt. A total of 125 IFMP and 125 MBM samples were collected and examined for the presence of AFM(1) using competitive ELISA test. The results indicated that the relative risk (RR) of exposure to AFM(1) via consumption of MBM was higher than IFMP (RR; 1.6, 95%CI; 1.28-2.03, p=0.0001). The mean concentrations of AFM(1) were significantly differed (pMBM (74.413 ± 7.070 ng/l) and IFMP (9.796 ± 1.036 ng/l). High frequency distributions were detected within the range of 5-25 ng/l and >50-100 ng/l in IFMP and MBM, respectively. The average daily exposure of newborns to AFM(1) via consumption of MBM and IFMP was 52.684 and 8.170 ng, respectively, with a significant difference at p<0.0001. Consumption of raw milk by lactating mothers exhibited a significant correlation (p<0.0001) with the presence of AFM(1) in their milk. In conclusion, this work established a pioneering concept that AFM(1) may be considered as an etiological factor for a novel foodborne zoonosis identified as Aflatoxicosis M(1).

  8. M1 AFLATOXIN, TOTAL BACTERIAL COUNT AND SOMATIC CELL COUNT IN ORGANIC AND CONVENTIONAL MILK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trevisani

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Comparative quality evaluation of organic and conventional milk produced in similar environmental condition was performed. Bulk-tank milk was sampled once a week during 30 weeks from 10 organic and 10 conventional dairy farms where aflatoxin M1 level was previous tested during 11 months on bulk-tank milk from tanker at the processing plant. Somatic Cells and Total Microbial Counts did not show differences that can be related to the organic production system, suggesting an effect induced by farm size and technical factors. Higher level of Aflatoxin M1 was found in organic than conventional milk.

  9. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  10. Excretion pattern of aflatoxins in buffalo milk and carry-over in mozzarella cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Gualla

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Some raw materials, used in animal feeding, can be contaminated by aflatoxins (AF. All the mammals that ingest AFB1, excrete small amounts of the hydroxylated metabolite aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 in their milk (Wood 1991. In the case of cow’s milk, the percentage excreted is 1-3% of that ingested (Veldman et al. 1992. AFM1 has been categorised as a class 2B, possible human carcinogen. AFM1 is associated with the protein fraction of milk and hence it is carried-over to cheese and to other milk products (Brackett and Marth, 1982....

  11. dBASE IV basics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Connor, P.

    1994-09-01

    This is a user`s manual for dBASE IV. dBASE IV is a popular software application that can be used on your personal computer to help organize and maintain your database files. It is actually a set of tools with which you can create, organize, select and manipulate data in a simple yet effective manner. dBASE IV offers three methods of working with the product: (1) control center: (2) command line; and (3) programming.

  12. Phase IV of Drug Development

    OpenAIRE

    Viraj Suvarna

    2010-01-01

    Not all Phase IV studies are post-marketing surveillance (PMS) studies but every PMS study is a phase IV study. Phase IV is also an important phase of drug development. In particular, the real world effectiveness of a drug as evaluated in an observational, non-interventional trial in a naturalistic setting which complements the efficacy data that emanates from a pre-marketing randomized controlled trial (RCT). No matter how many patients are studied pre-marketing in a controlled environment, ...

  13. Aflatoxin in raw and salt-roasted nuts (pistachios, peanuts and walnuts) sold in markets of tabriz, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Ashrafnejad, Fereshteh; Kazemi, Abdolhassan; Sargheini, Nafiseh; Mahdavi, Reza; Farshchian, Mohammadreza; Mahluji, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Nuts are one of the main consumed snacks worldwide and also have an important role among Iranian's food habits. Natural contamination of nuts with aflatoxin is unavoidable and causes a special challenge for nuts safety and quality. The purpose of this research was to study the aflatoxin contamination in commercially-available nuts (pistachio, walnut and peanut) in the markets of Tabriz, Iran. Sixty two samples of 50 g salt-roasted peanuts and pistachios and 109 samples of 50 g pure pistachios, walnuts and peanuts were collected from different areas of local markets. After the initial preparations, ELISA test was performed for Aflatoxin measurement. Result showed that walnut (90%) and pure pistachio (2.3%) were the most and least contaminated samples, respectively. Mean aflatoxin contamination in the salt-roasted samples (19.88 ± 19.41 µg/kg) was significantly higher than the pure ones (6.51 ± 9.4 µg/kg) (P aflatoxin contamination, which were more than the maximum tolerated level of Iran (MTL, 15 ppb). It was concluded that aflatoxin content of nuts should be monitored regularly to minimize the risk of aflatoxin hazard and ensure the food safety and quality.

  14. Aflatoxin exposure is inversely associated with IGF1 and IGFBP3 levels in vitro and in Kenyan schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelino, Jovita M; Routledge, Michael N; Wilson, Shona; Dunne, David W; Mwatha, Joseph K; Gachuhi, Kimani; Wild, Christopher P; Gong, Yun Y

    2015-03-01

    This study explores the relationship between aflatoxin and the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis and its potential effect on child growth. One hundred and ninety-nine Kenyan schoolchildren were studied for aflatoxin-albumin adduct (AF-alb), IGF1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) levels using ELISA. AF-alb was inversely associated with IGF1 and IGFBP3 (p 198.5 pg/mg) were shorter than children in the lowest tertile (aflatoxin exposure on child height (p = 0.052). To further investigate this putative mechanistic pathway, HHL-16 liver cells (where HHL-16 is human hepatocyte line 16 cells) were treated with aflatoxin B1 (0.5, 5 and 20 μg/mL for 24-48 h). IGF1 and IGFBP3 gene expression measured by quantitative PCR and protein in culture media showed a significant down-regulation of IGF genes and reduced IGF protein levels. Aflatoxin treatment resulted in a significant decrease in IGF gene and protein expression in vitro. IGF protein levels were also lower in children with the highest levels of AFB-alb adducts. The data suggest that aflatoxin-induced changes in IGF protein levels could contribute to growth impairment where aflatoxin exposure is high. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Monitoring of aflatoxin G1, B1, G2, and B2 occurrence in some samples of walnut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibipour, Reza; Tamandegani, Parisa Rahimi; Farmany, Abbas

    2016-12-01

    This research was conducted to monitor the aflatoxigenic fungi and aflatoxin contamination of walnut in the Hamedan province. For this purpose, 40 samples were analyzed. Aspergillus, Alternaria, Rhizopus, Cladosporium, Fusarium, yeast, and some different bacteria were isolated from walnuts. Aspergillus is the most frequent genus. Aspergillus flavus was predominantly isolated. HPLC was used for evaluation of aflatoxin contamination of walnut samples. Aflatoxins G1 (AFG1), B1 (AFB1), G2 (AFG2), and B2 (AFB2) were produced by 20 isolates. AFG1 and AFB1 were being predominant at concentration ranges of 1.7-18.2 and 0-8.2 ngg(-1), respectively. Highest levels were found in one sample that was highly contaminated with Aspergillus flavus/Aspergillus parasiticus. Methyl beta cyclodextrin also was performed for detection of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus isolates. The results showed that only 31.6% (p aflatoxin. A significant difference was shown between shielded and unshielded walnut in aflatoxin contamination. The content of aflatoxin in most of the walnut samples did not reach to maximum tolerable limit for aflatoxin B1 in EU standard (p > 0.05). Thus, systematic and continues monitoring of walnuts is recommended.

  16. Toward elucidation of genetic and functional genetic mechanisms in corn host resistance to Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueyan eShan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins produced by some species in the Aspergillus genus, such as A. flavus and A. parasiticus. Contamination of aflatoxins in corn profusely happens at pre-harvest stage when heat and drought field conditions favor A. flavus colonization. Commercial corn hybrids are generally susceptible to A. flavus infection. An ideal strategy for preventing aflatoxin contamination is through the enhancement of corn host resistance to Aspergillus infection and aflatoxin production. Constant efforts have been made by corn breeders to develop resistant corn genotypes. Significantly low levels of aflatoxin accumulation have been determined in certain resistant corn inbred lines. A number of reports of quantitative trait loci (QTLs have provided compelling evidence supporting the quantitative trait genetic basis of corn host resistance to aflatoxin accumulation. Important findings have also been obtained from the investigation on candidate resistance genes through transcriptomics approach. Elucidation of molecular mechanisms will provide in-depth understanding of the host-pathogen interactions and hence facilitate the breeding of corn with resistance to A. falvus infection and aflatoxin accumulation.

  17. Mycotoxin contamination of animal feedingstuff: detoxification by gamma-irradiation and reduction of aflatoxins and ochratoxin A concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Vita; Pitonzo, Rosa; Cicero, Nicola; D'Oca, Maria Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Mycotoxins are fungal secondary metabolites identified in many agricultural products screened for toxigenic moulds. They have been reported to be carcinogenic, teratogenic, tremorogenic, haemorrhagic and dermatitic to a wide range of organisms. With the increasing stringent regulations for mycotoxins imposed by importing countries such as those of the European Union, many cereals that are not safe for human consumption are used in formulations intended for animal feed. Gamma-rays are reported in the scientific literature to destroy ochratoxin A and aflatoxin in food crops and feed. The present study provides preliminary data for establishing the effect of dose of gamma-irradiation, ranging from 0 to 15 kGy, on aflatoxins and ochratoxin A reduction in commercial animal feed. The mycotoxin levels were determined by means of immunoaffinity clean-up (IAC) and HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The maximum reductions found at 15 kGy were 23.9%, 18.2%, 11.0%, 21.1% and 13.6% for ochratoxin A, aflatoxin B₁, aflatoxin B₂, aflatoxin G₁ and aflatoxin G₂, respectively. Results showed that the gamma-rays even at 15 kGy were not effective in the complete destruction of ochratoxin A and aflatoxins in the tested feed.

  18. Determination of the Relative Effectiveness of Four Food Additives in Degrading Aflatoxin in Distillers Wet Grains and Condensed Distillers Solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H U; Stroshine, Richard L; Ileleji, Klein

    2017-01-01

    The food additives sodium bisulfite, sodium hypochlorite, citric acid, and ammonium persulfate were evaluated for their effectiveness in degrading aflatoxin in samples of distillers wet grains (DWG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) obtained from an industrial ethanol plant. Aqueous food additive solutions, 0.5% by weight, were added to DWG or CDS at the level of 0.5 ml/g of sample, and the materials were heated at 90°C for 1 h. Sodium bisulfite was not effective in degrading aflatoxin in either DWG or CDS. Among the four food additives tested, sodium hypochlorite was the most effective. However, it bleached the substrate and left an off-odor. Citric acid and ammonium persulfate reduced aflatoxin levels by 31 to 51%. Citric acid is the most promising additive for degrading aflatoxin because it has been classified as generally recognized as safe by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Aflatoxin reduction was enhanced by increasing the citric acid addition level and prolonging the heating time. Reductions of 65 and 80% in DWG and CDS, respectively, were obtained by the addition of 2.5% (by weight) citric acid and heating at 90°C for 1 h. Aflatoxin levels in DWG and CDS were gradually reduced with prolonged heating at 90°C, even without the addition of food additives. Aflatoxin reductions of 53 and 73% were achieved in DWG and CDS as a result of heating at 90°C for 5 h.

  19. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  20. The inhibitory effect of Bacillus megaterium on aflatoxin and cyclopiazonic acid biosynthetic pathway gene expression in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Yu, Jiujiang; Shan, Shihua; Li, Qiyu; Li, Qianting; Guan, Bin; Nierman, William C; Bennett, Joan W

    2014-06-01

    Aspergillus flavus is one of the major moulds that colonize peanut in the field and during storage. The impact to human and animal health, and to the economy in agriculture and commerce, is significant since this mold produces the most potent known natural toxins, aflatoxins, which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, immunosuppressive, and teratogenic. A strain of marine Bacillus megaterium isolated from the Yellow Sea of East China was evaluated for its effect in inhibiting aflatoxin formation in A. flavus through down-regulating aflatoxin pathway gene expression as demonstrated by gene chip analysis. Aflatoxin accumulation in potato dextrose broth liquid medium and liquid minimal medium was almost totally (more than 98 %) inhibited by co-cultivation with B. megaterium. Growth was also reduced. Using expression studies, we identified the fungal genes down-regulated by co-cultivation with B. megaterium across the entire fungal genome and specifically within the aflatoxin pathway gene cluster (aflF, aflT, aflS, aflJ, aflL, aflX). Modulating the expression of these genes could be used for controlling aflatoxin contamination in crops such as corn, cotton, and peanut. Importantly, the expression of the regulatory gene aflS was significantly down-regulated during co-cultivation. We present a model showing a hypothesis of the regulatory mechanism of aflatoxin production suppression by AflS and AflR through B. megaterium co-cultivation.