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Sample records for aflatoxin b1 impairment

  1. Impairment of cell cycle progression by aflatoxin B1 in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordy, R; Gensabella, G; Cacci, E; Augusti-Tocco, G

    2002-05-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticum, which may be present as a food contaminant. It is known to cause acute toxic effects and act as a carcinogenic agent. The carcinogenic action has been related to its ability to form unstable adducts with DNA, which represent possible mutagenic sites. On the other hand, the primary cellular target responsible for its toxic action has not yet been clearly identified. Previous data suggested a possible correlation between cell proliferation and responsiveness to aflatoxin toxicity. These observations led us to investigate the effect of the toxin on cell cycle progression of three human cell lines (HepG2, SK-N-MC and SK-N-SH derived from liver and nervous tissue tumours); they were shown to display different responses to toxin exposure and have different growth kinetics. We performed analysis of the cell cycle, DNA synthesis and expression of p21 and p53 in the presence and absence of the toxin in all cell lines exposed. The results of cell cycle cytofluorometric analysis show significant alterations of cell cycle progression as a result of toxin treatment. In all cell lines exposure to a 24 h toxin treatment causes a dose-dependent accumulation in S phase, however, the ability to recover from impairment to traverse S phase varies in the cell lines under study. SK-N-MC cells appear more prone to resume DNA synthesis when the toxin is removed, while the other two cell lines maintain a significant inhibition of DNA synthesis, as indicated by cytofluorimetry and [(3)H]dTR incorporation. The level of p53 and p21 expression in the three cell lines was examined by western blot analysis and significant differences were detected. The ready resumption of DNA synthesis displayed by SK-N-MC cells could possibly be related to the absence of p53 control of cell cycle progression.

  2. Immunotoxicity of aflatoxin B1: impairment of the cell-mediated response to vaccine antigen and modulation of cytokine expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissonnier, Guylaine M; Pinton, Philippe; Laffitte, Joëlle; Cossalter, Anne-Marie; Gong, Yun Yun; Wild, Christopher P; Bertin, Gérard; Galtier, Pierre; Oswald, Isabelle P

    2008-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus or A. parasiticus, is a frequent contaminant of food and feed. This toxin is hepatotoxic and immunotoxic. The present study analyzed in pigs the influence of AFB1 on humoral and cellular responses, and investigated whether the immunomodulation observed is produced through interference with cytokine expression. For 28 days, pigs were fed a control diet or a diet contaminated with 385, 867 or 1807 microg pure AFB1/kg feed. At days 4 and 15, pigs were vaccinated with ovalbumin. AFB1 exposure, confirmed by an observed dose-response in blood aflatoxin-albumin adduct, had no major effect on humoral immunity as measured by plasma concentrations of total IgA, IgG and IgM and of anti-ovalbumin IgG. Toxin exposure did not impair the mitogenic response of lymphocytes but delayed and decreased their specific proliferation in response to the vaccine antigen, suggesting impaired lymphocyte activation in pigs exposed to AFB1. The expression level of pro-inflammatory (TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, IFN-gamma) and regulatory (IL-10) cytokines was assessed by real-time PCR in spleen. A significant up-regulation of all 5 cytokines was observed in spleen from pigs exposed to the highest dose of AFB1. In pigs exposed to the medium dose, IL-6 expression was increased and a trend towards increased IFN-gamma and IL-10 was observed. In addition we demonstrate that IL-6 impaired in vitro the antigenic- but not the mitogenic-induced proliferation of lymphocytes from control pigs vaccinated with ovalbumin. These results indicate that AFB1 dietary exposure decreases cell-mediated immunity while inducing an inflammatory response. These impairments in the immune response could participate in failure of vaccination protocols and increased susceptibility to infections described in pigs exposed to AFB1.

  3. Compound list: aflatoxin B1 [Open TG-GATEs

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available aflatoxin B1 AFB1 00165 ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Human/in_vitro/aflatoxin..._B1.Human.in_vitro.Liver.zip ftp://ftp.biosciencedbc.jp/archive/open-tggates/LATEST/Rat/in_vivo/Liver/Single/aflatoxin_B1.Rat.in_vivo.Liver.Single.zip ...

  4. Aflatoxin B1: Mechanism of mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M. Santella

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Aflatoxins are a group of toxic and carcinogenic fungal metabolites that frequently contaminate corn, peanuts and other products. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, the most potent of these, is metabolized by the cytochrome P450 system into a number of hydroxylated metabolites and glutathione conjugates in the process of conversion to more hydrophilic forms for urinary excretion. Unfortunately, one of these metabolites is the aflatoxin-8,9-epoxide that is produced in two forms, endo and exo. Glutathione S-transferases (GST are able to conjugate and detoxify this reactive intermediate. Species differences in susceptibility to the effects of AFB1 are partially related to differences in expression of specific GSTs that are able to conjugate the epoxide to glutathione. The exo epoxide is able to intercalate into DNA and this is followed by reaction of the C8 position of the epoxide with the N7 position of guanine.

    NMR studies of oligonucleotide duplexes containing the adduct have demonstrated that the adduct exists with the aromatic portion intercalated on the 5' face of the guanine residue with Watson-Crick base pairing maintained.

    However, this covalent adduct is chemically unstable due to the charge on the ribose ring. As a result, the guanine can be released from the DNA leaving an apurinic site. This released guanine adduct can be detected in the urine and serves as a biomarker of exposure to AFB1. Alternatively, the ribose ring opens forming a stable formamidopyrimidine (FAPY adduct. This adduct somewhat stabilizes the DNA duplex. Time course studies in animals have demonstrated that the N7 adduct is rapidly removed, probably because it causes more distortion in the helix, while the FAPY adduct is more

  5. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in natural products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The media claims for the consumption of natural resource-based food have gradually increased in both developing and developed countries. The interest in the safety of these products is partially due to the possible presence of toxigenic fungi acting as mycotoxin producers, such as aflatoxins produced during the secondary metabolism of Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius. Aflatoxins, mainly aflatoxin B1, are directly associated with liver cancer in human beings. This paper is aimed at evaluating the presence of aflatoxin B1 in a few vegetable drugs, dried plant extracts and industrialized products traded in 2010 in the city of Belo Horizonte, State of Minas Gerais, Brazil. The method used for the quantification of aflatoxin B1 was based on extraction through acetone:water (85:15, immunoaffinity column purification followed by separation and detection in high efficiency liquid chromatography. Under the conditions of analysis, the Limits of Detection and Quantification were 0.6 µg kg-1 and 1.0 µg kg-1respectively. The complete sets of analyses were carried out in duplicate. Aflatoxin B1 was noticed in a single sample (< 1.0 µg kg-1. The results revealed low aflatoxin B1contamination in the products under analysis. However, it is required to establish a broad monitoring program in order to obtain additional data and check up on the actual extension of contamination.

  6. Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Aflatoxin B 1 from Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research describes the development of a Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) method to recover aflatoxin B1 from fortified soil. The effects of temperature, pressure, modifier (identity and percentage), and extraction type were assessed. Using the optimized SFE conditions, ...

  7. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and its conjugated metabolites by rat gastrointestinal microfloras.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Rat cecal microflora from high- and low-fiber-fed animals hydrolyzed aflatoxin conjugates to metabolites indistinguishable from aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin P1, but aflatoxicol was not a transformation product.

  8. AFLATOXIN B1 RESIDUES IN EGGS AND FLESH OF LAYING HENS FED AFLATOXIN B1 CONTAMINATED DIET

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    Saqer Mohammad Herzallah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1(AFB1 and total Aflatoxins (AFT contaminated feed effect on aflatoxins residue level in eggs, muscles (breast, leg, organs (liver, kidney, gizzard and excreted aflatoxins in chicken litter of layer hens were monitored. Laying hens were on four levels of aflatoxins for 6 weeks and monitored weekly for the change in both AFB1 and AFT levels. Pronouncedly, the AFB1 and AFT were detected in eggs, muscles (legs, breast, organs (liver, kidney and gizzard and litter in noticeable amounts. Total Aflatoxin (AFT level was lowest in chicken breast (0.63 ppb and highest in liver (2.12 ppb and gizzard (1.22 ppb of chicken fed diet with 965.12 ppb. Whereas, AFB1 residue was 0.66 ppb in eggs, 1.59 ppb in liver tissues of hens given feed contaminated with 894.12 ppb. Residue level of AFB1 was high in liver and kidney of all treatments. The chicken breast tissues were lowest in AFB1 and AFT of values 0.72 and 0.63, respectively. Eggs production was significantly (p<0.05 affected with AFB1 contaminated feed and egg production was decreased by more than 30%.

  9. Aflatoxin B1 in poultry: toxicology, metabolism and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawal, Sumit; Kim, Ji Eun; Coulombe, Roger

    2010-12-01

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous in corn-based animal feed and causes hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic effects. The most important AF in terms of toxic potency and occurrence is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Poultry, especially turkeys, are extremely sensitive to the toxic and carcinogenic action of AFB1, resulting in millions of dollars in annual losses to producers due to reduced growth rate, increased susceptibility to disease, reduced egg production and other adverse effects. The extreme sensitivity of turkeys and other poultry to AFB1 is associated with efficient hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated bioactivation and deficient detoxification by glutathione S-transferases (GST). Discerning the biochemical and molecular mechanisms of this extreme sensitivity of poultry to AFB1, will contribute in the development of novel strategies to increase aflatoxin resistance. Since AFB1 is an unavoidable contaminant of corn-based poultry feed, chemoprevention strategies aimed at reducing AFB1 toxicity in poultry and in other animals have been the subject of numerous studies. This brief review summarizes many of the key recent findings regarding the action of aflatoxins in poultry.

  10. Synthesis of Polyclonal Antibodies against Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiyogo Prio Wicaksono

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Polyclonal antibodies of aflatoxin B1 were successfully produced from New Zealand White female rabbits after immunization by the hapten of aflatoxin B1-carboxymethyl hydroxylamine hemihydrochloride (AFB1-CMO conjugated with bovine serum albumin (BSA as the antigen. The hapten was synthesized using the carbodiimide method with CMO as a linker. Absorption peaks at 362, 264, and 218 nm were observed as a result of characterization with UV-Vis spectroscopy, while IR spectroscopy showed peaks at 3448 cm-1 and 1642 cm-1 attributable to the hydroxyl and nitrile groups, respectively. Furthermore, mass spectrometry showed fragmentation at the m/z of 386, 368.2, and 310, which confirms that the hapten of AFB1-CMO was successfully synthesized. The hapten was then conjugated with BSA to serve as an antigen of AFB1 when it was injected into the rabbits. The specificity of the antigen towards its antibody and the confirmation of hapten-BSA conjugation were characterized using the dot blot immunoassay, which showed a BSA concentration of 1.74 mg/mL. Two weeks after the primary immunization by its antigen, agar gel precipitation testing showed that the rabbit blood serum had positive results for polyclonal antibodiest against AFB1 with the highest concentration of antibodiest of 2.19 mg/mL.

  11. Transcriptional Response of Yeast to Aflatoxin B1: Recombinational Repair Involving RAD51 and RAD1

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    The potent carcinogen aflatoxin B1 is a weak mutagen but a strong recombinagen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Aflatoxin B1 exposure greatly increases frequencies of both heteroallelic recombination and chromosomal translocations. We analyzed the gene expression pattern of diploid cells exposed to aflatoxin B1 using high-density oligonucleotide arrays comprising specific probes for all 6218 open reading frames. Among 183 responsive genes, 46 are involved in either DNA repair or in control of cel...

  12. Excretion of Aflatoxin M1 in milk of goats fed diet contaminated by Aflatoxin B1

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    Gianni Battacone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out to study the excretion of aflatoxin M1(AFM1 in milk of three goats fed a single dose (0.8mg/head of pure aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The values of AFM1 concentration excreted in milk was highly variable among goats, even if the pattern of excretion over time was very similar among the three animals. AFM1 was first detected at the milking performed 1h after the AFB1 administration. The highest values of AFM1 concentration in milk were reached 3 and 6h after the AFB1 intake. The trend of clearance of AFM1 in milk over time was expressed by a decreasing exponential equation. AFM1 concentration was below the EU maximum allowed level (50 ng/L in milk collected 36 h after the AFB1 administration.

  13. Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Smokeless Tobacco Products by Use of UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zitomer, Nicholas; Rybak, Michael E; Li, Zhong; Walters, Matthew J; Holman, Matthew R

    2015-10-21

    This work developed a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the detection and quantitation of aflatoxins in smokeless tobacco products, which was then used to determine aflatoxin B1 concentrations in 32 smokeless tobacco products commercially available in the United States. Smokeless tobacco products were dried, milled, and amended with (13)C17-labeled internal standards, extracted in water/methanol solution in the presence of a surfactant, isolated through use of immunoaffinity column chromatography, and reconstituted in mobile phase prior to UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. The method was capable of baseline separation of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in a 2.5 min run by use of a fused core C18 column and a water/methanol gradient. MS/MS transition (m/z) 313.3 → 241.2 was used for aflatoxin B1 quantitation, with 313.3 → 285.1 used for confirmation. The limit of detection (LOD) for aflatoxin B1 was 0.007 parts per billion (ppb). Method imprecision for aflatoxin B1 (expressed as coefficient of variation) ranged from 5.5 to 9.4%. Spike recoveries were 105-111%. Aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the smokeless tobacco products analyzed ranged from snuffs and chews, whereas all moist snuff products tested were below LOD. The amounts of aflatoxin B1 detected were low relative to the 20 ppb regulatory limit established by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for foods and feeds.

  14. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by a Pseudomonas Strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangare, Lancine; Zhao, Yueju; Folly, Yawa Minnie Elodie; Chang, Jinghua; Li, Jinhan; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Xing, Fuguo; Zhou, Lu; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), one of the most potent naturally occurring mutagens and carcinogens, causes significant threats to the food industry and animal production. In this study, 25 bacteria isolates were collected from grain kernels and soils displaying AFB1 reduction activity. Based on its degradation effectiveness, isolate N17-1 was selected for further characterization and identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. P. aeruginosa N17-1 could degrade AFB1, AFB2 and AFM1 by 82.8%, 46.8% and 31.9% after incubation in Nutrient Broth (NB) medium at 37 °C for 72 h, respectively. The culture supernatant of isolate N17-1 degraded AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and intra cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Maximum degradation was observed at 55 °C. Ions Mn2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, however, ions Mg2+, Li+, Zn2+, Se2+, Fe3+ were strong inhibitors. Treatments with proteinase K and proteinase K plus SDS significantly reduced the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. No degradation products were observed based on preliminary LC-QTOF/MS analysis, indicating AFB1 was metabolized to degradation products with chemical properties different from that of AFB1. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by P. aeruginosa N17-1 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications. This is the first report indicating that the isolate of P. aeruginosa possesses the ability to degrade aflatoxin. PMID:25341538

  15. Aflatoxin B1 transfer and metabolism in human placenta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partanen, Heidi A; El-Nezami, Hani S; Leppänen, Jukka M; Myllynen, Päivi K; Woodhouse, Heather J; Vähäkangas, Kirsi H

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a common dietary contaminant, is a major risk factor of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Early onset of HCC in some countries in Africa and South-East Asia indicates the importance of early life exposure. Placenta is the primary route for various compounds, both nutrients and toxins, from the mother to the fetal circulation. Furthermore, placenta contains enzymes for xenobiotic metabolism. AFB1, AFB1-metabolites, and AFB1-albumin adducts have been detected in cord blood of babies after maternal exposure during pregnancy. However, the role that the placenta plays in the transfer and metabolism of AFB1 is not clear. In this study, placental transfer and metabolism of AFB1 were investigated in human placental perfusions and in in vitro studies. Eight human placentas were perfused with 0.5 or 5microM AFB1 for 2-4 h. In vitro incubations with placental microsomal and cytosolic proteins from eight additional placentas were also conducted. Our results from placental perfusions provide the first direct evidence of the actual transfer of AFB1 and its metabolism to aflatoxicol (AFL) by human placenta. In vitro incubations with placental cytosolic fraction confirmed the capacity of human placenta to form AFL. AFL was the only metabolite detected in both perfusions and in vitro incubations. Since AFL is less mutagenic, but putatively as carcinogenic as AFB1, the formation of AFL may not protect the fetus from the toxicity of AFB1.

  16. Genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 and its ammonium derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Márquez, R; Tejada de Hernandez, I; Madrigal Bujaidar, E

    1995-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1 is a main contaminant in diverse agricultural products. In an attempt to reduce this problem and the hazards to human health, an AFB1 inactivating system with ammonia has been developed. In this work we evaluated the efficiency of the system in mice using micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis. Four groups of animals were fed for 8 weeks with a special diet mainly composed of maize: (1) uncontaminated; (2) uncontaminated/inactivated; (3) contaminated/inactivated; and (4) contaminated. We evaluated MN at weekly intervals in peripheral blood, and in weeks 4 and 8 SCE frequencies were quantified in bone marrow cells. The results shows that animals fed with AFB1 contaminated/inactivated maize had a 45% lower level of induced cytogenetic damage than those animals fed with AFB1 contaminated but not inactivated maize. A residual amount of AFB1 after the inactivating treatment and reconversion back to AFB1 in the organism may account for the remaining increased levels of SCE and MN.

  17. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1-feed into aflatoxin M1-milk in dairy cows treated with natural sources of aflatoxin and bentonite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sumantri, I.; Murti, T.W.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Boehm, J.; Agus, A.

    2012-01-01

    High occurrence of aflatoxin contamination in feed stuffs implicates for a long time experience of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure to dairy cattle in Indonesia. A latin square 4X4 research design was adopted to study the characteristic of AFB1 carry-over rate (COR) of Indonesian crossbred Friesian Hols

  18. Use of gamma irradiation to prevent aflatoxin B 1 production in smoked dried fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbadu, G. H.

    Smoked dried fish bought from the Nigerian market was inoculated with spores of barAspergillus flavus (U.I. 81) and irradiated with doses of 0.625, 1.25, 2.50 and 5.00 KGy gamma irradiation. The effect of aflatoxin B 1 production on subsequent incubation for 8 days as stationary cultures was measured. The amount of aflatoxin B 1 produced was found to decrease with increased gamma irradiation dose levels. While the non-irradiated control produced significantly (at 1% level) greater amounts of aflatoxin B 1 as compared to the treated cultures.

  19. Emericella astellata, a new producer of aflatoxin B-1, B-2 and sterigmatocystin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.; Smedsgaard, Jørn

    2004-01-01

    To report on aflatoxin B-1 and B-2 production from a species of Emericella. Methods and Results: Aflatoxins and sterigmatocystin were determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection and confirmed by HPLC with mass spectrometry detection. Among 30 known species ...

  20. Aflatoxin B1 is toxic to porcine oocyte maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Wang, Qiao-Chu; Han, Jun; Xiong, Bo; Sun, Shao-Chen

    2015-07-01

    As a toxic secondary metabolite of Aspergillus species, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major food and feed contaminant in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high temperature and humidity. It has been reported to be toxic to the female reproductive system in laboratory and domestic animals. In the present study, the influence of acute exposure to AFB1 (10 and 50 μM, 44h) on porcine oocyte maturation and its possible mechanism were investigated. The maturation rates of oocytes decreased significantly in the presence of 50 μM of AFB1. Cell cycle analysis showed that most oocytes were arrested at germinal vesicle breakdown or meosis I stage. However, actin assembly, spindle structure and chromosome alignment were not disrupted after exposure to 50 μM AFB1. Further study showed that DNA methylation levels increased in treated oocytes (50 μM). Histone methylation levels were also analysed after treatment (50 μM): H3K27me3 and H3K4me2 levels decreased, whereas H3K9me3 level increased, indicating that epigenetic modification was affected. AFB1 treatment (50 μM) also induced oxidative stress and further led to autophagy, as shown by accumulation of reactive oxygen species, up-regulated LC3 protein expression and increased mRNA levels of ATG3, ATG5 and ATG7. Annexin V-FITC staining assay revealed that AFB1 treatment (50 μM) resulted in oocyte early apoptosis, which was confirmed by increased Bak, Bax, Bcl-xl mRNA levels. Collectively, our results suggest that AFB1 disrupts porcine oocyte maturation through changing epigenetic modifications as well as inducing oxidative stress, excessive autophagy and apoptosis.

  1. Kinetics of aflatoxin B1 and G2 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite

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    VERA DONDUR

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available The kinetics of aflatoxins B1 and G2 adsorption on Ca-clinoptilolite at pH 2 and 7, in aqueous electrolyte at 37°C were studied. For both aflatoxins, the adsorption process begins with a fast reaction whereby most of the toxin is adsorbed in the first few minutes. This fast process is followed by the significantly slower process of aflatoxin bonding at active centers of mineral adsorbent. The initial rate method showed that the fast adsorption process of aflatoxin B1 and G2, at both pH values is a first order reaction, while the slow adsorption process of these aflatoxins is a zero order reaction. The adsorption indexes and adsorption rates for both examined toxins were pH dependent. In the investigated initial toxins concentration ranges (500–3000 µg/dm3, high adsorption indexes were achieved (> 80 %.

  2. Toxicity of aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptor (VDR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costanzo, Paola; Santini, Antonello; Fattore, Luigi; Novellino, Ettore; Ritieni, Alberto

    2015-02-01

    This research describes an unexpected toxicity of the aflatoxin B1 towards the vitamin D receptors. Rickets is a childhood disease, and calcium deficiency is the aetiological cause in Africa, being primarily associated with nutritional problems; in this research the contribution of aflatoxin B1 exposure during the early months of life is an interesting factor to deepen in order to prevent liver damages or the development of rickets. The results show that the expression of vitamin D receptor in osteosarcoma cell line SAOS-2 is significantly down-modulated by exposure to aflatoxin B1. This seems to suggest that Aflatoxin B1, toxic towards the vitamin D receptor, interferes with the actions of the vitamin D on calcium binding gene expression in the kidney and intestine. Experimental data indicate a 58% and 86% decrease if the cells are exposed to 5 ng/mL and 50 ng/mL of aflatoxin B1, respectively. These results seem to indicate that natural occurrence of the aflatoxin B1 and allelic variant of vitamin D receptor on (F allele) increase the risk of developing rickets of African children.

  3. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groopman, John D.; Egner, Patricia A.; Schulze, Kerry J.; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A.; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K.; LeClerq, Steven C.; West, Keith P.; Christian, Parul

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illus trates exposure over the first 1000 days of life. PMID:25308602

  4. Measurement and assessment of aflatoxin B1 and its producing molds in Iranian sausages and burgers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Maktabi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most well-known hepatocarcinogens in humans. Contamination of raw materials, used in the production of sausages and burgers, with aflatoxin producing molds can lead to increased level of aflatoxin in the final products and can impose hazards to human health. Unfortunately, aflatoxin is resistant to heating and freezing processes, etc. and can remain in these products untile consumption. Methods: During a six-month period, 45 sausage and 53 burger samples from valid brands across the country were randomly purchased from the stores. The samples were analyzed for AFB1 by ELISA technique. Meanwhile, the number of molds was calculated and aflatoxin producing molds were identified by direct and slide culture methods. Results: The findings showed that 2 susage samples (4.9% and 3 burger samples (6.3% were contaminated with >1 ng/g aflatoxin. Moreover, 4 burger samples (8.9% contaminated with mold included aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, mucor, and penicillium while, none of the susage samples showed mold contamination. Conclusion: The Iranian meat products had a relative aflatoxin B1 contamination during the study period, but the contamination rate was low and in allowable range. Standard hygienic preparation and packaging of meat products molds is recommended to reduce fungal contamination, especially aflatoxin-producing molds.

  5. Single corn kernel aflatoxin B1 extraction and analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic compounds produced by the fungus Aspergillus flavus. Aspergillus flavus is a phytopathogenic fungus that commonly infects crops such as cotton, peanuts, and maize. The goal was to design an effective sample preparation method and analysis for the extraction of afla...

  6. Metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and identification of the major aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts formed in cultured human bronchus and colon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1979-01-01

    compared to aflatoxin B1, the binding level of benzo(a)pyrene to both bronchial and colonic DNA was generally higher. The major adducts formed in both tissues by the interaction of aflatoxin B1 and DNA were chromatographically identical to 2,3-dihydro-2-(N7-guanyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (Structure 1......) with the guanyl group and hydroxy group in trans-position and an adduct which has been tentatively identified by other investigators as 2,3-dihydro-2-(N5-formyl-2',5',6'-triamino-4'-oxo-N5-pyrimidyl)-3-hydroxyaflatoxin B1 (Structure 11). Seventy % of the radioactivity associated with bronchial DNA was found...... in these two peaks, and the ratio of radioactivity between the peaks was nearly 1. In colonic DNA, the ratio between Structures 1 and 11 was approximately 2. These observations add aflatoxin B1 to the list of chemical procarcinogens metabolized by cultured human tissues and in which the carcinogen-DNA adducts...

  7. ESTIMATION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN FEED INGREDIENTS AND COMPOUND POULTRY FEEDS

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    Bashir Mahmood Bhatti, Tanzeela Talat and Rozina Sardar

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 3230 samples of feed ingredients of vegetable and animal origin and commercially available compound poultry feed received over a period of 5 years at Feed Testing Laboratory of the Institute were tested for Aflatoxin B1 contents (ppb . In all feed ingredients and compound feed stuffs, minimum level of aflatoxin B1 was 13 ppb and maximum level was found to be 78 ppb. No correlation of aflatoxin levels with month of collection of the year which are subject to variation in temperature and humidity could be detected. Mean values of aflatoxin concentration in feed stuffs such as rice, rice polish, wheat bran, wheat bread, maize, fish meal, blood meal, bone meal, guar meal, corn gluten 30%, corn gluten 60%, sun flower meal, soyabean meal and cotton seed meal were found to be higher than safe level of 20 ppb recommended by FDA.

  8. Moulds identification and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial codiments fermented of shrimp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOOR SOESANTI HANDAJANI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Indonesian tropical climate have an opportunity for fungi growth as Aspergillus flavus Link which can produce aflatoxin within foodstuffs, include condiment of fermented shrimp. Aflatoxin B1 is the dangerous agent having roles as carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic. The aims of this research were known kinds of moulds and detection of aflatoxin B1 on commercial condiments fermented of shrimp. Two brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp were taken from traditional markets and supermarkets in Surakarta. Isolation was done by made suspension of sample in aquadets. Suspension on appropriate dilutions was grown on CDA (Czapek’s Dox Agar media with surface spread. The grown colonies were separated and grown on PDA (Potato Dextrose Agar slant media. Furthermore, isolates were cultured on CDA and MEA (Malt Extract Agar media. The grown colonies were microscopes and microscopes examined and identified. Existence of aflatoxin B1 was known by Commercial RIDA Screen ELISA Kit that could detect qualitatively and quantitatively with detection sensitive < 1.7 ppb. Moulds that could be isolated from condiments fermented of shrimp were: Aspergillus flavus Link, Aspergillus niger van Tieghem, Aspergillus wentii Wehmer, Aspergillus PU1 or Aspergillus PU2 and Penicillium citrinum Thom. There was aflatoxin B1 contaminated to 2 brands of commercial condiments fermented of shrimp that were examined. Traditional markets’ commercial condiments fermented of shrimp contained higher aflatoxin B1 than supermarkets’. The brands of commercial condiment of fermented shrimp which had better inner package quality contained lower aflatoxin B1 than the worst inner package quality of commercial condiments of fermented of shrimp.

  9. The aflatoxin B1 isolating potential of two lactic acid bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adel Hamidi; Reza Mirnejad; Emad Yahaghi; Vahid Behnod; Ali Mirhosseini; Sajad Amani; Sara Sattari; Ebrahim Khodaverdi Darian

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine lactic acid bacteria’s capability to enhance the process of binding and isolating aflatoxin B1 and to utilize such lactic acid bacteria as a food supplement or probiotic products for preventing absorption of aflatoxin B1 in human and animal bodies. Methods: In the present research, the bacteria were isolated from five different sources. For surveying the capability of the bacteria in isolating aflatoxin B1, ELISA method was implemented, and for identifying the resultant strains through 16S rRNA sequencing method, universal primers were applied. Results: Among the strains which were isolated, two strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris exhibited the capability of absorbing and isolating aflatoxin B1 by respectively absorbing and discharging 17.4%and 34.7%of the aforementioned toxin existing in the experiment solution. Conclusions:Strains of Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus beveris were isolated from human feces and local milk samples, respectively. And both strains has the ability to isolate or bind with aflatoxin B1.

  10. Structures of the ozonolysis products and ozonolysis pathway of aflatoxin B1 in acetonitrile solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Enjie; Shan, Changpo; Hou, Hanxue; Wang, Shanshan; Li, Minghua; Dong, Haizhou

    2012-09-12

    The ozonolysis of aflatoxin B(1) (400 μg/mL) in acetonitrile solution was conducted with an ozone concentration of 6.28 mg/L at the flow rate of 60 mL/min for different times. The results showed that ozone was an effective detoxification agent because of its powerful oxidative role. Thin-layer chromatography and liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectra were applied to confirm and identify the ozonolysis products of aflatoxin B(1). A total of 13 products were identified, and 6 of them were main products. The structural identification of these products provided effective information for understanding the ozonolysis pathway of aflatoxin B(1). Two ozonolysis pathways were proposed on the basis of the accurate mass and molecular formulas of these product ions. Nine ozonolysis products came from the first oxidative pathway based on the Criegee mechanism, and the other four products were produced from the second pathway based on the oxidative and electrophilic reactions of ozone. According to the toxicity mechanism of aflatoxin B(1) to animals, the toxicity of aflatoxin B(1) was significantly reduced because of the disappearance of the double bond on the terminal furan ring or the lactone moiety on the benzene ring.

  11. Metabolism of aflatoxin B-1 in cotton bolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mellon, J.E.; Lee, L.S. (Dept. of Agriculture, New Orleans, LA (USA))

    1989-04-01

    Aspergillus flavus is a fungus capable of producing the potent carcinogen aflatoxin (AFB-1) when it infects developing cotton seed. Although high levels of toxin can readily be isolated from internal tissues of infected seeds, very low toxin levels are observed in the fiber-linter matrix. In order to test the hypothesis that constituents associated with the lint of the host plant are metabolizing aflatoxin, {sup 14}C-AFB-1 was introduced into cotton bolls (30 days postanthesis). Other sets of bolls received inoculations of toxigenic or nontoxigenic strains of A. flavus plus exogenous {sup 14}C-AFB-1. In addition to the exogenously applied {sup 14}C-AFB-1, at least two new labelled metabolites were recovered from the test bolls. One of these metabolites was very polar and remained on the origin of the thin layer analysis system. Test bolls which received both A. flavus and AFB-1 produced significantly lower levels of this polar metabolite. Results indicated that some constituent(s) associated with cotton fiber may metabolize fungal-produced aflatoxin, rather than inhibit its formation.

  12. Inhibition effects of Chinese cabbage powder on aflatoxin B1-induced liver cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tuoyi; Li, Chunyan; Liu, Yang; Li, Tiezhu; Zhang, Jie; Sun, Yonghai

    2015-11-01

    In this study, 0.25 μg/ml aflatoxin B1 was used to establish a liver cancer model for assessing the potential anticancer ability of Chinese cabbage powder, which is a complex water-soluble extract from Chinese cabbage by spray-drying at an outlet temperature of 130 °C. We found at least 11 potential anticancer substances in Chinese cabbage powder. A 90-d animal experiment demonstrated that 10% of Chinese cabbage powder in drinking water could improve the plasma micronutrient status, inhibit the formation of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in liver cells, and effectively reduce the incidence of liver tumor induced by aflatoxin B1 from 6.67% to 0%. The dose effect experiment revealed that 10% may be the minimal effective dose to prevent the occurrence of early liver tumors. This study will help elucidate the basis of epidemiological observations of dietary cancer prevention in humans, as well as explore related mechanisms.

  13. Aflatoxin B1, zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production on irradiated corn kernels: Influence of inoculum size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnoli, C; Etcheverry, M G; Cavaglieri, L; Saenz, M; Alvarez, G; Lecumberry, S

    1998-03-01

    The influence of inoculum size on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), zearalenone (ZEN) and deoxynivalenol (DON) production was examined on irradiated corn kernels.Spore concentrations were determined in serial dilutions and adjusted to 10,10(2),10(3),10(5) and 10(6) spores/ml. Aflatoxin B1 production was dependent on the inoculum size. The high levels of aflatoxin B1 produced byA. parasiticus (21 and 30 mg/kg) were obtained with 10(2) and 10(3) spores/ml after 35 and 20 days incubation. There was no spore concentration influence on zearalenone and deoxynivalenol production after 10, 20 and 35 days incubation. At 28°C and 0.97 water activity (aw), the mean levels of zearalenone production were 382, 267 and 520 µg/kg and the mean levels on deoxynivalenol production were 697,465 and 782 µg/kg.

  14. Montmorillonite modified with copper ions: Efficient adsorbent for aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daković Aleksandra

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the results of preparation of material for adsorption of aflatoxin B1, based on modification of montmorillonite with copper ions (Cu-MONT, are presented. The bentonite clay from Sokolac deposit (Šipovo, Bosnia was used as the starting raw material. After modification of concentrate of montmorillonite (MONT with copper, the content of copper in Cu-MONT, was 2.65%. It was shown that MONT, as well as the Cu-MONT were efficient in adsorption of aflatoxin B1, at different mass ratios of adsorbent : toxin, and at different pH values. It was determined that for MONT, at the mass ratio adsorbent : toxin = 5000 : 1, aflatoxin B1 adsorption index was 100% at pH 3, 98% at pH 7 and 96% at pH 9. For Cu-MONT, at the same mass ratio, the following aflatoxin B1 adsorption indexes were achieved: 98% at pH 3, 98% at pH 7 and 96% at pH 9. No differences in adsorption of this toxin by both montmorillonites with decreasing the mass ratio of adsorbent : toxin (250 : 1 were observed. That means that ion exchange of inorganic cations in montmorillonite with copper ions did not cause any changes in aflatoxin B1 adsorption, at pH 3, as well as at pH 7 and 9. It was also noticed that adsorption of aflatoxin B1 by MONT and Cu-MONT was not pH dependent.

  15. Aflatoxin B1content in patients with hepatic diseases Aflatoxina B1 en pacientes con enfermedades hepáticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara López

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are toxic metabolites of some Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus and A. nomius strains that occur in many foods and feeds. There are four major natural occurring aflatoxins: B1, B2, G1 and G2. These toxins can cause illness in human beings and animals. Aflatoxin B1 is the most abundant and toxic member of the family, and it is also the most potent hepatocarcinogen known. In order to estimate the potential human health risk of AFB1, it is useful to measure blood concentration. The presence of aflatoxin B1 in patients was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, in serum samples, obtained from 20 patient volunteers with hepatic disease. Out of the 20 patients, the presence of AFB1 was detected in only one of them, in a concentration of 0.47 ng/cm³. Nevertheless, this result should draw the attention of control organizations in Argentina to the need for a thorough food and feed inspection.Las aflatoxinas son metabolitos tóxicos producidos por cepas de Aspergillus flavus, A. parasiticus y A. nomius, presentes en alimentos y piensos. Las cuatro aflatoxinas principales son: aflatoxina B1, B2, G1 y G2. Dichas toxinas pueden causar enfermedades tanto en seres humanos como en animales. La aflatoxina B1 es la más abundante y la más tóxica del grupo y es también el más potente hepatocarcinógeno conocido. El objetivo de este trabajo fue detectar la presencia de aflatoxina B1 en sangre humana para estimar el riesgo potencial de la salud. La determinación de aflatoxina B1 fue realizada por cromatografía líquida de alto rendimiento, en suero de 20 pacientes voluntarios con enfermedades hepáticas. En sólo uno de estos pacientes se detectó la presencia de aflatoxina B1, en una concentración de 0.47ng/cm³. Estos resultados deberían ser tenidos en cuenta por los responsables de la vigilancia y control de los alimentos en la Argentina.

  16. Effects of Aflatoxin B1 and Fumonisin B1 on the Viability and Induction of Apoptosis in Rat Primary Hepatocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Deise H. B.; Ferreira, Fabiane L.; da Silva, Valéria N.; Aquino, Simone; Corrêa, Benedito

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) either alone, or in association, on rat primary hepatocyte cultures. Cell viability was assessed by flow cytometry after propidium iodine intercalation. DNA fragmentation and apoptosis were assessed by agarose gel electrophoresis and acridine orange and ethidium bromide staining. At the concentrations of AFB1 and FB1 used, the toxins did not decrease cell viability, but did induce apoptosis in a concentration and time-dependent manner. PMID:20480051

  17. Effect of climate change on Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin B1 production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel eMedina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This review considers the available information on the potential impact of key environmental factors and their interactions on the molecular ecology, growth and aflatoxin production by Aspergillus flavus in vitro and in maize grain. The recent studies which have been carried out to examine the impact of water activity x temperature on aflatoxin biosynthesis and phenotypic aflatoxin production are examined. These have shown that there is a direct relationship between the relative expression of key regulatory and structural genes under different environmental conditions which correlate directly with aflatoxin B1 production. A model has been developed to integrate the relative expression of 10 biosynthetic genes in the pathway, growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 production which was validated under elevated temperature and water stress conditions. The effect of interacting conditions of aw x temperature x elevated CO2 (2x and 3x existing levels are detailed for the first time. This suggests that while such interacting environmental conditions have little effect on growth they do have a significant impact on aflatoxin biosynthetic gene expression (structural aflD and regulatory aflR genes and can significantly stimulate the production of AFB1. While the individual factors alone have an impact, it is the combined effect of these three abiotic factors which have an impact on mycotoxin production. This approach provides data which is necessary to help predict the real impacts of climate change on mycotoxigenic fungi.

  18. The induction of neoplastic lesions by aflatoxin-B1 in the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Mofty, M M; Sakr, S A

    1988-01-01

    The carcinogenic activity of aflatoxin-B1, the metabolic product of the mold Aspergillus flavus (a commonly occurring contaminant of groundnuts and other foodstuffs), was tested using the Egyptian toad (Bufo regularis). Injecting the toads with aflatoxin-B1 at a dose level of 0.01 mg/50 g body wt in 1 ml corn oil once a week for 15 weeks induced hepatocellular carcinomas in 19% of the experimental toads. Four toads developed tumors in the kidney due to metastases from the primary hepatocellular carcinomas.

  19. Prenatal exposure to aflatoxin B1: developmental, behavioral, and reproductive alterations in male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriya, Ch.; Reddy, P. Sreenivasula

    2015-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) inhibits androgen biosynthesis as a result of its ability to form a high-affinity complex with the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. The results of the present study demonstrate the postnatal effects of in utero exposure to AfB1 in the rat. Pregnant Wistar rats were given 10, 20, or 50 μg AfB1/kg body weight daily from gestation day (GD) 12 to GD 19. At parturition, newborns were observed for clinical signs and survival. All animals were born alive and initially appeared to be active. Male pups from control and AfB1-exposed animals were weaned and maintained up to postnatal day (PD) 100. Litter size, birth weight, sex ratio, survival rate, and crown-rump length of the pups were significantly decreased in AfB1-exposed rats when compared to controls. Elapsed time (days) for testes to descend into the scrotal sac was significantly delayed in experimental pups when compared to control pups. Behavioral observations such as cliff avoidance, negative geotaxis, surface rightening activity, ascending wire mesh, open field behavior, and exploratory and locomotory activities were significantly impaired in experimental pups. Body weights and the indices of testis, cauda epididymis, prostate, seminal vesicles, and liver were significantly reduced on PD 100 in male rats exposed to AfB1 during embryonic development when compared with controls. Significant reduction in the testicular daily sperm production, epididymal sperm count, and number of viable, motile, and hypo-osmotic tail coiled sperm was observed in experimental rats. The levels of serum testosterone and activity levels of testicular hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were significantly decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a significant increase in the serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone in experimental rats. Deterioration in the testicular and cauda epididymal architecture was observed in experimental rats. The results of fertility

  20. Uncommon occurrence ratios of aflatoxin B1, B 2, G 1, and G 2 in maize and groundnuts from Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matumba, Limbikani; Sulyok, Michael; Njoroge, Samuel M C; Njumbe Ediage, Emmanuel; Van Poucke, Christof; De Saeger, Sarah; Krska, Rudolf

    2015-02-01

    We report an unusual aflatoxin profile in maize and groundnuts from Malawi, with aflatoxin G1 found routinely at equal or even higher levels than aflatoxin B1. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) ratio in a contaminated sample is generally greater than 50% of total aflatoxin (sum of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2). In Malawi, the aflatoxin occurrence ratios were determined by examining LC-MS/MS and HPLC fluorescence detection (FLD) data of 156 naturally contaminated raw maize and 80 groundnut samples collected in 2011 and 2012. Results showed that natural aflatoxin occurrence ratio differed. In 47% of the samples, the concentration of AFG1 was higher than that of AFB1. The mean concentration percentages of AFB1/AFB2/AFG1/AFG2 in reference to total aflatoxins were found to be 47:5:43:5%, respectively. The AFG1 and AFB1 50/50 trend was observed in maize and groundnuts and was consistent for samples collected in both years. If the AFB1 measurement was used to check compliance of total aflatoxin regulatory limit set at 10, 20, 100, and 200 μg/kg with an assumption that AFB1≥50% of the total aflatoxin content, 8, 13, 24, and 26% false negative rates would have occurred respectively. It is therefore important for legislation to consider total aflatoxins rather than AFB1 alone.

  1. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1 was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis on the basis of 18S rDNA, could remove 26.3% of aflatoxin B1 after 48 h of fermentation in nutrient broth (NB. Optimization of fermentation conditions for aflatoxin B1 degradation by selected Aspergillus niger was also performed. These results showed that 58.2% of aflatoxin B1 was degraded after 24 h of culture under the optimal fermentation conditions. The aflatoxin B1 degradation activity of Aspergillus niger supernatant was significantly stronger than cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, effects of temperature, heat treatment, pH, and metal ions on aflatoxin B1 degradation by the supernatant were examined. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 degradation of Aspergillus niger is enzymatic and this process occurs in the extracellular environment.

  2. Development and Characterization of an Electroless Plated Silver/Cysteine Sensor Platform for the Electrochemical Determination of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Paul Wacoo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An electroless plated silver/cysteine sensor platform [Glass|silver|cysteine|aflatoxin B1|horseradish peroxidase] for the Electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 was developed and characterized. This involved four major steps: (1 an electroless deposition of silver (plating onto a glass slide, (2 immobilization of cysteine; (3 conjugation of aflatoxin B1 to cysteine groups; and (4 blocking of free cysteine groups with horseradish peroxidase (HRP. The binding of cysteine to the silver was demonstrated by the disappearance of thiol (S-H groups at 2500 cm−1 using Fourier transmittance infrared spectra (FT-IR, while the subsequent steps in the assembly of sensor platform were monitored using both FT-IR and cyclic voltammetry, respectively. The sensor platform exhibited a broadened nonsymmetrical redox couple as indicated by cyclic voltammetry. The platform was further characterized for sensitivity and limit of detection. The indirect competitive immunoassay format, whereby free and immobilized aflatoxin B1 on the sensor competed for the binding site of free anti-aflatoxin B1 antibody, was used at various concentrations of aflatoxin B1. The sensor generated differential staircase voltammogram that was inversely proportional to the concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin B1 in the range of 0.06–1.1 ng/mL with a detection limit of 0.08 ng/mL could be detected.

  3. Regression of Aflatoxin B1-Induced Hepatocellular Carcinomas by Reduced Glutathione

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novi, Anna M.

    1981-05-01

    Reduced glutathione administered to rats bearing aflatoxin B1-induced liver tumors caused regression of tumor growth and resulted in survival of the animals. Since glutathione is a harmless natural product, it merits further investigation as a potential antitumor drug for humans.

  4. Aptamer-tagged DNA origami for spatially addressable detection of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhisong; Wang, Ying; Xu, Dan; Pang, Lei

    2017-01-10

    A DNA origami-based platform for detecting aflatoxin B1 has been constructed with the assistance of aptamer probes and its complementary ssDNA-modified gold nanoparticles. This work may open new horizons for the application of DNA origami in the detection of a variety of small molecules.

  5. Transcriptomic Analysis of Aflatoxin B1-Regulated Genes in Rat Hepatic Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨柳; 季静; 李光辉; 李君文; 陈招立; 王海勇

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxins are the most popular hepatotoxicants. Chronic exposure to aflatoxins leads to a wide variety of liver diseases, such as hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, we analyzed the genome wide expression profiles of aflatoxin B1-induced rat hepatic epithelial cells. The expression of 325, 184 and 199 special genes was altered when exposed to 0.03, 0.1 and 0.2 μmol/L aflatoxin B1 respectively, and 239 genes were commonly expressed. After the functional analysis on these dose-special genes, we determined several key pathways related to hepatotoxicity, such as TGF-beta signaling pathway, tight junction, adherens junction, the regulation of actin cytoskeleton, ErbB signaling pathway, p53 signaling pathway, pathways in cancer and axon guidance. Common genes were mainly associated with focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, and cell adhesion molecules. Gene ontology annotations showed a good concordance with these pathways. The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(PCR) analysis of selected genes showed similar patterns in microarrays. The toxicogenomic study provides a better understanding of molecular mechanisms of aflatoxins.

  6. Emericella venezuelensis, a new species with stellate ascospores producing sterigmatocystin and aflatoxin B-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R.A.

    2004-01-01

    , variecoxanthone A, B, C, isoemericellin, kojic acid, varitriol, varioxiran, dihydroterrein, 7-hydroxyemodin, avariquinone and stromemycin. E. pluriseminata produces several unknown specific extrolites. E. venezuelensis is the first organism of marine origin reported to produce aflatoxin. Aflatoxin production by E...... media. The three species also differ in their profiles of extrolites (secondary metabolites). Emericella venezuelensis produces aflatoxin B-1, sterigmatocystin, and terrein and compounds with chromophores of the shamixanthone, emerin and desertorin type of compounds. F. variecolor produces asteltoxin....... venezuelensis makes this species an attractive model organism for the study of the regulation of this important type of carcinogenic mycotoxins in combination with the knowledge on sterigmatocystin production by E. nidulans, soon to be whole genome sequenced. The isolates were also analyzed cladistically using...

  7. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; van der Fels-Klerx, H. J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, M.; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumperis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-04-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in agricultural food and feed products and their commodities is regulated worldwide. The possible change in patterns of aflatoxin occurrence in crops due to climate change is a matter of concern that may require anticipatory actions. The aim of this study was to predict aflatoxin contamination in maize and wheat crops, within the next 100 years, under a +2 °C and +5 °C climate change scenario, applying a modelling approach. Europe was virtually covered by a net, 50 × 50 km grids, identifying 2254 meshes with a central point each. Climate data were generated for each point, linked to predictive models and predictions were run consequently. Aflatoxin B1 is predicted to become a food safety issue in maize in Europe, especially in the +2 °C scenario, the most probable scenario of climate change expected for the next years. These results represent a supporting tool to reinforce aflatoxin management and to prevent human and animal exposure.

  8. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrapati Kotinagu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06. Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm. Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48 and feed ingredients (49 samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%. Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.

  9. Effect of dietary acids on the formation of aflatoxin B2a as a means to detoxify aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushing, Blake R; Selim, Mustafa I

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1 carcinogen and a common food contaminant worldwide with widely uncontrolled human exposure. The ability of organic acids to transform AFB1 into a known detoxified form, aflatoxin B2a (AFB2a), was investigated using high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI/TOF/MS). The identity of the transformation product was confirmed by accurate mass measurement, chromatographic separation from other aflatoxins, H(1)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy. Of the weak acids tested, citric acid was found to be the most effective for AFB2a formation. At room temperature, 1 M citric acid was able to convert > 97% of AFB1 to AFB2a over 96 h of treatment. Up to 98% transformation was achieved by boiling AFB1 in the presence of citric acid for 20 min. AFB1 hydration after ingestion was explored by spiking AFB1 into simulated gastric fluid containing citric acid. Under these conditions, > 71% of AFB1 was hydrated to AFB2a and did not show any reversion to the parent compound after being transferred to a neutral solution. These results provide a basis for a practical and effective method for detoxification of AFB1 in contaminated foods.

  10. Non-linear relationships between aflatoxin B1 levels and the biological response of monkey kidney vero cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin (AF)-producing fungi contaminate food and feed during preharvest, storage and processing periods. Once consumed, AF accumulates in tissues, causing illnesses in animals and humans. At least 20 different types of AFs have been identified, and of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most ubiqui...

  11. Interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and aflatoxin B1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an important environmental carcinogen and can induce DNA damage and involve in the carcinogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The deficiency of DNA repair capacity related to the polymorphisms of DNA repair genes might play a central role in the process of HCC tumorigenesis. However, the interaction of DNA repair gene polymorphisms and AFB1 in the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma has not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated whether six polymorphisms (i...

  12. Electrochemical Immunosensor Based on Polythionine/Gold Nanoparticles for the Determination of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H.O. Owino

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available An aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 electrochemical immunosensor was developed by the immobilisation of aflatoxin B1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA conjugate on a polythionine (PTH/gold nanoparticles (AuNP-modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE. The surface of the AFB1-BSA conjugate was covered with horseradish peroxidase (HRP, in order to prevent non-specific binding of the immunosensors with ions in the test solution. The AFB1 immunosensor exhibited a quasi-reversible electrochemistry as indicated by a cyclic voltammetric (CV peak separation (ΔEp value of 62 mV. The experimental procedure for the detection of AFB1 involved the setting up of a competition between free AFB1 and the immobilised AFB1-BSA conjugate for the binding sites of free anti-aflatoxin B1 (anti-AFB1 antibody. The immunosensor’s differential pulse voltammetry (DPV responses (peak currents decreased as the concentration of free AFB1 increased within a dynamic linear range (DLR of 0.6 - 2.4 ng/mL AFB1 and a limit of detection (LOD of 0.07 ng/mL AFB1. This immunosensing procedure eliminates the need for enzyme-labeled secondary antibodies normally used in conventional ELISA–based immunosensors.

  13. Screening a Strain of Aspergillus niger and Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for Degradation of Aflatoxin B1

    OpenAIRE

    Wei Zhang; Beibei Xue; Mengmeng Li; Yang Mu; Zhihui Chen; Jianping Li; Anshan Shan

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1, a type of highly toxic mycotoxin produced by some species belonging to the Aspergillus genus, such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is widely distributed in feed matrices. Here, coumarin was used as the sole carbon source to screen microorganism strains that were isolated from types of feed ingredients. Only one isolate (ND-1) was able to degrade aflatoxin B1 after screening. ND-1 isolate, identified as a strain of Aspergillus niger using phylogenetic analysis ...

  14. A Theoretical Study of 8-Chloro-9-Hydroxy-Aflatoxin B1, the Conversion Product of Aflatoxin B1 by Neutral Electrolyzed Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escobedo-González, René; Méndez-Albores, Abraham; Villarreal-Barajas, Tania; Aceves-Hernández, Juan Manuel; Miranda-Ruvalcaba, René; Nicolás-Vázquez, Inés

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical studies of 8-chloro-9-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (2) were carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT). This molecule is the reaction product of the treatment of aflatoxin B1 (1) with hypochlorous acid, from neutral electrolyzed water. Determination of the structural, electronic and spectroscopic properties of the reaction product allowed its theoretical characterization. In order to elucidate the formation process of 2, two reaction pathways were evaluated—the first one considering only ionic species (Cl+ and OH−) and the second one taking into account the entire hypochlorous acid molecule (HOCl). Both pathways were studied theoretically in gas and solution phases. In the first suggested pathway, the reaction involves the addition of chlorenium ion to 1 forming a non-classic carbocation assisted by anchimeric effect of the nearest aromatic system, and then a nucleophilic attack to the intermediate by the hydroxide ion. In the second studied pathway, as a first step, the attack of the double bond from the furanic moiety of 1 to the hypochlorous acid is considered, accomplishing the same non-classical carbocation, and again in the second step, a nucleophilic attack by the hydroxide ion. In order to validate both reaction pathways, the atomic charges, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital were obtained for both substrate and product. The corresponding data imply that the C9 atom is the more suitable site of the substrate to interact with the hydroxide ion. It was demonstrated by theoretical calculations that a vicinal and anti chlorohydrin is produced in the terminal furan ring. Data of the studied compound indicate an important reduction in the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the target molecule, as demonstrated previously by our research group using different in vitro assays. PMID:27455324

  15. A Theoretical Study of 8-Chloro-9-Hydroxy-Aflatoxin B1, the Conversion Product of Aflatoxin B1 by Neutral Electrolyzed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René Escobedo-González

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical studies of 8-chloro-9-hydroxy-aflatoxin B1 (2 were carried out by Density Functional Theory (DFT. This molecule is the reaction product of the treatment of aflatoxin B1 (1 with hypochlorous acid, from neutral electrolyzed water. Determination of the structural, electronic and spectroscopic properties of the reaction product allowed its theoretical characterization. In order to elucidate the formation process of 2, two reaction pathways were evaluated—the first one considering only ionic species (Cl+ and OH− and the second one taking into account the entire hypochlorous acid molecule (HOCl. Both pathways were studied theoretically in gas and solution phases. In the first suggested pathway, the reaction involves the addition of chlorenium ion to 1 forming a non-classic carbocation assisted by anchimeric effect of the nearest aromatic system, and then a nucleophilic attack to the intermediate by the hydroxide ion. In the second studied pathway, as a first step, the attack of the double bond from the furanic moiety of 1 to the hypochlorous acid is considered, accomplishing the same non-classical carbocation, and again in the second step, a nucleophilic attack by the hydroxide ion. In order to validate both reaction pathways, the atomic charges, the highest occupied molecular orbital and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital were obtained for both substrate and product. The corresponding data imply that the C9 atom is the more suitable site of the substrate to interact with the hydroxide ion. It was demonstrated by theoretical calculations that a vicinal and anti chlorohydrin is produced in the terminal furan ring. Data of the studied compound indicate an important reduction in the cytotoxic and genotoxic potential of the target molecule, as demonstrated previously by our research group using different in vitro assays.

  16. Cytochrome P3-450 cDNA encodes aflatoxin B1-4-hydroxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faletto, M B; Koser, P L; Battula, N; Townsend, G K; Maccubbin, A E; Gelboin, H V; Gurtoo, H L

    1988-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent hepatocarcinogen and ubiquitous dietary contaminant in some countries, is detoxified to aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) via cytochrome P-450-mediated AFB1-4-hydroxylase. Genetic studies in mice have demonstrated that the expression of AFB1-4-hydroxylase is regulated by the aryl hydrocarbon locus and suggested that different cytochrome P-450 isozymes catalyze AFB1-4-hydroxylase and aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase activities. We have now examined lysates from mammalian cells infected with recombinant vaccinia viruses containing expressible cytochrome P1-450 or P3-450 cDNAs for their ability to metabolize AFB1 to AFM1. Our results show that cytochrome P3-450 cDNA specifies AFB1-4-hydroxylase. This is the first direct assignment of a specific cytochrome P-450 to an AFB1 detoxification pathway. This finding may have relevance to the dietary modulation of AFB1 hepatocarcinogenesis.

  17. Differential inhibition of aflatoxin B1 oxidation by gestodene action on human liver microsomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B R; Oh, H S; Kim, D H

    1997-11-01

    Human cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A is known to be involved in the formation of both aflatoxin B1-exo-8,9-epoxide (exo-epoxidation) and aflatoxin Q1 (3 alpha-hydroxylation). Gestodene, a known inactivator of P450 3A4, inhibited the formation of AFB1 metabolites in a variety of ways depending on the incubation condition. Preincubation of gestodene with human liver microsomes prior to the addition of AFB1 inhibited both exo-epoxidation and 3 alpha-hydroxylation whereas simultaneous incubation of gestodene with AFB1 only inhibited 3 alpha-hydroxylation. These results suggest that two independent substrate binding sites exist in P450 3A4, and AFB1 binds to both of the binding sites. Gestodene selectively binds to one of the binding sites leading to the formation of AFQ1, whereas it does not affect the formation of exo-epoxide via the other binding site.

  18. Transformation of adsorbed aflatoxin B1 on smectite at elevated temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxins cause liver damage and suppress immunity. Smectites can be used to reduce the bioavailability of aflatoxins through adsorption. To further reduce the toxicity of aflatoxins and to eliminate the treatments of aflatoxin-loaded smectites, degrading the adsorbed aflatoxin to nontoxic or less ...

  19. Effects of a Calcium Bentonite Clay in Diets Containing Aflatoxin when Measuring Liver Residues of Aflatoxin B1 in Starter Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Fowler

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown success using clay-based binders to adsorb aflatoxin in animal feeds; however, no adsorbent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of aflatoxicosis. In this study, growth and relative organ weights were evaluated along with a residue analysis for aflatoxin B1 in liver tissue collected from broiler chickens consuming dietary aflatoxin (0, 600, 1200, and 1800 µg/kg both with and without 0.2% of a calcium bentonite clay additive (TX4. After one week, only the combined measure of a broiler productivity index was significantly affected by 1800 µg/kg aflatoxin. However, once birds had consumed treatment diets for two weeks, body weights and relative kidney weights were affected by the lowest concentration. Then, during the third week, body weights, feed conversion, and the productivity index were affected by the 600 µg/kg level. Results also showed that 0.2% TX4 was effective at reducing the accumulation of aflatoxin B1 residues in the liver and improving livability in birds fed aflatoxin. The time required to clear all residues from the liver was less than one week. With evidence that the liver’s ability to process aflatoxin becomes relatively efficient within three weeks, this would imply that an alternative strategy for handling aflatoxin contamination in feed could be to allow a short, punctuated exposure to a higher level, so long as that exposure is followed by at least a week of a withdrawal period on a clean diet free of aflatoxin.

  20. Aflatoxin B1 Induces Reactive Oxygen Species-Mediated Autophagy and Extracellular Trap Formation in Macrophages

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Yanan; Shi, Xiaochen; Tang, Xudong; Wang, Yang; Shen, Fengge; Zhang, Qiaoli; Wang, Chao; Jiang, Mingguo; Liu, Mingyuan; Yu, Lu

    2017-01-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of highly toxic mycotoxins with high carcinogenicity that are commonly found in foods. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic member of the aflatoxin family. A recent study reported that AFB1 can induce autophagy, but whether AFB1 can induce extracellular traps (ETs) and the relationships among innate immune responses, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and autophagy and the ETs induced by AFB1 remain unknown. Here, we demonstrated that AFB1 induced a complete autophagic process in macrophages (MΦ) (THP-1 cells and RAW264.7 cells). In addition, AFB1 induced the generation of MΦ ETs (METs) in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, the formation of METs significantly reduced the AFB1 content. Further analysis using specific inhibitors showed that the inhibition of either autophagy or ROS prevented MET formation caused by AFB1, indicating that autophagy and ROS were required for AFB1-induced MET formation. The inhibition of ROS prevented autophagy, indicating that ROS generation occurred upstream of AFB1-induced autophagy. Taken together, these data suggest that AFB1 induces ROS-mediated autophagy and ETs formation and an M1 phenotype in MΦ. PMID:28280716

  1. Prevention of Aflatoxin B1-Induced DNA Breaks by β-D-Glucan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Madrigal-Bujaidar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are a group of naturally-occurring carcinogens that are known to contaminate different human and animal foodstuffs. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most genotoxic hepatocarcinogenic compound of all of the aflatoxins. In this report, we explore the capacity of β-D-glucan (Glu to reduce the DNA damage induced by AFB1 in mouse hepatocytes. For this purpose, we applied the comet assay to groups of animals that were first administered Glu in three doses (100, 400 and 700 mg/kg bw, respectively and, 20 min later, 1.0 mg/kg of AFB1. Liver cells were obtained at 4, 10 and 16 h after the chemical administration and examined. The results showed no protection of the damage induced by AFB1 with the low dose of the polysaccharide, but they did reveal antigenotoxic activity exerted by the two high doses. In addition, we induced a co-crystallization between both compounds, determined their fusion points and analyzed the molecules by UV spectroscopy. The data suggested the formation of a supramolecular complex between AFB1 and β-D-glucan.

  2. Genetic variation of Aflatoxin B(1) aldehyde reductase genes (AFAR) in human tumour cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praml, Christian; Schulz, Wolfgang; Claas, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    AFAR genes play a key role in the detoxification of the carcinogen Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). In the rat, Afar1 induction can prevent AFB(1)-induced liver cancer. It has been proposed that AFAR enzymes can metabolise endogenous diketones and dialdehydes that may be cytotoxic and/or genotoxic....... Furthermore, human AFAR1 catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of the neuromodulator gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and was found elevated in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The human AFAR gene family maps to a genomic region in 1p36 of frequent...

  3. Oxidative Role of Aflatoxin B1 on the Liver of Wheat Milling Workers

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The study aimed to estimate oxidative role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the liver in wheat milling workers. Materials and Methods: Case-control study was conducted to compare between the levels of AFB1/albumin (AFB1/alb), liver enzymes (ALT, AST, GGT, and ALP), P53, MDA, GST, SOD, zinc and vitamin C in 35 wheat milling workers and 40 control subjects. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that ALT, AST, GGT, ALP, P53, MDA, GST and SOD in workers were significantly elevated compared...

  4. Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 during the Fermentation of Alcoholic Beverages

    OpenAIRE

    Naoki Mochizuki; Yasushi Nagatomi; Atsuo Uyama; Tomonori Inoue

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine...

  5. Aflatoxin B1 levels in groundnut and sunflower oils in different Sudanese states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariod, Abdalbasit Adam; Idris, Yousif Mohamed Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the level of contamination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in groundnut and sunflower oils was determined. The 241 oil samples were collected from Khartoum, Gezira, Kordofan and Algadarif states of Sudan and assessed for AFB1 using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). AFB1 levels in groundnut oil samples ranged from 0.5 to 70 µg/kg and were 0.7 to 35 µg/kg in sunflower oil samples. High contamination was found in unrefined samples. It was concluded that AFB1 levels in oil samples indicated that growing, harvesting, handling and storage of the crops were not done properly.

  6. Affinity maturation of single-chain variable fragment specific for aflatoxin B(1) using yeast surface display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Won-Ki; Kim, Sung-Gun; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2015-12-01

    As aflatoxin B1 is one of the most toxic mycotoxins, it is important to detect and to quantify aflatoxin B1 accurately by immunological methods. To enhance aflatoxin B1-binding affinity of the single-chain variable fragment, yeast surface display technique combined with fluorescence-activated cell sorting was applied. A randomly mutated scFv library was subjected to 4 rounds of fluorescence-activated cell sorting, resulting in isolation of 5 scFv variants showing an affinity improvement compared to the parental wild type scFv. The best scFv with a 9-fold improvement in affinity for aflatoxin B1 exhibited similar specificity to the monoclonal antibody. Most of the mutations in scFv-M37 were located outside of the canonical antigen-contact loops, suggesting that its affinity improvement might be driven by an allosteric effect inducing scFv-M37 to form a more favorable binding pocket for aflatoxin B1 than the wild type scFv.

  7. Effect of water molecules on the fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 mediated by Aflatoxin B1:beta-cyclodextrin complexes. A theoretical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Galicia, Guillermo; Garduño-Juárez, Ramón; Gabriela Vargas, M

    2007-01-01

    In order to explain the observed fluorescence enhancement of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) when forming AFB1:beta-cyclodextrin (AFB1:beta-CD) inclusion complexes, we have performed a theoretical (quantum chemistry calculations) study of AFB1 and AFB1:beta-CD in vacuum and in the presence of aqueous solvent. The AM1 method was used to calculate the absorption and emission wavelengths of these molecules. With the help of density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT) vibrational frequencies and related excitation energies of AFB1 and AFB1.(H2O)m = 4,5,6,11 were calculated. On the basis of these calculations we propose a plausible mechanism for the fluorescence enhancement of AFB1 in the presence of beta-CD: (1) before photoexcitation of AFB1 to its S1 excited state, there is a vibrational coupling between the vibrational modes involving the AFB1 carbonyl groups and the bending modes of the nearby water molecules (CG + WM); (2) these interactions allow a thermal relaxation of the excited AFB1 molecules that results in fluorescence quenching; (3) when the AFB1 molecules form inclusion complexes with beta-CD the CG + WM interaction decreases; and (4) this gives rise to a fluorescence enhancement.

  8. Occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in Malaysian foods used for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Kasa R N; Farhana, Nazira I; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2011-05-01

    Malaysian population widely consumes the cereal-based foods, oilseeds, nuts, and spices in their daily diet. Mycotoxigenic fungi are well known to invade food products under storage conditions and produce mycotoxins that have threat to human and animal health. Therefore, determining toxigenic fungi and aflatoxin B(1) (AFB1) in foods used for human consumption is of prime importance to develop suitable management strategies and to minimize risk. Ninety-five food products marketed in Penang, Malaysia were randomly collected from different supermarkets and were analyzed for presence of Aspergillus spp. by agar plate assay and AFB1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). A. flavus was the dominant fungi in all foods followed by A. niger. Fifty-five A. flavus strains were tested for their ability to produce aflatoxins on rice grain substrate. Thirty-six (65.4%) strains out of 55 produced AFB1 ranging from 1700 to 4400 μg/kg and 17 strains (31%) produced AFB2 ranging from 620 to 1670 μg/kg. Natural occurrence of AFB1 could be detected in 72.6% food products ranging from 0.54 to 15.33 μg/kg with a mean of 1.95 μg/kg. Maximum AFB1 levels were detected in peanut products ranging from 1.47 to 15.33 μg/kg. AFB1 levels detected in all food products were below the Malaysian permissible limits (<35 μg/kg). Aspergillus spp. and AFB1 was not detected in any cookies tested. Although this survey was not comprehensive, it provides valuable information on aflatoxin levels in foods marketed in Malaysia.

  9. Effect of three different anti-mycotoxin additives on broiler chickens exposed to aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The growth of filamentous fungi on food often causes, aside from its deterioration, the mycotoxin production which determines economic losses in poultry industry, such as decreased productivity and injuries on poultry's carcass. Adsorbents based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which contain esterified glucomannan, are an alternative to reduce the mycotoxins bioavailability. The aim of this study was to compare in vitro and in vivo the performance of new three anti-mycotoxin additives (AMA based on yeast cell wall from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The adsorption process was quantified in vitro, and the data obtained when plotted with Hill's equation indicated a cooperative process. Then, the three different AMA were tested for its ability to reduce the effects of aflatoxins in the diet of growing broiler chickens. The addition of 1 mg kg-1 aflatoxin B1 to the diets of broilers caused a negative change on the performance parameters besides increasing liver weight, fatty degeneration and liver necrosis. The addition of two different kinds of AMA (0.2% could reverse such effects. In conclusion, AMA 1 and 2 are additives with good potential for application on animal production. The AMA 3 ingredients must be re-tested alone for its adsorption capacity. These are the first data reported from Brazil anti-mycotoxin additives with preliminary isothermal analysis. Since beneficial characteristics of S. cerevisiae cell wall in animal industry are strain dependent, this study suggests two new promising alternatives to ameliorate mycotoxin problem.

  10. [Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in experimental animals and its public health significance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán de Peña, Doralinda

    2007-01-01

    The presence of AFB1 in human beings was detected in Mexico in 1996 both as a mutation of the gene p53 in hepatocellular carcinomas in Monterrey, Mexico, and as the adduct AFB1-lysine in serum from patients in Matamoros, Mexico in 2003. Aflatoxin B1 has been classified as a carcinogenic agent to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The compound is a natural contaminant produced by Aspergillus flavus and/or A. parasiticus when these fungi grow on different food products. At the molecular level, this review covers the carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties of these mycotoxins and their risk to humans. It also gives insight into the causal relationship between aflatoxins and hepatocellular carcinoma. Information is provided about AFB1-formamidopyrimidine, which is a determinant of the carcinogenic and mutagenic capabilities. The results suggest that the Mexican population ingests food containing low amounts of AFB1. Analyses is presented of AFB1 toxicity, which is a consequence of the carcinogenic activity in liver cells.

  11. Rapid screening of aflatoxin B1 in beer by fluorescence polarization immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, N V; Eremin, S A

    2015-09-01

    This manuscript describes the development of a sensitive, fast and easily-performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) for the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in various beer samples, both lager and dark. The highest sensitivity was determined for six poly- and monoclonal antibodies selective towards aflatoxins. The sample pretreatment design was emphasized since beer samples are characterized by extremely diverse matrices. Herein, the choice of sorbent for effective removal of matrix interferences prior to analysis was crucial. The samples were diluted with a borate buffer solution containing 1% PEG 6000 and passed through the clean-up column packed with NH2-derivated silica. This sample pretreatment technique was perfectly suitable for the FPIA of lager beer samples, but for dark beer and ale it did not suffice. An artificial matrix was constructed to plot a calibration curve and quantify the results of the latter samples. The developed immunoassay was characterized by a limit of detection of 1 ng mL(-1). Apparent recovery values of 89-114% for lager and 80-125% for dark beer were established. The FPIA data for AFB1 was characterized by elevated linear regression coefficients, 0.9953 for spiked lager and 0.9895 for dark beer samples respectively.

  12. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Zygosaccharomyces rouxii with Solid State Fermentation in Peanut Meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanghui Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are highly carcinogenic, teratogenetic, and morbigenous secondary metabolites of Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus that can contaminate multiple staple foods, such as peanut, maize, and tree nuts. In this study, Zygosaccharomyces rouxii was screened out and identified from fermented soy paste—one kind of traditional Chinese food—to detoxify aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by aerobic solid state fermentation in peanut meal. The optimal degradation condition was chosen from single factor experiment, and the most effective detoxification rate was about 97%. As for liquid fermentation, we tested the binding ability of Z. rouxii, and the highest binding rate reached was 74.3% (nonviable cells of Z. rouxii in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS. Moreover, the biotransformation of AFB1 through fermentation of Z. rouxii in peanut meal was further verified by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS. According to TIC scan, after fermentation by Z. rouxii, the AFB1 in peanut meal was prominently degraded to the lowering peaks of AFB1. Additionally, m/s statistics demonstrated that AFB1 may be degraded to some new products whose structural properties may be different from AFB1, or the degradation products may be dissolved in the aqueous phase rather than the organic phase. As far as we know, this is the first report indicating that the safe strain of Z. rouxii has the ability to detoxify AFB1.

  13. Risk Assessment on Dietary Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in Post-Harvest Peanuts in the Yangtze River Ecological Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoxia Ding

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the 2983 peanut samples from 122 counties in six provinces of China’s Yangtze River ecological region collected between 2009–2014, along with the dietary consumption data in Chinese resident nutrition and health survey reports from 2002 and 2004, dietary aflatoxin exposure and percentiles in the corresponding statistics were calculated by non-parametric probability assessment, Monte Carlo simulation and bootstrap sampling methods. Average climatic conditions in the Yangtze River ecological region were calculated based on the data from 118 weather stations via the Thiessen polygon method. The survey results found that the aflatoxin contamination of peanuts was significantly high in 2013. The determination coefficient (R2 of multiple regression reflected by the aflatoxin B1 content with average precipitation and mean temperature in different periods showed that climatic conditions one month before harvest had the strongest impact on aflatoxin B1 contamination, and that Hunan and Jiangxi provinces were greatly influenced. The simulated mean aflatoxin B1 intake from peanuts at the mean peanut consumption level was 0.777–0.790 and 0.343–0.349 ng/(kg·d for children aged 2–6 and standard adults respectively. Moreover, the evaluated cancer risks were 0.024 and 0.011/(100,000 persons·year respectively, generally less than China’s current liver cancer incidence of 24.6 cases/(100,000 persons·year. In general, the dietary risk caused by peanut production and harvest was low. Further studies would focus on the impacts of peanut circulation and storage on aflatoxin B1 contamination risk assessment in order to protect peanut consumers’ safety and boost international trade.

  14. Co-mutagenicity of coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone) with aflatoxin B1 and human liver S9 in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeger, D E; Hsie, A W; Anderson, K E

    1999-06-01

    Coumarin (1,2-benzopyrone), a natural dietary constituent and drug currently under evaluation for treatment of certain cancers and lymphedema, reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced neoplasms in rodents. Because most rodents metabolize coumarin through 3,4-epoxidation, whereas 7-hydroxylation predominates in humans, their suitability as a model for coumarin effects in humans has been questioned. We examined coumarin chemoprotection against the promutagen and dietary contaminant aflatoxin B1 with human liver S9 bioactivation in the Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase mutation assay. Coumarin in the absence of aflatoxin B1 was not mutagenic or cytotoxic up to 500 microM. When included with either 1 or 10 microM aflatoxin B1, coumarin produced a dose-dependent increase in mutant frequency and cytotoxicity. At concentrations greater than 50 microM, coumarin stimulated human liver S9 bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 to the mutagenic 8,9-epoxide. This increase was 12- and fivefold at 500 microM coumarin with 1 and 10 microM aflatoxin B1, respectively, compared with incubations with aflatoxin B1 alone. These findings differ from previous results with liver S9 from other species, and indicate that coumarin co-mutagenicity with aflatoxin B1 and human liver S9 is through increased aflatoxin B1 bioactivation.

  15. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on in vitro ruminal fermentation of rations high in alfalfa hay or ryegrass hay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jiang, Y H; Yang, H J; Lund, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A 2 × 4 factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) at dose rates of 0, 320, 640, 960 ng/ml on ruminal fermentation of substrates high in alfalfa hay (HA, alfalfa hay: maize meal = 4:1) and ryegrass hay (HR, ryegrass hay: maize meal = 4:1). In vitro dry matter...

  16. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detec...

  17. Aflatoxin B(1) in affecting broiler's performance, immunity, and gastrointestinal tract: a review of history and contemporary issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Agha W; Razzazi-Fazeli, E; Bohm, Josef

    2011-06-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) is a common contaminant of poultry feeds in tropical and subtropical climates. Research during the last five decades has well established the negative effects of the mycotoxin on health of poultry. However, the last ten years of relevant data have accentuated the potential of low levels of aflatoxin B(1) to deteriorate broiler performance. In this regard, any attempt to establish a dose-effect relationship between aflatoxin B(1) level and broiler performance is also complicated due to differences in types of broilers and length of exposure to the mycotoxin in different studies. Contrary to the prevalent notion regarding literature saturation with respect to aflatoxicosis of chicken, many areas of aflatoxicosis still need to be explored. Literature regarding effects of the mycotoxin on the gastrointestinal tract in this regard is particular scanty and non-conclusive. In addition to these issues, the metabolism of aflatoxin B(1) and recently proposed hypotheses regarding biphasic effects of the mycotoxin in broilers are briefly discussed.

  18. Feasibility of detecting aflatoxin B1 on inoculated maize kernels surface using Vis/NIR hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    The feasibility of using a visible/near-infrared hyperspectral imaging system with a wavelength range between 400 and 1000 nm to detect and differentiate different levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) artificially titrated on maize kernel surface was examined. To reduce the color effects of maize kernels, ...

  19. Detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in individual maize kernels using short wave infrared (SWIR) hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short wave infrared hyperspectral imaging (SWIR) (1000-2500 nm) was used to detect aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in individual maize kernels. A total of 120 kernels of four varieties (or 30 kernels per variety) that had been artificially inoculated with a toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus and harvested f...

  20. Effect of Plectranthus glandulosus and Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oils on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin B1 Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbofung, CMF.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Plectranthus glandulosus leaves were extracted by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS, and their effects on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus were tested at five levels (i.e 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/l using SMKY agar medium. The main components of O. gratissimum were thymol (47.7% and -terpinene (14.3% whereas those of P. glandulosus were represented by -terpinene (30.8% and terpinolene (25.2%. After 8 days of incubation on essential oil-supplemented medium, growth of A. flavus was totally inhibited by 800 mg/l of O. gratissimum essential oil and by 1000 mg/l of P. glandulosus essential oil. The effect of essential oils on aflatoxin B1 synthesis was evaluated in SMKY broth. The medium supplemented with different essential oil concentrations, was inoculated with A. flavus mycelium and incubated at 25 °C. At 2, 4, 6 and 8 days, aflatoxin B1 concentrations in the supernatant were estimated using Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA. Results showed that aflatoxin B1 synthesis was inhibited by 1000 mg/l of both essential oils of O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus after 8 days of incubation. Results obtained in the present study indicate the possibility of exploiting O. gratissimum and P. glandulosus essential oils in the fight against strains of A. flavus responsible for biodeterioration of stored food products.

  1. Effects of milk yield, feed composition, and feed contamination with aflatoxin B1 on the aflatoxin M1 concentration in dairy cows’ milk investigated using Monte Carlo simulation modelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fels, van der Ine; Camenzuli, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1) in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF) contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1), and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dai

  2. Hepatoprotective Role of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum in Meat Type Chicken Fed Aflatoxin B1 Contaminated Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Din Muhammad, Naila Chand, Sarzamin Khan*, Asad Sultan, Mohammad Mushtaq and Rafiullah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk thistle was added in aflatoxin B1 contaminated poultry feed to investigate and compare its hepatoprotective effects with a commercial toxin binder. Two hundred and forty, day-old broilers were randomly allocated into four major groups A, B, C and D. Group A was kept as control, having aflatoxin free feed, while group B was fed aflatoxin contaminated feed, group C was raised on aflatoxin contaminated feed with toxin binder “Mycoad” @ 3g/kg of feed, while group D was provided aflatoxin contaminated feed along with milk thistle @10g/kg of feed. Aflatoxin B1 was present at the level of 80 µg/kg feed during the first week and 520 µg/kg feed in the remaining experimental period. Serum total protein was significantly (P<0.05 higher in group D, followed by group A, C and B. Serum enzymes including, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT values were significantly (P<0.05 lower in group D, followed by C, A and B, which are indicative of hepatoprotective role of milk thistle. Body weight gain and feed intake was decreased by aflatoxin contaminated feed (group B in comparison with group A and group D. Milk thistle supplementation improved body weight gain and feed intake and was similar to toxin binder treated birds. Average feed conversion ratio (FCR was significantly (P<0.05 higher (poor in group B and were the same in all other groups. Present study demonstrated that milk thistle can potentially be used as mycotoxin binder and to minimize the adverse effects of toxin contaminated feed in broilers production.

  3. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B(1) pharmacokinetics in human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jubert, Carole; Mata, John; Bench, Graham; Dashwood, Roderick; Pereira, Cliff; Tracewell, William; Turteltaub, Kenneth; Williams, David; Bailey, George

    2009-12-01

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans, where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1))-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB(1). However, neither AFB(1) pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted an unblinded crossover study to establish AFB(1) pharmacokinetic parameters among four human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla cotreatment in three of those volunteers. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an Institutional Review Board-approved dose of 14C-AFB(1) (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 mL water, followed by normal eating and drinking after 2 hours. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hours, and 14C- AFB(1) equivalents were determined by accelerator mass spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla or CHL, respectively. Protocols were repeated thrice for each volunteer. The study revealed rapid human AFB(1) uptake (plasma k(a), 5.05 + or - 1.10 h(-1); T(max), 1.0 hour) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hours) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB(1) absorption and reduced Cmax and AUCs (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB(1) pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  4. Aflatoxin B1 and M1 Degradation by Lac2 from Pleurotus pulmonarius and Redox Mediators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Martina; Fanelli, Francesca; Zucca, Paolo; Liuzzi, Vania C.; Quintieri, Laura; Cimmarusti, Maria T.; Monaci, Linda; Haidukowski, Miriam; Logrieco, Antonio F.; Sanjust, Enrico; Mulè, Giuseppina

    2016-01-01

    Laccases (LCs) are multicopper oxidases that find application as versatile biocatalysts for the green bioremediation of environmental pollutants and xenobiotics. In this study we elucidate the degrading activity of Lac2 pure enzyme form Pleurotus pulmonarius towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and M1 (AFM1). LC enzyme was purified using three chromatographic steps and identified as Lac2 through zymogram and LC-MS/MS. The degradation assays were performed in vitro at 25 °C for 72 h in buffer solution. AFB1 degradation by Lac2 direct oxidation was 23%. Toxin degradation was also investigated in the presence of three redox mediators, (2,2′-azino-bis-[3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid]) (ABTS) and two naturally-occurring phenols, acetosyringone (AS) and syringaldehyde (SA). The direct effect of the enzyme and the mediated action of Lac2 with redox mediators univocally proved the correlation between Lac2 activity and aflatoxins degradation. The degradation of AFB1 was enhanced by the addition of all mediators at 10 mM, with AS being the most effective (90% of degradation). AFM1 was completely degraded by Lac2 with all mediators at 10 mM. The novelty of this study relies on the identification of a pure enzyme as capable of degrading AFB1 and, for the first time, AFM1, and on the evidence that the mechanism of an effective degradation occurs via the mediation of natural phenolic compounds. These results opened new perspective for Lac2 application in the food and feed supply chains as a biotransforming agent of AFB1 and AFM1. PMID:27563923

  5. A Single Neonatal Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 Induces Prolonged Genetic Damage in Two Loci of Mouse Liver

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aflatoxin B 1 (AFB1) is a risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma in humans. Infant, but not adult, mice are sensitive to AFB1-induced liver carcinogenesis; a single dose during the neonatal period leads to hepatocellular carcinoma in adulthood. Earlier work defined the mutational spectrum in the gpt gene of gpt delta B6C3F1 mice 3 weeks after exposure to aflatoxin. In the present study, we examined the gpt spectrum 10 weeks postdosing and expanded the study to examine, at 3 and 10 weeks,...

  6. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE) on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g) male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w) for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i) a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii) an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii) restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which decreased as well as its

  7. Chemopreventive effect of cactus Opuntia ficus indica on oxidative stress and genotoxicity of aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Mansour Hédi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is potent hepatotoxic and hepatocarcinogenic agent. In aflatoxicosis, oxidative stress is a common mechanism contributing to initiation and progression of hepatic damage. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective effect of cactus cladode extract (CCE on aflatoxin B1-induced liver damage in mice by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA level, the protein carbonyls generation and the heat shock proteins Hsp 70 and Hsp 27 expressions in liver. We also looked for an eventual protective effect against AFB1-induced genotoxicity as determined by chromosome aberrations test, SOS Chromotest and DNA fragmentation assay. We further evaluated the modulation of p53, bax and bcl2 protein expressions in liver. Methods Adult, healthy balbC (20-25 g male mice were pre-treated by intraperitonial administration of CCE (50 mg/Kg.b.w for 2 weeks. Control animals were treated 3 days a week for 4 weeks by intraperitonial administration of 250 μg/Kg.b.w AFB1. Animals treated by AFB1 and CCE were divided into two groups: the first group was administrated CCE 2 hours before each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. The second group was administrated without pre-treatment with CCE but this extract was administrated 24 hours after each treatment with AFB1 3 days a week for 4 weeks. Results Our results clearly showed that AFB1 induced significant alterations in oxidative stress markers. In addition, it has a genotoxic potential and it increased the expression of pro apoptotic proteins p53 and bax and decreased the expression of bcl2. The treatment of CCE before or after treatment with AFB1, showed (i a total reduction of AFB1 induced oxidative damage markers, (ii an anti-genotoxic effect resulting in an efficient prevention of chromosomal aberrations and DNA fragmentation compared to the group treated with AFB1 alone (iii restriction of the effect of AFB1 by differential modulation of the expression of p53 which

  8. Modulation of the spleen transcriptome in domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo) in response to aflatoxin B1 and probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Melissa S; Settlage, Robert E; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S; Coulombe, Roger A; Reed, Kent M

    2015-03-01

    Poultry are highly susceptible to the immunotoxic effects of the food-borne mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Exposure impairs cell-mediated and humoral immunity, limits vaccine efficacy, and increases the incidence of costly secondary infections. We investigated the molecular mechanisms of AFB1 immunotoxicity and the ability of a Lactobacillus-based probiotic to protect against aflatoxicosis in the domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo). The spleen transcriptome was examined by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) of 12 individuals representing four treatment groups. Sequences (6.9 Gb) were de novo assembled to produce over 270,000 predicted transcripts and transcript fragments. Differential expression analysis identified 982 transcripts with statistical significance in at least one comparison between treatment groups. Transcripts with known immune functions comprised 27.6 % of significant expression changes in the AFB1-exposed group. Short exposure to AFB1 suppressed innate immune transcripts, especially from antimicrobial genes, but increased the expression of transcripts from E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase CBL-B and multiple interleukin-2 response genes. Up-regulation of transcripts from lymphotactin, granzyme A, and perforin 1 could indicate either increased cytotoxic potential or activation-induced cell death in the spleen during aflatoxicosis. Supplementation with probiotics was found to ameliorate AFB1-induced expression changes for multiple transcripts from antimicrobial and IL-2-response genes. However, probiotics had an overall suppressive effect on immune-related transcripts.

  9. Aflatoxin B1 in sesame seeds and sesame products from the Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Eleni; Tsourouflis, Kyriakos; Markaki, Panagiota

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is considered as the most potent liver carcinogen for humans. A method for determination in sesame seeds was developed. AFB1 was extracted by methanol-water, cleaned by immunoaffinity columns and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. The recovery factor and the limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1 in sesame seeds were 111.5% and 0.02 ng g(-1), respectively. Thirty samples of sesame products were examined for the presence of AFB1. After analysis, 77.6% of samples were found to be contaminated. Eight samples exceeded the European Union (EU) limit (2 µg AFB1 kg(-1)). In 15 samples, AFB1 was below the EU limit. Seven samples remained below the LOD. The most contaminated (14.49 ng AFB1 g(-1)) sample was unpeeled packaged sesame seeds. In all samples, aflatoxigenic Aspergilli fungi as well as the risk for AFB1 presence in sesame seed was investigated.

  10. Affinity improvement by fine tuning of single-chain variable fragment against aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Won-Ki; Na, Kang-In; Yoon, Jung-Hyun; Heo, Yoon-Jee; Lee, Daesang; Kim, Sung-Gun; Seo, Jin-Ho

    2016-10-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) produced in Aspergillus flavus is a major hepatocarcinogen found in foods and feed. For effective immunological detection of AFB1 at low concentrations, the development of high affinity antibody for AFB1 is required. Previously, an affinity-maturated single-chain variable fragment containing 6 mutations (scFv-M37) was isolated from an artificial mutagenic library, which showed a 9-fold higher affinity than its wild type scFv. In this study, the effect of the 6 mutated residues on the affinity improvement was characterized using surface plasmon resonance analysis, which identified a deleterious mutation (VH-A110T) located on a framework region of the scFv-M37. The back mutation of VH-A110T resulted in a 3.2-fold affinity improvement, which was attributed to decrease of dissociation rate constant (kd) in interaction between AFB1 and the back mutant scFv. The biophysical analyses using circular dichroism and gel filtration revealed that the back mutation of VH-A110T caused a subtle conformational change of the scFv toward tighter binding to AFB1.

  11. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Melissa S.; Cardona, Carol J.; Coulombe, Roger A.; Reed, Kent M.

    2016-01-01

    The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris) are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq). Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg) or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24) and wild turkey (n = 15) produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance. PMID:26751476

  12. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monson, Melissa S; Settlage, Robert E; McMahon, Kevin W; Mendoza, Kristelle M; Rawal, Sumit; El-Nezami, Hani S; Coulombe, Roger A; Reed, Kent M

    2014-01-01

    Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo), since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1.

  13. Response of the hepatic transcriptome to aflatoxin B1 in domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S Monson

    Full Text Available Dietary exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is detrimental to avian health and leads to major economic losses for the poultry industry. AFB1 is especially hepatotoxic in domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo, since these birds are unable to detoxify AFB1 by glutathione-conjugation. The impacts of AFB1 on the turkey hepatic transcriptome and the potential protection from pretreatment with a Lactobacillus-based probiotic mixture were investigated through RNA-sequencing. Animals were divided into four treatment groups and RNA was subsequently recovered from liver samples. Four pooled RNA-seq libraries were sequenced to produce over 322 M reads totaling 13.8 Gb of sequence. Approximately 170,000 predicted transcripts were de novo assembled, of which 803 had significant differential expression in at least one pair-wise comparison between treatment groups. Functional analysis linked many of the transcripts significantly affected by AFB1 exposure to cancer, apoptosis, the cell cycle or lipid regulation. Most notable were transcripts from the genes encoding E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase Mdm2, osteopontin, S-adenosylmethionine synthase isoform type-2, and lipoprotein lipase. Expression was modulated by the probiotics, but treatment did not completely mitigate the effects of AFB1. Genes identified through transcriptome analysis provide candidates for further study of AFB1 toxicity and targets for efforts to improve the health of domestic turkeys exposed to AFB1.

  14. Integrated analysis of transcriptomics and metabonomics profiles in aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotoxicity in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoyan; Hu, Bin; Shao, Li; Tian, Yu; Jin, Tingting; Jin, Yachao; Ji, Shen; Fan, Xiaohui

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this work was to identify mechanisms and potential biomarkers for predicting the development and progression of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced acute hepatotoxicity. In this study, microarray analysis and metabolites profiles were used to identify shifts in gene expression and metabolite levels associated with the affected physiological processes of rats treated with AFB1. Histopathological examinations and serum biochemical analysis were simultaneously performed; the results indicated that hepatotoxicity occurred in higher dosage groups. However, gene expression analysis and metabolite profiles are more sensitive than general toxicity studies for detecting AFB1-induced acute hepatotoxicity as the patterns of low-dose AFB1-treated rats in these two technique platforms were more similar to the rats in higher dosage groups than to the control rats. Integrated analysis of the results from general toxicity studies, transcriptomics and metabonomics profiles suggested that p53 signaling pathway induced by oxidative damage was the crucial step in AFB1-induced acute hepatotoxicity, whereas gluconeogenesis and lipid metabolism disorder were found to be the major metabolic effects after acute AFB1 exposure. The genes and metabolites significantly affected in common in rat liver or serum of three doses AFB1 treatments served as potential biomarkers for detecting AFB1-induced acute hepatotoxicity.

  15. [Contamination level of aflatoxin B1 in lotus seeds rapid screening by indirect competitive ELISA method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xian-feng; Dou, Xiao-wen; Kong, Wei-jun; Yang, Mei-hua; Zhao, Chong; Zhao, Ming; Ouyang, Zhen

    2015-02-01

    A simple and cost-effective indirect competitive enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ic-ELISA) was developed to rapidly screen the content of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in lotus seeds, and the results were confirmed by ultra-fast liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry( UFLC-MS/MS). Matrix-matched calibration expressed a good linearity ranging from 0. 171 to 7. 25 µg · L(-1) for AFB, with R2 > 0.978. The medium inhibitory concentration( IC50 ) for AFB1 was 1.29 µg · L(-1), the recovery for AFB1 was 74.73% to 126.9% with RSD lotus seeds samples and the results indicated that the contents of AFB, in samples 1-15 were in the range of 1. 19- 115. 3 µg · kg(-1) and in 40% of the samples exceeded the legal limit(5 µg · kg(-1)), while the contamination rate of AFB, in samples 16-20 was 40%. Pearson correlation coefficient(r) reached 0.997 for AFB1 content in the samples detected by ic-ELSIA and UFLC-MS/MS methods. The results proved that the developed ic-ELISA method is simple, sensitive and reliable, and can be used for rapid and high-throughput screening of AFB1 in lotus seeds

  16. Aflatoxin B1: Toxicity, bioactivation and detoxification in the polyphagous caterpillar Trichoplusia ni

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Sen Zeng; Zhimou Wen; Guodong Niu; May R.Berenbaum

    2013-01-01

    Trichoplusia ni caterpillars are polyphagous foliage-feeders and rarely likely to encounter aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and A.parasiticus,in their host plants.To determine how T.ni copes with AFB1,we evaluated the toxicity ofAFB1 to T.ni caterpillars at different developmental stages and found that AFB1 tolerance significantly increases with larval development.Diet incorporation of AFB1 at 1μg/g completely inhibited larval growth and pupation of newly hatched larvae,but 3μg/g AFB1 did not have apparent toxic effects on larval growth and pupation of caterpillars that first consume this compound 10 days after hatching.Piperonyl butoxide,a general inhibitor of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s),reduced the toxicity of AFB1,suggesting that AFB1 is bioactivated in T.ni and this bioactivation is mediated by P450s.Some plant allelochemicals,including flavonoids such as flavones,furanocoumarins such as xanthotoxin and imperatorin,and furanochromones such as visnagin,that induce P450s in other lepidopteran larvae ameliorated AFB1 toxicity,suggesting that P450s are also involved in AFB1 detoxification in T.ni.

  17. MicroRNA-24 Modulates Aflatoxin B1-Related Hepatocellular Carcinoma Prognosis and Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Xiao Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNA-24 (miR-24 may be involved in neoplastic process; however, the role of this microRNA in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC related to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has not been well elaborated. Here, we tested miR-24 expression in 207 pathology-diagnosed HCC cases from high AFB1 exposure areas and HCC cells. We found that miR-24 was upregulated in HCC tumor tissues relative to adjacent noncancerous tissue samples, and that the high expression of miR-24 was significantly correlated with larger tumor size, higher microvessel density, and tumor dedifferentiation. Additionally, this microRNA overexpression modified the recurrence-free survival (relative hazard ratio [HR], 4.75; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.66–8.47 and overall survival (HR=3.58, 95% CI = 2.34–5.46 of HCC patients. Furthermore, we observed some evidence of joint effects between miR-24 and AFB1 exposure on HCC prognosis. Functionally, miR-24 overexpression progressed tumor cells proliferation, inhibited cell apoptosis, and developed the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts. These results indicate for the first time that miR-24 may modify AFB1-related HCC prognosis and tumorigenesis.

  18. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1.

  19. Effects of Nutrients in Substrates of Different Grains on Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Sun, Lvhui; Zhang, Niya; Zhang, Jiacai; Guo, Jiao; Li, Chong; Rajput, Shahid Ali; Qi, Desheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study was to better understand the potential factors affecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) accumulation varies between different grains. The nutrient composition and contents of defatted substrates were determined; additionally, according to the nutrient content of the substrates, the effects of starch, soluble sugars, amino acids, and trace elements on AFB1 production and mycelial growth in Czapek-Dox medium were examined. These results verified that removal of lipids from ground substrates significantly reduced the substrate's potential for AFB1 production by Aspergillus flavus. Maltose, glucose, sucrose, arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and zinc significantly induced AFB1 production up to 1.7- to 26.6-fold. And stachyose more significantly promoted A. flavus growth than the other nutrients. Thus, this study demonstrated that, combined with the nutrients content of grains, in addition to lipids, sucrose, stachyose, glutamic acid, and zinc might play key roles in various grains that are differentially infected by A. flavus. Particularly, two new nutrients (arginine and stachyose) of the grains we found significantly stimulate AFB1 production and A. flavus growth, respectively. The results provide new concepts for antifungal methods to protect food and animal feed from AFB1 contamination. PMID:27294129

  20. Bioactivation and Regioselectivity of Pig Cytochrome P450 3A29 towards Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Chen, Ruohong; Zhang, Caihui; Li, Kangbai; Xu, Weiying; Wang, Lijuan; Chen, Qingmei; Mu, Peiqiang; Jiang, Jun; Wen, Jikai; Deng, Yiqun

    2016-01-01

    Due to unavoidable contaminations in feedstuff, pigs are easily exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and suffer from poisoning, thus the poisoned products potentially affect human health. Heretofore, the metabolic process of AFB1 in pigs remains to be clarified, especially the principal cytochrome P450 oxidases responsible for its activation. In this study, we cloned CYP3A29 from pig liver and expressed it in Escherichia coli, and its activity has been confirmed with the typical P450 CO-reduced spectral characteristic and nifedipine-oxidizing activity. The reconstituted membrane incubation proved that the recombinant CYP3A29 was able to oxidize AFB1 to form AFB1-exo-8,9-epoxide in vitro. The structural basis for the regioselective epoxidation of AFB1 by CYP3A29 was further addressed. The T309A mutation significantly decreased the production of AFBO, whereas F304A exhibited an enhanced activation towards AFB1. In agreement with the mutagenesis study, the molecular docking simulation suggested that Thr309 played a significant role in stabilization of AFB1 binding in the active center through a hydrogen bond. In addition, the bulk phenyl group of Phe304 potentially imposed steric hindrance on the binding of AFB1. Our study demonstrates the bioactivation of pig CYP3A29 towards AFB1 in vitro, and provides the insight for understanding regioselectivity of CYP3A29 to AFB1. PMID:27626447

  1. Genotoxic evaluation of ammonium inactivated aflatoxin B1 in mice fed with contaminated corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Márquez, R; Madrigal-Bujaidar, E; Tejada de Hernández, I

    1993-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major contaminant in different agricultural products including maize. In an attempt to reduce this problem and the hazards to human health, an AFB1 inactivating system with ammonia has been developed. In this work we evaluated the efficiency of the system in mice using micronucleus (MN) and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) analysis. Four groups of animals were fed during 8 weeks with a special diet mainly composed of maize: (1) uncontaminated; (2) uncontaminated/inactivated; (3) contaminated/inactivated; and (4) contaminated. We evaluated MN at weekly intervals in peripheral blood, and in weeks 4 and 8 SCE frequencies were quantified in bone marrow cells. The results showed that animals fed with AFB1 contaminated/inactivated maize had a 45% lower level of induced cytogenetic damage than those animals fed with AFB1 contaminated, but not inactivated maize. A residual amount of AFB1 after the inactivating treatment and the reconversion back to AFB1 in the organism may account for the remaining increased levels of SCE and MN.

  2. Determination of aflatoxin B1 levels in organic spices and herbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Halil; Arslan, Recep

    2013-01-01

    Organically produced spices and herbs were analyzed for determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA using immunoaffinity column. For this purpose 93 organic spices and 37 organic herbs were randomly selected from organic markets and organic shops in Turkey. AFB1 was detected in 58 organic spice and 32 organic herb samples. Among organic spice samples, the maximum value was detected in cinnamon sample (53 μg/kg). AFB1 was not detected in thyme samples. AFB1 levels of 41 organic spice samples were above the EU regulatory limit (5 μg/kg). Among organic herb samples the highest concentration of AFB1 (52.5 μg/kg) was detected in a rosehip sample. AFB1 levels of 21 organic herb samples were above the regulatory limits of the European Union. These results showed that more stringent measures must be taken for the prevention of mold contamination in the production of organic spices and herbs.

  3. In-vitro cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 to broiler lymphocytes of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CEP Zimmermann

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to study the in-vitro cytotoxic effects of different concentrations of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on broiler lymphocytes. Lymphocyte-rich mononuclear cells were separated by Ficoll-Histopaque density and cultured in 96-wellplates containing the evaluated AFB1 concentrations in 5% CO2 atmosphere at 39°C. Thereafter, MTT, PicoGreen, and reactive oxygen species assays were performed. Cell viability decreased in the presence of 10 µg/mL AFB1 at 48 h (p < 0.05 and of 10 and 20 µg/mL AFB1 at 72 h (p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively when compared to the control (0 µg/mL. However, a dose-dependent increase in the cell-free DNA at 24 h was observed at 1, 10 and 20 µg/mL (p < 0.001. ROS formation significantly increased at 24 h at all concentrations (p < 0.001. The in-vitro results demonstrate that AFB1 is cytotoxic and causes biomolecular oxidative damage in broiler lymphocytes.

  4. Thermal treatment of bentonite reduces aflatoxin b1 adsorption and affects stem cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nones, Janaína; Nones, Jader; Riella, Humberto Gracher; Poli, Anicleto; Trentin, Andrea Gonçalves; Kuhnen, Nivaldo Cabral

    2015-10-01

    Bentonites are clays that highly adsorb aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and, therefore, protect human and animal cells from damage. We have recently demonstrated that bentonite protects the neural crest (NC) stem cells from the toxicity of AFB1. Its protective effects are due to the physico-chemical properties and chemical composition altered by heat treatment. The aim of this study is to prepare and characterize the natural and thermal treatments (125 to 1000 °C) of bentonite from Criciúma, Santa Catarina, Brazil and to investigate their effects in the AFB1 adsorption and in NC cell viability after challenging with AFB1. The displacement of water and mineralogical phases transformations were observed after the thermal treatments. Kaolinite disappeared at 500 °C and muscovite and montmorillonite at 1000 °C. Slight changes in morphology, chemical composition, and density of bentonite were observed. The adsorptive capacity of the bentonite particles progressively reduced with the increase in temperature. The observed alterations in the structure of bentonite suggest that the heat treatments influence its interlayer distance and also its adsorptive capacity. Therefore, bentonite, even after the thermal treatment (125 to 1000 °C), is able to increase the viability of NC stem cells previously treated with AFB1. Our results demonstrate the effectiveness of bentonite in preventing the toxic effects of AFB1.

  5. Degradation of aflatoxin B1 during the fermentation of alcoholic beverages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2013-06-28

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a contaminant of grain and fruit and has one of the highest levels of carcinogenicity of any natural toxin. AFB1 and the fungi that produce it can also contaminate the raw materials used for beer and wine manufacture, such as corn and grapes. Therefore, brewers must ensure strict monitoring to reduce the risk of contamination. In this study, the fate of AFB1 during the fermentation process was investigated using laboratory-scale bottom and top beer fermentation and wine fermentation. During fermentation, cool wort beer samples and wine must samples were artificially spiked with AFB1 and the levels of AFB1 remaining after fermentation were analyzed. AFB1 levels were unchanged during both types of fermentation used for beer but were reduced to 30% of their initial concentration in wine. Differential analysis of the spiked and unspiked wine samples showed that the degradation compound was AFB2a, a hydrated derivative of AFB1. Thus, the results showed that the risk of AFB1 carryover was still present for both types of beer fermentation but was reduced in the case of wine fermentation because of hydration.

  6. Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in Thailand by consumption of brown and color rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panrapee, Iamtaweejaroen; Phakpoom, Kooprasertying; Thanapoom, Maneeboon; Nampeung, Anukul; Warapa, Mahakarnchanakul

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) intake of the Thai population through consumption of contaminated brown and color rice. A total of 240 rice samples from two harvesting periods were collected in June/July 2012 (period I) and in December 2012/January 2013 (period II) and analyzed for AFB1 by HPLC with fluorescence detection (limit of detection (LOD) = 0.093 ng/g). Exposure assessment was based on AFB1 levels in rice and food intake data for rice according to Thai National Consumption. Frequency and levels of AFB1 were higher in period I (59%, quality and safety of Thai rice largely comply with the requirement for both exports and domestic consumption. According to the Thai National Consumption data, the estimated AFB1 intake via rice consumption in period I and period II was 0.80 and 0.12 μg kg(-1) bw day(-1), respectively. The potential risk for cancer, based on the recommendation of the JECFA, was estimated to be 0.011 person/year/100,000 people at a mean consumption. Although the risk via consumption of Thai rice seems to be low, the maximum levels of AFB1 in this staple food suggest that careful monitoring and surveillance of AFB1 contamination in rice is essential to ensure the safety of rice.

  7. Aflatoxin B1 up-regulates insulin receptor substrate 2 and stimulates hepatoma cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanli Ma

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a potent carcinogen that can induce hepatocellular carcinoma. AFB1-8,9-exo-epoxide, one of AFB1 metabolites, acts as a mutagen to react with DNA and induce gene mutations, including the tumor suppressor p53. In addition, AFB1 reportedly stimulates IGF receptor activation. Aberrant activation of IGF-I receptor (IGF-IR signaling is tightly associated with various types of human tumors. In the current study, we investigated the effects of AFB1 on key elements in IGF-IR signaling pathway, and the effects of AFB1 on hepatoma cell migration. The results demonstrated that AFB1 induced IGF-IR, Akt, and Erk1/2 phosphorylation in hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and SMMC-7721, and an immortalized human liver cell line Chang liver. AFB1 also down-regulated insulin receptor substrate (IRS 1 but paradoxically up-regulated IRS2 through preventing proteasomal degradation. Treatment of hepatoma cells and Chang liver cells with IGF-IR inhibitor abrogated AFB1-induced Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. In addition, IRS2 knockdown suppressed AFB1-induced Akt and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Finally, AFB1 stimulated hepatoma cell migration. IGF-IR inhibitor or IRS2 knockdown suppressed AFB1-induced hepatoma cell migration. These data demonstrate that AFB1 stimulates hepatoma cell migration through IGF-IR/IRS2 axis.

  8. Quantifying Aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil using fabricating fluorescence probes based on upconversion nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Cuicui; Li, Huanhuan; Koidis, Anastasios; Chen, Quansheng

    2016-08-01

    Rare earth doped upconversion nanoparticles convert near-infrared excitation light into visible emission light. Compared to organic fluorophores and semiconducting nanoparticles, upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) offer high photochemical stability, sharp emission bandwidths, and large anti-Stokes shifts. Along with the significant light penetration depth and the absence of autofluorescence in biological samples under infrared excitation, these UCNPs have attracted more and more attention on toxin detection and biological labelling. Herein, the fluorescence probe based on UCNPs was developed for quantifying Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil. Based on a specific immunity format, the detection limit for AFB1 under optimal conditions was obtained as low as 0.2 ng·ml- 1, and in the effective detection range 0.2 to 100 ng·ml- 1, good relationship between fluorescence intensity and AFB1 concentration was achieved under the linear ratios up to 0.90. Moreover, to check the feasibility of these probes on AFB1 measurements in peanut oil, recovery tests have been carried out. A good accuracy rating (93.8%) was obtained in this study. Results showed that the nanoparticles can be successfully applied for sensing AFB1 in peanut oil.

  9. Hepatic Transcriptome Responses of Domesticated and Wild Turkey Embryos to Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mycotoxin, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a hepatotoxic, immunotoxic, and mutagenic contaminant of food and animal feeds. In poultry, AFB1 can be maternally transferred to embryonated eggs, affecting development, viability and performance after hatch. Domesticated turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are especially sensitive to aflatoxicosis, while Eastern wild turkeys (M. g. silvestris are likely more resistant. In ovo exposure provided a controlled AFB1 challenge and comparison of domesticated and wild turkeys. Gene expression responses to AFB1 in the embryonic hepatic transcriptome were examined using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq. Eggs were injected with AFB1 (1 μg or sham control and dissected for liver tissue after 1 day or 5 days of exposure. Libraries from domesticated turkey (n = 24 and wild turkey (n = 15 produced 89.2 Gb of sequence. Approximately 670 M reads were mapped to a turkey gene set. Differential expression analysis identified 1535 significant genes with |log2 fold change| ≥ 1.0 in at least one pair-wise comparison. AFB1 effects were dependent on exposure time and turkey type, occurred more rapidly in domesticated turkeys, and led to notable up-regulation in cell cycle regulators, NRF2-mediated response genes and coagulation factors. Further investigation of NRF2-response genes may identify targets to improve poultry resistance.

  10. Effects of Nutrients in Substrates of Different Grains on Aflatoxin B1 Production by Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study was to better understand the potential factors affecting aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 accumulation varies between different grains. The nutrient composition and contents of defatted substrates were determined; additionally, according to the nutrient content of the substrates, the effects of starch, soluble sugars, amino acids, and trace elements on AFB1 production and mycelial growth in Czapek-Dox medium were examined. These results verified that removal of lipids from ground substrates significantly reduced the substrate’s potential for AFB1 production by Aspergillus flavus. Maltose, glucose, sucrose, arginine, glutamic acid, aspartic acid, and zinc significantly induced AFB1 production up to 1.7- to 26.6-fold. And stachyose more significantly promoted A. flavus growth than the other nutrients. Thus, this study demonstrated that, combined with the nutrients content of grains, in addition to lipids, sucrose, stachyose, glutamic acid, and zinc might play key roles in various grains that are differentially infected by A. flavus. Particularly, two new nutrients (arginine and stachyose of the grains we found significantly stimulate AFB1 production and A. flavus growth, respectively. The results provide new concepts for antifungal methods to protect food and animal feed from AFB1 contamination.

  11. Occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in dried vine fruits from Greek market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollia, Eleni; Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Markaki, Panagiota

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-six samples of dried vine fruits from Athens and Thebes (Central Greece) market were simultaneously extracted and cleaned up by immunoaffinity columns and analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA). A combination of ELISA and HPLC methods was applied for the determination of AFB1. Recovery was 97.6%, RSD 6.46%, while the limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.05 μg kg(-1) and 0.09 μg kg(-1), respectively. OTA concentrations were only estimated by ELISA. Results revealed the presence of AFB1 in 23% of the samples (mean 1.4 μg AFB1 kg(-1)), but none exceeded the EU limit (2 μg AFB1 kg(-1)). However, OTA was detected in 100% of the samples (mean 47.2 μg OTA kg(-1)). Six samples were found to be contaminated at high levels (median 120.6 μg OTA kg(-1)) and 18 exceeded the EU limit (10 μg OTA kg(-1)).

  12. Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatic neoplasia in Great Lakes coho salmon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, J.J.; Maccubbin, A.E.; Myers, H.K.; Zeigel, R.F.

    1988-11-01

    There is considerable interest in the development of fish models for carcinogen bioassays and the study of chemically induced cancer in wild fish species. Among salmonid species, rainbow trout have mainly been used for carcinogenesis research, in part due to the role played by this species in the discovery of the carcinogenic action of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Recently, apparatus and methodology for microinjection of salmonid fish embryos with chemical carcinogens has been described. Because eggs produced by Pacific salmon are relatively much larger than those of rainbow trout, they would provide an attractive subject for embryo microinjection. The Great Lakes are annually stocked with large numbers of coho salmon. It has been recommended to use coho salmon as an indicator for monitoring ecosystem health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout health in the Great Lakes, because stockings throughout the Great Lakes are from a common genetic strain and in the lake environment they have a defined food source and life cycle. These considerations led the authors to test coho salmon for their sensitivity to the potent hepatocarcinogen, AFB1. The present report describes in preliminary form, the results of these experiments.

  13. Occupational Exposure to Aflatoxin B1 in a Portuguese Poultry Slaughterhouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Susana; Veiga, Luísa; Almeida, Ana; dos Santos, Mateus; Carolino, Elisabete; Viegas, Carla

    2016-03-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a secondary metabolite produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and is the most potent hepatocarcinogen known in mammals and has been classified by the International Agency of Research on Cancer as Group 1 carcinogen. Although dietary exposure to AFB1 has been extensively documented, there are still few studies dedicated to the problem of occupational exposure. Considering recent findings regarding AFB1 occupational exposure in poultry production, it was considered relevant to clarify if there is also exposure in poultry slaughterhouses. Occupational exposure assessment to AFB1 was done with a biomarker of internal dose that measures AFB1 in the serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Thirty workers from a slaughterhouse were enrolled in this study. A control group (n = 30) was also considered in order to know AFB1 background levels for Portuguese population. Fourteen workers (47.0%) showed detectable levels of AFB1 with values from 1.06 to 4.03ng ml(-1), with a mean value of 1.73ng ml(-1). No AFB1 was detected in serum of individuals used as controls. Despite uncertainties regarding the exposure route that is contributing more to exposure (inhalation or dermal) is possible to state that exposure to AFB1 is occurring in the slaughterhouse studied. It seems that reducing AFB1 contamination in poultry production can have a positive result in this occupational setting.

  14. Modulation of macrophage activity by aflatoxins B1 and B2 and their metabolites aflatoxins M1 and M2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, G; Russo, R; Marzocco, S; Velotto, S; Autore, G; Severino, L

    2012-05-01

    Aflatoxins are natural contaminants frequently found both in food and feed. Many of them exert immunomodulatory properties in mammals; therefore, the aim of the current study was to investigate immune-effects of AFB1, AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2, alone and differently combined, in J774A.1 murine macrophages. MTT assay showed that AFB1, alone and combined with AFB2, possess antiproliferative activity only at the highest concentration; such effect was not shown by their hydroxylated metabolites, AFM1 and AFM2, respectively. However, the immunotoxic effects of the aflatoxins evaluated in the current study may be due to the inhibition of production of active oxygen metabolites such as NO. Cytofluorimetric assay in macrophages exposed to aflatoxins (10-100 μM) revealed that their cytoxicity is not related to apoptotic pathways. Nevertheless, a significant increase of the S phase cell population accompanied by a decrease in G0/G1 phase cell population was observed after AFB1 treatment. In conclusion, the results of the current study suggest that aflatoxins could compromise the macrophages functions; in particular, co-exposure to AFB1, AFB2, AFM1 and AFM2 may exert interactions which can significantly affect immunoreactivity.

  15. Biotransformation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxin G1 in peanut meal by anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yujie; Kong, Qing; Chi, Chen; Shan, Shihua; Guan, Bin

    2015-10-15

    The purpose of this study was to explore the ability of anaerobic solid fermentation of Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus to biotransform aflatoxins in peanut meal. The pH of the peanut meal was adjusted above 10, and then heated for 10 min at 100 °C, 115 °C and 121 °C. The S. thermophilus and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus were precultured together in MRS broth for 48 h at 37 °C. The heated peanut meal was mixed with precultured MRS broth containing 7.0×10(8) CFU/mL of S. thermophilus and 3.0×10(3) CFU/mL of L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus with the ratio of 1 to 1 (weight to volume) and incubated in anaerobic jars at 37 °C for 3 days. The aflatoxin content in the peanut meal samples was determined by HPLC. The results showed that the peanut meal contained mainly aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10.5±0.64 μg/kg) and aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) (18.7±0.55 μg/kg). When heat treatment was combined with anaerobic solid fermentation, the biotransformation rate of aflatoxins in peanut meal could attain 100%. The cytotoxicity of fermented peanut meal to L929 mouse connective tissue fibroblast cells was determined by MTT assay and no significant toxicity was observed in the fermented peanut meal. Furthermore, heat treatment and anaerobic solid fermentation did not change the amino acid concentrations and profile in peanut meal.

  16. Modification of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A toxicokinetics in rats administered a yeast cell wall preparation

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae can bind mycotoxins in vitro but there is scarce information on whether this property decreases the absorption of mycotoxins in vivo. The effect of a yeast cell wall preparation (YCW) on toxicokinetics and balance excretion (urine and faeces) of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) was tested in rats after oral administration of each toxin. The 3H-labelled mycotoxins were used at low doses. Co-administration of YCW with AF...

  17. Cassia senna inhibits mutagenic activities of benzo[a]-pyrene, aflatoxin B1, shamma and methyl methanesulfonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Dakan, A A; al-Tuffail, M; Hannan, M A

    1995-10-01

    Ethanol extract of Senokot tablets (Cassia senna concentrate used as vegetable laxative), was found to be non-mutagenic while it inhibited the mutagenicity of benzo[a]pyrene, shamma, aflatoxin B1 and methyl methanesulfonate in the Ames histidine reversion assay using the Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA98. While the Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenicity of promutagens (i.e. metabolic activation dependent) like benzo[a]pyrene and shamma, it reduced the mutagenic activity of the direct acting mutagen methyl methanesulfonate by only 58%. The mutagen aflatoxin B1 showed a 25-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants per plate at low concentrations (1.0-4.0 micrograms/plate) in the presence of metabolic activation system while at high concentrations (10.0-30.0 micrograms/plate) it proved to be weakly mutagenic (with a 5-fold increase in the number of histidine revertants/plate) without metabolic activation. The Senokot extract completely inhibited the mutagenic effect of low concentrations of aflatoxin B1 in the presence of metabolic activation but not that resulting from higher concentrations without metabolic activation. The results obtained with benzo[a]pyrene, shamma and aflatoxin B1 indicated that the antimutagenic effects of Senokot extract could be largely due to an interaction with the metabolic process involved in the activation of procarcinogens. However, the results obtained with methyl methanesulfonate suggested that factors in Senokot may also interact with direct mutagens to produce some antimutagenic effects. An ethanol extract of crude senna leaves found to be weakly mutagenic also inhibited (though less than Senokot) the mutagenic effect of benzo[a]pyrene suggesting that the antimutagenic principle is present in the complex plant material itself.

  18. Time-Resolved Fluorescent Immunochromatography of Aflatoxin B1 in Soybean Sauce: A Rapid and Sensitive Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Du; Zhang, Zhaowei; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Rapid and quantitative sensing of aflatoxin B1 with high sensitivity and specificity has drawn increased attention of studies investigating soybean sauce. A sensitive and rapid quantitative immunochromatographic sensing method was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 based on time-resolved fluorescence. It combines the advantages of time-resolved fluorescent sensing and immunochromatography. The dynamic range of a competitive and portable immunoassay was 0.3–10.0 µg·kg−1, with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1 µg·kg−1 and recoveries of 87.2%–114.3%, within 10 min. The results showed good correlation (R2 > 0.99) between time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Soybean sauce samples analyzed using time-resolved fluorescent immunochromatographic strip test revealed that 64.2% of samples contained aflatoxin B1 at levels ranging from 0.31 to 12.5 µg·kg−1. The strip test is a rapid, sensitive, quantitative, and cost-effective on-site screening technique in food safety analysis. PMID:27428975

  19. Effect of γ-radiation on the production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanapitsas, Alexandros; Batrinou, Anthimia; Aravantinos, Athanasios; Markaki, Panagiota

    2015-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mostly produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, is an extremely toxic and carcinogenic metabolite. The effect of gamma irradiation at dose of 10 kGy on the production of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) inoculated by Aspergillus parasiticus in raisins (Vitis vinifera L.) and on AFB1 in contaminated samples, was investigated. Values of the amount of aflatoxin B1 produced on the 12th day of incubation, after irradiation, showed that gamma radiation exposure at 10 kGy decreased AFB1 production at 65% compared with the non-irradiated sample, on the same day. The application of 10 kGy gamma radiation directly on 100 ng of AFB1 which were spiked in raisins resulted in ~29% reduction of AFB1. According to the risk assessment analysis the Provisional Maximum Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTDI) of 1.0 ng AFB1 kg-1bw, indicates that consumers are less exposed to AFB1 from the irradiated raisins.

  20. Aflatoxicosis: Lessons from Toxicity and Responses to Aflatoxin B1 in Poultry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa S. Monson

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This review is a comprehensive introduction to the effects of poultry exposure to the toxic and carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. The relationship between AFB1 sensitivity and metabolism, major direct and indirect effects of AFB1, recent studies of gene expression and transcriptome responses to exposure, and mitigation strategies to reduce toxicity are discussed. Exposure to AFB1 primarily occurs by consumption of contaminated corn, grain or other feed components. Low levels of residual AFB1 in poultry feeds can cause reduction in growth, feed conversion, egg production, and compromised immune functions, resulting in significant economic costs to producers. Thus, AFB1 acts as a “force multiplier” synergizing the adverse effects of microbial pathogens and other agents, and factors detrimental to poultry health. Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are one of the most sensitive animals known to AFB1 due, in large part, to a combination of efficient hepatic bioactivation by cytochromes P450 1A5 and 3A37, and deficient hepatic glutathione-S-transferase (GST-mediated detoxification. Because of their sensitivity, turkeys are a good model to investigate chemopreventive treatments and feed additives for their ability to reduce AFB1 toxicity. Transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq of turkey poults (liver and spleen has identified AFB1-induced gene expression changes in pathways of apoptosis, carcinogenesis, lipid regulation, antimicrobial activity, cytotoxicity and antigen presentation. Current research focuses on further identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying AFB1 toxicity with the goal of reducing aflatoxicosis and improving poultry health.

  1. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester modulates aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akçam, Mustafa; Artan, Reha; Yilmaz, Aygen; Ozdem, Sebahat; Gelen, Tekinalp; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2013-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most potent of the mycotoxins and is widely observed in nutrition abnormalities. There are some studies suggesting oxidative stress-induced toxic changes on liver related to AFB1 toxicity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether antioxidant caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) relieves oxidative stress in AFB1-induced liver injury in rat. Twenty-four male rats were equally divided into three groups. The first group was used as a control. The second group received three doses of AFB1. The three doses of CAPE were given to constitute the third group with doses of AFB1. After 10 days of experiment, liver and serum samples were taken from all animals. Serum gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glutathione s-transferase (GST), nitric oxide (NO) and sulfhydryl values were higher in the AFB1 group than in control, whereas serum GGT, ALP, GST and NO values were decreased by in the AFB1 + CAPE group than in AFB1 group. Liver GST, total oxidant capacity, sulfhydryl, apoptosis index and ischemia-modified albumin values were higher in the AFB1 group than in control, whereas the GST activity and apoptosis index were lower in the AFB1 + CAPE group than in the AFB1 group. There were histopathological degeneration and apoptosis in hepatocytes of AFB1 group. The findings were totally recovered by CAPE administration. In conclusion, we observed that AFB1 caused oxidative and nitrosative hepatoxicity to hepatocytes in the rat. However, CAPE induced protective effects on the AFB1-induced hepatoxicity by modulating free radical production, biochemical values and histopathological alterations.

  2. The effect of exchangeable cations in clinoptilolite and montmorillonite on the adsorption of aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGAN STOJSIC

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The adsorption of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 by cation-exchanged clinoptilolite zeolitic tuff and montmorillonite was investigated at 37°C and pH 3.8 from an aqueous electrolyte having a composition similar to that of gastric juices of animals. Both minerals were exchanged from the natural form to the sodium form and then to the Cu2+, Zn2+ and Co2+-rich forms. The cation exchange was different for the different cations, but in all cases the exchanges were larger on montmorillonite than on clinoptilolite. The degree of exchange on montmorillonite was 76 % for copper (from a total of CEC 0.95 meq/g, Cu2+ –0.73 meq/g and 85 % for zinc and cobalt. Under the same conditions (concentration, temperature, pH, contact time, the degree of exchange on zeolitic tuff was 12 % for Cu2+ (from a total CEC of 1.46 meq/g, Cu2+ –0.17 meq/g, 8 % for Zn2+ and 10 % for Co2+. Both groups of mineral adsorbents showed high AFB1 chemisorption indexes (ca. For the montmorillonite forms, ca ranged from 0.75 for the Cu-exchanged montmorillonite to 0.89 for the natural Ca-form, 0.90 for the Zn-exchanged form and 0.93 for the Co-exchanged montmorillonite. The adsorption of AFB1 on the different exchanged forms of clinoptilolite gave similar values of ca for the Cu and Ca forms (0.90 and values of 0.94 and 0.95 for the Zn- and Co-exchanged form. The impact of the mineral adsorbents on the reduction of essential nutrients present in animal feed (Cu, Zn, Mn and Co showed that the Ca-rich montmorillonite had a higher capability for the reduction of the microelements than the Ca-rich clinoptilolite.

  3. Hepatitis B virus x gene and cyanobacterial toxins promote aflatoxin B1-induced hepatotumorigenesis in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Lian; Ying Liu; Shun-Zhang Yu; Geng-Sun Qian; Shu-Guang Wan; Kenneth R Dixon

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To assess the combinative role of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),cyanobacterial toxins (cyanotoxins), and hepatitis B virus (HBV) x gene in hepatotumorigenicity.METHODS: One-week-old animals carrying HBV x gene and their wild-type littermates were intraperitoneally (ip) injected with either single-dose AFB1 [6 mg/kg body weight (bw)], repeated-dose cyanotoxins (microcystinLR or nodularin, 10 μg/kg bw oncea week for 15 wk),DMSO (vehicle control) alone, or AFB1 followed by cyanotoxins a week later, and were sacrificed at 24 and 52 wk post-treatment.RESULTS: AFB1 induced liver tumors in 13 of 29 (44.8%) transgenic mice at 52 wk post-treatment, significantly more frequent than in wild-type mice (13.3%). This significant difference was not shown in the 24-wk study. Compared with AFB1 exposure alone, MC-LR and nodularin yielded approximately 3-fold and 6-fold increases in the incidence of AFB1-induced liver tumors in wild-type animals at 24 wk, respectively. HBV x gene did not further elevate the risk associated with coexposure to AFB1 and cyanotoxins. With the exception of an MC-LR-dosed wild-type mouse, no liver tumor was observed in mice treated with cyanotoxins alone at 24 wk. Neither DMSO-treated transgenic mice nor their wild-type littermates had pathologic alterations relevant to hepatotumorigenesis in even up to 52 wk.CONCLUSION: HBV x gene and nodularin promote the development of AFB1-induced liver tumors. Co-exposure to AFB1 and MC-LR tends to elevate the risk of liver tumors at 24 wk relative to exposure to one of them.The combinative effect of AFB1, cyanotoxins and HBVx on hepatotumorigenesis is weak at 24 wk.

  4. Protective Roles of Sodium Selenite against Aflatoxin B1-Induced Apoptosis of Jejunum in Broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Peng

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 exposure and sodium selenite supplementation on cell apoptosis of jejunum in broilers were studied. A total of 240 one-day-old male AA broilers were randomly assigned four dietary treatments containing 0 mg/kg of AFB1 (control, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 (AFB1, 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (+ Se and 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 + 0.4 mg/kg supplement Se (AFB1 + Se, respectively. Compared with the control broilers, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA were significantly increased, while the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio were significantly decreased in AFB1 broilers. The number of apoptotic cells and the expression of Caspase-3 mRNA in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly higher than those in the control broilers, but significantly lower than those in AFB1 broilers. There were no significant changes in the expression of Bax mRNA between AFB1 + Se and control broilers; the expression of Bcl-2 mRNA and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio in AFB1 + Se broilers were significantly lower than those in the control broilers, but significantly higher than those in AFB1 broilers. In conclusion, 0.3 mg/kg AFB1 in the diet can increase cell apoptosis, decrease Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and increase of Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression in broiler’s jejunum. However, supplementation of dietary sodium selenite at the concentration of 0.4 mg/kg Se may ameliorate AFB1-induced apoptosis by increasing Bcl-2 mRNA expression, and decreasing Bax and Caspase-3 mRNA expression.

  5. Aflatoxin B1 Degradation by Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia and Other Microbes Selected Using Coumarin Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiangui Niu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is one of the most harmful mycotoxins in animal production and food industry. A safe, effective and environmentally sound detoxification method is needed for controlling this toxin. In this study, 65 samples were screened from various sources with vast microbial populations using a newly developed medium containing coumarin as the sole carbon source. Twenty five single-colony bacterial isolates showing AFB1 reduction activity in a liquid culture medium were selected from the screen. Isolate 35-3, obtained from tapir feces and identified to be Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, reduced AFB1 by 82.5% after incubation in the liquid medium at 37 °C for 72 h. The culture supernatant of isolate 35-3 was able to degrade AFB1 effectively, whereas the viable cells and cell extracts were far less effective. Factors influencing AFB1 degradation by the culture supernatant were investigated. Activity was reduced to 60.8% and 63.5% at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively, from 78.7% at 37 °C. The highest degradation rate was 84.8% at pH 8 and the lowest was only 14.3% at pH 4.0. Ions Mg2+ and Cu2+ were activators for AFB1 degradation, howeverï��Œion Zn2+ was a strong inhibitor. Treatments with proteinase K, proteinase K plus SDS and heating significantly reduced or eradicated the degradation activity of the culture supernatant. The results indicated that the degradation of AFB1 by S. maltophilia 35-3 was enzymatic and could have a great potential in industrial applications.

  6. Antigenotoxic Effect of Piperine in Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica da Silva Cardoso

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C control, (P 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route, and (P + A co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment. The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight.

  7. Protective effect of pretreatment with thymoquinone against Aflatoxin B1 induced liver toxicity in mice

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    A Nili-Ahmadabadi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available "n  Background and the purpose of the study: Thymoquinone (TQ is one of the active components of Nigella sativa. The plant has been used in herbal medicine for treatment of many diseases including liver complications. The present study aimed to investigate protective effects of TQ on Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 induced liver toxicity in mice. "n  Methods: Animals were divided into six groups and treated intraperitoneally. Group 1 (blank served as vehicle, group 2 (positive control received AFB1, Group 3 was treated with 9 mg/kg of TQ, Groups 4, 5 and 6 were treated with 4.5, 9 and 18 mg/kg of TQ, respectively. After three consecutive days, except for groups 1 and 3, animals were administered with a single dose of AFB1 (2 mg/kg. All the animals were killed 24 hrs following the AFB1 administration under ether anesthesia. Biochemical parameters including AST, ALT and ALP in serum samples and glutathione (GSH and malondialdehyde (MDA contents in liver homogenates were determined. Liver sections were collected for histopathological examination. "n  Results: Findings of this study showed that AST, ALT, ALP and MDA levels were significantly lower in the TQ treated animals as compared to AFB1 group (group 2. Furthermore, TQ was able to recover glutathione content (GSH of liver tissue. The best response, however, was observed with the dose of 9 mg/kg. Liver sections of AFB1 intoxicated mice showed inflammation, necrosis, hyperplasia of kupffer and infiltration of mononuclear cells, dilation of sinusoids and disruption of hepatocytes, while treatment with TQ helped to normalize liver architecture in accordance to biochemical findings. "n  Conclusion: Taken collectively, TQ has a protective role with optimum dose of 9 mg/kg in AFB1 hepatotoxicity.

  8. Antigenotoxic Effect of Piperine in Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Cardoso, Verônica; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Ribeiro de Lima, Cristina Amorim; Mendes de Oliveira, Jéssica; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson; Pinto da Silva, Lúcia Helena; Direito, Glória Maria; Miranda Danelli, Maria das Graças

    2016-01-01

    Piperine is an abundant amide extracted from black pepper seeds which has been shown to have protective effects against cytotoxic and genotoxic carcinogenesis induced by certain chemical carcinogens and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in vitro. The aim of this work was to study, in vivo, the antigenotoxic potential of feed-added piperine on broiler chickens experimentally intoxicated with AFB1, using micronucleus and comet assays. The antigenotoxicity assessment of 9-day-old chicks was performed on a total of 60 chickens divided into four groups of 15 broilers each: (C) control, (P) 60 mg·piperine kg−1 feed, (A) 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight, (daily by oral route), and (P + A) co-treatment with piperine and AFB1. The experiment was conducted for 26 days. Chicks intoxicated with AFB1 showed significant genotoxic effects in the first 24 h post intoxication, and the effects remained in the other periods analyzed (48, 72, and 96 h and 26 days of treatment). The DNA damage in peripheral blood cells, the number of erythrocytes with micronuclei, and polychromatic-to-normochromatic erythrocyte ratio were significantly reduced or absent in the piperine/AFB1 group. No significant differences were observed between the group piperine/AFB1 and the control and piperine-alone groups. The addition 60 mg·kg−1 of piperine to the diet of the broiler chicks was safe, promoting beneficial effects in poultry health with respect to the toxic effects 0.5 mg·AFB1·kg−1 body weight. PMID:27809242

  9. GSTM1 and XRCC3 Polymorphisms: Effects on Levels of Aflatoxin B1-DNA Adducts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-dai Long; Yun Ma; Zhou-lin Deng

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which can cause the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts, is a known human carcinogen. AFB1-exposure individuals with inherited susceptible carcinogen-metabolizing or repairing genotypes may experience an increased risk of genotoxicity. This study was designed to investigate whether the polymorphisms of two genes, the metabolic gene Glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) and DNA repair gene x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3 (XRCC3), can affect the levels of AFB1-DNA adducts in Guangxi Population (n= 966) from an AFB1-exposure area.Methods: AFB1-DNA adducts were measured by ELISA, and GSTM1 and XRCC3 codon 241 genotypes were identified by PCR-RFLP.Results: The GSTM1-null genotype [adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.09; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.61(2.71] and XRCC3 genotypes with 241 Met alleles [i.e., XRCC3-TM and -MM, adjusted ORs (95% CI) were 1.43 (1.08(1.89) and 2.42 (1.13(5.22), respectively] were significantly associated with higher levels of AFB1-DNA adducts. Compared with those individuals who did not express any putative risk genotypes as reference (OR = 1), individuals featuring all of the putative risk genotypes did experience a significantly higher DNA-adduct levels (adjusted ORs were 2.87 for GSTM1-null and XRCC3-TM; 5.83 for GSTM1-null and XRCC3-MM). Additionally, there was a positive joint effect between XRCC3 genotypes and long-term AFB1 exposure in the formation of AFB1-DNA adducts.Conclusion: These results suggest that individuals with susceptible genotypes GSTM1-null, XRCC3-TM, or XRCC3-MM may experience an increased risk of DNA damage elicited by AFB1 exposure.

  10. Curcumin Prevents Aflatoxin B1 Hepatoxicity by Inhibition of Cytochrome P450 Isozymes in Chick Liver

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    Ni-Ya Zhang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to establish if Curcumin (CM alleviates Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced hepatotoxic effects and to determine whether alteration of the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP450 isozymes is involved in the regulation of these effects in chick liver. One-day-old male broilers (n = 120 were divided into four groups and used in a two by two factorial trial in which the main factors included supplementing AFB1 (< 5 vs. 100 μg/kg and CM (0 vs. 150 mg/kg in a corn/soybean-based diet. Administration of AFB1 induced liver injury, significantly decreasing albumin and total protein concentrations and increasing alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities in serum, and induced hepatic histological lesions at week 2. AFB1 also significantly decreased hepatic glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione levels, while increasing malondialdehyde, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine, and exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO-DNA concentrations. In addition, the mRNA and/or activity of enzymes responsible for the bioactivation of AFB1 into AFBO—including CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2A6, and CYP3A4—were significantly induced in liver microsomes after 2-week exposure to AFB1. These alterations induced by AFB1 were prevented by CM supplementation. Conclusively, dietary CM protected chicks from AFB1-induced liver injury, potentially through the synergistic actions of increased antioxidant capacities and inhibition of the pivotal CYP450 isozyme-mediated activation of AFB1 to toxic AFBO.

  11. A Structure Identification and Toxicity Assessment of the Degradation Products of Aflatoxin B1 in Peanut Oil under UV Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Jin; He, Bing; Zhang, Liangxiao; Li, Peiwu; Zhang, Qi; Ding, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of extremely hazardous compounds because of their genotoxicity and carcinogenicity to human and animals, are commonly found in many tropical and subtropical regions. Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is proven to be an effective method to reduce or detoxify aflatoxins. However, the degradation products of aflatoxins under UV irradiation and their safety or toxicity have not been clear in practical production such as edible oil industry. In this study, the degradation products of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in peanut oil were analyzed by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatograph-Thermo Quadrupole Exactive Focus mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (UPLC-TQEF-MS/MS). The high-resolution mass spectra reflected that two main products were formed after the modification of a double bond in the terminal furan ring and the fracture of the lactone ring, while the small molecules especially nitrogen-containing compound may have participated in the photochemical reaction. According to the above results, the possible photodegradation pathway of AFB1 in peanut oil is proposed. Moreover, the human embryo hepatocytes viability assay indicated that the cell toxicity of degradation products after UV irradiation was much lower than that of AFB1, which could be attributed to the breakage of toxicological sites. These findings can provide new information for metabolic pathways and the hazard assessment of AFB1 using UV detoxification. PMID:27845743

  12. 黄曲霍毒素B1人工抗原的合成及鉴定%Synthesis and Identification of Aflatoxin B1 Artificial Antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍鑫茹; 杨雪娇; 赵肃清; 张焜

    2013-01-01

    Carboxyl group was introduced to Aflatoxin B1 (aflatoxin B1, AFB1) by derivatization method to synthesis the hapten (AFB1 carboxymethyl activator). And the AFBiO was coupled with BSA by using N-hydroxy-succinimide method to prepare the complete antigen of AFB,. The results of ECI-MS and ultraviolet spectroscopy showed that the target hapten was successfully synthesized. Through combined with ultraviolet spectrophotometry and regression equation, the standard curves of the different concentration hapten and BSA were abtained as follow: y=0.1440x+0.0103 (R2 =0.9986) and y=0.0059x+0.0808 (R2 =0.9889) respectively. The concentrations of AFB1O and BSA in adduct were 186.32 μg/mlL and 6127.46 ng/mL respectively, and the molar ration was 5.13:1.%采用衍生化在黄曲霉毒素B1(aflatoxin B1,AFB1)上引入羧基合成AFB1羧甲基活化物,通过N-羟琥珀酰亚胺酯(N-hydroxy-succinimide NHS)法将AFB1O与牛血清白蛋白(BSA)偶联,制备黄曲霉毒素B1完全抗原AFB1-BSA.ECI-MS和紫外光谱法的鉴定结果表明目标半抗原合成成功.结合紫外分光光度法和回归方程,分别测得不同浓度的半抗原和蛋白质线性曲线为:Y=0.1440X+0.0103,R2=0.9986; Y=0.0059X+0.0808,R2=0.9889.偶联物中半抗原和蛋白质的浓度分别为186.32 μg/mL、6127.46 μg/mL,即求得抗原分子结合比为5.13∶1,从而为制备抗AFB1抗体奠定基础.

  13. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Azimi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control fed basal diet; positive control fed basal diet plus 1 mg aflatoxin B1 kg-1 diet; and three other groups fed 25g/kg Milbond-TX, Polysorb and Zeolite with 1 mg/kg aflatoxin B1, respectively. Feed intake did not significantly differ between the groups. The body weight gain and feed conversion ratio of birds fed contaminated diets were significantly decreased and increased, respectively but adding of the absorbent materials to contaminated feed caused a significant improvement in body weight gain and feed conversion. Among the internal organs, the spleen relative weights increased by consumption of aflatoxin B1contaminated feed. Aflatoxin B1 use without absorbent materials significantly decreased antibody production against Newcastle disease vaccine in 21 day. In addition, produced antibodies against sheep red blood cells in 35 day of age in birds fed aflatoxin B1 contaminated diets were reduced. The results of this study showed that the adding of natural zeolite and commercial absorbents in feeds contaminated with aflatoxin B1 causes improved performance and immune system compared with the group that received the aflatoxin B1 alone.

  14. 茶叶中黄曲霉毒素B1的检测方法研究%Determination methods of aflatoxin B1 in tea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴国华; 赵榕; 里南; 王雄

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To compare the three different methods for the determination of aflatoxin B1 in tea samples, including gold immune chromatography assay (GICA), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Methods Method validation was done based on black tea, green tea and jasmine tea. And black tea, green tea, oolong tea, jasmine tea, extracted tea, medicinal health tea as representatives were detected with different methods. Results Both of optimized GICA and HPLC achieved high accuracy and precision. ELISA assay produced fake positive. Only one of eleven tested samples had aflatoxin B1 in random test.%目的:针对茶叶中黄曲霉毒素 B1的检测,对比胶体金免疫层析法、高效液相色谱、酶联免疫法的差异。方法以红茶、绿茶、花茶为基质,进行方法验证。并选取具有代表性的红茶、绿茶、乌龙茶、及花茶、萃取茶、药用保健茶分别用不同的方法检测。结果改良后的液相法和胶体金免疫层析法准确度和精密度较高,酶联免疫法存在假阳性。随机检测11种茶叶仅有一种检出黄曲霉毒素B1

  15. Development of novel enzyme potentiometric biosensor based on pH-sensitive field-effect transistors for aflatoxin B1 analysis in real samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepurska, K V; Soldatkin, O O; Arkhypova, V M; Soldatkin, A P; Lagarde, F; Jaffrezic-Renault, N; Dzyadevych, S V

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed at the development and optimization of a potentiometric biosensor based on pH-sensitive field-effect transistors and acetylcholinesterase for aflatoxin B1 determination in real samples. Optimal conditions for bioselective elements operation were defined and analytical characteristics of the proposed biosensor were studied. The proposed biosensor characterized high operational stability and reproducibility of signal. Selectivity of acetylcholinesterase-biosensor to aflatoxins in relation to other groups of toxic substances was analyzed. The developed biosensor was applied to the determination of aflatoxin B1 in real samples (sesame, walnut and pea).

  16. Inhibitory Effect of Cinnamaldehyde, Citral, and Eugenol on Aflatoxin Biosynthetic Gene Expression and Aflatoxin B1 Biosynthesis in Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dandan; Xing, Fuguo; Selvaraj, Jonathan Nimal; Liu, Xiao; Wang, Limin; Hua, Huijuan; Zhou, Lu; Zhao, Yueju; Wang, Yan; Liu, Yang

    2015-12-01

    In order to reveal the inhibitory effects of cinnamaldehyde, citral, and eugenol on aflatoxin biosynthesis, the expression levels of 5 key aflatoxin biosynthetic genes were evaluated by real-time PCR. Aspergillus flavus growth and AFB1 production were completely inhibited by 0.80 mmol/L of cinnamaldehyde and 2.80 mmol/L of citral. However, at lower concentration, cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L) significantly reduced AFB1 production with inhibition rate of 68.9%, 95.4%, and 41.8%, respectively, while no effect on fungal growth. Real-time PCR showed that the expressions of aflR, aflT, aflD, aflM, and aflP were down-regulated by cinnamaldehyde (0.40 mmol/L), eugenol (0.80 mmol/L), and citral (0.56 mmol/L). In the presence of cinnamaldehyde, AflM was highly down-regulated (average of 5963 folds), followed by aflP, aflR, aflD, and aflT with the average folds of 55, 18, 6.5, and 5.8, respectively. With 0.80 mmol/L of eugenol, aflP was highly down-regulated (average of 2061-folds), followed by aflM, aflR, aflD, and aflT with average of 138-, 15-, 5.2-, and 4.8-folds reduction, respectively. With 0.56 mmol/L of citral, aflT was completely inhibited, followed by aflM, aflP, aflR, and aflD with average of 257-, 29-, 3.5-, and 2.5-folds reduction, respectively. These results suggest that the reduction in AFB1 production by cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and citral at low concentration may be due to the down-regulations of the transcription level of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes. Cinnamaldehyde and eugenol may be employed successfully as a good candidate in controlling of toxigenic fungi and subsequently contamination with aflatoxins in practice.

  17. Degradation and Application of Aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus Niger%黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解与应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冰; 董征英; 常维山

    2012-01-01

    试验利用黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1进行了降解率、活性组分的确定、安全性及对饲料中降解黄曲霉毒素效果的研究。研究结果表明,黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解率达93.28%,其中黑曲霉的胞外粗提液对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解活性最高,证明黑曲霉对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解是一种生物化学反应,黑曲霉发酵液对饲料中的黄曲霉毒素B1具有很强的降解作用。小鼠的急性毒理学试验证明,试验用黑曲霉本身具有良好的安全性。%The determination of degradation efficiency and active components of aflatoxin B1 safety and the effect of degradation aflatoxin in feed about the screened aspergillus was researched in this experiment used aspergillus niger. The result showed that the degradation of aflatoxin B1 by aspergillus niger was 93.28%, the degrading efficiencies of aflatoxin B1 by exocellular coarse extraction liquid was highest, and this proved that the degration of aflatoxin B1 by aspergillus niger was a biological reaction. The degrading effect of aflatoxin B1 in feed by aspergillus fermented liquid was strong. A favorable safety of aspergillus niger was testified through the acute toxicology experiments in mice.

  18. Vaccination of heifers with anaflatoxin improves the reduction of aflatoxin b1 carry over in milk of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovati, Laura; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Cerioli, Carla; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    It was previously reported that injection of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), together with Freund's adjuvant, was effective in inducing in cows a long lasting titer of anti-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) antibodies (Abs), cross-reacting with other aflatoxins, which were able to hinder, proportionally to their titer, the secretion of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. According to anti-AFB1 Ab titer, 50% of the vaccinated cows were recognized as high responder animals. In an attempt to prepare a more effective formulation for vaccination of cows, it was compared the immunogenicity, in Holstein Friesian heifers, of AnAFB1 covalently conjugated to KLH or to recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) molecules, and injected together with various adjuvants. This study demonstrated that injection of AnAFB1 conjugated to KLH and mixed with complete (priming) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (boosters), as in the previous schedule of immunization, was the most effective regimen for inducing Ab responses against AFB1, although pre-calving administration could increase the effectiveness of vaccination, resulting in 100% high responder animals. After one booster dose at the beginning of the milk production cycle, anti-AFB1 Ab titers were comparable to those recorded at the end of the immunization schedule, and proved to be effective in reducing significantly AFB1 carry over, as AFM1, from feed to milk. Pre-calving vaccination of dairy heifers with conjugated AnAFB1, adjuvated with complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant, may represent the most effective tool for preventing the public health hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with aflatoxins.

  19. Vaccination of Heifers with Anaflatoxin Improves the Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 Carry Over in Milk of Lactating Dairy Cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovati, Laura; Gallo, Antonio; Masoero, Francesco; Cerioli, Carla; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Magliani, Walter; Polonelli, Luciano

    2014-01-01

    It was previously reported that injection of anaflatoxin B1 (AnAFB1) conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH), together with Freund's adjuvant, was effective in inducing in cows a long lasting titer of anti-aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) antibodies (Abs), cross-reacting with other aflatoxins, which were able to hinder, proportionally to their titer, the secretion of aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) into the milk of cows continuously fed with AFB1. According to anti-AFB1 Ab titer, 50% of the vaccinated cows were recognized as high responder animals. In an attempt to prepare a more effective formulation for vaccination of cows, it was compared the immunogenicity, in Holstein Friesian heifers, of AnAFB1 covalently conjugated to KLH or to recombinant diphtheria toxin (CRM197) molecules, and injected together with various adjuvants. This study demonstrated that injection of AnAFB1 conjugated to KLH and mixed with complete (priming) and incomplete Freund's adjuvant (boosters), as in the previous schedule of immunization, was the most effective regimen for inducing Ab responses against AFB1, although pre-calving administration could increase the effectiveness of vaccination, resulting in 100% high responder animals. After one booster dose at the beginning of the milk production cycle, anti-AFB1 Ab titers were comparable to those recorded at the end of the immunization schedule, and proved to be effective in reducing significantly AFB1 carry over, as AFM1, from feed to milk. Pre-calving vaccination of dairy heifers with conjugated AnAFB1, adjuvated with complete and incomplete Freund's adjuvant, may represent the most effective tool for preventing the public health hazard constituted by milk and cheese contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:24714096

  20. In vitro effect of aflatoxin B1 on the transcriptional activity of DNA template, chromatin and soluble DNA-dependent RNA polymerases in buffalo liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashaly, R I; Habib, S L; Salem, M H; el Deeb, S A; Safwat, M M; Sarhan, F

    1988-04-01

    The effect of aflatoxin B1 on the DNA template and DNA-dependent RNA polymerases in buffalo liver was studied. Aflatoxin B1 inhibited both Mg2+- and Mn2+-activated RNA polymerases in a dose-dependent manner. At 10 micrograms the inhibition of both enzymes was almost complete. The inhibitory effect on the solubilized enzymes was higher than the chromatin-bound, suggesting a direct effect at the enzyme level. On the other hand, incubating DNA or deoxyribonucleoprotein (DNP) with 2 micrograms aflatoxin reduces its transcriptional capacity with a greater effect on the Mg2+-activated RNA polymerase than the Mn2+-activated enzyme. These results suggest that aflatoxin B1 inhibits in vitro transcription in buffalo liver at both enzyme and template levels.

  1. Effects of milk thistle seed against aflatoxin B 1 in broiler model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halimeh Amiridumari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Consumption of aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1 contaminated products can pose a risk of development of various diseases in human and animals due to radical production. The scope of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of milk thistle seed (MTS, as a radical scavenger, on serum biochemistry, lipid profile and liver enzymes against AFB 1 in broiler chickens contaminated with AFB 1 . Materials and Methods: The effect of nine experimental treatments (3 × 3 factorial design was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with four replicates of six birds for each dietary treatments: Control (T1, 250 ppb AFB 1 (T2, 500 ppb AFB 1 (T3, 0.5% MTS (T4, 0.5% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB 1 (T5, 0.5% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB1 (T6, 1.0% MTS (T7, 1.0% MTS Plus 250 ppb AFB 1 (T8, and 1.0% MTS Plus 500 ppb AFB 1 (T9. The individual and combined effects of dietary AFB 1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors (Glucose, Calcium, Phosphorus, Iron, Creatinine, and Uric acid, lipid profile (Triglyceride, Cholesterol, Low density lipoprotein (LDL, and High density lipoprotein (HDL and liver enzymes aspartate amino-transferase and alanine amino-transaminase (ALT in broilers were evaluated at 21 days of age. Also, statistical packages Macros-1.002 (2010 were used to perform the above analysis on computer. Results: Consumption of 500 ppb AFB 1 in to the diet significantly decreased HDL (58.13 ± 2.65, Calcium (7.11 ± 0.13, and Glucose (197.1 ± 7.42 compared to the control group (85.12 ± 1.95, 9.45 ± 0.17 and 223.1 ± 6.61, respectively, (P < 0.05. In contrast, it significantly increased creatinine (2.25 ± 0.011 and AST (244.51 ± 4.91. Using MTS together with AFB 1 significantly reduced the effect of AFB 1 on the above parameters. Conclusion: MTS can provide protection against the negative effects of AFB 1 on broiler chicks.

  2. Leaky Gut and Mycotoxins: Aflatoxin B1 Does Not Increase Gut Permeability in Broiler Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galarza-Seeber, Rosario; Latorre, Juan D.; Bielke, Lisa R.; Kuttappan, Vivek A.; Wolfenden, Amanda D.; Hernandez-Velasco, Xochitl; Merino-Guzman, Ruben; Vicente, Jose L.; Donoghue, Annie; Cross, David; Hargis, Billy M.; Tellez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory have demonstrated that intestinal barrier function can be adversely affected by diet ingredients or feed restriction, resulting in increased intestinal inflammation-associated permeability. Two experiments were conducted in broilers to evaluate the effect of three concentrations of Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1; 2, 1.5, or 1 ppm) on gastrointestinal leakage and liver bacterial translocation (BT). In experiment 1, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in two groups, each group had six replicates of 20 chickens (n = 120/group): Control feed or feed + 2 ppm AFB1. In experiment 2, 240 day-of-hatch male broilers were allocated in three groups, each group had five replicates of 16 chickens (n = 80/group): Control feed; feed + 1 ppm AFB1; or feed + 1.5 ppm AFB1. In both experiments, chickens were fed starter (days 1–7) and grower diets (days 8–21) ad libitum and performance parameters were evaluated every week. At day 21, all chicks received an oral gavage dose of FITC-d (4.16 mg/kg) 2.5 h before collecting blood samples to evaluate gastrointestinal leakage of FITC-d. In experiment 2, a hematologic analysis was also performed. Liver sections were aseptically collected and cultured using TSA plates to determine BT. Cecal contents were collected to determine total colony-forming units per gram of Gram-negative bacteria, lactic acid bacteria (LAB), or anaerobes by plating on selective media. In experiment 2, liver, spleen, and bursa of Fabricius were removed to determine organ weight ratio, and also intestinal samples were obtained for morphometric analysis. Performance parameters, organ weight ratio, and morphometric measurements were significantly different between Control and AFB1 groups in both experiments. Gut leakage of FITC-d was not affected by the three concentrations of AFB1 evaluated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, a significant reduction in BT was observed in chickens that received 2 and

  3. RNA-Seq profiling reveals novel hepatic gene expression pattern in aflatoxin B1 treated rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Alex Merrick

    Full Text Available Deep sequencing was used to investigate the subchronic effects of 1 ppm aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, a potent hepatocarcinogen, on the male rat liver transcriptome prior to onset of histopathological lesions or tumors. We hypothesized RNA-Seq would reveal more differentially expressed genes (DEG than microarray analysis, including low copy and novel transcripts related to AFB1's carcinogenic activity compared to feed controls (CTRL. Paired-end reads were mapped to the rat genome (Rn4 with TopHat and further analyzed by DESeq and Cufflinks-Cuffdiff pipelines to identify differentially expressed transcripts, new exons and unannotated transcripts. PCA and cluster analysis of DEGs showed clear separation between AFB1 and CTRL treatments and concordance among group replicates. qPCR of eight high and medium DEGs and three low DEGs showed good comparability among RNA-Seq and microarray transcripts. DESeq analysis identified 1,026 differentially expressed transcripts at greater than two-fold change (p<0.005 compared to 626 transcripts by microarray due to base pair resolution of transcripts by RNA-Seq, probe placement within transcripts or an absence of probes to detect novel transcripts, splice variants and exons. Pathway analysis among DEGs revealed signaling of Ahr, Nrf2, GSH, xenobiotic, cell cycle, extracellular matrix, and cell differentiation networks consistent with pathways leading to AFB1 carcinogenesis, including almost 200 upregulated transcripts controlled by E2f1-related pathways related to kinetochore structure, mitotic spindle assembly and tissue remodeling. We report 49 novel, differentially-expressed transcripts including confirmation by PCR-cloning of two unique, unannotated, hepatic AFB1-responsive transcripts (HAfT's on chromosomes 1.q55 and 15.q11, overexpressed by 10 to 25-fold. Several potentially novel exons were found and exon refinements were made including AFB1 exon-specific induction of homologous family members, Ugt1a6 and Ugt1a7c

  4. Differential expression of genes during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Li; Dan Luo; Hui-Fen Yue; Li-Sheng Zhang; Jian-Ren Gu; Da-Fang Wan; Jian-Jia Su; Ji Cao; Chao Ou; Xiao-Kun Qiu; Ke-Chen Ban; Chun Yang; Liu-Liang Qin

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Through exploring the regulation of gene expression during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1),to find out the responsible genes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to further understand the underlying molecular mechanism.METHODS: Tree shrews ( 7upaia belangeri chinensis)were treated with or without AFB1 for about 90 weeks. Liver biopsies were performed regularly during the animal experiment. Eight shares of total RNA were respectively isolated from 2 HCC tissues, 2 HCC-surrounding noncancerous liver tissues, 2 biopsied tissues at the early stage (30th week) of the experiment from the same animals as above, 1 mixed sample of three liver tissues biopsied at the beginning (0th week) of the experiment, and another 1 mixed sample of two liver tissues from the untreated control animals biopsied at the 90th week of the experiment. The samples were then tested with the method of AtlasTM cDNA microarray assay. The levels of gene expression in these tissues taken at different time points during hepatocarcinogenesis were compared.RESULTS: The profiles of differently expressed genes were quite different in different ways of comparison. At the same period of hepatocarcinogenesis, the genes in the same function group usually had the same tendency for up- or down-regulation. Among the checked 588 genes that were known to be related to human cancer, 89 genes (15.1%) were recognized as "important genes" because they showed frequent changes in different ways of comparison. The differentially expressed genes during hepatocarcinogenesis could be classified into four categories: genes up-regulated in HCC tissue, genes with similar expressing levels in both HCC and HCC-surrounding liver tissues which were higher than that in the tissues prior to the development of HCC,genes down-regulated in HCC tissue, and genes up-regulated prior to the development of HCC but down-regulated after the development of HCC.CONCLUSION: A considerable number of genes could change

  5. Differential expression of genes during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in tree shrews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Wan, Da-Fang; Su, Jian-Jia; Cao, Ji; Ou, Chao; Qiu, Xiao-Kun; Ban, Ke-Chen; Yang, Chun; Qin, Liu-Liang; Luo, Dan; Yue, Hui-Fen; Zhang, Li-Sheng; Gu, Jian-Ren

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Through exploring the regulation of gene expression during hepatocarcinogenesis induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), to find out the responsible genes for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and to further understand the underlying molecular mechanism. METHODS: Tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis) were treated with or without AFB1 for about 90 weeks. Liver biopsies were performed regularly during the animal experiment. Eight shares of total RNA were respectively isolated from 2 HCC tissues, 2 HCC-surrounding non-cancerous liver tissues, 2 biopsied tissues at the early stage (30th week) of the experiment from the same animals as above, 1 mixed sample of three liver tissues biopsied at the beginning (0th week) of the experiment, and another 1 mixed sample of two liver tissues from the untreated control animals biopsied at the 90th week of the experiment. The samples were then tested with the method of AtlasTM cDNA microarray assay. The levels of gene expression in these tissues taken at different time points during hepatocarcinogenesis were compared. RESULTS: The profiles of differently expressed genes were quite different in different ways of comparison. At the same period of hepatocarcinogenesis, the genes in the same function group usually had the same tendency for up- or down-regulation. Among the checked 588 genes that were known to be related to human cancer, 89 genes (15.1%) were recognized as “important genes” because they showed frequent changes in different ways of comparison. The differentially expressed genes during hepatocarcinogenesis could be classified into four categories: genes up-regulated in HCC tissue, genes with similar expressing levels in both HCC and HCC-surrounding liver tissues which were higher than that in the tissues prior to the development of HCC, genes down-regulated in HCC tissue, and genes up-regulated prior to the development of HCC but down-regulated after the development of HCC. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of genes could

  6. The effects of necrotic enteritis, aflatoxin B1, and virginiamycin on growth performance, necrotic enteritis lesion scores, and mortality in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravens, R L; Goss, G R; Chi, F; De Boer, E D; Davis, S W; Hendrix, S M; Richardson, J A; Johnston, S L

    2013-08-01

    The effects of increasing aflatoxin B1 concentration (0, 0.75, 1.5 mg/kg) on broilers with or without necrotic enteritis or virginiamycin were determined. In the 23-d study, 22 male Cobb 500 chicks per pen were allotted to 12 treatments (3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement) with 8 replications. Intestines of 5 birds per pen were examined for lesions on d 21. Birds were allowed to consume feed and water ad libitum. Aflatoxin was included in the diets from d 0. All birds received a 10× dose of coccidiosis vaccine on d 10. Pens of birds where necrotic enteritis was being induced were on Clostridium perfringens pathogen (CPP) contaminated litter from d 0. Aflatoxin decreased gain and feed intake and resulted in poorer feed:gain, increased mortality, and higher lesion scores. Inducing necrotic enteritis increased lesion scores and decreased feed intake and gain. Adding virginiamycin to the diets improved gain, feed intake, feed conversion, and decreased mortality. There was a 3-way interaction (aflatoxin × virginiamycin × CPP) on gain; increasing aflatoxin decreased gain and the effects of CPP and virginiamycin were dependent on aflatoxin concentration. In the absence of aflatoxin virginiamycin increased gain but was unable to prevent the growth suppression caused by CPP. At 0.75 mg/kg of aflatoxin virginiamycin no longer increased growth in non-CPP challenged birds but was able to increase growth in CPP-challenged birds. At the 1.5 mg/kg of aflatoxin concentration, virginiamycin increased gain in non-CPP-challenged birds but challenging birds with CPP had no effect on gain. Virginiamycin improved overall feed conversion with the greatest improvement at 1.5 mg/kg (aflatoxin × virginiamycin, P enteritis decrease broiler performance and interact to decrease weight gain, virginiamycin helps improve gain in challenged birds at 0.75 mg/kg of aflatoxin, but not at 1.5 mg/kg of aflatoxin.

  7. Associations of serum aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct level with socio-demographic factors and aflatoxins intake from nuts and related nut products in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Yin-Hui; Rosma, Ahmad; Latiff, Aishah A; Izzah, A Nurul

    2012-04-01

    Aflatoxins are one of the major risk factors in the multi-factorial etiology of human hepatocellular carcinoma. Therefore, the information on aflatoxins exposure is very important in the intervention planning in order to reduce the dietary intake of aflatoxins, especially among the children. This study investigated the relationship between aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) lysine adduct levers in serum and socio-demographic factors and dietary intake of aflatoxins from nuts and nut products in Penang, Malaysia. A cross-sectional field study was conducted in five districts of Penang. A survey on socio-demographic characteristics was administered to 364 healthy adults from the three main ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indian). A total of 170 blood samples were successfully collected and tested for the level of AFB(1)-lysine adduct. 97% of the samples contained AFB(1)-lysine adduct above the detection limit of 0.4 pg/mg albumin and ranged from 0.20 to 23.16 pg/mg albumin (mean±standard deviation=7.67±4.54 pg/mg albumin; median=7.12 pg/mg albumin). There was no significant association between AFB(1)-lysine adduct levels with gender, district, education level, household number and occupation when these socio-demographic characteristics were examined according to high or low levels of AFB(1)-lysine. However, participants in the age group of 31-50 years were 3.08 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels compared to those aged between 18 and 30 years (P=0.026). Significant difference (P=0.000) was found among different ethnic groups. Chinese and Indian participants were 3.05 and 2.35 times more likely to have high AFB(1) levels than Malay. The result of AFB(1)-lysine adduct suggested that Penang adult population is likely to be exposed to AFB(1) but at a level of less than that needed to cause direct acute illness or death.

  8. Aflatoxin B1 residues in imported and local broiler, s breast and thigh muscle in Kurdistan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.P. Candlan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Residues of Aflatoxins and their metabolites might be present in meat and other products of animals receiving Aflatoxin contaminated feeds which could subsequently create health problems in man. Eighty nine imported (Iran/Khosh pokht; (Turkey/Yam-tapilic, Lades, Senplic, Kapidac, Kozoa, Oznesilpilic and (Brazil, hilal, Sadia, and 90 locally produced (Hoshiar poultry farm, Nihad poultry farm, Hokar poultry farm, Mansoor poultry farm, AL-Shimal poultry house, Mardin poultry house and AL-Eetimad poultry slaughterhouse broiler breast and thigh muscle samples were examined for residual Aflatoxin B1 using ELIZA test. Results revealed that out of 89 imported samples only 21 (23.59% were positive, but only 2 (2.24% were rejected, while the remaining 87 samples (97.75% were acceptable. Concerning the local samples, results showed that 19 samples (21.11% were positive, but 10 (11.11% were rejected, while the remaining 80 samples (88.88% were accepted. The public health importance of residual AFB1 in broiler meat samples was discussed.

  9. Aflatoxin B1 contamination in maize in Europe increases due to climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battilani, P.; Toscano, P.; Fels-Klerx, van der H.J.; Moretti, A.; Camardo Leggieri, Marco; Brera, C.; Rortais, A.; Goumpertis, T.; Robinson, T.

    2016-01-01

    Climate change has been reported as a driver for emerging food and feed safety issues worldwide and its expected impact on the presence of mycotoxins in food and feed is of great concern. Aflatoxins have the highest acute and chronic toxicity of all mycotoxins; hence, the maximal concentration in ag

  10. Modulatory effects of essential oils from spices on the formation of DNA adduct by aflatoxin B1 in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, S; Aboobaker, V S; Madhubala, R; Bhattacharya, R K; Rao, A R

    1994-01-01

    Essential oils from common spices such as nutmeg, ginger, cardamom, celery, xanthoxylum, black pepper, cumin, and coriander were tested for their ability to suppress the formation of DNA adducts by aflatoxin B1 in vitro in a microsomal enzyme-mediated reaction. All oils were found to inhibit adduct formation very significantly and in a dose-dependent manner. The adduct formation appeared to be modulated through the action on microsomal enzymes, because an effective inhibition on the formation of activated metabolite was observed with each oil. The enzymatic modulation is perhaps due to the chemical constituents of the oils, and this could form a basis for their potential anticarcinogenic roles.

  11. Effect of Plectranthus glandulosus and Ocimum gratissimum Essential Oils on Growth of Aspergillus flavus and Aflatoxin B1 Production

    OpenAIRE

    Mbofung, CMF.; Etoa, FX.; Tadsadjieu, NL.; Ngassoum, MB.

    2008-01-01

    Essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum and Plectranthus glandulosus leaves were extracted by steam distillation and analysed by GC-MS, and their effects on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus were tested at five levels (i.e 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/l) using SMKY agar medium. The main components of O. gratissimum were thymol (47.7%) and -terpinene (14.3%) whereas those of P. glandulosus were represented by -terpinene (30.8%) and terpinolene (25.2%). After 8 days of inc...

  12. Pathological changes in the immune organs of broiler chickens fed on corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zeng, Qiufeng; Zhang, Keying; Fang, Jing

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the underlying basis for aflatoxin-induced immunosuppression in the broiler chicken by detecting pathological lesions and apoptosis in thymus, bursa of Fabricius (BF) and spleen. COBB500™ male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to two groups. The control group was fed on a basal corn-based diet while the other group (the AFB group) was fed on a similar diet but the corn was naturally contaminated with aflatoxins B1 and B2. Histopathological examination revealed that in the AFB group there was more nuclear debris in the three immune organs and obvious congestion of red pulp in the spleen, when compared with the control group. Ultrastructural examination showed lesions in the lymphocytes and reticulocytes of the three immune organs, the mucosal epithelium of the BF and the plasmocytes of the spleen. Increased apoptotic cells and an impaired membrane system (including nuclear membrane, mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum [ER]) could be observed in the three immune organs in birds of the AFB group. In the plasmocytes, dilated rough endoplasmic reticulum contained electron-dense matrix. By flow cytometry, the percentages of apoptosis were significantly higher (P < 0.01) in the three organs of the AFB group than those of the control group. These observations suggested that the lesions of the immune organs were related to the immunosuppression, and that the apoptosis might be initiated by the mitochondrial pathway and ER chaperone pathway.

  13. Study on aflatoxin B1 detecting in sauce by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay%胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中黄曲霉毒素B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖卫华; 刘道峰; 邓省亮

    2012-01-01

    采用胶体金免疫层析法检测酱油中的黄曲霉毒素B1.加标的酱油样品经提取后,以胶体金免疫层析法对其进行黄曲霉毒素B1测定,并与酶联免疫吸附法进行比较.结果表明,当酱油中黄曲霉毒素含量超过国家限量标准(5 μg/kg),胶体金免疫层析法检测结果为阳性,说明该方法能够满足酱油样品中黄曲霉毒素B1监控的要求.%Colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay was used to detect the Aflatoxin B1 in Sauce. After spiking with aflatoxin B1 and extracting, the samples from sauce were detected by colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data showed that the result of colloidal gold immunochromatographic assay would be positive when the concentration of aflatoxin B1 in sauce exceeding the maximum limit of China (5 jig/kg). The immunochromatographic assay can be used to screen aflatoxin B1 of sauce products.

  14. Phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa fruit pulp stalls aflatoxin B1 – mediated oxidative rout in the liver of male rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taofeek O. Ajiboye

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of phenolic extract of Parkia biglobosa (Jacq. R. Br. ex G. Don, Fabaceae, pulp on aflatoxin B1 induced oxidative imbalance in rat liver was evaluated. Thirty-five male rats were randomized into seven groups of five animals each. Rats in group A served as control and received vehicle for drug administration (0.5% DMSO once daily at 24 h intervals for six weeks. Rats in groups B, D, E, F and G, received aflatoxin B1 (167 μg/kg body weight in 0.5% DMSO for three weeks, starting from the third week of the experimental period. Rats in Group C received 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks, while groups D, E and F rats were treated with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg bodyweight of the extract for six weeks respectively. Group G rats received 100 mg/kg body weight of vitamin C. Aflatoxin B1-mediated decrease in the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were significantly attenuated. Aflatoxin B1 mediated the elevation in malondialdehyde, conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides, protein carbonyl, and significantly lowered DNA fragmentation percentage. Overall, the phenolic extract of P. biglobosa pulp stalls aflatoxin B1-mediated oxidative rout by enhancing antioxidant enzyme activities leading to decreased lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and DNA fragmentation.

  15. Screening of Argentine plant extracts: impact on growth parameters and aflatoxin B1 accumulation by Aspergillus section Flavi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bluma, R; Amaiden, M R; Etcheverry, M

    2008-02-29

    The effect of essential oils, ethanolic and aqueous extract of 41 vegetable species on Aspergillus section Flavi growth was evaluated. The in vitro screen was a two-stage process. A wide-spectrum initial screen which identified promising antifungal plant extracts was carried out first. After that, identified extracts were studied in more detail by in vitro assays. A total of 96 plant extracts were screened. Essential oils were found to be the most effective extract controlling aflatoxigenic strains. Clove, mountain thyme, poleo and eucalyptus essential oils were selected to study their antifungal effect. Studies on percentage of germination, germ-tube elongation rate, growth rate, and aflatoxin B1 accumulation were carried out. Clove, mountain thyme and poleo essential oils showed the most antifungal effect under all growth parameters analyzed as well as aflatoxin B1 accumulation. Our results suggest that mountain thyme and poleo, which are native vegetal species of Argentina, and clove essential oils could be used alone or in conjunction with other substances to control the presence of aflatoxigenic fungi in stored maize.

  16. Mycobiota and Aflatoxin B1 in Feed for Farmed Sea Bass (Dicentrarchus labrax

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Manuel d´Almeida Bernardo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The safety characteristics of feed used in fish and crustacean aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. Safety of feed may be affected by different hazards, including biological and chemical groups. The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate fungi contamination and the presence of aflatoxins in 87 samples of feed for sea bass, collected in Portugal. Molds were found in 35 samples (40.2% in levels ranging from 1 to 3.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. Six genera of molds were found. Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples, with a range from 2 to 3.2 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus niger was found in 34 samples (39.1%, ranging from 1 to 2.7 log10 CFU∙g−1. Aspergillus glaucus was found in 26 samples (29.9% with levels between 1 and 2.4 log10 CFU∙g−1. Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp. were both found in 25 samples (28.7%. Fusarium spp. was found in 22 samples (25.3%, ranging from 1 to 2.3 log10 CFU∙g−1. All feed samples were screened for aflatoxins using a HPLC technique, with a detection limit of 1.0 μg∙kg−1. All samples were aflatoxin negative.

  17. Identification of aflatoxin M1-N7-guanine in liver and urine of tree shrews and rats following administration of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egner, Patricia A; Yu, Xiang; Johnson, Jesse K; Nathasingh, Christopher K; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

    2003-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that exposure to aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and concurrent infection with hepatitis B lead to a multiplicative risk of developing liver cancer. This chemical-viral interaction can be recapitulated in the tree shrew (Tupia belangeri chinensis). As an initial characterization of this model, the metabolism of AFB(1) in tree shrews has been examined and compared to a sensitive bioassay species, the rat. Utilizing LC/MS/MS, an unreported product, aflatoxin M(1)-N(7)-guanine (AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine), was detected in urine and hepatic DNA samples 24 h after administration of 400 microg/kg AFB(1). In hepatic DNA isolated from tree shrews, AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine was the predominant adduct, 0.74 +/- 0.14 pmol/mg DNA, as compared to 0.37 +/- 0.07 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine. Conversely, in rat liver, 6.56 +/- 2.41 pmol/mg DNA of AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine and 0.42 +/- 0.13 pmol/mg DNA of AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine were detected. Rats excreted 1.00 +/- 0.21 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.29 +/- 0.10 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine as compared to 0.60 +/- 0.12 pmol AFB(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine and 0.69 +/- 0.16 pmol AFM(1)-N(7)-guanine/mg creatinine excreted by the tree shrew. Furthermore, tree shrew urine contained 40 times more of the hydroxylated metabolite, AFM(1), than was excreted by rats. In vitro experiments confirmed this difference in oxidative metabolism. Hepatic microsomes isolated from tree shrews failed to produce aflatoxin Q(1) or aflatoxin P(1) but formed a significantly greater amount of AFM(1) than rat microsomes. Bioassays indicated that the tree shrew was considerably more resistant than the rat to AFB(1) hepatocarcinogenesis, which may reflect the significant differences in metabolic profiles of the two species.

  18. Cytotoxic assessment of the regulated, co-existing mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin, in single, binary and tertiary mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Rachel; Connolly, Lisa; Frizzell, Caroline; Elliott, Christopher T

    2014-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are contaminants which have been shown to regularly co-occur in a range of foods. However, only a small number of studies have evaluated the interactive effect of binary and tertiary mycotoxins. The present study evaluated the effects of low levels of each mycotoxin in combination at their EU regulatory limits. Toxic effect with respect to cell viability was measured by MTT and neutral red assays, assessing mitochondria and lysosome integrities respectively. Individual toxicity showed that OTA (10 μg/ml) was the most cytotoxic mycotoxin in all three cell lines studied (caco-2, MDBK and raw 264.7). Binary combinations were cytotoxic to the MDBK cell line in the order [OTA/FB1] > [AFB1/FB1] > [AFB1/OTA], whilst all effects observed were classified as being additive. Tertiary combinations of AFB1, FB1 and OTA at the EU regulatory limits were tested and not found to exhibit measurable cytotoxicity in MDBK, caco-2 or raw 264.7 cells. However by increasing these concentrations above the legal limits to OTA (3 μg/ml), FB1 (8 μg/ml) and AFB1 (1.28 μg/ml), cytotoxicity was observed with up to 26% reduction in cell viability and synergistic effects were evident with regard to mitochondrial integrity.

  19. Kaempferol ameliorates aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocellular carcinoma through modifying metabolizing enzymes, membrane bound ATPases and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kulanthaivel Langeswaran; Rajendran Revathy; Subbaraj Gowtham Kumar; Shanmugam Vijayaprakash

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The present study was aimed to scrutinize the anticancer consequence of kaempferol against aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis. Epidemiological studies of the incidence of liver cancer in the population, where dietary aflatoxin exposure is high, have provided much circumstantial evidence for the development of aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver cancer in humans. Methods:In the present investigation, aflatoxin B1 (2 mg/kg body weight i.p) was used as a hepatocarcinogen to induce hepatocellular carcinoma in experimental animals. Results: In the present analysis, on treatment with bioflavonoid kaempferol (100 mg/kg body weight p.o) the nucleic acids levels were brought back to normal and also the altered levels of biological enzymes such as membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes levels (P<0.01).Conclusions:Membrane bound ATPase, carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and mitochondrial TCA cycle enzymes were modulated by kaempferol evaluated on aflatoxin B1 induced primary liver carcinogenesis.

  20. Production and characteristics of specialised monoclonal antibodies against aflatoxin B1%高特异性黄曲霉毒素B1单克隆抗体的制备及特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖智; 李培武; 张奇; 张文; 丁小霞

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxins are important mycotoxins of contaminated peanut products. Aflatoxin B1 is the most toxic,accounting for over 70% of aflatoxin analogues. In present paper, aflatoxin B1 was transformed into hemiacetal,namely aflatoxin B2a, and then conjugated to protein as immunogen by reduction of sodium borohydride. After the fourth boost immunization, spleen cells of the immunized Balb/c mouse were fused with freshly isolated SP2/0 myeloma cells. Through selecting and identifying with enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), one clone 3A12 was obtained from cultured semi - solid medium. Sensitivity of antibody 3A12 reached 6.1 ± 0.025ng/mL.The cross - reactivities with other aflatoxin analogues ( aflatoxin B2, G1 and G2) were 7.8%, 20.2% and 0.6%respectively, with aflatoxin M1 less than 0.1%. It offered an important foundation for aflatoxin B1 -specific immuno- assay technologies and products.%本研究将黄曲霉毒素B1转化为半缩醛B2a,在硼氢化钠(NaBH4)还原作用下与载体蛋白偶联制备完全抗原.将制备的完全抗原免疫Balb/c小鼠,经4次免疫后取其脾脏与小鼠骨髓瘤细胞Sp2/0细胞融合,采用半固体培养基筛选后鉴定,获得杂交瘤细胞株3A12,抗体的灵敏度可达6.1±0.025ng/mL,抗体与其它黄曲霉毒素B2、G1及G2的交叉反应率依次为7.8%、20.2%及0.6%,与黄曲霉毒素M1交叉反应率小于0.1%.本研究为研发花生等农产品黄曲霉毒素B1特异性免疫分析技术及产品奠定了重要基础.

  1. Complete protection against aflatoxin B(1)-induced liver cancer with a triterpenoid: DNA adduct dosimetry, molecular signature, and genotoxicity threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Natalie M; Egner, Patricia A; Baxter, Victoria K; Sporn, Michael B; Wible, Ryan S; Sutter, Thomas R; Groopman, John D; Kensler, Thomas W; Roebuck, Bill D

    2014-07-01

    In experimental animals and humans, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a potent hepatic toxin and carcinogen. The synthetic oleanane triterpenoid 1-[2-cyano-3-,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-28-oyl]imidazole (CDDO-Im), a powerful activator of Keap1-Nrf2 signaling, protects against AFB1-induced toxicity and preneoplastic lesion formation (GST-P-positive foci). This study assessed and mechanistically characterized the chemoprotective efficacy of CDDO-Im against AFB1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). A lifetime cancer bioassay was undertaken in F344 rats dosed with AFB1 (200 μg/kg rat/day) for four weeks and receiving either vehicle or CDDO-Im (three times weekly), one week before and throughout the exposure period. Weekly, 24-hour urine samples were collected for analysis of AFB1 metabolites. In a subset of rats, livers were analyzed for GST-P foci. The comparative response of a toxicogenomic RNA expression signature for AFB1 was examined. CDDO-Im completely protected (0/20) against AFB1-induced liver cancer compared with a 96% incidence (22/23) observed in the AFB1 group. With CDDO-Im treatment, integrated level of urinary AFB1-N(7)-guanine was significantly reduced (66%) and aflatoxin-N-acetylcysteine, a detoxication product, was consistently elevated (300%) after the first AFB1 dose. In AFB1-treated rats, the hepatic burden of GST-P-positive foci increased substantially (0%-13.8%) over the four weeks, but was largely absent with CDDO-Im intervention. The toxicogenomic RNA expression signature characteristic of AFB1 was absent in the AFB1 + CDDO-Im-treated rats. The remarkable efficacy of CDDO-Im as an anticarcinogen is established even in the face of a significant aflatoxin adduct burden. Consequently, the absence of cancer requires a concept of a threshold for DNA damage for cancer development.

  2. Inhibitory effect of eugenol on aflatoxin B1 production in Aspergillus parasiticus by downregulating the expression of major genes in the toxin biosynthetic pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahanshiri, Zahra; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Allameh, Abdolamir; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Aflatoxin contamination of grains and agro-products is a serious food safety issue and a significant economic concern worldwide. In the present study, the effects of eugenol on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production were studied in relation to the expression of some essential genes involved in aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. The fungus was cultured in presence of serial two-fold concentrations of eugenol (15.62-500 μg mL(-1)) for 3 days at 28 °C. Mycelia dry weight was determined as an index of fungal growth, while aflatoxin production was assessed by high performance liquid chromatography. The expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes including ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR were evaluated by real-time PCR. Eugenol strongly inhibited A. parasiticus growth in the range of 19.16-95.83 % in a dose-dependent manner. Aflatoxin B1 production was also inhibited by the compound in the range of 15.07-98.0 %. The expressions of ver-1, nor-1, pksA, omtA and aflR genes were significantly suppressed by eugenol at concentrations of 62.5 and 125 μg mL(-1). These results indicate that eugenol may be considered as a good candidate to control toxigenic fungal growth and the subsequent contamination of food, feed and agricultural commodities by carcinogenic aflatoxins.

  3. Ability of a Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain cultured in milk whey based medium to bind aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bovo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare Lactobacillus rhamnosus growth in MRS (de Man, Rogosa and Sharpe broth and a culture medium containing milk whey (MMW and to evaluate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 adsorption capacity by bacterial cells produced in both culture media. L. rhamnosus cells were cultivated in MRS broth and MMW (37 °C, 24 hours, and bacterial cell concentration was determined spectrophotometrically at 600 nm. AFB1 (1 µg/ml adsorption assays were conducted using 1 x 10(10 non-viable L. rhamnosus cells (121 °C, 15 minutes at pHs 3.0 and 6.0 and contact time of 60 minutes. AFB1 quantification was performed by High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Bacterial cell concentration in MMW was higher (9.84 log CFU/ml than that in MRS broth (9.63 log CFU/ml. There were no significant differences between AFB1 binding results at the same pH value (3.0 or 6.0 for the cells cultivated in MRS broth (46.0% and 35.8%, respectively and in MMW (43.7% and 25.8%, respectively, showing that MMW can adequately replace the MRS broth. Therefore, it can be concluded that the use of L. rhamnosus cells cultivated in MMW offers advantages such as reduction in large scale production costs, improvement of environmental sustainability, and being a practicable alternative for decontamination of food products susceptible to aflatoxin contamination.

  4. Distinct response of the hepatic transcriptome to Aflatoxin B1 induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis and resistance in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiejun; He, Jiangtu; Lin, Jing; Sun, Xin; Sun, Fenyong; Ou, Chao; Jiang, Cizhong

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a natural potent carcinogen and a major cause of liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of hepatocellular carcinogenesis remain largely unexplored. In this study, we profiled global gene expression in liver tissues of rats that developed hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) from aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) administration and those that were AFB1-resistant, as well as rats without AFB1 exposure as a control. AFB1 exposure resulted in extensive perturbation in gene expression with different functions in HCC and AFB1 resistance (AR) samples. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in HCC sample were enriched for cell proliferation, cell adhesion and vasculature development that largely contribute to carcinogenesis. Anti-apoptosis genes were up-regulated in HCC sample whereas apoptosis-induction genes were up-regulated in AR sample. AFB1 exposure also caused extensive alteration in expression level of lncRNAs. Among all the 4511 annotated lncRNAs, half of them were highly expressed only in HCC sample and up-regulated a group of protein-coding genes with cancer-related functions: apoptosis regulation, DNA repair, and cell cycle. Intriguingly, these genes were down-regulated by lncRNAs highly expressed in AR sample. Collectively, apoptosis is the critical biological process for carcinogenesis in response to AFB1 exposure through changes in expression level of both protein-coding and lncRNA genes. PMID:27545718

  5. In vitro ability of beer fermentation residue and yeast-based products to bind aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Bovo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the in vitro ability of beer fermentation residue (BFR containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and five commercial products that differed in the viability and integrity of S. cerevisiae cells to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 from a citrate-phosphate buffer solution (CPBS. BFR was collected at a microbrewery and prepared by drying and milling. The commercial yeast-based products were as follows: inactive intact yeast cells from beer alcoholic fermentation, inactive intact yeast cells from sugarcane alcoholic fermentation, hydrolyzed yeast cells, yeast cell walls and active yeast cells. Adsorption assays were performed in CPBS spiked with 1.0 μg AFB1/mL at pH 3.0 and 6.0 for a contact time of 60 min at room temperature. Analysis of AFB1 in the samples was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. AFB1 adsorption by the products ranged from 45.5% to 69.4% at pH 3.0 and from 24.0% to 63.8% at pH 6.0. The higher percentages (p 0.05 from commercial products containing inactive intact yeast cells. The results of this trial indicate that the yeast-based products tested, especially the BFR, have potential applications in animal feeds as a suitable biological method for reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxins.

  6. In vitro ability of beer fermentation residue and yeast-based products to bind aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovo, Fernanda; Franco, Larissa Tuanny; Rosim, Roice Eliana; Barbalho, Ricardo; de Oliveira, Carlos Augusto Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the in vitro ability of beer fermentation residue (BFR) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells and five commercial products that differed in the viability and integrity of S. cerevisiae cells to remove aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from a citrate-phosphate buffer solution (CPBS). BFR was collected at a microbrewery and prepared by drying and milling. The commercial yeast-based products were as follows: inactive intact yeast cells from beer alcoholic fermentation, inactive intact yeast cells from sugarcane alcoholic fermentation, hydrolyzed yeast cells, yeast cell walls and active yeast cells. Adsorption assays were performed in CPBS spiked with 1.0 μg AFB1/mL at pH 3.0 and 6.0 for a contact time of 60 min at room temperature. Analysis of AFB1 in the samples was performed by high performance liquid chromatography. AFB1 adsorption by the products ranged from 45.5% to 69.4% at pH 3.0 and from 24.0% to 63.8% at pH 6.0. The higher percentages (p 0.05) from commercial products containing inactive intact yeast cells. The results of this trial indicate that the yeast-based products tested, especially the BFR, have potential applications in animal feeds as a suitable biological method for reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxins. PMID:26273277

  7. Characterization of the cellular damage induced by Aflatoxin B1 in sea bream (Sparus aurata Linnaeus, 1758 hepatocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Crescenzo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L. is one of the most intensively farmed fish spe- cies in the Mediterranean, greatly studied for the relevant economic value, although its sensitivity to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 has to be investigated, yet. The aim of this study was to perform an in vitro evalua- tion of cytotoxic potential of AFB1 on S. aurata hepatocytes in order to grade the range of AFB1 toxicity, and the boundary between acute and long-term toxicity. Primary monolayer cultures of hepatocytes from S. aurata juveniles were treated with a wide range of concentrations from 5x103 ng/ml to 2x10 2x10-5 ng/ml of AFB1 for a different period of exposure (24, 48, 72 hours. The cytotoxic activity was characterized by MTT reduction assay. After each exposition hepatocytes were examined for morphologic alterations and apoptosis induction. AFB1 exposure significantly reduced cell viability in a dose- and time-depend- ent manner. Dose-response curves obtained after 24, 48 and 72 hrs revealed that prolonged exposure times lead to a significant increase of the toxicpotencyofAFB toxic potency of AFB AFB1. Ourresultsdemonstratethat Our results demonstrate that S. aurata hepatocytes are highly sensitive to AFB1 exposure. Such scientific findings could provide new insights to investigate the real impact of aflatoxin on marine farmed fish.

  8. Error-prone replication bypass of the primary aflatoxin B1 DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ying-Chih; Li, Liang; Makarova, Alena V; Burgers, Peter M; Stone, Michael P; Lloyd, R Stephen

    2014-06-27

    Hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) are the third leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The highest rates of early onset HCCs occur in geographical regions with high aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure, concomitant with hepatitis B infection. Although the carcinogenic basis of AFB1 has been ascribed to its mutagenic effects, the mutagenic property of the primary AFB1-DNA adduct, AFB1-N7-Gua, in mammalian cells has not been studied extensively. Taking advantage of the ability to create vectors containing a site-specific DNA adduct, the mutagenic potential was determined in primate cells. This adduct was highly mutagenic following replication in COS-7 cells, with a mutation frequency of 45%. The spectrum of mutations was predominantly G to T base substitutions, a result that is consistent with previous mutation data derived from aflatoxin-associated HCCs. To assess which DNA polymerases (pol) might contribute to the mutational outcome, in vitro replication studies were performed. Unexpectedly, replicative pol δ and the error-prone translesion synthesis pol ζ were able to accurately bypass AFB1-N7-Gua. In contrast, replication bypass using pol κ was shown to occur with low fidelity and could account for the commonly detected G to T transversions.

  9. Effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B1 and B2 on hepatic functions of broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J; Bai, F; Zhang, K; Bai, S; Peng, X; Ding, X; Li, Y; Zhang, J; Zhao, L

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and aflatoxin B(2) (AFB(2)) on serum biochemical parameters, hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities, and pathological lesions of broilers. In total, 1,200 Cobb male broilers were randomly allocated into 5 treatments, with 8 replicates per treatment and 30 birds per replicate, in a 42-d experiment. The dietary treatments were as follows: control, 25, 50, 75, and 100% contaminated corn groups. Results showed that serum aspartate aminotransferase activity in the 75 and 100% contaminated groups were higher than that in the control group on d 21 (P contaminated corn increased (P contaminated corn (P contaminated groups on d 21 (P contaminated corn. In conclusion, diets containing AFB(1) and AFB(2) could induce pathological lesions in the livers, slightly change the serum biochemical parameters, and damage the hepatic antioxidant functions when the inclusion of AFB(1)- and AFB(2)-contaminated corn reached or exceeded 50%.

  10. The Molecular Epidemiology of Chronic Aflatoxin Driven Impaired Child Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Paul Craig

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are toxic secondary fungal metabolites that contaminate dietary staples in tropical regions; chronic high levels of exposure are common for many of the poorest populations. Observations in animals indicate that growth and/or food utilization are adversely affected by aflatoxins. This review highlights the development of validated exposure biomarkers and their use here to assess the role of aflatoxins in early life growth retardation. Aflatoxin exposure occurs in utero and continues in early infancy as weaning foods are introduced. Using aflatoxin-albumin exposure biomarkers, five major studies clearly demonstrate strong dose response relationships between exposure in utero and/or early infancy and growth retardation, identified by reduced birth weight and/or low HAZ and WAZ scores. The epidemiological studies include cross-sectional and longitudinal surveys, though aflatoxin reduction intervention studies are now required to further support these data and guide sustainable options to reduce the burden of exposure. The use of aflatoxin exposure biomarkers was essential in understanding the observational data reviewed and will likely be a critical monitor of the effectiveness of interventions to restrict aflatoxin exposure. Given that an estimated 4.5 billion individuals live in regions at risk of dietary contamination the public health concern cannot be over stated. PMID:24455429

  11. Protective Influence of Gamma Rays and Electron-Beam Irradiation with a Commercial Toxin Binder on Toxic Effects of Aflatoxin B1 in Japanese Quails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Hasanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This cross sectional study was conducted to evaluate the effect of γ-rays and electron-beam irradiation with a commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX on the performance, feed components, and meat quality of Japanese quails challenged with aflatoxin B1. Methods: Overall, 168 One-d-old chicks (Japanese quails were allocated to eight treatments with three replicates based on a completely randomized design in a 2×4 factorial arrangement. Two levels of aflatoxin (Zero and 2 ppm were considered as the essential factor. The secondary factor was involved in four levels (Control, 27 k Gy doses of γ-rays, electron-beam irradiation, and 0.3% commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX. Results: In vitro condition showed that experiment diets do not have any effect on meat quality and feed components such as malondialdehyde, protein, fat, ash, and the dry matter. However, the highest and the lowest levels of feed intake and body weight gain were observed in the 7th treatment (2-ppm aflatoxin B1 + electron-beam irradiation and the 2nd treatment (2-ppm aflatoxin B1 alone, respectively in 1-15 and 29-42 days (P≤0.05. In addition, the highest liver weight (1.73, spleen (0.57 and bursa (0.18 were seen in the second treatment (2 ppm aflatoxin B1 alone (P≤0.05 at the age of 42 days. Conclusion: γ-rays and electron-beam irradiation plus commercial toxin binder-milbond-TX can be used for aflatoxin B1 absorption in poultry diets.

  12. Carry-over of aflatoxin B1 to aflatoxin M1 in high yielding Israeli cows in mid- and late-lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzi, Malka; Friedman, Shmulik; Miron, Joshua; Solomon, Ran; Cuneah, Olga; Shimshoni, Jakob A; Soback, Stefan; Ashkenazi, Rina; Armer, Sima; Shlosberg, Alan

    2013-01-16

    The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows' milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3-7) was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e(0.0521 × milk yield), with r(2) = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel.

  13. Carry-Over of Aflatoxin B1 to Aflatoxin M1 in High Yielding Israeli Cows in Mid- and Late-Lactation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Armer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The potent hepatotoxin and carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a common mycotoxin contaminant of grains used in animal feeds. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 is the major metabolite of AFB1 in mammals, being partially excreted into milk, and is a possible human carcinogen. The maximum permitted concentration of AFM1 in cows’ milk is 0.05 μg/kg in Israel and the European Union. Since milk yield and the carry-over of AFB1 in the feed to AFM1 in the milk are highly correlated, it was considered important to determine the AFM1 carry-over in Israeli-Holstein dairy cows, distinguished by world record high milk production. Twelve such cows were used to determine AFM1 carry-over following daily oral administration of feed containing ~86 μg AFB1 for 7 days. The mean carry-over rate at steady-state (Days 3–7 was 5.8% and 2.5% in mid-lactation and late-lactation groups, respectively. The carry-over appears to increase exponentially with milk yield and could be described by the equation: carry-over% = 0.5154 e0.0521 × milk yield, with r2 = 0.6224. If these data truly reflect the carry-over in the national Israeli dairy herd, the maximum level of AFB1 in feed should not exceed 1.4 μg/kg, a value 3.6 times lower than the maximum residue level currently applied in Israel.

  14. Aflatoxin-albumin adduct formation after single and multiple doses of aflatoxin B(1) in rats treated with Thai medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinitketkumnuen, U; Chewonarin, T; Dhumtanom, P; Lertprasertsuk, N; Wild, C P

    1999-07-16

    The objective was to conduct an assessment of the ability of two Thai medicinal plants, Cymbopogon citratus Stapf and Murdannia loriformis, to modulate levels of serum aflatoxin-albumin (AF-albumin) adducts following aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) exposure in rats. The influence of the plant extracts on AF-albumin adduct formation after a single exposure to 250 microg/kg body weight (bw) AFB(1) was measured over a 48-h period. Rats received M. loriformis extract (3 g/kg bw) or C. citratus Stapf extract (5 g/kg bw) daily for the week prior to the AFB(1) administration. In control rats, maximum adduct levels were observed 12 h post-AFB(1) treatment but in the animals receiving Murdannia extract, maximum levels occurred earlier, at 4 h post-treatment. No such effect was observed with the Cymbopogon extract. Daily treatment of rats with AFB(1) at 250 microg/kg bw for 3 weeks caused serum AF-albumin adduct levels to accumulate over a 10-14 day period and reach plateau levels 4.4-fold higher than observed after a single dose. Treatment with Murdannia extract for 1 week before and then throughout the AFB(1) exposure period resulted in a slight decrease in the AF-albumin adduct levels in the first week of the intervention. After that time, however, the reduction in adduct levels in the Murdannia extract group did not differ significantly from controls. No significant alteration in the biomarker levels was seen with the Cymbopogon extract treatments compared to control rats.

  15. Investigation on Aflatoxin B1 Contamination in Chilli Products of Guizhou Province%贵州省辣椒制品中黄曲霉毒素B1的污染调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高博; 王艳; 陈霄; 曹云恒; 焦彦朝

    2012-01-01

    为了解贵州省辣椒制品中黄曲霉毒素B1的污染情况,采用ELISA方法对2009-2010年贵州省9个地区市场销售的669份辣椒制品中黄曲霉毒素B1含量进行检测分析.结果表明,贵州省辣椒制品中总体存在黄曲霉毒素B1的轻度污染,尤其是干辣椒制品中黄曲霉毒素B1的污染情况较重.%In order to know the aflatoxin Bl contamination in chilli products of Guizhou Province, the aflatoxin Bl contents in 669 samples from market in nine regions of Guizhou Province were detected and analyzed by ELISA method in 2009 - 2010. The results showed that the chilli products in Guizhou Province, the overall of which existed light degree of aflatoxin Bl contamination, but the dried chilli products existed heavier aflatoxin Bl contamination.

  16. An enzyme-free catalytic DNA circuit for amplified detection of aflatoxin B1 using gold nanoparticles as colorimetric indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Junhua; Wen, Junlin; Zhuang, Li; Zhou, Shungui

    2016-05-01

    An enzyme-free biosensor for the amplified detection of aflatoxin B1 has been constructed based on a catalytic DNA circuit. Three biotinylated hairpin DNA probes (H1, H2, and H3) were designed as the assembly components to construct the sensing system (triplex H1-H2-H3 product). Cascaded signal amplification capability was obtained through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions to open the hairpins and recycle the trigger DNA. By the use of streptavidin-functionalized gold nanoparticles as the signal indicators, the colorimetric readout can be observed by the naked eye. In the presence of a target, the individual nanoparticles (red) aggregate into a cross-linked network of nanoparticles (blue) via biotin-streptavidin coupling. The colorimetric assay is ultrasensitive, enabling the visual detection of trace levels of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) as low as 10 pM without instrumentation. The calculated limit of detection (LOD) is 2 pM in terms of 3 times standard deviation over the blank response. The sensor is robust and works even when challenged with complex sample matrices such as rice samples. Our sensing platform is simple and convenient in operation, requiring only the mixing of several solutions at room temperature to achieve visible and intuitive results, and holds great promise for the point-of-use monitoring of AFB1 in environmental and food samples.An enzyme-free biosensor for the amplified detection of aflatoxin B1 has been constructed based on a catalytic DNA circuit. Three biotinylated hairpin DNA probes (H1, H2, and H3) were designed as the assembly components to construct the sensing system (triplex H1-H2-H3 product). Cascaded signal amplification capability was obtained through toehold-mediated strand displacement reactions to open the hairpins and recycle the trigger DNA. By the use of streptavidin-functionalized gold nanoparticles as the signal indicators, the colorimetric readout can be observed by the naked eye. In the presence of a target, the

  17. Impact of casing damaging on aflatoxin B1 concentration during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Kovačević, Dragan; Perković, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of casing damaging on the formation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages. The level of AFB1 contamination was determined in 24 samples using the ELISA immunoassay throughout a six-month production period. While with intact casing samples no contamination was observed throughout the whole production process, in damaged casing samples AFB1 was detected in the ripening end-stages in the range of 1.62-4.49 μg/kg. The results showed that casing damaging occurring during long-term ripening of dry-fermented sausages can cause AFB1 contamination, possibly arising on the grounds of diffusion of this mycotoxin from the product surface to its interior.

  18. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay of aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in corn, cottonseed, peanuts, peanut butter, and poultry feed: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trucksess, M W; Stack, M E; Nesheim, S; Park, D L; Pohland, A E

    1989-01-01

    A direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) screening method for aflatoxins at 20 ng/g was studied by 12 collaborators. Test samples of peanut butter were extracted by blending with methanol-water-hexane (55 + 45 + 100) and heating the test extracts on a steam bath; test samples of the other commodities were extracted by blending with methanol-water (80 + 20). All test extracts were filtered and the filtrates were diluted with buffer to a final methanol concentration of less than 30%. Each diluted filtrate was applied to a cup containing a filter with immobilized polyclonal antibodies specific to aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1. Aflatoxin B1-peroxidase conjugate was added, the cup was washed with water, and a mixture of hydrogen peroxide and tetramethylbenzidine was added. The test sample was judged to contain greater than or equal to 20 ng aflatoxins/g when, after exactly 1 min, no color was observed on the filter; when a blue or gray color developed, the test sample was judged to contain less than 20 ng aflatoxins/g. All collaborators correctly identified naturally contaminated corn and raw peanut positive test samples. No false positives were found for controls containing less than 2 ng aflatoxins/g. The correct responses for positive test samples spiked at levels of 10, 20, and greater than or equal to 30 ng aflatoxins/g (the ratio of B1:B2:G1 was 10:1:3) were 52, 86, and 96%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Co-Exposure Effects of LPS with Various Aflatoxin B1 Doses in Isolated Perfused Rat Liver Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Koohi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Activation of inflammatory cells can cause more chemicals induced-hepatotoxicity. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a fungal toxin that induces acute hepatotoxicity in humans and animals. This study was conducted to examine the effect of co-exposure LPS and various aflatoxin B1 doses on the damage hepatic parameters in isolated perfused rat liver. Methods: Thirty-two male wistar rats (250-300g were divided to eight groups including Control and LPS; three groups with various doses of AFB1 (0.01, 0.1 and 1 ppm and three groups with various doses of AFB1 and Lipopolysaccharide (LPS (300 ppm. Activity of Aspartate transaminase (AST and Alanine transaminase (ALT were determined in perfusate. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and Glutathione (GSH concentrations were measured in homogenate liver. Results: At two groups of AFB 1 (with LPS and without LPS at AFB1 concentrations of 0.1 and 1 ppm, elevation of AST and ALT enzymes activity were indicated. Values of GSH in both of groups (AFB 1 with LPS and without LPS had reduced at concentration of 1 ppm. TBARS concentrations were enhanced in AFB1 concentration of 1 ppm in both of groups (with LPS and without LPS, however in comparison between groups (with LPS and without LPS in similar concentrations significant different did not observe (P<0.05. Conclusion: Non-injurious dose of LPS did not enhance liver susceptibility to various doses of AFB1 in perfused rat liver. This may be in part of due to extrahepatic factors, which contribute, in more liver damage.

  20. Effect of high sucrose diet on liver enzyme content and activity and aflatoxin B1-induced mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leandra P; Teel, Robert W

    2003-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a fungal toxin and contaminant that has been implicated in human liver carcinogenesis. In this study we evaluated the effect of a 65% of total calories from sucrose diet (HSD) for 90 days on hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity compared to rats maintained on standard lab chow (0% sucrose). There was a statistically significant increase in the number of S. typhimurium His+ revertants (p < 0.001) generated from the incubation of AFB1 with hepatic microsomes from rats fed a HSD. The HSD did not affect the total microsomal CYP450 content nor content of CYP450 1A2, 2B1, 2 isoforms which activate AFB1. Alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity (MROD, PROD) of microsomes from animals fed HSD was decreased by 73% and 49%, respectively. MROD activity is linked to CYP 1A2 activity while PROD is linked to CYP 2B1,2 activity. Although the amount of CYP 3A was significantly decreased in rats fed a HSD, its activity, determined by the presence of the fluorometric metabolite 7-hydroxyquinidine, was unchanged. GST activity was significantly lower in the rats fed HSD.

  1. THE EFFECT OF PHYTIC ACID, ZINC AND SOYBEAN EXTRACT ON THE GROWTH AND AFLATOXIN B1 PRODUCTION BY Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    Sardjono, Sardjono

    2012-01-01

    It has been reported that aflatoxin contamination in soybean was relatively low, but it was not guaranteed that soybean products is free from aflatoxin contamination. Naturally, soybean containing phytic acid and it bound zinc and protein. Zinc (Zn) is an important mineral for aflatoxin biosynthesis. Previous research indicated that some soybean products such as kecap was contaminated by aflatoxin. It might be Aspergillus flavus involved during kecap fermentation and it produced phytase for p...

  2. Onderzoek naar de bruikbaarheid van twee enzym immuno assay spottests, als screeningsmethode voor de bepaling van aflatoxine B1 in samengestelde mengvoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trijp, van J.M.P.; Tuinstra, L.G.M.Th.

    1989-01-01

    Twee enzym immunoassay spottest zijn vergeleken met een HPLC methode voor het bepalen van aflatoxine B1. De opzet was na te gaan in hoeverre de spottests gebruikt kunnen worden als screeningsmethode van samengestelde mengvoeders bij een tolerantieniveau van10ug/kg. De testen zijn daarbij bekeken op

  3. The effect of NovaSil dietary supplementation on the growth and health performance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) fed aflatoxin-B1 contaminated feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of NovaSil (NS) clay to sorb and mitigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Growth performance, specific innate immunological function, intestinal microbial community, and histology were evaluate...

  4. Immuno Affinity SELEX for Simple, Rapid, and Cost-Effective Aptamer Enrichment and Identification against Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setlem, Keerthana; Mondal, Bhairab; Ramlal, Shylaja; Kingston, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are naturally occurring mycotoxins that contaminate food and agro commodities, leading to acute and chronic health conditions in human and animals. In the present work, an attempt was made to generate high-affinity single stranded DNA aptamers that specifically bind to Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by a modified Systemic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) procedure with the aid of Immunoaffinity columns. Ten rounds of SELEX and alternating three counter SELEX rounds with a cocktail of related and other mycotoxins were performed to enhance the specificity. Resultant 105 aptamers were clustered into 12 groups according to their primary sequence homology. Candidates with lowest Gibbs free energy (dG value) and unique stem loop structures were selected for further characterization. Aptamers, AFLA5, AFLA53, and AFLA71 exhibiting lower Kd values (50.45 ± 11.06, 48.29 ± 9.45, and 85.02 ± 25.74 nM) were chosen for development of ELONA and determination of purification ability of toxin. The detection limit (LOD) of AFLA5 and AFLA71 was 20 and 40 ng/ml, respectively. HPLC analysis implied that selected aptamers were able to recover and quantify 82.2 to 96.21% (LOQ – 53.74 ng) and 78.3 to 94.22% (LOQ – 66.75 ng) of AFB1 from spiked corn samples, respectively. These findings indicate, immunoaffinity based SELEX can pave an alternative approach to screen aptamers against mycotoxin detection and purification. PMID:27990137

  5. Challenging Role of Dietary Aflatoxin B1 Exposure and Hepatitis B Infection on Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Kucukcakan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins (AFT are poisonous substances which are classified in Group 1 carcinogenic agents to humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC. AFT can occur naturally in food commodities (maize, corn, rice as a result of fungal contamination in hot and humid environments. In the food, toxin contamination can remain during manufacturing and long after fungi have stopped being biologically active. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most dominant and potent agent from all AFT. In developing countries, high exposure to AFB1 can cause chronic toxicity and usually increases the incidence of Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HCC. However, in these regions hepatitis B is the most common risk factor for HCC cases. Many researches were aimed to enlighten the mechanism and the role of two etiological agents on risk of HCC, but the obtained data was conflicting with each other. It was uncertain that the indicators/biomarkers might be the contribution of the carcinogenic status of the patient; and, the biomarker samples from the subject may only reflect the recent effects of the toxin exposure after consumption of AFB1 contaminated commodities. The studies were facing with the errors of methods which were un-fit to enlighten the possible interaction between Hepatitis B and AFB1 on contribution to HCC. It was pivotal to understand the effect of each risk factor in order to prevent and improve public health in poor and undeveloped regions. Although some of the studies evaluate AFB1 alone as a considerable factor on HCC risk, according to this review it was concluded vice versa. This study was aimed to clarify the main etiological agent of HCC where AFB1 and HBV are endangering public health. In additionally, the purpose was to enlighten the possible synergistic effect between these two factors among HCC pathogenesis. Hence forth, appropriate and right applications could be conducted in undeveloped countries in order to protect public health.

  6. Impact of aflatoxin B1 on hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebak, Fatima; Alaoui, Abdelilah; Alexandre, David; El Ouezzani, Seloua; Anouar, Youssef; Chartrel, Nicolas; Magoul, Rabia

    2015-07-01

    The presence of mycotoxins in food is a major problem of public health as they produce immunosuppressive, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic effects. Mycotoxins also induce mutagenic and carcinogenic effects after long exposure. Among mycotoxins that contaminate food are aflatoxins (AF) such as AFB1, which is the most powerful natural carcinogen. The AF poisoning results in symptoms of depression, anorexia, diarrhea, jaundice or anemia that can lead to death, but very few studies have explored the impact of AF on neuroendocrine regulations. To better understand the neurotoxic effects of AF related to anorexia, we explored in rat the impact of AFB1 on the major hypothalamic neuropeptides regulating feeding behavior, either orexigenic (NPY, Orexin, AgRP, MCH) or anorexigenic (α-MSH, CART, TRH). We also studied the effect of AFB1 on a novel neuropeptide, the secretogranin II (SgII)-derived peptide EM66, which has recently been linked to the control of food intake. For this, adult male rats were orally treated twice a week for 5 weeks with a low dose (150 μg/kg) or a high dose (300 μg/kg) of AFB1 dissolved in corn oil. Repeated exposure to AFB1 resulted in reduced body weight gain, which was highly significant for the high dose of AF. Immunocytochemical and quantitative PCR experiments revealed a dose-related decrease in the expression of all the hypothalamic neuropeptides studied in response to AFB1. Such orexigenic and anorexigenic alterations may underlie appetite disorders as they are correlated to a dose-dependent decrease in body weight gain of treated rats as compared to controls. We also found a decrease in the number of EM66-containing neurons in the arcuate nucleus of AFB1-treated animals, which was associated with a lower expression of its precursor SgII. These findings show for the first time that repeated consumption of AFB1 disrupts the hypothalamic regulation of neuropeptides involved in feeding behavior, which may contribute to the lower body weight gain

  7. REDUKSI KANDUNGAN AFLATOKSIN B1 (AFB1 PADA PEMBUATAN KACANG TELUR MELALUI PEREBUSAN DALAM LARUTAN KAPUR (REDUCTION OF AFLATOXIN B1 (AFB1 CONTENT IN THE EGG PEANUT BY BOILLING IN LIME SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Tandi Rubak

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Efek berbahaya dari aflatoksin B1 bagi manusia adalah toksisitasnya sebagai senyawa karsinogenik. Toksin ini diproduksi oleh Aspergillus flavus, yang biasanya tumbuh pada serealia dan kacang-kacangan. Akibatnya serealia dan kacang-kacangan tersebut serta produknya bisa terkontaminasi oleh toksin ini. Kacang telur merupakan salah satu produk kacang tanah yang banyak dikonsumsi. Karena itu, kacang telur harus bebas toksin. Menurut informasi pustaka, salah satu cara untuk menghilangkan toksin ini adalah modifikasi proses pembuatan kacang telur. Artikel ini menyajikan hasil penelitian untuk menghilangkan aflatoksin kacang telur melalui perendaman bahan baku kacang tanah dalam larutan kapur 0,5 persen dan 1 persen selama 10 menit. Metodologi: Membuat dua jenis produk kacang telur, satu produk berbahan baku kacang yang telah dikontaminasi aflatoksin dan satu produk lagi berbahan baku kacang utuh tidak terkontaminasi aflatoksin. Produk pertama untuk menguji pengaruh perebusan dalam larutan kapur terhadap kandungan aflatoksin. Sedangan produk kedua untuk menguji pengaruh perebusan dalam larutan kapur terhadap cita rasa.Kedua produk dibuat melalui proses yang sama, bahan kacang mendapat perlakukan perendaman dalam larutan kapur konsentrasi 0,5 persen dan 1,5 persen selama 10 menit, kemudian dilanjutkkan dengan proses seperti umumnya membuat kacang telur. Kandungan aflatoksin dianalisis dengan metoda ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay. ABSTRACT Background: The harmful effect of aflatoxin B1 for human being because of its toxicity, as carcinogenic agent. The toxin is produced by the Aspergillus flavus which usually grows in grain and nuts. As the result that the grain, nuts and their product contaminated by the toxin.  Egg peanut is one of peanut products which are widely consumed by the peoples. Consequently the egg peanut should be not containing the toxin. The modification of process of making peanut is one way to

  8. Altered biochemical profile and gene expression in aflatoxin B-1-transformed C3H10T1/2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadadur, S; Lisciandro, K; Mudipalli, A; Maccubbin, A; Faletto, M; Gurtoo, H

    1997-06-01

    A transformed cell line 7SA, obtained by transformation of C3H10T1/2 cells with irt vitro activated aflatoxin B-1 (AFB(1)), was used to investigate biochemical and molecular alterations associated with transformation by AFB(1). 7SA cells demonstrate an altered biochemical phenotype characterized by alterations in phase I and phase II enzymes in a manner that would allow these cells to survive in a hostile chemical environment. Investigations of the molecular basis of transformation revealed no mutations in codons 12/13 and 61 of ras genes (Ha-, Ki- and N-ras) and in exons 5, 6, 7 and 8 of p53 tumor suppressor gene. However, subtractive hybridization led to the isolation of seven novel cDNA clones that demonstrated 2 to 10-fold overexpression of the mRNAs corresponding to the five cDNAs (SK1, SK2, SK3, SK4 and SK5) and >400 fold overexpression of the mRNAs corresponding to the other two cDNAs (SK67 and SK153). In addition, part of the sequence of the cDNA clone SK5 demonstrated >88% identity with L1-like mobile genetic element and Southern analysis of the DNA with SK5 cDNA as a probe revealed gene rearrangement in 7SA DNA, compared to DNA from C3H10T1/2 cells.

  9. A probabilistic modeling approach to assess human inhalation exposure risks to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chen, Szu-Chieh

    To assess how the human lung exposure to airborne aflatoxin B 1 (AFB 1) during on-farm activities including swine feeding, storage bin cleaning, corn harvest, and grain elevator loading/unloading, we present a probabilistic risk model, appraised with empirical data. The model integrates probabilistic exposure profiles from a compartmental lung model with the reconstructed dose-response relationships based on an empirical three-parameter Hill equation model, describing AFB 1 cytotoxicity for inhibition response in human bronchial epithelial cells, to quantitatively estimate the inhalation exposure risks. The risk assessment results implicate that exposure to airborne AFB 1 may pose no significance to corn harvest and grain elevator loading/unloading activities, yet a relatively high risk for swine feeding and storage bin cleaning. Applying a joint probability function method based on exceedence profiles, we estimate that a potential high risk for the bronchial region (inhibition=56.69% with 95% confidence interval (CI): 35.05-72.87%) and bronchiolar region (inhibition=44.93% with 95% CI: 21.61 - 66.78%) is alarming during swine feeding activity. We parameterized the proposed predictive model that should encourage a risk-management framework for discussion of carcinogenic risk in occupational settings where inhalation of AFB 1-contaminated dust occurs.

  10. Highly sensitive SERS-based immunoassay of aflatoxin B1 using silica-encapsulated hollow gold nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Juhui; Lee, Chankil; Choo, Jaebum

    2015-03-21

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a well-known carcinogenic contaminant in foods. It is classified as an extremely hazardous compound because of its potential toxicity to the human nervous system. AFB1 has also been extensively used as a biochemical marker to evaluate the degree of food spoilage. In this study, a novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based immunoassay platform using silica-encapsulated hollow gold nanoparticles (SEHGNs) and magnetic beads was developed for highly sensitive detection of AFB1. SEHGNs were used as highly stable SERS-encoding nano tags, and magnetic beads were used as supporting substrates for the high-density loading of immunocomplexes. Quantitative analysis of AFB1 was performed by monitoring the intensity change of the characteristic peaks of Raman reporter molecules. The limit of detection (LOD) of AFB1, determined by this SERS-based immunoassay, was determined to be 0.1 ng/mL. This method has some advantages over other analytical methods with respect to rapid analysis (less than 30 min), good selectivity, and reproducibility. The proposed method is expected to be a new analytical tool for the trace analysis of various mycotoxins.

  11. Effect of curcumin on hepatic antioxidant enzymes activities and gene expressions in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bahr, S M

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight rats were examined in a 5-week experiment to investigate the effect of curcumin on gene expression and activities of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ). The rats were divided into four groups. Rats in 1-4 groups served as control, oral curcumin treated (15 mg/kg body weight), single i.p. dose of AFB1 (3 mg/kg body weight) and combination of single i.p. dose of AFB1 with oral curcumin treated, respectively. AFB1 Liver damage and oxidative stress were evident in untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats as indicated by a significant elevation in hepatic transaminases, elevation in lipid peroxide biomarkers (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances; TBARS), reduction of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, reduction in the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and down-regulation of gene expression of these antioxidant enzymes compared to control. Liver sections of rats intoxicated with AFB1 showed a disrupted lobular architecture, scattered necrotic cells and biliary proliferation. Administration of curcumin with AFB1 resulted in amelioration of AFB1 -induced effects compared to untreated AFB1 -intoxicated rats via an up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression, activation of the expressed genes and increase in the availability of GSH.

  12. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Brajesh Kumar; Trigun, Surendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase) level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  13. Fisetin Modulates Antioxidant Enzymes and Inflammatory Factors to Inhibit Aflatoxin-B1 Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brajesh Kumar Maurya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fisetin, a known antioxidant, has been found to be cytotoxic against certain cell lines. However, the mechanism by which it inhibits tumor growth in vivo remains unexplored. Recently, we have demonstrated that Aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis is associated with activation of oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway in rat liver. The present paper describes the effect of in vivo treatment with 20 mg/kg b.w. Fisetin on antioxidant enzymes vis-a-vis oxidative stress level and on the profile of certain proinflammatory cytokines in the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC induced by two doses of 1 mg/kg b.w. AFB1 i.p. in rats. The reduced levels of most of the antioxidant enzymes, coinciding with the enhanced level of reactive oxygen species in the HCC liver, were observed to regain their normal profiles due to Fisetin treatment. Also, Fisetin treatment could normalize the enhanced expression of TNFα and IL1α, the two proinflammatory cytokines, reported to be involved in HCC pathogenesis. These observations were consistent with the regression of neoplastic lesion and declined GST-pi (placental type glutathione-S-transferase level, a HCC marker, in the liver of the Fisetin treated HCC rats. The findings suggest that Fisetin attenuates oxidative stress-inflammatory pathway of AFB1 induced hepatocarcinogenesis.

  14. A limited survey of aflatoxin B1 contamination in Indonesian palm kernel cake and copra meal sampled from batches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pranowo, Deni; Nuryono; Agus, Ali; Wedhastri, Sri; Reiter, Elisabeth Viktoria; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Zentek, Jürgen

    2013-08-01

    Samples from large (100-200 tons) batches of palm kernel cake (PKC, n = 20) and copra meal (CM, n = 13) were collected at production facilities of four Indonesian feed mill manufacturers and analysed for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by ELISA. Recoveries using spiked samples ranged from 86 to 113%, with relative standard deviations of <9% (PKC) and <6% (CM). All batches were positive for AFB1: in PKC, at levels of 5.8-93.1 μg/kg (mean 49 μg/kg), and in CM, at levels of 1.1-147 μg/kg (mean 38.1 μg/kg). AFB1 levels were, in most batches, below the maximum level (100 μg/kg) recommended by the National Standardisation Agency, Republic of Indonesia. However, about half of the batches exceeded both the European Union and USA regulations for AFB1 in animal feed. In conclusion, serious efforts are necessary to control production, storage and shipment of palm kernel cake and copra meal for feed purposes, and clearly not only for products intended for export but also to reduce AFB1 levels in domestic Indonesian feed.

  15. Simple and sensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 within five minute using a non-conventional competitive immunosensing mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Youxiu; Zhou, Qian; Lin, Yuping; Tang, Dianyong; Chen, Guonan; Tang, Dianping

    2015-12-15

    A novel competitive-type immunosensing strategy based on target-induced displacement reaction with antibody-functionalized mesoporous carbon (MSC) nanoparticles was designed for sensitive and rapid electrochemical detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, used as a model) on the Nafion-functionalized sensing interface. Electroactive thionine molecules were initially decorated to the mesoporous carbon, and polyclonal anti-AFB1 antibody was then covalently conjugated to the nanostructures. The immunosensor was simply prepared via the electrostatic interaction between negatively charged Nafion film and positively charged anti-AFB1 antibody accompanying the nanostructures. The electrochemical signal originated from the carried thionine to mesoporous carbon. Upon target AFB1 introduction, the analyte reacted with the labeled anti-AFB1 antibody on the MSC based on specific antigen-antibody reaction and induced the dissociation of thionine-MSN nanostructures from the sensing interface, thus decreasing the cathodic current of the carried thionine molecules. Under optimal conditions, the immunosensor exhibited good electrochemical responses for determination of target AFB1 at a concentration as low as 3.0 pg mL(-1) (3.0 ppt). Importantly, the non-conventional sensing system provides a promising immunosensing strategy for rapid screening of small molecules because of its simplicity, low cost and sensitivity without the needs of sample separation and washing step.

  16. Detoxification of aflatoxin B1 by manganese peroxidase from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianqiao; Ogata, Makoto; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kawagishi, Hirokazu

    2011-01-01

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1) ) is a potent mycotoxin with mutagenic, carcinogenic, teratogenic, hepatotoxic, and immunosuppressive properties. In order to develop a bioremediation system for AFB(1) -contaminated foods by white-rot fungi or ligninolytic enzymes, AFB(1) was treated with manganese peroxidase (MnP) from the white-rot fungus Phanerochaete sordida YK-624. AFB(1) was eliminated by MnP. The maximum elimination (86.0%) of AFB(1) was observed after 48 h in a reaction mixture containing 5 nkat of MnP. The addition of Tween 80 enhanced AFB(1) elimination. The elimination of AFB(1) by MnP considerably reduced its mutagenic activity in an umu test, and the treatment of AFB(1) by 20 nkat MnP reduced the mutagenic activity by 69.2%. (1) H-NMR and HR-ESI-MS analysis suggested that AFB(1) is first oxidized to AFB(1) -8,9-epoxide by MnP and then hydrolyzed to AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol. This is the first report that MnP can effectively remove the mutagenic activity of AFB(1) by converting it into AFB(1) -8,9-dihydrodiol.

  17. Genotoxicity of Aflatoxin B1 and Ochratoxin A after simultaneous application of the in vivo micronucleus and comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuera, Laura-Ana; Vettorazzi, Ariane; Arbillaga, Leire; Pérez, Noemí; Gil, Ana Gloria; Azqueta, Amaya; González-Peñas, Elena; García-Jalón, Jose Antonio; López de Cerain, Adela

    2015-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Ochratoxin A (OTA) are genotoxic mycotoxins that can contaminate a variety of foodstuffs, the liver and the kidney being their target organs, respectively. The micronucleus (MN) assay (bone marrow) and the comet assay (liver and kidney) were performed simultaneously in F344 rats, treated with AFB1 (0.25 mg/kg b.w.), OTA (0.5 mg/kg b.w.) or both mycotoxins. After AFB1 treatment, histopathology and biochemistry analysis showed liver necrosis, focal inflammation and an increase in Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase. OTA alone did not cause any alteration. The acute hepatotoxic effects caused by AFB1 were less pronounced in animals treated with both mycotoxins. With regard to the MN assay, after 24 h, positive results were obtained for AFB1 and negative results were obtained for OTA, although both toxins caused bone marrow toxicity. In the combined treatment, OTA reduced the toxicity and the number of MN produced by AFB1. In the comet assay, after 3 h, positive results were obtained for AFB1 in the liver and for OTA in the kidney. The combined treatment reduced DNA damage in the liver and had no influence in the kidney. Altogether, these results may be indicative of an antagonistic relationship regarding the genotoxicity of both mycotoxins.

  18. Electrogenerated chemiluminescence of magnesium chlorophyllin a aqueous solution and its sensitive response to the carcinogen aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiuting; Yuan, Hongyan; Li, Lan; Xiao, Dan

    2014-05-15

    The chlorophylls, crucial participants of photosynthesis, are large conjugated molecules with special electron donor-acceptor properties. Based on this, many investigations on the electrogenerated chemiluminescence (ECL) of chlorophyll a (Chl a) were performed in organic solvents, but no efficient signals were detected. Herein, ECL research of magnesium chlorophyllins a (Chlorins a) from simple saponification of the natural Chl a was carried out, and highly efficient and stable ECL signal was obtained for the first time. The mechanism study indicated that the ECL resulted from radical ion annihilation. Under the optimal conditions, the effect of the key gas O2 on the ECL of Chlorins a aqueous solution was investigated, and the recoverable inhibition of O2 was obviously observed. What is more, owing to the strong non-covalent interaction between Chlorins a and the carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), ECL intensity of Chlorins a aqueous solution exhibited fast, sensitive and selective response to AFB1 with a low detection limit of 0.027 ppb at the signal-to-noise ratio of 3. The costless and environmentally friendly ECL method opens a new potential way of the rapid detection of AFB1 in practical application.

  19. Lophirones B and C prevent aflatoxin B1-induced oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajiboye, Taofeek Olakunle; Yakubu, Musa Toyin; Oladiji, Adenike Temidayo

    2016-10-01

    Context Despite the reported anticarcinogenic activity of lophirones B and C, no scientific information exists for its activity in rat hepatocytes. Objective Effect of lophirones B and C on aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation in rat hepatocytes was investigated. Materials and methods Wistar rat hepatocytes were incubated with lophirones B and C (1 mg/mL) or sylimarin (1 mg/mL) in the presence or absence of AFB1. For an in vivo study, rats were orally administered with lophirones B and C, and/or AFB1 (20 μg/d) for 9 weeks. Results Lophirones B and C lowered AFB1-mediated increase in nitric oxide, superoxide anion radicals, caspase-3 and fragmented DNA. Lophirones B and C attenuated AFB1-mediated decrease in superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and reduced glutathione. Also, lophirones B and C attenuated AFB1-mediated increase in conjugated dienes, lipid hydroperoxides and malondialdehyde in rat hepatocytes. Furthermore, AFB1-mediated alterations in alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, total bilirubin and globulin in rat serum were significantly annulled in lophirones B and C-treated rats. Conclusion This study revealed that lophirones B and C prevented AFB1-induced oxidative damage in rat hepatocytes.

  20. Rapid analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Xian-Wen; Sun, Dai-Li; Ruan, Chun-Qiang; Zhang, He; Liu, Cheng-Lan

    2014-01-01

    A novel, simple, and rapid method is presented for the analysis of aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, and ochratoxin A in rice samples by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction combined with LC and fluorescence detection. After extraction of the rice samples with a mixture of acetonitrile/water/acetic acid, mycotoxins were rapidly partitioned into a small volume of organic solvent (chloroform) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction. The three mycotoxins were simultaneously determined by LC with fluorescence detection after precolumn derivatization for aflatoxin B1 and B2. Parameters affecting both extraction and dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedures, including the extraction solvent, the type and volume of extractant, the volume of dispersive solvent, the addition of salt, the pH and the extraction time, were optimized. The optimized protocol provided an enrichment factor of approximately 1.25 and with detection of limits (0.06-0.5 μg/kg) below the maximum levels imposed by current regulations for aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The mean recovery of three mycotoxins ranged from 82.9-112%, with a RSD less than 7.9% in all cases. The method was successfully applied to measure mycotoxins in commercial rice samples collected from local supermarkets in China.

  1. UPLC-MS-MS法快速测定玉米中的黄曲霉毒素B1%Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry for Rapid Determination of Aflatoxin B1 in Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于成广; 黄辉

    2012-01-01

    采用高效液相色谱-串联质谱法检测玉米中的黄曲霉毒素B1.对样品前处理条件、净化和分离条件进行了优化,黄曲霉毒素B1检出限为0.02μg/kg,回收率为83.8%~95.7%.建立的方法简便、快速、灵敏度高,能够满足玉米中痕量黄曲霉毒素B1农残的高灵敏测定要求.%An analytical method for the determination of aflatoxin Bl in corn by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Sample pretreatment methods and depuration conditions were optimized. The detection limit of aflatoxin Bl was 0. 02 μg/kg. The recoveries were 83.8% - 95.7%. The results indicated that the method developed is simple, rapid, sensitive, which is suit for the analysis of aflatoxin Bl pesticides in corn.

  2. Incidência de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em produtos de milho Occurrence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in corn products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciane Mie Kawashima

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Levantamentos de ocorrência de micotoxinas em alimentos foram realizados nas últimas duas décadas nas regiões Sudeste e Sul do Brasil. Levantamentos em alimentos comercializados em outras regiões têm-se limitado a aflatoxinas em amendoim e castanhas do Brasil. O presente trabalho pesquisou a presença de fumonisina B1, aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona em 74 amostras de produtos a base de milho adquiridas no comércio da cidade de Recife, PE, durante o período de 1999 a 2001. Fumonisina B1 foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência com detecção por fluorescência e as demais toxinas foram determinadas por cromatografia em camada delgada. Fumonisina B1 foi encontrada em 94,6% das amostras em concentrações variando de 20 a 8600 µg/kg. Apenas 5 amostras continham aflatoxina B1 e o teor máximo encontrado foi 20 µg/kg. Duas amostras ultrapassaram o limite de 20 µg/kg para a somatória das aflatoxinas B1, B2, G1 e G2 (farinha de milho pré-cozida com 21,5 µg/kg e quirera (xerém com 23,3 µg/kg. As aflatoxinas G1 e G2, ocratoxina A e zearalenona não foram detectadas em nenhuma das amostras. Todas as amostras contaminadas com aflatoxinas também apresentaram fumonisina B1.Research concerning the presence of mycotoxin in food has been conducted in the Southwest and South regions of Brazil over the last two decades. Research in other regions has been limited to aflatoxin in peanuts and Brazil nuts. The aim of this work is to study the presence of fumonisin B1, aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in 74 samples of corn products acquired in shops and food markets in the city of Recife (PE from 1999 to 2001. Fumonisin B1 was determined by high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence was detected. The other toxins were determined by thin layer chromatography. Fumonisin B1 was found in 94.6% of the samples in levels from 20 to 8600 µg/kg. Only 5 samples contained

  3. 上海地区大米样品黄曲霉素B1含量检测%Detection of amount of Aflatoxin B1 in rice samples in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶露; 韦艳霞; 刘畅

    2011-01-01

    目的 对上海市区内出售的大米样本进行黄曲霉素B1含量的测定和分析.方法 以在上海市区内的散装粮食店、中型超市、大型超市和淘宝网店采购的苏北产大米和东北产大米作为受试样本,采用酶联免疫吸附法测定样本大米中黄曲霉素B1的含量.采用独立样本T检验分析不同产地样本大米中黄曲霉素B1含量的差异;单因素方差分析比较不同购物来源样本大米中黄曲霉素B1的含量差异.结果 60个受试样本中黄曲霉素B1含量的总体均值为1.926 ppb,其中超过国家标准样本数为2个,分别为购自散装店和中型超市的东北产大米;苏北和东北样本大米中黄曲霉素B1的含量分别为(1.221±1.055)ppb和(2.631±2.903) ppb,两者差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).散装店、网店、中型超市和大型超市样本大米中黄曲霉素B1的含量分别为(2.900±2.457)ppb、(1.570±1.416)ppb、(1.743±2.683)ppb和(0.569±0.608) ppb,四者比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),进一步的多重检验表明散装店与大型超市来源样本大米中黄曲霉素B1的含量存在统计学差异(P<0.05).结论 上海市区出售的大米样本中黄曲霉素B1含量总体较低.受试样本中的黄曲霉素B1的含量,东北产大米高于苏北产大米,散装粮食店来源大米高于大型超市来源大米.在散装店和中型超市的受试样本中发现黄曲霉素B1含量超标样本.%Objective To determine and analyse the amount of Aflatoxin B, in rice samples sold in Shanghai. Methods Subei and Dongbei rice samples were obtained from groceries, medium-size markets, supermarkets and e-shops, and the amount of Aflatoxin B, in rice samples was determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The amount of Aflatoxin B, in Subei and Dongbei rice samples was compared by T test, and the amount of Aflatoxin B, in rice samples obtained through different methods was compared by one-way analysis of variance. Results

  4. An in vitro study of alkaline phosphatase sensitivity to mixture of aflatoxin B1 and fumonisin B1 in the hepatopancreas of coastal lagoon wild and farmed shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Acosta, Jesús A; Burgos-Hernandez, Armando; Velázquez-Contreras, Carlos A; Márquez-Ríos, Enrique; Torres-Arreola, Wilfrido; Arvizu-Flores, Aldo A; Ezquerra-Brauer, J Marina

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to establish the combined effect of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) on wild Litopenaeus vannamei hepatopancreas alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity compared with that of farmed shrimp. AP activity in hepatopancreas extract was confirmed by several specific inhibitor assays. AP activity of wild shrimp was higher than that of farmed shrimp (p vannamei was sensitive to the presence of both mycotoxins; however, AP is more sensitive to the combination of AFB1 + FB1 suggesting a possible synergistic or potentiating inhibitory effect.

  5. Effects of Adding of Two Commercial Absorbent Materials and Natural Zeolite to the Diets Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Broiler Performance and their

    OpenAIRE

    J. Azimi; M.A Karimi Torshizi; A Allameh; H. Ahari

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding of two commercial absorbent products in feeds and to compare the results with the effect of adding of natural zeolite in reducing the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 on broiler growth, performance and immune system. In this study, 200 one day old Arian 386 broiler chickens were used in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments, 4 replications and 10 chicks per each treatment. Experimental groups were as follows: negative control...

  6. Modified Rice Straw as Adsorbent Material to Remove Aflatoxin B1 from Aqueous Media and as a Fiber Source in Fino Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Sherif R; El-Desouky, Tarek A; Hussein, Ahmed M S; Mohamed, Sherif S; Naguib, Khayria M

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the current work are in large part the benefit of rice straw to be used as adsorbent material and natural source of fiber in Fino bread. The rice straw was subjected to high temperature for modification process and the chemical composition was carried out and the native rice straw contained about 41.15% cellulose, 20.46% hemicellulose, and 3.91% lignin while modified rice straw has 42.10, 8.65, and 5.81%, respectively. The alkali number was tested and showed an increase in the alkali consumption due to the modification process. The different concentrations of modified rice straw, aflatoxin B1, and pH were tested for removal of aflatoxin B1 from aqueous media and the maximum best removal was at 5% modified rice straw, 5 ng/mL aflatoxin B1, and pH 7. The modified rice straw was added to Fino bread at a level of 5, 10, and 15% and the chemical, rheological, baking quality, staling, and sensory properties were studied. Modified rice straw induced an increase of the shelf life and the produced Fino bread has a better consistency.

  7. Intervention of Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract on the Subchronic Immune Injury in Mice Induced by Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Long

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate the prevention of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE on the subchronic immune injury induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and the possible ameliorating effect of GSPE in mice. The subchronic AFB1-induced immune injury mice model was set up with the continuous administration of 100 μg/kg body weight (BW AFB1 for six weeks by intragastric administration. Then, intervention with different doses (50 and 100 mg/kg BW of GSPE was conducted on mice to analyze the changes of body weight, immune organ index, antioxidant capability of spleen, serum immunoglobulin content, and the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines. The prevention of GSPE on the immune injury induced by AFB1 was studied. The GSPE could relieve the AFB1-induced reduction of body weight gain and the atrophy of the immune organ. The malondialdehyde (MDA level of the spleen in the AFB1 model group significantly increased, but levels of catalase (CAT, glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX, and superoxide dismutase (SOD significantly decreased. The GSPE could significantly inhibit the oxidative stress injury of the spleen induced by AFB1. AFB1 exposure could not significantly change the contents of IgA, IgG, or IgM. AFB1 significantly improved the expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α, and interferon γ (IFN-γ. Additionally, GSPE could decrease the expression of these four proinflammatory factors to different degrees and inhibit the inflammatory reaction of mice. The results suggest that GSPE alleviates AFB1-induced oxidative stress and significantly improves the immune injury of mice induced by AFB1.

  8. Synergistic effect of black tea and curcumin in improving the hepatotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm-Eldeen, Abeer A; Mona, Mohamed H; Shati, Ali A; El-Mekkawy, Haitham I

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic compound commonly found as a contaminant in human food. It is carcinogenic due its potential in inducing the oxidative stress and distortion of the most antioxidant enzymes. Since black tea possesses strong antioxidant activity, it protects cells and tissues against oxidative stress. Curcumin (CMN), a naturally occurring agent, has a combination of biological and pharmacological properties that include antioxidant activity. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the possible role of separate and mixed supplementation of black tea extract and CMN in the hepatotoxicity induced by AFB1 in rats. A total of 48: adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into eight groups with six rats in each group. Group 1 (normal control) includes rats that received no treatment. Groups 2, 3, and 4 (positive control) include rats that received olive oil, black tea extract, and CMN, respectively. Group 5 includes rats that received AFB1 at a dose of 750 μg/kg body weight (b.w.) dissolved in olive oil. Groups 6, 7, and 8 include rats that received AFB1 along with 2% black tea extract, CMN at a dose of 200 mg/kg b.w., and both black tea extract and CMN at the same previous doses, respectively. After 90 days, biochemical and histopathological examination was carried out for the blood samples and liver tissues. A significant decrease in the antioxidant enzymes and a significant increase in the lipid peroxidation and hydrogen peroxide in the rats treated with AFB1 were observed. Moreover, there were dramatic changes in the liver function biomarkers, lipid profile, and liver architecture. Supplementation of black tea extract or CMN showed an efficient role in repairing the distortion of the biochemical and histological changes induced by AFB1 in liver. This improvement was more pronounced when both CMN and black tea were used together.

  9. Spectral characteristics of fluorescence and circular dichroism of aflatoxin B1 reaction with its anti-idiotypic antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aiping; Yang, Hongxiu; Wang, Xiaohong; Chen, Fusheng

    2012-11-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a toxic secondary metabolite and sensitive methods for its analysis have been developed. In our lab, a number of works have been carried out, including exploitation of detection methods and production of anti-idiotypic antibody (Ab2) against Fab fragment of anti-AFB1 antibody (Ab1). In this paper, Ab2 was generated upon the immunization of mice with F(ab')2 fragment, which was specific to AFB1 and obtained by pepsin digestion of Ab1. The characteristics of Ab2 was primarily investigated by indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA), which indicated that Ab2, might bear an internal image of antigen AFB1 and was able to combine to F(ab')2 in competition with AFB1, and the concentration of Ab2 to cause 50% inhibition of binding (IC50) was 131.8 μg/mL. In addition, fluorescence and circular dichroism studies were designed to explore the mutual relationship among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2. The fluorescence spectroscopy implied that both AFB1 and Ab2 act as a quencher upon F(ab')2, and the Ab2 could compete with AFB1 when both of Ab2 and AFB1 reacted with F(ab')2. The circular dichroism (CD) spectrum suggested that both the binding of Ab2 and AFB1 on F(ab')2 brought secondary conformation change of F(ab')2, especially in the changes of α helix and β sheet. The research performed would provide unique insight into the comprehension of interaction among AFB1, F(ab')2 and Ab2 as well as offer structural information for substitution researches of toxic antigen like AFB1.

  10. Natural occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in marketed foods and risk estimates of dietary exposure in Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, Hyun Ee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Shim, Won Bo; Lee, Hyomin; Bae, Dong-Ho; Chung, Duck-Hwa; Chun, Hyang Sook

    2007-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is an unavoidable food contaminant. To evaluate the potential health risk of AFB1 to Koreans posed by food consumption, we determined the natural occurrence of AFB1 in food and estimated the excess risk for liver cancer through dietary exposure to AFB1. A total of 694 food samples collected from six different regions of South Korea were analyzed for their AFB, content. One hundred four of the 694 samples were found to give positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) readings for AFB1 and were further investigated with high-performance liquid chromatography. Thirty-two samples, including 2 maize samples, 3 soybean products, 20 peanut samples, nut samples, and their products, and 7 spices, were found to be contaminated with AFB1 (4.6% incidence), up to 48.6 microg kg(-1). The level of AFB1 contamination in 28 of the 32 food products was below 10 microg kg(-1), which is the legal tolerance limit in Korea. From data on daily food consumption, the exposure dose of AFB1 was estimated to be 6.42 x 10(-7) mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1). The major contributors to the dietary intake of AFB1 were soybean paste and soy sauce, which composed 91% of the total exposure to AFB1. The excess risk of liver cancer for those exposed to AFB1 through food intake was estimated to be 5.78 x 10(-6) for hepatitis B-negative individuals and 1.48 x 10(-4) for hepatitis B-positive individuals. These results suggest that special consideration is required to reduce the intake of AFB1 in hepatitis B-positive individuals.

  11. Identification of differentially expressed genes in aflatoxin B1-treated cultured primary rat hepatocytes and Fischer 344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, A J; Shaddock, J G; Manjanatha, M G; Lisenbey, J A; Casciano, D A

    1998-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a mutagen and hepatocarcinogen in rats and humans, is a contaminant of the human food supply, particularly in parts of Africa and Asia. AFB1-induced changes in gene expression may play a part in the development of the toxic, immunosuppressive and carcinogenic properties of this fungal metabolite. An understanding of the-role of AFB1 in modulating gene regulation should provide insight regarding mechanisms of AFB1-induced carcinogenesis. We used three PCR-based subtractive techniques to identify AFB1-responsive genes in cultured primary rat hepatocyte RNA: differential display PCR (DD-PCR), representational difference analysis (RDA) and suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). Each of the three techniques identified AFB1-responsive genes, although no individual cDNA was isolated by more than one technique. Nine cDNAs isolated using DD-PCR, RDA or SSH were found to represent eight genes that are differentially expressed as a result of AFB1 exposure. Genes whose mRNA levels were increased in cultured primary rat hepatocytes after AFB1 treatment were corticosteroid binding globulin (CBG), cytochrome P450 4F1 (CYP4F1), alpha-2 microglobulin, C4b-binding protein (C4BP), serum amyloid A-2 and glutathione S-transferase Yb2 (GST). Transferrin and a small CYP3A-like cDNA had reduced mRNA levels after AFB1 exposure. Full-length CYP3A mRNA levels were increased. When liver RNA from AFB1-treated male F344 rats was evaluated for transferrin, CBG, GST, CYP3A and CYP4F1 expression, a decrease in transferrin mRNA and an increase in CBG, GST, CYP3A and CYP4F1 mRNA levels was also seen. Analysis of the potential function of these genes in maintaining cellular homeostasis suggests that their differential expression could contribute to the toxicity associated with AFB1 exposure.

  12. Low cost quantitative digital imaging as an alternative to qualitative in vivo bioassays for analysis of active aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasooly, Reuven; Do, Paula M; Hernlem, Bradley J

    2016-06-15

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) producing fungi contaminate food and feed and are a major health concern. To minimize the sources and incidence of AFB1 illness there is a need to develop affordable, sensitive mobile devices for detection of active AFB1. In the present study we used a low cost fluorescence detector and describe two quantitative assays for detection of detoxified and active AFB1 demonstrating that AFB1 concentration can be measured as intensity of fluorescence. When the assay plate containing increasing concentrations of AFB1 is illuminated with a 366 nm ultraviolet lamp, AFB1 molecules absorb photons and emit blue light with peak wavelength of 432 nm. The fluorescence intensity increased in dose dependent manner. However, this method cannot distinguish between active AFB1 which poses a threat to health, and the detoxified AFB1 which exhibits no toxicity. To measure the toxin activity, we used a cell based assay that makes quantification more robust and is capable of detecting multiple samples simultaneously. It is an alternative to the qualitative duckling bioassay which is the "gold-standard" assay currently being used for quantitative analysis of active AFB1. AFB1 was incubated with transduced Vero cells expressing the green fluorescence protein (GFP) gene. After excitation with blue light at 475 nm, cells emitted green light with emission peak at 509 nm. The result shows that AFB1 inhibits protein expression in a concentration dependent manner resulting in proportionately less GFP fluorescence in cells exposed to AFB1. The result also indicates strong positive linear relationship with R(2)=0.90 between the low cost CCD camera and a fluorometer, which costs 100 times more than a CCD camera. This new analytical method for measuring active AFB1 is low in cost and combined with in vitro assay, is quantitative. It also does not require the use of animals and may be useful especially for laboratories in regions with limited resources.

  13. Rapid and label-free detection of ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 using an optical portable instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduini, Fabiana; Neagu, Daniela; Pagliarini, Valeria; Scognamiglio, Viviana; Leonardis, Maria Antonietta; Gatto, Emanuela; Amine, Aziz; Palleschi, Giuseppe; Moscone, Danila

    2016-04-01

    In this study, we report a novel assay for the combined on site detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and ochratoxin A (OTA), through a colorimetric biosensing system for AFB1 and a fluorimetric detection for OTA, exploiting the capability of the portable fibre optic spectrometer to perform both analyses. AFB1 was detected using the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme that is inhibited by this toxin, and the degree of inhibition was quantified by the Ellman's spectrophotometric method, obtaining a detection limit of 10 µg L(-1). OTA quantification was performed by monitoring its intrinsic fluorescence in methanol, reaching a detection limit of 0.1 µg L(-1). In order to successfully apply the analytical tool in the food analysis, immunoaffinity columns were used. Clean-up and quantification of both AFB1 and OTA in millet samples was obtained by HPLC-dedicated AflaOchra-Test HPLC™ (Vicam™) and Afla-OtaCLEAN™ (LC-Tech) immunoaffinity columns, followed by absorption/fluorescence detection. Millet samples which were fortified with both OTA (50 µg kg(-1)) and AFB1 (20 µg kg(-1)), gave recovery values of 100 ± 6% for OTA, and 110 ± 10% for AFB1, using AflaOchra-Test HPLC™. Single OTA clean-up and quantification in wine samples was obtained, using an OchraTest immunoaffinity column (Vicam™), reaching a detection limit of 0.3 µg L(-1) and recovery values between 80% and 120%. These results demonstrated the possibility of employing a single clean-up and a cost-effective, and easy to use analytical system for both AFB1 and OTA detection at µg kg(-1) (ppb) level. Furthermore, in the case of positive samples, they could be analysed further, using standard chromatographic procedures, without any additional clean-up step, since the same extraction procedure of standard method is proposed in our method.

  14. Antioxidant efficacy of curcuminoids from turmeric ( Curcuma longa L.) powder in broiler chickens fed diets containing aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowda, Nisarani K S; Ledoux, David R; Rottinghaus, Goerge E; Bermudez, Alex J; Chen, Yin C

    2009-12-01

    A 3-week-feeding study (1-21 d post-hatch) was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of total curcuminoids (TCMN), as an antioxidant, to ameliorate the adverse effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in broiler chickens. Turmeric powder (Curcuma longa L.) that contained 2.55 % TCMN was used as a source of TCMN. Six cage replicates of five chicks each were assigned to each of six dietary treatments, which included: basal diet; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN; basal diet supplemented with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 74 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 222 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1; basal diet supplemented with 444 mg/kg TCMN and 1.0 mg/kg AFB1. The addition of 74 and 222 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet significantly (P < 0.05) improved weight gain and feed efficiency. Increase (P < 0.05) in relative liver weight in birds fed AFB1 was significantly reduced (P < 0.05) with the addition of 74, 222 and 444 mg/kg TCMN to the AFB1 diet. The inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN ameliorated the adverse effects of AFB1 on serum chemistry in terms of total protein, albumin and gamma-glutamyl transferase activity. The decreased antioxidant functions due to AFB1 were also alleviated by the inclusion of 222 mg/kg TCMN. It is concluded that the addition of 222 mg/kg TCMN to the 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 diet demonstrated maximum antioxidant activity against AFB1.

  15. Antifungal activity of essential oil of Ziziphora clinopodioides and the inhibition of aflatoxin B1 production in maize grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghadam, Hediyeh Davoudi; Sani, Ali Mohamadi; Sangatash, Masoomeh Mehraban

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the antifungal effect of the essential oil obtained from Ziziphora clinopodioides L on two fungi species including Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus using microdilution method. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) were determined for the essential oil at 10 different concentrations (i.e. 25,000, 12,500, 6250, 3125, 1562.5, 781.25, 390.625, 195.31, 97.65, and 48.82 µg/ml). Finally, the effect of the essential oil at six levels (6250, 3125, 1600, 800, 400, and 196 µg/ml) was investigated on the growth and activity of A. flavus and A. parasiticus, and also toxin production of these species in maize at 0.97 aw and 25°C after 29 days. Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) content was assayed by enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay technique. Results showed that essential oil of Z. clinopodioides was found more effective on A. parasiticus than A. flavus in both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Z. clinopodioides oil exhibited the same MIC value in the liquid medium against all fungal strains (48.82 µg/ml), while it showed different activity against A. flavus and A. parasiticus with MFC values of 781.25 and 390.625 µg/ml respectively. Under storage condition in maize, AFB1 production was significantly (p essential oil of Z. clinopodioides had significant antifungal activity (p < 0.05); therefore, it can be used as an antifungal agent in the food and medicinal industries.

  16. The effect of humidity after gamma-irradiation on aflatoxin B-1 production of A.flavus in ground nutmeg and peanut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilmy, N.; Chosdu, R. [Center for the Application of Isotopes and Radiation, Jakarta (Indonesia); Matsuyama, A. [Tokyo University of Agriculture (Japan). Nodai Research Inst.

    1995-10-01

    The effect of humidity of 75 up to 97% after irradiation on radiosensitivity and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus isolated from Indonesian nutmeg were examined. Irradiation doses used were 0;0.5;1 and 3 kGy. Mould free ground nutmeg and peanut were used as the growth media, and about 10{sup 8} of spores were used to contaminate each of the media. Aflatoxin productions were measured after having incubated 3 days up to 5 months under humidity of 91 and 97%. Prior to HPLC analysis, aflatoxin was cleaned-up using an immunoaffinity column. The results were: (1) A. flavus indicated no or almost no growth under RH of 85% or less. (2) Under 91-97% RH, growth of mycelium and toxin production were inhibited more or less by irradiation up to 1 kGy, although the effectiveness of irradiation varied with different RH and media during postirradiation incubation. (3) By 3 kGy or more, both mycelium growth and toxin production of the mould were found to be completely inhibited. (4) The production of aflatoxin in nutmeg began after having incubated for 25 and 45 days and in peanut for 3 and 6 days under 97 and 91% RH, respectively. (Author).

  17. Study on Degradation Effect of Irradiation on Aflatoxin B1%辐照处理对黄曲霉毒素 B1的降解效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王守经; 柳尧波; 胡鹏; 汝医; 王兆华; 孙宏春; 许方佐; 王志东

    2015-01-01

    利用不同剂量的高能电子束和γ射线进行辐照处理,研究了2种射线对不同状态下黄曲霉毒素B1(Aflatoxin,AFB1)的辐射降解效果和对小麦面粉粉质指标的影响。结果表明:高能电子束和γ射线辐照处理,能够降解不同状态下的 AFB1,辐照剂量越大,降解率越高,AFB1浓度越高,辐射降解率越低;相同处理剂量对溶液中黄曲霉毒素 B1的降解作用,大于对污染小麦中 AFB1的降解作用。2种辐照处理方式对面团吸水率、形成时间、稳定时间等小麦粉质指标产生了显著的影响,其中高能电子束射线的作用强度大于γ射线。%After radiating with high energy electron beam and gamma -ray at different doses,the degra-dation rates of aflatoxin B1 in methanol -water solution and contaminated wheat were studied,and the farino-graph indexes of wheat flour was determined.The results showed that the two irradiation methods could both effectively degrade aflatoxin B1 in different states.The bigger the radiation dose was,the higher the degrada-tion rate was,and the greater the aflatoxin B1 concentration was,the lower the degradation rate was.Under the same radiation dose,the degradation of aflatoxin B1 in methanol -water solution was much easier than that in contaminated wheat.Compared to the non -irradiation treatment,the two irradiation methods both signifi-cantly affected the dough water absorption rate,development time and stability time,and the effect of high en-ergy electron beam was more effective than that of gamma -ray.

  18. Determinação de aflatoxina B1 em pimenta (Piper nigrum L. e orégano (Origanum vulgare L. por cromatografia em camada delgada e densitometria Determination of aflatoxin B1 (Piper nigrum L. and oregano (Origanum vulgare L. by thin-layer chromatography and densitometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Prado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical study based on extraction with methanol-water, immunoaffinity cleanup and separation, identification and quantification of aflatoxin B1 by thin-layer chromatography,in ground black and white pepper and oregano was carried out. Validation of the applied methodology was done through accuracy and precision studies. Recoveries of aflatoxin B1 and relative standard deviations, from spice samples spiked at levels from 4.86 to 97.70 µg/kg, were, respectively, higher than 72% and lower than 20%. Application to spice samples available in Minas Gerais state, purchased at popular markets, showed no contamination with aflatoxin B1.

  19. Intoxicação de bovinos por aflatoxina B1 presente em polpa cítrica: relato de um surto Aflatoxin B1 poisoning in bovines: an outbreak report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Melo

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho relata um surto de intoxicação pela aflatoxina B1 em 150 bovinos machos mestiços, provenientes de um rebanho de 1774 animais, em sistema de confinamento, ingerindo polpa cítrica peletizada comercial, 5kg por animal. Todos os animais foram avaliados clinicamente, e os 18 animais que morreram foram necropsiados e submetidos a exames histopatológicos. A intoxicação foi confirmada pela presença da aflatoxina B1 (5ppm em amostras da polpa cítrica peletizada utilizada na propriedade e em fragmentos de fígado dos animais que morreram.The present work reports an outbreak of intoxication by aflatoxin B1 in 150 adult bovine male, males from a herd of 1774 animals, in confinement system, fed on commercial citrus pellet. All animals were evaluated clinicaly, and ones that died were necropsied and tissues submitted to histopathotology. The intoxication was confirmed by aflatoxin B1 presence in samples of the citrus pellet and in fragments of liver of the animals which died.

  20. 4种黄曲霉毒素B1酶联免疫试剂盒与液相法检测结果比较%A comparative study on 4 kinds of aflatoxin B1 assay kits and liquid chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡玲玲; 项瑜芝; 蔡增轩; 任一平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare and evaluate 4 kinds of aflatoxin B1 assay kits and liquid chromatography. Methods Three sample matrixes (infant formula rice flour, peanut butter and soy bean sauce) were detected using RIDASCREEN® aflatoxin B1 assay, AgraQuant® aflatoxin B1 assay, Helica low matrix aflatoxin B1 assay and Huaan magnech aflatoxin B1 assay, and then compared the analysis results with those by liquid chromatography. Results By contrast, Huaan magnech aflatoxin B1 assay applied to only the infant formula rice flour. HELICA low matrix aflatoxin B1 assay and RIDASCREEN® aflatoxin B1 assay could detect more sample matrixes, but the analysis results of Helica low matrix aflatoxin B1 assay were inconsistent with those by liquid chromatography, the background of RIDASCREEN® aflatoxin B1 assay was higher. AgraQuant® aflatoxin B1 assay were applied to peanut butter and soybean sauce. Conclusion In view of the different of the sample matrix, the suitable assay kit needed to be chosen to get the best analysis results. When the results of ELISA were positive, the HPLC method was needed for further validation.%目的:综合评价4种不同厂家的黄曲霉毒素 B1试剂盒。方法选择几种食品基质(婴幼儿米粉、花生酱、酱油),分别用R-Biopharm, Romer, Helica和华安麦科的黄曲霉毒素B1试剂盒检测,将测定结果与液相色谱法测得结果进行比对。结果通过与液相色谱法测得结果比较,华安麦科试剂盒只适合检测婴幼儿米粉样品。Helica和R-Biopharm试剂盒能检测多种基质,而Helica试剂盒检测结果与液相相符度低, R-Biopharm试剂盒检测米粉时,本底较高。Romer试剂盒适用于花生酱和酱油样品。结论为了得到最佳的检测结果,针对不同的样品基质,应选择合适的试剂盒。当用酶联法检测出阳性样品时,需用液相色谱法确认。

  1. Effects of temperature, water activity and incubation time on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 production by toxinogenic Aspergillus flavus isolates on sorghum seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahouar, Amani; Marin, Sonia; Crespo-Sempere, Ana; Saïd, Salem; Sanchis, Vicente

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum, which is consumed in Tunisia as human food, suffers from severe colonization by several toxigenic fungi and contamination by mycotoxins. The Tunisian climate is characterized by high temperature and humidity that stimulates mold proliferation and mycotoxin accumulation in foodstuffs. This study investigated the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 37°C), water activity (aw, between 0.85 and 0.99) and incubation time (7, 14, 21 and 28 d) on fungal growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by three Aspergillus flavus isolates (8, 10 and 14) inoculated on sorghum grains. The Baranyi model was applied to identify the limits of growth and mycotoxin production. Maximum diameter growth rates were observed at 0.99 a(w) at 37°C for two of the isolates. The minimum aw needed for mycelial growth was 0.91 at 25 and 37°C. At 15°C, only isolate 8 grew at 0.99 a(w). Aflatoxin B1 accumulation could be avoided by storing sorghum at low water activity levels (≤0.91 a(w)). Aflatoxin production was not observed at 15°C. This is the first work on the effects of water activity and temperature on A. flavus growth and AFB1 production by A. flavus isolates on sorghum grains.

  2. Influence of herbicide glyphosate on growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus section Flavi strains isolated from soil on in vitro assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberis, Carla L; Carranza, Cecilia S; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Magnoli, Carina E

    2013-01-01

    The effect of six glyphosate concentrations on growth rate and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production by Aspergillus section Flavi strains under different water activity (aW) on maize-based medium was investigated. In general, the lag phase decreased as glyphosate concentration increased and all the strains showed the same behavior at the different conditions tested. The glyphosate increased significantly the growth of all Aspergillus section Flavi strains in different percentages with respect to control depending on pesticide concentration. At 5.0 and 10 mM this fact was more evident; however significant differences between both concentrations were not observed in most strains. Aflatoxin B1 production did not show noticeable differences among different pesticide concentrations assayed at all aW in both strains. This study has shown that these Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus strains are able to grow effectively and produce aflatoxins in high nutrient status media over a range of glyphosate concentrations under different water activity conditions.

  3. Evaluation of the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of calcium montmorillonite clay used to reduce aflatoxin B1 dietary exposure in a crossover study in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awuor, Abigael O; Yard, Ellen; Daniel, Johnni H; Martin, Collen; Bii, Christine; Romoser, Amelia; Oyugi, Elvis; Elmore, Sarah; Amwayi, Samwel; Vulule, John; Zitomer, Nicholas C; Rybak, Michael E; Phillips, Timothy D; Montgomery, Joel M; Lewis, Lauren S

    2017-01-01

    Acute aflatoxin exposure can cause death and disease (aflatoxicosis) in humans. Aflatoxicosis fatality rates have been documented to be as high as 40% in Kenya. The inclusion in the diet of calcium silicate 100 (ACCS100), a calcium montmorillonite clay, may reduce aflatoxin bioavailability, thus potentially decreasing the risk of aflatoxicosis. We investigated the efficacy, acceptability and palatability of ACCS100 in a population in Kenya with recurring aflatoxicosis outbreaks. Healthy adult participants were enrolled in this double-blinded, crossover clinical trial in 2014. Following informed consent, participants (n = 50) were randomised to receive either ACCS100 (3 g day(-1)) or placebo (3 g day(-1)) for 7 days. Treatments were switched following a 5-day washout period. Urine samples were collected daily and assessed for urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). Blood samples were collected at the beginning and end of the trial and assessed for aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts from serum albumin (AFB1-lys). AFM1 concentrations in urine were significantly reduced while taking ACCS100 compared with calcium carbonate placebo (β = 0.49, 95% confidence limit = 0.32-0.75). The 20-day interval included both the placebo and ACCS100 treatments as well as a washout period. There were no statistically significant differences in reported taste, aftertaste, appearance, colour or texture by treatment. There were no statistically significant differences in self-reported adverse events by treatment. Most participants would be willing to take ACCS100 (98%) and give it to their children (98%). ACCS100 was effective, acceptable and palatable. More work is needed to test ACCS100 among vulnerable populations and to determine if it remains effective at the levels of aflatoxin exposure that induce aflatoxicosis.

  4. Hematological Parameters and the State of Liver Cells of Rats After Oral Administration of Aflatoxin B1 Alone and Together with Nanodiamonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilnaya, O. A.; Puzyr, A. P.; Baron, A. V.; Bondar, V. S.

    2010-05-01

    Hematological parameters and the state of liver cells of rats were examined in vivo after the animals received aflatoxin B1 (AfB1) alone and together with modified nanodiamonds (MND) synthesized by detonation. The rats that had received the MND hydrosol had elevated leukocyte levels, mainly due to higher granulocyte counts and somewhat increased monocyte counts compared to control rats. Hematological parameters of the rats that had received AfB1 alone differed from those of the control rats in another way: total white blood cell counts were significantly lower due to the decreased lymphocyte counts. In rats that had consumed AfB1 with the MND hydrosol, changes in hematological parameters were less pronounced than in rats that had consumed either AfB1 or MND. Electron microscopy showed that hepatocytes of the rats that had received the MND hydrosol or AfB1 with the MND hydrosol contained elevated levels of lipid inclusions and lysosomes. Hyperplasia of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (EPR) was revealed in liver specimens of the rats that had received AfB1. Results of the study suggest the conclusion about mutual mitigation of the effects of nanoparticles and the mycotoxin on rats blood and liver cells after AfB1 has adsorbed on MND.

  5. PENURUNAN KADAR AFLATOKSIN B1 PADA SARI KEDELAI OLEH SEL HIDUP DAN SEL MATI Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 [Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 in Soymilk by Viable and Heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2

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    Tyas Utami1*

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are carcinogenic mycotoxins that commonly contaminate foods and feed. There are many different forms of aflatoxin and its metabolites. Of these, aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most prevalent and toxic. Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 has previously been shown to remove AFB1 from liquid solution of phosphate saline buffer. However, the ability of lactic acid bacteria to reduce AFB1 content in soymilk has not been studied yet. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of viable and heat-killed cells of L. acidophilus SNP-2 to reduce AFB1 in soymilk and fermented soymilk. Soymilk contaminated with Aspergillus flavus was inoculated with culture of L. acidophilus SNP-2, and incubated at 37C for 12 hours. Fermented soymilk, then, was heat sterilized and stored at cool room (4°C. Heat-killed cells were introduced to soy milk and then kept at cool room for 3 days. During soymilk fermentation, there was reduction of AFB1 content in soymilk related to the growth of lactic acid bacteria and the reduction of pH. The initial concentration of AFB1 in the soymilk was 4.9 ppb. Lactobacillus acidophilus SNP-2 reduced 67.58% of AFB1 in the soymilk after 12 hoursof fermentation. In cool environment, the binding of AFB1 to heat-killed cell after soymilk fermentation was relatively more stable than that of soymilk without fermentation.

  6. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on expression of biomarkers during aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanrong Hao; Jianjia Su; Chao Ou; Ji Cao; Fang Yang; Xiaoxian Duan; Chun Yang; Yuan Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to study the effect of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761) on metabolism of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in Wistar rats. Methods: Seventy one Wistar rats were assigned at random to groups A, B and C. Rats in groups A, B were injected with AFB1 (intraperitoneal, 100–200 μg/kg body weight, 1–3 times/week). Group C was normal control. Rats in group B were fed in food with EGb761, while rats in groups A, C were given normal food. Blood samples were collected and liver biopsies were performed on the 14th, 28th and 42nd week. All the rats were sacrificed on the 64th week. The incidence of hepatocarcinoma was investigated. The hepatic phase I drug-metabolizing enzyme Cytochrome-P450 (CYP450) and phase II metabolizing enzyme glutathione S-transferase (GST) were analyzed with spectrometry. Serum AFB1-lysine adduct levels were assessed with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The expression of 8-hydroxydeoxy-guanosine (8-OHdG) was measured with immunohistochemistry. Results: The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in group B was significantly lower than that in group A (26.92% vs 76.00%, P < 0.001). No HCC developed in group C. EGb761 showed no effects on the activities of CYP450 and GST in rat liver tissues. The level of AFB1-lysine adduct reached the peak (4356.01 pg/mg albumin) at the 14th week in group A. EGb761 significantly inhibited the formation of AFB1-lysine adduct in serum by 13.07% at the 14th week (P = 0.033), and 73.63% at the 42nd week (P = 0.002). The expression of 8-OHdG protein in rat liver tissues in group B was significantly lower than that in group A at the 28th, 42nd, and 64th week (P < 0.05). Conclu-sion: The main mechanism underlying the effect of EGb761 in blocking hepatocarcinogenesis induced by AFB1 may not be fully attributable to its influence on the activity of liver phase I and phase II metabolizing enzymes. EGb761 inhibits the produc-tion of AFB1-lysine adducts, decreases the expression of 8-OHd

  7. Isolation, screening and identification of Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbial candidates for aflatoxin B1 biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario Galarza-Seeber; Juan David Latorre; Xochitl Hernandez-Velasco; Amanda Drake Wolfenden; Lisa Renee Bielke; Anita Menconi; Billy Marshall Hargis; Guillermo Tellez

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the ability of Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbials (DFM) to biodegrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) by using an in vitro digestive model simulating in vivo conditions. Methods: Sixty-nine Bacillus isolates were obtained from intestines, and soil samples were screened by using a selective media method against 0.25 and 1.00 µg/mL of AFB1 in modified Czapek-Dox medium. Plates were incubated at 37 °C and observed every two days for two weeks. Physiological properties of the three Bacillus spp. candidates were characterized biochemically and by 16S rRNA sequence analyzes for identification. Tolerance to acidic pH, osmotic concentrations of NaCl, bile salts were tested, and antimicrobial sensitivity profiles were also determined. Bacillus candidates were individually sporulated by using a solid fermentation method and combined. Spores were incorporated into 1 of 3 experimental feed groups: 1) Negative control group, with unmedicated starter broiler feed without AFB1; 2) Positive control group, with negative control feed contaminated with 0.01% AFB1; 3) DFM treated group, with positive control feed supplemented with 109 spores/g. After digestion time (3:15 h), supernatants and digesta were collected for high-performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection analysis by triplicate. Results: Three out of those sixty-nine DFM candidates showed ability to biodegrade AFB1 in vitro based on growth as well as reduction of fluorescence and area of clearance around each colony in modified Czapek-Dox medium which was clearly visible under day light after 48 h of evaluation. Analysis of 16S-DNA identified the strains as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. The three Bacillus strains were tolerant to acidic conditions (pH 2.0), tolerant to a high osmotic pressure (NaCl at 6.5%), and were able to tolerate 0.037%bile salts after 24 h of incubation. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of AFB1 in

  8. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu El-Saad, Abdelaziz S; Mahmoud, Hamada M

    2009-09-01

    The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6) in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1) treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus) throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 mug kg(-1) body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg(-1) body wt) for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis' homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide dismutase

  9. Glutathione-S-transferase A3 knockout mice are sensitive to acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilic, Zoran; Crawford, Dana; Vakharia, Dilip; Egner, Patricia A; Sell, Stewart

    2010-02-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a major risk factor for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans. However, mice, a major animal model for the study of AFB1 carcinogenesis, are resistant, due to high constitutive expression, in the mouse liver, of glutathione S-transferase A3 subunit (mGSTA3) that is lacking in humans. Our objective was to establish that a mouse model for AFB1 toxicity could be used to study mechanisms of toxicity that are relevant for human disease, i.e., an mGSTA3 knockout (KO) mouse that responds to toxicants such as AFB1 in a manner similar to humans. Exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 were replaced with a neomycin cassette by homologous recombination. Southern blotting, RT-PCR, Western blotting, and measurement of AFB1-N(7)-DNA adduct formation were used to evaluate the mGSTA3 KO mice. The KO mice have deletion of exons 3-6 of the mGSTA3 gene, as expected, as well as a lack of mGSTA3 expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Three hours after injection of 5 mg/kg AFB1, mGSTA3 KO mice have more than 100-fold more AFB1-N(7)-DNA adducts in their livers than do similarly treated wild-type (WT) mice. In addition, the mGSTA3 KO mice die of massive hepatic necrosis, at AFB1 doses that have minimal toxic effects in WT mice. We conclude that mGSTA3 KO mice are sensitive to the acute cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of AFB1, confirming the crucial role of GSTA3 subunit in protection of normal mice against AFB1 toxicity. We propose the mGSTA3 KO mouse as a useful model with which to study the interplay of risk factors leading to HCC development in humans, as well as for testing of additional possible functions of mGSTA3.

  10. Phytic Acid Exposure Alters AflatoxinB1-Induced Reproductive and Oxidative Toxicity in Albino Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz S. Abu El-Saad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The increased use of feed in Egypt's aquaculture and animal industries raises concerns about the possible presence of mycotoxins in feedstuffs. The use of alternative medicine, such as botanicals and nutritional supplements, has become popular with inflammatory cases. The present study aimed to testify the role played by phytic acid (IP6 in enhancing the reproductive and oxidative toxicity induced in aflatoxinB1 (AFB1 treated white male albino rats (Rattus norvegicus throughout treatment and withdrawal periods. One hundred and twenty white male albino rats were grouped into four groups. Group 1, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and left uninjected for another 15 days to study the withdrawal effect. Group 2, was injected with 300 μg kg−1 body wt of AFB1 once every 3 days for 15 days and treated simultaneously with IP6 daily for another 15 days. Group 3, was treated daily with IP6 (40 mg kg−1 body wt for 15 days and with no treatment for other 15 days. Group 4, injected with equivalent volume of sterile phosphate buffer saline solution as a control group. Sera were taken at the experimental intervals and assayed for testosterone hormone, follicular-stimulating hormone (FSH and luteinizing hormone (LH to determine the toxicological impact of AFB1 and the possibility of amelioration by phytic acid on the reproductive performance of the studied animal. The effects of AFB1 treatment on the absolute and relative weight of testis as well as its histopathologic effect on the testis and the possibility of amelioration by IP6 treatment were evaluated. The activities of enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, in addition to lipid peroxidation were measured in the testis’ homogenate of AFB1-treated rats. A decrease in sex hormone levels, an increase in testicular lipid peroxidation product levels and a significant decrease in testicular glutathione content, catalase and total peroxidase and superoxide

  11. Effects of Milk Yield, Feed Composition, and Feed Contamination with Aflatoxin B1 on the Aflatoxin M1 Concentration in Dairy Cows’ Milk Investigated Using Monte Carlo Simulation Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. J. van der Fels-Klerx

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the presence of aflatoxin M1 (AfM1 in dairy cows’ milk, given predefined scenarios for milk production, compound feed (CF contamination with aflatoxin B1 (AfB1, and inclusion rates of ingredients, using Monte Carlo simulation modelling. The model simulated a typical dairy farm in the Netherlands. Six different scenarios were considered, based on two lactation and three CF composition scenarios. AfB1 contamination of the CF was based on results from the Dutch national monitoring programme for AfB1 in feed materials from 2000 until 2010. Monitoring data from feed materials used in CF production for dairy cattle in the Netherlands were used. Additionally, AfB1 contamination data from an incident in maize in 2013 were used. In each scenario, five different transfer equations of AfB1 from feed to AfM1 in the milk were used, and 1000 iterations were run for each scenario. The results showed that under these six scenarios, the weekly farm concentration of AfM1 in milk was above the EC threshold in less than 1% of the iterations, with all five transfer equations considered. However, this increased substantially in weeks when concentrations from the contaminated maize batch were included, and up to 28.5% of the iterations exceeded the EC threshold. It was also observed that an increase in the milk production had a minimal effect on the exceedance of the AfM1 threshold due to an apparent dilution effect. Feeding regimes, including the composition of CF and feeding roughages of dairy cows, should be carefully considered based on the potential AfM1 contamination of the farm’s milk.

  12. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight MS for identification of electron beam from accelerator degradation products of aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruiqi; Liu, Ruijie; Chang, Ming; Jin, Qingzhe; Huang, Jianhua; Liu, Yuanfa; Wang, Xingguo

    2015-02-01

    Electron beam irradiation was proven to be a successful method in aflatoxin degradation in earlier researches. However, the exact nature of the result radiation products generated by the aflatoxins remains unknown. Based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF MS) analysis, the solution of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in acetonitrile irradiated by electron beam degraded to two kinds of major products. The doses employed were in the range of 0 (control) to 8.60 kGy. The absorbed doses were monitored with FWT-60-00 radio-chromic dosimeters. By using UPLC-Q-TOF MS, accurate masses and proposed molecular formula for the degradation products, 261.1233 m/z (C14H13O5) and 299.1104 m/z (C17H15O5), were obtained from low mass error and high matching properties. Structural formula for the radio-degradation products and the degradation pathways leading to the compounds were proposed, based on the molecular formula and MS-MS spectra. The results showed that electron beam (EB) irradiation is an effective method for degrading AFB1.

  13. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L-1 and AFB2; 50 μg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82–87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins. PMID:27471501

  14. Structural Elucidation and Toxicity Assessment of Degraded Products of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 by Aqueous Extracts of Trachyspermum ammi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by in vitro and in vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e., 92.8 and 91.9% respectively. However, T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  15. Structural elucidation and toxicity assessment of degraded products of aflatoxin B1 and B2 by aqueous extracts of Trachyspermum ammi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha eIram

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study aqueous extract of seeds and leaves of Trachyspermum ammi were evaluated for their ability to detoxify aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1 by In Vitro and In Vivo assays. Results indicated that T. ammi seeds extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05 in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 92.8% and 91.9% respectively. However T. ammi leaves extract proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30˚C and incubation period of 72h. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that eight degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that T. ammi seeds extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  16. An attempt to model the probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 production of Aspergillus flavus under non-isothermal conditions in pistachio nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldars-García, Laila; Ramos, Antonio J; Sanchis, Vicente; Marín, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    Human exposure to aflatoxins in foods is of great concern. The aim of this work was to use predictive mycology as a strategy to mitigate the aflatoxin burden in pistachio nuts postharvest. The probability of growth and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) production of aflatoxigenic Aspergillus flavus, isolated from pistachio nuts, under static and non-isothermal conditions was studied. Four theoretical temperature scenarios, including temperature levels observed in pistachio nuts during shipping and storage, were used. Two types of inoculum were included: a cocktail of 25 A. flavus isolates and a single isolate inoculum. Initial water activity was adjusted to 0.87. Logistic models, with temperature and time as explanatory variables, were fitted to the probability of growth and AFB1 production under a constant temperature. Subsequently, they were used to predict probabilities under non-isothermal scenarios, with levels of concordance from 90 to 100% in most of the cases. Furthermore, the presence of AFB1 in pistachio nuts could be correctly predicted in 70-81 % of the cases from a growth model developed in pistachio nuts, and in 67-81% of the cases from an AFB1 model developed in pistachio agar. The information obtained in the present work could be used by producers and processors to predict the time for AFB1 production by A. flavus on pistachio nuts during transport and storage.

  17. Structural Analysis and Biological Toxicity of Aflatoxins B1 and B2 Degradation Products Following Detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula Aqueous Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Iqbal, Mazhar; Ghaffar, Abdul; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves and branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxins B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 μg L(-1) and AFB2; 50 μg L(-1)) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions, i.e., pH 8, temperature 30°C and incubation period of 72 h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates, i.e., 82-87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  18. Structural analysis and biological toxicity of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 degradation products following detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula aqueous extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wajiha Iram

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves & branch aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1 by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05 in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 90.4% and 88.6% respectively. However O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less efficient in degrading these aflatoxins, under optimized conditions i.e., pH 8, temperature 30˚C and incubation period of 72h. Moreover the antifungal activity of these plants extracts were also tested. The findings depicted that O. basilicum leaves extract showed maximum growth inhibition of aflatoxigenic isolates i.e., 82 – 87% as compared to other tested plants extracts. The structural elucidation of degraded toxin products by LCMS/MS analysis showed that nine degraded products of AFB1 and AFB2 were formed. MS/MS spectra showed that most of the products were formed by the removal of double bond in the terminal furan ring and modification of lactone group indicating less toxicity as compared to parent compounds. Brine shrimps bioassay further confirmed the low toxicity of degraded products, showing that O. basilicum leaves extract can be used as an effective tool for the detoxification of aflatoxins.

  19. A preliminary study on the occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 in imported wheat and barley in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, K R N; Salleh, Baharuddin

    2010-11-01

    Thirty samples consisting of wheat (15) and barley (15) were collected from different markets in Penang, Malaysia, originating from India and Thailand, respectively. All samples were analyzed for occurrence of Aspergillus spp. and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Aspergillus flavus was dominant in all samples followed by A. niger. AFB1 could be detected in three wheat samples ranging from 0.42 to 1.89 μg/kg and one barley sample had 0.58 μg/kg of AFB1. The AFB1 levels in all the samples were below the Malaysian regulatory limits (Penang, Malaysia.

  20. Structural analysis and biological toxicity of Aflatoxin B1 and B2 degradation products following detoxification by Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula aqueous extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Wajiha Iram; Tehmina Anjum; Mazhar Iqbal; Abdul Ghaffar; Mateen Abbas

    2016-01-01

    This study showed the comparison between Ocimum basilicum and Cassia fistula (leaves & branch) aqueous extracts for their ability to detoxify of aflatoxin B1 and B2 (AFB1; 100 µg L-1 and AFB2; 50 µg L-1) by In Vitro assays and decontamination studies. Results indicated that O. basilicum leaves extract was found to be highly significant (P < 0.05) in degrading AFB1 and AFB2 i.e. 90.4% and 88.6% respectively. However O. basilicum branch, C. fistula leaves and branch extracts proved to be less e...

  1. Prenatal exposure of mice to the human liver carcinogen Aflatoxin B1 reveals a critical window of susceptibility to genetic change

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    It has become axiomatic that critical windows of susceptibility to genotoxins exist and that genetic damage in utero may be a trigger for later life cancers. Data supporting this critical window hypothesis are remarkably few. This study provides a quantitative bridge between DNA damage by the liver carcinogen aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) during prenatal development and the risk of later life genetic disease. AFB1 was given to pregnant C57BL/6J mice, carrying F1 gestation day 14 (GD14) embryos of the B...

  2. Effect of aflatoxin B1 on growth and enzymatic activity of a native strain of Bacillus sp Efecto de la aflatoxina B1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad proteolítica de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp

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    Márquez Edna Judith

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of different aflatoxin B1 (AFAB1 concentrations on alkaline protease growth and enzymatic activity was evaluated; a native strain of alkalophilic Bacillus sp cultivated in CSL (Corn Steep Liquor was used. It was found that the effect of AFAB1 on the strain inhibited its growth and enzymatic activity to 1 ppm, showing that the strain is highly sensible to AFAB1, meaning that medium obtained f rom Colombian corn contaminated with this mycotoxin cannot be easily used. Concentrations less than 0.1 ppm did not affect growth and enzymatic activity. Key words: Bacillus, aflatoxin, alkaline proteases.Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes concentraciones de aflatoxina B1 (AFAB1 sobre el crecimiento y actividad enzimática de proteasas alcalinas de una cepa nativa de Bacillus sp Alcalofílico cultivada en LAM (Licor Agotado de Maíz. Se encontró que la cepa inhibe su crecimiento y actividad enzimática a 1 ppm, lo que demuestra una alta sensibilidad de la cepa evaluada a la AFAB1 e imposibilita utilizar fácilmente medios obtenidos de maíz nacional contaminado con esta micotoxina. Las concentraciones inferiores a 0.1 ppm no tienen ningún efecto sobre el crecimiento y la actividad enzimática. Palabras clave: Bacillus, aflatoxina, proteasas alcalinas.

  3. Survey For Detection and Determination of Aflatoxins M1 and B1 in local Milk and Certain Dairy Products by Thin Layer Chromatographic Method

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    T.A. Nassib *,S.N. Guergues** , M.M. Motawee

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available 90 different type of milk samples, 10 Yogurt Samples, 110 different type of cheese samples and 10 ice cream samples were collected randomly from Giza Governorate during the summer of 1998 ­ 1999, for detection and determination of Aflatoxins M1& B1 by using thin layer chromatographic method. Results revealed that the average range of Aflatoxin M1 in milk samples amounted from 0.144 to 0.378 ng/ml. About 20 % of cows and buffaloes milk samples contained form 0.378 to 0.342 ng/ml of AFM1, whereas about 10% of other milk samples were contaminated with 0.162, 0.288, 0.324, 0.234, 0.144 and 0.162 ng/ml for skim , Pasteurized , sterilized, UHT, powder, and baby milk, in the same order. Concentrations of AFM1 detected in cheese samples, furthermore, varied due to the type and age of cheese being examined. 20% of cheese samples were contaminated with AFM1 being 5.1, 3.2, 2.99, 2.099, and 2.34 ng/gm for fresh Domiati, aged Domiati, Processed and Karish cheese, respectively, whereas, 30% of the other types of cheese contained 5.88, 6.3 and 3.4 ng/gm for Roquefort, fresh Romi, and Cheddar cheese, respectively. The lowest concentration of AFM1, of 0.116 ng/gm was detected, however, in 10% of yogurt samples. Meanwhile, 20% of ice cream samples were found to be contaminated with 2.7 ng/ml, and 10% of Feta cheese samples contained 3.3 ng/gm. It could also be appeared from results that both of cream and spread cheese were found completely free from this Aflatoxin, the lowest content of Aflatoxin detected in all of the above examined samples was 0.116, 0.162, 0.162 and 0.216 (ppb in yogurt, skim, baby milk and cream, respectively. On the other hand, results also indicated that all milk samples were free from Aflatoxin B1 except one sample of skim milk (out of 10 which gave positive result.

  4. Bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 by lipoxygenases, prostaglandin H synthase and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase in guinea-pig tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Massey, T E

    1992-04-01

    In the present investigation, we have examined the role of lipoxygenases in the bioactivation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in hepatic and extrahepatic tissues. The enzyme activities were evaluated by determining [3H]AFB1-DNA adduct formation. The results demonstrated that both purified soybean lipoxygenase and guinea-pig tissue cytosolic lipoxygenases were able to activate AFB1 to form [3H]AFB1-DNA adduct(s). The reaction was completely inhibited by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, 0.1 mM), a lipoxygenase inhibitor and an antioxidant, but not by indomethacin (0.1 mM), an inhibitor of prostaglandin H synthase (PHS), indicating that this reaction is associated with lipoxygenase activity, and/or is involved in a peroxyl radical process. While purified lipoxygenase showed arachidonic acid (AA)-dependent properties, the omission of AA did not diminish guinea-pig tissue cytosolic [3H]AFB1-DNA adduct formation, possibly because AA was released from lipid particles by AFB1. Within the range of hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations found in lung, kidney and liver cytosols (1.4-11.1 microM) and microsomes (0-0.5 microM), neither pure Hb, nor Hb of cytosols or microsomes from whole blood caused detectable AA-dependent AFB1-DNA binding. This indicates that Hb, as a contaminant with quasi-lipoxygenase activity, did not contribute to AFB1 activation attributed to guinea-pig tissue lipoxygenases. [3H]AFB1 concentrations at half-maximal DNA binding rate of pulmonary cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450) and lipoxygenases were similar, though P450 had a much higher maximum DNA binding rate. Pulmonary microsomal PHS activity for AFB1 activation was too low for its half-maximal binding concentrations of [3H]AFB1 and maximum rate to be accurately determined. In kidney, maximum rates for lipoxygenase, PHS and P450 were similar, whereas half-maximal binding concentrations for reactions by lipoxygenase and P450 were lower compared to that of PHS. The half-maximal binding concentration of hepatic

  5. Sensitive Quantification of Aflatoxin B1 in Animal Feeds, Corn Feed Grain, and Yellow Corn Meal Using Immunomagnetic Bead-Based Recovery and Real-Time Immunoquantitative-PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Babu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are considered unavoidable natural mycotoxins encountered in foods, animal feeds, and feed grains. In this study, we demonstrate the application of our recently developed real-time immunoquantitative PCR (RT iq-PCR assay for sensitive detection and quantification of aflatoxins in poultry feed, two types of dairy feed (1 and 2, horse feed, whole kernel corn feed grains, and retail yellow ground corn meal. Upon testing methanol/water (60:40 extractions of the above samples using competitive direct enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, the aflatoxin content was found to be <20 μg/kg. The RT iq-PCR assay exhibited high antigen hook effect in samples containing aflatoxin levels higher than the quantification limits (0.1–10 μg/kg, addressed by comparing the quantification results of undiluted and diluted extracts. In testing the reliability of the immuno-PCR assay, samples were spiked with 200 μg/kg of aflatoxin B1, but the recovery of spiked aflatoxin was found to be poor. Considering the significance of determining trace levels of aflatoxins and their serious implications for animal and human health, the RT iq-PCR method described in this study can be useful for quantifying low natural aflatoxin levels in complex matrices of food or animal feed samples without the requirement of extra sample cleanup.

  6. Changes in serum cytokine levels, hepatic and intestinal morphology in aflatoxin B1-induced injury: modulatory roles of melatonin and flavonoid-rich fractions from Chromolena odorata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinrinmade, Fadeyemi Joseph; Akinrinde, Akinleye Stephen; Amid, Adetayo

    2016-05-01

    Aflatoxins are known to produce chronic carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic effects, as well as acute inflammatory effects, especially in the gastrointestinal tract. The potentials of the flavonoid-rich extract from Chromolena odorata (FCO) and melatonin (a standard anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory agent) against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-induced alterations in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels and morphology of liver and small intestines were evaluated in this study. We utilized Wistar albino rats (200-230 g) randomly divided into five groups made up of group A, control rats; group B, rats given AFB1 (2.5 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) twice on days 5 and 7; rats in groups C, D, and E were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) or oral doses of FCO1 (50 mg/kg) and FCO2 (100 mg/kg) for 7 days, respectively, along with AFB1 injection on days 5 and 7. Serum levels of interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) were determined using commercial ELISA kits and histopathological evaluation of the liver, duodenum, and ileum were also carried out. We observed significant elevation (p Melatonin and FCO2 produced considerable protection of hepatic tissues, although melatonin was not quite effective in protecting the intestinal lesions. Our findings suggest a modulation of cytokine expression that may, in part, be responsible for the abilities of C. odorata or melatonin in amelioration of hepatic and intestinal lesions associated with aflatoxin B1 injury.

  7. Alterações hepáticas em codornas japonesas submetidas à intoxicação prolongada por aflatoxina B1 Hepatic changes in japanese quail after long term intoxication by aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto Fernandes Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi estudar os efeitos da aflatoxina B1 (AFB1 sobre as vísceras (fígado, baço e moela de codornas poedeiras japonesas, em condições de exposição a baixas doses, tendo em vista que são poucos os dados de toxicidade de longa duração nesta espécie. Assim, foram constituídos 4 grupos formados, cada um, por 6 codornas de linhagem comercial, as quais receberam rações contendo AFB1 nas concentrações de 0 (controle, 25, 50 e 100mg.kg-1, durante 168 dias. As aves do grupo 100mg kg_1 apresentaram fígados com peso relativo médio menor (p The aim of the present record was to study the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 on selected viscera (liver, spleen and gizzard of laying Japanese quail under conditions of low level exposure, in view of the little information regarding the long term toxicity on this specie. Thus, four experimental groups of six commercial quails were constituted and given rations containing either 0 (controls, 25, 50 or 100mg aflatoxin B1 (AFB1/kg feed, during 168 days. When compared to controls, birds from group 100mg.kg-1 presented low relative liver weight (p < 0.05. Histological changes were observed only in the livers, and all samples from quail exposed to AFB1 revealed moderate to severe hepatic cell vacuolation with fatty change, particularly in birds from groups receiving highest levels of toxin (50 and 100mg.kg-1. Bile duct hyperplasia occurred only in the birds exposed to 100mg.kg-1 of AFB1. The results indicated that long term administration of AFB1 at levels above 50mg.kg-1 can cause significant hepatic lesions in Japanese quail.

  8. Spontaneous mutation 7B-1 in tomato impairs blue light-induced stomatal opening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nauš, Jan; Fellner, Martin

    2013-08-01

    It was reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (BL) signaling leading to BL-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this work, we examine responses of stomata to blue, red and white lights, fusicoccin, anion channel blockers (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid; 9-AC and niflumic acid; NIF) and ABA. Our results showed that the aperture of 7B-1 stomata does not increase in BL, suggesting that 7B-1 mutation impairs an element of BL signaling pathway involved in stomatal opening. Similar stomatal responses of 7B-1 and wild type (WT) to fusicoccin or 9-AC points out that activity of H(+)-ATPase and 9-AC-sensitive anion channels per se is not likely affected by the mutation. Since 9-AC restored stomatal opening of 7B-1 in BL, it seems that 9-AC and BL could block similar type of anion channels. The stomata of both genotypes did not respond to NIF neither in darkness nor in any light conditions tested. In light, 9-AC but not NIF restored stomatal opening inhibited by ABA in WT and 7B-1. We suggest that in comparison to WT, the activity of S-type anion channels in 7B-1 is more promoted by increased ABA content, and less reduced by BL, because of the mutant resistance to BL.

  9. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 36 months of life was not associated with impaired growth in Nepalese children: An extension of the MAL-ED study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Hui-Husan; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Shrestha, Binob; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Tu, Yu-Kang; Gong, Yun-Yun; Egner, Patricia A.; Ulak, Manjeswori; Groopman, John D.; Wu, Felicia

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct. The aflatoxin exposures in the study participants were compared to anthropometrics at each time period (length-for-age [LAZ], weight-for-age [WAZ], and weight-for-length [WLZ] z-scores), growth trajectories over time, age, and breastfeeding status. Results demonstrated chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort of children, with a geometric mean of 3.62 pg AFB1-lysine/mg albumin. However, the chronic aflatoxin exposure in this cohort was not significantly associated with anthropometric z-scores, growth trajectories, age, or feeding status, based on the available time points to assess aflatoxin exposure. Low mean levels of aflatoxin exposure and infrequent occurrence of stunting, wasting, or underweight z-score values in this cohort are possible contributing factors to a lack of evidence for an association. Further research is needed to examine whether a threshold dose of aflatoxin exists that could induce child growth impairment. PMID:28212415

  10. Aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 contamination in ground red peppers commercialized in Sanliurfa, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaaslan, Mehmet; Arslanğray, Yusuf

    2015-04-01

    Aflatoxins (AFs) are hepatogenic, teratogenic, imunosuppressive, and carcinogenic fungal metabolites found in feeds, nuts, wine-grapes, spices, and other grain crops. Humans are exposed to AFs via consumption of mycotoxin-contaminated foods. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AF contamination in powdered red peppers sold in Sanliurfa. A total of 42 samples were randomly collected from retail shops, supermarkets, open bazaars, and apiaries and examined for the occurrence and levels of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 toxins. AFs were determined by using an HPLC system after pre-separation utilizing immunoaffinity columns. AFs levels were below 2.5 μg/kg in 16 samples, between 2.5 and 10 μg/kg in 13 samples while 13 samples had AFs higher than the tolerable limit (10 μg/kg) according to the regulations of Turkish Food Codex and European Commission. The occurrence of AF fractions during powdered red pepper processing steps was also evaluated. According to the results obtained in this study, it was found that the highest AF accumulations in powdered red peppers start during perspiration and final drying of the products processed on soil contacted surfaces while there was no limit exceeding aflatoxin contamination in the samples produced on concrete surfaces.

  11. Degradation of Aflatoxin B 1 by Microwave-lightwave Combination in Peanut%微波光波组合辐射去除花生表面黄曲霉毒素B1的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵越; 王瑞琦; 刘睿杰; 李秋; 王珊珊; 杜润鸿; 常明

    2014-01-01

    针对花生表面存在的黄曲霉毒素污染问题,考察了微波光波组合辐射处理对花生表面黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)的降解效果。将花生在一定微波光波辐射频率下进行试验,研究结果表明:微波光波联合辐射法可有效降解花生表面的AFB1,并随着时间增加,毒素减少量也增加,8min时降解率达到74.06%; AFB1降解速率与样品最初被污染的水平有关;经该法处理后的花生,其基本成分变化不大,营养成分损失较少。由于微波光波组合辐射法降解条件温和、操作简单、降解效率高,可应用于受黄曲霉毒素污染的粮食物料中。%For problem of contaminated peanut with aflatoxin, effect of microwave-lightwave combined treatment on degradation of aflatoxin B1 in peanut was studied. Results of experiment indicated that method of microwave and light-wave combined treatment could effectively degrade AFB1 in peanut, degradation level of AFB1 in peanut increased with treatment time, and under condition of 8 min, degradation rate of AFB1 was 74.06%. Degradation rate of AFB1 was relat-ed to initial level of contamination. Basic ingredients of peanut changed little, and less nutrition was lost. Since method was under soft condition, simple and efficient, it could be applied to the crops contaminated with aflatoxin.

  12. Effect of Milk Thistle (Silybum marianum L. on Biochemical Parameters and Immunity of Broiler Chicks Fed Aflatoxin B1 after Three Weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh Amiri Dumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to determine the efficacy of milk thistle seeds (MTSs in counteracting the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 in a contaminated diet fed to broilers. Methods: Two dietary inclusion rates of AFB1 (0, 0.250 and 500 ppb and MTS (0, 0.5 and 1% were tested in a 3×3 factorial manner. The effect of nine experimental treatments was assessed using 216 one-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks in a randomized complete design with 4 replicates of 6 birds each from one to 21 days of age. The effects of dietary AFB1 and MTS on serum biochemistry factors, antibody titer against Newcastle disease (ND and influenza disease (ID in broilers were evaluated at the end of this period. Results: Statistical analysis of the main effects of diets indicated no significant changes in uric acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL, ID, and phosphorus compared to the control (P>0.01. Also, addition of 500 ppb of dietary AFB1 into the diet was associated with significant decreases in serum glucose, calcium, high density lipoprotein (HDL, and ND compared to the control group (P<0.01. The contaminated diet significantly increased the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT (P<0.05. Conclusion: Milk thistle showed protective effects and resulted in some serum enzyme activities and serum biochemical changes associated with aflatoxin toxicity.

  13. Size-dependent modulation of graphene oxide-aptamer interactions for an amplified fluorescence-based detection of aflatoxin B1 with a tunable dynamic range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, JingJing; Li, Zengmei; Zhao, Shancang; Lu, Yi

    2016-06-20

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common toxin found in many foods. While AFB1 sensors have been reported, few studies have shown amplified detection with tunable dynamic ranges. We herein report a simple and highly sensitive amplified aptamer-based fluorescent sensor for AFB1, which relies on the ability of nano-graphene oxide (GO) to protect aptamers from nuclease cleavage for amplified detection and on the nanometer size effect of GO to tune the dynamic range and sensitivity. The assay was performed by simply mixing the carboxyl-X-rhodamine (ROX)-labeled AFB1 aptamer, the GO, the nuclease, and the AFB1 samples. Modulating the size of the GO nanosheet resulted in three dynamic ranges, i.e., 12.5 to 312.5 ng mL(-1), 1.0 to 100 ng mL(-1), and 5.0 to 50 ng mL(-1), with corresponding limits of detection of 10.0 ng mL(-1), 0.35 ng mL(-1) and 15.0 ng mL(-1), respectively. The sensor was highly selective against other aflatoxins and common molecules in foods, and its performance was verified in corn samples spiked with known concentration of AFB1.

  14. Aflatoxin B1 Detection Using a Highly-Sensitive Molecularly-Imprinted Electrochemical Sensor Based on an Electropolymerized Metal Organic Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengjuan Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive electrochemical molecularly-imprinted sensor was developed for the detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, by electropolymerization of p-aminothiophenol-functionalized gold nanoparticles in the presence of AFB1 as a template molecule. The extraction of the template leads to the formation of cavities that are able to specifically recognize and bind AFB1 through π-π interactions between AFB1 molecules and aniline moities. The performance of the developed sensor for the detection of AFB1 was investigated by linear sweep voltammetry using a hexacyanoferrate/hexacyanoferrite solution as a redox probe, the electron transfer rate increasing when the concentration of AFB1 increases, due to a p-doping effect. The molecularly-imprinted sensor exhibits a broad linear range, between 3.2 fM and 3.2 µM, and a quantification limit of 3 fM. Compared to the non-imprinted sensor, the imprinting factor was found to be 10. Selectivity studies were also performed towards the binding of other aflatoxins and ochratoxin A, proving good selectivity.

  15. Effects of mycotoxins in cultured kidney cells: cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1 in Madin-Darby and primary fetal bovine kidney cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoneyama, M; Sharma, R P; Elsner, Y Y

    1987-04-01

    The cytotoxicity of aflatoxin B1, a fungal metabolite and an important food contaminant, was evaluated in an established cell line, Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells, and in primary fetal bovine kidney (PFBK) cells. Cells were grown in monolayers and treated with media containing AFB1 for 24 hr. Both culture systems were sensitive to the chemical; the PFBK cultures were approximately four times more susceptible to the cytotoxic effect. Cell multiplication decreased in both systems in long-term cultures. Adherence of MDBK cells was only slightly reduced at the toxic concentrations of the chemical. Electron microscopy revealed condensation of chromatin, separation of nuclei from the cytoplasm, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and loss of surface microvilli. Results indicated differential sensitivity of the two culture systems.

  16. Assessment of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside from Acacia salicina: protective effects toward oxidation damage and genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B1 and nifuroxazide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhlel, Ines; Limem, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Nefatti, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Dijoux-Franca, Marie-Genevieve; Leila, Chekir-Ghedira

    2010-08-01

    Antioxidant activity of isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside, isolated from the leaves of Acacia salicina, was determined by the ability of this compound to inhibit xanthine oxidase activity and to scavenge the free radical 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS(.-)) diammonium salt. Antigenotoxic activity was assessed using the SOS chromotest assay. This compound has the ability to scavenge the ABTS(.+) radical by a hydrogen donating mechanism. We also envisaged the study of the antioxidant effect of this compound by the enzymatic xanthine/xanthine oxidase (X/XOD) assay. Results indicated that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside was a potent inhibitor of xanthine oxidase and superoxide anion scavengers. Moreover, this compound induced an inhibitory activity against nifuroxazide and aflatoxine B1 (AFB1) induced genotoxicity. Taken together, these observations provide evidence that isorhamnetin 3-O-neohesperidoside isolated from the leaves of A. salicina is able to protect cells against the consequences of oxidative stress.

  17. Determination of aflatoxin B1 in cereals by homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction coupled to high performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheijooni-Fumani, Neda; Hassan, Jalal; Yousefi, Seyed R

    2011-06-01

    A simple and rapid method based on homogeneous liquid-liquid extraction coupled to HPLC with fluorescence detection was developed for the determination of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) in the rice and grain samples after post-column derivatization. The proposed method eliminated the use of immunoaffinity columns for clean-up in the determination of AFB1. The parameters affecting recovery and preconcentration such as type and volume of organic solvent, volume ratio of water/methanol, concentration of phase separator reagent and extraction time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, the calibration graph was linear in the concentration range of 0.01-1.0 ng/g with the detection limit of 0.003 ng/g. This method was successfully applied for the analysis of AFB1 in different cereal samples.

  18. Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Da-wei; Liu, Hong-yi; Zhang, Hai-bin; Cao, Ming-chang; Sun, Yong; Wu, Wen-da; Lu, Chang-hu

    2016-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve's core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields.

  19. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B1 pharmacokinetics in human volunteers: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubert, C; Mata, J; Bench, G; Dashwood, R; Pereira, C; Tracewell, W; Turteltaub, K; Williams, D; Bailey, G

    2009-04-20

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 14601-14606 (2001)), where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB{sub 1}. However, neither AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted a small unblinded crossover study to establish AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters in human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla co-treatment on those parameters. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an IRB-approved dose of 14C-AFB{sub 1} (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 ml water, followed by normal eating and drinking after hr 2. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hr, and {sup 14}C-AFB{sub 1} equivalents were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla, or CHL, respectively. All protocols were repeated 3 times for each of three volunteers. The study revealed rapid human AFB{sub 1} uptake (plasma ka 5.05 {+-} 1.10 hr-1, Tmax 1.0 hr) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hr) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB{sub 1} absorption and reduced Cmax and AUC's (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  20. Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity by Lactobacillus plantarum C88: A Potential Probiotic Strain Isolated from Chinese Traditional Fermented Food “Tofu”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Duan, Cuicui; Zhao, Yujuan; Gao, Lei; Niu, Chunhua; Xu, Jingbo; Li, Shengyu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from Chinese traditional fermented foods to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and its subsequent detoxification mechanism. Among all the investigated L. plantarum strains, L. plantarum C88 showed the strongest AFB1 binding capacity in vitro, and was orally administered to mice with liver oxidative damage induced by AFB1. In the therapy groups, the mice that received L. plantarum C88, especially heat-killed L. plantarum C88, after a single dose of AFB1 exposure, showed an increase in unabsorbed AFB1 in the feces. Moreover, the effects of L. plantarum C88 on the enzymes and non-enzymes antioxidant abilities in serum and liver, histological alterations of liver were assayed. The results indicated that compared to the control group, L. plantarum C88 alone administration induced significant increase of antioxidant capacity, but did not induce any significant changes in the histological picture. Compared to the mice that received AFB1 only, L. plantarum C88 treatment could weaken oxidative stress by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and elevating the expression of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A3 through Nuclear factor erythroid (derived factor 2) related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) 1A2 and CYP 3A4 expression was inhibited by L. plantarum C88, and urinary aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine (AFB-N7-guanine), a AFB1 metabolite formed by CYP 1A2 and CYP 3A4, was significantly reduced by the presence of viable L. plantarum C88. Meanwhile, the significant improvements were showed in histological pictures of the liver tissues in mice orally administered with viable L. plantarum C88. Collectively, L. plantarum C88 may alleviate AFB1 toxicity by increasing fecal AFB1 excretion, reversing deficits in antioxidant defense systems and regulating the metabolism of AFB1. PMID:28129335

  1. Reduction of Aflatoxin B1 Toxicity by Lactobacillus plantarum C88: A Potential Probiotic Strain Isolated from Chinese Traditional Fermented Food "Tofu".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Li; Duan, Cuicui; Zhao, Yujuan; Gao, Lei; Niu, Chunhua; Xu, Jingbo; Li, Shengyu

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the potential of Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from Chinese traditional fermented foods to reduce the toxicity of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and its subsequent detoxification mechanism. Among all the investigated L. plantarum strains, L. plantarum C88 showed the strongest AFB1 binding capacity in vitro, and was orally administered to mice with liver oxidative damage induced by AFB1. In the therapy groups, the mice that received L. plantarum C88, especially heat-killed L. plantarum C88, after a single dose of AFB1 exposure, showed an increase in unabsorbed AFB1 in the feces. Moreover, the effects of L. plantarum C88 on the enzymes and non-enzymes antioxidant abilities in serum and liver, histological alterations of liver were assayed. The results indicated that compared to the control group, L. plantarum C88 alone administration induced significant increase of antioxidant capacity, but did not induce any significant changes in the histological picture. Compared to the mice that received AFB1 only, L. plantarum C88 treatment could weaken oxidative stress by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes and elevating the expression of Glutathione S-transferase (GST) A3 through Nuclear factor erythroid (derived factor 2) related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathway. Furthermore, cytochrome P450 (CYP 450) 1A2 and CYP 3A4 expression was inhibited by L. plantarum C88, and urinary aflatoxin B1-N7-guanine (AFB-N7-guanine), a AFB1 metabolite formed by CYP 1A2 and CYP 3A4, was significantly reduced by the presence of viable L. plantarum C88. Meanwhile, the significant improvements were showed in histological pictures of the liver tissues in mice orally administered with viable L. plantarum C88. Collectively, L. plantarum C88 may alleviate AFB1 toxicity by increasing fecal AFB1 excretion, reversing deficits in antioxidant defense systems and regulating the metabolism of AFB1.

  2. Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2), ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in traditional Chinese medicines by LC-MS-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Runsheng; Xu, Hui; Wang, Wenli; Zhan, Ruoting; Chen, Weiwen

    2014-05-01

    In this paper we describe a rapid, simple, and costeffective liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometric (LC–MS–MS) method for simultaneous analysis of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2, ochratoxin A, and sterigmatocystin in 25 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). The method is based on single extraction with 84:16 (v/v) acetonitrile–water then analysis of the diluted crude extract without further clean-up. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column, with a mobile phase gradient prepared from aqueous 4 mmol L−1 ammonium acetate–0.1 % formic acid and methanol. Quantification of the analytes was by selective reaction monitoring (SRM) on a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer in positive-ionization mode. Special focus was on investigating and reducing matrix effects to improve accuracy. The established method was validated by determination of linearity (r>0.995), sensitivity (limits of quantification 1.6–25.0 ng L−1), apparent recovery (84.8–110.6 %), extraction recovery (83.6–106.1 %), and precision (relative standard deviation ≤9.9 %) for two representative TCMs, Semen Armeniacae Amarae and Radix Pseudostellariae. The applicability of the method to TCMs other than these was further investigated, and 23 other TCMs with acceptable matrix effects (80.2–118.6 %) were screened. The validated method was finally used to assess mycotoxin contamination of 244 samples of 25 TCMs collected from local hospitals and TCM pharmacies. Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 5.3 % of the samples. Sterigmatocystin, the most prevalent mycotoxin contaminant, was present in 26.2 % of the samples tested; this has not been reported previously. The results of this work imply greater attention should be devoted to evaluation of the potential hazard caused by sterigmatocystin in TCMs.

  3. Antioxidant activity and inhibition of aflatoxin B1-, nifuroxazide-, and sodium azide-induced mutagenicity by extracts from Rhamnus alaternus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, Rebai Ben; Sghaier, Mohamed Ben; Boubaker, Jihed; Bhouri, Wissem; Naffeti, Aicha; Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Kilani, Soumaya; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2008-07-10

    The effect of extracts obtained from Rhamnus alaternus L. leaves on genotoxicity and SOS response induced by aflatoxin B(1) (10 microg/assay) as well as nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay) was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e., the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The evaluation of the mutagenic and antimutagenic actions of the same extracts against the sodium azide (1.5 microg/plate)-induced mutagenicity was assayed using the Salmonella typhimurium assay system. The R. alaternus tested extracts exhibited no genotoxicity either with or without the external S9 activation mixture. However, all the extracts, particularly aqueous extract (A) and its chloroformic fraction (A(2)) significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by aflatoxin B(1) and nifuroxazide. Moreover, the different extracts showed no mutagenicity when tested with Salmonella typhimurium strains TA1535 and TA1538 either with or without the S9 mix. Aqueous extract as well as its A(2) fraction exhibited the highest level of protection towards the direct mutagen, sodium azide-induced response in TA1535 strain with mutagenicity inhibition percentages of 83.6% and 91.4%, respectively, at a dose of 250 microg/plate. The results obtained by the Ames test assay confirm those of SOS chromotest. These same active extracts exhibited high xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibiting with respective IC(50) values of 208 and 137 microg/ml, and superoxide anion-scavenging effects (IC(50) values of 132 and 117 microg/ml) when tested in the XOD enzymatic assay system. Our findings emphasize the potential of R. alaternus to prevent mutations and also its antioxidant effect.

  4. 黄曲霉毒素B1残留ELISA试剂盒的研制及应用%Study and Application on the ELISA Kit for Detecting Aflatoxins B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万宇平; 李勇; 王凤红; 韩京朋; 齐向武; 石丽丽

    2013-01-01

    本研究采用间接竞争酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测黄曲霉毒素B1(aflatoxins B1,AFB1)残留量.将AFB1与蛋白质载体牛血清蛋白(BSA)和卵清白蛋白(OVA)偶联制备了AFB1 BSA和AFB1-OVA偶联物,以AFB1-BSA作为免疫原制备特异性抗体,并成功建立了AFB1残留间接竞争ELISA检测方法及检测试剂盒.试剂盒IC50为128.8 ng/L,检测线性范围为50~1800 ng/L,检测限不超过100 ng/kg;食用油、花生和谷物的平均添加回收率大于71.3%,批内、批间变异系数均小于14.2%.因此,本试剂盒具有操作简便、检测快速、灵敏度高等特点,将在植物性食品中AFB1的残留检测中发挥重要作用.%This study was to aim to use ELISA method for rapid screening of the aflatoxins B1 (AFB1 ) residues. Coupled AFBi to bull serum albumin(BSA) and ovalbumin(OVA) to obtain AFB1-BSA and AFB1-OVA respectively. Specific antibody against AFB1 was prepared with AFB1-BSA and ELISA kit, and had been successfully developed for detecting AFBi residues. The IC50 of the kit was 128. 8 ng/L,linear detection range was 50~1800 ng/L with the lowest detection limit less than 100 ng/kg. The recovery of AFB1 in edible oil,peanut and cereal was more than 71. 3%. Coefficient of variation for repeatability tests were less than 14. 2%. Therefore,the kit was simple,fast,sensitive,and would be play an important role in AFB1 residues detection in the plant food.

  5. The bio-control of aflatoxin B1 contamination by fungi%真菌对黄曲霉毒素B1污染的防治研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹; 雷娇; 康敏; 宋宏新; 肖瑜; 石伟力

    2016-01-01

    黄曲霉毒素是由黄曲霉、寄生曲霉等曲霉属菌株所分泌的毒性次级代谢产物,其中,尤以黄曲霉毒素B1(Aflatoxin B1,AFB1)的毒性、致突变性、致癌性最强,而且其在农作物的栽培、收获、贮藏和加工过程中污染严重,受到全世界的广泛关注.因此,为保证食品的安全性,各国研究人员一直都在寻求安全、高效、经济、环保的方法来控制食品和饲料中AFB1的污染.近年来真菌在AFB1的生物防治方面已取得很大进展,并有部分菌株已应用于生产中.本研究就真菌对AFB1的防治机制及其前景展望进行综述.

  6. Protective effect of sodium selenite on genotoxicity to human whole blood cultures induced by aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatime Geyikoglu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of selenium and aflatoxin on human whole blood cultures (WBC in relation to induction of sister-chromatid exchange (SCE. Results showed that the frequency of SCEs in peripheral lymphocytes was significantly increased by the direct-acting mutagen AFB1 (at doses 5 and 10 µM except for 1µM compared with controls. When sodium selenite (Na2SeO3 was added at a molar ratio of 5x10-7 and 1x10-6, cells did not show significant increase in SCE frequency. Whereas, SCE rates induced by the various AFB1 concentrations could be significantly reduced by the presence of Na2SeO3 in a clear dose-related manner. These results indicated that selenite and AFB1 mutually antagonized their ability to cause DNA damage leading to the formation of SCEs. However, selenium didn't completely inhibit induction of SCEs by AFB1 compared with controls. AFB1 induced oxidative damage contributed to its genotoxicity in human WBC.

  7. Zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and aflatoxin B1 and their metabolites in pig urine as biomarkers for mycotoxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, N Q; Pettersson, H

    2009-06-01

    Methods to determine zearalenone (ZEA), deoxynivalenol (DON), aflatoxins (AF) and their metabolites in pig urine were developed as biomarkers for pig exposure to the mycotoxins in feed. Urine samples were incubated with β-glucuronidase to cleave conjugates, extracted and cleaned-up with solid phase and immunoaffinity columns, followed by HPLC with UV and fluorescence detection. Good recoveries (83-130%), low variation (2-10%), and low detection limits (0.3-9.9 ng/ml) were obtained. The results of controlled AFB1 feeding trials found no difference in urine concentrations of AFB1 or AFM1 from pigs fed three different levels (127, 227, 327 µg/kg) of AFB1 in diets. The excretion of AFB1 and AFM1 in urine was on average 30% of the oral dose and the ratio AFB1 to AFM1 was around 23%. The analysis of 15 Vietnamese pig urine samples indicate a relatively high exposure of ZEA, DON and AF, which were found as toxin or metabolites in 47, 73, and 80% of the urine samples, respectively.

  8. Aflatoxin biosynthesis: current frontiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roze, Ludmila V; Hong, Sung-Yong; Linz, John E

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxins are among the principal mycotoxins that contaminate economically important food and feed crops. Aflatoxin B1 is the most potent naturally occurring carcinogen known and is also an immunosuppressant. Occurrence of aflatoxins in crops has vast economic and human health impacts worldwide. Thus, the study of aflatoxin biosynthesis has become a focal point in attempts to reduce human exposure to aflatoxins. This review highlights recent advances in the field of aflatoxin biosynthesis and explores the functional connection between aflatoxin biosynthesis, endomembrane trafficking, and response to oxidative stress. Dissection of the regulatory mechanisms involves a complete comprehension of the aflatoxin biosynthetic process and the dynamic network of transcription factors that orchestrates coordinated expression of the target genes. Despite advancements in the field, development of a safe and effective multifaceted approach to solve the aflatoxin food contamination problem is still required.

  9. La exposición a la aflatoxina B1 en animales de laboratorio y su significado en la salud pública Exposure to aflatoxin B1 in experimental animals and its public health significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralinda Guzmán de Peña

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available En México se ha detectado la presencia AFB1 en humanos: como mutación en el gene p53 en hepatocarcinomas de pacientes de Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, en 1996 y como aducto AFB1-lisina en suero de pacientes del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social de Matamoros, Tamaulipas, México, en 2003. La aflatoxina B1 ha sido clasificada por la Agencia Internacional para Investigación en Cáncer como un agente carcinogénico para humanos. Este compuesto es un contaminante natural encontrado en alimentos y es sintetizado por Aspergillus flavus y/o A. parasiticus cuando estos hongos crecen en diversos productos alimenticios. Considerando el riesgo que este compuesto representa para los seres humanos, en el presente artículo se revisa y analiza, a nivel molecular, su capacidad carcinogénica, mutagénica y tóxica y se ilustra su relación causal con hepatocarcinomas en humanos. Se destaca que la capacidad carcinogénica y mutagénica están determinadas por la AFB1-formamidopirimidina, la cual causa errores en las transcripciones del ADN. Los resultados ilustran que la población mexicana está consumiendo alimentos con bajas concentraciones de AFB1. La toxicidad es consecuencia de la acción carcinogénica en el hígado.The presence of AFB1 in human beings was detected in Mexico in 1996 both as a mutation of the gene p53 in hepatocellular carcinomas in Monterrey, Mexico, and as the adduct AFB1-lysine in serum from patients in Matamoros, Mexico in 2003. Aflatoxin B1 has been classified as a carcinogenic agent to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. The compound is a natural contaminant produced by Aspergillus flavus and/or A. parasiticus when these fungi grow on different food products. At the molecular level, this review covers the carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties of these mycotoxins and their risk to humans. It also gives insight into the causal relationship between aflatoxins and hepatocellular carcinoma

  10. Subchronic mycotoxicoses in Wistar rats: assessment of the in vivo and in vitro genotoxicity induced by fumonisins and aflatoxin B(1), and oxidative stress biomarkers status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theumer, M G; Cánepa, M C; López, A G; Mary, V S; Dambolena, J S; Rubinstein, H R

    2010-01-31

    Some evidence suggests that fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)), a worldwide toxic contaminant of grains produced by Fusarium verticillioides, exhibits an oxidative stress mediated genotoxicity. We studied the DNA damage (by the alkaline comet and the micronucleus tests) and biomarkers of cellular oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, MDA; catalase, CAT; and superoxide dismutase, SOD) in spleen mononuclear cells of male Wistar rats subchronically (90 days) fed on a control experimental diet (CED) or poisoned with experimental diets contaminated with a culture material containing 100 ppm of FB(1) (FED), with 40 ppb of aflatoxin B(1) (a common toxic co-contaminant in cereals, AFB(1)ED), and with a mixture of both toxins (MED). The DNA damage was found in 13.7%, 81.7%, 98.0% and 99.3% (comet assay) and in 2.8%, 7.0%, 10.8% and 8.8% (micronucleus technique) in groups CED, FED, AFB(1)ED and MED, respectively. The MDA levels as well as the CAT and SOD activities were increased in all the poisoned animals. A similar behavior was observed in cells exposed in vitro to the toxins. These data support the hypothesis of an oxidative stress mediated genotoxicity induced by FB(1). Furthermore, the extent of DNA damage assessed by the comet assay suggests a possible protective effect of the fumonisins-AFB(1) mixtures in vitro against the genotoxicity induced individually by the toxins.

  11. Glutathione-S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1-1) acts as mediator of signaling pathways involved in aflatoxin B1-induced apoptosis-autophagy crosstalk in macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Souren; Jakhar, Rekha; Bhardwaj, Monika; Kang, Sun Chul

    2015-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic aflatoxin species and has been shown to be associated with specific as well as non-specific immune responses. In the present study, using murine macrophage Raw 264.7 cells as a model, we report that short exposure (6h) to AFB1 caused an increase in the cellular calcium pool in mitochondria, which in turn elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative stress and led to loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and ultimately c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNK)-mediated caspase-dependent cell death. On the contrary, longer exposure (12h) to AFB1 reduced JNK phosphorylation and cell death in macrophages. Measurement of autophagic flux demonstrated that autophagy induction through the canonical pathway was responsible for suppressing AFB1-induced apoptosis after 12h. As a detailed molecular mechanism, we found that the unfolded protein response (UPR) machinery was active at 12h post-exposure to AFB1 and induced cytoprotective autophagy as confirmed by determination of major autophagic markers. Inhibition of autophagy by Beclin-1 siRNA also resulted in JNK-mediated cell death. We further established that glutathione S transferase omega1-1 (GSTO1-1), a specific class of GST, was the responsible factor between apoptosis and autophagy crosstalk. Targeting of GSTO1-1 increased JNK-mediated apoptosis by 2-fold compared to the control, whereas autophagy rate was reduced. Thus, increased expression of GSTO1-1 was associated with increased protein glutathionylation, an important protein modification in response to cellular redox status.

  12. Biodegradation of aflatoxin B1 in contaminated rice straw by Pleurotus ostreatus MTCC 142 and Pleurotus ostreatus GHBBF10 in the presence of metal salts and surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Arijit; Bhattacharya, Sourav; Palaniswamy, Muthusamy; Angayarkanni, Jayaraman

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic fungal metabolite having carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic effects on human and animal health. Accidental feeding of aflatoxin-contaminated rice straw may be detrimental for ruminant livestock and can lead to transmission of this toxin or its metabolites into the milk of dairy cattle. White-rot basidiomycetous fungus Pleurotus ostreatus produces ligninolytic enzymes like laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP). These extracellular enzymes have been reported to degrade many environmentally hazardous compounds. The present study examines the ability of P. ostreatus strains to degrade AFB1 in rice straw in the presence of metal salts and surfactants. Laccase and MnP activities were determined spectrophotometrically. The efficiency of AFB1 degradation was evaluated by high performance liquid chromatography. Highest degradation was recorded for both P. ostreatus MTCC 142 (89.14 %) and P. ostreatus GHBBF10 (91.76 %) at 0.5 µg mL(-1) initial concentration of AFB1. Enhanced degradation was noted for P. ostreatus MTCC 142 in the presence of Cu(2+) and Triton X-100, at toxin concentration of 5 µg mL(-1). P. ostreatus GHBBF10 showed highest degradation in the presence of Zn(2+) and Tween 80. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis revealed the formation of hydrated, decarbonylated and O-dealkylated products. The present findings suggested that supplementation of AFB1-contaminated rice straw by certain metal salts and surfactants can improve the enzymatic degradation of this mycotoxin by P. ostreatus strains.

  13. HPLC法测定150种中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1的含量%Determination of Aflatoxin G2,G1,B2 and B1 in 150 Chinese Herbs by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭巧技; 高咏莉; 王淑红

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish an HPLC method for the determination of aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 and B1 in 150 Chinese herbs. Method: After extracted by 70% methanol and purified by immunoafinity column, the aflatoxins were determined by fluorescence detection. Result: The calibration curves for aflatoxin G2 and B2 were linear within the range of 0. 15-6.00 ng · ml-1 , and those for aflatoxin G1 and B1 were linear within the range of 0. 5-20.00 ng · ml-1 . The recoveries were within the range of 85. 6% -92. 0% . Conclusion : The method is reliable, accurate and specific, and can be used in the determination of aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 and B1.%目的:建立了HPLC法测定150种中药材中的黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1含量.方法:样品经70% 甲醇提取、免疫亲和色谱柱净化后,用HPLC-柱后衍生-荧光检测器测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2在0.15~6.00 ng·ml-1范围内,黄曲霉毒素G1、B1在0.5~20.00 ng·ml-1范围内线性关系良好.回收率为85.6%~92.0%.结论:本法操作简便,结果准确、重复性好,可用于中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1的测定.

  14. Identification of early target genes of aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes, inter-individual variability and comparison with other genotoxic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Josse, Rozenn; Dumont, Julie; Fautrel, Alain; Robin, Marie-Anne; Guillouzo, André, E-mail: andre.guillouzo@univ-rennes1.fr

    2012-01-15

    Gene expression profiling has recently emerged as a promising approach to identify early target genes and discriminate genotoxic carcinogens from non-genotoxic carcinogens and non-carcinogens. However, early gene changes induced by genotoxic compounds in human liver remain largely unknown. Primary human hepatocytes and differentiated HepaRG cells were exposed to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) that induces DNA damage following enzyme-mediated bioactivation. Gene expression profile changes induced by a 24 h exposure of these hepatocyte models to 0.05 and 0.25 μM AFB1 were analyzed by using oligonucleotide pangenomic microarrays. The main altered signaling pathway was the p53 pathway and related functions such as cell cycle, apoptosis and DNA repair. Direct involvement of the p53 protein in response to AFB1 was verified by using siRNA directed against p53. Among the 83 well-annotated genes commonly modulated in two pools of three human hepatocyte populations and HepaRG cells, several genes were identified as altered by AFB1 for the first time. In addition, a subset of 10 AFB1-altered genes, selected upon basis of their function or tumor suppressor role, was tested in four human hepatocyte populations and in response to other chemicals. Although they exhibited large variable inter-donor fold-changes, several of these genes, particularly FHIT, BCAS3 and SMYD3, were found to be altered by various direct and other indirect genotoxic compounds and unaffected by non-genotoxic compounds. Overall, this comprehensive analysis of early gene expression changes induced by AFB1 in human hepatocytes identified a gene subset that included several genes representing potential biomarkers of genotoxic compounds. -- Highlights: ► Gene expression profile changes induced by aflatoxin B1 in human hepatocytes. ► AFB1 modulates various genes including tumor suppressor genes and proto-oncogenes. ► Important inter-individual variations in the response to AFB1. ► Some genes also altered by other

  15. Cytochrome P450 2A13 enhances the sensitivity of human bronchial epithelial cells to aflatoxin B1-induced DNA damage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Xuejiao [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Jiaojiang District Center for Disease Control and Prevention, 518 Jingdong Rd., Taizhou 318000 (China); Zhang, Zhan; Wang, Xichen; Wang, Yun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Lu, Huiyuan [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China); Wang, Shou-Lin, E-mail: wangshl@njmu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Modern Toxicology of Ministry of Education, School of Public Health, Nanjing Medical University, 818 East Tiangyuan Rd., Nanjing 211166 (China)

    2013-07-15

    Cytochrome P450 2A13 (CYP2A13) mainly expresses in human respiratory system and mediates the metabolic activation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Our previous study suggested that CYP2A13 could increase the cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of AFB1 in immortalized human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). However, the role of CYP2A13 in AFB1-induced DNA damage is unclear. Using BEAS-2B cells that stably express CYP2A13 (B-2A13), CYP1A2 (B-1A2), and CYP2A6 (B-2A6), we compared their effects in AFB1-induced DNA adducts, DNA damage, and cell cycle changes. BEAS-2B cells that were transfected with vector (B-vector) were used as a control. The results showed that AFB1 (5–80 nM) dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells. AFB1 at 10 and 80 nM significantly augmented this effect in B-2A13 and B-1A2 cells, respectively. B-2A6 cells showed no obvious DNA damage, similar to B-vector cells and the vehicle control. Similarly, compared with B-vector, B-1A2 or B-2A6 cells, B-2A13 cells showed more sensitivity in AFB1-induced γH2AX expression, DNA adduct 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine formation, and S-phase cell-cycle arrest. Furthermore, AFB1 activated the proteins related to DNA damage responses, such as ATM, ATR, Chk2, p53, BRCA1, and H2AX, rather than the proteins related to DNA repair. These effects could be almost completely inhibited by 100 μM nicotine (a substrate of CYP2A13) or 1 μM 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP; an inhibitor of CYP enzyme). Collectively, these findings suggest that CYP2A13 plays an important role in low-concentration AFB1-induced DNA damage, possibly linking environmental airborne AFB1 to genetic injury in human respiratory system. - Highlights: • CYP2A13 plays a critical role in low concentration of AFB1-induced DNA damage. • B-2A13 cells were more sensitive to AFB1 than B-1A2 cells and B-2A6 cells. • AFB1 dose- and time-dependently induced DNA damage in B-2A13 cells • AFB1-induced DNA adducts and damage can be inhibited by nicotine and 8

  16. HPLC based method for the measurement of the reduction of aflatoxin B1 by bacterial cultures isolated from different African foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färber, P; Brost, I; Adam, R; Holzapfel, W

    2000-06-01

    The consumption of fermented foods contaminated with aflatoxin B1 is linked to aflatoxicosis. Aflatoxicosis is a serious problem in developing countries with environmental conditions appropriate for the biosynthesis of AFB1 byAspergillus flavus andAspergillus parasiticus. In Africa, especially in Ghana and Nigeria, there is a very high risk of liver cancer which is caused by the consumption of AFB1-intoxicated, traditionally fermented maize and sorghum products. It is suggested that one way to diminish this health risk might be the reduction of the AFB1 concentration in foods by bacteria. Especially bacteria used for food fermentation processes are of great importance, with a special emphasis on lactic acid bacteria which are involved in traditionally fermented African foods based on maize and sorghum.Most publications dealing with aflatoxin degradation by microorganisms describe a phosphate buffer test system for the performance of degradation experiments. In contrast to that, a test system based on physiological active bacterial and yeast cells has been developed, to assess food fermentation organisms for their ability to reduce the AFB1 concentration in vitro. The aflatoxin B1 concentration in test samples was quatitatively determined by HPLC.The assessment of lactic acid bacteria originating from different German and other European culture collections only showed a very slight reduction of the AFB1 concentration from 3% to 12%. Screening experiments in which other bacterial genera and lactic acid bacteria, isolated from different African foods have been assessed, in most cases showed the same results. However, some bacterial strains, e.g. strains of the genusBacillus derived from European culture collections and strains of the genusLactobacillus isolated from African foods, caused a release of AFB1 which was chemically bound before to components of the test medium and which therefore could not be extracted with chloroform.A process quite similar to that may

  17. Quantitative analysis of Aflatoxin B1 using the microsphere array technology%霉毒素B1液相芯片定量检测方法的探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋慧君; 马惠蕊; 裴轶君; 刘淑艳; 曹远银

    2011-01-01

    采用间接竞争法的原理和液相芯片技术平台,选用黄曲霉毒素B1( AFB1)多克隆抗体对AFB1的定量检测方法进行了探索.通过优化偶联抗原浓度,确定AFB1多抗临界饱和浓度和抗原抗体最佳孵育时间,建立了AFB1液相芯片定量检测方法.以通用的IC5o值作为灵敏度衡量标准,其灵敏度为1.33 ng/mL,以IC1o作为最低检测限衡量标准,其最低检测限为0.15 ng/mL,线性方程为y=0.000 6x +0.000 8.应用该方法对脱脂牛奶和全脂牛奶中的AFB1进行添加回收率检测,在2.0~16.0 ng/mL添加水平下,平均回收率均大于75%,相对标准偏差介于2.80% ~4.69%(n=7)之间.经过实际样品的检测,证明该方法灵敏、稳定、快速、简便,适用于大量样本的检测.%The quantitative detection of Aflatoxin Bl (AFB1) was investigated on the microsphere array platform and indirect competition by using the Anti-Aflatoxin Bl. Through optimizing the concentration and saturated concentration of AFB1-BSA and Anti-Aflatoxin Bl as well as incubation time of antigen and antibody, the method of quantitative detection of AFB1 was established. As referring to the detection sensitivity standard IC50, results showed that the detection sensitivity was 1.33 ng/mL. Meanwhile,as referring to the limit of detection standard IC]0 ,the detection limition was 0.15 ng/mL. The linear equation was v =0. 000 6x + 0. 000 8. By applying this original research to test the imitating contaminated skim and full milk,the recovery rate of the two kinds of milk was all greater than 75% under the AFB1 added level of 2. 0 - 16. 0 ng/mL, and the relative standard deviation was between 2. 80% -4. 69% (n =7). Overall, the quantitative analysis of AFB1 using the microsphere arraytechnology was sensitive,stable,rapid and simple. The method was applicable to mass sample testing.

  18. Quality control charts used in the determination of aflatoxin B1 in rice by HPLC with post-column derivatization%HPLC柱后衍生法测定黄曲霉毒素 B1质量控制图的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 周艳华; 龙凌云; 潘小红

    2016-01-01

    研究高效液相色谱柱后衍生法测定黄曲霉毒素B1的质量控制图的应用。通过加标样品的测试,用数理统计的方法求出相关技术指标,作出黄曲霉毒素B1质量控制图,得出A FB1的控制限为73.78%~90.24%,警戒线为76.52%~87.50%。试验结果表明,质量控制图能直观有效地控制高效液相色谱柱后衍生法测定黄曲霉毒素B1的分析质量,确保检测结果准确可靠。%ABSTRACT:The quality control methods in the determination of aflatoxin B1 by HPLC with post‐column derivatization were studied .The recovery of standard addition were tested and the relevant technical indexes were worked out using mathematical statistics to prepare the quality control charts of the determination of aflatoxin B1 .The control limit of aflatoxin B1 was 73 .78% ~90 .24% and the warning limit was 76 .52% ~87 .50% .The quality control charts could directly and effectively contol the quality of the determination of aflatoxin B1 in rice and ensure accurate and reliable results .

  19. 小型花生榨油厂对黄曲霉毒素B_1防控与技改措施%The Prevention and Technical Innovation Measures to the Aflatoxin B_1 in Small Peanut Oil Extraction Factory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何春林; 张庆珍

    2012-01-01

    The aflatoxin was produced by Aspergillus flavus.The peanuts have a strong carcinogenic effect to humans and animals after being contaminated.The current pollution of aflatoxin B1 in peanut oil were described,the reasons to,prevention and innovation measures were elaborated,the focus on the small peanut oil extraction factory in raw materials and processing technology control was discussed,the aim was to play a guidance role in the prevention to the aflatoxin B1 and keep the amount of aflatoxin B1 in a security level.%花生被黄曲霉菌污染后产生的黄曲霉毒素对人和动物有很强的致癌作用。叙述了目前花生油中黄曲霉毒素B1的污染状况,对引起黄曲霉毒素B1产生的原因、防控方法和技改措施等方面进行了阐述,重点对小型花生榨油厂在原料控制和加工过程中技术控制上进行探讨,旨在对小型花生榨油厂在黄曲霉毒素B1的防控上起到指导作用,将黄曲霉毒素B1量控制在安全水平。

  20. Hetero-enzyme-based two-round signal amplification strategy for trace detection of aflatoxin B1 using an electrochemical aptasensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wanli; Teng, Jun; Cheng, Lin; Ye, Yingwang; Pan, Daodong; Wu, Jingjing; Xue, Feng; Liu, Guodong; Chen, Wei

    2016-06-15

    An electrochemical aptasensor for trace detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) was developed by using an aptamer as the recognition unit while adopting the telomerase and EXO III based two-round signal amplification strategy as the signal enhancement units. The telomerase amplification was used to elongate the ssDNA probes on the surface of gold nanoparticles, by which the signal response range of the signal-off model electrochemical aptasensor could be correspondingly enlarged. Then, the EXO III amplification was used to hydrolyze the 3'-end of the dsDNA after the recognition of target AFB1, which caused the release of bounded AFB1 into the sensing system, where it participated in the next recognition-sensing cycle. With this two-round signal amplified electrochemical aptasensor, target AFB1 was successfully measured at trace concentrations with excellent detection limit of 0.6*10(-4)ppt and satisfied specificity due to the excellent affinity of the aptamer against AFB1. Based on this designed two-round signal amplification strategy, both the sensing range and detection limit were greatly improved. This proposed ultrasensitive electrochemical aptasensor method was also validated by comparison with the classic instrumental methods. Importantly, this hetero-enzyme based two-round signal amplified electrochemical aptasensor offers a great promising protocol for ultrasensitive detection of AFB1 and other mycotoxins by replacing the core recognition sequence of the aptamer.

  1. Survey of Deoxynivalenol and Aflatoxin B1 in Instant Noodles and Bread Consumed in Thailand by Using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pralatnet, Sasithorn; Poapolathep, Saranya; Giorgi, Mario; Imsilp, Kanjana; Kumagai, Susumu; Poapolathep, Amnart

    2016-07-01

    One hundred wheat product samples (50 instant noodle samples and 50 bread samples) were collected from supermarkets in Bangkok, Thailand. Deoxynivalenol (DON) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination in these products was analyzed using a validated liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The limit of quantification values of DON and AFB1 in the instant noodles and bread were 2 and 1 ng g(-1), respectively. The survey found that DON was quantifiable in 40% of collected samples, in 2% of noodles (0.089 μg g(-1)), and in 78% of breads (0.004 to 0.331 μg g(-1)). AFB1 was below the limit of quantification of the method in all of the tested samples. The results suggest that the risk of DON exposure via noodles and breads is very low in urban areas of Thailand. No risk can be attributable to AFB1 exposure in the same food matrices, but further studies with a larger sample size are needed to confirm these data.

  2. Inhibition of the Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination on Pistachio Nut by Fengycin and Surfactin-Producing Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzaneh, Mohsen; Shi, Zhi-Qi; Ahmadzadeh, Masoud; Hu, Liang-Bin; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the treatment of pistachio nuts by Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1, a promising isolate to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), caused to reduce the growth of Aspergillus flavus R5 and AFB1 content on pistachio nuts. Fluorescence probes revealed that the cell free supernatant fluid from UTBSP1 affects spore viability considerably. Using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method, 10 fractions were separated and collected from methanol extract of cell free supernatant fluid. Two fractions showed inhibition zones against A. flavus. Mass spectrometric analysis of the both antifungal fractions revealed a high similarity between these anti-A. flavus compounds and cyclic-lipopeptides of surfactin, and fengycin families. Coproduction of surfactin and fengycin acted in a synergistic manner and consequently caused a strong antifungal activity against A. flavus R5. There was a positive significant correlation between the reduction of A. flavus growth and the reduction of AFB1 contamination on pistachio nut by UTBSP1. The results indicated that fengycin and surfactin-producing B. subtilis UTBSP1 can potentially reduce A. flavus growth and AFB1 content in pistachio nut. PMID:27298596

  3. Aflatoxin B1 affects apoptosis and expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3 in thymus and bursa of fabricius in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Chen, Kejie; Chen, Jin; Fang, Jing; Cui, Hengmin; Zuo, Zhicai; Deng, Junliang; Chen, Zhengli; Geng, Yi; Lai, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is known as a mycotoxin that develops various health problems of animals, the effects of AFB1 on thymus and bursa of Fabricius in chickens are not clear. The objective of this study was to investigate the apoptosis of thymus and bursa of Fabricius in broilers fed with AFB1 . Two hundred Avian broilers were randomly divided into four groups of 50 each, namely control group and three AFB1 groups fed with 0.15 mg, 0.3 mg, and 0.6 mg AFB1 /kg diet, respectively. In this study, flow cytometer and immunohistochemical approaches were used to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells and the expression of Bax, Bcl-2, and Caspase-3. The results showed that consumption of AFB1 diets results in increased percentage of apoptotic cells and increased expression of Caspase-3 in both thymus and bursa of Fabricius. The expression of Bax was increased and the expression of Bcl-2 was decreased in the thymus, but no significant changes in Bax and Bcl-2 expression were observed in the bursa of Fabricius when broilers fed with AFB1 . These findings suggest that adverse effects of AFB1 on thymus and bursa of Fabricius in broilers were confirmed by increased apoptotic cells and abnormal expression of Caspase-3. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1113-1120, 2016.

  4. Disposable competitive-type immunoassay for determination of aflatoxin B1 via detection of copper ions released from Cu-apatite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Yihe; Chu, Yanguang; Ma, Hongmin; Li, Yan; Wu, Dan; Du, Bin; Wei, Qin

    2016-01-15

    A disposable electrochemical immunosensor was developed for detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) based on stripping voltammetric detection of copper ions released from Cu-apatite. AFB1 antibody (Ab) was firstly fixed on the gold nanoparticle (Au NPs) modified screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCE). AFB1-bovine serum albumin (AFB1-BSA) conjugate was labeled with Cu-apatite, and then competed with AFB1 for binding to the Ab. Copper ions were released from Cu-apatite through acidolysis and stripping voltammetry signal of the copper ions was used for the detection. The Cu-apatite increased the amount of loaded copper ions, and the anodic stripping strategy performed in the micro electrolytic cell of the SPCE simplified the detection procedure and further amplified the electrochemical signal. This immunosensor could detect AFB1 over a wide concentration range from 0.001 to 100ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.2pg mL(-1). The low cost, high sensitive, rapid and accurate method may find widely potential application in the detection of other toxic or harmful substances.

  5. Estimated exposure to zearalenone, ochratoxin A and aflatoxin B1 through the consume of bakery products and pasta considering effects of food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bol, Emilli Keller; Araujo, Letícia; Veras, Flávio Fonseca; Welke, Juliane Elisa

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this research was to estimate the processing effect on mycotoxins levels and the exposure to zearalenone (ZEA), ochratoxin (OTA) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) through the consumption of pasta and bakery products. The higher reduction percentage of mycotoxins was observed in cake production (95, 90 and 70% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). Bread and biscuit showed similar reduction in mycotoxins levels (89 and 90% for ZEA; 80 and 85% for OTA; 36 and 40% for AFB1, respectively). The lower reduction in the levels of mycotoxins has been observed for pasta (75, 65 and 10% for ZEA, OTA and AFB1, respectively). The consumption of these products could represent 12.6% of the maximum tolerable daily intake of ZEA and 30.5% of the tolerable weekly intake of OTA. The margin of exposure value related to the exposure to AFB1 was 24.6. The exposure to ZEA and OTA through the consumption of bakery products and pasta would not represent risk for consumer health, (although conjugated forms were not determined). However, the exposure to AFB1 represents a risk (even without considering the AFB1-conjugated forms).

  6. Impact of maximum levels in European legislation on exposure of mycotoxins in dried products: case of aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in nuts and dried fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Perre, Evelien; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lachat, Carl; El Tahan, Fouad; De Meulenaer, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In this study the impact of setting European criteria on exposure to aflatoxin B1 via nuts and figs and ochratoxin A via dried fruits is evaluated for the Belgian population, as an example of the European population. Two different scenarios were evaluated. In scenario 1 all collected literature data are considered, assuming that there is no border control nor legal limits in Europe. In the second scenario, contamination levels above the maximum limits are excluded. The results from scenario 1 demonstrated that if no regulation is in place, AFB1 and OTA concentrations reported in the analysed food can have potential health risk to the population. The estimated exposure of OTA for scenario 2 is below the TDI of 5 ng/kg BW⋅day, indicating that OTA concentrations accepted by EU legislation pose a low risk to the Belgian population. For AFB1, the MOE values of scenario 2 are above 10,000 and can be considered to be of low health concern, based on BDML10 for humans, except for figs (MOE = 5782). This means that for all matrices, with exception of figs, the maximum values of AFB1 in the European legislation are sufficient to be of a low health concern for consumers.

  7. Inhibition of the Aspergillus flavus Growth and Aflatoxin B1 Contamination on Pistachio Nut by Fengycin and Surfactin-Producing Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Farzaneh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the treatment of pistachio nuts by Bacillus subtilis UTBSP1, a promising isolate to degrade aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, caused to reduce the growth of Aspergillus flavus R5 and AFB1 content on pistachio nuts. Fluorescence probes revealed that the cell free supernatant fluid from UTBSP1 affects spore viability considerably. Using high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method, 10 fractions were separated and collected from methanol extract of cell free supernatant fluid. Two fractions showed inhibition zones against A. flavus. Mass spectrometric analysis of the both antifungal fractions revealed a high similarity between these anti-A. flavus compounds and cyclic-lipopeptides of surfactin, and fengycin families. Coproduction of surfactin and fengycin acted in a synergistic manner and consequently caused a strong antifungal activity against A. flavus R5. There was a positive significant correlation between the reduction of A. flavus growth and the reduction of AFB1 contamination on pistachio nut by UTBSP1. The results indicated that fengycin and surfactin-producing B. subtilis UTBSP1 can potentially reduce A. flavus growth and AFB1 content in pistachio nut.

  8. Indole-3-carbinol induces a rat liver glutathione transferase subunit (Yc2) with high activity toward aflatoxin B1 exo-epoxide. Association with reduced levels of hepatic aflatoxin-DNA adducts in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stresser, D M; Williams, D E; McLellan, L I; Harris, T M; Bailey, G S

    1994-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a metabolite of the grain mold Aspergillus flavus, is a potent hepatocarcinogen and widespread contaminant of human food supplies. AFB1-induced tumors or preneoplastic lesions in experimental animals can be inhibited by cotreatment with several compounds, including indole-3-carbinol (I3C), a component of cruciferous vegetables, and the well-known Ah receptor agonist beta-naphthoflavone (BNF). This study examines the influence of these two agents on the AFB1-glutathione detoxication pathway and AFB1-DNA adduction in rat liver. After 7 days of feeding approximately equally inhibitory doses of I3C (0.2%) or BNF (0.04%) alone or in combination, male Fischer 344 rats were administered [3H]AFB1 (0.5 mg/kg, 480 microCi/kg) intraperitoneally and killed 2 hr later. All three experimental diets inhibited in vivo AFB1-DNA adduction (BNF, 46%; I3C, 68%; combined, 51%). Based on Western blots using antibodies specific for the glutathione S-transferase (GST), subunit Yc2 (subunit 10) appeared to be substantially elevated by the diets containing I3C (I3C diet, 4.0-fold increase in band density; combined diet, 2.8-fold). The BNF diet appeared to elevate Yc2 to a lesser extent (2.2-fold increase in band density).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Isolation, screening and identifi cation of Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbial candidates for aflatoxin B1 biodegradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rosario; Galarza-Seeber; Juan; David; Latorre; Xochitl; Hernandez-Velasco; Amanda; Drake; Wolfenden; Lisa; Renee; Bielke; Anita; Menconi; Billy; Marshall; Hargis; Guillermo; Tellez

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of Bacillus spp. as direct-fed microbials(DFM) to biodegrade al atoxin B1(AFB1) by using an in vitro digestive model simulating in vivo conditions.Methods: Sixty-nine Bacillus isolates were obtained from intestines, and soil samples were screened by using a selective media method against 0.25 and 1.00 μg/m L of AFB1 in modii ed Czapek-Dox medium. Plates were incubated at 37 °C and observed every two days for two weeks. Physiological properties of the three Bacillus spp. candidates were characterized biochemically and by 16 S r RNA sequence analyzes for identii cation. Tolerance to acidic p H, osmotic concentrations of Na Cl, bile salts were tested, and antimicrobial sensitivity proi les were also determined. Bacillus candidates were individually sporulated by using a solid fermentation method and combined. Spores were incorporated into 1 of 3 experimental feed groups: 1) Negative control group, with unmedicated starter broiler feed without AFB1; 2) Positive control group, with negative control feed contaminated with 0.01% AFB1; 3) DFM treated group, with positive control feed supplemented with 109 spores/g. After digestion time(3:15 h), supernatants and digesta were collected for high-performance liquid chromatography l uorescence detection analysis by triplicate.Results: Three out of those sixty-nine DFM candidates showed ability to biodegrade AFB1 in vitro based on growth as well as reduction of l uorescence and area of clearance around each colony in modii ed Czapek-Dox medium which was clearly visible under day light after 48 h of evaluation. Analysis of 16S-DNA identii ed the strains as Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus subtilis. The three Bacillus strains were tolerant to acidic conditions(p H 2.0), tolerant to a high osmotic pressure(Na Cl at 6.5%), and were able to tolerate 0.037% bile salts after 24 h of incubation. No signii cant dif erences(P > 0.05) were observed in the concentrations of

  10. HPLC柱后衍生同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的探讨%Simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 by HPLC with postcolumn derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王新丽; 张玉黔

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To develop a high performance liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization method for simultaneous determination of Aflatoxins B1 ,B2,G1 ,G2. Methods:The extracted samples were separated by HPLC column, conducted reaction with iodine solution in postcolumn derivatization device, finally detected by fluorescence detector. Results; The method has a limit of detection of 0.03 |xg/kg for aflatoxins B1 ,G2, 0.01 u,g/kg for aflatoxin B2 and 0.05 ug/kg for aflatoxin G,. Conclusion:This method was sensitive, accurate, simple and specific, which can be applied for the determination of aflatoxins B,, B2,G1 ,G2.%目的:建立黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的高效液相色谱柱后衍生检测方法.方法:样品通过高效液相色谱柱分离后,进入柱后衍生装置与碘溶液发生反应,最后进入荧光检测器进行检测.结果:该方法的检出限AFB1、AFG2为0.03 μg/kg、AFB2为0.01 μg/kg、AFG1为0.05 μg/kg.结论:方法灵敏度高,准确度好,操作简单,实用性强,可用于黄曲霉毒素的检测.

  11. Binding Assay for Aflatoxin B_1 by 3 Absorbents%3种吸附剂对黄曲霉毒素B_1吸附能力的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟娟; 索德成; 苏晓鸥

    2009-01-01

    [目的]体外试验评价3种吸附剂(吸附剂A:主成分为酵母细胞壁提取物;吸附剂B:主成分为水合铝硅酸盐;吸附剂C为复合物,主成分是酵母细胞壁及水合铝硅酸盐)对黄曲霉毒素B_1(AFB_1)的吸附效果,并通过吸附剂对摄入AFB_1肉仔鸡生长性能及血清蛋白水平的影响验证体外试验结果.[方法](1)pH为2.0、6.0,8.0的磷酸盐缓冲溶液(PBS溶液)、人工胃液和人工肠液环境下吸附剂对AFB_1的吸附能力;(2)吸附剂对AFB_1的结合速率;(3)吸附剂结合AFB_1形成的复合体的稳定性;(4)240只1日龄雄性从肉仔鸡,随机分为8个处理,比较吸附剂对摄入AFB_1肉仔鸡生长性能及血清蛋白水平的影响.[结果](1)5种酸碱条件下吸附剂结合AFB_1的能力大小顺序为B>C>A;(2)吸附剂B在10 min内对AFB_1吸附率达到97.69%,且60 min内一直处在96.03%以上,而吸附剂A、C在60 min内对AFB_1的吸附能力不稳定;(3)与吸附剂A、C相比较,体外条件下吸附剂B与AFB_1形成的复合体解吸附率最低;(4)与基础组比较,AFB_1组肉仔鸡采食量、体重增加显著下降,料重比显著增加(P<0.05),血清总蛋白(TP)、白蛋白(ALB)、球蛋白(GLOB)水平均显著下降(P<0.05).3种吸附剂均能提高肉仔鸡生长性能,吸附剂B能显著改善摄入AFB_1污染日粮(98.98 μg·kg~(-1))的肉仔鸡血清蛋白水平的降低,添加吸附剂A或C效果不显著.[结论] 3种吸附剂对AFB_1均有一定的吸附作用,吸附剂B的作用效果优于吸附剂A和吸附剂C.结果提示,将吸附剂B应用于被AFB_1污染的家禽饲料中,与其它霉菌毒素管理措施相结合,能降低AFB_1对肉仔鸡的危害.%[Objective] In this study, the in vitro sorption of aflatoxin B_1(AFB_1) onto different absorbents was characterized, and the in vitro assay result was verified by comparing growth performance and serum protein levels of broilers exposed to aflatoxin-contamination feed. Three absorbents were product A

  12. Effect of Different Levels of Silymarin (Silybum marianum on Growth Rate, Carcass Variables and Liver Morphology of Broiler Chickens Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1

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    Fani Makki O

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the ability of Silybum marianum seeds (SMS on performance, carcass variables, and liver morphology of the broiler chickens contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. A total of 216 broiler chicks (Ross 308 were used. Birds were randomly assigned to nine treatment groups, with four replicates and six birds in each replicate. Chickens were reared on litter from 1 to 35 days of age. Treatments were (AFB1 in three levels (Zero, 250 and 500 ppb and SMS in three levels (Zero, 0.5 and 1.0 percent using factorial experiment based on completely randomized design. Feed intake at the end of the three weeks did not significantly change in comparison with the control group. With the increase in the level of (AFB1 in the diet, feed intake and body weight gain were decreased compared with the control group in week 4. Feed conversion ratio was not influenced by the treatments. In diets containing AFB1, breast muscle, carcass ratio, abdominal fat and bursal gland weight were significantly decreased (P1 alone did not affect thigh, back, neck, wings, heart, legs and spleen weights. Increasing the level of SMS in the diet alone or in combination with AFB1 resulted in significant changes in the weights of carcass and internal organs. Liver of birds fed diets containing AFB1 showed abnormal signs including enlargement, yellowish, friable and rounded shape. Liver of other treatments did not show any abnormal signs. In conclusion, these findings suggest that silymarin might be used in chickens to prevent the effects of AFB1 in contaminated feed.

  13. Use of a rainbow trout oligonucleotide microarray to determine transcriptional patterns in aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma compared to adjacent liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, Susan C; Gerwick, Lena G; Hendricks, Jerry D; Rosato, Caprice S; Corley-Smith, Graham; Givan, Scott A; Bailey, George S; Bayne, Christopher J; Williams, David E

    2005-12-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, and its occurrence is associated with a number of environmental factors including ingestion of the dietary contaminant aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Research over the last 40 years has revealed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to be an excellent research model for study of AFB(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis; however, little is known about changes at the molecular level in trout tumors. We have developed a rainbow trout oligonucleotide array containing 1672 elements representing over 1400 genes of known or probable relevance to toxicology, comparative immunology, carcinogenesis, endocrinology, and stress physiology. In this study, we applied microarray technology to examine gene expression of AFB(1)-induced HCC in the rainbow trout tumor model. Carcinogenesis was initiated in trout embryos with 50 ppb AFB(1), and after 13 months control livers, tumors, and tumor-adjacent liver tissues were isolated from juvenile fish. Global gene expression was determined in histologically confirmed HCCs compared to noncancerous adjacent tissue and sham-initiated control liver. We observed distinct gene regulation patterns in HCC compared to noncancerous tissue including upregulation of genes important for cell cycle control, transcription, cytoskeletal formation, and the acute phase response and downregulation of genes involved in drug metabolism, lipid metabolism, and retinol metabolism. Interestingly, the expression profiles observed in trout HCC are similar to the transcriptional signatures found in human and rodent HCC, further supporting the validity of the model. Overall, these findings contribute to a better understanding of the mechanism of AFB(1)-induced hepatocarcinogenesis in trout and identify conserved genes important for carcinogenesis in species separated evolutionarily by more than 400 million years.

  14. Effects of astaxanthin and esterified glucomannan on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed aflatoxin-B1-contaminated feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jigang; Wang, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    The effects of astaxanthin (ASTA) and esterified glucomannan (EMG) on hematological and serum parameters, and liver pathological changes in broilers fed on aflatoxin-B1 (AFB1) contaminated diet were investigated. Two hundred and forty 10-day-old broilers were randomly assigned to one of five dietary treatments including: (i) control diet; (ii) AFB1-contaminated diet; (iii) AFB1 + EGM diet; (iv) AFB1 + ASTA diet; and (v) AFB1 + EGM + ASTA diet. At 35 days old, blood and liver tissue samples were collected for analysis. Results indicated that total white blood cell (WBC) number, hemoglobin (Hgb) concentration, hematocrit (Hct) level, serum alanine amino transferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, red blood cell (RBC) number, serum globulin (GLB) and urea nitrogen (BUN) concentrations (P contaminated diet. EMG and ASTA alleviated the alteration of RBC, WBC, Hgb and AST caused by AFB1-contaminated diet. Liver superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced, while myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was increased by AFB1-contaminated diet (P contaminated diet. It suggested that feeding 0.4 mg/kg AFB1-contaminated diet resulted in adverse effects on blood parameters and liver morphology. Dietary addition of EGM addition at 5 g/kg diet, ASTA at 10 mg/kg diet and especially their combination showed positive protection effects on alleviating the alteration of feeding AFB1. The results indicated that supplementation of 5 g EGM/kg diet, 10 mg ASTA/kg diet and their combination could partially or greatly alleviate the adverse effects caused by AFB1, with the EGM+ASTA group receiving the most effective treatment.

  15. 免疫层析试纸法快速检测粮食中黄曲霉毒素B1的验证研究%VERIFICATION OF RAPID DETECTION OF AFLATOXIN B1 IN GRAIN BY IMMUNOCHROMATOGRAPHIC TEST PAPER METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坚; 熊宁; 刘利; 余敦年

    2011-01-01

    4个国家粮食质量监测机构,会同两家免疫层析试纸开发厂商,使用稻谷、玉米两种受黄曲霉毒素B1污染的原始样本,用高效液相色谱法和免疫层析试纸法对粮食中黄曲霉毒素B1测定方法进行了对照研究,对免疫层析试纸法进行了可行性验证.结果表明:免疫层析试纸法和高效液相色谱法的相符率可达90.5%以上;免疫层析试纸法操作简单,检测准确、方便、快速,可用于现场快速检测和初筛粮食中的黄曲霉毒素B1.%In this paper,four state grain and oil inspection mechanisms carried out the feasibility verification of immunochrornatographic test paper method by comparing the effects of high performance liquid chromatography and the immunochromatographic test paper method on determining the aflatoxin B1 in two original samples,I.e. Rice and com, contaminated by aflatoxin B1. The results showed that the consistence rate of the immunochromatographic test paper method and the high performance liquid chromatography was up to 90.5% ;and the immunochromatographic test paper method was simple,accurate,convenient and rapid,and could be used for field rapid determination of aflatoxin B1 in preliminarily screened grain.

  16. Method Validation for the Quantitative Analysis of Aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1, and G2) and Ochratoxin A in Processed Cereal-Based Foods by HPLC with Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazioğlu, Işil; Kolak, Ufuk

    2015-01-01

    Modified AOAC 991.31 and AOAC 2000.03 methods for the simultaneous determination of total aflatoxins (AFs), aflatoxin B1, and ochratoxin A (OTA) in processed cereal-based foods by RP-HPLC coupled with fluorescence detection were validated. A KOBRA® Cell derivatization system was used to analyze total AFs. One of the modifications was the extraction procedure of mycotoxins. Both AFs and OTA were extracted with methanol-water (75+25, v/v) and purified with an immunoaffinity column before HPLC analysis. The modified methods were validated by measuring the specificity, selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, accuracy, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery, LOD, and LOQ parameters. The validated methods were successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of mycotoxins in 81 processed cereal-based foods purchased in Turkey. These rapid, sensitive, simple, and validated methods are suitable for the simultaneous determination of AFs and OTA in the processed cereal-based foods.

  17. 2009-2013年广州市市售粮油食品黄曲霉毒素B1调查%Analysis on contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food and oil in Guangzhou from 2009 to 2013

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张维蔚; 何洁仪; 李迎月; 余超; 林晓华; 梁伯衡

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the contamination of aflatoxin B1 in food and oil in Guangzhou,and provide the basic data of dietary intakes of aflatoxin B1 for food safety assessment.Methods The samples of seven kinds of food including rice,wheat flour,peanut and corn oil,peanut,corn flour,fried food and soybean from ten regions were collected randomly from farmer's markets,supermarkets,wholesale markets,and catering units.The national standard detection method for aflatoxin B1 (ELISA) was taken to detect the content of aflatoxin B1.Results 260 samples were detected aflatoxin B1 and the detection rate was 31.71%,and the farmer's markets had the highest detection rate.The detection range was 0.025 ~ 39.300 μg/kg,with the mean value of 2.675 μg/kg and the median of 2.5 μg/kg.The overall qualified rate was 98.66%.Conclusion The overall level of aflatoxin B1 contamination in market food was low,but some foods such as vegetable oils (peanut,corn) should be more concerned.%目的 了解2009-2013年广州市市售食品中黄曲霉毒素B1污染水平,为广州市开展居民膳食中黄曲霉毒素B1风险评估提供基础数据.方法 在广州市10个区的农贸市场、超市、批发市场、餐饮单位、加工场以及零售店等随机采集米及米制品(大米及米粉)、面及面制品(小麦粉及面包)、植物油(花生油、玉米油)、花生(熟制及生花生)、玉米粉(渣、碎)、油炸食品以及大豆共7类食品,采用国家标准测定方法(ELISA)进行黄曲霉毒素B1的含量测定.结果 820份样品中共260份被检出黄曲霉毒素B1,检出率为31.71%,检出值范围为0.012 ~39.300 μg/kg,均值为2.675 μg/kg,中位数为2.5μg/kg,食品总体合格率为98.66%.结论 广州市市售粮油食品黄曲霉毒素B1总体污染水平不高,但植物油(花生、玉米)检出率较高.

  18. Breast cancer resistance protein (Bcrp1/Abcg2) reduces systemic exposure of the dietary carcinogens aflatoxin B1, IQ and Trp-P-1 but also mediates their secretion into breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Herwaarden, Antonius E; Wagenaar, Els; Karnekamp, Barbara; Merino, Gracia; Jonker, Johan W; Schinkel, Alfred H

    2006-01-01

    The breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) usually protects the body from a wide variety of environmental and dietary xenotoxins by reducing their net uptake from intestine and by increasing their hepatobiliary, intestinal and renal elimination. BCRP is also highly expressed in lactating mammary glands in mice, and this expression is conserved in cows and humans. As a result, BCRP substrates can be secreted into milk. We investigated whether different classes of dietary carcinogens are substrates of Bcrp1/BCRP and the implications for systemic exposure and breast milk contamination. Using polarized cell lines, we found that Bcrp1 transports the heterocyclic amines 2-amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoline (IQ) and 3-amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) and the potent human hepatocarcinogen aflatoxin B1, and decreases their cellular accumulation up to 10-fold. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies showed that [14C]IQ, [14C]Trp-P-1 and [3H]aflatoxin B1 plasma levels were substantially lower in wild-type compared with Bcrp1-/- mice, after both oral and intravenous administration, demonstrating that Bcrp1 restricts systemic exposure to these carcinogens. Moreover, Bcrp1 mediates transfer of [14C]IQ, [14C]Trp-P-1 and [3H]aflatoxin into milk, with 3.4+/-0.6, 2.6+/-0.3 and 3.8+/-0.5-fold higher milk to plasma ratios, respectively, in lactating wild-type versus Bcrp1-/- mice. We have thus identified Bcrp1/BCRP as one of the molecular mechanisms by which heterocyclic amines and aflatoxin are transferred into milk, thereby posing a health risk to breast-fed infants and dairy consumers. Paradoxically, Bcrp1/BCRP appears to have both protective and adverse roles with respect to exposure to dietary carcinogens.

  19. 中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2测定方法研究%Determination Method of Aflatoxins B1,B2,G1,G2 in Chinese Medicinal Herbs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立测定中药材中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的高效液相色谱分离-串联三重四级杆质谱分析(HPLC-MS/MS)法。方法中药材样本经70%甲醇溶液提取,并采用免疫亲和柱净化和浓缩后,以HPLC-MS/MS对4个黄曲霉毒素的含量进行测定。结果黄曲霉毒素G2和B2进样量在0.3~30 pg、黄曲霉毒素G1和B1进样量在1~100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好线性关系( r﹥0.9990),加样回收率为75.33%~92.29%。结论该法速度快、操作简便、灵敏度高、重复性好,适用于中药材中霉菌毒素的检测。%Objective To establish a HPLC combined with electro spray ionization triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS/MS)method for determining aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Chinese medicinal herbs. Methods After extraction by 70% methanol and purification and concentration by immunoaffinity column in the Chinese medicinal herb sample,the contents of aflatoxins B1,B2,G1 and G2 were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS. Results The linear range was 0. 3-30 pg for aflatoxins G2 and B2,1-100 pg for aflatox-ins G1 and B1 ( r ﹥ 0. 999 0 ) . The recovery rate was 75. 33% -92. 29%. Conclusion The method is accurate,simple to operate,highly sensitive,better reproducible and suitable for the aflatoxins determination of Chinese medicinal herbs.

  20. Sampling and analysis of aflatoxin B1 in edible vegetable oil and rice sold in cities of Guangxi region%广西地区市售食用植物油和大米中黄曲霉毒素B1的采样调查和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    滕南雁; 宋宁宁; 刘涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the contaminations of aflatoxin B1 in edible vegetable oil and rice sold in supermarkets,markets and fairs in the Guangxi region, and to analyze the potential hazards. Methods: Assay the aflatoxin B1 in terms of the method described in the national standard (ELISA). Results: The aflatoxin B1 present in the edible vegetable oil samples (AFT positive) at 2 μg/kg to 160 μg/kg, with an excess of 35.7% above the limit; while the aflatoxin B1 ( AFT positive) present in the rice samples at 1 μg/kg, meeting the requirement. Conclusion: Edible vegetable oil risks aflatoxin B1 contamination on bases of the data obtained from the tested samples, in contrast with rice.%目的:采集广西区内超市、市场、集市销售的食用植物油和大米,进行黄曲霉毒素B的污染情况调查,了解广西地区市售食用植物油和大米黄曲霉毒素B中污染状况,对其潜在的危害进行分析.方法:采用国家标准测定方法(ELISA)进行黄曲霉毒素B的含量测定.结果:食用植物油中黄曲霉毒素B(AFT阳性)污染量在2 μg/kg至160 μg/kg,超标率为35.7%;检出大米中黄曲霉毒素B(AFT阳性)污染量为1 μg/kg,符合国家规定.结论:样本中食用植物油含黄曲霉毒素B显示存在一定的食品安全风险,大米情况较好.

  1. Activity of the aqueous extract from Polymnia sonchifolia leaves on growth and production of aflatoxin B1 by Aspergillus flavus Atividade do extrato aquoso de folhas de Polymnia sonchifolia no crescimento e produção de aflatoxina B1 por Aspergillus flavus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina M. Pinto

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract from Polymnia sonchifolia leaves (AE was tested for inhibitory activity on aflatoxin B1(AFB1 production and growth of Aspergillus flavus. The cytotoxicity of AE on Vero cells was also performed. Suspensions of A. flavus spores were inoculated into 50 mL of YES medium together with different concentrations of the AE. The aflatoxin B1 was extracted, analyzed by thin layer chromatography and quantified by photodensitometry. All the concentrations of AE induced inhibition of AFB1 production. The aqueous extract showed in vitro cytotoxicity to Vero cells only at concentrations above 500 µg/mL.Neste trabalho verificou-se a atividade do extrato aquoso de folhas de Polymnia sonchifolia no crescimento e na produção de aflatoxinas B1 por Aspergillus flavus. Suspensões de esporos de A. flavus foram inoculadas em 50 mL de meio de YES com diferentes concentrações do extrato aquoso. A aflatoxina B1 foi extraída e analisada por cromatografia de camada delgada e quantificada por fotodensitometria. Todas as concentrações testadas inibiram a produção de aflatoxina B1. O extrato aquoso apresentou citotoxicidade em células Vero somente em concentrações acima de 500 µg/mL.

  2. 应用流式微球检测黄曲霉毒素B1方法的建立%Determination of aflatoxin B1 based on a flow cytometric microsphere immunoassay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李泳宁; 吴海燕; 郑允权; 郭养浩

    2012-01-01

    采用活性酯法,将AFB1-BSA人工抗原交联于含有羧基表面的荧光微球,通过与游离AFB1竞争抗AFB1单克隆抗体后,再与异硫氰酸荧光素标记二抗的反应,建立基于微球的间接竞争免疫检测方法.检测结果表明,流式细胞仪检测AFB1的检测限为0.03 ng·mL-1,检测范围为0.05 ~ 1.0 ng· mL-1.与黄曲霉毒素B2、黄曲霉毒素G1、黄曲霉毒素G2、黄曲霉毒素M1和黄曲霉毒素M2的交叉反应率均低于1.0%.在玉米样品中的加标回收率为87% ~ 103%,变异系数为6.1%~8.4%.%Carboxyl - modified microspheres internally dyed with fluroscent dye were conjugated with the artificial antigen AFB, - BSA. Aflatoxin B, ( AFB,) was used as a positive control to compete with the AFB, - BSA antigen on the surface of the microspheres for the anti - AFB, McAb. A fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled IgG reporter antibody was added to react specifically with the anti - AFB, McAb on the microspheres. The detection limit of AFB, reached 0.03 ng · mL-1, with a good linearity ranging 0.05 ~ 1.0 ng mL-1. The cross - reactivity rates were less than 1.0% with other toxins such as aflatoxins B2, aflatoxins G,, aflatoxins G2, aflatoxins M, and aflatoxins M2. The recovery of AFB, from artificially contaminated corn samples was from 89% to 92% , with CVs from 6.8% to 9.0%. A novel method for the determination of aflatoxin B, by an indirect competitive immunoassay with a flow cytometer has been developed.

  3. Alpha-class glutathione S-transferases in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo): characterization and role in resistance to the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Bunderson, Brett R; Croasdell, Amanda; Reed, Kent M; Coulombe, Roger A

    2013-01-01

    Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) are one of the most susceptible animals known to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), a potent human hepatocarcinogen, and universal maize contaminant. We have demonstrated that such susceptibility is associated with the inability of hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) to detoxify the reactive electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO). Unlike their domestic counterparts, wild turkeys, which are relatively AFB1-resistant, possess hepatic GST-mediated AFBO conjugating activity. Here, we characterized the molecular and functional properties of hepatic alpha-class GSTs (GSTAs) from wild and domestic turkeys to shed light on the differences in resistance between these closely related strains. Six alpha-class GST genes (GSTA) amplified from wild turkeys (Eastern and Rio Grande subspecies), heritage breed turkeys (Royal Palm) and modern domestic (Nicholas strain) turkeys were sequenced, and catalytic activities of heterologously-expressed recombinant enzymes determined. Alpha-class identity was affirmed by conserved GST domains and four signature motifs. All GSTAs contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in their coding regions: GSTA1.1 (5 SNPs), GSTA1.2 (7), GSTA1.3 (3), GSTA2 (3), GSTA3 (1) and GSTA4 (2). E. coli-expressed GSTAs possessed varying activities toward GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB), 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB), ethacrynic acid (ECA), cumene hydroperoxide (CHP). As predicted by their relative resistance, livers from domestic turkeys lacked detectable GST-mediated AFBO detoxification activity, whereas those from wild and heritage birds possessed this critical activity, suggesting that intensive breeding and selection resulted in loss of AFB1-protective alleles during domestication. Our observation that recombinant tGSTAs detoxify AFBO, whereas their hepatic forms do not, implies that the hepatic forms of these enzymes are down-regulated, silenced, or

  4. Effect of melatonin on the production of microsomal hydrogen peroxide and cytochrome P-450 content in rat treated with aflatoxin B(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awney, Hala A; Attih, Ahmed M; Habib, Sami L; Mostafa, Mostafa H

    2002-03-20

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a food contaminant fungal toxin that has been implicated as a causative agent in human hepatic and extrahepatic carcinogenesis. In this study we went on to show the effect of melatonin as a free radical scavenger on the production of microsomal hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) during the metabolic activation AFB(1). The production of microsomal H(2)O(2) in vitro during the metabolic activation of different chemical carcinogens has been reported previously. We also studied the effect of melatonin on the cytochrome P-450 content as a major microsomal monooxygenase isoenzymes system in rat liver responsible for the metabolic activation of AFB(1). The amounts of H(2)O(2) and cytochrome P-450 contents in rat treated with melatonin (0.2 mg/kg BW) and/or AFB(1) (0.2 mg/kg BW) at various time intervals has been measured. Animals treated with melatonin exhibited markedly inhibition in the amounts of H(2)O(2) after 1, 3, and 6 h. The highest level of inhibition (3.0 nmol H(2)O(2)/mg protein) was detected after 6 h. However, cytochrome P-450 contents were also decreased after the same period of time. The highest level of inhibition (2.1 nmol/mg protein) was detected after 3 h of injection. A pronounced augmentation of H(2)O(2) production was observed in rat treated with AFB(1) only. The highest level of H(2)O(2) (100 nmol/mg protein) was measured after 1 h. Cytochrome P-450 contents were also decreased in response to AFB(1) injection over the same time intervals. Contrary data was detected in animals received both AFB(1) and melatonin. The generation of H(2)O(2) was inhibited by melatonin after 1, 3 and 6 h. The highest level of inhibition (44.2 nmol/mg protein) was observed after 6 h. Finally, these data suggested that melatonin as a free radical scavenger inhibited the microsomal production of H(2)O(2) in rat treated with AFB(1).

  5. Metabolomics of the Bio-Degradation Process of Aflatoxin B1 by Actinomycetes at an Initial pH of 6.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Eshelli

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of food and feed by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is a cause of serious economic and health problems. Different processes have been used to degrade AFB1. In this study, biological degradation of AFB1 was carried out using three Actinomycete species, Rhodococcus erythropolis ATCC 4277, Streptomyces lividans TK 24, and S. aureofaciens ATCC 10762, in liquid cultures. Biodegradation of AFB1 was optimised under a range of temperatures from 25 to 40 °C and pH values of 4.0 to 8.0. An initial concentration of 20 µg/mL of AFB1 was used in this study. The amount of AFB1 remaining was measured against time by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, coupled with UV and mass spectrometry (LC-MS. All species were able to degrade the AFB1, and no significant difference was found between them. AFB1 remained in the liquid culture for R. erythropolis, S. lividans and S. aureofaciens were 0.81 µg/mL, 2.41 µg/mL and 2.78 µg/mL respectively, at the end of the first 24 h. Degradation occurred at all incubation temperatures and the pH with the optimal conditions for R. erythropolis was achieved at 30 °C and pH 6, whereas for S. lividans and S. aureofaciens the optimum conditions for degradation were 30 °C and pH 5. Analysis of the degradative route indicated that each microorganism has a different way of degrading AFB1. The metabolites produced by R. erythropolis were significantly different from the other two microorganisms. Products of degradation were identified through metabolomic studies by utilizing high-resolution mass spectral data. Mass spectrometric analysis indicated that the degradation of AFB1 was associated with the appearance of a range of lower molecular weight compounds. The pathway of degradation or chemical alteration of AFB1 was followed by means of high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry (HR-FTMS analysis as well as through the MS2 fragmentation to unravel the degradative pathway for

  6. Alpha-class glutathione S-transferases in wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo: characterization and role in resistance to the carcinogenic mycotoxin aflatoxin B1.

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    Ji Eun Kim

    Full Text Available Domestic turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo are one of the most susceptible animals known to the toxic effects of the mycotoxin aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, a potent human hepatocarcinogen, and universal maize contaminant. We have demonstrated that such susceptibility is associated with the inability of hepatic glutathione S-transferases (GSTs to detoxify the reactive electrophilic metabolite exo-AFB1-8,9-epoxide (AFBO. Unlike their domestic counterparts, wild turkeys, which are relatively AFB1-resistant, possess hepatic GST-mediated AFBO conjugating activity. Here, we characterized the molecular and functional properties of hepatic alpha-class GSTs (GSTAs from wild and domestic turkeys to shed light on the differences in resistance between these closely related strains. Six alpha-class GST genes (GSTA amplified from wild turkeys (Eastern and Rio Grande subspecies, heritage breed turkeys (Royal Palm and modern domestic (Nicholas strain turkeys were sequenced, and catalytic activities of heterologously-expressed recombinant enzymes determined. Alpha-class identity was affirmed by conserved GST domains and four signature motifs. All GSTAs contained single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in their coding regions: GSTA1.1 (5 SNPs, GSTA1.2 (7, GSTA1.3 (3, GSTA2 (3, GSTA3 (1 and GSTA4 (2. E. coli-expressed GSTAs possessed varying activities toward GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB, 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB, ethacrynic acid (ECA, cumene hydroperoxide (CHP. As predicted by their relative resistance, livers from domestic turkeys lacked detectable GST-mediated AFBO detoxification activity, whereas those from wild and heritage birds possessed this critical activity, suggesting that intensive breeding and selection resulted in loss of AFB1-protective alleles during domestication. Our observation that recombinant tGSTAs detoxify AFBO, whereas their hepatic forms do not, implies that the hepatic forms of these enzymes are down-regulated, silenced, or

  7. Determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 in food by UPLC%UPLC同时测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丘汾; 李可; 周海涛; 刘奋; 杨梅; 曾胜波; 戴京晶

    2012-01-01

    Objective; A simple and rapid method for determination of aflatoxin B, ,B2 ,G, and G2 content in food by UPLC were developed. Methods; After extraction with MeOH - H2O,the extracts of food homogenization was loaded on the I AC for purification and determined by UPLC. Results; The recoveries of samples were in the range of 75.0% -90.4% ,the RSD was below 5% . The limit of quantification for aflatoxin B, was 0. 2 μg/kg,the limit of quantification for aflatoxin B2 was 0.2 μg/kg, the limit of quantification for aflatoxin G, was 0.4 μg/kg, the limit of quantification for aflatoxin G2 was 0.2 μg/kg. Conclusion; Determination of aflatoxins B, ,B2 ,G,and G2 content in food by immune affinity column was a rapid,simple and exact method.%目的:建立免疫亲和柱超高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1和G2含量的方法.方法:试样经过甲醇-水提取、稀释后经过免疫亲和柱层析净化,应用超高液相色谱法检测.结果:试验结果表明:空白样品分别按照0.2 μg/kg、0.8μg/kg、2.0μg/kg添加黄曲霉毒素混合标准,回收率为75.0%~90.4%,精密度<5%,黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1和G2的检测灵敏度分别为0.2μg/kg,0.2 μg/kg,0.4 μg/kg,0.2 μg/kg.结论:免疫亲和柱净化超高效液相色谱法测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2含量,是一种简单、快速和准确的方法.

  8. 广西南宁市健康人群黄曲酶毒素B1暴露影响因素的研究%A research of influencing factors on the aflatoxin B1 exposure to the healthy people lived in the city of Nanning in Guangxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫新少; 彭涛; 黎乐群; 陈德凤; 游雪梅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influencing factore of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) exposure in healthy people who lived in aflatoxin high-exposure area and to provide a basis for preventing AFB1 exposure. Methods To the residents lived in the city of Nanning in Cuangxi Province, a questionnaire survey was used to acquaint relevant information. The AFB1-albumin adducts (AAA) levels were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the liver function detected using a Bekman LX20 Chemistry Analyzer and diagnostic agents from Randox, UK. Results AAA level was significantly higher (P<0.05) in the people with lowincome, having habits of smoking, drinking, eating bulk rice, and eating rice that had been saved for a time of more than 30 days, and keeping regularly dining out. Conclusions The level of income and the lifestyle are related with Aflatoxin Bl exposure. The risk factors about Aflatoxin Bl exposure include consumption of bulk rice, regularly dining out, and drinking.%目的 探讨黄曲酶毒素高暴露地区健康人群黄曲酶毒素B1(aflatoxin B1,AFB1)暴露的影响因素,为预防AFB1暴露提供依据.方法 以广西南宁市居民为对象,通过问卷调查了解相关资料,采用竞争酶联免疫法检测血浆黄曲酶毒素B1-白蛋白加合物(AFBI-albumin adducts,AAA)水平,采用Bekman LX20 Chemistry Analyzer配套英国Randox公司诊断试剂检测肝功能.结果 经济收入低、吸烟、饮酒、食用散装大米、大米保存超过30 d、经常在外就餐的人群,AAA水平显著增高(P<0.05).结论 人们经济收入水平及生活方式与AFB1暴露有关,食用散装大米、经常在外就餐、饮酒是AFB1暴露的危险因素.

  9. A contribution to the determination of aflatoxin B1, quinine hydrochloride and L(+)-ascorbic acid in foodstuffs by quantitative in situ thin-layer chromatographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beljaars, P.R.

    1974-01-01

    The application of quantitative thin-layer chromatography (TLC) involving in situ spectrodensitometric measurements with a flying-spot densitometer is described in this study for the analysis of aflatoxin B 1 , quinine hydrochloride and L(+)-ascorbic acid (vitamin C

  10. Inactivación de aflatoxina B1 y aflatoxicol por nixtamalización tradicional del maíz y su regeneración por acidificación de la masa Inactivation of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxicol through traditional "nixtamalización" of corn and their regeneration by acidification of corn dough

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    Gloria Laura Anguiano-Ruvalcaba

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Confirmar el efecto de la nixtamalización tradicional sobre la aflatoxina, identificar el compuesto remanente en masa, evaluar su toxicidad y su regeneración por tratamiento ácido. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó maíz, sin y con aflatoxina, y se nixtamalizó. La toxicidad se evaluó en pollos de ocho días de edad. Se aplicó el tratamiento ácido a la masa. La cuantificación de aflatoxinas se realizó por cromatografía líquida de alta resolución (HPLC. RESULTADOS: La nixtamalización destruyó la aflatoxina (96% y el aflatoxicol (70%; el remanente en masa fue aflatoxina B1. El tratamiento ácido in vitro no eleva las concentraciones de ninguna de las dos micotoxinas. Los pollos murieron al ingerir 260 mg de AFB1, y la masa con aflatoxina remanente no fue tóxica. CONCLUSIONES: Los resultados ilustran el beneficio de la nixtamalización tradicional en la inactivación de las aflatoxinas presentes en maíz y en su no reconstitución por efecto del tratamiento ácido.OBJECTIVE: To ratify the effect of traditional "nixtamalización" upon aflatoxin in corn, to identify the residual compound in dough, to evaluate its toxicity, and to verify the effect of acidic treatment on the regeneration of aflatoxin. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Corn with and without aflatoxin was treated separately with lime and heat to obtain two types of dough. Aflatoxin and the residual compound were quantified by high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC and toxicity was evaluated in eight day old chicks. RESULTS: "Nixtamalización" destroyed AFB1 (96% and aflatoxicol (70%. The residual compound was identified as AFB1. Experimental animals died by ingestion of 260 mg of AFB1 Dough containing residual aflatoxin was not toxic. Acidic. treatment did not increase aflatoxin concentration, nor aflatoxicol. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the use of traditional "nixtamalización" as a means to inactivate aflatoxin in corn and that acidic treatment prevents its

  11. Structural perturbations induced by the alpha-anomer of the aflatoxin B(1) formamidopyrimidine adduct in duplex and single-strand DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kyle L; Voehler, Markus W; Magee, Shane M; Harris, Constance M; Harris, Thomas M; Stone, Michael P

    2009-11-11

    The guanine N7 adduct of aflatoxin B(1) exo-8,9-epoxide hydrolyzes to form the formamidopyrimidine (AFB-FAPY) adduct, which interconverts between alpha and beta anomers. The beta anomer is highly mutagenic in Escherichia coli, producing G --> T transversions; it thermally stabilizes the DNA duplex. The AFB-alpha-FAPY adduct blocks replication; it destabilizes the DNA duplex. Herein, the structure of the AFB-alpha-FAPY adduct has been elucidated in 5'-d(C(1)T(2)A(3)T(4)X(5)A(6)T(7)T(8)C(9)A(10))-3'.5'-d(T(11)G(12)A(13)A(14)T(15)C(16)A(17)T(18)A(19)G(20))-3' (X = AFB-alpha-FAPY) using molecular dynamics calculations restrained by NMR-derived distances and torsion angles. The AFB moiety intercalates on the 5' face of the pyrimidine moiety at the damaged nucleotide between base pairs T(4).A(17) and X(5).C(16), placing the FAPY C5-N(5) bond in the R(a) axial conformation. Large perturbations of the epsilon and zeta backbone torsion angles are observed, and the base stacking register of the duplex is perturbed. The deoxyribose orientation shifts to become parallel to the FAPY base and displaced toward the minor groove. Intrastrand stacking between the AFB moiety and the 5' neighbor thymine remains, but strong interstrand stacking is not observed. A hydrogen bond between the formyl group and the exocyclic amine of the 3'-neighbor adenine stabilizes the E conformation of the formamide moiety. NMR studies reveal a similar 5'-intercalation of the AFB moiety for the AFB-alpha-FAPY adduct in the tetramer 5'-d(C(1)T(2)X(3)A(4))-3', involving the R(a) axial conformation of the FAPY C5-N(5) bond and the E conformation of the formamide moiety. Since in duplex DNA the AFB moiety of the AFB-beta-FAPY adduct also intercalates on the 5' side of the pyrimidine moiety at the damaged nucleotide, we conclude that favorable 5'-stacking leads to the R(a) conformational preference about the C5-N(5) bond; the same conformational preference about this bond is also observed at the nucleoside

  12. How does airway exposure of aflatoxin B1 affect serum albumin adduct concentrations? Evidence based on epidemiological study and animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Xianwei; Lai, Hao; Yang, Yang; Xiao, Jun; He, Ke; Liu, Chao; Chen, Jiansi; Lin, Yuan

    2014-08-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) airway inhalation represents an additional route of exposure to this toxin. However, the association between AFB1 inhalation and serum AFB1 albumin adducts remains unclear. The aim of this study was to explore the association between airway exposure to AFB1 and serum AFB1 albumin adduct concentrations via an epidemiological study, as well as in an AFB1 airway exposure animal model. Our epidemiological study was conducted in a sugar factory in the Guangxi Autonomous Region of China. In order to examine fungal contamination, air samples were obtained in the workshop and areas outside the workshop, such as the office and nearby store. Dust samples were also collected from the bagasse warehouse and presser workshop, and were analyzed using an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Additionally, blood samples were collected from a total of 121 workshop workers, and a control group (n = 80) was comprised of workers who undertook administrative tasks or other work outside the workshop. The animal experiment was conducted in the laboratory animal center of Guangxi Medical University, where a total of 60 adult male rabbits were involved in this study. By intubation, AFB1 was administered in three groups of rabbits daily, at dose rates of 0.075, 0.05 and 0.025 mg/kg/day for a period of 7 days. Blood samples were collected on day 1, day 3, day 7 and day 21, and the measurements of the AFB1 albumin adducts in the serum were performed by a double antibody sandwich ELISA. The epidemiological study showed that serum albumin adducts were detected in 67 workshop workers (55.37%), and the values ranged 6.4 pg/mg albumin to 212 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 51 ± 4.62 pg/mg albumin). In contrast, serum albumin adducts were detected in only 7 control group participants, with the values ranging from 9 pg AFB1/mg albumin to 59 pg/mg albumin (mean value: 20 ± 13.72 pg/mg albumin). The animal experiment revealed that the rabbits had detectable

  13. Determination of Aflatoxin B1, M1 in Foods Using Homemade Mixed Solid Phase Extraction Column Coupled with High Performance Liquid Chromatography%自制混合型固相萃取柱-高效液相色谱法同时测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1、M1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭晓俊; 曾勚; 庞晋山; 邓爱华; 谌瑜

    2013-01-01

    A novel method for the determination of aflatoxin B1,M1 in foods was developed using homemade mixed solid phase extraction column coupled with high performance liquid chromatography.The sample was extracted with 60% acetonitrile solution,and cleaned up on a homemade mixed solid phase extraction column.The separation was performed on a Shim-pack VP-ODS C18 column with acetonitrile-water(20 ∶ 80) as mobile phase within 13 min.The contents of two aflatoxins were detected with fluorescence detector,and quantified by the external standard method.The effects of column type,column capacity,sample amount,extraction solution and flow rate on the determination of aflatoxin residue were investigated.Under the optimized conditions,there were good linearities between peak areas and aflatoxins concentrations in the range of 0.40-100 μg/L with correlation coefficients of 0.999 4-0.999 7.The limits of detection(S/N =3) of aflatoxin B1,M1 were both 0.050 μg/kg.The recoveries of aflatoxins in different samples at three spiked levels of 0.40,1.0,100 μg/L were in the range of 53%-112% with relative standard deviations(RSDs) of 2.7%-7.1%.The proposed method showed the advantages of sensitivity,simplicity and fastness,and was successfully applied in the determination of low aflatoxins residues in peanut,pistachio and milk samples.%建立了基于自制混合型固相萃取柱的样品净化/高效液相色谱测定食品中黄曲霉毒素B1、M1的方法.样品经60%乙腈水溶液提取、离心后,通过自制固相萃取柱排除杂质干扰,流出液以Shim-pack VP-ODS C18色谱柱为分离柱,水和乙腈为流动相,用荧光检测器检测,外标法定量.考察了柱类型、柱容量、取样量、提取溶液和流速等对检测的影响,优化了实验条件.在优化条件下,2种毒素在0.40~100 μg/L质量浓度范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,相关系数为0.9994~0.9997,检出限(S/N=3)为0.050 μg/kg.在样品中分别加入0.40、1

  14. HPLC-MS/MS determination of aflatoxinG2,G1,B2,B1 in Persicae Semen%HPLC-MS/MS法测定中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王少敏; 许勇; 毛丹; 郑荣; 王柯; 季申

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、Bl的HPLC-MS/MS测定方法.方法:样品经有机溶剂提取及免疫亲和柱净化后,以高效液相色谱-串联三重四极杆质谱进行分析测定.采用Phenomenex SB -C18(2.0mmx50mm,4μm)色谱柱,流动相为甲醇-10mmol·L-1醋酸铵溶液,梯度洗脱,流速0.5mL·min-1;质谱条件为电喷雾离子源(ESI源),正离子模式检测,扫描方式为多反应监测(MRM),黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1的定量分析离子分别为m/z 331.1→313.l、m/z 329.1→243.1、m/z 315.0→287.1、m/z 313.1→241.0.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2、B2进样量在0.375-30pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,黄曲霉毒素G1、1进样量在1.2-1100 pg范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系,0 999;回收率在88.%-1103.%%之间.结论:本法灵敏、快速、准确,专属性强,可用于中药桃仁中黄曲霉毒素的测定.%Objective : To establish an HPLC - MS/MS method for determination of aflatoxin G2 ,G1 , B2 ,B1 in Persicae Semen. Methods :Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol, purified by an immunoaffinity column and then separation was carried on a Kromasil C18 (2. 0 mm ×50 mm ,4 μm) column with a mobile phase of methanol - 10 mmol · L-1 formic ammonate ( by a gradient program) at a rate of 0. 5 mL · min-1. Aflatoxins were analysed by HPLC - triple quadrupole MS with an ESI ion source in MRM mode, the ion combinations of m/z 331. 1→ 313. 1 ,m/z 329. 1→243. 1 , m/z 315. 0→287. 1 , m/z 313. 1→241. 0 were used to qualify aflatoxin G2 , G1 , B2 , B1 , respectively. Results : Good linear relationships were obtained within the ranges of 0. 375 - 30 pg for aflatoxin G2 and B2 ,and 1. 25 - 100 pg for aflatoxin G1 and B1. The recoveries were between 88. 5 % - 103. 9% . Conclusion : The method is sensitive, rapid , accurate and specific for the determination of aflatoxins in traditional Chinese medicine Persicae Semen.

  15. 二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物固相萃取-高效液相色谱法检测植物油中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2%Determination of Aflatoxin B1 and Aflatoxin B2 in Edible Oil by Using Graphene Oxide-SiO2 as Soild Phase Extraction Coupled with HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恒玲; 喻理; 李培武; 李敏; 张奇; 张文

    2014-01-01

    以二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物为固相萃取材料,建立了植物油中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2的高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测方法。优化的条件为:复合材料的最佳用量为0.15 g,最佳萃取时间20 min,洗脱溶剂为乙腈,洗脱次数为2次。结果表明,在优化条件下,建立的二氧化硅-氧化石墨烯复合物固相萃取-高效液相色谱法对黄曲霉毒素B1、B2的检出限分别为0.17和0.05μg/L。将本方法应用于植物油实际样品的检测中,加标回收率在81.4%~105.3%之间,相对标准偏差为1.3%~8.6%。%Silica dioxide bound graphene oxide ( GO-SiO2 ) was applied as an effective adsorbent for determination and quantiflcation of aflatoxin B1 , B2 in edible oil by HPLC. The optimized conditions were GO-SiO2 0. 15 g, extraction time 20 min, elution reagent acetonitrile, elution cycles two times. Results showed under the optimum conditions, the detection limits of aflatoxin B1 , B2 were 0. 17 and 0. 05 μg/L, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the detection of the actual edible oil, the spiked recoveries of aflatoxin B1 and B2 were 81. 4%-105. 3% and the relative standard deviations were 1. 3%-8. 6%.

  16. Efecto diferencial de la intoxicación crónica por aflatoxina B1 en el crecimiento y en la incidencia de lesiones hepáticas en truchas diploides y triploides (Oncorhynchus mykiss Differential effect of chronic aflatoxin B1 intoxication on the growth performance and incidence of hepatic lesions in triploid and diploid rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S ARANA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available El propósito del presente estudio fue comparar el crecimiento y la incidencia de lesiones hepáticas en truchas triploides y diploides tratadas con aflatoxina B1(AFB1. 240 truchas fueron divididas en 4 grupos: DC: truchas diploides alimentadas con ración sin AFB1; TC: truchas triploides alimentadas con ración sin AFB1; DT: truchas tratadas con ración con 80 ppb de AFB1 y TT: truchas triploides alimentadas con ración con 80 ppb de AFB1. Durante doce meses, mensualmente, cinco ejemplares de cada grupo fueron anestesiados y sacrificados. Con posteiroridad a la obtención del peso y medición del tamaño de los pesces, muestras hepáticas fueron fijadas en solución de formalina salina 10% y procesadas para análisis histopatológico. El análisis comparativo del rendimiento en crecimiento indicaron diferencias significativas entre truchas diploides del grupo control y del tratado, sugiriendo que AFB1 afecta el crecimiento de las truchas diploides. En truchas triploides no se observaron diferencias entre pesces del grupo control y los pesces tratados. El análisis histopatológico señaló que truchas triploides son más resistentes a AFB1, ya que ambos grupos tratados presentaron lesiones preneoplásicas, sin embargo, el grupo TT demostró menor incidencia de lesiones e igualmente un desarrollo más lento de las mismas. En cuanto a la ocurrencia de neoplasia, en el grupo DT 4 pesces desarrolaron carcinoma hepatocelular en el último trimestre del experimento, mientras que ningún animal triploide desarrolló lesión neoplásicaTriploid trout has been considered to be more resistant than diploid trout to many diseases and to some adverse aquaculture conditions. Considering the common problems with animal food contamination by aflatoxins, the purpose of this research was to compare the incidence of liver lesions and growth performance in triploid and diploid trout (O. mykiss exposed to chronic contamination with aflatoxin B1. A total of 240

  17. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  18. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.; Jiang, M.; Fang, J.; Peng, X.; Cui, H.

    2016-11-01

    Afatoxin B1 (AFB1) is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed) and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed). At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α) mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+) by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers. (Author)

  19. Short communication: Inhibitory effects of dietary aflatoxin B1 on cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunyu Liu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is the most toxic form among the mycotoxins. Cytokines are important mediators of the immune system. T-cell subsets play a crucial role in cell-mediated immunity. The aim of present study was to evaluate the effects of dietary AFB1 on the cytokines expression and T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsil of broiler chickens throughout a 21-day experimental period. One hundred and fifty six one-day-old broiler chickens were randomly divided into control group (0 mg AFB1/kg feed and AFB1 group (0.6 mg pure AFB1/kg feed. At 7, 14 and 21 days of age, the levels of seven cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA expression as well as the proportions of T-cell subsets (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, CD3+CD8+ by qRT-PCR and flow cytometry methods were assessed in the cecal tonsils. The levels of the seven cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets significantly decreased at 14 and 21 days of age in the AFB1 group compared with the control group. However, the CD4+/CD8+ ratio was not significantly changed. These results demonstrate that 0.6 mg/kg AFB1 dietary exposure reduced the levels of cytokines mRNA expression and the percentages of T-cell subsets in the cecal tonsils of broiler chickens, suggesting that the cell-mediated immunity of cecal tonsils might be impaired in broilers.

  20. 2014年黄曲霉毒素在饲料产品中的污染分布规律%Distribution laws of aflatoxin B1 contamination in feedstuffs in 2014

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程传民; 李云; 周朝华; 柏凡; 王宇萍; 林顺全; 廖峰

    2016-01-01

    针对 1 655 个检测样品,通过酶联试剂盒初筛和液相色谱法验证两种形式进行饲料产品中黄曲霉毒素 B1污染状况调查.黄曲霉毒素B1 在雏禽配合饲料和蛋禽配合饲料中超标最严重,超标率分别为 1 1.0%和 1 4.0%.饲料产品中黄曲霉毒素B 1 污染在不同地区中存在较大差异,华中地区蛋禽配合饲料超标率达到 3 4.1%,而华北和东北地区的蛋禽配合料超标率为0.不同规模的企业饲料产品受黄曲霉毒素 B1 污染程度同样存在差异,中小企业的超标率明显高于大企业.%The aflatoxin B1 pollution status survey was studied in feedstuffs,a total of 1 655 samples were detected by ELISA initial detection and HPLC method to validation.The aflatoxin B1 in chicken feed and laying hens compound feed exceeded the target value most serious,exceeding standard rate of 11.0% and 14.0%,respectively.There was a big difference between the AFB1 pollution in different regions,in central China the exceeding standard rate was 34.1% in laying hens compound feed,but in north and northeast regions the exceeding standard rate was 0.There were also differences in the scale of different enterpri-ses,the exceeding standard rate of small and medium-sized enterprises was significantly higher than that of large enterprises.

  1. DNA Sequence Modulates Geometrical Isomerism of the trans-8,9- Dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)- 9-hydroxy Aflatoxin B1 Adduct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Brown, Kyle L; Ma, Ruidan; Stone, Michael P

    2015-02-16

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)), a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus, is oxidized by cytochrome P450 enzymes to aflatoxin B(1)-8,9-epoxide, which alkylates DNA at N7-dG. Under basic conditions, this N7-dG adduct rearranges to yield the trans-8,9-dihydro-8-(2,6-diamino-4-oxo-3,4-dihydropyrimid-5-yl-formamido)-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)−FAPY) adduct. The AFB(1)−FAPY adduct exhibits geometrical isomerism involving the formamide moiety. NMR analyses of duplex oligodeoxynucleotides containing the 5′-XA-3′, 5′-XC-3′, 5′-XT-3′, and 5′-XY-3′ sequences (X = AFB(1)−FAPY; Y = 7-deaza-dG)demonstrate that the equilibrium between E and Z isomers is controlled by major groove hydrogen bonding interactions.Structural analysis of the adduct in the 5′-XA-3′ sequence indicates the preference of the E isomer of the formamide group,attributed to formation of a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N(6) exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighboradenine. While the 5′-XA-3′ sequence exhibits the E isomer, the 5′-XC-3′ sequence exhibits a 7:3 E:Z ratio at equilibrium at 283K. The E isomer is favored by a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the N(4)-dC exocyclic amino group of the 3′-neighbor cytosine. The 5′-XT-3′ and 5′-XY-3′ sequences cannot form such a hydrogen bond between the formyl oxygen and the 3′-neighbor T or Y, respectively, and in these sequence contexts the Z isomer is favored. Additional equilibria between α and β anomers and the potential to exhibit atropisomers about the C5−N(5) bond do not depend upon sequence. In each of the four DNA sequences, the AFB(1)−FAPY adduct maintains the β deoxyribose configuration. Each of these four sequences feature the atropisomer of the AFB(1) moiety that is intercalated above the 5′-face of the damaged guanine. This enforces the Ra axialc onformation for the C5−N(5) bond.

  2. Simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and ochratoxin A in breast milk by high-performance liquid chromatography/fluorescence after liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (LLE-LTP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Patricia Diniz; Gomes da Silva, Julyane Laine; Caldas, Eloisa Dutra

    2013-08-23

    The aims of this study were to optimize and validate a methodology for the simultaneous analysis of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 (AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, AFG2, AFM1) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in breast milk, and to analyze these mycotoxins in samples obtained from human milk banks in the Federal District, Brazil. The optimized analytical method was based on liquid-liquid extraction with low temperature purification (3.25mL of acidified acetonitrile+0.75mL of ethyl acetate), followed by analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector (HPLC/FLD) and a photochemical post-column reactor. Limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.005 to 0.03ng/mL, recoveries from 73 to 99.5%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) from 1.8 to 17.3%. The LLE-LTP extraction method was shown to be simple and cost-effective, since no columns were needed for clean-up. Only 2 of the 224 breast milk samples analyzed were positive for the mycotoxins, both samples containing AFB2 at the LOQ level (0.005ng/mL). The identity of the mycotoxin detected was confirmed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This result indicates that infants who are fed with breast milk from the milk banks are not at risk from aflatoxin and ochratoxin exposure.

  3. Efficacy of Some Essential Oils Against Aspergillus flavus with Special Reference to Lippia alba Oil an Inhibitor of Fungal Proliferation and Aflatoxin B1 Production in Green Gram Seeds during Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Abhay K; Sonker, Nivedita; Singh, Pooja

    2016-04-01

    During mycofloral analysis of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek) seed samples taken from different grocery stores by agar and standard blotter paper methods, 5 fungal species were identified, of which Aspergillus flavus exhibited higher relative frequency (75.20% to 80.60%) and was found to produce aflatoxin B1 . On screening of 11 plant essential oils against this mycotoxigenic fungi, Lippia alba essential oil was found to be most effective and showed absolute inhibition of mycelia growth at 0.28 μL/mL. The oil of L. alba was fungistatic and fungicidal at 0.14 and 0.28 μL/mL, respectively. Oil had broad range of fungitoxicity at its MIC value and was absolutely inhibited the AFB1 production level at 2.0 μL/mL. Chemical analysis of this oil revealed geranial (36.9%) and neral (29.3%) as major components followed by myrcene (18.6%). Application of a dose of 80 μL/0.25 L air of Lippia oil in the storage system significantly inhibited the fungal proliferation and aflatoxin production without affecting the seed germination rate. By the virtue of fungicidal, antiaflatoxigenic nature and potent efficacy in storage food system, L. alba oil can be commercialized as botanical fungicide for the protection of green gram seeds during storage.

  4. Enzymolysis of aflatoxin B1 by Pseudomonas stutzeri F4 and analysis of the degrading products%施氏假单胞菌F4对黄曲霉毒素B1的酶解作用及其降解产物的初步分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文明; 杨文华; 李海星; 刘晓华; 曹郁生

    2013-01-01

    施氏假单胞菌F4能高效降解黄曲霉毒素B1(aflatoxin B1,AFB1).研究了F4的AFB1降解活性、降解动力学以及蛋白酶K和SDS对其降解性能的影响.F4细胞悬液与毒素共培养72 h后降解率达80.03%;蛋白酶K处理对降解率没有影响,SDS处理的细胞悬液基本丧失了降解活性.不同时间点的降解液上清液仍能有效降解残留AFB1,其中以60 h的降解液上清液活性较好,与残留AFB1继续作用48 h后降解率达84.30%;而经蛋白酶K处理后降解率仅为45.42%.低浓度AFB1诱导对菌体的降解活性没有影响.上述结果提示,F4通过胞内酶作用降解AFB1.高效液相色谱对产物分析表明,F4可将AFB1酶解为至少2种产物.%Pseudomonas stutzeri F4 is capable of removing aflatoxin B1 efficiently.The properties and the kinetics of aflatoxin B1 hydrolyzed by F4, and the influence of proteinase K and SDS on its degradation performance were investigated.After 72 h of cultivation, 80.03% of AFB1 was degraded by F4 cell suspension.Proteinase K had no affects on its degradation efficiency, while the degradation ability almost lost by SDS treatment.In addition, the cell-free supernatant of the degradation solution taken from different time also had the detoxification activity, and in which 60 h sample showed a better activity (84.30% AFB, was degraded after continuous cultivation for 48 h).When the supernatant treated with proteinase K, the degradation efficiency was decreased to 45.42%.Low concentration of AFB1 induction had no effect on the degradation activity.These results indicated that a F4 intracellular enzyme was responsible for the degradation of AFB1.Meanwhile, HPLC chromatograms demonstrated that AFB1 was degraded to at least two products.

  5. Detoxification of Aflatoxin B1 by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mutants of Anti-Oxidative Relating Genes%酿酒酵母抗氧化相关基因突变体对黄曲霉毒素B1的清除作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史锋; 黄宇啸; 李永富

    2012-01-01

    黄曲霉毒素(AF)是粮食作物和饲料原料中容易污染的一种强毒性和强致癌性物质,酿酒酵母具有毒素清除功能.利用HPLC分析了酿酒酵母野生菌BY4742及三株关键的抗氧化相关基因缺失茵zwf1△、sod2△、glr1△对黄曲霉毒素B1的清除能力.结果表明,在PBS缓冲液中存活和死亡的细胞对AFB1的清除率分别为74%~76%和71%~73%,说明酵母细胞对AFB1的清除以生物吸附作用为主.在培养基中,3种突变菌活细胞对AFB1的清除率发生不同程度的降低,其中glr1△的AFB1清除能力下降最明显,其次是sod2△,而zwf1△下降最少,说明这些关键的抗氧化基因的缺失会影响细胞在生长状态下对AFB1的清除作用.%Aflatoxins are a group of mycotoxins with strong mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Various commodities including crop and feed materials are easy to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been reported to bind or degrade aflatoxin. Here, detoxification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) by wild-type strain of S. cerevisiae (BY4742) and three mutants of anti-oxidative relating genes (zw/l△, sod2△and girl △) were determined by HPLC. In PBS buffer, AFBi binding abilities of viable and dead cells were 74% -76% and 71% — 73%, respectively, indicating AFB1 was removed by yeast cells mainly through cell adsorption. In YPD medium, clearance of AFB1 by three mutant viable cells reduced, while that by wild-type BY4742 remaining high. AFB1 binding ability of g/rlA decreased most seriously, then was that of sod2△ and zwfl△. Thus, the deletion of critical anti-oxidative relating genes would decrease the AFB1 binding ability of S. cerevisiae growing cells.

  6. A reappraisal of fungi producing aflatoxins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, János; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Aflatoxins are decaketide-derived secondary metabolites which are produced by a complex biosynthetic pathway. Aflatoxins are among the economically most important mycotoxins. Aflatoxin B1 exhibits hepatocarcinogenic and hepatotoxic properties, and is frequently referred to as the most potent natu...

  7. Determination of Aflatoxin G2, G1, B2, B1 in 34 Batches of Chinese Herbs by HPLC Associated with Post Column Photochemical Derivatization%免疫亲和柱净化HPLC柱后光化学衍生法测定34批中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨文武; 熊凌云; 王瑞芳; 刘岩; 孙启生; 雷雨; 王强

    2013-01-01

    目的 建立HPLC柱后光化学衍生法检测中药材中黄曲霉毒素G2、G1、B2、B1方法.方法 样品经过70%甲醇提取、免疫亲和拄净化后,采用HPLC柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测中药材黄曲霉毒素含量.对疑似成分进行液质确认.结果 黄曲霉毒素G2和B2,G1和B1分别在0.75 ~ 22.5 pg和5~ 75Pg线性关系良好,方法准确稳定.检测的34批次药材中,3批酸枣仁检出黄曲霉毒素,其中1批酸枣仁黄曲霉毒素B1超过5μg·kg-1.结论 该方法简便、准确,适用于中药材黄曲霉毒素的检测.%Objective To establish HPLC methods associated with post column Photochemical Derivatization to determine aflatoxin G2, Gl, B2, Bl in Chinese herbal. Method Aflatoxins were extracted by 70% methanol and purified by an immunoaffinity column. Then the samples were analysed by HPLC fluorescence detector with post column Photochemical derivatization. Confirm the suspected components with LC-MS. Results The method with the great linear concentration range of 0.75-22.5 pg for aflatoxins G2,B2,and 5-75 pg for aflatoxins G1,B1 respectively, was stable and accurate. In the result of 34 batches of Chinese herbs,Aflatoxins were detected in 3 batches of Semen Ziziphi Spinosae among which Aflatoxin Bl of one batch exceed 5 μg·kg-l. Conclusion The method is simple and accurate,which is suitable for the determination of aflatoxins in Chinese herbal.

  8. Degradation of Aflatoxins B1 Which in Peanut by Ammonia Gas Method%氨气熏蒸法降解花生中的黄曲霉素B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵国斌

    2014-01-01

    Peanuts which contaminated by aflatoxin was treated by ammonia gas method and AFB1 was degraded. Effect of concentration of ammonia gas, temperature, moisture of peanuts and time of degradation rate of AFB1 was investigated by single factor experiments , and the optimal condition was determined. The results show that the optimum conditions for ammonia gas method were concentration of ammonia gas 10 %, temperature 40 ℃, moisture of peanuts 30%, ammonia smoked time 96 h, the highest degradation rate 95.06%, the degradation effect was remarkable. Ammonia gas method is easy to operate, low cost, high degradation rate, and the ammonia's source is rich, it is suitable for large-scale practical application.%采用氨气熏蒸法对污染黄曲霉毒素AFB1的花生进行处理,使其中的AFB1得到降解,并通过单因素实验考察氨气浓度、氨熏温度、花生含水量和蒸熏时间等条件对降解率的影响,得到最优条件。结果表明,氨气熏蒸法最佳条件为:氨气浓度10%,熏蒸温度40℃,花生含水量30%,氨熏时间96 h,最高降解率为95.06%,降解效果显著。氨气熏蒸法易于操作、成本低廉、降解率高,且氨气来源广泛,适合大规模实际应用。

  9. Aflatoxin in Tunisian aleppo pine nuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutrif, E; Jemmali, M; Pohland, A E; Campbell, A D

    1977-05-01

    Twenty-six of 50 Aleppo pine nuts samples collected throughout Tunisia showed relatively high levels of contamination by aflatoxin. Some samples contained as much as 2000 ppb aflatoxin B1, and very few contained less than 100 ppb. Total aflatoxins as high as 7550 ppb were found. A traditional pudding, widely consumed in Tunisia, which was prepared from contaminated nuts still contained more than 80% of the aflatoxin originally present in the nuts.

  10. 闽南地区食源性动物组织中黄曲霉毒素B1残留量调查研究%Investigation of aflatoxin B1 residues in foodborne animal tissue in minnan region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱苏琴; 张志刚; 叶葆衡; 黄印尧; 李国平

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) technique was used to detect the aflatoxin B1 residual quantity in livers and mus-cles of foodborne animals which contain chicken, duck and pig in minnan region.In addition ,imported pigs were also detected.The re-suLts show that aflatoxin B1 detectable rate in pig livers and muscles were 100%,but 65% in chicken liver and 75% in duck liver, which all didn't exceed the national limited standard. The highest of AFB1 content was tested in pork liver, significantly higher than pig muscles , chicken livers and duck livers (P0.05). Besides that , AFB1 residues in imported pork though not overweight but also exist AFB1 pollution phenomenon. The resuLt of AFB1 Investigating of foodborne animal tissues suggested that problem of contamination of AFB1 has become widespread.%应用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)技术对闽南地区食源性动物的鸡、鸭、猪肝脏和肌肉组织以及国外进口猪肌肉组织中的黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)残留量进行抽样检测。结果显示猪肉猪肝黄曲霉毒素B1检出率100%,鸡肝65%、鸭肝75%,但都末超过限量标率;猪肝中AFB1含量最高,显著高于猪肌肉和鸡、鸭肝中AFB1含量(P0.05);此外,国外进口猪肉中AFB1虽未超标,但也存在AFB1污染问题。调查结果表明,食源性动物组织中黄曲霉毒素B1残留问题普遍存在。

  11. 奶牛饲料黄曲霉毒素B1污染及控制技术研究进展%The Aflatoxin B1 Contamination in Dairy Cattle Feed and Research Progress in Control Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马美蓉; 熊江林; 傅春泉; 徐玉花

    2014-01-01

    黄曲霉毒素(AFs)具有极强毒性,在奶牛业中危害最大的是AFB1和AFM1.论文从饲料种类、季节及地域不同分析饲料黄曲霉毒素B1污染现状,并综述了物理、化学及生物等脱毒解毒技术研究进展.

  12. To Optimize the Extraction Method of Aflatoxin B1 from Naturally Contaminated Rice%大米中黄曲霉毒素B1的提取方法优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀兰; 赵晓联; 汤坚

    2004-01-01

    通过ELISA检测,对多种溶剂提取大米中黄曲霉毒素B1的方法进行了优化,结果显示对于不同污染程度的大米样品,50%丙酮/水溶液和50%甲醇/水溶液提取效率最高,0.1、1、10μg/kg三个浓度水平的加标回收率为80.4%~140%,方法的重复性和稳定性很好,相对标准偏差2.99%~9.61%.

  13. Effects of Glucose Oxidase on Growth Performance, Serum Parameters and Slaughter Performance of Meat Ducks and Its Antidotal Effect on Aflatoxin B1%葡萄糖氧化酶对肉鸭生长性能、血清指标和屠宰性能的影响及其解除黄曲霉毒素 B1效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤海鸥; 高秀华; 姚斌; 张广民; 王振兴; 李晓存

    2015-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of diets supplemented with glucose oxidase ( GOD) on growth performance, serum parameters and slaughter performance of meat ducks and its antidotal effect on aflatoxin B1. A total of 100 Cherry Valley ducks (1-day-old) were randomly assigned to five groups with four replicates of fifty ducks in each replicate. The control group ( groupⅠ) was fed on a basic diet. The two test groups ( groupsⅡandⅢ) were fed on basic diet supplelemted with 100 and 200 g/t GOD. Aflatoxin B1 control group ( groupⅣ) was fed on basic diet with moldy corn. The groupⅤwas fed on the contaminated diet with 200 g/t GOD. The experiment lasted for 46 days. The results showed as follows:1) the average dai-ly gain and ratio of feed to gain of ducks in groupsⅡ andⅢ were significantly better than those in the control group ( P0.05) . The experiment indicated that the growth performance of ducks fed on basic diet can be significantly im-proved by supplementing GOD. The growth performance, serum parameters, slaughter performance and mor-tality rate of ducks fed diet with aflatoxin B1 can be improved by supplementing GOD.%本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加葡萄糖氧化酶( GOD)对肉鸭生长性能、血清指标和屠宰性能的影响及其解除黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)的效果。选用1000只健康的1日龄樱桃谷鸭,随机分为5个组,每组4个重复,每个重复50只鸭。Ⅰ组为对照组,饲喂基础饲粮;Ⅱ、Ⅲ组分别在基础饲粮中添加100和200 g/t GOD;Ⅳ组为混有AFB1超标玉米的攻毒组;Ⅴ组在Ⅳ组饲粮中添加200 g/t GOD。试验期46 d。结果表明:1)与对照组相比,Ⅱ、Ⅲ组显著提高了平均日增重( P0.05),显著低于其他各组(P<0.05)。由此可见,常规饲粮中添加GOD能显著改善肉鸭生长性能,添加GOD可改善AFB1攻毒肉鸭的生长性能、屠宰性能和血清指标,降低死亡率。

  14. Determination of Aflatoxins in Taditional Chinese Medicine by Cleaning up the Immunoaffinity Column and HPLC with Post Column Photochemical Derivatization%免疫亲和柱-HPLC柱后光化学衍生法测定中药饮片中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱迪; 谭丹; 向文英; 孙佳; 李勇军; 王爱民

    2015-01-01

    目的:建立中药饮片中黄曲霉毒素( AF)B1、B2、G1、G2含量测定的方法。方法:收集中药饮片87批,用免疫亲和柱进行AF的分离处理,采用高液相色谱( HPLC)柱后光化学衍生化法测定中药饮片中AFB1、AFB2、AFG1、AFG2含量并进行方法学分析。结果:被测定的AFB1、AFB2、AFG1、AFG2的检出限分别为0.7、0.3、0.6和0.3μg/kg,在选定的范围内线性关系良好( r≥0.999),精密度试验、重复性试验、准确度试验及标准样品验证试验结果均良好,87批中药饮片均未检出黄曲霉毒素。结论:免疫亲和柱-HPLC柱后光化学衍生化法操作简便,专属性强、灵敏度高,检测中药饮片中AFB1、AFB2、AFG1及AFG2的含量准确可靠。%Objective:To establish a method for determination of aflatoxins in Chinese medicinal de-coction pieces and to promote quality control of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces. Methods:Eighty-seven batches of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces were collected and immunoaffinity column and HPLC with post column photochemical derivatization was adopted to measure aflatoxins content,inclu-ding aflatoxin B1,aflatoxin B2,aflatoxin G1,aflatoxin G2 in all samples. Results:The detection lim-it of aflatoxin B1 ,aflatoxin B2 ,aflatoxin G1 ,aflatoxin G2 was 0 . 7 ,0 . 3 ,0 . 6 and 0 . 3 μg/kg respec-tively. There was a a good linear relationship(r≥0. 999)in selected range of content. The results of precision test,repeatability test,accuracy test were good as well. In 87 different batches of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces,aflatoxins were not detected. Conclusion:The mothod of Immunoaffinity column and HPLC with post column photochemical derivatization is convenient,specific,sensitive,ac-curate and reliable in measuring aflatoxins content of Chinese medicinal decoction pieces.

  15. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2009-10-31

    The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal properties of Lippia alba essential oil (EO) and two of its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against legume-contaminating fungi. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from 11 varieties of legumes, and aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified. Hydrodistillation method was used to extract the EO from fresh leaves. The GC and GC-MS analysis of EO revealed the monoterpene aldehydes viz. geranial (22.2%) and neral (14.2%) as the major components. The antifungal activity of EO, geranial and neral was evaluated by contact assay on Czapek's-dox agar. The EO (0.25-1 microL/mL) and its two constituents (1 microL/mL) showed remarkable antifungal effects against all the fungal isolates (growth inhibition range 32.1-100%). Their minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations for A. flavus were lower than those of the systemic fungicide Bavistin. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production by three isolates of A. flavus was strongly inhibited even at the lower fungistatic concentration of EO and its constituents. There was no adverse effect of treatments on seed germination, and rather, there was enhanced seedling growth in the EO-treated seeds. It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins.

  16. Rapid Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1,G2 in wine with HPLC and Immunoaffinity Column%免疫亲和柱HPLC荧光检测酒中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佐卿; 谢东华; 孙大为; 康继韬; 俞雪钧

    2001-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody immunoaffinity technology was used for specific method of extracting and purging aflatoxin from samples directly. After evaporating the extract to dryness, the residue were derived and detected by HPLC fluorescence detector. The average recoveries (n=10) are G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5% respectively;the RSD of ten determination are G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77% respectively; in the rang of 25—1250pg the analytical response is linear, the correlation coefficients are G1: r =0.9990 ,B1: r=0.9994,G2: r=0.9995,B2 :r=0.9992 respectively;the limit of determination was 6.25pg .%采用单克隆抗体免疫亲和技术作为直接从样品中分离提纯黄曲霉毒素的特效手段,提取液挥发干后,经衍生用HPLC荧光检测器测定。本法在样品中添加2.5μg /kg黄曲霉毒素时进行10次测定,平均回收率分别为G1 73.8%、B1 97.3%、G2 61.7%、B2 90.5%;2.5μg /kg 10次测定的精密度分别为:G1 4.50%、B1 3.80%、G2 3.68%、B2 4.77%,本方法在25—1250pg 范围内呈线性,相关系数分别为G1: r =0.9990 、 B1: r=0.9994、 G2: r=0.9995、 B2 : r=0.9992。测定的最低检出限为6.25pg。

  17. The effects of XRCC3 codon 241 polymorphism on the levels of aflatoxin B_1-DNA adducts%XRCC3基因多态性对AFB_1-DNA加合物水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄永秩; 龙喜带; 周远峰; 班植副; 姚金光; 曲德英

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨DNA修复酶基因X线修复交叉补体因子3(x-ray repair cross-complementing group 3,XRCG3)codon 241多态性对黄曲霉毒素B_1(aflatoxin B_1,AFB_1)高污染区广西人群AFB_1-DNA加合物水平的影响.方法 应用竞争性酶联免疫吸附法检测研究对象(966例)AFB_1-DNA加合物水平,而XRCC3基因型分析则通过PCR-RFLP来完成.结果 (1)带有codon 241 Met等位基因的XRCC3基因型(XRCC3-Thr/Met,XRCC3-Met/Met)与高AFB_1-DNA加合物水平相关,其风险值分别为1.43(1.08~1.89)和2.42(1.13~5.22);(2)XRCC3多态性与长时间的AFB_1暴露在AFB_1-DNA加合物形成过程中存在协同作用(OR=11.00,P<0.01).结论 AFB_1在带有易感基因型XRCC3-Thr/Met和XRCC3-Met/Met的人群更易诱导产生DNA损伤(AFB_1-DNA加合物).

  18. HPLC-柱后光化学衍生法检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素%Determination of Aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in Peanut Butter by HPLC with On-Line Post-Column Photochemical Derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵丽; 王晓; 滕振勇

    2015-01-01

    To determine the contents of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 in peanut butter using on-line post-column photo-chemical derivatization-HPLC-FLD method. The samples were extracted with acetonitril-H2O (80:20) and purified with inmunoafinity column,aflatoxins were analyzed by HPLC -FLD with post -column photochemical derivatizaton. On optimum conditions,aflatoxin B1,G1 ranging 0.30 mg/L-10 mg/L showed a good linear relationship with aflatoxin B2,G2 ranging 0.06 mg/L-3.0mg/L with r>0.998. The recoveries ranged between 80 % and 101 % ,with RSDs all bellow 5.9 %. LOD of aflatoxin B1,B2,G1 and G2 were 0.10,0.03,0.15,0.04μg/kg,respectively.%建立高效液相色谱-在线柱后光化学衍生-荧光检测器检测花生酱中黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的含量.样品以乙腈-水(80:20)溶液提取,经免疫亲和柱净化后,利用在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD进行分析测定.结果:在优化条件下,黄曲霉毒素B1、G1在0.30 mg/L~10 mg/L,黄曲霉毒素B2、G2在0.06 mg/L~3.0mg/L线性关系良好,r>0.998 ,回收率80%~101%,RSD<5.9%.黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的检测限(LOD)分别为0.10、0.03、0.15、0.04μg/kg.

  19. Effect of Peanut Components on the Degradation of Aflatoxin B1 by Low Temperature Radio Frequency Plasma%花生中的物质成分对低温射频等离子体降解黄曲霉毒素B1的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘真; 王世清; 肖军霞; 熊旭波; 姜文利; 任翠荣

    2016-01-01

    研究采用低温射频等离子体技术处理黄曲霉毒素B1(aflatoxin B1,AFB1),通过高效液相色谱分析其中AFB1的降解率,探宄花生中的蛋白质、脂肪酸、维生素和水分对低温射频等离子体去除AFB1的影响.结果表明,添加花生蛋白和玉米蛋白后,在不同的等离子体处理功率条件下,AFB1的降解率明显下降.在相同处理条件下,添加花生蛋白比添加玉米蛋白后的降解率低;添加油酸和亚油酸后,在不同的等离子体处理功率条件下,AFB1的降解率明显下降.在相同处理条件下,油酸和亚油酸的AFB1降解率基本相同;添加VE后,AFB1的降解率先高于空白组,后低于空白组.在相同处理条件下VE的含量越多,AFB1的降解率越低.说明低温射频等离子体技术降解AFB1时,花生中的成分对降解有影响.

  20. Evaluation of the Uncertainties in the Determination of Aflatoxins B1 in Dry Cassava by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定木薯干中黄曲霉毒素B1的不确定度评定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋卫得; 厉雪芹; 高尧华; 刘培海; 刘冰; 卢志晓; 孙灿

    2016-01-01

    The uncertainties in the determination of aflatoxins B1 in dry cassava by HPLC according to GB/T 18979-2003 were evaluated. The uncertainty components were classified, the relative standard uncertainty of each component was calculated, and the combined standard uncer-tainty and expanded uncertainty were calculated eventually. The evaluation results suggested that the component with the maximum uncertainty influence was recovery rate and the component with the minimum uncertainty influence was sample weighing, with the relative combined stan-dard uncertainty of 10.5%.%依据GB/T18979—2003《食品中黄曲霉毒素的测定》,对免疫亲和层洗净化高效液相色谱法测定木薯干中黄曲霉毒素B1的不确定度进行了评定.对检测过程中产生的不确定分量进行了分类,计算各分量的相对标准不确定度,从而计算出合成标准不确定度和扩展不确定度.通过评估发现,对测定不确定度影响最大的分量是检测方法的回收率,影响最小的分量是样品质量的称量,合成相对标准不确定度为10.5%.

  1. Stability of aflatoxins in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Gonzalo J; Cepeda, Sandra M; Martos, Perry A

    2012-01-01

    The stability of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was studied in solutions containing different concentrations of water, acetonitrile, and/or methanol, and in autosampler vials treated with nitric acid or silanized. When stored at room temperature (20 degrees C) for 24 h, aflatoxins G1 and G2 were stable only in solutions containing 100% organic solvent, whereas aflatoxins B1 and B2 were stable in solutions of methanol-water and acetonitrile-water at greater than 60 and 40% organic content, respectively. At 5 degrees C, aflatoxins G1 and G2 showed a significant decrease in concentration only when kept in less than 20% aqueous organic solvent. Significant loss of aflatoxins was realized in standard, commercially available amber type I borosilicate autosampler vials, but chemical etching of the vials with nitric acid or with silanization prevented aflatoxin degradation. These results indicate that aflatoxins are unstable in aqueous solutions and that this instability can be counteracted by the presence of at least 20% organic solvent and keeping the solutions at 5 degrees C or by the use of treated vials.

  2. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Ma, Qiugang; Zhao, Lihong; Jia, Ru; Zhang, Jianyun; Ji, Cheng; Wang, Xinyue

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL) in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal); AFB1 (the basal diet containing AFB1-contaminated peanut meal); SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL); AFB1+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB1 diet). The contents of AFB1 in AFB1 and AFB1+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB1 significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05) serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB1 not only increased (p < 0.05) levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05) total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB1-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis. PMID:27669305

  3. Protective Effects of Sporoderm-Broken Spores of Ganderma lucidum on Growth Performance, Antioxidant Capacity and Immune Function of Broiler Chickens Exposed to Low Level of Aflatoxin B1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 and evaluate the effects of sporoderm-broken spores of Ganoderma lucidum (SSGL in relieving aflatoxicosis in broilers. A total of 300 one-day-old male Arbor Acre broiler chickens were randomly divided into four dietary treatments; the treatment diets were: Control (a basal diet containing normal peanut meal; AFB1 (the basal diet containing AFB1-contaminated peanut meal; SSGL (basal diet with 200 mg/kg of SSGL; AFB1+SSGL (supplementation of 200 mg/kg of SSGL in AFB1 diet. The contents of AFB1 in AFB1 and AFB1+SSGL diets were 25.0 μg/kg in the starter period and 22.5 μg/kg in the finisher period. The results showed that diet contaminated with a low level of AFB1 significantly decreased (p < 0.05 the average daily feed intake and average daily gain during the entire experiment and reduced (p < 0.05 serum contents of total protein IgA and IgG. Furthermore, a dietary low level of AFB1 not only increased (p < 0.05 levels of hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation, but also decreased (p < 0.05 total antioxidant capability, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and hydroxyl radical scavenger activity in the liver and spleen of broilers. Moreover, the addition of SSGL to AFB1-contaminated diet counteracted these negative effects, indicating that SSGL has a protective effect against aflatoxicosis.

  4. Effects of Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG on degradation of aflatoxin B1 and the protection of liver injury%鼠李糖乳杆菌对黄曲霉毒素B1的降解及对肝损伤的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周旻昱; 周秀芳

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析鼠李糖乳杆菌(Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, LGG)对黄曲霉毒素B1(aflatoxin B1, AFB1)的降解能力,阐述LGG对由AFB1引起的肝损伤的保护作用。方法利用LGG培养液、LGG上清液组、LGG菌体、热处理后上清液和热处理后LGG菌体处理AFB1,利用高效液相色谱法测定AFB1的残留量,分析LGG对AFB1的降解能力。利用低、中和高剂量的LGG菌液灌胃由AFB1引起肝损伤的大鼠,并以空白和阳性作为对照组,测定大鼠的血清肝功能及肝组织抗氧化指标,分析 LGG 对肝损伤的保护作用。结果 AFB1降解实验表明 LGG菌液对AFB1具有显著的降解作用(P<0.05),36 h能够降解(92.01±2.02)%的AFB1。降解作用是由菌体和LGG的代谢产物共同作用的结果。大鼠血清肝功能及肝组织抗氧化指标结果表明低、中和高剂量的LGG灌胃给药均能显著改善因AFB1引起的大鼠肝功能和肝组织抗氧化指标异常(P<0.05)。结论 LGG对AFB1具有良好的降解作用,且能够有效抑制因AFB1引起的肝损伤。%Objective To analyze the effects ofLactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on the degradation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and reveal the protective effect of LGG on the liver injury caused by AFB1.MethodsThe AFB1 was treated with LGG culture, supernatant of LGG, cell of LGG, supernatant of LGG with heat treatment and cell of LGG with heat treatment. The residues of AFB1 were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which could analyze the effects of LGG on the degradation of AFB1. The liver injury rats caused by AFB1 were lavaged using low, medium and high dose of LGG culture. The serum liver function and liver tissue antioxidant index of rats were determined to reveal the protective effect of LGG on the liver injury.ResultsThe degradation experiment of AFB1 showed that LGG thallus had a significant degradation effect (P<0.05) on AFB1. With a treatment for 36 h, the degradation rate was (92.01±2.02)%. The

  5. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible ...

  6. 免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC-FLD同时测定甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量%Simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhiza uralensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemicai derivatization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦日伟; 杨小丽; 仇峰; 杨美华; 覃洁萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:建立同时检测甘草中黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的免疫亲和柱净化-在线柱后光化学衍生-HPLC- FLD测定的方法.方法:样品经甲醇-水(80:20)超声提取后,用免疫亲和柱净化和富集;以甲醇和0.5%乙酸溶液为流动相进行梯度洗脱,通过柱后光化学衍生,荧光检测器测定.结果:黄曲霉毒素G2,G1,B2,B1和赭曲霉毒素A的检测限分别为0.02,0.06,0.015,0.03,0.25μg·kg-1,平均加样回收率为76.0%~103%,RSD低于13%.结论:该方法快速简便、准确,可用于甘草中同时测定黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2和赭曲霉毒素A的含量.%Objective: To develop a method for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in Glycyrrhita walensis by HPLC-FLD after immunoaffinity column with online post-column photochemical derivatization. Method; Sample was extracted with MeOH:- H2O (80:20) and cleaned up by immunoaffinity column. The toxins were separated by reversed-phase HPLC and the mobile phase was consisted of methanol and 0. 5% acetic acid solution with gradient elution. The determination was carried out by fluorescence detector after photochemical derivatization. Result; The detection limits of aflatoxin G2 , C,, B2 , B, and ochratoxin A were 0.02, 0. 06, 0. 015, 0.03 and 0. 25 μg · kg-1, respectively. The recoveries of analytes were from 76.0% to 103% and the relative standard deviations (RSDs) were below 13%. Conclusion; The method is a simple, accurate and can be used to determine the contents of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and ochratoxin A in G. Uralensis simultaneously.

  7. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素%HPLC-MS/MS simultaneous determination of aflatoxins B1 , B2 , G1 and G2 in Pheretima

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小丽; 仇峰; 韦日伟; 覃禹; 杨美华; 欧阳臻

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To establish a sensitive and accurate liquid chromatography -tandem mass spectrometry method(LC -MS/MS) for simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins in Pheretima. Methods;The samples were firstly extracted with methanol - water solution ( 80:20, v/v), and then cleaned up by immunoaffinity columns. The mass spectrometer was operated in the positive ionization electrospray( ESI) mode using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) for analysis of four aflatoxins. The transitions of m/z 313-241 (aflatoxin B, ,CE 50 eV) ,m/z 315-259 (aflatoxin B2,CE 43 eV) ,m/z 329-243 (aflatoxin G1,CE 38 eV) and m/z 331-245(aflatoxin G2,CE 40 eV) were used to quantify four aflatoxins,respectively. Results:The detection limits of aflatoxin B1,B2 ,G1 and G2 were 0. 03,0. 02,0. 03 and 0. 02 μg o kg-1 .respectively. The recoveries of four analytes ranged from 88. 0% to 100. 3% and the relative standard deviations were all below 6. 1 %. Conclusion; The method is sensitive, simple and accurate, and proved to be suitable for the simultaneous determination of four aflatoxins in Pheretima.%目的:建立同时测定地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素含量的高效液相色谱串联质谱法.方法:样品经甲醇-水(80∶20,v/v)提取,通过免疫亲和柱净化后,采用高效液相色谱串联质谱法测定其中4个黄曲霉毒素的含量,以多反应监测(MRM)方式分别监测离子对m/z 313→241(黄曲霉毒素B1,CE 50 eV),m/z 315→259(黄曲霉毒素B2,CE 43 eV),m/z329→243(黄曲霉毒素G1,CE 38 eV)和m/z 331→245(黄曲霉毒素G2,CE 40 eV).结果:黄曲霉毒素B1、B2、G1、G2的检测限分别为0.03,0.02,0.03,0.02μg·kg-1,回收率在88.0%~100.3%范围内,RSD均低于6.1%.结论:该方法快速、灵敏,结果准确,适用于地龙中4个黄曲霉毒素的同时检测.

  8. Aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in maize of Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iram, Wajiha; Anjum, Tehmina; Abbas, Mateen; Khan, Abdul Muqeet

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin and ochratoxin levels were determined in maize samples collected from store houses of 15 districts belonging to three agro-ecological zones of Punjab, Pakistan. Toxins were extracted by Aflaochra immunoaffinity columns and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Mean moisture content of maize kernels was recorded above the safe storage level of 15%. Results indicated that aflatoxin B1 and B2 contamination was found in 97.3% and 78.9% of the collected samples, respectively. Aflatoxin G1, aflatoxin G2 and ochratoxin A were not detected in any sample. Among positive samples, 77.3% contained aflatoxin B1 and 28% aflatoxin B2, exceeding the legal limits as set by the European Union (EU) and the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA). It was concluded that a significant number of samples contained aflatoxin B1 and B2 above the legal limits.

  9. The occurrence of aflatoxins in selected spices and dried fruits

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    Renata Stanisławczyk

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are toxic substances formed by fungi which are a potential danger for human and animal health. The aim of this study was to determine the contamination with the aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in selected spices and dried fruits available in trade in the Podkarpackie province. The studies confirm the widespread occurrence of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2 in spices, spices mixtures and dried fruits, however, in none of the tested samples there was exceeded the permissible concentration of aflatoxin B1 and aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2. The highest content of aflatoxin B1 was determined in red pepper and universal spices mixture while the smallest in figs and raisins. The monitoring of aflatoxins sum B1, B2, G1, G2  showed similar results. The highest level was determined in universal spices mixture and in red pepper.

  10. Aflatoxins and heavy metals in animal feed in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskandari, M H; Pakfetrat, S

    2014-01-01

    The occurrence of aflatoxin (aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) and aflatoxin G2 (AFG2)) and heavy metal (Pb, Cd, As and Hg) contamination was determined in 40 industrially produced animal feed samples which were collected from the southwest of Iran. The results indicated that 75% of samples were contaminated by four aflatoxins and the level of AFB1 and sum of aflatoxins were higher than the permissible maximum levels in Iran (5 and 20 µg kg(-1), respectively) in all feed samples. A positive correlation was found between four types of aflatoxins in all the tested samples (p < 0.01) and the positive correlation between AFG1 and AFG2 was significant (r(2) = 0.708). All feed samples had lead concentrations lower than the maximum EU limit, while 5%, 17% and 42.5% of feed samples had As, Cd and Hg concentrations higher than the maximum limits, respectively.

  11. Aflatoxins as a cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kew, Michael C

    2013-09-01

    Aflatoxins, metabolites of the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus, are frequent contaminants of a number of staple foods, particularly maize and ground nuts, in subsistence farming communities in tropical and sub-tropical climates in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern Asia and parts of South America. Contamination of foods occurs during growth and as a result of storage in deficient or inappropriate facilities. These toxins pose serious public health hazards, including the causation of hepatocellular carcinoma by aflatoxin B1. Exposure begins in utero and is life-long. The innocuous parent molecule of the fungus is converted by members of the cytochrome p450 family into mutagenic and carcinogenic intermediates. Aflatoxin-B1 is converted into aflatoxin B1-8,9 exo-epoxide, which is in turn converted into 8,9-dihydroxy-8-(N7) guanyl-9-hydroxy aflatoxin B1 adduct. This adduct is metabolized into aflatoxin B1 formaminopyrimidine adduct. These adducts are mutagenic and carcinogenic. In addition, an arginine to serine mutation at codon 249 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene is produced, abrogating the function of the tumor suppressor gene, and contributing to hepatocarcinogenesis. Aflatoxin B1 acts synergistically with hepatitis B virus in causing hepatocellular carcinoma. A number of interactions between the two carcinogens may be responsible for this action, including integration of hepatitis B virus x gene and its consequences, as well as interference with nucleotide excision repair, activation of p21waf1/cip1, generation of DNA mutations, and altered methylation of genes. But much remains to be learnt about the precise pathogenetic mechanisms responsible for aflatoxin B1-induced hepatocellular carcinoma as well as the interaction between the toxin and hepatitis B virus in causing the tumor.

  12. The effects fo complex enzy mes for detoxicated aflatoxin B1 on production performance and egg quality of laying hens%复合酶制剂降解黄曲霉毒素 B1对蛋鸡生产性能和蛋品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡常英; 胡科峰; 秦慧娟; 范星; 王云鹏

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated effects of aflatoxin B1 degradation complex enzymes(GOD and CAT) on production perform-ance and egg quality of laying hens fed with naturally moldy corn with AFB 1 .Two hundred and ten 180-day-old Jing Fen laying hens were randomly divided into seven groups (CK, BA1, BA2, BA3, BD1, BD2 and BD3) .The seven dietary treatments consisted of con-ventional feed without moldy corn or complex enzymes as a control diet (CK), AFB 1 content of moldy corn were 17.22,53.27 and 134.56 g/kg (BA1, BA2 and BA3), respectively and moldy corns were added into 0.5%complex enzymes(BD1, BD2 and BD3). Results showed the production performance and egg quality of laying hens in BA 1,BA2 and BA3 groups were all decreased in different degrees, the production performance and egg quality of laying hens in BD 1,BD2 groups at three phases(T1,T2 and T3) and BD3 at the first phase(T1) of experimental time continuously were all increased compared to that in CK groups .In BD3 group was compared with in BA3 group at third phase(T3) of experimental time continuously , and the monthly output of eggs has gone up from 9 to 17, the hatching rate of fertilized eggs has gone up from 41%to 57%, the yolk weight has gone up from 14.34 g to15.53 g , the egg weight has gone up from 42.39 g to 48.49 g, the eggshell thickness has gone up from 0.28mm to 0.31mm.As a result , the complex enzymes could reduce or almost eliminate the negative effects of AFB 1 on production performance and egg quality of laying hens .%试验旨在研究葡萄糖氧化酶(Glucose Oxidase, GOD )和过氧化氢酶(catalase, CAT)复合酶制剂降解污染饲料中黄曲霉毒素B1Aflatoxin B1, AFB1)对蛋鸡生产性能和蛋品质的影响。选用210只180日龄京粉蛋鸡,随机分为7组( CK、BA1、BA2、BA3、BD1、BD2和BD3),7个处理组分别是饲喂不添加污染玉米和复合酶的CK组,污染饲料中含有17.22,53.27和134.56μg/kg AFB1的BA1,BA2和BA3

  13. Aflatoxins in foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amedeo Pietri

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus. The aflatoxin group is comprised of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, B2, G1 and G2. In addition, aflatoxin M1 (AFM1, a hydroxylated metabolite of AFB1, is excreted in the milk of dairy cows consuming an AFB1-contaminated ration. AFB1 has shown extreme acute and chronic toxicity and carcinogenic activity in animals; the acute toxicity of AFM1 is nearly equal to that of AFB1, but its potential carcinogenic hazard is about one order of magnitude less than that of AFB1. The International Agency for Research on Cancer classified AFB1 as a human carcinogen (group 1 and AFM1 as a possible carcinogen (group 2A. Recently, the possibility of a synergistic carcinogenic interaction between HBV chronic infection and dietary exposure to AFB1 arose from the observation of their co-existence in countries with high incidences of HCC and was confirmed by further experimental and epidemiological studies. However, the carcinogenic potency of AFB1 is considered much lower in populations where chronic hepatitis infections are rare. For the first time in 2003, significant problems arose in Italy, due to the aflatoxin contamination of maize. The summer was extremely hot and dry and A. flavus is very competitive under these conditions as the plants are stressed. Maize grain is normally utilized in the food supply for dairy cows and as such led to the severe and widespread contamination of milk with AFM1. In the following years (2004-2006, different climatic conditions as well as better compliance with guidelines by farmers, led to a dramatic reduction of the problem.

  14. Aflatoxin exposure during the first 1000 days of life in rural South Asia assessed by aflatoxin B₁-lysine albumin biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groopman, John D; Egner, Patricia A; Schulze, Kerry J; Wu, Lee S-F; Merrill, Rebecca; Mehra, Sucheta; Shamim, Abu A; Ali, Hasmot; Shaikh, Saijuddin; Gernand, Alison; Khatry, Subarna K; LeClerq, Steven C; West, Keith P; Christian, Parul

    2014-12-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a potent carcinogen, occurring from mold growth that contaminates staple grains in hot, humid environments. In this investigation, aflatoxin B1-lysine albumin biomarkers were measured by mass spectrometry in rural South Asian women, during the first and third trimester of pregnancy, and their children at birth and at two years of age. These subjects participated in randomized community trials of antenatal micronutrient supplementation in Sarlahi District, southern Nepal and Gaibandha District in northwestern Bangladesh. Findings from the Nepal samples demonstrated exposure to aflatoxin, with 94% detectable samples ranging from 0.45 to 2939.30 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin during pregnancy. In the Bangladesh samples the range was 1.56 to 63.22 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the first trimester, 3.37 to 72.8 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin in the third trimester, 4.62 to 76.69 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at birth and 3.88 to 81.44 pg aflatoxin B1-lysine/mg albumin at age two years. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adducts in cord blood samples demonstrated that the fetus had the capacity to convert aflatoxin into toxicologically active compounds and the detection in the same 2-year-old children illustrates exposure over the first 1000 days of life.

  15. Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroyoshi; Kishimoto, Takuya; Oishi, Satoru; Nagata, Kan; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tamae; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with severe Wernicke–Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory. Similarly with WKS, impairments in memory formation did not recover even at 6 months after treatment with PTD. Importantly, PTD mice exhibit a decrease in neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and reduced density of wide dendritic spines in the DG. Our findings suggest that TD induces hippocampal degeneration, including the loss of neurons and spines, thereby leading to enduring impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation. PMID:27576603

  16. Vitamin B1-deficient mice show impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation and loss of hippocampal neurons and dendritic spines: potential microendophenotypes of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hiroyoshi; Kishimoto, Takuya; Oishi, Satoru; Nagata, Kan; Hasegawa, Shunsuke; Watanabe, Tamae; Kida, Satoshi

    2016-12-01

    Patients with severe Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) associated with vitamin B1 (thiamine) deficiency (TD) show enduring impairment of memory formation. The mechanisms of memory impairment induced by TD remain unknown. Here, we show that hippocampal degeneration is a potential microendophenotype (an endophenotype of brain disease at the cellular and synaptic levels) of WKS in pyrithiamine-induced thiamine deficiency (PTD) mice, a rodent model of WKS. PTD mice show deficits in the hippocampus-dependent memory formation, although they show normal hippocampus-independent memory. Similarly with WKS, impairments in memory formation did not recover even at 6 months after treatment with PTD. Importantly, PTD mice exhibit a decrease in neurons in the CA1, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG) regions of the hippocampus and reduced density of wide dendritic spines in the DG. Our findings suggest that TD induces hippocampal degeneration, including the loss of neurons and spines, thereby leading to enduring impairment of hippocampus-dependent memory formation.

  17. Contamination of aflatoxin B1 in peanuts around harvest from counties of Linyi in Shandong province%山东临沂部分县区花生收获前后黄曲霉毒素B1污染情况研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏祥; 刘建伟; 韩小敏; 秦泽明; 温红玲; 宋艳艳; 李凤琴; 赵丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:了解花生从收获前到收获、储存期间黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)污染的环节,为预防花生AFB1的污染提供科学依据。方法2014年,在山东临沂市选择花生种植范围较广的5个县,分别于收获前1~2周、收获时、收获晾干后1个月和储存3个月采集花生样本共260份,酶联免疫法(ELISA)检测花生 AFB1的污染情况,并对结果进行分析。结果260份花生样品中,收获前、收获时样品中AFB1均小于2μg/kg,收获晾干后1个月和储存3个月各有1份样品AFB1含量严重超标,分别是81.07μg/kg和为254.27μg/kg,阳性率均为1.27%;总阳性率为0.77%。结论2014年临沂部分地区花生中AFB1阳性率较低,污染主要发生在收获后的晾晒和储存期,提示科学晾晒和储存是预防花生AFB1污染的重要措施之一。%Objective To investigate aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) contamination of peanuts from pre-harvest, harvest period to storage period, and to provide a scientific basis to prevent contamination of AFB1 in peanuts. Methods In 2014, five counties of Linyi in Shandong province were chosen, and 260 peanut samples were collected in 1~2 weeks before harvest, harvest, post-harvest 1 month and 3 months storage, standardized enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits were used to detect AFB1 content in peanuts, then, the results were analyzed. Results In 260 peanut samples, AFB1 concentrations from all pre-harvest and harvest peanuts were less than 2μg/kg, AFB1 of 2 samples from 1 month after drying and 3 months storage were out of limits, the values were 81.07 μg/kg and 254.27 μg/kg, respectively. The positive rate was 1.27%, and total positive rate was 0.77%. Conclusion AFB1 contamination of peanuts in this region occurred mostly in drying and storage period after harvest, scientific drying and storage were one of the most important measures to prevent AFB1 contamination in peanuts.

  18. Comparison of methods by TLC and HPTLC for determination of aflatoxin M1 in milk and B1 in eggs Comparação de metodologia para análise de aflatoxina M1 em leite e aflatoxina B1 em ovos por CCD e CCDAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Scussel

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Milk and egg matrixes were assayed for aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 and B1 (AFB1 respectively, by AOAC official and modified methods with detection and quantification by thin layer chromatography (TLC and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC. The modified methods: Blanc followed by Romer, showed to be most appropriate for AFM1 analysis in milk. Both methods reduced emulsion formation, produced cleaner extracts, no streaking spots, precision and accuracy improved, especially when quantification was performed by HPTLC. The use of ternary mixture in the Blanc Method was advantageous as the solvent could extract AFM1 directly from the first stage (extraction, leaving other compounds in the binary mixture layer, avoiding emulsion formation, thus reducing toxin loss. The relative standard deviation (RSD% values were low, 16 and 7% when TLC and HPTLC were used, with a mean recovery of 94 and 97%, respectively. As far as egg matrix and final extract are concerned, both methods evaluated for AFB1 need further studies. Although that matrix leads to emulsion with consequent loss of toxin, the Romer modified presented a reasonable clean extract (mean recovery of 92 and 96% for TLC and HPTLC, respectively. Most of the methods studied did not performed as expected mainly due to the matrixes high content of triglicerides (rich on saturated fatty acids, cholesterol, carotene and proteins. Although nowadays most methodology for AFM1 is based on HPLC, TLC determination (Blanc and Romer modified for AFM1 and AFB1 is particularly recommended to those, inexperienced in food and feed mycotoxins analysis and especially who cannot afford to purchase sophisticated (HPLC,HPTLC instrumentation.Aflatoxinas M1 (AFM1 e B1 (AFB1 foram analisadas em leite e ovos respectivamente, por diferentes métodos oficiais da AOAC e modificações usando detecção por cromatografia em camada delgada (CCD e CCD de alta eficiência (CCDAE. Os métodos modificados: Blanc e Romer

  19. Effect of gamma radiation on the inactivation of aflatoxin B1 in food and feed crops Efeito da radiação gama na inativação de aflatoxina B1 em alimentos e ração

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Ghanem

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Samples of food crops (peanut, peeled pistachio, unpeeled pistachio, rice, and corn and feed (barley, bran, corn were autoclave-sterilized, and inoculated with 10(6 of spore suspension of an isolate of Aspergillus flavus fungus known to produce aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 . Following a 10-day period of incubation at 27 C to allow for fungal growth, food and feed samples were irradiated with gamma radiation at the doses 4, 6, and 10 kGy. Results indicated that degradation of AFB1 was positively correlated with the increase in the applied dose of gamma ray for each tested sample. At a dose of 10 kGy percentages of AFB1 degradation reached highest values at 58.6, 68.8, 84.6, 81.1 and 87.8% for peanuts, peeled pistachios, unpeeled pistachios, corn and rice samples, respectively. In feed samples percentages of AFB1 degradation were 45, 66, and 90% in barley, 47, 75, and 86% in bran, and 31, 72, and 84% in corn for the doses of 4, 6, and 10 kGy, respectively. AFB1 degradation in food samples correlated negatively with oil content in irradiated samples. Thus, in peanuts, which contained the highest oil content, percentage of AFB1 degradation at 10 kGy was not more than 56.6%, whereas, the corresponding value in corn, which contained the lowest oil content, reached as high as 80%. The above results indicate the possibility of using gamma radiation as a means of degradation of AFB1 in food and feed crops to levels lower than the maximum allowed levels.Amostras de alimentos (amendoim, pistache descascada, pistache com casca, arroz e milho e de ração (cevada, farelo de trigo e milho foram esterilizadas por autoclavação e inoculadas com uma suspensão de esporos (10(6 de um isolado de Aspergillus flavus produtor de aflatoxina B1 (AFB1. Após incubação por 10 dias a 27ºC para multiplicação do fungo, as amostras foram irradiadas com radiação gama nas doses de 4, 6 e 10 kGy. Os resultados indicaram que a degradação da AFB1 correlacionou-se positivamente

  20. β-环糊精及其衍生物对黄曲霉毒素B_1荧光增强机理研究%Mechanisms Underlying Fluorescence Enhancement of Aflatoxin B_1 by β-Cyclodextrin and Its Derivatives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 郭婷; 刘馨; 肖洁; 张宇昊; 马良

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying fluorescence enhancement of aflatoxin B1(AFB1) by β-cyclodextrin(β-CD) and its derivatives were explored using spectroscopy,Benesi-Hidebrand analysis and thermodynamics.Moreover the effects of methanol volume percentage,M-β-CD concentration,reaction time and interfering ions on fluorescence enhancement were analyzed.β-CD and its six derivatives showed an inclusion ratio to AFB1 of 1:1 at low concentrations and 2:1 at high concentrations.The thermodynamic parameters entropy change(ΔS),enthalpy change(ΔH) and free energy change(ΔG) for maximum inclusion constant between M-β-CD and AFB1 were negative,suggesting that the inclusion reaction is exothermic and can occur spontaneously.Enthalpy change was the dominant force during the formation of inclusion complexes.UV absorption spectra and KI quenching experiments showed that AFB1 could enter M-β-CD cavity to protect fluorescence.Therefore,β cyclodextrin and its derivatives can allow considerable enhancement in the fluorescence emission intensity of AFB1 by the formation of supramolecular inclusion complexes,resulting in increased sensitivity of AFB1fluorescence analysis.%利用光谱法、Benesi-Hildebrand法、热力学方法研究β-环糊精(β-CD)及其衍生物对黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)荧光增强机理,探讨溶剂中甲醇体积比、M-β-CD浓度、时间、干扰离子等因素对荧光增强作用的影响。根据Benesi-Hildebrand法确定7种β-环糊精及其衍生物在低浓度时与AFB1包络比为1:1,高浓度时包络比为2:1。采用热力学方法计算了包合常数最大的M-β-CD与AFB1包合过程的熵变(ΔS)、焓变(ΔH)及自由能变化(ΔG)均为负值,说明包合反应是放热反应且能自发进行,焓变是形成超分子包络物的主要驱动力。紫外吸收光谱及KI淬灭实验表明AFB1进入M-β-CD空腔从而使荧光得到保护。得出结论:7种β-环糊精及其衍生物与AFB1通过形成超分子

  1. Pathological Impairment, Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis of Thymus and Bursa of Fabricius Induced by Aflatoxin-Contaminated Corn in Broilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xi; Bai, Shiping; Ding, Xuemei; Zhang, Keying

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the comparative effects of aflatoxin-contaminated corn on the thymus and bursa of Fabricius (BF) in chickens by detecting histopathological lesions, cell cycle phase distribution and apoptosis. A total of 900 COBB500 male broilers were randomly allocated into five groups. The experiment lasted for six weeks and the five dietary treatments consisted of uncontaminated corn (control), 25% contaminated corn, 50% contaminated corn, 75% contaminated corn and 100% contaminated corn groups. The gross changes showed the decreased size of the thymus and BF, as well as the pale color of the BF in the broilers after aflatoxin contaminated diet exposure. There were more nuclear debris in the thymus and BF of birds in the 50%, 75%, and 100% contaminated corn groups, but the pathological impairments of the BF were more obvious than those of the thymus, which showed as more obvious lymphocyte depletion and the proliferation of reticulocytes and fibroblasts. At 21 days of age, the percentage of thymocytes and BF cells in the G2M phase was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the four AFB-contaminated corn groups. However, at 42 days of age, dietary AFB1 induced cell cycle perturbation at the G0G1 phase in thymocytes, but at the G2M phase in BF cells. The increased percentage of apoptotic cells in the thymus and BF were similarly observed in the AFB groups. According to these results, the severity of histopathological lesions may be correlated with the different sensitivity of the two central immune organs when exposed to AFB; different arrested cell cycle phases suggest that different mechanisms may be involved in the lesions of the thymus and BF, which need to be further researched.

  2. Genetic Polymorphism of CYP27B1-1260 as Associated With Impaired Fasting Glucose in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Undergoing Antiviral Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Recent studies have indicated that abnormal glucose levels and diabetes are negatively associated with the prognosis of patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV infection. The genetic polymorphism of the promoter region -1260 of a gene encoding the enzyme 1-alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1-1260 has been shown to have an impact on the signaling pathways involved in insulin secretion. Objectives The aim is to investigate the effect of CYP27B1-1260 polymorphism on the fasting plasma glucose (FPG levels in patients with chronic HCV undergoing antiviral therapy. Patients and Methods A total of 461 patients with chronic HCV infection and 300 volunteers without HCV infection were enrolled in an observational cohort study in the China-Japan Union hospital of Jilin University and the Second Hospital of Daqing, Changchun, Jilin Province. Both groups were further divided into normal and abnormal FPG subgroups. The frequencies of the three CYP27B1-1260 genotypes (AA, AC, and CC were determined in each subgroup. FPG levels were monitored at baseline in HCV and control participants, and both during and after antiviral therapy in HCV infected patients. The frequency of each genotype was determined. Logistic regression analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors associated with abnormal FPG levels in HCV infected patients undergoing antiviral therapy. Results In HCV infected patients with abnormal FPG levels, the frequency of the genotype CC was significantly higher than that in patients with normal FPG levels (19% vs. 7%, P < 0.001. In contrast, in the control participants, the CC genotype was not significantly different between FPG groups. At baseline, the CC genotype was associate with four times more risk of IFG after adjusting for multiple variables (OR: 4.11; 95%CI: 1.98 - 8.52, P = 0.0001. During 24 weeks of anti-HCV treatment, 38 HCV participants developed newly-diagnosed impaired fasting glucose. The CC genotype markedly increased the

  3. Development and in-house validation of a robust and sensitive solid-phase extraction liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry method for the quantitative determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattanzio, Veronica M T; Gatta, Stefania Della; Suman, Michele; Visconti, Angelo

    2011-07-15

    A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1), G(2)), ochratoxin A, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 and HT-2 toxins in cereal-based foods. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile/water (84:16, v/v) and cleaned up through a polymeric solid-phase extraction column. Detection and quantification of the nine mycotoxins were performed by reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS), using fully (13)C-isotope-labelled mycotoxins as internal standards. The method was validated in-house for five different cereal processed products, namely barley, oat and durum wheat flours, rye- and wheat-based crisp bread. Recoveries and repeatability of the whole analytical procedure were evaluated at contamination levels encompassing the EU maximum permitted levels for each tested mycotoxin. Recoveries ranged from 89 to 108% for deoxynivalenol, from 73 to 114% for aflatoxins, from 85 to 114% for T-2 and HT-2 toxins, from 64 to 97% for zearalenone, from 74 to 102% for ochratoxin A. Relative standard deviations were less than 16% for all tested mycotoxins and matrices. Limits of detection (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) ranged from 0.1 to 59.2 µg/kg. The trueness of the results obtained by the proposed method was demonstrated by analysis of reference materials for aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone. The use of inexpensive clean-up cartridges and the increasing availability of less expensive LC/MS/MS instrumentation strengthen the potential of the proposed method for its effective application for reliable routine analysis to assess compliance of tested cereal products with current regulation.

  4. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Hadad Esper; Edlayne eGonçalez; Marcia Ortiz Mayo Marques; Roberto Carlos Felicio; Joana D'arc Felicio

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with ...

  5. Reduction of toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 by using baker yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae in growing broiler chicks diets Redução dos efeitos tóxicos da aflatoxina B1, utilizando-se levedura de panificação (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, na dieta de pintos de corte em crescimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemal Çelýk

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the effects of adding baker yeast (BY, chlortetracycline (CTC and both BY + CTC to a control diet containing 200 ng/g of aflatoxin B1 (C + AFB1 on performance, serum parameters and pathologyc alterations of broilers. A total 100 chicks (Ross PM 3 were divided into five groups in individual cages and each containing 20 animals. BY, a rich source of protein and vitamin B complex, was mixed into the diets at 2.0 %, CTC was mixed into the diet at 2.5 ng/g. Feed consumption, body weight and feed efficiency were recorded weekly. Serum parameters and pathologyc alterations were determined at the end of the study. Dead animals were recorded daily. Liver changes were clearly apparent in the C+AFB1and C+ AFB1+CTC most of the livers were enlarged, yellow and had pethecial hemorrhages. Canalicula cholestosis was absent in group C+AFB1 and C+ AFB1+CTC, but not others. When compared to the control (C group, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, appear to be significantly increased in the C+AFB1 and C+CTC+ AFB1 groups. Serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOTwas increased in C+AFB1 birds. Serum alphaphetoprotein was not affected by the treatments. Feed consumption and body weight were significantly reduced in group AFB1. Birds receiving BY + AFB1, CTC + AFB1 and BY + CTC + AFB1 had a significantly higher body weight than group C+AFB1. Feed efficiency was better in group CTC + AFB1 than the others. The findings of this research suggest tha BY (2% can partly counteract some of the toxic effects of AFB1.Este estudo foi desenvolvido para avaliar os efeitos da adição de Levedura de panificação (BY e cortetraciclina (CTC e ambos BY+CTC a uma dieta controle © contendo 200 ng/g de aflatoxina B1 (C+AFB1 sobre desempenho, parâmetros séricos e alterações patológicas de frangos de corte. Um total de 100 pintinhos (Ross PM3 foi dividido em cinco grupos, em gaiolas individuais, contendo 20 animais para cada grupo. A levedura de

  6. Potential of lactic acid bacteria in aflatoxin risk mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlberg, Sara H; Joutsjoki, Vesa; Korhonen, Hannu J

    2015-08-17

    Aflatoxins (AF) are ubiquitous mycotoxins contaminating food and feed. Consumption of contaminated food and feed can cause a severe health risk to humans and animals. A novel biological method could reduce the health risks of aflatoxins through inhibiting mold growth and binding aflatoxins. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are commonly used in fermented food production. LAB are known to inhibit mold growth and, to some extent, to bind aflatoxins in different matrices. Reduced mold growth and aflatoxin production may be caused by competition for nutrients between bacterial cells and fungi. Most likely, binding of aflatoxins depends on environmental conditions and is strain-specific. Killed bacteria cells possess consistently better binding abilities for aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) than viable cells. Lactobacilli especially are relatively well studied and provide noticeable possibilities in binding of aflatoxin B1 and M1 in food. It seems that binding is reversible and that bound aflatoxins are released later on (Haskard et al., 2001; Peltonen et al., 2001). This literature review suggests that novel biological methods, such as lactic acid bacteria, show potential in mitigating toxic effects of aflatoxins in food and feed.

  7. Determination of aflatoxins in food using LC/MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahl, Martin; Jørgensen, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    A liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometric method is described for the determination of aflatoxins B-1, B-2, G(1) and G(2) in food with the use of aflatoxin M-1 as an internal standard. The method works well with matrices such as those of figs...

  8. Theoretical characterization of aflatoxins and their phototoxic reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Rita C.; Eriksson, Leif A.

    2006-05-01

    Key molecular properties are calculated for the 8 most common aflatoxins at the B3LYP/6-31 + G(d,p) level. Special attention is given the possibility of aflatoxins to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). It is concluded that the excited triplet states of the aflatoxins have properties that make them very potent ROS generators, in addition to direct photoinduced addition reactions. The elevated toxicity of aflatoxin B1 is discussed in terms of its lower ionization potential, and the coincidence of higher lying triplet states with dominant low-lying singlet excitations, which enables rapid intersystem crossing and decay along the triplet channel to the T 1 state.

  9. Use of isotope-labeled aflatoxins for LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution analysis of foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervino, Christian; Asam, Stefan; Knopp, Dietmar; Rychlik, Michael; Niessner, Reinhard

    2008-03-26

    Aflatoxins are a group of very carcinogenic mycotoxins that can be found on a wide range of food commodities including nuts, cereals, and spices. In this study, the first LC-MS/MS stable isotope dilution assay (SIDA) for the determination of aflatoxins in foods was developed. The development of this method was enabled by easily accessible isotope-labeled (deuterated) aflatoxins B2 and G2, which were synthesized by catalytic deuteration of aflatoxin B1 and G1, purified, and well-characterized by NMR and MS. All four aflatoxins of interest (B1, B2, G1, and G2) were quantified in food samples by using these two labeled internal standards. The response factors (RF) of the linear calibrations were revealed to be matrix independent for labeled aflatoxin B2/aflatoxin B2 and labeled aflatoxin G2/aflatoxin G2. For labeled aflatoxin B 2/aflatoxin B 1 and labeled aflatoxin B2/aflatoxin G1 matrix-matched calibration was performed for the model matrices almonds and wheat flour, showing significant differences of the RFs. Limits of detection (LOD) were determined by applying a statistical approach in the presence of the two model matrices, yielding 0.31 microg/kg (aflatoxin B1), 0.09 microg/kg (aflatoxin B2), 0.38 microg/kg (aflatoxin G1), and 0.32 microg/kg (aflatoxin G2) for almonds (similar LODs were obtained for wheat flour). Recovery rates were between 90 and 105% for all analytes. Coefficients of variation (CV) of 12% (aflatoxin B1), 3.6% (aflatoxin B2), 14% (aflatoxin G1), and 4.8% (aflatoxin G2) were obtained from interassay studies. For further validation, a NIST standard reference food sample was analyzed for aflatoxins B1 and B2. The method was successfully applied to determine trace levels of aflatoxins in diverse food matrices such as peanuts, nuts, grains, and spices. Aflatoxin contents in these samples ranged from about 0.5 to 6 microg/kg.

  10. Use of Cold Atmospheric Plasma to Detoxify Hazelnuts from Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilenia Siciliano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins, produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, can contaminate different foodstuffs, such as nuts. Cold atmospheric pressure plasma has the potential to be used for mycotoxin detoxification. In this study, the operating parameters of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were optimized to reduce the presence of aflatoxins on dehulled hazelnuts. First, the effect of different gases was tested (N2, 0.1% O2 and 1% O2, 21% O2, then power (400, 700, 1000, 1150 W and exposure time (1, 2, 4, and 12 min were optimized. In preliminary tests on aflatoxin standard solutions, this method allowed to obtain a complete detoxification using a high power for a few minutes. On hazelnuts, in similar conditions (1000 W, 12 min, a reduction in the concentration of total aflatoxins and AFB1 of over 70% was obtained. Aflatoxins B1 and G1 were more sensitive to plasma treatments compared to aflatoxins B2 and G2, respectively. Under plasma treatment, aflatoxin B1 was more sensitive compared to aflatoxin G1. At the highest power, and for the longest time, the maximum temperature increment was 28.9 °C. Cold atmospheric plasma has the potential to be a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification on food, because it is effective and it could help to maintain the organoleptic characteristics.

  11. Food Safety Legislation Regarding Of Aflatoxins Contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketney, Otto

    2015-09-01

    The main objective of the European Union (EU) is to reduce certain contaminants in foodstuffs to acceptable levels. The occurrence of aflatoxin B1 in food was considered to be one of the most important issues of global food security to protect the health of humans and animals, over 100 nations have established maximum tolerable levels for aflatoxin in food. Although EU legislation covers many aspects of food safety was not legally establish an integrated framework that could effectively combat and cover all sectors of the food chain. Monitoring and reporting levels of aflatoxins after controls are essential actions that assist to identify potential risks to human health. The review process for aflatoxin regulations is a complex activity involving many factors and stakeholders.

  12. Aflatoxins in various food from Istanbul, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacıbekiroğlu, I; Kolak, U

    2013-01-01

    The present work reports the total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B1 levels in 62 food samples from Istanbul, Turkey. The total aflatoxin content in dried American cucumber, squash, tomato, okra and saffron samples was found to be 1.7 μg/kg. AFB1 levels in five dried vegetables (red bell pepper, American cucumber, squash, tomato and okra), two tea (linden and jasmine flower) and three spice samples (cardamom, galangal and saffron) were 1 μg/kg. Of the tested samples, 76% exceeded legal limits of total aflatoxin. The highest levels were determined in chestnut (232.9 μg/kg), nutmeg (206.1 μg/kg) and sumac (182.5 μg/kg). These findings confirm the existing knowledge that food should be regularly and effectively controlled.

  13. Alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 Loci Impairs Its Processing and Augments B-1 Expansion in De Novo Mouse Model of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddha Kasar

    Full Text Available New Zealand Black (NZB mice, a de novo model of CLL, share multiple characteristics with CLL patients, including decreased expression of miR-15a/16-1. We previously discovered a point mutation and deletion in the 3' flanking region of mir-16-1 of NZB and a similar mutation has been found in a small number of CLL patients. However, it was unknown whether the mutation is the cause for the reduced miR-15a/16-1 expression and CLL development. Using PCR and in vitro microRNA processing assays, we found that the NZB sequence alterations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci result in deficient processing of the precursor forms of miR-15a/16-1, in particular, we observe impaired conversion of pri-miR-15a/16-1 to pre-miR-15a/16-1. The in vitro data was further supported by derivation of congenic strains with replaced mir-15a/16-1 loci at one or both alleles: NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/- and DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/-. The level of miR-15a/16-1 reflected the configuration of the mir-15a/16-1 loci with DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/- showing reduced miR-15a levels compared to homozygous wild-type allele, while the NZB congenic mice (NmiR+/- showed an increase in miR-15a levels relative to homozygous mutant allele. Similar to Monoclonal B-cell Lymphocytosis (MBL, the precursor stage of the human disease, an overall expansion of the B-1 population was observed in DBA congenic mice (DmiR-/- relative to wild-type (DmiR+/+. These studies support our hypothesis that the mutations in the mir-15a/16-1 loci are responsible for decreased expression of this regulatory microRNA leading to B-1 expansion and CLL development.

  14. Patulin & ergosterol: new quality parameters together with aflatoxins in hazelnuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Raci; Otağ, Mustafa; Kadakal, Çetin

    2014-05-01

    Hazelnuts of three different categories, mouldy, hidden mould and sound (undamaged), were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B1, B2, G1 and G2), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from five hazelnut processing plants located in a major hazelnut producing area in the Black Sea region in Turkey. All aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Sound hazelnuts were contaminated with trace or zero amounts of aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts were contaminated with high (246-510ppb; 141-422ppb) aflatoxin levels, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 content was significantly correlated with the patulin and ergosterol contents in mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts. However, there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of mouldy and hidden mould hazelnuts.

  15. Determination of aflatoxins M1, M2, B1, B2, G1 and G2 in peanut by modified QuEChERS method and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry | Determinação de aflatoxinas M1, M2, B1, B2, G1 e G2 em amendoim utilizando um método QuEChERS modificado e cromatografia líquida de ultraeficiência com detecção por espectrometria de massas sequencial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Swensson de Mattos

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A suitable method for routine analysis of aflatoxins M1, M2, B1, B2, G1, G2 in peanut by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated. The sample preparation was performed using a triple partitioning (water/acetonitrile/hexane modified Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS method. For the first time, this method is reportedly used for aflatoxins analysis in peanut. Satisfactory recoveries ranged from 71 to 101%, with relative standard deviation lower than 15% were obtained for the target aflatoxins. The determination coefficients were ≥ 0.99 which showed good linearity. The LOD and LOQ varied from 0.03 to 0.26 ng g-1 and 0.1 to 0.88 ng g-1, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to for the determination of aflatoxins in ten peanut samples. Total aflatoxin concentration exceeded the maximum level permitted by the Brazilian regulation in one sample of roasted peanut, while aflatoxins M1 and M2 were detected respectively in three and in one of the samples. The results strongly suggest that peanuts and peanut products should be continuously monitored for the aflatoxins investigated in this work. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Um método adequado para a análise de rotina de aflatoxinas M1, M2, B1, B2, G1, G2 em amendoim por cromatografia líquida de ultraeficiência com espectrometria de massas foi desenvolvido e validado. A preparação da amostra foi realizada utilizando um método QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe modificado, empregando partição tripla (água/acetonitrila/hexano. Pela primeira vez este método foi utilizado para análise de aflatoxinas em amendoim. Recuperações satisfatórias, entre 71 e 101%, com coeficientes de variação inferiores a 15%, foram obtidas para as aflatoxinas estudadas. Os coeficientes de determinação foram ≥ 0,99, demostrando boa

  16. Comparative in vitro and ex-vivo myelotoxicity of aflatoxins B1 and M1 on haematopoietic progenitors (BFU-E, CFU-E, and CFU-GM): species-related susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roda, E; Coccini, T; Acerbi, D; Castoldi, A F; Manzo, L

    2010-02-01

    Haemato- and myelotoxicity are adverse effects caused by mycotoxins. Due to the relevance of aflatoxins to human health, the present study, employing CFU-GM-, BFU-E- and CFU-E-clonogenic assays, aimed at (i) comparing, in vitro, the sensitivity of human vs. murine haematopoietic progenitors to AFB1 and AFM1 (0.001-50microg/ml), (ii) assessing whether a single AFB1 in vivo treatment (0.3-3mg/kgb.w.) alters the ability of murine bone marrow cells to form myeloid and erythroid colonies, and (iii) comparing the in vitro with the in vitro ex-vivo data. We demonstrated (i) species-related sensitivity to AFB1, showing higher susceptibility of human myeloid and erythroid progenitors (IC(50) values: about 4 times lower in human than in murine cells), (ii) higher sensitivity of CFU-GM and BFU-E colonies, both more markedly affected, particularly by AFB1 (IC(50): 2.45+/-1.08 and 1.82+/-0.8microM for humans, and 11.08+/-2.92 and 1.81+/-0.20microM for mice, respectively), than the mature CFU-E (AFB1 IC(50): 12.58+/-5.4 and 40.27+/-6.05microM), irrespectively of animal species, (iii) regarding AFM1, a species- and lineage-related susceptibility similar to that observed for AFB1 and (iv) lack of effects after AFB1 in vivo treatment on the proliferation of haematopoietic colonies.

  17. Residue of Aflatoxin and Its Metabolites on Various Animal Products and Its Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaella Widiastuti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxins especially aflatoxin B1 is mycotoxins that must be concerned. When consumed by livestock, it becomes aflatoxin M1 and other metabolites in animal products that harmful for public health. This paper provides information of aflatoxins residues and their metabolites in a variety of animal origin food (milk, meat and eggs and the prevention of their occurrence. Aflatoxin residues were found in a variety of livestock and dairy products in various countries including Indonesia. Due to its stability in any processing or storage methods, preventing aflatoxins enter the food chain is essential. Implementing the regulatory limits for aflatoxins in feed and food should be made to avoid further effect on human health. Information and extensive monitoring of aflatoxins should be carried out not only in milk but also in many different types of animal products (buffalo, quail, sheep and goat, as the data in Indonesia is not yet available.

  18. Aflatoxin-Exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a Novel System for the Generation of Aflatoxin Synthesis Inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummadidala, Phani M.; Chen, Yung Pin; Beauchesne, Kevin R.; Miller, Kristen P.; Mitra, Chandrani; Banaszek, Nora; Velez-Martinez, Michelle; Moeller, Peter D. R.; Ferry, John L.; Decho, Alan W.; Chanda, Anindya

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here, we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle-, and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, laeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism. PMID:27375561

  19. Aflatoxin-exposure of Vibrio gazogenes as a novel system for the generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phani M Gummadidala

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin is a mycotoxin and a secondary metabolite, and the most potent known liver carcinogen that contaminates several important crops, and represents a significant threat to public health and the economy. Available approaches reported thus far have been insufficient to eliminate this threat, and therefore provide the rational to explore novel methods for preventing aflatoxin accumulation in the environment. Many terrestrial plants and microbes that share ecological niches and encounter the aflatoxin producers have the ability to synthesize compounds that inhibit aflatoxin synthesis. However, reports of natural aflatoxin inhibitors from marine ecosystem components that do not share ecological niches with the aflatoxin producers are rare. Here we show that a non-pathogenic marine bacterium, Vibrio gazogenes, when exposed to low non-toxic doses of aflatoxin B1, demonstrates a shift in its metabolic output and synthesizes a metabolite fraction that inhibits aflatoxin synthesis without affecting hyphal growth in the model aflatoxin producer, Aspergillus parasiticus. The molecular mass of the predominant metabolite in this fraction was also different from the known prodigiosins, which are the known antifungal secondary metabolites synthesized by this Vibrio. Gene expression analyses using RT-PCR demonstrate that this metabolite fraction inhibits aflatoxin synthesis by down-regulating the expression of early-, middle- and late- growth stage aflatoxin genes, the aflatoxin pathway regulator, aflR and one global regulator of secondary metabolism, LaeA. Our study establishes a novel system for generation of aflatoxin synthesis inhibitors, and emphasizes the potential of the under-explored Vibrio’s silent genome for generating new modulators of fungal secondary metabolism.

  20. Quantitative Determination of Aflatoxin by High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Wheat Silos in Golestan Province, North of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMJOO, Mohadeseh; SALAMAT, Faezeh; RAJABLI, Niloofar; HAJIHOSEEINI, Reza; NIKNEJAD, Farhad; KOHSAR, Faramarz; JOSHAGHANI, Hamidreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Aflatoxins are the most common mycotoxins that contaminate crops. They are produced by fungi such as Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Wheat (Tricitumaestivum) is one of the most important staple foods used in Iran, and the environmental conditions in the north of Iran are favorable to fungal growth. This study was designed in order to determine the aflatoxin concentration in wheat samples from silos in Golestan Province north of Iran. Methods: Samples were collected from three silos of Golestan province. First, aflatoxins were isolated using immunoaffinity chromatography. Then the aflatoxin concentrations were determined by High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method and fluorescence detector. Results: Ten out of 34 samples (29.4% of samples) were contaminated by aflatoxins.No concentration was found above permitted aflatoxin levels in Iran (15 ng/g). In one sample (2.9%), aflatoxin B1 was seen over the permissible limits in Iran. The highest level found in samples for total aflatoxin, aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin B2, aflatoxin G1 and aflatoxin G2 were 7.08 ng/g, 6.91 ng/g, 0.29 ng/g, 1.37 ng/g and 0.23 ng/g, respectively. No correlation was found between humidity levels in wheat samples contained aflatoxin and wheat samples without aflatoxin. Conclusion: Despite the total aflatoxins determined in samples were below the permissible limits in Iran, the 29% aflatoxin contamination rate can negatively affect health factors and it should not be neglected. So, it is predictable that if the storage duration of samples increases, the aflatoxin contamination levels will increase. PMID:27516997

  1. Two new aflatoxin producing species, and an overview of Aspergillus section Flavi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Varga, J.; Frisvad, Jens Christian; Samson, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati section Flavi includes species with usually biseriate conidial heads, in shades of yellow-green to brown, and dark sclerotia. Several species assigned to this section are either important mycotoxin producers including aflatoxins, cyclopiazonic acid, ochratoxins...... and extrolite profiles. Aspergillus pseudocaelatus is represented by a single isolate collected from Arachis burkartii leaf in Argentina, is closely related to the non-aflatoxin producing A. caelatus, and produces aflatoxins B & G, cyclopiazonic acid and kojic acid, while A. pseudonomius was isolated from...... insects and soil in the USA. This species is related to A. nomius, and produces aflatoxin B-1 (but not G-type aflatoxins), chrysogine and kojic acid. In order to prove the aflatoxin producing abilities of the isolates, phylogenetic analysis of three genes taking part in aflatoxin biosynthesis, including...

  2. Fungal Aflatoxins Reduce Respiratory Mucosal Ciliary Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Robert J.; Workman, Alan D.; Carey, Ryan M.; Chen, Bei; Rosen, Phillip L.; Doghramji, Laurel; Adappa, Nithin D.; Palmer, James N.; Kennedy, David W.; Cohen, Noam A.

    2016-01-01

    Aflatoxins are mycotoxins secreted by Aspergillus flavus, which can colonize the respiratory tract and cause fungal rhinosinusitis or bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. A. flavus is the second leading cause of invasive aspergillosis worldwide. Because many respiratory pathogens secrete toxins to impair mucociliary immunity, we examined the effects of acute exposure to aflatoxins on airway cell physiology. Using air-liquid interface cultures of primary human sinonasal and bronchial cells, we imaged ciliary beat frequency (CBF), intracellular calcium, and nitric oxide (NO). Exposure to aflatoxins (0.1 to 10 μM; 5 to 10 minutes) reduced baseline (~6–12%) and agonist-stimulated CBF. Conditioned media (CM) from A. fumigatus, A. niger, and A. flavus cultures also reduced CBF by ~10% after 60 min exposure, but effects were blocked by an anti-aflatoxin antibody only with A. flavus CM. CBF reduction required protein kinase C but was not associated with changes in calcium or NO. However, AFB2 reduced NO production by ~50% during stimulation of the ciliary-localized T2R38 receptor. Using a fluorescent reporter construct expressed in A549 cells, we directly observed activation of PKC activity by AFB2. Aflatoxins secreted by respiratory A. flavus may impair motile and chemosensory functions of airway cilia, contributing to pathogenesis of fungal airway diseases. PMID:27623953

  3. Aflatoxin Contamination in Wheat Flour Samples from Golestan Province, Northeast of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Ghasemi Kebria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Due to the high toxicity of aflatoxin and its effects on public health, determination of aflatoxin level in Wheat flour samples in the Golestan province, north of Iran was investigated. To examine the effect of seasonal changes, summer and winter sampling was performed with standard sampling methods. Methods: A total of 200 flour samples were collected from 25 factories. HPLC method with immunoaffinity chromatography was used to measure aflatoxin types (G2, G1, B2 and B1. Statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson correlation test, One-way ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis. Results: Mean total aflatoxin levels of samples were 0.82 and 1.99 ng/g in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxin B1 levels were detected in 3.1%, 7.4% over permissible limits by worldwide regulations in samples collected in summer and winter, respectively. Aflatoxins in winter were higher than summer. The highest frequency of aflatoxin contamination in winter was B2 (98% and in summer G1 (51%. The relationship between humidity and rate of aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxin was significant in winter. Results of multivariate regression were showed the strongest relationship with humidity and aflatoxin level. Despite the contamination of flour samples, there was no contamination higher than the standard limit of Iran Standard Institute. But it was significantly higher than similar studies from other regions. Conclusions: Therefore, with regard to negative impacts of aflatoxin on health, aflatoxin contamination should be considered in future programs. Decrease of aflatoxin contamination may be made practical through reducing wheat storage duration and controlling humidity.

  4. A review of aflatoxin M1 in liquid milk

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Mycotoxins continue to pose a health concern via human exposure to contaminated food. Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1), the hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), may be found in the milk of dairy cattle and other mammals. In humans, AFM1 is excreted through the feces, urine, and in the case of lactating mothers, also in breast milk after consumption of aflatoxin contaminated food. Concentration of AFM1 in milk is a function of several factors, namely: animal type, milking day, milk yield, season...

  5. ELISA法和HPLC法检测粮油食品中黄曲霉毒素B1含量的比较研究%Comparison of ELISA with HPLC in detection of aflatoxin B1 in corn and vegetable oil foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡正森; 钟文辉; 张东升; 赵春城; 龚燕; 蔡建荣; 赵晓联

    2004-01-01

    [目的]研究和评价ELISA和HPLC两种方法检测粮油食品中黄曲霉毒素B1之间的差异.[方法]用两种检测方法同时检测大量样品,并做加标回收试验.[结果]ELISA法和HPLC法相对误差平均值为5.25%.在AFB1浓度为0.5~12.5ppb时,ELISA法回收率为35.21%~155.13%,HPLC回收率为33.74%~75.70%.[结论] ELISA法比HPLC法操作简便,快捷,回收率较理想.

  6. Dillapiol and Apiol as specific inhibitors of the biosynthesis of aflatoxin G1 in Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi; Yoshinari, Tomoya; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Rezaee, Mohammad-Bagher; Nagasawa, Hiromichi; Sakuda, Shohei

    2007-09-01

    Dillapiol was isolated from the essential oil of dill as a specific inhibitor of aflatoxin G1 production. It inhibited aflatoxin G1 production by Aspergillus parasiticus with an IC50 value of 0.15 microM without inhibiting aflatoxin B1 production or fungal growth. Apiol and myristicin, congeners of dillapiol, showed similar activity with IC50 values of 0.24 and 3.5 microM, respectively.

  7. Determination of the aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) from milk by direct analysis in real time - mass spectrometry (DART-MS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain fungi that grow on crops can produce aflatoxins, which are highly carcinogenic. One of these, aflatoxin B1 can be metabolized by mammals to aflatoxin M1, a form that retains potent carcinogenicity and which can be excreted into milk. Direct analysis in real time (DART) ionization coupled to ...

  8. Automated Aflatoxin Analysis Using Inline Reusable Immunoaffinity Column Cleanup and LC-Fluorescence Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhemrev, Ria; Pazdanska, Monika; Marley, Elaine; Biselli, Scarlett; Staiger, Simone

    2015-01-01

    A novel reusable immunoaffinity cartridge containing monoclonal antibodies to aflatoxins coupled to a pressure resistant polymer has been developed. The cartridge is used in conjunction with a handling system inline to LC with fluorescence detection to provide fully automated aflatoxin analysis for routine monitoring of a variety of food matrixes. The handling system selects an immunoaffinity cartridge from a tray and automatically applies the sample extract. The cartridge is washed, then aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 are eluted and transferred inline to the LC system for quantitative analysis using fluorescence detection with postcolumn derivatization using a KOBRA® cell. Each immunoaffinity cartridge can be used up to 15 times without loss in performance, offering increased sample throughput and reduced costs compared to conventional manual sample preparation and cleanup. The system was validated in two independent laboratories using samples of peanuts and maize spiked at 2, 8, and 40 μg/kg total aflatoxins, and paprika, nutmeg, and dried figs spiked at 5, 20, and 100 μg/kg total aflatoxins. Recoveries exceeded 80% for both aflatoxin B1 and total aflatoxins. The between-day repeatability ranged from 2.1 to 9.6% for aflatoxin B1 for the six levels and five matrixes. Satisfactory Z-scores were obtained with this automated system when used for participation in proficiency testing (FAPAS®) for samples of chilli powder and hazelnut paste containing aflatoxins.

  9. Occurrence of aflatoxins in mahua (Madhuca indica Gmel.) seeds: synergistic effect of plant extracts on inhibition of Aspergillus flavus growth and aflatoxin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, O P; Chandra, Harish; Behl, H M

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of aflatoxin in Madhuca indica Gmel. seeds was determined by competitive ELISA. Eighty percent of mahua seed samples were found to be contaminated with aflatoxin. Total aflatoxin content ranged from 115.35 to 400.54ppb whereas the concentration of AFB(1) was in the range of 86.43 to 382.45ppb. Mahua oil was extracted by cold press expeller and analysed for contamination of aflatoxin in both the oil and cake samples. Total aflatoxin and aflatoxin B(1) were 220.66 and 201.57ppb in oil as compared to that in cake samples where it was 87.55 and 74.35ppb, respectively. Various individual and combined plant extracts were evaluated for their efficacy against growth of Aspergillus flavus and aflatoxin production in vitro. Combination of botanicals were found to be more effective in controlling fungal growth and aflatoxin production than individual extracts. Results of the present study suggests that synergistic effect of plant extracts can be used for control of fungal growth and aflatoxin production. These natural plant products may successfully replace synthetic chemicals and provide an alternative method to protect mahua as well as other agricultural commodities of nutritional significance from toxigenic fungi such as A. flavus and aflatoxin production.

  10. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahyaraeyat, R; Khosravi, A R; Shahbazzadeh, D; Khalaj, V

    2013-01-01

    This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora) essential oil (EO) on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus) ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES) broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription- polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1), aflatoxinB2 (AFB2), aflatoxinG1 (AFG1), aflatoxinG2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin total (AFTotal) production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm) on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm) nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  11. The potential effects of Zataria multiflora Boiss essential oil on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes of toxigenic Aspergillus parasiticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Yahyaraeyat

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims at evaluating the effects of Zataria multiflora (Z. multiflora essential oil (EO on growth, aflatoxin production and transcription of aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes. Total RNAs of Aspergillus parasiticus (A.parasiticus ATCC56775 grown in yeast extract sucrose (YES broth medium treated with Z. multiflora EO were subjected to reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Specific primers of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes were used. In parallel mycelial dry weight of samples were measured and all the media were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC for aflatoxinB1 (AFB1, aflatoxinB2 (AFB2, aflatoxinG1 (AFG1, aflatoxinG2 (AFG2 and aflatoxin total (AFTotal production. The results showed that mycelial dry weight and aflatoxin production reduce in the presence of Z. multiflora EO (100 ppm on day 5 of growth. It was found that the expression of nor-1, ver-1, omt-A and aflR genes was correlated with the ability of fungus to produce aflatoxins on day 5 in YES medium. RT-PCR showed that in the presence of Z.multiflora EO (100 ppm nor-1, ver-1 and omtA genes expression was reduced. It seems that toxin production inhibitory effects of Z. multiflora EO on day 5 may be at the transcription level and this herb may cause reduction in aflatoxin biosynthesis pathway genes activity.

  12. 题目:盐城生物圈保护区越冬丹顶鹤受到真菌毒素威胁的研究%Potential natural exposure of endangered red-crowned crane (Grus japonensis) to mycotoxins aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Da-wei LIU; Hong-yi LIU; Hai-bin ZHANG; Ming-chang CAO; Yong SUN; Wen-da WU; Chang-hu LU

    2016-01-01

    目的:调查在盐城生物圈保护区越冬的丹顶鹤食物是否受到真菌毒素污染以及评估丹顶鹤受到真菌毒素威胁的风险。创新点:首次证明在盐城生物圈保护区越冬的丹顶鹤受到真菌毒素的威胁。方法:2013年11月至2015年3月,两个越冬期内在盐城生物圈保护区采集丹顶鹤不同觅食生境内113份食物样品。使用高效液相色谱法对这些食物中毒素(黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)、脱氧雪腐镰刀菌烯醇(DON)、玉米赤霉烯酮(ZEN)、T-2毒素(T-2)和赭曲霉毒素A(OTA))含量进行检测。结论:盐城生物圈保护区内丹顶鹤食物受到真菌毒素的污染,人工湿地尤其是稻田不适宜作为鸟类的觅食地。%A survey was conducted to determine whether mycotoxins were present in the foods consumed by red-crowned cranes (Grus japonensis) in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve, China. Collected in the reserve’s core, buffer, and experimental zones during overwintering periods of 2013 to 2015, a total of 113 food samples were analyzed for aflatoxin B1, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T-2 toxin, and ochratoxin A using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The contamination incidences vary among different zones and the mycotoxins levels of different food samples also presented disparity. Average mycotoxin concentration from rice grain was greater than that from other food types. Among mycotoxin-positive samples, 59.3% were simultaneously contaminated with more than one toxin. This study demonstrated for the first time that red-crowned cranes were exposed to mycotoxins in the Yancheng Biosphere Reserve and suggested that artificial wetlands could not be considered good habitats for the birds in this reserve, especially rice fields.

  13. Mycobiota and identification of aflatoxin gene cluster in marketed spices in West Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gnonlonfin, G. J. B.; Adjovi, Y. C.; Tokpo, A. F.

    2013-01-01

    of Aspergillus were dominant on all marketed dried and milled spices irrespective of country. Gene characterization and amplification analysis showed that most of the Aspergillus flavus isolates possess the cluster genes for aflatoxin production. Aflatoxin B1 assessment by Thin Layer Chromatography showed...

  14. Aflatoxin contamination of red chili pepper from Bolivia and Peru, countries with high gallbladder cancer incidence rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Takao; Tsuchiya, Yasuo; Okano, Kiyoshi; Piscoya, Alejandro; Nishi, Carlos Yoshito; Ikoma, Toshikazu; Oyama, Tomizo; Ikegami, Kikuo; Yamamoto, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    Chilean red chili peppers contaminated with aflatoxins were reported in a previous study. If the development of gallbladder cancer (GBC) in Chile is associated with a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers, such peppers from other countries having a high GBC incidence rate may also be contaminated with aflatoxins. We aimed to determine whether this might be the case for red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru. A total of 7 samples (3 from Bolivia, 4 from Peru) and 3 controls (2 from China, 1 from Japan) were evaluated. Aflatoxins were extracted with acetonitrile:water (9:1, v/v) and eluted through an immuno-affinity column. The concentrations of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and then the detected aflatoxins were identified using HPLC-mass spectrometry. In some but not all of the samples from Bolivia and Peru, aflatoxin B1 or aflatoxins B1 and B2 were detected. In particular, aflatoxin B1 or total aflatoxin concentrations in a Bolivian samples were above the maximum levels for aflatoxins in spices proposed by the European Commission. Red chili peppers from Bolivia and Peru consumed by populations having high GBC incidence rates would appear to be contaminated with aflatoxins. These data suggest the possibility that a high level of consumption of aflatoxin-contaminated red chili peppers is related to the development of GBC, and the association between the two should be confirmed by a case-control study.

  15. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashif, Aiza; Kanwal, Kinza; Khan, Abdul Muqeet; Abbas, Mateen

    2016-01-01

    The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg) and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked) was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity. PMID:27781067

  16. Investigation of aflatoxin M1 degradation in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajlović Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 is a highly toxic 4-hydroxylated metabolite of aflatoxins B1 and B2. It is one of the most potent hepatocarcinogens, mutagens, teratogens and immunosuppressors. Feed is often contaminated with aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxins with a high possibility of contaminating milk and dairy products with aflatoxin M1. Samples of artificially contaminated milk were exposed to the effects of physical conditions (temperature of -18oC and for microwaves in a microwave oven, time (during the period from 1 to 12 months and a combination of the above mentioned conditions. Following this, levels of aflatoxin M1 degradation were established by using the ELISA method. An insignificant decrease in concentration of toxin was observed which indicates that a temperature of -18°C does not significantly influence the concentration of aflatoxin M1 in the artificially contaminated milk. At the same time, treatment of milk with microwaves in a microwave oven showed an insignificant influence on the percentage of aflatoxin M1 absorbance.

  17. Survey of aflatoxins in Kashkineh: A traditional Iranian food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardani, M; Rezapour, S; Rezapour, P

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that can contaminate human and animal foods, including corn, wheat, rice, peanuts, and many other crops resulting in the illness or death of human and animal consumers. The aim of this study was to detect aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and total aflatoxin in Kashkineh, a traditional Iranian food. Materials and Methods This survey was conducted to detect aflatoxins on 41 samples of Kashkineh. The samples were randomly collected from traditional bazaars and supermarkets of Khorramabad city of Iran. The presence and quantity of aflatoxins was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results The average concentrations of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 in all samples and in a mixed sample of all samples were not detectable (ND). The only sample that showed aflatoxin contamination was sample number 29 of which the AFB1 concentration was 0.64 ng/g. Conclusion Although some people believe Kashkineh is carcinogenic due to toxins, this study showed kashkineh is not contaminated with aflatoxins. PMID:22347598

  18. Quantitative Scrutinization of Aflatoxins in Different Spices from Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The current research work aimed to access the contamination level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in the household spices that are widely consumed in huge amounts. 200 different spice samples, 100 packed and 100 unpacked, were analyzed for the aflatoxins profile by HPLC with an incidence of 61.5% contamination out of which 53.66% samples exceed the EU limit. The results disclosed that the unpacked samples are more contaminated as compared to the packed samples except for white cumin seeds. Among packed and unpacked samples of spices, the maximum value of aflatoxins was detected in fennel, that is, 27.93 μg/kg and 67.04 μg/kg, respectively. The lowest concentration of aflatoxin was detected in cinnamon in packed form (0.79 μg/kg and in the unpacked samples of white cumin seeds which is 1.75 μg/kg. Caraway seeds and coriander in its unpacked form showed positive results whereas black pepper (packed and unpacked was found free from aflatoxins. This is the first report on the occurrence of aflatoxins in packed and unpacked samples of spices from Pakistan. To ensure safe consumption of spices, there should be constant monitoring of aflatoxin and more studies need to be executed with the intention of preventing mycotoxin accretion in this commodity.

  19. Survey of Aflatoxins in Kashkineh: A traditional Iranian Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rezapour

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Aflatoxins are mycotoxins produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus that can contaminate human and animal foods, including corn, wheat, rice, peanuts, and many other crops resulting in the illness or death of human and animal consumers. The aim of this study was to detect aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 and total aflatoxin in Kashkineh, a traditional Iranian food.Materials and Methods: This survey was conducted to detect aflatoxins on 41 samples of Kashkineh. The samples were randomly collected from traditional bazaars and supermarkets of Khorramabad city of Iran. The presence and quantity of aflatoxins was determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC.Results: The average concentrations of AFB1, AFB2, AFG1, and AFG2 in all samples and in a mixed sample of all samples were not detectable (ND. The only sample that showed aflatoxin contamination was sample number 29 of which the AFB1 concentration was 0.64 ng/g.Conclusion: Although some people believe Kashkineh is carcinogenic due to toxins, this study showed kashkineh is not contaminated with aflatoxins.

  20. Aflatoxins, patulin and ergosterol contents of dried figs in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, H; Nas, S

    2006-05-01

    Dried figs of three different categories, palatable, fluorescent, and cull, were investigated for their contents of aflatoxins (B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2)), patulin, and ergosterol. Samples were obtained from four fig processing plants located in a major fig producing area in the Aegean Region in Turkey. Affinity column clean-up methods were employed for aflatoxins. All aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. Palatable figs contaminated with trace amounts of aflatoxins, patulin, and ergosterol, so they posed no risk for the consumer when national and/or international regulatory limits were considered. Fluorescent figs were contaminated with high (117.9-471.9 ppb) aflatoxin levels and cull figs with high patulin (39.3-151.6 ppb) and ergosterol (4.5-18 ppm) levels. The total aflatoxins content was significantly correlated with the patulin content (r(2) = 0.813, p < 0.002) and the ergosterol content (r(2) = 0.920, p < 0.002) only in fluorescent figs. However there was no significant correlation between patulin and ergosterol contents of fluorescent figs. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between the contents of any two of the three substances in cull figs. This is the first report on the presence of patulin and its co-occurrence with aflatoxin in dried figs.

  1. Bioremediation of aflatoxins by some reference fungal strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shiekh, Hussein H; Mahdy, Hesham M; El-Aaser, Mahmoud M

    2007-01-01

    Aspergillus parasiticus RCMB 002001 (2) producing four types of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 was used in this study as an aflatoxin-producer. Penicillium griseofulvum, P. urticae, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Trichoderma viride, Candida utilis, Saccharomyces cerevisiae as well as a non-toxigenic strain of Aspergillus flavus were found to be able to exhibit growth on aflatoxin B1-containing medium up to a concentration of 500 ppb. It was also found that several fungal strains exhibited the growth in co-culture with A. parasiticus, natural aflatoxins producer, and were able to decreased the total aflatoxin concentration, resulting in the highest inhibition percentage of 67.2% by T viride, followed by P. lilacinus, P. griseofulvum, S. cerevisiae, C. utilis, P. urticae, Rhizopus nigricans and Mucor rouxii with total aflatoxin inhibition percentage of 53.9, 52.4, 52, 51.7, 44, 38.2 and 35.4%, respectively. The separation of bioremediation products using GC/MS revealed that the toxins were degraded into furan moieties.

  2. Aflatoxin Contamination in Food and Body Fluids in Relation to Malnutrition and Cancer Status in Cameroon

    OpenAIRE

    Tchouanguep, Félicité M; Moundipa, Paul F; Tchana, Angele N.

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are food contaminants usually associated with hepatitis, immunodepression, impairment of fertility and cancer. The present work was to determine the presence of aflatoxins in eggs, milk, urine, and blood samples that were collected from various sources and periods; and hepatitis B virus antigen in blood samples. Aflatoxin was found in eggs (45.2%), cow raw milk (15.9%), breast milk (4.8%), urine from kwashiorkor and marasmic kwashiorkor children (45.5%), and sera from primary liver...

  3. Effect of ozone on aflatoxins detoxification and nutritional quality of peanuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ran; Ma, Fei; Li, Pei-Wu; Zhang, Wen; Ding, Xiao-Xia; Zhang, Qi; Li, Min; Wang, Yan-Ru; Xu, Bao-Cheng

    2014-03-01

    Aflatoxins are a group of secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus with carcinogenicity, teratogenicity, and mutagenicity. Aflatoxins may be found in a wide range of agri-products, especially in grains, oilseeds, corns, and peanuts. In this study, the conditions for detoxifying peanuts by ozonation were optimised. Aflatoxins in peanuts at moisture content of 5% (w/w) were sensitive to ozone and easily degraded when reacted with 6.0mg/l of ozone for 30min at room temperature. The detoxification rates of the total aflatoxins and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were 65.8% and 65.9%, respectively. The quality of peanut samples was also evaluated in this research. No significant differences (P>0.05) were found in the polyphenols, resveratrol, acid value (AV), and peroxide value (PV) between treated and untreated samples. The results suggested that ozonation was a promising method for aflatoxin detoxification in peanuts.

  4. Reduction of aflatoxins by Rhizopus oryzae and Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbart, H C S; Machado, A R; Christ-Ribeiro, A; Prietto, L; Badiale-Furlong, E

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluated the ability of the microorganisms Rhizopus oryzae (CCT7560) and Trichoderma reesei (QM9414), producers of generally recognized as safe (GRAS) enzymes, to reduce the level of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2, and M1. The variables considered to the screening were the initial number of spores in the inoculum and the culture time. The culture was conducted in contaminated 4 % potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium, and the residual mycotoxins were determined every 24 h by HPLC-FL. The fungus R. oryzae has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and G1 in the 96 h and aflatoxins M1 and G2 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The fungus T. reesei has reduced aflatoxins B1, B2, and M1 in the 96 h and aflatoxin G1 in the range of 120 h of culture by approximately 100 %. The highest reduction occurred in the middle of R. oryzae culture.

  5. Natural Occurrence of Aflatoxins Contamination in Commercial Spices in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Jalili

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available A total of 80 sample of spices (red pepper, black pepper, turmeric and cinnamon, commercialized in Iran, was analyzed for aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 content using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC with a fluorescence detector (FD. A mixture of acetonitrile–methanol–water (17:29:54; v/v was used as the mobile phase and an immunoaffinity column (IAC applied as a cleanup method. All kinds of spice samples were spiked with aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2 at levels of 1, 10, and 30 ng/g and recovery values were determined. Results showed recoveries ranged from 76.4±5.6 to 98.3±3.2 for AFG1 in cinnamon (spiked at 1ng/g and AFB2 in turmeric (spiked at 10ng/g respectively. Thirty-two out of 80 (40% samples were contaminated with aflatoxins ranged from 0.85±0.10 to 24.60±0.12. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in all of the contaminated samples at the highest concentration as compared with other aflatoxins. Red pepper was significantly (p≤0.05 more contaminated than other spices.

  6. Transgenic overexpression of G5PR that is normally augmented in centrocytes impairs the enrichment of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells, increases peritoneal B-1a cells, and induces autoimmunity in aged female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitabatake, Masahiro; Toda, Teppei; Kuwahara, Kazuhiko; Igarashi, Hideya; Ohtsuji, Mareki; Tsurui, Hiromichi; Hirose, Sachiko; Sakaguchi, Nobuo

    2012-08-01

    To investigate signals that control B cell selection, we examined expression of G5PR, a regulatory subunit of the serine/threonine protein phosphatase 2A, which suppresses JNK phosphorylation. G5PR is upregulated in activated B cells, in Ki67-negative centrocytes at germinal centers (GCs), and in purified B220(+)Fas(+)GL7(+) mature GC B cells following Ag immunization. G5PR rescues transformed B cells from BCR-mediated activation-induced cell death by suppression of late-phase JNK activation. In G5PR-transgenic (G5PR(Tg)) mice, G5PR overexpression leads to an augmented generation of GC B cells via an increase in non-Ag-specific B cells and a consequent reduction in the proportion of Ag-specific B cells and high-affinity Ab production after immunization with nitrophenyl-conjugated chicken γ-globulin. G5PR overexpression impaired the affinity-maturation of Ag-specific B cells, presumably by diluting the numbers of high-affinity B cells. However, aged nonimmunized female G5PR(Tg) mice showed an increase in the numbers of peritoneal B-1a cells and the generation of autoantibodies. G5PR overexpression did not affect the proliferation of B-1a and B-2 cells but rescued B-1a cells from activation-induced cell death in vitro. G5PR might play a pivotal role in B cell selection not only for B-2 cells but also for B-1 cells in peripheral lymphoid organs.

  7. Vitamin B1

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prize Alfred Nobel's Life and Work Teachers' Questionnaire Vitamin B1 - About The Chicken Farm educational game and ... the game window. Reading: "Christian Eijkman, Beriberi and Vitamin B1" - Who was Eijkman and why did he ...

  8. [Adsorption of aflatoxin on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jia-Jia; Kang, Fu-Xing; Gao, Yan-Zheng

    2012-03-01

    The adsorption of a typical biogenic toxin aflatoxin B1 on montmorillonite modified by low-molecular-weight humic acids (M(r) aflatoxin B1 until amounting to the maximal capacity, and then the adsorbed aflatoxin B1 slowly released into solution and reached the sorption equilibrium state after 12 h. The sorption isotherm of aflatoxin B1 by montmorillonite could be well described by Langmiur model, while the sorption isotherm by humic acid-modified montmorillonite was well fitted by using the Freundlich model. The modification of the montmorillonite with humic acids obviously enhanced its adsorption capacity for aflatoxin B1, and the amounts of aflatoxin adsorbed by modified montmorillonite were obviously higher than those by montmorillonite. The sorption enhancement by humic acid modification was attributed to (1) the enlarged adsorption sites which owed to the surface collapse of crystal layers induced by organic acids, and (2) the binding of aflatoxin with the humic acid sorbed on mineral surface. In addition, the adsorption amounts of aflatoxin by montmorillonite and modified montmorillonite increased with the increase of pH values in solution, and more significant enhancement was observed for the latter than the former, which attributed to the release of humic acids from the modified montmorillonite with the high pH values in solution. This indicates that increasing the pH values resulted in the enhanced hydrophilic property and the release of the organic acids presented in modified montmorillonite, and more sorption sites were available for aflatoxin on the modified montmorillonite. Results of this work would strengthen our understanding of the behavior and fate of biological contaminants in the environment.

  9. Effect of contamination of diets with aflatoxins on growing ducks and chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrowski-Meissner, H T

    1983-08-01

    Growing Alabio ducks and White Leghorn chickens were used in a growth study in which diets containing either soybean meal (SBM), peanut meal (PNM) or fish meal (FM) as protein sources were contaminated with the fungus Aspergillus flavus providing the following aflatoxin levels: 0, 50, 100 and 200 micrograms aflatoxin B1 equivalent per kg ration. There were no differences in responses of growing ducks and chickens (at age of 28 days) to the various protein sources at the zero aflatoxin level. However diets contaminated with Aspergillus flavus and containing 50 micrograms/kg aflatoxin B1 equivalent or more significantly reduced body weight gain and utilisation of dietary protein in ducks as compared with chickens. The higher the aflatoxin content above 50 micrograms/kg the greater was the difference in performance between ducks and chickens. Dietary aflatoxins caused liver damage in ducks while no damage was recorded in chickens. Ducks fed diets containing SBM or PNM were more affected by the same concentration of aflatoxins than those fed diets with FM. When intensification of duck husbandry is envisaged, particularly in humid tropical regions, measures to avoid the deleterious ill effects of aflatoxins are needed.

  10. A simple steady-state model for carry-over of aflatoxins from feed to cow's milk.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijkeren, Jan C H van; Bakker, Martine I; Zeilmaker, Marco J

    2006-01-01

    A simple steady-state model is derived from two kinetic one-compartment models for the disposition of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) in the lactating cow. The model relates daily intake of AFB1 in feed of dairy cattle and the cow's lactation status to resulting concentrations of AFM1 in

  11. Structural Diversity and Biochemical and Microbiological Characteristics of Aflatoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketney Otto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Among all mycotoxins, Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 is considered to be the most carcinogenic, and it has been classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in Group 1 of human carcinogen. It signifies a high hazard because it contaminates a diversity of agricultural products such as nuts and derivatives, peanuts/hazelnuts, grains, seeds, cottonseed, milk, dairy food. In milk AFB1 is metabolized to aflatoxin M (AFM1 which is 4-hydroxy derivative of AFB1, it is formed in the liver and excreted in the milk into the mammary glands of both human and lactating animals which have been fed with AFB1 contaminated diet. After the food contamination, one part of the aflatoxin B1 which was present in the food is eliminated through the milk. At the molecular level aflatoxin biosynthesis involves several levels of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control, so the main stages subsequent biochemical and genetic constituents of aflatoxin biosynthesis have been demonstrated recently. Recent studies over the last few decades have shown that the metabolism of AFB is an essential component of hepatocarcinogenic, however it was shown that AFB1 is metabolized by cytochrome P450 oxidised to intermediates and other metabolites Therefore, the biotransformation process may also lead to the formation of carcinogenic metabolites.

  12. Ageratum conyzoides essential oil as aflatoxin suppressor of Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Juliana H C; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Galleti, Silvia R; Facanali, Roseane; Marques, Márcia O M; Felício, Joana D

    2010-01-31

    Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oil of Ageratum conyzoides, on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B(1) production by Aspergillus flavus were studied. Cultures were incubated in yeast extract-sucrose (YES) broth for days at 25 degrees C at the following different concentrations of the essential oil (from 0.0 to 30mug/mL). The essential oil inhibited fungal growth to different extents depending on the concentration, and completely inhibited aflatoxin production at concentrations above 0.10microg/mL. The analysis of the oil by GC/MS showed that its main components are precocene II (46.35%), precocene I (42.78%), cumarine (5.01%) and Trans-caryophyllene (3.02%). Comparison by transmission electron microscopy of the fungal cells, control and those incubated with different concentrations of essential oil, showed ultra-structural changes which were concentration dependent of the essential oil of A. conyzoides. Such ultra-structural changes were more evident in the endomembrane system, affecting mainly the mitochondria. Degradation was also observed in both surrounding fibrils. The ability to inhibit aflatoxin production as a new biological activity of A.conyzoides L. indicates that it may be considered as a useful tool for a better understanding of the complex pathway of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  13. Monitoring of Aflatoxin contamination at market food chain in East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustina A. Rahmianna

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut is a cheapest source of protein especially for developing countries communities and mostly it obtained from traditional markets. Earlier studies showed that aflatoxin incidence was relatively less at the farmer/trader levels while it is significantly higher at retail levels especially in traditional markets. Present study was conducted to understand the factors leading to the post-harvest building up of aflatoxin in peanuts sold in traditional market and in supermarket. This study was carried out at Pasuruan regency, East Java Province, Indonesia from March 2005 to June 2006. During study period peanut grains were collected from wholesalers, retailers and supermarkets at three months interval. In each sampling point, 2kg of grains was obtained and then was divided into eight parts for the analysis of parameters namely seed moisture content, physical quality, Aspergillus flavus infection and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The results showed that seed water contents at wholesalers, collectors, and retailers in traditional wet markets were almost lower than 10%. They were thus ‘safe’ from aflatoxin B1 contamination as seed moisture contents were below the aflatoxin risk zone. Time of sampling did not affect the level of aflatoxin B1 contamination. Under controlled condition generated from air-tight container, the influence of seed moisture content and A. flavus infection on aflatoxin production was significant.

  14. Use of aflatoxin-producing ability medium to distinguish aflatoxin-producing strains of Aspergillus flavus.

    OpenAIRE

    1981-01-01

    Aflatoxin-producing ability medium was tested for its ability to distinguish aflatoxin-positive from aflatoxin-negative strains of Aspergillus flavus in naturally occurring populations from corn at harvest. All of the aflatoxin-positive strains and some of the aflatoxin-negative strains produced aflatoxins when cultured on cracked corn. Although the data indicate that aflatoxin-producing ability medium is not entirely reliable in distinguishing potential aflatoxin-producing strains of A. flav...

  15. Occurrence of aflatoxins contamination in brown rice from pakistan.

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background The objective of this study was to determine the distribution of an economically–important class of mycotoxins, the aflatoxins (AFs) in Pakistani Brown Rice. Methods A total of 262 of brown rice samples were collected from different vendors during July 2006 to June 2011. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), B2 (AFB2), G1 (AFG1) and G2 (AFG2) by thin layer chromatography (TLC) technique. Results AFB1 was detected in 250 (95.4%) samples, whereas A...

  16. Aflatoxins & Safe Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe eVillers

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines both field experience and research on the prevention of the exponential growth of aflatoxins during multi-month post harvest storage in hot, humid countries. The approach described is the application of modern safe storage methods using flexible, Ultra Hermetic™ structures that create an unbreatheable atmosphere through insect and microorganism respiration alone, without use of chemicals, fumigants, or pumps. Laboratory and field data are cited and specific examples are given describing the uses of Ultra Hermetic storage to prevent the growth of aflatoxins with their significant public health consequences. Also discussed is the presently limited quantitative information on the relative occurrence of excessive levels of aflatoxin (>20 ppb before versus after multi-month storage of such crops as maize, rice and peanuts when under high humidity, high temperature conditions and, consequently, the need for further research to determine the frequency at which excessive aflatoxin levels are reached in the field versus after months of post-harvest storage. The significant work being done to reduce aflatoxin levels in the field is mentioned, as well as its probable implications on post harvest storage. Also described is why, with some crops such as peanuts, using Ultra Hermetic storage may require injection of carbon dioxide or use of an oxygen absorber as an accelerant. The case of peanuts is discussed and experimental data is described.

  17. Rapid extraction of aflatoxin from creamy and crunchy peanut butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vega, Victor A

    2005-01-01

    A rapid extraction technique was developed for the isolation and subsequent liquid chromatographic determination of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 in creamy and crunchy peanut butter. Peanut buftter samples were extracted with a methanol 15% sodium chloride (7 + 3) solution followed by a second extraction with methanol. The extract was subjected to a cleanup using a Vicam Aflatest immunoaffinity column. Control samples for both smooth and crunchy peanut butter were fortified at 4 different levels for aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2. The average aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 recoveries from smooth peanut buffer were 95.2, 89.9, 94.1, and 62.4%, respectively, and 92.4, 84.3, 85.5, and 53.7%, respectively, from crunchy peanut butter. This extraction method and the official AOAC Method 991.31 produced comparable results for peanut butter samples. This method provides a rapid, specific, and easily controlled assay for the analysis of aflatoxins in peanut butter with minimal solvent usage. Organic solvent consumption was decreased by 85% and hazardous waste production was decreased by 80% in comparison with the AOAC method. Along with the decreased solvent consumption, significant savings in time were observed.

  18. Reduction of Aflatoxins in Apricot Kernels by Electronic and Manual Color Sorting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Zivoli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of color sorting on reducing aflatoxin levels in shelled apricot kernels was assessed. Naturally-contaminated kernels were submitted to an electronic optical sorter or blanched, peeled, and manually sorted to visually identify and sort discolored kernels (dark and spotted from healthy ones. The samples obtained from the two sorting approaches were ground, homogenized, and analysed by HPLC-FLD for their aflatoxin content. A mass balance approach was used to measure the distribution of aflatoxins in the collected fractions. Aflatoxin B1 and B2 were identified and quantitated in all collected fractions at levels ranging from 1.7 to 22,451.5 µg/kg of AFB1 + AFB2, whereas AFG1 and AFG2 were not detected. Excellent results were obtained by manual sorting of peeled kernels since the removal of discolored kernels (2.6%–19.9% of total peeled kernels removed 97.3%–99.5% of total aflatoxins. The combination of peeling and visual/manual separation of discolored kernels is a feasible strategy to remove 97%–99% of aflatoxins accumulated in naturally-contaminated samples. Electronic optical sorter gave highly variable results since the amount of AFB1 + AFB2 measured in rejected fractions (15%–18% of total kernels ranged from 13% to 59% of total aflatoxins. An improved immunoaffinity-based HPLC-FLD method having low limits of detection for the four aflatoxins (0.01–0.05 µg/kg was developed and used to monitor the occurrence of aflatoxins in 47 commercial products containing apricot kernels and/or almonds commercialized in Italy. Low aflatoxin levels were found in 38% of the tested samples and ranged from 0.06 to 1.50 μg/kg for AFB1 and from 0.06 to 1.79 μg/kg for total aflatoxins.

  19. INVESTIGATION ON THE AFLATOXIN CONTAMINATION OF MILK IN TEHRAN AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Karim

    1982-03-01

    Full Text Available In this survey Aflatoxin contamination of fifty two samples of raw milk and nine samples of commercial milk were determined by T.L.C. Method. The results showed that 92.31% of the samples of raw milk and all the samples of commercial milk were contaminated by Aflatoxin M1 and M2. None of the samples contained Alatoxin B1, B2, G1 and G2. The maximum amounts of 23/. g/lit and 20.1 g/lit were found in raw and commercial milk respectively. Recommendation to prevent Aflatoxin contamination in raw milk and necessity for preparation the standards for milk, milk products and foods were suggested in this paper.

  20. Presence of moulds and aflatoxin M1 in milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janković Vesna V.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aflatoxin M1 (AFM1 appears in milk or dairy products as a direct result of the cattle's ingestion of feed contaminated with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1. This study comprises mycological and mycotoxicological investigations of 23 milk samples (raw, infant food, pasteurized, whey and yoghurt. The mycological testing showed dominant presence of genus Geotrichum. G. candidum was found in 9 samples, with the highest contamination in the raw milk samples. The contamination level of AM1 is defined by using direct competitive enzyme- -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. AFM1 was found in 9 samples. AFM1 levels were lower than the recommended limits. However, as AFM1 is considered a probable human carcinogen (2B type, it is necessary to achieve a low level of AFM1 in milk. Therefore, cows' feed samples from various cowsheds are supposed to be evaluated routinely for aflatoxin, and kept away from fungal contamination as much as possible.

  1. Co-occurence of aflatoxins and fumonisins in maize: guatemala as a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and fumonisin B1 (FB1) are found in maize. AFB1 is a genotoxic carcinogen (IARC Group 1) and FB1 a liver cancer promoter in rodents and trout (IARC Group 2B). Therefore, the possibility of co-exposure is a health concern, most notably in areas where maize serves as a dietary st...

  2. Present and future directions of translational research on aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wogan, Gerald N; Kensler, Thomas W; Groopman, John D

    2012-01-01

    The aflatoxins were discovered in toxic peanut meal causing "turkey X" disease, which killed large numbers of turkey poults, ducklings and chicks in the UK in the early 1960s. Extracts of toxic feed induced the symptoms in experimental animals, and purified metabolites with properties identical to aflatoxins B(1) and G(1) (AFB(1) and AFG(1)) were isolated from Aspergillus flavus cultures. Structure elucidation of aflatoxin B(1) was accomplished and confirmed by total synthesis in 1963. AFB(1) is a potent liver carcinogen in rodents, non-human primates, fish and birds, operating through a genotoxic mechanism involving metabolic activation to an epoxide, formation of DNA adducts and, in humans, modification of the p53 gene. Aflatoxins are unique among environmental carcinogens, in that elucidation of their mechanisms of action combined with molecular epidemiology provides a foundation for quantitative risk assessment; extensive evidence confirms that contamination of the food supply by AFB(1) puts an exposed population at increased risk of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Molecular biomarkers to quantify aflatoxin exposure in individuals were essential to link aflatoxin exposure with liver cancer risk. Biomarkers were validated in populations with high HCC incidence in China and The Gambia, West Africa; urinary AFB(1)-N (7)-Guanine excretion was linearly related to aflatoxin intake, and levels of aflatoxin-serum albumin adducts also reflected aflatoxin intake. Two major cohort studies employing aflatoxin biomarkers identified their causative role in HCC etiology. Results of a study in Shanghai men strongly support a causal relationship between HCC risk and the presence of biomarkers for aflatoxin and HBV infection, and also show that the two risk factors act synergistically. Subsequent cohort studies in Taiwan confirm these results. IARC classified aflatoxin as a Group 1 human carcinogen in 1993, based on sufficient evidence in humans and experimental

  3. Determination of aflatoxins in nuts of Tabriz confectionaries by ELISA and HPLC methods

    OpenAIRE

    Siahi Shadbad Mohammad Reza; Ansarin Masoud; Tahavori Ali; Ghaderi Faranak; Nemati Mahboob

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aflatoxins (AFs) are a group of mycotoxins and secondary metabolites of various species of Aspergillus. There are various forms of aflatoxins including B1, B2, G1, G2, M1 and M2 types. Aflatoxins cause important health problems and have high potential effect on liver cancer. Therefore, numerous investigations have been conducted during last three decades. The aim of this work is to determine the contamination levels of nuts used by the confectionaries in Tabriz. Methods: A total of 1...

  4. Action of phosphine on production of aflatoxins by various Aspergillus strains isolated from foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, J; de Saint-Blanquat, G; Bailly, J R

    1987-01-01

    Phosphine is a food fumigant, used until now as an insecticide and rodenticide. The present work researches the action of phosphine treatment on growth and aflatoxin production of 23 Aspergillus strains. Production of aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, and G2 decreased in almost all cases by a ratio of 10 to 100. Phosphine treatment therefore seems favorable to prevent growth of various Aspergillus strains, in the context of keeping food safe. PMID:3426212

  5. Susceptibility to aflatoxin contamination among maize landraces from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Beltran, Alejandro; Guerrero-Herrera, Manuel D J; Ortega-Corona, Alejandro; Vidal-Martinez, Victor A; Cotty, Peter J

    2014-09-01

    Maize, the critical staple food for billions of people, was domesticated in Mexico about 9,000 YBP. Today, a great array of maize landraces (MLRs) across rural Mexico is harbored in a living library that has been passed among generations since before the establishment of the modern state. MLRs have been selected over hundreds of generations by ethnic groups for adaptation to diverse environmental settings. The genetic diversity of MLRs in Mexico is an outstanding resource for development of maize cultivars with beneficial traits. Maize is frequently contaminated with aflatoxins by Aspergillus flavus, and resistance to accumulation of these potent carcinogens has been sought for over three decades. However, MLRs from Mexico have not been evaluated as potential sources of resistance. Variation in susceptibility to both A. flavus reproduction and aflatoxin contamination was evaluated on viable maize kernels in laboratory experiments that included 74 MLR accessions collected from 2006 to 2008 in the central west and northwest regions of Mexico. Resistant and susceptible MLR accessions were detected in both regions. The most resistant accessions accumulated over 99 % less aflatoxin B1 than did the commercial hybrid control Pioneer P33B50. Accessions supporting lower aflatoxin accumulation also supported reduced A. flavus sporulation. Sporulation on the MLRs was positively correlated with aflatoxin accumulation (R = 0.5336, P aflatoxin resistance. Results of the current study indicate that MLRs from Mexico are potentially important sources of aflatoxin resistance that may contribute to the breeding of commercially acceptable and safe maize hybrids and/or open pollinated cultivars for human and animal consumption.

  6. CYP7B1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, P; Svenstrup, K; Danielsen, E R

    2014-01-01

    UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids. Clinica......UNLABELLED: The SPG5A subtype of Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia (HSP) is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the CYP7B1 gene, which encodes a steroid cytochrome P450 7α-hydroxylase. This enzyme provides the primary metabolic route for neurosteroids...

  7. Effects of Corn Naturally Contaminated with Aflatoxin B1 on Performance, Chyme Retention Time and Digestibility of Nutrients%自然霉变玉米对肉鸭生产性能和养分消化率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光德; 陈代文; 何健; 刘永福; 高庆

    2011-01-01

    A total of 384 ducks were randomly assigned to 3 dietary treatments with 8 replicates per treatment and 16 ducks (8 males and 8 females) per replicate. Group 1 was fed the diet with normal corn (control), group 2 was fed the diet with contaminated corn to substitute the normal corn on the basis of same percentage (contaminated), group 3 was pair-fed group with control diet, but the feed intake same as the contaminated (pair-fed) . The trial lasted 14 d. The growth performance, digestibility of nutrients and the rate of chyme to pass through the digestive tract were determined. Compared with control, at 0-7 d, 8-14 d and 0-14 d, ADFI of the contaminated group was reduced by 23.55%(P< 0.01), 47.56%(P < 0.01 )and 43.23%(P< 0.01) respectively, while ADG decreased by 31.47%(P< 0.01 ),41.57%(P < 0.01) and 38.84% (P < 0.01 Respectively. However, compared with the pair-fed group, ADG of the contaminated group was improved by 4.63%,18.25% and 13.83%(P < 0.01 Respectively. Compared with the control and pair-fed group, the 0- 14 d F/G reduced 4.90%(P< 0.01 )and 5.56%(P< 0.01 ),the digestibility of DM increased 3.78%(P< 0.01 )and 3.75% (P< 0.01), CP increased 2.65% and 4.63%(P< 0.01),total amino acid increased 3.9%(P < 0.01 )and 3.98%(P < 0.01) for the contaminated group. Furthermore, the retention time of chyme in every segment of digestive tract was obviously prolonged in contaminated group. The retention time in lower segment of esophagus and jejunum were prolonged by 37.78% (P< 0.05) and 55.94%(P< 0.05) respectively. The results indicated that corn naturally contaminated with aflatoxin B, could depress feed intake, decrease body weight gain, and increase digestibility of nutrients, decrease F/G by reducing the rate of chyme to pass through the digestive tract.%试验旨在研究含黄曲霉毒素B1为主的自然霉变玉米对肉鸭生产性能和养分消化率的影响.试验设玉米组、霉变玉米组、采食量配对组3个处理,每个处理8

  8. Diverse inhibitors of aflatoxin biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Robert A; Boston, Rebecca S; Payne, Gary A

    2008-03-01

    Pre-harvest and post-harvest contamination of maize, peanuts, cotton, and tree nuts by members of the genus Aspergillus and subsequent contamination with the mycotoxin aflatoxin pose a widespread food safety problem for which effective and inexpensive control strategies are lacking. Since the discovery of aflatoxin as a potently carcinogenic food contaminant, extensive research has been focused on identifying compounds that inhibit its biosynthesis. Numerous diverse compounds and extracts containing activity inhibitory to aflatoxin biosynthesis have been reported. Only recently, however, have tools been available to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these inhibitors affect aflatoxin biosynthesis. Many inhibitors are plant-derived and a few may be amenable to pathway engineering for tissue-specific expression in susceptible host plants as a defense against aflatoxin contamination. Other compounds show promise as protectants during crop storage. Finally, inhibitors with different modes of action could be used in comparative transcriptional and metabolomic profiling experiments to identify regulatory networks controlling aflatoxin biosynthesis.

  9. Surveillance of Aflatoxin and Microbiota Related to Brewer's Grain Destined for Swine Feed in Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisela A. Gerbaldo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Córdoba province in the center of Argentina is an important area of swine production. The use of industry by-product (brewer's grain as feedstuff for swine is a regular practice and increases animal performance on these animals production. The occurrence of aflatoxin contamination is global, causing severe problems especially in developing countries. No reports on aflatoxin B1 production, micoflora, and potential aflatoxin B1 producing microorganism from brewer's grain are available. The aims of this study were (1 to isolate the microbiota species from brewer's grain, (2 to determine aflatoxin B1 natural contamination levels, and (3 to determine the ability of Aspergillus section Flavi isolates to produce aflatoxins in vitro. Physical properties, total fungal counts, lactic acid bacteria, and fungal genera distribution were determined on this substrate. In 65% of the samples, fungal counts were higher than recommended by GMP, and lactic bacterium counts ranged from 1.9×105 to 4.4×109 CFU g−1. Aspergillus spp. prevailed over other fungal genera. Aspergillus flavus was the prevalent species followed by A. fumigatus. Aflatoxin B1 levels in the samples were higher than the recommended limits (20 ng g−1 for complementary feedstuffs. Several Aspergillus section Flavi strains were able to produce aflatoxin B1  in vitro. Inadequate storage conditions promote the proliferation of mycotoxin-producing fungal species. Regular monitoring of feeds is required in order to prevent chronic and acute toxic syndromes related to this kind of contamination.

  10. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时测定植物油中苯并芘与黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2%Simultaneous Determination of Benzo (a) pyrene and Aflatoxins (B1, B2,G1, G2) in Vegetable Oil by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 杨红梅; 郭启雷; 赵丽; 史海良; 潘红艳

    2014-01-01

    建立了植物油中苯并芘和黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的高效液相色谱-串联质谱测定方法.以乙酸乙酯-环己烷(1∶1)提取样品,凝胶渗透色谱净化,以XDB-C18色谱柱(4.6 mm×50 mm,1.8 μm)分离,流动相为甲醇(含1%甲苯)和10 mmol/L乙酸铵水溶液(梯度洗脱),流速0.25 mL/min,大气压光致电离(APPI+),多反应监测模式扫描(MRM),外标法定量.结果表明,苯并芘和黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G25种化合物分别在0.3~25,0.5 ~30,1.0~10,1.0~30,1.0~10 μg/kg范围内呈良好线性,相应定量下限分别为0.3,0.5,1.0,1.0,1.0 μg/kg,相关系数为0.9996~0.9999;加标回收率为80.3%~106.8%,相对标准偏差为4.0%~10.0%.该方法操作简单、测定结果准确,可用于植物油中苯并芘和黄曲霉毒素B1,B2,G1,G2的同时快速测定.

  11. 黄曲霉毒素B1诱发昆明鼠高血氨的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林雅宁; 徐忠玉

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨黄曲霉毒素B1对昆明鼠血氨浓度的影响。方法用黄曲霉毒素B1注射昆明鼠10周,每2周测定1次昆明鼠鼠血氨浓度。结果毒素组昆明鼠血氨浓度从40μmol/L上升到170μmol/L,同时毒素组的血氨浓度相对于对照组呈上升趋势。结论黄曲霉毒素B1可诱发昆明鼠高血氨,推测黄曲霉毒素B1会干扰尿素循环。%Objective To investigate the effect of aflatoxin Bl on blood ammonia in KM mouse.Methods KM mouse were injec-ted with aflatoxin B1 ,and the blood ammonia was measured every two week,lasting 10 weeks.Results Aflatoxin B1 induced blood ammonia significantly higher than control group,and the blood ammonia rised from 40μmol/L to 170μmol/L.Conclusion Hy-perammonemia of KM mouse induced by aflatoxin B1 indicates that aflatoxin B1 can interrupt the urea cycle.

  12. Hepatitis infections, aflatoxin and hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Hainaut

    2007-02-01

    with hot, humid climates, including maize, peanuts and cottonseeds. The toxins are present at significant levels in crops at the time of harvest but their concentration further increases under poor conditions of long term food storage, in particular during the rain season. Thus, in these regions, most inhabitants of rural areas are highly exposed to aflatoxins, with seasonal variations reflecting the consumption of stored versus fresh foodstuff. Population-based surveys have demonstrated the presence of serum aflatoxin-albumin adducts in over 95% of the normal population in The Gambia, West Africa. Exposure starts in the perinatal period, through in utero transfer and breast-feeding, and continues throughout life, mainly from consumption of peanuts. Time patterns of aflatoxin-albumin adduct levels correlate with the seasonal availability of peanuts.

    There is strong experimental evidence that aflatoxins are potent hepatocarcinogens in rodents. In humans, there are good ecological correlations between the risk of HCC and the presence of biomarkers of aflatoxin exposure in serum or in urine .The most significant carcinogenic aflatoxin is B1 (AFB1, which is the most abundant in the diet. AFB1 is metabolized in the liver by several CYP450 enzymes (mainly 1A2 and 3A4 to a reactive AFB1-8,9- exo-epoxide (Mace et al. 1997. This metabolite generates a primary DNA adduct (8-9, dihydro-8-(N7-guanyl-9-hydroxyaflatoxin; AFB1-N7-Gua, naturally converted to two secondary lesions, an apurinic (AP site and a stable, AFB1-formamidopyrimidine (AFB1-FAPY adduct The latter is considered as the most mutagenic lesion (Smela et al. 2002. The sequence context of codon 249 (AGGCC represents a site of intermediate affinity for the formation of AFB1-induced lesions. Other codons in TP53, including some codons that are ";hotspots"; in many cancers (codon 245, 248 and 273, have a similar or even greater affinity

  13. Aflatoxins in selected Thai commodities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansakul, Natthasit; Limsuwan, Sasithorn; Böhm, Josef; Hollmann, Manfred; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Aflatoxin (AF) B1, B2, G1 and G2 were determined in 120 samples of selected Thai commodities including unpolished rice, unpolished glutinous rice, chilli powder, whole dried chilli pods and raw peanut. The mean concentrations of the total AFs for analysed samples were 0.16, 25.43, 14.18, 6.62 and 1.43 µg kg(-1) with positive incidences of 4%, 20%, 97%, 37% and 30%, respectively. Quantitative analysis was performed using HPLC equipped with post-column derivatisation and fluorescence detection. Sample clean-up was carried out using immunoaffinity columns for selective enrichment of AFs. The method was validated by using certified reference material, which showed recoveries over 85%. The limit of detections (LODs) and limit of quantifications (LOQs) were in a range between 0.01-0.11 µg kg(-1) and 0.03-0.38 µg kg(-1), respectively. The results clearly demonstrated that AFs were detectable in different matrices. Chilli powder was found to have the highest level of AFs contamination followed by chilli pods, peanut and rice, respectively. However, among the selected commodities, unpolished rice contained only trace levels of AFB1 and AFB2. With regard to the fact that AFs are a natural contaminant in commodities, this report calls to attention the regular monitoring and effective control of food commodities to prevent health hazards.

  14. 7 CFR 983.4 - Aflatoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aflatoxin. 983.4 Section 983.4 Agriculture Regulations... NEW MEXICO Definitions § 983.4 Aflatoxin. Aflatoxin is one of a group of mycotoxins produced by the molds Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Aflatoxins are naturally occurring...

  15. Potential of essential oils for protection of grains contaminated by aflatoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper, Renata H; Gonçalez, Edlayne; Marques, Marcia O M; Felicio, Roberto C; Felicio, Joana D

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a highly toxic and carcinogenic metabolite produced by Aspergillus species on food and agricultural commodities. Inhibitory effects of essential oils of Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on the mycelial growth and aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus have been studied previously in culture medium. The aim of this study was to evaluate aflatoxin B1 production by Aspergillus flavus in real food systems (corn and soybean) treated with Ageratum conyzoides (mentrasto) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) essential oils. Samples with 60 g of the grains were treated with different volumes of essential oils, 200, 100, 50, and 10 μL for oregano and 50, 30, 15, and 10 μL for mentrasto. Fungal growth was evaluated by disk diffusion method. Aflatoxin B1 production was evaluated inoculating suspensions of A. flavus containing 1.3 × 10(5) spores/mL in 60 g of grains (corn and soybeans) after adjusting the water activity at 0.94. Aflatoxin was quantified by photodensitometry. Fungal growth and aflatoxin production were inhibited by essential oils, but the mentrasto oil was more effective in soybeans than that of oregano. On the other hand, in corn samples, the oregano essential oil was more effective than that of mentrasto. Chemical compositions of the essential oils were also investigated. The GC/MS oils analysis showed that the main component of mentrasto essential oil is precocene I and of the main component of oregano essential oil is 4-terpineol. The results indicate that both essential oils can become an alternative for the control of aflatoxins in corn and soybeans.

  16. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-01-01

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort. PMID:27187470

  17. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Ertekin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1, aflatoxin B2 (AFB2, aflatoxin G1 (AFG1, aflatoxin G2 (AFG2 and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1. The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31. The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2–50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort.

  18. Monoclonal IgA Antibodies for Aflatoxin Immunoassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertekin, Özlem; Pirinçci, Şerife Şeyda; Öztürk, Selma

    2016-05-12

    Antibody based techniques are widely used for the detection of aflatoxins which are potent toxins with a high rate of occurrence in many crops. We developed a murine monoclonal antibody of immunoglobulin A (IgA) isotype with a strong binding affinity to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2) and aflatoxin M1 (AFM1). The antibody was effectively used in immunoaffinity column (IAC) and ELISA kit development. The performance of the IACs was compatible with AOAC performance standards for affinity columns (Test Method: AOAC 991.31). The total binding capacity of the IACs containing our antibody was 111 ng, 70 ng, 114 ng and 73 ng for AFB1, AFB2, and AFG1 andAFG2, respectively. Furthermore, the recovery rates of 5 ng of each AF derivative loaded to the IACs were determined as 104.9%, 82.4%, 85.5% and 70.7% for AFB1, AFB2, AFG1 and AFG2, respectively. As for the ELISA kit developed using non-oriented, purified IgA antibody, we observed a detection range of 2-50 µg/L with 40 min total test time. The monoclonal antibody developed in this research is hitherto the first presentation of quadruple antigen binding IgA monoclonal antibodies in mycotoxin analysis and also the first study of their utilization in ELISA and IACs. IgA antibodies are valuable alternatives for immunoassay development, in terms of both sensitivity and ease of preparation, since they do not require any orientation effort.

  19. Determination of aflatoxins in by-products of industrial processing of cocoa beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pereira, José Luiz; Lemes, Daniel P; Nakano, Felipe; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2012-01-01

    This study has examined the occurrence of aflatoxins in 168 samples of different fractions obtained during the processing of cocoa in manufacturing plants (shell, nibs, mass, butter, cake and powder) using an optimised methodology for cocoa by-products. The method validation was based on selectivity, linearity, limit of detection and recovery. The method was shown to be adequate for use in quantifying the contamination of cocoa by aflatoxins B(1), B(2), G(1) and G(2). Furthermore, the method was easier to use than other methods available in the literature. For aflatoxin extraction from cocoa samples, a methanol-water solution was used, and then immunoaffinity columns were employed for clean-up before the determination by high-performance liquid chromatography. A survey demonstrated a widespread occurrence of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products, although in general the levels of aflatoxins present in the fractions from industrial processing of cocoa were low. A maximum aflatoxin contamination of 13.3 ng g(-1) was found in a nib sample. The lowest contamination levels were found in cocoa butter. Continued monitoring of aflatoxins in cocoa by-products is nevertheless necessary because these toxins have a high toxicity to humans and cocoa is widely consumed by children through cocoa-containing products, like candies.

  20. Global risk assessment of aflatoxins in maize and peanuts: are regulatory standards adequately protective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Felicia; Stacy, Shaina L; Kensler, Thomas W

    2013-09-01

    The aflatoxins are a group of fungal metabolites that contaminate a variety of staple crops, including maize and peanuts, and cause an array of acute and chronic human health effects. Aflatoxin B1 in particular is a potent liver carcinogen, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) risk is multiplicatively higher for individuals exposed to both aflatoxin and chronic infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV). In this work, we sought to answer the question: do current aflatoxin regulatory standards around the world adequately protect human health? Depending upon the level of protection desired, the answer to this question varies. Currently, most nations have a maximum tolerable level of total aflatoxins in maize and peanuts ranging from 4 to 20ng/g. If the level of protection desired is that aflatoxin exposures would not increase lifetime HCC risk by more than 1 in 100,000 cases in the population, then most current regulatory standards are not adequately protective even if enforced, especially in low-income countries where large amounts of maize and peanuts are consumed and HBV prevalence is high. At the protection level of 1 in 10,000 lifetime HCC cases in the population, however, almost all aflatoxin regulations worldwide are adequately protective, with the exception of several nations in Africa and Latin America.

  1. Characterization of small RNA populations in non-transgenic and aflatoxin-reducing-transformed peanut.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Imana L; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S; Orner, Valerie A; Powell, Joseph L; Lamb, Marshall C; Arias, Renee S

    2017-04-01

    Aflatoxin contamination is a major constraint in food production worldwide. In peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), these toxic and carcinogenic aflatoxins are mainly produced by Aspergillus flavus Link and A. parasiticus Speare. The use of RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising method to reduce or prevent the accumulation of aflatoxin in peanut seed. In this study, we performed high-throughput sequencing of small RNA populations in a control line and in two transformed peanut lines that expressed an inverted repeat targeting five genes involved in the aflatoxin-biosynthesis pathway and that showed up to 100% less aflatoxin B1 than the controls. The objective was to determine the putative involvement of the small RNA populations in aflatoxin reduction. In total, 41 known microRNA (miRNA) families and many novel miRNAs were identified. Among those, 89 known and 10 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed in the transformed lines. We furthermore found two small interfering RNAs derived from the inverted repeat, and 39 sRNAs that mapped without mismatches to the genome of A. flavus and were present only in the transformed lines. This information will increase our understanding of the effectiveness of RNAi and enable the possible improvement of the RNAi technology for the control of aflatoxins.

  2. Identification of Aspergillus species in Central Europe able to produce G-type aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranyi, Nikolett; Despot, Daniela Jakšić; Palágyi, Andrea; Kiss, Noémi; Kocsubé, Sándor; Szekeres, András; Kecskeméti, Anita; Bencsik, Ottó; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Klarić, Maja Šegvić; Varga, János

    2015-09-01

    The occurrence of potential aflatoxin producing fungi was examined in various agricultural products and indoor air in Central European countries including Hungary, Serbia and Croatia. For species identification, both morphological and sequence based methods were applied. Aspergillus flavus was detected in several samples including maize, cheese, nuts, spices and indoor air, and several isolates were able to produce aflatoxins. Besides, three other species of Aspergillus section Flavi, A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus were also isolated from cheese, maize and indoor air, respectively. This is the first report on the occurrence of A. nomius and A. pseudonomius in Central Europe. All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates were able to produce aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2. The A. nomius isolate came from cheese produced very high amounts of aflatoxins (above 1 mg ml⁻¹). All A. nomius, A. pseudonomius and A. parasiticus isolates produced much higher amounts of aflatoxin G1 then aflatoxin B1. Further studies are in progress to examine the occurrence of producers of these highly carcinogenic mycotoxins in agricultural products and indoor air in Central Europe.

  3. Study on the preparation of high-performance CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots using glutathione as stabilizer and its application to detect aflatoxin B1 in rice vinegar by fluoroimmunoassay%谷胱甘肽稳定的高性能CdTe/CdS核壳型量子点制备及应用于荧光免疫检测米醋中痕量黄曲霉毒素B1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晓燕; 杨淑平; 李在均; 孙秀兰; 刘俊康

    2012-01-01

    CdTe/CdS core/shell quantum dots were prepared in aqueous solution with glutathione as stabilizer. Then, it was covalently conjugated on the surface of AFB,antibody using EDC/NHS as activating agent and the antibody was blocked by bovine serum albumin. The investigations on the characteristic of the quantum dot and AFB, antibody-labeling show that luminescent intensity and stability of the glutathione-stabilized CdTe/CdS core/ shell quantum dots are more 4 times and 2 times than those of the CdTe naked shell quantum dot respectively. Since relatively long carbon chain for glutathione between the quantum dot and antibody reduces effect on theCdTe/CdS quantum dot and the spatial configuration of the antibody, especially for active sites regions. This results in enhancing stability and activity of the antibody-labeling, and the luminescent intensity change value of GdTe/CdS quantum dot-antibody complex before and after incubated with AFB,can remain good stability at least 6 days. Based on high performance of the glutathione stabilized CdTe/CdS quantum dots, we developed a novel method for the determination of AFB, by fluoroimmunoassay. When concentration of AFB, is in the range from 0. 68 to 40 pmol/L, their luminescent intensity has good linear relationship with concentration of AFB1, with a correlation coefficient of 0. 9914 ( R2 ) . The detection limit was found to be 0. 3 pmol/L. The proposed method is of high sensitivity and stability, and it has been successful applied to the determination of trace AFB, in rice vinegar samples.%谷胱甘肽作稳定剂水相合成CdTe/CdS核壳型量子点,以EDC/NHS为活化剂对黄曲霉毒素B1(AFB1)抗体进行量子点标记,然后用牛血清蛋白封闭抗体.通过对量子点和标记抗体性能的研究发现,CdTe/CdS核壳型量子点荧光的强度和稳定性较裸壳的CdTe量子点分别提高了4倍和2倍以上.由于谷胱甘肽碳链较长,量子点对抗体尤其是活性位点处的空间构型影响减

  4. Evaluating the skill of seasonal weather forecasts in predicting aflatoxin contamination of groundnut in Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brak, B.; Challinor, A.

    2011-12-01

    Aflatoxins, a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced by some strains of a number of species within Aspergillus section Flavi, contaminate a range of crops grown at latitudes between 40N° and 40S° of the equator. Digestion of food products derived from aflatoxin-contaminated crops may result in acute and chronic health problems in human beings. Countries in sub-Saharan Africa in particular have seen large percentages of the human population exposed to aflatoxin. A recent study showed that over 98% of subjects in West Africa tested positive for aflatoxin biomarkers. According to other research, every year 250,000 people die from hepato-cellular carcinoma related causes due to aflatoxin ingestion in parts of West Africa. Strict aflatoxin levels set by importing countries in accordance with the WTO Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (SPS Agreement) also impair the value of agricultural trade. Over the last thirty years this has led to a reduction of African exports of groundnut by 19% despite the consumption of groundnut derived food products going up by 209%. The occurrence of aflatoxin on crops is strongly influenced by weather. Empirical studies in the US have shown that pre-harvest, aflatoxin contamination of groundnuts is induced by conditions of drought stress in combination with soil temperatures between 25°C and 31°C. Post-harvest, aflatoxin production of stored, Aspergillus-contaminated groundnuts is exacerbated in conditions where relative humidity is above 83%. The GLAM crop model was extended to include a soil temperature subroutine and subroutines containing pre- and post-harvest aflatoxin algorithms. The algorithms used to estimate aflatoxin contamination indices are based on findings from multiple empirical studies and the pre-harvest aflatoxin model has been validated for Australian conditions. Hence, there was sufficient scope to use GLAM with these algorithms to answer the foremost research question: Is the

  5. B1 Aerogels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duer, Karsten; Svendsen, Sv Aa Højgaard

    1996-01-01

    , engineering and architectural basis which will support the appropriate use of aerogels in windows, solar collectors and passive solar applications, with the aim of saving or producing thermal energy for use in buildings".This objective is in very good agreement with the general scope of task 18 but where Task......The report summarizes the work that has been carried out within the project "B1 AEROGELS" as a part of the IEA SH&CP Task 18 "Advanced Glazing and Associated Materials For Solar And Building Applications".By providing at the same time thermal insulation and transparency the silica aerogel is a very...... of aerogel as a material for window applications. It was not a part of the project to make a further development of the aerogel material.The project was carried out in three main steps:1. Collection of information on aerogel production methods2. Measurements and evaluation of optical and thermal properties...

  6. RNAi-mediated Control of Aflatoxins in Peanut: Method to Analyze Mycotoxin Production and Transgene Expression in the Peanut/Aspergillus Pathosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Renée S; Dang, Phat M; Sobolev, Victor S

    2015-12-21

    The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations estimates that 25% of the food crops in the world are contaminated with aflatoxins. That represents 100 million tons of food being destroyed or diverted to non-human consumption each year. Aflatoxins are powerful carcinogens normally accumulated by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus in cereals, nuts, root crops and other agricultural products. Silencing of five aflatoxin-synthesis genes by RNA interference (RNAi) in peanut plants was used to control aflatoxin accumulation following inoculation with A. flavus. Previously, no method existed to analyze the effectiveness of RNAi in individual peanut transgenic events, as these usually produce few seeds, and traditional methods of large field experiments under aflatoxin-conducive conditions were not an option. In the field, the probability of finding naturally contaminated seeds is often 1/100 to 1/1,000. In addition, aflatoxin contamination is not uniformly distributed. Our method uses few seeds per transgenic event, with small pieces processed for real-time PCR (RT-PCR) or small RNA sequencing, and for analysis of aflatoxin accumulation by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). RNAi-expressing peanut lines 288-72 and 288-74, showed up to 100% reduction (p ≤ 0.01) in aflatoxin B1 and B2 compared to the control that accumulated up to 14,000 ng · g(-1) of aflatoxin B1 when inoculated with aflatoxigenic A. flavus. As reference, the maximum total of aflatoxins allowable for human consumption in the United States is 20 ng · g(-1). This protocol describes the application of RNAi-mediated control of aflatoxins in transgenic peanut seeds and methods for its evaluation. We believe that its application in breeding of peanut and other crops will bring rapid advancement in this important area of science, medicine and human nutrition, and will significantly contribute to the international effort to control aflatoxins, and potentially other

  7. Analysis of cocoa products for ochratoxin A and aflatoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, Anne-Marie; Scott, Peter M; Tague, Brett

    2013-08-01

    Eighty-five samples of cocoa products sampled in Canada were analysed for ochratoxin A (OTA) and aflatoxins in 2011-2012. Inclusion of the aflatoxins in this survey required additional method development. Chocolate was extracted with methanol-water plus NaCl, while for cocoa two successive extractions with methanol and methanol-water were made. Extracts were cleaned on an AflaOchra immunoaffinity column (IAC). Determination was by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Detection of the aflatoxins was with a post-column photochemical reactor and of OTA by fluorescence detection. Mean limits of quantification (LOQ) of chocolate and cocoa powders were 0.16 ng/g (OTA) and 0.07 ng/g (aflatoxin B1), respectively. Survey results showed that the incidences of OTA above the LOQ in natural cocoa were 15/15 (mean 1.17 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 1.06 ng/g), 9/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.49 ng/g), 20/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.39 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 5/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. These results confirm our previous work with OTA. In the same samples, incidences of aflatoxin B1 above the LOQ were 14/15 for natural cocoa (mean 0.86 ng/g), 20/21 for alkalized cocoa (mean 0.37 ng/g), 7/9 for baking chocolate (mean 0.22 ng/g), 16/20 for dark chocolate (mean 0.19 ng/g), 7/10 for milk chocolate (mean 0.09 ng/g), 4/5 for cocoa liquor (mean 0.43 ng/g), and 0/5 for cocoa butter. Both aflatoxins and OTA were confirmed by HPLC-MS/MS when OTA or aflatoxin levels found were above 2 ng/g in cocoa.

  8. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone Contamination of Maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam