WorldWideScience

Sample records for afghanistan

  1. Afghanistan Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linnet, Poul Martin

    2007-01-01

    information on progress or lack of progress in the reconstruction of the post Taliban Afghanistan. The index is mainly based on information collected on the internet in order to provide quick access to the original source. The index is under development and thus new information will be added on a continuous...

  2. Minerals in Afghanistan : gemstones of Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    McIntosh, Robert; Benham, Antony John

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan and gemstones have been inextricably linked for 6500 years and the country remains rich in precious and semiprecious gemstone deposits (Figure 1). Lapis lazuli, mined in the Hindu Kush since the Neolithic Period, was transported along the ancient trade routes to Mesopotamia, Ur, Egypt and India. Precious gems including emeralds, ruby and sapphires (Figure 2) are mined in Afghanistan, and semi-precious lapis lazuli, tourmaline, aquamarine, kunzite, topaz, garne...

  3. Afghanistan: A Regional Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palka, Eugene J., Ed.

    Afghanistan and its people are not well known or understood by the United States, yet many U.S. people now consider the U.S. and Afghanistan to be at war. How is it possible to know the enemy? This book offers a complete, but not exhaustive source of information about Afghanistan, the land and its people. The book is intended as a guide for anyone…

  4. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-01-01

    TThis paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistan for operational pu...

  5. Afghanistan : revival and redevelopment

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Clive; Benham, Antony

    2008-01-01

    Major redevelopment projects in Afghanistan are placing large demands on the minerals industry, which is struggling to keep pace. Clive Mitchell and Antony Benham report on the revival of the country’s industrial minerals industry.

  6. Strategic CSR in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Sameer

    CSR is a rising phenomena in Afghanistan – but why are firms concerned about CSR in a least-developed context such as Afghanistan, and what are the strategic benefits? This paper is one of the first to explore these CSR issues in a least-developed country. It does so by focusing on CSR in the Afg......CSR is a rising phenomena in Afghanistan – but why are firms concerned about CSR in a least-developed context such as Afghanistan, and what are the strategic benefits? This paper is one of the first to explore these CSR issues in a least-developed country. It does so by focusing on CSR...... advantages through CSR in Afghanistan, and if so which and how these strategic benefits are gained. The paper shows that the developmental challenges of Afghanistan are the key explanations for why companies engage in CSR. Roshan has engaged in proactive CSR to overcome the contextual barriers for growth...... projects could all live up to the strategic CSR criteria drawn from the academic work of Porter and Kramer, Burke and Logsdon and Blowfield. Finally, the paper discusses how in a context of a weak state and civil society, and massive developmental challenges, CSR is not a matter of an ‘add-on choice...

  7. Afghanistan's Role in Regional Cooperation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hamid Karzai

    2006-01-01

    @@ At the invitation of Cui Liru, President of China Institutes of Contemporary International Relations (CICIR), Mr.Hamid Karzai,President of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, paid a visit to CICIR on June 20, 2006.In his speech before an audience of several hundred researchers, President Karzai addressed many issues Afghanistan is now facing, including the achievements of peace and reconstruction, the necessities and ways for Afghanistan to re-join in the regional affairs and the international community, the role of Afghanistan in the regional development and prosperity, and the meaning of a stable Afghanistan to China. Following are the contents of his speech.

  8. Women's Rights in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sitez, Lalah; Raza, Nudrat; Payal, Pallavi; Sitez, Punah

    2012-01-01

    Power is the factor that structures the society based on domination. Thus this project is about power relations in terms of gender in the Afghan society that has led to violation of women’s rights and has influenced their mentality. This project emphasizes the situation of women in Afghanistan and their rights. The society of Afghanistan has quite a biased perception towards men and women; women are secondary to men in every aspect and due to this they have been suffering from all kinds of me...

  9. Afghanistan, state and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Ole

    In June 2007, the RAND Corporation and the Royal Danish Defence College hosted a conference titled “Afghanistan: State and Society, Great Power Politics, and the Way Ahead”. The two-day event, held in Copenhagen, was attended by more than 100 politicians, scholars, academics, and representative...

  10. Pistacia in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Four species of Pistacia have been reported within Afghanistan: Pistacia vera L., P. Khinjuk Stocks, P.atlantica subsp. cabulica (Stocks) Rech. f., and P. integerrima (=P. chinensis subsp. integerrima (J.L. Stewart) Rech. f.). Information on their identification is provided based on recent literat...

  11. Security Situation in Afghanistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Jinying

    2006-01-01

    @@ Since the beginning of 2006, the Taliban has intensified its attacks in Afghanistan in various forms, especially in the south.The U.S.-led coalition forces, the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) , and the Afghan Army found themselves constantly be the victims of ambushes, suicide bombings, and roadside blasts.

  12. Andre scener fra Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serritzlev, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Filmen 'Armadillo' viser, at indsatsen i Afghanistan er formålsløs. At det ikke nytter. At drengene er storforbrugere af cola og porno, og at afghanerne synes, at vi skal tage hjem. At soldaterne har sjove film på deres computere, kan ikke provokere mig. Det kan til gengæld et ensidigt og fortegnet...

  13. Da Afghanistan var fredeligt

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, Kristine Marie

    2013-01-01

    This project studies a period in the recent history of Afghanistan (1963-1981) on the basis of not only scientific material but also a historical novel, The Kite Runner, by Khaled Hosseini, first published in 2003. The period is defined partly on the basis of the plot in the novel with the aim of showing that our understanding of a historical period in a remote country can be enriched by fiction involving historical facts. In historical terms the period covers the last years of the Afghan mon...

  14. CSR in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Azizi, Sameer; Jamali, Dima

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to explain the emergence of CSR in Afghanistan as a novel context in the South-Asian CSR debate. Design/methodology/approach: – The findings of the paper are based on case studies of four corporations in the Afghan mobile telecommunications industry. Multiple...... space for manoeuvring for non-state actors to play a pivotal role in business-society relations. The paper highlights that the CSR practices are driven by the multi-level organisational field that through a unique blend of global coercive, mimetic and normative pressures lead to convergence around...

  15. Turkey's Increasing Role in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Eksi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper is briefly dealing with the current situation in Afghanistan within the context of Turkey’s increasing role in Afghanistan. Turkish-Afghani relations are examined in terms of politics and economy while Turkish foreign policies towards Afghanistan and the Turkish-Pakistani-Afghani triple summit attempts are analyzed. Additionally, Turkey’s security and socio-economic contributions in Afghanistan are emphasized. Turkey’s unwillingness to send troops to Afghanistanfor operational purposes that is frequently debated in national and international circles has been evaluated by stating the advantages and disadvantages of such decision. Turkey’s quiet approach between 2001 and 2004 towards Afghanistan, which have been energizing since 2005 and Foreign Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu’s visit to Afghanistan on June 2009 have been dealt as well. By considering Davutoglu’s policies, aiming to introduce Turkey as a global actor and as the term President of the UNSC (the UN Security Council, it seems that Turkey is preparing to play a more active role in Afghanistan.

  16. Afghanistan; Joint Staff Advisory Note

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2010-01-01

    This Joint Staff Advisory Note discusses Afghanistan’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper's annual progress report. Afghanistan has experienced a number of extraordinary challenges that delayed its implementation. The security situation deteriorated markedly and has been dominated by the cross-border Taliban insurgency. Growth started to recover from a devastating drought. In May 2008, food and fuel prices peaked, leading to high inflation and pressure on the budget for additional fuel and fo...

  17. The Civil War in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Liakhovsky, Alexander

    2000-01-01

    Author analyses (a) the causes leading to the Afghan Civil War 1979-1989 (the war is above all the result of global rivalries between the super-power states and conflicting political systems); (b) Politburo decision to send Soviet troops into Afghanistan (there is reason to believe that the leaders of the Soviet Union became "victims" of strategic misinformation, skillfully put into effect by American intelligence agencies); (c) the deployment of Soviet troops in Afghanistan (brought about an...

  18. Myiopardalis pardalina in Afghanistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Baluchistan melon fly, Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot), is a serious and worsening problem in Central Asia. As it survives snowy and subzero temperatures as an over wintering pupa, it constitutes a quarantine risk to temperate countries where melons are grown, including in North America and Southern Europe. It is spreading rapidly in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as well as Afghanistan, and present from Turkey to India. Losses without control mount as high as 80%. In spite of this, the control of the fly has been little studied, and published recommendations are largely for cover applications of chemicals. It responds to no known lures, and reports of bait responses, though mixed, indicate poor responsivity. This study addressed these problems with a crash program of research in the melon season of 2006, in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, with the following findings. (1) Although absence of proof of response is not proof of absence of response, adult flies responded to none of a wide suite of food baits in the field or laboratory. (2) Females laid viable eggs, with offspring completing their life cycle, having received no food as adults, adding suggestive support to a conclusion that adults may not be attracted to food baits. (3) When leaves were coated with sugar, however, flies which were on them were stimulated to remain, indicating that the addition of sugar to cover sprays (as opposed to spot sprays which might have attracted flies from a distance) may enhance their effectiveness and persistence. (4) Pupae experimentally buried to different depths led to teneral adult emergence from 50cm of soil, and thus fruit disposal by burial may need to be deeper than this. (5) Pupae in soil fully flooded for 48 hours suffered no reduction in survival, and thus field flooding for control may need to be longer than this. (6) A study of pupation found that: up to ten prepupal larvae may leave a melon through the same hole; unlike those of Bactrocera, larvae do not jump about

  19. Myiopardalis pardalina in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stonehouse, J. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Sadeed, S.M.; Harvey, A.; Haiderzada, G.S. [Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Mazar-i-Sharif (Afghanistan)

    2006-07-01

    The Baluchistan melon fly, Myiopardalis pardalina (Bigot), is a serious and worsening problem in Central Asia. As it survives snowy and subzero temperatures as an over wintering pupa, it constitutes a quarantine risk to temperate countries where melons are grown, including in North America and Southern Europe. It is spreading rapidly in Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan as well as Afghanistan, and present from Turkey to India. Losses without control mount as high as 80%. In spite of this, the control of the fly has been little studied, and published recommendations are largely for cover applications of chemicals. It responds to no known lures, and reports of bait responses, though mixed, indicate poor responsivity. This study addressed these problems with a crash program of research in the melon season of 2006, in Mazar-i-Sharif, Afghanistan, with the following findings. (1) Although absence of proof of response is not proof of absence of response, adult flies responded to none of a wide suite of food baits in the field or laboratory. (2) Females laid viable eggs, with offspring completing their life cycle, having received no food as adults, adding suggestive support to a conclusion that adults may not be attracted to food baits. (3) When leaves were coated with sugar, however, flies which were on them were stimulated to remain, indicating that the addition of sugar to cover sprays (as opposed to spot sprays which might have attracted flies from a distance) may enhance their effectiveness and persistence. (4) Pupae experimentally buried to different depths led to teneral adult emergence from 50cm of soil, and thus fruit disposal by burial may need to be deeper than this. (5) Pupae in soil fully flooded for 48 hours suffered no reduction in survival, and thus field flooding for control may need to be longer than this. (6) A study of pupation found that: up to ten prepupal larvae may leave a melon through the same hole; unlike those of Bactrocera, larvae do not jump about

  20. INDIA-AFGHANISTAN STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umadevi Basavaraj Tegnoor

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available India, Afghanistan is undoubtedly a very important partner in the region to project its power status and to secure its entry into energy rich and untapped markets of Central Asia. Strategic partnership between the two countries will create an "institutional framework" so that India can help in Afghan "capacity building" in the areas of education, development and people-to-people contacts. But the real motive was to secure its entry into the market of Central Asia and to block Pakistan. India helps Afghanistan's reconstruction in light of the enduring security competition between India and Pakistan. On the one hand are those who want to expand India's presence in Afghanistan through increased Indian development projects, and expanded economic ties. India's interest in Afghanistan is Pakistan-specific on one side, but more importantly, tied to India's desire to be and to be seen as an extra-regional power moving toward great power status. Strategic partnership agreement is to support, to reconstruct Afghanistan and future commitment at a time when other countries are talking of downsizing or even complete withdrawal.

  1. Afghanistan Diagnostics Trade Integration Study

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    Trade enables countries to import ideas and technologies, realize comparative advantages and economies of scale, and foster competition and innovation, which in turn increases productivity and achieves higher sustainable employment and economic growth. Countries open to international trade tend to provide more opportunities to their people, and grow faster. Afghanistan could derive far mor...

  2. Drug use and harm reduction in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strathdee Steffanie A

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Opium has been cultivated in Afghanistan since 1100 A.D., although production has steadily increased since 1979. Currently, Afghanistan produces three-quarters of the global opium supply, with injection drug use and HIV currently following the opium trade route through Central Asia. Although systematic studies are lacking, heroin use appears to be on the rise in Afghanistan. The purpose of this paper is to briefly provide historical background and current statistics for drug production and use in Afghanistan, to discuss the new government's policies towards problem drug use and available rehabilitation programs, and to assess Afghan harm reduction needs with consideration of regional trends.

  3. The Afghanistan National Institute of Music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, David

    2013-01-01

    In this article, David Forrest probes Ahmad Sarmast (Founder and Director of the Afghanistan National Institute of Music, Ministry of Education, Afghanistan) about the development of the Institute, its sponsorship, the range of local musicians and music educators that work there, and the student population.

  4. GEOPOLITICS OF US WALKING OUT FROM AFGHANISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafar Javed

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available After 13 ( 15 in 2014 at the time of departure years of unsuccessful war , US withdrawal may cause a major political,security and strategic vacuum in Afghanistan , which may not only further deteriorate the situation of Afghanistan but also causemany problems in neighbouring and regional countries. These countries have their own political, economical and security interests andobjectives in Afghanistan. Therefore, these countries will try to influence Afghanistan in many ways after the departure. Therefore, theinterests, role and strategy of Pakistan, India, Russia, Iran, China and Turkey has been analysed in detail in this paper. This paper alsodiscusses different partnerships which emerge in Afghanistan after the exit of the US and allied forces.

  5. Poetic Return in Afghanistan Persian Poem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esmaeil Shafagh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Poetic return movement was started by a group of poets like Moshtagh and Shole Esfehani in the second half of 12 century. Their goal was restoring Persian poem and deliverance of Hindi style decline. Esfahan’s poets initiative was considered only in Iran but in other Persian language and literature areas like India, Afghanistan and Transoxiana it was ignored. After the failure of constitutional Movement in Afghanistan, motion similar poetic return was happened that caused poetic themes, which had gone towards modernism, return to Hindi style again.The present paper attempts to analyze the poetic atmosphere in Afghanistan synchronous the poetic return movement in Iran and investigate socio- political backgrounds of return to Hindi style in Afghanistan after constitution failure.

  6. Afghanistan in 2024: Muddling Through?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kilcullen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights trends in Afghan security and development, including capacities of Taliban and Al Qaeda insurgencies, national forces’ casualty and desertion rates, and citizen rage spurred by abusive authorities, profiteering elites and ethnic leaders. In coming years, the unity central government may fall apart. As in Pakistan, U.S. targeted killings by drones and raids within Afghanistan may prove counter-productive, radicalizing civilians. While little is certain, a modest degree of successful stability and reconstruction may be achieved by 2024 – most large cities and many small towns may be controlled by the Kabul government, official corruption may decline, and conceivably the country may integrate into a regional economy shared with Iran, Russia, China, and India.

  7. Securitization and Counter-Securitization in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Stritzel, Holger; Chang, Sean C

    2015-01-01

    This article confronts securitization theory with the war in Afghanistan and thus explores questions and dynamics of securitization in a specific communicative situation of military combat. The confrontation highlights not only less well researched questions of implementation, resistance, legitimacy and difficulties of establishing authority in securitizations, but it also inspires a conceptualization of counter-securitization within the theory. In Afghanistan sovereign power to control and r...

  8. Omlæg operationen i Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veicherts, Nicolas Teodors

    2008-01-01

    Ingen er længere i tvivl om, at tidens krige i f.eks. Afghanistan ikke alene kan vindes med militære midler. Sejr i Afghanistan i form af et nyt stabilt politisk system kan kun ske gennem en kombination af militær og civil indsats. Særligt når det gælder bekæmpelsen af væbnede og aggressive...

  9. History and Problems of Education in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Khwajamir Mehtarkhan

    2016-01-01

    The formal education institutions in Afghanistan never existed from its establishment (1747) until 1875. Despite that the foundation of modern education was laid in 1875, the number of established schools didn't exceed four until 1919. King Amanullah Khan (1919-1929) made the primary schools compulsory to all, for the first time he opened schools for girls and sent some female students to Turkey for education. This led to his exile from Afghanistan. From 1929 to 2001 there were enhancements i...

  10. History and Problems of Education in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwajamir Mehtarkhan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The formal education institutions in Afghanistan never existed from its establishment (1747 until 1875. Despite that the foundation of modern education was laid in 1875, the number of established schools didn't exceed four until 1919. King Amanullah Khan (1919-1929 made the primary schools compulsory to all, for the first time he opened schools for girls and sent some female students to Turkey for education. This led to his exile from Afghanistan. From 1929 to 2001 there were enhancements in the educational fields although some obstacles emerged especially to female educators during some periods. The education is better today in comparison with previous periods; but there are still some problems in this field. The aim of this paper is to evaluate briefly the important developments which happened in the education system from the 4th century until today and the problems that have impeded the education in different periods in Afghanistan. This article focuses on the official education institutions from the establishment of Afghanistan (1747 until today. History of education in Afghanistan is ranked according to periods and the positive and negative developments in each period are also briefly discussed.

  11. Round Afghanistan with a fridge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild, Gareth; Anderson, D; Lund, P

    2013-03-01

    INTRODUCTION: This paper covers the contemporary deployment of blood products in the pre-hospital environment during extended field operations in Afghanistan. The equipment used was standard-issue to the British Armed Forces but used in a novel manner. The aim of this paper was to establish the reliability of the RCB42P blood bank and the concept of blood storage in the field during protracted vehicle-borne patrols. METHOD: TempIT tag data was collected for five patrols and analysed. Ambient temperatures varied immensely from minus 5°C to plus 50°C. Mitigation measures were introduced to reduce the exposure of the blood bank to radiated and ambient heat. RESULTS: The blood bank is affected by radiated heat from the engine compartment on long journeys coupled with high ambient temperatures. However, this can be minimised by simple mitigation measures using insulation and passive cooling. CONCLUSIONS: The RCB42P blood bank is a robust unit capable of enduring a considerable amount of physical abuse and extremes of temperature. It is suitable for the storage of blood products on protracted vehicle-borne patrols in high ambient temperatures if the mitigation measures outlined are employed. PMID:23720556

  12. Afghanistan water constraints overview analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afghanistan's already severe water supply problems are expected to intensify as Afghan refugees resettle in former conflictive zones. The report examines the technical, economic, cultural, and institutional facets of the country's water supply and suggests steps to mitigate existing and anticipated water supply problems. Chapter 2 presents information on Afghanistan's water resources, covering the country's climate, precipitation, glaciers/snow packs, and watersheds; the principal patterns of water flow and distribution; and comprehensive estimates. Chapter 3 examines water resource development in the country from 1945 to 1979, including projects involving irrigation and hydroelectric power and strategies for improving the drinking water supply

  13. Mineral resources in Afghanistan. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite Afghanistan's wide variety of mineral resources and long history of small-scale mining of gems, gold, copper, and coal, it was not until the 1950's that the country's mineral resources were subject to systematic exploration. The report documents the past and present status of these resources and examines alternative strategies for their exploitation. Chapter 2 provides a brief history of minerals exploration, exploitation, and planning in Afghanistan, including the roles of Great Britain, France, Germany, the Soviet bloc, and the United States in Afghanistan's mineral sector; mineral policy in the five national plans during the years 1962-83; and sector assessments conducted by the World Bank (1978) and the US Department of Energy (1989). Chapter 3 discusses three strategies for developing the country's mineral and hydrocarbon resources. (1) a national orientation focusing on domestic needs; (2) a regional strategy that would consider markets in countries close to Afghanistan; and (3) an international strategy that would place Afghan resources on the international market

  14. Afghanistan - Country Procurement Assessment : Consulting Services

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan is striving to emerge from a prolonged period of military occupation, wars and the Taliban rule. The country's security situation remains critical, especially outside of Kabul, yet the economy is stable and continues to grow. In the reconstruction process the country is receiving extensive donor support. Taking into consideration the World Bank's country assistance strategy, th...

  15. Afghanistan : Public Financial Management and Accountability Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    This document reports on a public financial management performance assessment (PFMPA) for the Government of Afghanistan (GoA). The assessment was conducted with the particular objective of updating the PFMPA published in June 2008 to provide the GoA with an objective, indicator led assessment of the public financial management (PFM) system in a concise and standardized manner, to form an u...

  16. In Brief: Assessing Afghanistan's mineral resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2007-12-01

    Afghanistan has significant amounts of undiscovered nonfuel mineral resources, with copper and iron ore having the most potential for extraction, according to a new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) assessment. The assessment, done cooperatively with the Afghanistan Geological Survey of the Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, also found indications of significant deposits of colored stones and gemstones (including emeralds, rubies, and sapphires), gold, mercury, sulfur, chromite, and other resources. ``Mineral resource assessments provide government decision-makers and potential private investors with objective, unbiased information on where undiscovered mineral resources may be located, what kinds of resources are likely to occur, and how much of each mineral commodity may exist in them,'' said USGS director Mark Myers. The USGS, in cooperation with the Afghan government, released an oil and gas resources assessment in March 2006 and an earthquake hazards assessment in May 2007. For more information, visit the Web sites: http://afghanistan.cr.usgs.gov and http://www.bgs.ac.uk/afghanminerals/.

  17. Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R.

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is facing many challenges on its path of reconstruction and development. Among all its pressing needs, the country would benefit from the development and implementation of an energy strategy. In addition to conventional energy sources, the Afghan government is considering alternative options such as energy derived from renewable resources (wind, solar, biomass, geothermal). Biomass energy is derived from a variety of sources -- plant-based material and residues -- and can be used in various conversion processes to yield power, heat, steam, and fuel. This study provides policymakers and industry developers with information on the biomass resource potential in Afghanistan for power/heat generation and transportation fuels production. To achieve this goal, the study estimates the current biomass resources and evaluates the potential resources that could be used for energy purposes.

  18. 76 FR 66692 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-27

    ... sectors include: Construction (including engineering, architecture, transportation and logistics, and... donors continue to support Afghanistan's development; however, long-term sustainable growth will...

  19. 76 FR 14904 - Executive-Led Trade Mission to Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-18

    ... sectors include: Construction (including engineering, architecture, transportation and logistics, and... donors continue to support Afghanistan's development; however, long-term sustainable growth will...

  20. Quality of drinking water in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sundem, Lise

    2015-01-01

    Norwegian peacekeeping operations abroad operate under different conditions than civil water supply in Norway. It may be poor access to drinking water of satisfactory quality, there is a greater daily intake of water and that the composition of personnel is not a cross-section of the population in Norway. In the present work it is examined whether or not the groundwater in Maimanah and in Kabul, Afghanistan has a satisfactory water quality, as well as if the limits set in the Civil ...

  1. The riddle of negotiations in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Giustozzi, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    As the death toll of British and US/NATO forces rises every week, along with casualties amongst the insurgents and the Afghan population, Antonio Giustozzi reads the runes on whether a politically negotiated settlement is going to be feasible in Afghanistan. British officials and military have been amongst those pushing most strongly for talks with the Taliban to begin. So how do all the stakeholders in the conflict now line up on starting negotiations?

  2. Cosmopolitan Narratives:Documentary Perspectives on Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Bondebjerg, Ib

    2014-01-01

    Cosmopolitan Narratives: Documentary Perspectives on AfghanistanCosmopolitanism is a concept discussed in relation to globalization in contemporary societies by sociologists, anthropologists and media scholars (Beck 2006, Delanty 2006, Appadurai 1996). The concept indicates the dialectic between universal dimensions of human life and cultural differences in a more and more mediatized global media culture. How do individuals and groups imagine each other in this new, global media culture, in w...

  3. Minerals in Afghanistan : the potential for gold

    OpenAIRE

    Benham, Antony John; Coats, Stan

    2006-01-01

    Gold has been worked in Afghanistan for centuries from many areas including Takhar province in the north and from Ghazni, Zabul, and Kandahar provinces in the south-west of the country. Currently, gold is produced almost solely by artisanal miners working the Samti Placer Deposit in Takhar Province. Gold deposits and prospects are known in rocks of Proterozoic to Neogene age. Many styles of gold mineralisation occur, in particular skarn, vein-hosted, porphyry and alluvial...

  4. Riding the Surge from Iraq to Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Amara, Jomana

    2013-01-01

    United States Institute for Peace, International Network for Economics and Conflict The last several weeks have brought a steady stream of unwelcome news for the proponents of the surge in Afghanistan. After initially announcing in January that attacks against International Security Assistance Forces and governments troops, were down seven percent in 2012 from 2011, NATO retracted and announced in February that there was no decline in attacks. This comes at the heels of several re...

  5. U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of Afghanistan's undiscovered oil and gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, Craig J.; Ulmishek, Gregory; Agena, Warren; Klett, Timothy R.; Afghanistan Oil and Gas Research Assessment Team

    2006-01-01

    Results of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Ministry of Mines and Industry cooperative assessment of undiscovered petroleum resources of northern Afghanistan were first released through this presentation on March 14, 2006, at the Afghan Embassy in Washington, D.C. On March 15 the results were presented in Kabul, Afghanistan. The purpose of the assessment and release of the results is to provide energy data required to implement the rebuilding and development of Afghanistan's energy infrastructure. This presentation includes a summary of the goals, process, methodology, results, and accomplishments of the assessment. It provides context for Fact Sheet 2006-3031, a summary of assessment results provided in the presentations.

  6. Simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, Jennifer H [Los Alamos National Laboratory; MacKerrow, Edward P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merritt, Terence M [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-04-08

    This paper outlines an opium supply chain using the Hilmand province of Afghanistan as exemplar. The opium supply chain model follows the transformation of opium poppy seed through cultivation and chemical alteration to brown heroin base. The purpose of modeling and simulating the Afghanistan-Pakistan opium supply chain is to discover and test strategies that will disrupt this criminal enterprise.

  7. Afghanistan from a Y-chromosome perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacau, Harlette; Gayden, Tenzin; Regueiro, Maria; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Bukhari, Areej; Underhill, Peter A; Garcia-Bertrand, Ralph L; Herrera, Rene J

    2012-10-01

    Central Asia has served as a corridor for human migrations providing trading routes since ancient times. It has functioned as a conduit connecting Europe and the Middle East with South Asia and far Eastern civilizations. Therefore, the study of populations in this region is essential for a comprehensive understanding of early human dispersal on the Eurasian continent. Although Y- chromosome distributions in Central Asia have been widely surveyed, present-day Afghanistan remains poorly characterized genetically. The present study addresses this lacuna by analyzing 190 Pathan males from Afghanistan using high-resolution Y-chromosome binary markers. In addition, haplotype diversity for its most common lineages (haplogroups R1a1a*-M198 and L3-M357) was estimated using a set of 15 Y-specific STR loci. The observed haplogroup distribution suggests some degree of genetic isolation of the northern population, likely due to the Hindu Kush mountain range separating it from the southern Afghans who have had greater contact with neighboring Pathans from Pakistan and migrations from the Indian subcontinent. Our study demonstrates genetic similarities between Pathans from Afghanistan and Pakistan, both of which are characterized by the predominance of haplogroup R1a1a*-M198 (>50%) and the sharing of the same modal haplotype. Furthermore, the high frequencies of R1a1a-M198 and the presence of G2c-M377 chromosomes in Pathans might represent phylogenetic signals from Khazars, a common link between Pathans and Ashkenazi groups, whereas the absence of E1b1b1a2-V13 lineage does not support their professed Greek ancestry. PMID:22510847

  8. In Denmark, Afghanistan is Worth Dying For

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsmose, Jens; Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    -existing interests and values (national defence and support for democracy and human/women’s rights), and role conceptions (supporting NATO and US-led military operations as a responsible member of international society). Succeeding governments subsequently maintained a high level of political consensus on...... Afghanistan through a process of continuous consultation and consensus-building. The political elites supporting the mission then sustained the high level of public support by defining success in ways that did not involve ‘winning’ but focused instead on the attainment of realistic short-term, tactical...

  9. La musique folklorique d'Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    ANASSORY, Jaber

    2004-01-01

    L'Afghanistan, contrée d'une grande diversité ethnique et lieu de croisement de cultures et de rites différents, est un pays très particulier au niveau de l'étude des musiques tribales. Cet article donne quelques exemples concernant la fonction des instruments de musique parmi les différents groupes ethniques afghans qui permettent de mieux saisir l'impact de la musique dans les rituels ou dans certaines cérémonies qui répètent les mythes fondateurs.

  10. Afghanistan, history and beyond - GIS based application tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Rahul Chidananda

    The emphasis of this tool is to provide an insight into the history of Afghanistan. Afghanistan has been a warring nation for decades; this tool provides a brief account of the reasons behind the importance of Afghanistan, which led to its invasion by Britain, Russia and USA. The timeline for this thesis was set from 1879 to 1990 which ranges from Barakzai Dynasty to the soviet invasion. Maps are used judiciously to show battles during the British invasion. Maps that show roads, rivers, lakes and provinces are incorporated into the tool to provide an overview of the present situation. The user has options to filter this data by using the timeline and a filtering tool. To quench the users thirst for more information, HTML pages are used judiciously. HTML pages are embedded in key events to provide detailed insight into these events with the help of pictures and videos. An intuitive slider is used to show the people who played a significant role in Afghanistan. The user interface was made intuitive and easy to use, keeping in mind the novice user. A help menu is provided to guide the user on the tool. Spending time researching about Afghanistan has helped me again a new perspective on Afghanistan and its people. With this tool, I hope I can provide a valuable channel for people to understand Afghanistan and gain a fresh perspective into this war ridden nation.

  11. Total Petroleum Systems of northern Afghanistan (tpsafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes polygons that describe U.S. Geological Survey delineated Total Petroleum Systems of northern Afghanistan. Each petroleum system is defined...

  12. Assessment units of northern Afghanistan (auafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile includes polygons and regions that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined petroleum resource Assessment Units of northern Afghanistan. Each...

  13. Structures prospective for petroleum in northern Afghanistan (structafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polygons that describe structures prospective for petroleum in northern Afghanistan compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey, Central Energy...

  14. Aeromagnetic Survey in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2007-01-01

    Afghanistan's geologic setting indicates significant natural resource potential While important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country's potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well accepted and cost effective method for obtaining information of the geological setting of an area without the need to be physically located on the ground. Due to the security situation and the large areas of the country of Afghanistan that has not been covered with geophysical exploration methods a regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan.

  15. Ruby and sapphire from Jegdalek, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowersox, G.W.; Foord, E.E.; Laurs, B.M.; Shigley, J.E.; Smith, C.P.

    2000-01-01

    This study provides detailed mining and gemological information on the Jegdalek deposit, in east-central Afghanistan, which is hosted by elongate beds of corundum-bearing marble. Some facet-grade ruby has been recovered, but most of the material consists of semitransparent pink sapphire of cabochon or carving quality. The most common internal features are dense concentrations of healed and nonhealed fracture planes and lamellar twin planes. Color zoning is common, and calcite, apatite, zircon, mica, iron sulfide minerals, graphite, rutile, aluminum hydroxide, and other minerals are also present in some samples. Although the reserves appear to be large, future potential will depend on the establishment of a stable government and the introduction of modern mining and exploration techniques. ?? 2000 Gemological Institute of America.

  16. Community integration after deployment to Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstoft, Karen-Inge; Armour, Cherie; Andersen, Søren B.;

    2015-01-01

    Danish soldiers deployed to Afghanistan in 2009 (N = 743), we assessed community reintegration difficulties 2.5 years after home coming (study sample: N = 454). Furthermore, symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were assessed before, during, and after deployment. Trajectories of PTSD symptoms...... from a previously published latent growth mixture modeling analysis were used to address whether community reintegration difficulties differ as a result of course and level of PTSD symptoms. RESULTS: Between 3.6 and 18.0 % reported to have some, a lot, or extreme difficulties in reintegration domains...... such as interpersonal functioning, productivity, community involvement, and self-care. Mean level of reintegration difficulties differed significantly across six PTSD symptom trajectories (range 6.35-36.00); with more symptomatic trajectories experiencing greater community reintegration difficulties...

  17. Modeling Policy and Agricultural Decisions in Afghanistan

    CERN Document Server

    Widener, Michael J; Gros, Andreas; Metcalf, Sara; Bar-Yam, Yaneer

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is responsible for the majority of the world's supply of poppy crops, which are often used to produce illegal narcotics like heroin. This paper presents an agent-based model that simulates policy scenarios to characterize how the production of poppy can be dampened and replaced with licit crops over time. The model is initialized with spatial data, including transportation network and satellite-derived land use data. Parameters representing national subsidies, insurgent influence, and trafficking blockades are varied to represent different conditions that might encourage or discourage poppy agriculture. Our model shows that boundary-level interventions, such as targeted trafficking blockades at border locations, are critical in reducing the attractiveness of growing this illicit crop. The principle of least effort implies that interventions decrease to a minimal non-regressive point, leading to the prediction that increases in insurgency or other changes are likely to lead to worsening conditions,...

  18. The price of protection: gender, violence and power in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wimpelmann, Torunn

    2013-01-01

    This thesis examines contestations over gender violence as points of entry into an analysis of gender, politics and sovereign power in contemporary Afghanistan. It explores the evolving parameters of what ‘counts’ as violence against women in Afghanistan, articulated in legal frameworks and practices, in public and media debates and in the interventions of political leaders, diplomats and aid workers. The thesis asks whether violence against women has become a governance issue ...

  19. Education and scientific training for sustainable development of Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Samady, Saif R.

    2007-01-01

    This document examines the background of Afghan education and recent measures taken to establish principles and a framework for development of education and training in the country. It underlines the significance of science and technology for sustainable development of Afghanistan. The document has six chapters. Chapter I considers the evolution of modern education in Afghanistan, with periods of progress and set-backs, and the present situation. Chapter II is reflections on the revival and d...

  20. Afghanistan: udenlandsk intervention, grænser og etnisk balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahmood, Mustafa Khalil; Castan Pinos, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Denne artikel redegør for opstarten af vores nye forskningsprojekt ‘Comparing the effects of foreign intervention on borders and ethnic balance’ (Virkningen af udenlandsk intervention sammenholdt med grænser og etnisk balance). Projektet sigter mod at sammenligne konsekvenserne af politiske inter...... interventioner og militæroperationer for grænser og etnisk mangfoldighed i forskellige lande: Irak, Libyen, Kosovo og Afghanistan. Denne artikel fokuserer alene på Afghanistan....

  1. Afghanistan : Country Gender Assessment, National Reconstruction and Poverty Reduction, the Role of Women in Afghanistan's Future

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the debate on women's rights and their role in Afghan society has been closely interlinked with the national destiny. Women not only carry the burden of symbolizing the honor of the family, but often are seen as embodying the national honor as well. Gender has thus been one of the most politicized issues in Afghanistan over the past 100 years, and attempts at reform have been denounced by opponents as un-Islamic and a challenge to the sanctity of the faith and fam...

  2. Towards gender equality in health in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samar, Sima; Aqil, Anwer; Vogel, Joanna; Wentzel, Lora; Haqmal, Sharifullah; Matsunaga, Etsuko; Vuolo, Elena; Abaszadeh, Nigina

    2014-01-01

    The Afghanistan gender inequality index shows that 70% loss in development is due to the limited participation of women in the workforce, low education and poor women's health outcomes. However, since the fall of the Taliban regime in 2002, gender inequalities in health have improved. This paper will review factors that led to these improvements. The review draws upon information from various sources, including formative and applied research, surveys and existing information systems. The review showed gender differentials in morbidity, mortality and accessing and utilising health services. Health professionals have expressed inadequate medical knowledge and interpersonal skills to address sensitive issues, such as domestic, physical and sexual violence. Discussing sexuality and its impact on health remains taboo both within and outside of the medical profession. Strict cultural norms restrict a woman's autonomy to seek health care, choose a marriage partner and have control over her body, indicating a need to increase awareness about how harmful social practices adversely affect health. The policy review showed that the Ministry of Public Health has made a commitment to reducing gender inequity in health and developed a two-pronged action plan to improve health providers' skills in handling gender-sensitive issues and mass media campaigns to change social norms. PMID:25034914

  3. Extending Transit Facility to India: Implications for Pakistan’s Bilateral Trade with Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mamoon, Dawood; Mukhtar, Zahid Junaid; Ayesha, Anam; Hanif, Noorulain; Aslam, Rizwan; Quddus, Maliha

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines patterns of bilateral trade between Pakistan, India, Afghanistan and CARs. It also investigates whether providing India transit route to Afghanistan has opportunity costs for Pakistan’s trade potential with Afghanistan and CARs. In 2009, Pakistan’s exports to Afghanistan amount to US$ 1.3 billion which make up for 7.8 % of Pakistan’s total exports. For the same year, India’s exports to Afghanistan stand at 471 million dollars which make 0.3 % of India’s total exports. L...

  4. Ballistic Trauma: Lessons Learned from Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Emily H.; Sabino, Jennifer M.; Nanos, George P.; Valerio, Ian L.

    2015-01-01

    Management of upper extremity injuries secondary to ballistic and blast trauma can lead to challenging problems for the reconstructive surgeon. Given the recent conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, advancements in combat-casualty care, combined with a high-volume experience in the treatment of ballistic injuries, has led to continued advancements in the treatment of the severely injured upper extremity. There are several lessons learned that are translatable to civilian trauma centers and future conflicts. In this article, the authors provide an overview of the physics of ballistic injuries and principles in the management of such injuries through experience gained from military involvement in Iraq and Afghanistan. PMID:25685099

  5. Water Resources Availability in Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbari, A. M.; Chornack, M. P.; Coplen, T. B.; Emerson, D. G.; Litke, D. W.; Mack, T. J.; Plummer, N.; Verdin, J. P.; Verstraeten, I. M.

    2008-12-01

    The availability of water resources is vital to the rebuilding of Kabul, Afghanistan. In recent years, droughts and increased water use for drinking water and agriculture have resulted in widespread drying of wells. Increasing numbers of returning refugees, rapid population growth, and potential climate change have led to heightened concerns for future water availability. The U.S. Geological Survey, with support from the U.S. Agency for International Development, began collaboration with the Afghanistan Geological Survey and Ministry of Energy and Water on water-resource investigations in the Kabul Basin in 2004. This has led to the compilation of historic and recent water- resources data, creation of monitoring networks, analyses of geologic, geophysical, and remotely sensed data. The study presented herein provides an assessment of ground-water availability through the use of multidisciplinary hydrogeologic data analysis. Data elements include population density, climate, snowpack, geology, mineralogy, surface water, ground water, water quality, isotopic information, and water use. Data were integrated through the use of conceptual ground-water-flow model analysis and provide information necessary to make improved water-resource planning and management decisions in the Kabul Basin. Ground water is currently obtained from a shallow, less than 100-m thick, highly productive aquifer. CFC, tritium, and stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopic analyses indicate that most water in the shallow aquifer appears to be recharged post 1970 by snowmelt-supplied river leakage and secondarily by late winter precipitation. Analyses indicate that increasing withdrawals are likely to result in declining water levels and may cause more than 50 percent of shallow supply wells to become dry or inoperative particularly in urbanized areas. The water quality in the shallow aquifer is deteriorated in urban areas by poor sanitation and water availability concerns may be compounded by poor well

  6. Adult Literacy Education and Human Rights: A View from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Susan M.; Kooij, Christina S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, we argue that adult literacy as part of international development is an issue of both human rights and women's rights. We explore this by presenting a case study of the effects of one innovative adult literacy program in Afghanistan that places men and women, as well as various ethnicities, together in the same classroom as…

  7. The "Only" Solution: Education, Youth, and Social Change in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Dana G.; Yousofi, Mohammad Hussain

    2014-01-01

    This article draws on practice theory to examine aspiring youths' pursuit of higher education in Afghanistan. It finds that plans and actions are mediated through youths' families, communities, and solidarity networks. As a result, the personal improvement and enhanced reputational status that aspiring youth seek is structurally…

  8. Anmeldelse af: Afghantsy. The Russians in Afghanistan 1979-89

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2012-01-01

    Baseret på nyligt afklassificeret materiale fra arkiverne i Moskva samt fremstillinger af russiske historikere, tegnes et anderledes og mere nuanceret billede af de sovjetiske erfaringer fra Afghanistan. De første spadestik til opgøret med den amerikanske stempling af den sovjetiske ageren i jule...

  9. The Multidimensionality of Child Poverty: Evidence from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Biggeri, Mario; Mauro, Vincenzo

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines multidimensional poverty among children in Afghanistan using the Alkire-Foster method. Several previous studies have underlined the need to separate children from their adult nexus when studying poverty and treat them according to their own specificities. From the capability approach, child poverty is understood to be the lack…

  10. Feasibility Assessment for Developing a Mobile Applications Sector in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    Afghanistan has made significant progress in its development since 2001. Yet, these achievements remain continually fragile because of a volatile security situation and limited human capacity. In spite of these constraints, the information and communications technology (ICT) sector in the country has witnessed remarkable growth. The study estimated that the mobile app market will grow from...

  11. Afghanistan - Building an Effective State : Priorities for Public Administration Reform

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at the implications for public administration reform over the next 5-10 years, and proposes a priority agenda for action by the Government of Afghanistan (GOA) and the donor community. The report reviews the prospects and priorities for public administration reform in three key areas: building an effective civil service, improving local governance and service delivery, an...

  12. Dilemmas facing agencies in the urban centres of Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Marsden

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available In many situations worldwide where rebel or other movements have wrested large areas of territory from the control of central government or, as in the case of Afghanistan, where the government has collapsed and control is divided between different power holders, humanitarian agencies are having to determine how they should relate to non-governmental power holders.

  13. Should British soldiers be walking kids to school in Afghanistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Hancock, Avery

    2010-01-01

    The UK is committing over £140 million a year to assisting Afghan aid projects, but these expenditures are dwarfed by the billions of pounds spent annually on the military effort there. Avery Hancock argues that so far the new government has let slip signs of ‘realist’ unease on Afghanistan policy, but no new strategy has yet emerged.

  14. Transforming Telecoms in Afghanistan : Expanding Affordable Access by Introducing Competition

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Bhavna; Gupta, Neeraj

    2006-01-01

    Afghanistan has transformed its telecommunications from a fragmented system serving few people to a modern one putting Afghans in touch with one another and with the global economy. The government moved quickly to approve a Telecommunications and Internet Policy in 2003, and identified telecommunications as one of the two lead sectors for attracting private and foreign investment. The exp...

  15. THE NEED FOR A NATIONAL DERADICALISATION PROGRAM IN AFGHANISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnnie Auld

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The lack of deradicalisation programs in Afghanistan has potential to prolong the violence and turmoil in the country for decades. With years of conflict, multiple forms of government, high unemployment, high levels of poverty, and a constant influx of Western cultural norms and media fighting against the traditionalist Afghan culture strongly embedded in a conservative reading of Islam, Afghanistan is a breeding ground for radicalism. Youth are susceptible to an environment that causes radicalism and nurtures it, and with the ever-present national conflict, this radicalisation has an outlet in the form of insurgency and terrorism. Groups like the Taliban have easily recruited and radicalised individuals using religion as a justification for their violence. Deradicalisation in Afghanistan is an under researched topic and an underfunded pursuit. With no national deradicalisation strategy it is left to international actors and local organisations to engage in these programs. More must be done to engage with those who have become radicalised and those in high-risk zones in order to help secure the long-term future of Afghanistan. I will discuss how Afghanistan is a breeding ground for radicalisation of individuals due to Afghanistan’s violent, hostile environment with high rates of poverty, high unemployment and distrust toward the authorities. I will then discuss how religion is used a justification by extremist groups for individuals to commit violent acts and how the increasingly precarious security situation in the country means a sound national deradicalisation program is essential. I conclude that any deradicalisation efforts undertaken by the Afghan government so far are piecemeal and inadequate to deal with the on-going problems present in the country and that lessons must be learnt from programs in other Islamic countries that have successfully deradicalised violent extremist groups.

  16. An experiment with community health funds in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Krishna D; Waters, Hugh; Steinhardt, Laura; Alam, Sahibullah; Hansen, Peter; Naeem, Ahmad Jan

    2009-07-01

    As Afghanistan rebuilds its health system, it faces key challenges in financing health services. To reduce dependence on donor funds, it is important to develop sustainable local financing mechanisms. A second challenge is to reduce high levels of out-of-pocket payments. Community-based health insurance (CBHI) schemes offer the possibility of raising revenues from communities and at the same time providing financial protection. This paper describes the performance of one type of CBHI scheme, the Community Health Fund (CHF), which was piloted for the first time in five provinces of Afghanistan between June 2005 and October 2006. The performance of the CHF programme demonstrates that complex community-based health financing schemes can be implemented in post-conflict settings like Afghanistan, except in areas of high insecurity. The funds raised from the community, via premiums and user fees, enabled the pilot facilities to overcome temporary shortages of drugs and supplies, and to conduct outreach services via mobile clinics. However, enrolment and cost-recovery were modest. The median enrolment rate for premium-paying households was 6% of eligible households in the catchment areas of the clinics. Cost recovery rates ranged up to 16% of total operating costs and 32% of non-salary operating costs. No evidence of reduced out-of-pocket health expenditures was observed at the community level, though CHF members had markedly higher utilization of health services. The main reasons among non-members for not enrolling were being unaware of the programme; high premiums; and perceived low quality of services at the CHF clinics. The performance of Afghanistan's CHF was similar to other CHF-type programmes operating at the primary care level internationally. The solution to building local capacity to finance health services lies in a combination of financing sources rather than any single mechanism. In this context, it is critical that international assistance for Afghanistan

  17. Repatriation and the reconstruction of Afghanistan: the role of women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, S

    1994-01-01

    This update on the consequences of the 14 years of war in Afghanistan and refugee repatriation points out the possible need for humanitarian intervention. The political situation is described as lacking in platform leadership and lacking in leaders' commitment to the people. The US has reduced interests in Afghanistan. The UN and other international agencies rarely mention Afghanistan and repatriation. Pakistan is exercising its self-interests in the country. Saudi Arabia is described as opposing the rising Iranian brand of religious ideology and supplying mercenaries. The formation of the Commonwealth of Independent States has reduced USSR involvement to the increasing flow of Tajik refugees into Afghanistan. Islam is described as a historically strong and positive force in the formation of social and political values. Afghani needs are described as restoration of peace, security, and self-determination and a return to the former Islamic principles and practices. A "new imported ideology packaged as religion" is viewed as detrimental. The international community is urged to commit its resources to supporting a process aimed at creating a popularly elected platform of leadership committed to democratic values and principles and with respect for human rights and equity. Successful repatriation is considered dependent on internal security and financial resources from the international community. Repatriation is hampered by the extensive land mines (estimated to be at least 23 million) scattered across the countryside. At least 75% of the over 3 million refugees in Pakistan and the 2.5 million in Iran are estimated to be women and children. 14 years of political and economic instability resulted in little social development for refugee women and children. The UN urged donations of $45.1 million for repatriation and reconstruction. Only $13.7 million were received. These small sums in foreign aid are viewed as inconsequential when compared to the estimated US military

  18. Cretaceous Environments of Afghanistan:A Synthesis Based on Selected Sections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Abdul Rahman Ashraf; Ashok Sahni

    2003-01-01

    The Cretaceous of Afghanistan is marked by great facies diversity. The evolution of Cretaceous basins is part of a complex accretionary history involving three distinct tectonic units namely the Asian (Russian) Block separated from the Indian plate by a rather well defined transcurrent fault (Chaman-Nuski). The southwestern component is representedby the Iran-Afghanistan plate. The Lower Cretaceous of the Asian Block is represented by the Red-Grit Series which isconformable to the underlying Upper Jurassic sequences. The transition is marked by evaporitic facies dominated by salt,gypsum and marl deposits. In south Afghanistan volcanic rocks occur at Farah, with the emplacement of plutonics inwest-central Afghanistan. The Upper Cretaceous of north Afghanistan is marked by richly fossiliferous, lime stone-dominated sequences. The Upper Cretaceous of southern Afghanistan is marked by strong ophiolitic magrmatism.

  19. Development and Application of an Approach to Optimize Renewable Energy Systems in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Derek J.,Tyley, Scott M.

    2012-01-01

    Energy systems in Afghanistan are currently limited to diesel only solutions. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) do not have means to optimize various energy solutions when designing or modifying Afghanistan National Security Force (ANSF) installations in Afghanistan. The logistics of transporting diesel fuel increases risk to personnel and operations security, and can have a myriad of obscured costs. The purpose of this research is to develop an approach to prioritize multiple stakehol...

  20. How Corruption Blunts Counternarcotic Policies in Afghanistan: A Multiagent Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Armando; Mussavi Rizi, Seyed M.; Łatek, Maciej M.

    We report the results of multiagent modeling experiments on interactions between the drug industry and corruption in Afghanistan. The model formalizes assumptions on the motivations of players in the Afghan drug industry, quantifies the tradeoffs among various choices players face and enables inspection of the time, space and level of supply chain in which one can expect positive and negative impacts of counternarcotic policies. If reducing opium exports is one measure of effectiveness for NATO operations in Afghanistan, grasping the links between corruption and the drug industry should provide a better picture of the second-order interactions between corruption and investment in improving the governance quality, in deploying security forces tasked with eradication and interdiction and in programs to enhance rural livelihoods.

  1. Hyperspectral remote sensing data maps minerals in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V. V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2012-08-01

    Although Afghanistan has abundant mineral resources, including gold, silver, copper, rare earth elements, uranium, tin, iron ore, mercury, lead-zinc, bauxite, and industrial minerals, most have not been successfully developed or explored using modern methods. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) with cooperation from the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) and support from the Department of Defense's Task Force for Business and Stability Operations (TFBSO) has used new imaging spectroscopy surface material maps to help refine the geologic signatures of known but poorly understood mineral deposits and identify previously unrecognized mineral occurrences. To help assess the potential mineral deposit types, the high-resolution hyperspectral data were analyzed to detect the presence of selected minerals that may be indicative of past mineralization processes. This legacy data set is providing tangible support for economic decisions by both the government of Afghanistan and other public and private sector parties interested in the development of the nation's natural resources.

  2. The American way of war: Afghanistan and Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek; Mariana Gonzalez Rodriguez

    2013-01-01

    The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Import...

  3. Trends in Student Radicalization across University Campuses in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Zaman, Robert; Mohammadi, Abdul Ahad

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the trends in student radicalization across eight university campuses in Afghanistan. We conclude from our survey of student and staff views and an analysis of the character of protests across campuses that the extent of student radicalization varies. In particular, we come to three noteworthy findings. First, most university students are more concerned over prospects of post-graduation follow-on careers than ideological ambition. Second, while we fin...

  4. Landslide susceptibility mapping in three selected target zones in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Seegers, Joe; Zeilinger, Gerold

    2015-04-01

    In May 2014, a large and mobile landslide destroyed the village Ab Barek, a village in Badakshan Province, Afghanistan. The landslide caused several hundred fatalities and once again demonstrated the vulnerability of Afghanistan's population to extreme natural events following more than 30 years of civil war and violent conflict. Increasing the capacity of Afghanistan's population by strengthening the disaster preparedness and management of responsible government authorities and institutions is thus a major component of international cooperation and development strategies. Afghanistan is characterized by high relief and widely varying rock types that largely determine the spatial distribution as well as emplacement modes of mass movements. The major aim of our study is to characterize this variability by conducting a landslide susceptibility analysis in three selected target zones: Greater Kabul Area, Badakhshan Province and Takhar Province. We expand on an existing landslide database by mapping landforms diagnostic for landslides (e.g. head scarps, normal faults and tension cracks), and historical landslide scars and landslide deposits by visual interpretation of high-resolution satellite imagery. We conduct magnitude frequency analysis within subregional physiogeographic classes based on geological maps, climatological and topographic data to identify regional parameters influencing landslide magnitude and frequency. In addition, we prepare a landslide susceptibility map for each area using the Weight-of-Evidence model. Preliminary results show that the three selected target zones vastly differ in modes of landsliding. Low magnitude but frequent rockfall events are a major hazard in the Greater Kabul Area threatening buildings and infrastructure encroaching steep terrain in the city's outskirts. Mass movements in loess covered areas of Badakshan are characterized by medium to large magnitudes. This spatial variability of characteristic landslide magnitudes and

  5. Krig i Afghanistan gennem fire årtier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2014-01-01

    I mere en et årti har dansk og international sikkerhedspolitik haft øjnene rettet mod det etnisk og politisk fragmenterede land i Centralasien, og engagement i Afghanistan har på mange måder været skelsættende for dansk militærhistorie. Landet har gennem de seneste fire årtier befundet sig i en p...

  6. State, Modernization and the Women's Movement in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Hafizullah Emadi

    1991-01-01

    This article studies the socioeconomic formation and corresponding politics and ideology used to sustain the subordination of women in Afghanistan. It examines traditional male-female relations in the country and, analyzes the role of the state in the country's modernization and its policies concerning the gradual involvement of women in public and private enterprises. This article also studies the women's movement prior to and during the Soviet occupation and explores future prospects for th...

  7. Trauma treatment in a role 1 medical facility in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Pernille Nygaard; Helsø, I; Jørgensen, H L;

    2013-01-01

    Most of the emergency care delivered in Afghanistan is currently provided by the military sector and non-governmental organisations. Main Operating Base (MOB) Price in Helmand Province has a small medical centre and due to its location provides critical care to civilians and military casualties and...... this article describes the patterns in trauma patient care at the MOB Price medical centre regarding the types of patients and injuries....

  8. Islamic State of Afghanistan: Staff-Monitored Program

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2004-01-01

    Since end-2001, the Government of Afghanistan (GoA) has focused on crisis management, establishing or rebuilding fundamental institutions and basic government services, and maintaining economic stability with the help of the international community. The authorities have made significant strides in fiscal and monetary policies. The new constitution, adopted by the Loya Jirga and signed into law in January 2004, is a critical step to re-establish a unified state and strengthen the institutional...

  9. Sustaining Rural Afghanistan under Limited Central Government Influence

    OpenAIRE

    John William Groninger; Ruffner, Charles M; S Alan Walters

    2013-01-01

    Land and water access insecurity, land grabbing, and unstable common property status of critical local resources continue to drive conflicts, rural landlessness and environmental problems throughout many areas of Afghanistan where formal government is weak or entirely absent.  In contrast to traditional development strategies that favor infrastructure enhancement and backed by enforced national policies, we offer Afghan-specific strategies based on resource conservation and increased capacity...

  10. Distributed power in Afghanistan: The Padisaw micro-hydro project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The provision of electricity is a vital need in reconstruction and development situations, like that in Afghanistan. Indeed, according to the Afghan government's Afghan National Development Strategy (ANDS) the need for electricity featured in 80% of the Provincial Development Plans as a top priority. With the help of the International Community, the government of Afghanistan is attempting to develop a new market oriented approach to the nationwide provision of electrical power. Although the bulk of the electrification effort is directed toward large scale construction of a national grid, the ANDS explicitly mentions a role for 'micro-hydro, solar, waste and small scale diesel power and energy generating sources'. This article will describe a micro-hydro project in Padisaw village, in the Nurgaram district of Nuristan province located in Northeastern Afghanistan and the role Provincial Reconstruction Team played in working with the local community through the project planning and building processes and offer some observation on how, as the Afghan National Development Strategy is executed, the private sector can play an increasingly significant role in the Afghan distributed energy arena. (author)

  11. Home sweet home! Repatriation, reintegration and land allocation in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Majidi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Retour sur terre: politiques de retour et d'allocation de la terre pour les réfugiés afghans.Plus de 6 millions de réfugiés afghans sont retournés dans leur pays d’origine depuis 2002, dont 4.6 millions assistés par le Haut-commissariat aux Réfugiés des Nations Unies (UNHCR. Ce retour était, en nombre et en investissement, sans précédent pour l’Afghanistan comme pour le reste du monde. Alors que l’intervention de 2002 marque le début d’une décennie du retour, en 2012, l’Afghanistan est le reflet d’un contexte humanitaire et de développement marqué par un taux très faible de retours volontaires, une croissance du nombre de déplacés internes, et un profil migratoire changeant, orienté vers une migration mixte – volontaire et forcée – avec nombre d’individus, de familles et de mineurs non accompagnés qui tentent de quitter leur pays, légalement ou irrégulièrement. En 2012, l’espoir se tourne de nouveau vers les pays voisins et vers l’Occident, c’est à dire vers une vie en dehors de l’Afghanistan. Malgré cette évolution, les politiques migratoires et les états qui les dirigent restent encore focalisées sur des initiatives de retour et de réinsertion en Afghanistan. Une pièce centrale de ces politiques est la question de l’accès à la terre, et des ressources disponibles sur ces terres. Ce papier s’interroge sur la relation entre les réfugiés rentrés « chez eux », communément appelés «returnees », l’accès à la terre et les politiques d’aide au retour au travers de recherches menées en Afghanistan entre 2007 et 2012.

  12. Reviving the United States' Commitment to Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Steve Young

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As President Obama is in the midst of deciding whether additional U.S.combat forces are needed in Afghanistan in addition to the 21,000 troops recently committed, he must realize that additional armed forces are only a stopgap measure in Afghanistan's downward spiral into an 'undergoverned' failed state. Similarly, as Pakistan's fragile and fractured civilian government continues to appease the Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (TTP, an umbrella organization of Pakistani Pashtun tribesmen with Taliban cultural values led by Baitullah Mehsud and others, it comes closer to the concept of a "misgoverned" failed state, possessing a small arsenal of nuclear arms. The problem for the U.S. administration is that neither of these countries can be allowed to fall further into disrepair. At the same time each requires a different and unique approach to the threat of "Talibanization" that faces each country—the control of territory within each country by Islamic radicals seeking to impose their ultraconservative interpretation of shar'ia law onto the general populace. Generally acknowledged is the belief that what has tentatively worked in Iraq, that is, the additional U.S. troops and employment of former Sunni insurgents to help fight foreign fighters associated with al-Qaida, will not work in either Afghanistan or Pakistan. While a regional approach to the conflict in these two countries is warranted, Afghanistan and Pakistan are on two different economic, social, and political playing fields. Hence, there cannot be a one-size-fits-all solution for the two countries, especially one that draws on the Iraq playbook. In addition to its internal political problems, Pakistan also faces the issue of al-Qaida and Taliban training camps positioned in its literal back yard, the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA or Tribal Areas. Resolution of the War on Terror cannot come to fruition without addressing the problems that exist in the Tribal Areas. This largely

  13. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: Staff Report for the 2014 Article IV Consultation

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund. Middle East and Central Asia Dept.

    2014-01-01

    KEY ISSUES Context. Over the past decade, Afghanistan has made enormous progress in reconstruction, development and lifting per capita income. Security and political uncertainties, and weak institutions have constrained growth and weighed on social outcomes. With significant reform efforts and donor support, Afghanistan has maintained macroeconomic stability, implemented important structural reforms, and built policy buffers, but significant vulnerabilities remain. The IMF has been supporting...

  14. 76 FR 65498 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan AGENCY... trade mission to Kabul, Afghanistan in September 2012. This mission will be led by a Senior...

  15. BRAC in Afghanistan: Building South-South Partnerships in Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Mir Nazmul; Anwar, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Training paraprofessionals such as teachers is one of many significant challenges facing Afghanistan's educational system. This case study focuses on the innovations offered in that regard by BRAC, a large NGO based in Bangladesh that brought its many years of development experience to Afghanistan in 2002 and established itself there as the…

  16. A Sociolinguistic Assessment of the Darwazi Speech Variety in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Beck

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sociolinguistic assessment of the Darwāzi speech varieties (including Tangshewi based on data collected during a survey conducted between August 31st and September 19th 2008 in the Darwāz area. The research was carried out under the auspices of the International Assistance Mission, a Non-Governmental Organization working in Afghanistan. The goal was to determine whether Dari, one of the two national languages, is adequate to be used in literature and primary school education, or whether the Darwāzi people would benefit from language development, including literature development and primary school education in the vernacular.

  17. Law in Afghanistan: A Critique of Post-2001 Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio de Lauri

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article provides a critical reflection on the efforts at legal reconstruction initiated in 2001 by the international community and the Afghan government. Its aim is to highlight some of the more controversial factors that accompany the implementation of a foreign model of justice inspired by the ideology of the rule of law. Following Operation Enduring Freedom and the consequent arrival of various international agencies on Afghan soil, the international community (led by the United States has attempted to bring political stability and democracy to Afghanistan. This endeavor has evolved into a more extensive, and rather controversial, process of reconstruction, which has called into question the mantra of democratization and modernization used to ideologically justify the US-led coalition control of a pro-Western Afghan government. By introducing a reflection on restorative justice and judicial mediation, I argue that the standardization and global circulation of specific models of justice present a series of problems often hidden behind legalistic interpretations. While in Western countries jurists and legal practitioners promote the industry of ‘alternative dispute resolution’ (ADR and emphasize the recourse to mediation and conciliation, in Afghanistan governments and international agencies implement the rule of law, thus condemning and marginalizing customary practices in the resolution of disputes. Once taken away from the rules of the judicial order, judicial mediation becomes caught in a logic of compromise and deteriorates.

  18. Reforestation Strategies Amid Social Instability: Lessons from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groninger, John W.

    2012-04-01

    Foreign and domestic government agencies and other international organizations pursue reforestation programs in rural upper watershed areas of Afghanistan over the past decade to alleviate poverty, combat the insurgency and rehabilitate a depleted forest resource base. Popular programs incorporate cash-for-work to conduct hillside terracing, check dam construction and tree-planting for nut production, fuel wood, timber, dune stabilization, and erosion abatement. Programmatic approaches have varied as a function of accessibility, security and local objectives. Uncertain land tenure and use rights, weak local environmental management capacity, and a focus on agricultural production to meet immediate needs limit interest, nationally and locally. Unreliable security, a lack of high quality tree planting stock, limited technical knowledge and coordination among government agencies, and poor security hamper program expansion. Reforestation success would be most likely where these issues are least acute. The Afghan government should focus on supporting community based natural resource management, developing and disseminating improved conservation tree nursery strategies, and promoting watershed management schemes that incorporate forestry, range management and agronomic production. Reforestation practitioners could benefit from the human and material resources now present as part of the international war effort. Successes and failures encountered in Afghanistan should be considered in order to address similar problems in insecure regions elsewhere when reforestation may help reverse environmental degradation and contribute to broader social stabilization efforts.

  19. Outbreak of gastroenteritis caused by Yersinia pestis in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leslie, T; Whitehouse, C A; Yingst, S; Baldwin, C; Kakar, F; Mofleh, J; Hami, A S; Mustafa, L; Omar, F; Ayazi, E; Rossi, C; Noormal, B; Ziar, N; Kakar, R

    2011-05-01

    Plague, which is most often caused by the bite of Yersinia pestis-infected fleas, is a rapidly progressing, serious disease that can be fatal without prompt antibiotic treatment. In late December 2007, an outbreak of acute gastroenteritis occurred in Nimroz Province of southern Afghanistan. Of the 83 probable cases of illness, 17 died (case fatality 20·5%). Being a case was associated with consumption or handling of camel meat (adjusted odds ratio 4·4, 95% confidence interval 2·2-8·8, P<0·001). Molecular testing of patient clinical samples and of tissue from the camel using PCR/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry revealed DNA signatures consistent with Yersinia pestis. Confirmatory testing using real-time PCR and immunological seroconversion of one of the patients confirmed that the outbreak was caused by plague, with a rare gastrointestinal presentation. The study highlights the challenges of identifying infectious agents in low-resource settings; it is the first reported occurrence of plague in Afghanistan. PMID:20663260

  20. Sustaining Rural Afghanistan under Limited Central Government Influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John William Groninger

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Land and water access insecurity, land grabbing, and unstable common property status of critical local resources continue to drive conflicts, rural landlessness and environmental problems throughout many areas of Afghanistan where formal government is weak or entirely absent.  In contrast to traditional development strategies that favor infrastructure enhancement and backed by enforced national policies, we offer Afghan-specific strategies based on resource conservation and increased capacity of local resource management institutions that can function when and where central government cannot be relied upon to assume or maintain a supportive role. Resource conservation and building local capacity are key components of existing and proposed future efforts to increase stability. However, support for these efforts, whether government or community-based, has been limited in portions of rural Afghanistan , apparently due to low stakeholder confidence in retaining access to improved land, water and other critical resources when international forces withdraw. Powerful individuals and groups, operating outside local community structures, are increasingly impacting land use practices. We suggest a thorough assessment of the present and likely future social environment, including awareness of likely conflicts resulting from agricultural or natural resource improvements, before any tangible actions are taken.

  1. Airborne Gravity Survey and Ground Gravity in Afghanistan: A Website for Distribution of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Jared D.; Anderson, Eric D.; Drenth, Benjamin J.; Finn, Carol A.; Kucks, Robert P.; Lindsay, Charles R.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Sweeney, Ronald E.

    2008-01-01

    Afghanistan?s geologic setting suggests significant natural resource potential. Although important mineral deposits and petroleum resources have been identified, much of the country?s potential remains unknown. Airborne geophysical surveys are a well- accepted and cost-effective method for remotely obtaining information of the geological setting of an area. A regional airborne geophysical survey was proposed due to the security situation and the large areas of Afghanistan that have not been covered using geophysical exploration methods. Acting upon the request of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan Ministry of Mines, the U.S. Geological Survey contracted with the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory to jointly conduct an airborne geophysical and remote sensing survey of Afghanistan. Data collected during this survey will provide basic information for mineral and petroleum exploration studies that are important for the economic development of Afghanistan. Additionally, use of these data is broadly applicable in the assessment of water resources and natural hazards, the inventory and planning of civil infrastructure and agricultural resources, and the construction of detailed maps. The U.S. Geological Survey is currently working in cooperation with the U.S. Agency of International Development to conduct resource assessments of the country of Afghanistan for mineral, energy, coal, and water resources, and to assess geologic hazards. These geophysical and remote sensing data will be used directly in the resource and hazard assessments.

  2. Pakistan and Afghanistan, 2014 and Beyond: Not Friends, Not Yet Enemies?

    OpenAIRE

    Rizwan Zeb

    2013-01-01

    As the American withdrawal is approaching, the future stability of Afghanistan and its effects on the region are increasingly being debated. The predominant view is that due to the mishandling of the situation by the Americans, post 2014 Afghanistan would be unstable and the whole region especially Pakistan will face the consequences of this failure. A stable and peaceful Afghanistan is in Pakistan’s interest as it will ensure that no more drugs, extremism and refugees pour into the country...

  3. Entstehung und Entwicklung von Rehabilitationszentren im Industrieland Deutschland und ihre Übertragbarkeit auf Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Azizi, Shirshah

    2008-01-01

    Seit 1979, als sowjetische Truppen in das Land einmarschierten, wird in Afghanistan ununterbrochen gekämpft. Die durch den Krieg verursachten Schäden sind nicht abschätzbar. Infrastruktur und soziale Basisdienste wurden fast vollständig zerstört. Über 50 Millionen Minen verschiedenster Art sind in Afghanistan verstreut, die noch mehr Menschenleben kosten werden und Menschen zu Verkrüppelten machen. Die medizinische Versorgung in Afghanistan spiegelt das allgemeine für Entwicklungsländer besch...

  4. Aeromagnetic Survey in Western Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic and related data were digitized from 1976 magnetic field and survey route location maps of western Afghanistan. The magnetic field data were digitized along contour lines from 33 maps in a series entitled 'Map of Magnetic Field of Afghanistan (Western Area) Delta-Ta Isolines,' compiled by V. A. Cnjagev and A. F. Bukhmastov. The survey route location data were digitized along flight-lines located on 33 maps in a series entitled 'Survey Routes Location and Contours of Flight Equal Altitudes. Western Area of Afghanistan,' compiled by Z. A. Alpatova, V. G. Kurnosov, and F. A. Grebneva.

  5. Infectious Diseases - Diseases Related to Service in Gulf War, Iraq, and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Infectious Diseases Veterans who were deployed to Southwest Asia (including Iraq) or Afghanistan may experience symptoms of infectious diseases while on active duty, or they may later ...

  6. Indian Involvement in Afghanistan in the Context of the South Asian Security System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie Hanif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the regional requirements for a pacification of Afghanistan. For this purpose, Afghanistan is analytically "reframed" as part of South Asia. The hypothesis is that India is the only regional actor that might possess both the incentives and the capabilities to deal with the negative security externalities emanating from Afghanistan.In South Asia, material characteristics such as the delineation of the region and its power polarity are unclear. India's role within the region is even more controversial. By examining India's role within its security environment, this paper will suggest how this lack of clarity could be remedied. In light of the disputes between India and Pakistan and between Pakistan and Afghanistan, India's involvement in the Afghan conflict is probably the most critical test case for India's leadership potential. The following section elaborates a theoretical framework based on Regional Security Complex Theory (RSCT and the concept of regional hegemony as one form of regional order.

  7. 76 FR 67416 - Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan, September 2011 (Dates Are...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan, September... mission will be led by a Senior Commerce Department official. Targeted sectors include:...

  8. Oil and gas wells of Afghanistan with well logs (welllogafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains points that describe the location of hydrocarbon exploration and production wells drilled in Afghanistan; and hyperlinks to scanned images...

  9. USGS Map Service Showing Petroleum Resource Potential GIS of Northern Afghanistan

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map service includes energy related datasets presenting the results of a petroleum resource assessment of Northern Afghanistan, and other data used in the...

  10. Oil samples and geochemical analyses of Afghanistan and adjacent areas (oilafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains points that describe the location of oil samples collected in Afghanistan and adjacent areas, and the results of organic geochemical analysis.

  11. Seismic lines with digital seg-y profiles, northern Afghanistan (segyafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines that describe the location of seismic lines in northern Afghanistan for which digital seismic profiles in seg-y format are...

  12. Structural contours of the Hauterivian Qezeltash formation of northern Afghanistan (qezeldpafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines that describe structural contours (subsea elevation) of the Hauterivian Qezeltash formation in northern Afghanistan. Hauterivian...

  13. Thickness of the Hauterivian Qezeltash formation in northern Afghanistan (qezelisafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines that describe isopachs of the Hauterivian Qezeltash formation in northern Afghanistan. Hauterivian sandstones are a reservoir rock...

  14. War, Peace and Stabilisation: Critically Reconceptualising Stability in Southern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Robert Carter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article critically treats stabilisation theory and programming through a perspective of peace and conflict, and argues for stabilisation’s reconceptualisation. Through tracking the concept’s emergence, it outlines that stabilisation is theoretically rooted in an insecurity-underdevelopment problematic and relies on the Liberal Peace thesis as a solution. When this concept was operationalised in southern Afghanistan, however, it was translated into a praxis informed by state-building and counterinsurgency imperatives. This approach ultimately produced confused, sometimes counterproductive, effects: simultaneously engendering a liberal, negative, rented and victor’s peace. The article concludes by arguing that stabilisation should be reconceptualised so that it pursues a positive and hybrid peace if it is to be a more effective source of guidance for policy and practice. The first step is to denaturalise the ‘formal’ state in conflict and fragile environments as being seen as a panacea to all ills of instability.

  15. Counterinsurgency and Counterterrorism: Sharing Experiences in Afghanistan and Pakistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Galasz; Syed, Mahroona Hussain; Vestenskov, David

    This study has been undertaken as the first ever joint research publication between defence institutions in Denmark and Pakistan. Given the development in international security politics in the last few years, it is fair to argue that both Denmark and Pakistan are at a point where future security...... challenges require a development of policies and strategies. Though the roles of Denmark and Pakistan respectively are different in nature, a lot of commonalities in conceptual thoughts and actions were found between the two countries at all levels. The book at hand gathers a number of lessons identified...... from Afghanistan and Pakistan with the objective of promoting sustainable regional peace building and developing military and civilian cooperation strategies for counterinsurgency and counterterrorism....

  16. The American way of war: Afghanistan and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Parraguez Kobek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The terrorist attacks of 9/11 placed the United States in a position to exercise its political objectives of securing national interests through military means. The War on Terror waged in Afghanistan and Iraq shifted the development of U.S. foreign policy, allowing for American leadership to exercise its right to sovereignty and power. The doctrine required a victory in each of the scenarios, and the inability to secure these aims resulted in civil war and insurgency in both countries. Important lessons can be learned from analyzing foreign policy implementations through the use of force, applying responsible sovereignty to pressing transnational security threats and strengthening the international architecture through a multidimensional response.

  17. Risk factors for anthroponotic cutaneous Leishmaniasis at the household level in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Reithinger, R; Mohsen, M; Leslie, T.

    2010-01-01

    Background Kabul, Afghanistan, is the largest focus of anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) in the world. ACL is a protozoan disease transmitted to humans by the bite of phlebotomine sand flies. Although not fatal, ACL can lead to considerable stigmatization of affected populations. Methods Using data from a standardized survey of 872 households in 4 wards of Kabul, Afghanistan, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses tested associations between presence of active ACL ...

  18. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events

    OpenAIRE

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C.; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R. Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the...

  19. Assessment of Undiscovered Petroleum Resources of Southern and Western Afghanistan, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandrey, C.J.; Kosti, Amir Zada; Selab, Amir Mohammad; Omari, Mohammad Karim; Muty, Salam Abdul; Nakshband, Haidari Gulam; Hosine, Abdul Aminulah; Wahab, Abdul; Hamidi, Abdul Wasy; Ahmadi, Nasim; Agena, Warren F.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy; Drenth, B.J.

    2009-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey--Afghanistan Ministry of Mines Joint Oil and Gas Resource Assessment Team estimated mean undiscovered resource volumes of 21.55 million barrels of oil, 44.76 billion cubic feet of non-associated natural gas, and 0.91 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the western Afghanistan Tirpul Assessment Unit (AU) (80230101).

  20. Book review: Natural resources in Afghanistan: Geographic and geologic perspectives on centuries of conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doebrich, Jeff L.

    2015-01-01

    This book is the outcome of four decades of work in Afghanistan by the author, John (Jack) Shroder. His travels and research throughout Afghanistan and his understanding of its place in regional and world history provide the foundation for this comprehensive 572-page reference. The book describes the interrelated nature of Afghanistan’s physical and political landscape over time and the role resources have, and have not, played in Afghanistan’s past and could play in its future.

  1. "Education Is as Important for Me as Water Is to Sustaining Life": Perspectives on the Higher Education of Women in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burridge, Nina; Payne, Anne Maree; Rahmani, Nasima

    2016-01-01

    Progress in education in Afghanistan since the fall of the Taliban has been described as "fragile, limited in reach, depth and uncertainty of sustainability" [UNICEF. 2013. "Basic Education and Gender Equality: Afghanistan." United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund.…

  2. U.S. Response to Terrorism: A Strategic Analysis of the Afghanistan Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Tadde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the U.S. response to global terrorism and its campaign in Afghanistan from 2001 to today. The aim of this article is first to understand the fallacies, missteps, and misunderstandings of the U.S. approach in Afghanistan. Second, the analysis evaluates the lessons learnt and some possible strategies for achieving long-term stability and security in Afghanistan. In particular, the analysis focuses on the different strategies adopted by the United States and their achievements. Despite a first victory over the Taliban regime, the initial approach was focused on the enemy only and it lacked long-term planning, paving the way to an insurgent movement against the U.S. presence in Afghanistan. Then, in 2003 the U.S. strategy started to focus on the population, government institutions, and local support. This shift involved a significant change in tactics and operations and achieved positive results from 2003 to 2005. However, since 2005 the situation has deteriorated, casualties have increased and both the Taliban and al-Qaida have gathered strength. Despite the injection of new troops, the U.S. and coalition forces have not find a way to stabilize the country yet. The defeat of al-Qaida and the stability of Afghanistan are, therefore, far from being achieved.

  3. Sexual revictimization among Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schry, Amie R; Beckham, Jean C; The Va Mid-Atlantic Mirecc Workgroup; Calhoun, Patrick S

    2016-06-30

    Research in both civilian and military populations has demonstrated that females who experience childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely to experience sexual assault in adulthood than females who did not experience CSA. Among veteran samples, however, little research has examined previous sexual assault as a risk factor of military sexual assault and post-military sexual assault, and very little research has examined revictimization in male veterans. The purpose of this study was to examine risk of sexual revictimization in a sample of veterans who served during the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. A sample of 3106 veterans (80.4% male) completed a measure of lifetime exposure to traumatic events, including sexual abuse and sexual assault. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine previous sexual abuse/assault as predictors of later sexual assault; analyses were conducted separately for males and females. In general, previous sexual abuse/assault was associated with later sexual assault in both male and female veterans. These findings have important assessment and treatment implications for clinicians working with veterans. PMID:27149409

  4. Democratising Afghanistan: An Analysis of the 2005 Parliamentary Elections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahabuddin Ra’ees

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-MY X-NONE AR-SA /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin-top:0cm; mso-para-margin-right:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:10.0pt; mso-para-margin-left:0cm; line-height:115%; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin;} Abstract: The interviews and observation of the September 2005 elections for the lower house of parliament and provincial councils in Afghanistan disclose that despite shortcomings, the elections were relatively free. The elections, conducted in the absence of party politics, created a divided legislature struggling to unite. Women members, equally divided by region and ethnicity, may exert a moderating influence on the legislature, which is dominated by the “Islamist right.”

  5. [Health system in Afghanistan: problems and institutional perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejars, M

    2008-10-01

    Afghanistan has been ravaged by years of conflict. To provide emergency services and restore access health services, the Public Health Ministry with the assistance of partners developed first a package of basic health services delivered by NGO contractors and second a package of essential hospital services. The Ministry's role consists of providing guidance. To reduce the many issues and problems affecting this role, reforms are now being undertaken and a new national health care strategy is being developed within the framework of the National Development Strategy. An institution-building project has been initiated with European Union funding to allow the Health Ministry to carry out its stewardship and management functions with greater effectiveness and transparency. This project is essential for the successful outcome of all future strategies and programs planned by the Health Ministry to enhance its institutional effectiveness. The objectives of this project are to strengthen planning and auditing activities, promote quality assurance, implement funding mechanisms for health-related activities, organize management of human resources, maintain ongoing efforts to reform the administration and fight against corruption, and lay the foundations for managing finances and procurement. The scope of this project underlines the importance of its outcome. However the institution-building process will be long and constantly threatened by political instability and insecurity. PMID:19068975

  6. [Epidemiology of war injuries, about two conflicts: Iraq and Afghanistan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, P; de Rudnicki, S; Donat, N; Auroy, Y; Merat, S

    2011-11-01

    Since March 2003, military operations in Iraq "Operation Iraqi Freedom" (OIF) and in Afghanistan "Operation Enduring Freedom" (OEF), have made many wounded and killed in action (KIA). This article proposes to highlight the specific epidemiology of combat casualties, met in these both non-conventional and asymmetric conflicts. Personal protective equipments, Kevlar helmet and body armor, proved their efficiency in changing features of war injuries. Health Force Services organized trauma care system in different levels, with three main objectives: immediate basic medical care in battalion aid station, forward surgery and early aeromedical evacuation. The Joint Theater Trauma Registry (JTTR), a war injury registry, provides medical data, analyzed from the combat theater to the military hospital in United States. This analysis concluded that during modern conflicts, most injuries are caused by explosive devices; injuries are more severe and interestingly more specifically the head region and extremities than the trunk. Hemorrhage is the first cause of death, leading to the concept of avoidable death. Specific databases focused on mechanisms and severity of injuries, diagnostic and treatment difficulties, outcomes can guide research programs to improve war injuries prevention and treatment. PMID:21981845

  7. Fighting against Irregular Forces: Afghanistan as Test Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tal Tovy

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available America’s involvement in Afghanistan since late 2001 (Operation Enduring Freedom is an excellent example of the highly problematic nature of fighting against irregular forces in a state with a long history of instability.This essay analyzes the factors behind Afghanistan’s instability and argues that understanding them can explain the political and military difficulty in destroying irregular forces that share a strong ideology and operate in a given geographical arena. This essay does not purport to offer solutions or recommendations for action; rather, it claims that the primary and most basic action a state must undertake when embarking on a confrontation with irregular forces in a given geographical setting is to understand the history of the region. Such an understanding will allow it to assess how local history has created a political, social, and economic system that is a convenient base for a guerrilla activity grounded in a firm ideological base. The essay claims that understanding the area politically, socially, and demographically allows for the formulation of a strategy and varied modi operandi for defeating the guerrilla forces.

  8. Food assistance to tuberculosis patients: lessons from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzoli, D; Houben, R M; Grede, N; de Pee, S; Boccia, D

    2016-06-21

    Poverty, food insecurity and poor nutrition in the population are important contributors to the burden of tuberculosis (TB). For poor and food-insecure individuals, accessing and successfully completing anti-tuberculosis treatment over an extended period of time is challenging. Food and nutritional support as an incentive and enabler is employed by national TB control programmes (NTPs) worldwide as a means to encourage treatment initiation and adherence and to improve the nutritional status of patients with TB. It also offers a safety net for food-insecure households affected by TB to mitigate the financial consequences of the disease. This paper reports on the primary lessons from the review of the World Food Programme's (WFP's) Food Assistance Programme for TB patients in Afghanistan. It aims to inform the design, implementation and scale-up of TB programmes in settings where food insecurity and malnutrition are prevalent. It also documents qualitative findings that suggest that patients, their families and providers viewed food support as an important asset and an essential element of the national TB control strategy. While the impact on treatment success or case detection could not be quantified, it is likely that the WFP intervention had a positive impact on the patients and their households, therefore contributing to the success of the DOTS-based NTP. PMID:27358810

  9. Anti-histamine effect of Rubia tibetica, used to treat anaphylaxis caused by tick bites in the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Kristiansen, Uffe; Soelberg, Jens;

    2012-01-01

    The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan.......The roots of Rubia tibetica are chewed as an antidote to anaphylaxis caused by bites of the tick Ornithodoros lahorensis by the Wakhi people in Afghanistan....

  10. Secondary Education in Afghanistan: a portray of postconflict education reconstrution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Moreno Olmedilla

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a preliminary account of the status of secondary education in Afghanistan. No previous references can be found which include reliable and detailed statistical information or policy analysis of any kind regarding the secondary education sub-sector in Afghanistan. Thus, more than accurate data collection and analysis, this paper can only attempt to open up the political dialogue about secondary education in the country by identifying the relevant policy issues and putting them into the context of secondary education policies in post-conflict developing countries. Considering the increase of the demand for education over the last three years,together with present birth rates in Afghanistan, it is easy to anticipate a huge increase of demand for secondary education starting in 2007 (even if high repetitionand drop-out rates persist at current levels. Adding to that is the fact that the recently approved Constitution has extended compulsory education until the end oflower secondary school, that is, the 9th grade. It will certainly take more than the formal adjustments to the secondary school curriculum now being undertaken to beable to cope with the rapidly approaching new secondary education scenario in Afghanistan. This article reviews the different sub-sectors of the secondary education system, including vocational training and the public maddrassahs, and concludes with specific recommendations focusing on the critical role of the secondary school sector in the construction of a balanced and forward-lookingeducation system in Afghanistan.Este artículo presenta una visión preliminar de la situación de la educación secundaria en Afganistán en los años inmediatamente posteriores al cambio de régimen de 2001-2002. No existen todavía referencias previas (al menos en inglés o en español con información estadística fiable y detallada o con análisis político de ningún tipo en relación con el sector de la secundaria

  11. A comprehensive population dataset for Afghanistan constructed using GIS-based dasymetric mapping methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Allyson L.; Hubbard, Bernard E.

    2014-01-01

    This report summarizes the application of dasymetric methods for mapping the distribution of population throughout Afghanistan. Because Afghanistan's population has constantly changed through decades of war and conflict, existing vector and raster GIS datasets (such as point settlement densities and intensities of lights at night) do not adequately reflect the changes. The purposes of this report are (1) to provide historic population data at the provincial and district levels that can be used to chart population growth and migration trends within the country and (2) to provide baseline information that can be used for other types of spatial analyses of Afghanistan, such as resource and hazard assessments; infrastructure and capacity rebuilding; and assisting with international, regional, and local planning.

  12. A study of the Norwegian-led PRT in Meymaneh, Afghanistan, and it's contribution to security.

    OpenAIRE

    Nergård, Lill-Hege

    2009-01-01

    Today, Norway contributes to the ongoing international operation in Afghanistan, in order to fight insurgency and to reconstruct and contribute to development for the Afghan population by building a democratic state built on the principles of human rights and the rule of law. However, the political and strategic rationale for Norway to be present in Afghanistan must also be seen in light of our engagements as a NATO allie and as a means in order to protect our selves and western allies from h...

  13. Warm fresh whole blood and thoracic traumain iraq and afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan J Keneally

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thoracic trauma occurred in 10% of the patients seen at US military treatment facilities in Iraq and Afghanistan and 52% of those patients were transfused. Among those transfused, 281 patients received warm fresh whole blood. A previous report documented improved survival with warm fresh whole blood in patients injured in combat without stratification by injury pattern. A later report described an increase in acute lung injuries after its administration. Survivorship and warm fresh whole blood have never been analyzed in a subpopulation at highest risk for lung injuries, such as patients with thoracic trauma. There may be a heterogeneous relationship between whole blood and survival based on likelihood of a concomitant pulmonary injury. In this report, the relationship between warm fresh whole blood and survivorship was analyzed among patients at highest risk for concomitant pulmonary injuries. Materials and Methods: Patients with thoracic trauma who received a transfusion were identified in the Joint Theater Trauma Registry. Gross mortality rates were compared between whole blood recipients and patients transfused with component therapy only. The association between each blood component and mortality was determined in a regression model. The overall mortality risk was compared between warm fresh whole blood recipients and non-recipients. Results: Patients transfused with warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy had a higher mortality rate than patients transfused only separated blood components (21.3% vs. 12.8%, P < 0.001. When controlling for covariates, transfusion of warm fresh whole blood in addition to component therapy was not associated with increased mortality risk compared with the transfusion of component therapy only (OR 1.247 [95% CI 0.760-2.048], P = 0.382. Conclusion: Patients with combat related thoracic trauma transfused with warm fresh whole blood were not at increased risk for mortality compared to

  14. Teachers’ Learning Circle in Afghanistan : - A new experience of Professional Development of Male and Female School Teachers in Mazar-e-Sharif, Afghanistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Qarizada, Zabihullah

    2015-01-01

    Professional development (PD) of teachers is very important and plays a significant role in teachers’ development both in terms of his/her knowledge, skills, and motivation in today’s emerging world. In Afghanistan, the term Teacher Learning Circle (TLC) is used to refer to PD of teachers. TLC focuses on improving teachers’ pedagogical content knowledge and subject knowledge as well as creating a culture of sharing ideas, experiences and having collaboration among them. I present here the fin...

  15. Challenges for Progressive Education in Afghanistan: A History of Oppression and the Rising Threat of ISIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Michael Jessee

    2016-01-01

    Afghanistan's public education system has been victimized by the brutal oppression of the Taliban Regime. Schools were destroyed, teachers were executed, and women were prevented from receiving an education. However, the situation has improved in recent years. Public school enrollment rates and educational access for females have substantially…

  16. "Delivering" Education; Maintaining Inequality. The Case of Children with Disabilities in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Bakhshi, Parul; Nandipati, Anand

    2012-01-01

    Education for children with disabilities in Afghanistan, particularly disabled girls, continues to lag behind despite laudable efforts of the Ministry of Education to promote universal access for all. The opportunity for education constitutes not just a means of achieving learning outcomes but also a space for social interaction, individual…

  17. Afghanistan and Multiculturalism in Khaled Hosseini's Novels: Study of Place and Diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnello, Mary F.; Todd, Reese H.; Olaniran, Bolanle; Lucey, Thomas A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to frame Khaled Hosseini's novels, "The Kite Runner" and "A Thousand Splendid Suns", as literature to expand and enhance the American secondary curriculum with multicultural themes based on Afghanistan as a geographical and cultural place in a dynamic, diverse, and complex world more mediated than ever before…

  18. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haber, Marc; Platt, Daniel E; Ashrafian Bonab, Maziar; Youhanna, Sonia C; Soria-Hernanz, David F; Martínez-Cruz, Begoña; Douaihy, Bouchra; Ghassibe-Sabbagh, Michella; Rafatpanah, Hoshang; Ghanbari, Mohsen; Whale, John; Balanovsky, Oleg; Wells, R Spencer; Comas, David; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Zalloua, Pierre A

    2012-01-01

    Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia. PMID:22470552

  19. Clinical features, current treatments and outcome of pregnant women with preeclampsaia/eclampsia in northern afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahadi, Sayed Shir Mohammad; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Rabi, Mirwais; Sarker, Mohammad Abul Bashar; Reyer, Joshua A; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    In Afghanistan, preeclampsia/eclampsia is the second leading cause of maternal deaths following maternal hemorrhage. This study aimed to describe clinical features, current treatments, and outcome among preeclampsia and eclampsia patients in the north region of Afghanistan. This was a retrospective study based on medical records of four center hospitals (one regional hospital and three provincial hospitals) in the north region of Afghanistan. Subjects were 322 patients with preeclampsia/eclampsia, admitted from March 2012 to March 2013. Out of 322 cases, 72.7% were diagnosed as preeclampsia and the rest as eclampsia. Those aged 30-39 years were 41.0% among preeclampsia patients and 29 years and younger were 35.2% among eclampsia patients (p= 0.002). The first delivery was significantly higher (p=0.045) among eclampsia patients (51.1%) than among preeclampsia patients (36.8%). While none died among the preeclampsia patients, 12 out of 88 eclampsia patients died in the hospitals. The causes of the 12 deaths were pulmonary edema (6 patients), renal failure (3 patients), cerebrovascular attack (2 patients), and hemorrhage (1 patient). There were no clinical findings at admission significantly associated with the deaths within the eclampsia patient group. Although the sample size was not large enough, patients admitted to the regional/provincial hospitals at the stage of preeclampsia had a low risk of death. Access at the stage of preeclampsia and improvement in treatments for eclampsia would reduce maternal mortality in Afghanistan. PMID:25797975

  20. The epidemiology of hepatitis C virus in Afghanistan: systematic review and meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiam Chemaitelly

    2015-11-01

    Conclusions: HCV prevalence among the general population in Afghanistan is comparable to global levels. Data are needed for the level of infection among key clinical populations at high risk of infection. There is also an immediate need for expansion of harm reduction programs among PWID and prisoners.

  1. The Money Exchange Dealers of Kabul : A Study of the Hawala System in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Munzele Maimbo, Samuel

    2003-01-01

    Money convenient, and inexpensive means of transferring funds into Afghanistan and among its provinces. They offer a diverse range of financial and non-financial business services at the local, regional, and international level. More recently, they have been instrumental in providing financial services for the delivery of emergency relief and humanitarian and developmental aid into Afghani...

  2. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wild

  3. Afghanistan's ethnic groups share a Y-chromosomal heritage structured by historical events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Haber

    Full Text Available Afghanistan has held a strategic position throughout history. It has been inhabited since the Paleolithic and later became a crossroad for expanding civilizations and empires. Afghanistan's location, history, and diverse ethnic groups present a unique opportunity to explore how nations and ethnic groups emerged, and how major cultural evolutions and technological developments in human history have influenced modern population structures. In this study we have analyzed, for the first time, the four major ethnic groups in present-day Afghanistan: Hazara, Pashtun, Tajik, and Uzbek, using 52 binary markers and 19 short tandem repeats on the non-recombinant segment of the Y-chromosome. A total of 204 Afghan samples were investigated along with more than 8,500 samples from surrounding populations important to Afghanistan's history through migrations and conquests, including Iranians, Greeks, Indians, Middle Easterners, East Europeans, and East Asians. Our results suggest that all current Afghans largely share a heritage derived from a common unstructured ancestral population that could have emerged during the Neolithic revolution and the formation of the first farming communities. Our results also indicate that inter-Afghan differentiation started during the Bronze Age, probably driven by the formation of the first civilizations in the region. Later migrations and invasions into the region have been assimilated differentially among the ethnic groups, increasing inter-population genetic differences, and giving the Afghans a unique genetic diversity in Central Asia.

  4. Treating Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans with PTSD Who Are at High Risk for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakupcak, Matthew; Varra, Edward M.

    2011-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan War veterans diagnosed with psychiatric disorders commit suicide at a higher rate than the general population (Kang & Bullman, 2008). Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been identified as a risk factor for suicide in veterans (Bullman & Kang, 1994) and is the most common mental disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan…

  5. Assessing post-abortion care in health facilities in Afghanistan : a cross-sectional study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ansari, Nasratullah; Zainullah, Partamin; Kim, Young Mi; Tappis, Hannah; Kols, Adrienne; Currie, Sheena; Haver, Jaime; van Roosmalen, Jos; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.; Stekelenburg, Jelle

    2015-01-01

    Background: Complications of abortion are one of the leading causes of maternal mortality worldwide, along with hemorrhage, sepsis, and hypertensive diseases of pregnancy. In Afghanistan little data exist on the capacity of the health system to provide post-abortion care (PAC). This paper presents f

  6. Afghanistan 2001-2011 : gewapende interventie en staatsvorming in een fragiele staat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagemaker, Allard Jacobus Emile

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation examines the use of the military instrument for initiating a state-building process in fragile states as a foundation for stability and basic security. This is done by analysing the position of the armed intervening parties in Afghanistan in the 2001-2011 period as an empirical and

  7. Integrating Learning, Leadership, and Crisis in Management Education: Lessons from Army Officers in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayes, D. Christopher; Allen, Nate; Self, Nate

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a model and case study used to teach crisis leadership as a management education topic. The materials emerge from studies of U.S. Army leaders (company commanders and platoon leaders) working in Iraq and Afghanistan. The authors explain how examples and cases from military combat provide tools to teach about crisis…

  8. Approaching Gender Parity: Women in Computer Science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, Jandelyn

    2010-01-01

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in…

  9. Disgust and the development of posttraumatic stress among soldiers deployed to Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelhard, Iris M.; Olatunji, Bunmi O.; de Jung, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Although the DSM-IV recognizes that events can traumatize by evoking horror, not just fear, the role of disgust in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received little research attention. In a study of soldiers deployed to Afghanistan, we examined whether reports of peritrauma

  10. Are Drone Strikes Effective in Afghanistan and Pakistan? On the Dynamics of Violence between the United States and the Taliban

    OpenAIRE

    David A. Jaeger; Siddique, Zahra

    2011-01-01

    Strikes by unmanned aerial vehicles, or drones, have been the primary weapon used by the United States to combat the Taliban and Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan. This paper examines the dynamics of violence involving drone strikes and the Taliban/Al-Qaeda in Afghanistan and Pakistan from January 2007 to December 2010. We find that drone strikes do not have any significant impact on terrorist violence in Afghanistan but that drone strikes do have a significant impact on Taliban/Al-Qaeda v...

  11. 76 FR 76382 - Executive-Led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan; February 2012* Dates Are Withheld

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration Executive-Led Business Development Mission to Kabul, Afghanistan; February... mission will be led by a Senior Commerce Department official. Targeted sectors include:...

  12. Forgotten promises in Afghanistan. The situation of women and their rights since the fall of the Taliban

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Siegfried O.

    2012-01-01

    The "liberation of women" from the "gender apartheid" and the anti-female policy of the oppressive Taliban regime and the defence of women's rights was (officially) one the primary motives behind action in Afghanistan.

  13. Multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria colonization of healthy US military personnel in the US and Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Vento, Todd J.; Cole, David W; Mende, Katrin; Calvano, Tatjana P.; Rini, Elizabeth A.; Tully, Charla C; Zera, Wendy C.; Guymon, Charles H; Yu, Xin; Cheatle, Kristelle A; Akers, Kevin S.; Beckius, Miriam L.; Landrum, Michael L.; Murray, Clinton K.

    2013-01-01

    Background The US military has seen steady increases in multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria (GNB) infections in casualties from Iraq and Afghanistan. This study evaluates the prevalence of MDR GNB colonization in US military personnel. Methods GNB colonization surveillance of healthy, asymptomatic military personnel (101 in the US and 100 in Afghanistan) was performed by swabbing 7 anatomical sites. US-based personnel had received no antibiotics within 30 days of specimen collect...

  14. Hollande’s pledge to withdraw French troops from Afghanistan is not as significant as it may seem

    OpenAIRE

    Mawdsley, Jocelyn

    2012-01-01

    Last month new French President François Hollande announced that French troops in Afghanistan would be withdrawn by the end of 2012, instead of 2013 as was previously planned. Jocelyn Mawdsley argues that logistics and other commitments mean that France will likely continue to have a presence in Afghanistan, and that despite the decision, any major change in France’s relationship with NATO seems unlikely.

  15. The Afghanistan Mining Sector as a Driver of Sustainable Growth : Benefits and Opportunities for Large-Scale Mining

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank, (WB)

    2011-01-01

    This study attempts to quantify the benefits that could be obtained for the country of Afghanistan from the developments of the Aynak copper and Hajigak iron ore deposits and to discuss policies and programs-based on the experience of other countries-that will tend to maximize the benefits from these and other mines. In this study, the potential economic benefits to Afghanistan of its mini...

  16. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  17. Spatio-Temporal History of HIV-1 CRF35_AD in Afghanistan and Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eybpoosh, Sana; Bahrampour, Abbas; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Jahanbakhsh, Fatemeh; Mostafavi, Ehsan; Zolala, Farzaneh; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    HIV-1 Circulating Recombinant Form 35_AD (CRF35_AD) has an important position in the epidemiological profile of Afghanistan and Iran. Despite the presence of this clade in Afghanistan and Iran for over a decade, our understanding of its origin and dissemination patterns is limited. In this study, we performed a Bayesian phylogeographic analysis to reconstruct the spatio-temporal dispersion pattern of this clade using eligible CRF35_AD gag and pol sequences available in the Los Alamos HIV database (432 sequences available from Iran, 16 sequences available from Afghanistan, and a single CRF35_AD-like pol sequence available from USA). Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm was implemented in BEAST v1.8.1. Between-country dispersion rates were tested with Bayesian stochastic search variable selection method and were considered significant where Bayes factor values were greater than three. The findings suggested that CRF35_AD sequences were genetically similar to parental sequences from Kenya and Uganda, and to a set of subtype A1 sequences available from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan. Our results also showed that across all phylogenies, Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD sequences formed a monophyletic cluster (posterior clade credibility> 0.7). The divergence date of this cluster was estimated to be between 1990 and 1992. Within this cluster, a bidirectional dispersion of the virus was observed across Afghanistan and Iran. We could not clearly identify if Afghanistan or Iran first established or received this epidemic, as the root location of this cluster could not be robustly estimated. Three CRF35_AD sequences from Afghan refugees living in Pakistan nested among Afghan and Iranian CRF35_AD branches. However, the CRF35_AD-like sequence available from USA diverged independently from Kenyan subtype A1 sequences, suggesting it not to be a true CRF35_AD lineage. Potential factors contributing to viral exchange between Afghanistan and Iran could be injection drug

  18. TEACHERS’ SEX AND STUDENTS’ DROPOUT-DOES IT MATTER? : A study of dropout boys and girls in primary schools in Paktia province, Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    HABIB, Habibullah

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan, among other countries in the world, is counted as one of the poorest countries and has extremely large gender disparities in education in both urban and rural areas. Dropout is an issue in many countries, especially dropout of girls. In Afghanistan the main cause for girls’ dropout is lack of female teachers, hence Ministry of Education of Afghanistan has put decreasing dropout of girls as a priority and the key strategy is to increase the number of female teachers. I intended to...

  19. The Bombing of Afghanistan: The Convergence of Media and Political Power to Reduce Outrage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendan Riddick

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The United States (US-led war in Afghanistan has resulted in high levels of civilian casualties and human suffering for over nine years. One of the primary causes of this suffering during the first three months of the war came from high altitude bombing led by the US Air Force. Tens of thousands of bombs equal to approximately 14,000 tons were used over Afghanistan in the first three months of the war from October 2001[1]. However the damaging effects of this bombing campaign were largely hidden from Western audiences. This article examines techniques used by the US government and two mainstream media organisations to alter perceptions of the early stages of the air war in order to dampen indignation over the injustice being perpetrated against Afghanistan’s civilian population. These techniques can be organised under five headings: cover-up, devaluation, reinterpretation, the use of official channels and intimidation.

  20. Integrating remote sensing and magnetic data for structural geology investigation in pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Ratib; Saadi, Nureddin M.; Khalil, Ahmed; Watanabe, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    This study used an integrated approach to investigate pegmatite areas in eastern Afghanistan. The analysis of surface data, including a digital elevation model (DEM), and Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images, was combined with airborne magnetic data to better understand three-dimensional geology in the area. The ETM+ and DEM data were used to map geological structures at the surface, which indicate that the area consists of two main fault systems that trend NNE and E-W. The two trends represent the remnants of reactivated structures that formed under the stress regimes generated during the tectonic evolution of eastern Afghanistan. Magnetic data indicate an NE-SW trending basin. A two-dimensional schematic model shows that the basin gradually deepens toward the SW with depths to the magnetic basement ranging between 2 and 11.5 km. The integration of the results gave new insight into the tectonic evolution and structure patterns near the pegmatites area.

  1. The Veil of Kevlar: an Analysis of the Female Engagement Teams in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Erwin, Stephanie K.

    2012-01-01

    Recent developments in the population engagement strategies associated with Operation Enduring Freedom and the International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan have led to the emergence of the Female Engagement Teams. These Teams seek to provide insight and intelligence while engendering American and ISAF efforts in the region, by utilizing female service members to actively engage and interact with the population. This thesis endeavors to answer the question of how the Female Engagemen...

  2. The Development-Security Nexus Policies In Afghanistan: Feasible Or Fashionable?

    OpenAIRE

    Telatin, Michela

    2010-01-01

    I investigate the changing conceptual relation between development and security from the 1950s to nowadays, and their coming together in a nexus. The latest interpretation of this nexus is exemplified by Security Sector Reform (SSR) policies. Through an analysis of SSR in Afghanistan, I contend that the implementation of these policies does not reflect their conceptual richness constituted by the concept of human security and human development, but it addresses only state’s military security ...

  3. Using bio- and neurofeedback to enhance psychological recuperation in Afghanistan veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Kallen, Victor L.; Nelleke Van Wouwe; Marian Dekker; Ad Denissen; Geert van Boxtel; Eric Vermetten

    2012-01-01

    Rationale/statement of the problem: Both bio- and neurofeedback (training) protocols are hypothesized to be beneficial in the management of arousal states and psychological recuperation after aversive and potentially traumatic experiences. As military deployments in theatres like Iraq or Afghanistan imply a significant risk for potentially traumatic experiences and stress-related outcomes, the present research explored the potency of both bio- and neurofeedback protocols during the recuperati...

  4. Perspectives on Sexual Health and Function of Recent Male Combat Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Helmer, Drew A.; Beaulieu, Gregory; Powers, Catherine; Houlette, Cheryl; Latini, David; Kauth, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Background U.S. veterans of recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may be at greater risk for sexual dysfunction due to injuries, mental health conditions, medications used to treat those conditions, and psychosocial factors. Objective To explore the perceptions of recent Veterans about sexual health and dysfunction, contributing factors, its impact and solutions. Design Qualitative study. Participants Eight men who screened positive for sexual dysfunction at initial presentation to a postdeploy...

  5. Female Enrollment in Logar Teacher Training Colleges of Afghanistan. : Obstacles and opportunities for female enrolment.

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Dawood, Ahmadzai

    2015-01-01

    In Afghanistan, more than three decades of war eroded access to education for Afghan children all over the country. After the fall of Taliban regime in late 2001, Ministry of Education (MoE) and international community has taken significant steps toward extending access to equal educational opportunities for all school-aged children, as well as committed to achieve Education for All (EFA) and Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in order to reach to gender equality and to eliminate gender disc...

  6. Social cost of land mines in four countries: Afghanistan, Bosnia, Cambodia, and Mozambique.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, N.; da Sousa, C. P.; Paredes, S.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To document the effects of land mines on the health and social conditions of communities in four affected countries. DESIGN--A cross design of cluster survey and rapid appraisal methods including a household questionnaire and qualitative data from key informants, institutional reviews, and focus groups of survivors of land mines from the same communities. SETTING--206 communities, 37 in Afghanistan, 66 in Bosnia, 38 in Cambodia, and 65 in Mozambique. SUBJECTS--174,489 people livin...

  7. Perspectives on Sexual Health and Function of Recent Male Combat Veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drew A. Helmer, MD, MS

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: Sexual dysfunction in recent combat veterans can have important negative effects on their health and relationships. Our findings elucidate perceived contributory factors and preferred solutions, which can be applied by health‐care providers to improve the management of sexual dysfunction in these patients. Helmer DA, Beaulieu G, Powers C, Houlette C, Latini D, and Kauth M. Perspectives on sexual health and function of recent male combat veterans of Iraq and Afghanistan. Sex Med 2015;3:137–146.

  8. IDENTIFYING REQUIREMENTS FOR VOCATIONAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY CURRICULA IN AFGHANISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Hadi Hedayati; Mart Laanpere

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines how Information Communication Technology (ICT) is, and how it is supposed to be taught in vocational institutions in developing countries. If the world is truly flat, ICT education in Afghanistan and Namibia would be similar to what you might find in Estonia and other developed nations. We focus specifically on what ICT skill qualifications are available to students.  The way in which different countries are addressing this realization, and which competences they are offer...

  9. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and Mental Health Among Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Maguen, Shira; Madden, Erin; Cohen, Beth; Bertenthal, Daniel; Neylan, Thomas; Talbot, Lisa; Grunfeld, Carl; SEAL, KAREN

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND Obesity is a growing public health concern and is becoming an epidemic among veterans in the post-deployment period. OBJECTIVE To explore the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a large cohort of Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, and to evaluate trajectories of change in BMI over 3 years. DESIGN Retrospective, longitudinal cohort analysis of veterans’ health records PARTICIPANTS A total of 496,722 veterans (59,790 female and ...

  10. Modelling the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Afghanistan 2006-2009.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor A Alegana

    Full Text Available Identifying areas that support high malaria risks and where populations lack access to health care is central to reducing the burden in Afghanistan. This study investigated the incidence of Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum using routine data to help focus malaria interventions.To estimate incidence, the study modelled utilisation of the public health sector using fever treatment data from the 2012 national Malaria Indicator Survey. A probabilistic measure of attendance was applied to population density metrics to define the proportion of the population within catchment of a public health facility. Malaria data were used in a Bayesian spatio-temporal conditional-autoregressive model with ecological or environmental covariates, to examine the spatial and temporal variation of incidence.From the analysis of healthcare utilisation, over 80% of the population was within 2 hours' travel of the nearest public health facility, while 64.4% were within 30 minutes' travel. The mean incidence of P. vivax in 2009 was 5.4 (95% Crl 3.2-9.2 cases per 1000 population compared to 1.2 (95% Crl 0.4-2.9 cases per 1000 population for P. falciparum. P. vivax peaked in August while P. falciparum peaked in November. 32% of the estimated 30.5 million people lived in regions where annual incidence was at least 1 case per 1,000 population of P. vivax; 23.7% of the population lived in areas where annual P. falciparum case incidence was at least 1 per 1000.This study showed how routine data can be combined with household survey data to model malaria incidence. The incidence of both P. vivax and P. falciparum in Afghanistan remain low but the co-distribution of both parasites and the lag in their peak season provides challenges to malaria control in Afghanistan. Future improved case definition to determine levels of imported risks may be useful for the elimination ambitions in Afghanistan.

  11. The regional security puzzle around Afghanistan : bordering practices in Central Asia and beyond

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    "Western military presence wanes in Afghanistan and a transformed security environment challenges borders and stability in Central Asia. This book examines how the tensions relating to the reorganization of external military presence interact with regional states’ ambitions and challenge the borders already contested by numerous dividing lines. It studies a complex political landscape across which radical Islam connected with international terrorism is feared to spread as the international mi...

  12. Viability of karezes (ancient water supply systems in Afghanistan) in a changing world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, G. L.; Johnson, W. C.; Liu, Huan

    2015-09-01

    The Afghanistan population living far from rivers relies upon groundwater delivered from karezes (sub-horizontal tunnels). Karezes exploit unconfined groundwater in alluvial fans recharged largely by snowmelt from the Hindu Kush, the central mountain range of the country. Since the multi-year drought that began in 1998, many karezes have stopped flowing. This study characterizes the hydraulics of a kariz, the potential for reduced groundwater recharge because of climate change, and the impact of increasing population on kariz water production. A typical kariz in Afghanistan is 1-2 km long with a cross-section of 1-2 m2 and gradient of 1 m km-1. MODFLOW simulations show that water delivery from a kariz can be modeled by imposing a high ratio of kariz hydraulic conductivity to aquifer hydraulic conductivity on the cells representing the kariz. The model is sensitive to hydraulic conductivity, kariz gradient, and length of the kariz in contact with the water table. Precipitation data are scarce in Afghanistan, but regional data show a long-term trend of decreased snow cover, and therefore strong likelihood of decreased aquifer recharge. Population in Afghanistan has increased at a rate of about 2.2 % over the past several decades. An assessment of a six-district region within Kandahar Province where karezes are the most likely source of water indicates that water demand could have caused water tables to decline by 0.8-5.6 m, more than enough to cause karezes to stop flowing. These results suggest that kariz water production is not sustainable under current climate- and population-growth trends.

  13. Posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish soldiers 2.5 years after military deployment in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellerup, Janne; Andersen, Søren Bo; Høgh (Hogh), Annie

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan ...... Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified....

  14. Clinical and Histopathological Characteristics of Breast Cancer in People of Baluchistan and Adjoining Territory of Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajrah Doutani

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is a common type of malignancy in the province of Balochistan. The aim of this study was to see the various features of breast cancer in order to know the pattern of disease in the recent time. The present study was conducted during 2001-2005 to evaluate the clinical and pathological characteristics of breast cancer in people of Balochistan including patients from Afghanistan. This study also aims to assess the geographical features and characteristics of Breast Cancer in patients registered at Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (CENAR. Study included all patients admitted in Centre for Nuclear Medicine and Radiotherapy (CENAR, with carcinoma of breast during the above mentioned period. Different characteristics like Gender and age distributions, residence, clinical Stages, history of breast feeding and other relevant data, investigations are included in this study. Total of 272 patients were included in the study, out of which there were 256 (294% female and 16 (6% male patients including 32 (12% females and 3 (1% males from Afghanistan with Breast cancer. Most common age group was 41-50 years with 94 (35% patients, followed by 31-40 years with 68 (25% patients. 16 (6% cases of stage I, 20 (7% cases of stage 2, 68 (25% cases of stage 3 and 168 (62% cases of stage 4 of breast cancer were diagnosed in the study. About 196 (72% and 76 (27.9% were of urban and rural area by residence, respectively. Most common type of Breast cancer was infiltrating ductal carcinoma with 212 (78% patients. Baluchistan province is seemed to be at high risk for Breast cancer. It is also common in Afghanistan and other areas of Pakistan. Breast cancer is a common disease at a young to middle age distribution with ductal carcinoma being the most common type. The ailment of breast cancer in Balochistan including Afghanistan is due to the lack of knowledge and awareness.

  15. Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency in urban and peri-urban agriculture of Kabul, Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Safi, Zikrullah

    2011-01-01

    Like elsewhere also in Kabul, Afghanistan urban and peri-urban agriculture (UPA) has often been accused of being resource inefficient and unsustainable causing negatives externalities to community health and to the surroundings. These arise from the inappropriate management and use of agricultural inputs, including often pesticides and inter-city wastes containing heavy metal residues and pathogens. To address these concerns, parallel studies with the aims of quantification of carbon (C), nit...

  16. Rhetoric Versus Reality: Prospects for Women's Rights in Post-Taliban Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Cathcart, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines roles of patriarchal structures in global geopolitics and state systems in marginalizing women's perspectives and experiences. Using Afghanistan as a case study it argues that, despite the discourse of increasing women's rights, these structures, which once rendered women invisible and which now seem focused on women's issues, remain indifferent to women's conditions. It shows how the rhetoric of women's liberation and gender equality is being used to obscure the reasons f...

  17. Financial Well-Being and Post-Deployment Adjustment among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, CAPT Sally C.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Newton, Virginia M.; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Research has yet to examine the relationship between financial well-being and community reintegration of veterans. To address this, we analyzed data from n=1,388 Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans who completed a national survey on post-deployment adjustment. The results indicated that probable major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and traumatic brain injury were associated with financial difficulties. However, regardless of diagnosis, veterans who reported having money...

  18. Perceived job demands during military deployment : What soldiers say in Afghanistan (abstract)

    OpenAIRE

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Euwema, M.

    2012-01-01

    Military deployment is inherently demanding and military organizations have to prepare their personnel for a broad range of operational demands. So far, it remains unclear how perceptions of operational demands differ between distinct military units. Using a cross-sectional design, this study explored operational demands during the International Security Assistance Force for Afghanistan (2009-2010). A total of 1413 Dutch soldiers, nested within four types of units (i.e. combat-, combat suppor...

  19. China Metallurgical Group and Jiangxi Copper Having Signed Agreement on Copper Mines with Afghanistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>On May 25,the joint investment combo formed by China Metallurgical Group Corp.(MCC) and Jiangxi Copper Co.has formally signed agreement with Afghan government in Kabul on the exploitation of Aynak copper mine.The mine is situated in the north of Loghar in the middle east of Afghanistan,which is about 35km from the Capital City of Kabul.The ex- tra-large copper mine was found at the begin-

  20. The changing rules of jus ad bellum : conflicts in Kosovo, Iraq and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Scholtz

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on three instances of the use of armed force in international relations. The three instances that are explored are the intervention by NATO in Kosovo, the armed attack by mainly the USA and the UK against Afghanistan and the war against Iraq in 2003. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the legality of the coercive measures in order to ascertain the effects that these actions had in relation to article 2(4 of the UN Charter. The proposed justifications for the attacks differ and these are carefully scrutinized against the jus ad bellum as to determine the legality of the attacks. The notion of humanitarian intervention was used as a ground for justification by various international scholars to explain the use of force in Kosovo, but this concept is not recognized in terms of international law. The attack on Afghanistan was based on article 51 of the UN Charter. The attacks were directed at Afghanistan as this state harboured the terrorists responsible for the attacks on the USA. The mere harbouring of terrorists does not give rise to the use of armed force on the basis of article 51 and as such the use of coercive measures against Afghanistan was illegal. The use of force in Iraq was mainly based on the doctrine of pre-emptive force which is alien to international law. The USA and its coalition partners also acted in contravention with the jus ad bellum in this regard. The author poses certain proposals in relation to the jus ad bellum and stresses the importance of article 2(4 which must ensure that international relations are not once more regulated by the use of armed force.

  1. Afghanistan, the Taliban, and Osama bin Laden: The Background to September 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Social Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    On May 1, 2011, a group of U.S. soldiers boarded helicopters at a base in Afghanistan, hoping to find a man named Osama bin Laden. Bin Laden, the leader of the al Qaeda terrorist network, was responsible for a number of terrorist attacks around the world, including those of September 11, 2001, that killed nearly 3,000 people in the United States.…

  2. Status of insecticide resistance in high-risk malaria provinces in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mushtaq; Buhler, Cyril; Pignatelli, Patricia; Ranson, Hilary; Nahzat, Sami Mohammad; Naseem, Mohammad; Sabawoon, Muhammad Farooq; Siddiqi, Abdul Majeed; Vink, Martijn

    2016-01-01

    Background Insecticide resistance seriously threatens the efficacy of vector control interventions in malaria endemic countries. In Afghanistan, the status of insecticide resistance is largely unknown while distribution of long-lasting insecticidal nets has intensified in recent years. The main objective of this study was thus to measure the level of resistance to four classes of insecticides in provinces with medium to high risk of malaria transmission. Methods Adult female mosquitoes were r...

  3. Demarcation between Military and Humanitarian Activities in Afghanistan and the Role of Law

    OpenAIRE

    ROGER NASH

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends towards closer integration of military and humanitarian aspects of post-conflictreconstruction have raised questions as to the legal regime regulating such operations. The lack ofa guiding framework has in practice resulted in suboptimal division of labour between militaryand humanitarian actors, even when common political and humanitarian interests can beidentified.Afghanistan has in recent years seen significant involvement of international politicalactors in both military and...

  4. Localizing OER in Afghanistan: Developing a Multilingual Digital Library for Afghan Teachers

    OpenAIRE

    Oates, Lauryn; Hashimi, Jamshid

    2016-01-01

    The Darakht-e Danesh (‘knowledge tree’) Online Library is the first open educational resource (OER) initiative in Afghanistan, established to enhance teacher subject-area knowledge, access and use of learning materials, and to foster more diverse teaching methodologies in order to improve learning outcomes in Afghan classrooms. This paper describes our experience developing this local language digital library, buildings its responsiveness to our audience of users as we progressed, customizing...

  5. Book review: the Congo, Haiti and Afghanistan: fragile states and the maintenance of violence

    OpenAIRE

    Wadi, Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Fragile States shows how the monopoly of violence is a crucial element in maintaining state fragility. By taking case studies from The Democratic Republic of Congo, Haiti and Afghanistan, the authors intend to define and clarify the meaning behind fragile statehood and to determine why outside intervention is often very limited in its actions to halt or prevent war and conflict in these countries. Ramona Wadi values the book’s analysis which, in addition to imparting a deep insight into the c...

  6. Management of biliary Ascaris lumbricoides in Kabul, Afghanistan: crossroads of advancing technology

    OpenAIRE

    Manning, Richard Gerard; Tani, Mohammad Kamal

    2009-01-01

    The case is presented of the successful removal of a dead Ascaris lumbricoides from the right hepatic duct of a middle aged woman from a rural province in Afghanistan. The case was started laparoscopically, but converted to an open procedure because of difficulty identifying the anatomic landmarks required to safely perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. After worm removal, the common bile duct (CBD) was reconstructed with a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy. The patient was discharged on postoper...

  7. Afghanistan Reveals the Source of Atmospheric Nitrogen during North Western Monsoons

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Ozlem Goral; Amir Hadji Ali Ghandi; Ahmet Cemal Saydam

    2014-01-01

    Chemical analysis of soil samples collected from Afghanistan have shown that those regions having capability of generating wind-induced dust at northern and south western territories have the capability of supplying nitrates and nitrites in addition to crustal materials. Together with all the other essential elements Afghan soil samples has the potential of controlling so far unexplained phytoplankton bloom and excess nitrate and nitrites during the course of NWM (North Western Monsoons) over...

  8. Afghanistan Reveals the Source of Atmospheric Nitrogen during North Western Monsoons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Ozlem Goral

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analysis of soil samples collected from Afghanistan have shown that those regions having capability of generating wind-induced dust at northern and south western territories have the capability of supplying nitrates and nitrites in addition to crustal materials. Together with all the other essential elements Afghan soil samples has the potential of controlling so far unexplained phytoplankton bloom and excess nitrate and nitrites during the course of NWM (North Western Monsoons over the surface waters of Arabian Sea

  9. Zwischen Information und Mission. Journalisten in Afghanistan: Berufliche Einstellungen und Leistungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefa Hamidi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In diesem Beitrag werden der Journalismus und insbesondere die beruflichen Einstellungen und Leistungen von Journalisten und Journalistinnen in Afghanistan untersucht. Diese Studie ist bisher die erste umfassende empirische Studie, die sich des aktuellen afghanischen Journalismus annimmt. Sie wurde auf der Grundlage einer der neuesten theoretischen Konzepte der Kommunikationswissenschaft vorgenommen und darauf basierend wurde ein mehrdimensionales empirisches Analyse-Modell entwickelt, um die Gegebenheiten zu untersuchen. Die Ermittlung der beruflichen Einstellungen geschah mittels eine vollstandardisierten Befragung, an der 195 Journalisten in Afghanistan teilnahmen. Eine Inhaltsanalyse in den drei wichtigsten afghanischen Zeitungen erbrachte eine Zusammen-stellung der Leistungen von Journalisten. Der wichtigste Befund lautet, dass die befragten Journalisten ein berufliches Rollenselbstverständnis im Sinne des Informationsjournalismus haben. Auch hinsichtlich der journalistischen Berichterstattungsmuster nahm der Informations-journalismus eine dominante Position ein. Aus dieser Dominanz ist zu schließen, dass dieses ermittelte berufliche Rollenselbstverständnis für Journalisten Priorität besitzt und in die Berichterstattung diffundiert. Als zweitwichtigstes Kommunikationsziel gaben die Befragten den missionarischen Journalismus an. Dies ist der Tatsache geschuldet, dass in Afghanistan Religion (Islam und Tradition die wichtigsten gesellschaftlichen „Identitäts- und Handlungsfaktoren“ bilden.

  10. Localizing OER in Afghanistan: Developing a Multilingual Digital Library for Afghan Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauryn Oates

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The Darakht-e Danesh (‘knowledge tree’ Online Library is the first open educational resource (OER initiative in Afghanistan, established to enhance teacher subject-area knowledge, access and use of learning materials, and to foster more diverse teaching methodologies in order to improve learning outcomes in Afghan classrooms. This paper describes our experience developing this local language digital library, buildings its responsiveness to our audience of users as we progressed, customizing both the interface and the resources for Afghanistan’s education environment. We innovated methods to devise relevant local content, localized usability, developed different access models to reach different populations of users, integrated impact measurement, and opted to openly license material in the library’s collection. By making digital educational content open from the first introduction of digital repositories of learning objects in Afghan languages, we have an opportunity to establish the principle of openness and to promote open practices in teacher professional development in Afghanistan. The paper aims to share lessons on how OER can be customized for multilingual, resource-scarce contexts drawing from our experience to date in Afghanistan, and seeking to contribute to the literature on localization and multilingual OER.

  11. Self-report and longitudinal predictors of violence in Iraq and Afghanistan war era veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B; Johnson, Sally C; Newton, Virginia M; Fuller, Sara; Wagner, H Ryan; Beckham, Jean C

    2013-10-01

    This study, using a longitudinal design, attempted to identify whether self-reported problems with violence were empirically associated with future violent behavior among Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and whether and how collateral informant interviews enhanced the risk assessment process. Data were gathered from N = 300 participants (n = 150 dyads of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans and family/friends). The veterans completed baseline and follow-up interviews 3 years later on average, and family/friends provided collateral data on dependent measures at follow-up. Analyses showed that aggression toward others at follow-up was associated with younger age, posttraumatic stress disorder, combat exposure, and a history of having witnessed parental violence growing up. Self-reported problems controlling violence at baseline had robust statistical power in predicting aggression toward others at follow-up. Collateral report enhanced detection of dependent variables: 20% of cases positive for violence toward others would have been missed relying only on self-report. The results identify a subset of Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans at higher risk for problematic postdeployment adjustment and indicate that the veterans' self-report of violence was useful in predicting future aggression. Underreporting of violence was not evidenced by most veterans but could be improved upon by obtaining collateral information. PMID:24080674

  12. Strategies for flood hazard adaptation in drought affected regions of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleupner, Christine

    2010-05-01

    The development and management of water resources in Afghanistan are critically important for the economic development of the country. But Afghanistan presents a number of specific challenges in terms of water resource management and climate change impact assessment. Political instability and war has caused widespread devastation, insecurity, displacement, poverty and severe environmental degradation. Recent droughts have led to the collapse of many livelihoods, and poor national security restricts structured fieldwork. The recent restructuring and rebuilding of the state can be seen as opportunity to integrate climate change mitigation and adaptation measures into national, regional, and local planning. Governmental organizations are responsible to integrate climate change related issues and pro-active planning processes in water management and environmental considerations into relevant legislations, ministry and sector strategies. Integrated water resource management has been practically nonexistent during the last decades and consideration of climate change impacts are widely ignored in regional planning processes. However, flooding, landslides, drought, and extreme heat and freezing weather are already threatening the population. Climate models suggest that Afghanistan will be confronted by an increase of these events. Desertification and land degradation but also floods due to untimely rainfall are expected to broaden. Studies show that the impact of increasingly frequent flash floods may be amplified due to more rapid spring snow melt as a result of higher temperatures, combined with the downstream effects of land degradation, loss of vegetative cover and land mismanagement. It is further exacerbated by drought, which has the effect of hardening soils and reducing their permeability. In 2007 heavy floods already destroyed fields and harvests, killed livestock, damaged buildings, and claimed many lives. The intensified climatic conditions in Afghanistan will

  13. SWOT analysis of program design and implementation: a case study on the reduction of maternal mortality in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Qudratullah; Danesh, Homayoon; Makharashvili, Vasil; Mishkin, Kathryn; Mupfukura, Lovemore; Teed, Hillary; Huff-Rousselle, Maggie

    2016-07-01

    This case study analyzes the design and implementation of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) in Afghanistan by synthesizing the literature with a focus on maternal health services. The authors are a group of graduate students in the Brandeis University International Health Policy and Management Program and Sustainable International Development Program who used the experience in Afghanistan to analyze an example of successfully implementing policy; two of the authors are Afghan physicians with direct experience in implementing the BPHS. Data is drawn from a literature review, and a unique aspect of the case study is the application of the business-oriented SWOT analysis to the design and implementation of the program that successfully targeted lowering maternal mortality in Afghanistan. It provides a useful example of how SWOT analysis can be used to consider the reasons for, or likelihood of, successful or unsuccessful design and implementation of a policy or program. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25950757

  14. Prospects for the sustainability of delivering the Basic Package of Health Services in Afghanistan: a stakeholder analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haidari, A M; Zaidi, S; Gul, R

    2014-05-01

    This study explored the readiness of stakeholders in Afghanistan for sustaining delivery of the Basic Package of Health Services (BPHS) without external technical and financial assistance. A stakeholder analysis was applied using qualitative methods. Fifteen stakeholders were purposively drawn from the Afghanistan ministries of public health and finance, political representatives, development partners, nonprofit organizations and public health experts. Data were collected through in-depth interviews with the stakeholders and desk review of pertinent documents. We found that sustainability of the BPHS in Afghanistan is questionable as stakeholders are suboptimally organized to come up with effective alternatives. Uneven ownership and divisive positioning are bottlenecks to the evolution of a realistic continuation plan. Those with the most significant influence are lukewarm, while those who are most supportive have the least influence. Sustainability needs to be tackled at the start in designing the BPHS rather than in the wake of eventual donor withdrawal. PMID:24952287

  15. The Norwegian media image of the war in Afghanistan: Peacekeeping or aggression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Ottosen

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes the framing of Norwegian media coverage of the war against terror in Afghanistan with special emphasis of the coverage of the Norwegian military presence in Afghanistan. Norwegian forces became involved in a military intervention for the first time since the Second World War when ex-Yugoslavia was attacked in April 1999. At that time, Norway provided military support for the invasion and placed fighter planes and Norwegian pilots at the disposal of NATO. The war in Afghanistan represented an additional dimension, with Norwegian ground forces taking part in the hunt for al-Qaida fighters in the mountains of Afghanistan. The purpose of this article is to give a picture of Norwegian media coverage of the war in Afghanistan, with a special emphasis on the coverage of Norway's role in the conflict. As a small country with traditionally close relations to US, Norway had to balance, like many other small countries, between the need uphold its traditional policy of complying with international law, and the desire to avoid provoking the USA with criticism and actions that could be regarded as disloyal and thus harm the bilateral relationship. This dilemma must also be seen as a problem for the mainstream media, which traditionally has been loyal to Norwegian security policy. Two main issues are discussed: 1. How was the start of the war covered in the media in October 2001? 2. In what context was the Norwegian military presence covered? The two newspapers analyzed are Aftenposten and VG. The choice of these two newspapers was made to include Norway's largest and potentially most influential morning paper (Aftenposten and its largest tabloid, as well as largest newspaper (VG. Quantitative as well as qualitative methods are used to analyze the coverage. Both Aftenposten's and VG's coverage on the first day of the war in Afghanistan are dominated by pro-US framing and the use of Western sources. The pro-US framing is more obvious in

  16. Current Activities of the Ministry of Mines, Islamic Republic of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adel, M.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning in late 2001, the Afghanistan government started developing plans for the revitalization of the Natural Resources sector. This revitalization included the rebuilding and reorganization of the capabilities of the Ministry of Mines and Industries (now the Ministry of Mines) and the Afghan Geological Survey and several other Afghan ministries. The initial focus was on the development of new mining and hydrocarbon laws, which were supported by the World Bank. Concurrent with these activities was the recognized need to identify, organize and compile existing data and information on the natural resources of the country. This has been followed by the use of these data and information to provide preliminary assessments of the oil and gas resources, mineral resources, water resources, coal resources, and earthquake hazards, all based on existing data. A large part of these assessment efforts required the development of a geospatial infrastructure through the use of satellite imagery and other remote sensing technologies. Institutional and capacity building were integral parts of all efforts. With the assessment and law activities ongoing, the Ministry of Mine has now turned to the development of a leasing framework, which address the critical need of transparency of leasing, lease management, and royalty collection. This new leasing system was implemented in spring 2008 with the leasing of the Aynak Copper Deposit, which is located about 25 miles south of Kabul. At the moment, a second world class mineral deposit is being considered for leasing within the next year. Oil and gas lease tracts are also under development in the northern oil and gas basins of Afghanistan. With the support of the Afghan government, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has recently completed the gathering of new data and information in support of the Natural Resources Sector. These data gathering missions include gravity, magnetics, radar, and hyperspectral data, which were gathered through

  17. Impact of conflict on infant immunisation coverage in Afghanistan: a countrywide study 2000–2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seino Kaoruko

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infant immunisation is an effective public health intervention to reduce the morbidity and mortality of vaccine preventable diseases. However, some developing countries fail to achieve desirable vaccination coverage; Afghanistan is one such country. The present study was performed to evaluate the progress and variation in infant immunisation coverage by district and region in Afghanistan and to assess the impact of conflict and resource availability on immunisation coverage. Results This study analysed reports of infant immunisation from 331 districts across 7 regions of Afghanistan between 2000 and 2003. Geographic information system (GIS analysis was used to visualise the distribution of immunisation coverage in districts and to identify geographic inequalities in the process of improvement of infant immunisation coverage. The number of districts reporting immunisation coverage increased substantially during the four years of the study. Progress in Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG immunisation coverage was observed in all 7 regions, although satisfactory coverage of 80% remained unequally distributed. Progress in the third dose of Diphtheria-Pertussis-Tetanus (DPT3 immunisation differed among regions, in addition to the unequal distribution of immunisation coverage in 2000. The results of multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated a significant negative association between lack of security in the region and achievement of 80% coverage of immunisation regardless of available resources for immunisation, while resource availability showed no relation to immunisation coverage. Conclusion Although progress was observed in all 7 regions, geographic inequalities in these improvements remain a cause for concern. The results of the present study indicated that security within a country is an important factor for affecting the delivery of immunisation services.

  18. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3162, Chakhansur (603) and Kotalak (604) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  19. Care Seeking Patterns Among Women Who Have Experienced Gender-Based Violence in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Sonya; Seritan, Andreea L; Miller, Elizabeth

    2016-06-01

    This study explored patterns of abuse and care seeking among women victims of gender-based violence (GBV) in Afghanistan. Individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 22 Afghan women (M age = 19 years) living in a shelter for victims of GBV. Interviews were analyzed thematically. Participants reported experiencing multiple forms of abuse. The majority received medical treatment for abuse-related health concerns. However, less than half reported abuse to health care providers or were asked by health care providers about the context of their injuries. Strategies to improve health care responses to GBV are needed to ensure safety and support for Afghan women. PMID:26681300

  20. Rational Irrationality: Analysis of Pakistan's Seemingly Irrational Double Game in Afghanistan.

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Executive Summary Pakistan has been involved in the global war on terrorism since its very beginning. Pakistan has continiously been acknowledged as a integral part of the Afghanistan puzzle and at the same time often been blamed for tolerating Afghan Taliban. This duplicity makes for the alleged double game the U.S blames Pakistan for playing. This thesis equips a Pakistan-centric view on what is knows as Pakistan’s alleged double game and through various findings argues that what ma...

  1. Mapping irrigated areas in Afghanistan over the past decade using MODIS NDVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervez, Md Shahriar; Budde, Michael; Rowland, James

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural production capacity contributes to food security in Afghanistan and is largely dependent on irrigated farming, mostly utilizing surface water fed by snowmelt. Because of the high contribution of irrigated crops (> 80%) to total agricultural production, knowing the spatial distribution and year-to-year variability in irrigated areas is imperative to monitoring food security for the country. We used 16-day composites of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor to create 23-point time series for each year from 2000 through 2013. Seasonal peak values and time series were used in a threshold-dependent decision tree algorithm to map irrigated areas in Afghanistan for the last 14 years. In the absence of ground reference irrigated area information, we evaluated these maps with the irrigated areas classified from multiple snapshots of the landscape during the growing season from Landsat 5 optical and thermal sensor images. We were able to identify irrigated areas using Landsat imagery by selecting as irrigated those areas with Landsat-derived NDVI greater than 0.30–0.45, depending on the date of the Landsat image and surface temperature less than or equal to 310 Kelvin (36.9 ° C). Due to the availability of Landsat images, we were able to compare with the MODIS-derived maps for four years: 2000, 2009, 2010, and 2011. The irrigated areas derived from Landsat agreed well r2 = 0.91 with the irrigated areas derived from MODIS, providing confidence in the MODIS NDVI threshold approach. The maps portrayed a highly dynamic irrigated agriculture practice in Afghanistan, where the amount of irrigated area was largely determined by the availability of surface water, especially snowmelt, and varied by as much as 30% between water surplus and water deficit years. During the past 14 years, 2001, 2004, and 2008 showed the lowest levels of irrigated area (~ 1.5 million hectares), attesting to

  2. Approaching gender parity: Women in computer science at Afghanistan's Kabul University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, Jandelyn

    This study explores the representation of women in computer science at the tertiary level through data collected about undergraduate computer science education at Kabul University in Afghanistan. Previous studies have theorized reasons for underrepresentation of women in computer science, and while many of these reasons are indeed present in Afghanistan, they appear to hinder advancement to degree to a lesser extent. Women comprise at least 36% of each graduating class from KU's Computer Science Department; however, in 2007 women were 25% of the university population. In the US, women comprise over 50% of university populations while only graduating on average 25% women in undergraduate computer science programs. Representation of women in computer science in the US is 50% below the university rate, but at KU, it is 50% above the university rate. This mixed methods study of KU was conducted in the following three stages: setting up focus groups with women computer science students, distributing surveys to all students in the CS department, and conducting a series of 22 individual interviews with fourth year CS students. The analysis of the data collected and its comparison to literature on university/department retention in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics gender representation and on women's education in underdeveloped Islamic countries illuminates KU's uncharacteristic representation of women in its Computer Science Department. The retention of women in STEM through the education pipeline has several characteristics in Afghanistan that differ from countries often studied in available literature. Few Afghan students have computers in their home and few have training beyond secretarial applications before considering studying CS at university. University students in Afghanistan are selected based on placement exams and are then assigned to an area of study, and financially supported throughout their academic career, resulting in a low attrition rate

  3. THE NATO STRATEGY IN AFGHANISTAN DURING OBAMA ADMINISTRATION. THE MILITARY ASPECT’S EFFECTIVENESS EVALUATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Teteryuk

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the situation in Afghanistan during the Obama administration functioning in 2009-2013. The authors assess the effectiveness of the military aspect in Obama’s strategy by using two methods: quantitative event-analysis and regression analysis. In drawing conclusions, the authors used their own empirical database. The article suggests and justifi es the thesis that there is no seasonality in opposition forces’ actions. Besides, the authors use quantitative methods to assess the effectiveness of the military aspect of the NATO strategy and reveal several unconventional tendencies of the Afghan confl ict.

  4. Aeromagnetic and Gravity Surveys in Afghanistan: A Web Site for Distribution of Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Ronald E.; Kucks, Robert P.; Hill, Patricia L.; Finn, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Aeromagnetic data were digitized from aeromagnetic maps created from aeromagnetic surveys flown in southeastern and southern Afghanistan in 1966 by PRAKLA, Gesellschaft fur praktische Lagerstattenforschung GmbH, Hannover, Germany, on behalf of the 'Bundesanstalt fur Bodenforschung', Hannover, Germany. The digitization was done along contour lines, followed by interpolation of the data along the original survey flight-lines. Survey and map specifications can be found in two project reports, 'prakla_report_1967.pdf' and 'bgr_report_1968.pdf', made available in this open-file report.

  5. War and wildlife: a post-conflict assessment of Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor

    OpenAIRE

    Mishra, C.; Fitzherbert, A.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to the last two decades of conflict, Afghanistan¿s Wakhan Corridor was considered an important area for conservation of the wildlife of high altitudes. We conducted an assessment of the status of large mammals in Wakhan after 22 years of conflict, and also made a preliminary assessment of wildlife trade in the markets of Kabul, Faizabad and Ishkashem. The survey confirmed the continued occurrence of at least eight species of large mammals in Wakhan, of which the snow leopard Uncia uncia...

  6. An Outsider’s View on the Civil-Military Nexus in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Aaronson, M

    2008-01-01

    NATO has taken on a massively complex task in Afghanistan, of which winning the war against the Taliban is only one element. Recognition of this has led to a push for an ‘integrated’ approach involving relief, reconstruction, and development, as well as military activity. This is not as easy as it sounds. Development can only take place where the rule of law is respected and people have confidence in the ability of government to protect their interests. Neither applies in current day Afghanis...

  7. Diagnostic values of Brain CT-Scan in Tuberculous Meningitis; A Major Health Problem in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    N. Rasouly

    2009-01-01

      "nTuberculous meningitis (TBM) is the most serious complication of tuberculosis (TB) in children. Afghanistan is one of the highest burden TB countries; the incidence rate is estimated at 161/100,000 of the population per year. "nEarly diagnosis of TBM is a challenge because of non-specific initial clinical features. "nDelay of diagnosis is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rate. "nRadiological evaluation has a major rule in the early diagnosis of t...

  8. Respiratory infections research in afghanistan: bibliometric analysis with the database pubmed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infectious diseases research in a low-income country like Afghanistan is important. Methods: In this study an internet-based database Pubmed was used for bibliometric analysis of infectious diseases research activity. Research publications entries in PubMed were analysed according to number of publications, topic, publication type, and country of investigators. Results: Between 2002-2011, 226 (77.7%) publications with the following research topics were identified: respiratory infections 3 (1.3%); parasites 8 (3.5%); diarrhoea 10 (4.4%); tuberculosis 10 (4.4%); human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) 11(4.9%); multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR) 18(8.0%); polio 31(13.7%); leishmania 31(13.7%); malaria 46(20.4%). From 2002-2011, 11 (4.9%) publications were basic science laboratory-based research studies. Between 2002-2011, 8 (3.5%) publications from Afghan institutions were identified. Conclusion: In conclusion, the internet-based database Pubmed can be consulted to collect data for guidance of infectious diseases research activity of low-income countries. The presented data suggest that infectious diseases research in Afghanistan is limited for respiratory infections research, has few studies conducted by Afghan institutions, and limited laboratory-based research contributions. (author)

  9. Sustainability of water-supply at military installations, Kabul Basin, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Thomas J.; Chornack, Michael P.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2014-01-01

    The Kabul Basin, including the city of Kabul, Afghanistan, is host to several military installations of Afghanistan, the United States, and other nations that depend on groundwater resources for water supply. These installations are within or close to the city of Kabul. Groundwater also is the potable supply for the approximately four million residents of Kabul. The sustainability of water resources in the Kabul Basin is a concern to military operations, and Afghan water-resource managers, owing to increased water demands from a growing population and potential mining activities. This study illustrates the use of chemical and isotopic analysis, groundwater flow modeling, and hydrogeologic investigations to assess the sustainability of groundwater resources in the Kabul Basin.Water supplies for military installations in the southern Kabul Basin were found to be subject to sustainability concerns, such as the potential drying of shallow-water supply wells as a result of declining water levels. Model simulations indicate that new withdrawals from deep aquifers may have less of an impact on surrounding community water supply wells than increased withdrawals from near- surface aquifers. Higher rates of recharge in the northern Kabul Basin indicate that military installations in that part of the basin may have fewer issues with long-term water sustainability. Simulations of groundwater withdrawals may be used to evaluate different withdrawal scenarios in an effort to manage water resources in a sustainable manner in the Kabul Basin.

  10. Pain experience of Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans with comorbid chronic pain and posttraumatic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha D. Outcalt, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD co-occur at high rates, and Veterans from recent wars in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to both conditions. The objective of this study was to identify key aspects of chronic pain, cognitions, and psychological distress associated with comorbid PTSD among this sample of Veterans. Baseline data were analyzed from a randomized controlled trial testing a stepped-care intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain. Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF Veterans with chronic pain only (n = 173 were compared with those with chronic pain and clinically significant posttraumatic stress symptoms (n = 68. Group differences on pain characteristics, pain cognitions, and psychological distress were evaluated. Results demonstrated that OIF/OEF Veterans with comorbid chronic musculoskeletal pain and PTSD experienced higher pain severity, greater pain-related disability and increased pain interference, more maladaptive pain cognitions (e.g., catastrophizing, self-efficacy, pain centrality, and higher affective distress than those with chronic pain alone. Veterans of recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan may be particularly vulnerable to the compounded adverse effects of chronic pain and PTSD. These results highlight a more intense and disabling pain and psychological experience for those with chronic pain and PTSD than for those without PTSD.

  11. Certified Rehabilitation Counselors Role in the Acceptance of Disability of Returning Afghanistan and Iraq Military Veterans with Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frain, Michael; Torres, Ayse; Bishop, Malachy; Sakala, Kelly; Khan-Jordan, Cindy; Schoen, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To understand the level of acceptance of disability by veterans and rehabilitation counselor's role in that acceptance. Method: The Acceptance of Disability Scale-Revised was given to 117 veterans from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq who acquired disabilities. Their experiences working with certified rehabilitation counselors was also…

  12. The use of immunoenzymatic method for detection of antibodies against zoonotic diseases in Czech soldiers returning from Afghanistan

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Straková, Petra; Rudolf, Ivo; Pavlis, O.; Hubálek, Zdeněk

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 2 (2014), s. 67-72. ISSN 0372-7025 EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 261504 - EDENEXT Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : ELISA method * zoonoses * soldiers * Afghanistan Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology http://www.mmsl.cz/archive/dl/266

  13. The impact of transition and the Afghanistan crisis on employment and decent work concerns in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan

    OpenAIRE

    Pickup, Francine

    2003-01-01

    Examines the employment situation in Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, focusing on the effects of events in neighbouring Afghanistan. Highlights the impact of radical Islamic groups, drug production and trade, migration and refugee movements, trade restrictions and increased external intervention. Makes recommendations for the promotion of decent work.

  14. The Process of Organizational Capacity Development in Action in Post-Conflict Setting of the Literacy Department of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wajdi, Habibullah

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a model of capacity development for public organizations in post-conflict settings. The paper reveals the challenges faced by the author as a "change agent" who tried to understand and develop the basic capacity of the Literacy Department of the Ministry of Education in Afghanistan. The author used an action-research…

  15. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic, Malaysia (West), People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in eight foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Cyprus, Iran, Kenya, Lebanese Republic, Malagasy Republic (Madagascar), Malaysia (West), and People's Democratic Republic of Yemen. Information is provided under two topics, general background and…

  16. IDENTIFYING REQUIREMENTS FOR VOCATIONAL INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY CURRICULA IN AFGHANISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hadi Hedayati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how Information Communication Technology (ICT is, and how it is supposed to be taught in vocational institutions in developing countries. If the world is truly flat, ICT education in Afghanistan and Namibia would be similar to what you might find in Estonia and other developed nations. We focus specifically on what ICT skill qualifications are available to students.  The way in which different countries are addressing this realization, and which competences they are offering in ICT study programmes with the consideration to the labour market needs, is the focus of this study. Such comparisons are demanding, because of the multiplicity of educational systems. Yet, there are some lessons we can learn from the international experience.Current challenges in Afghanistan’s ICT Technical Vocational Education curricula, which can enhance the delivery of teaching and learning activities, are also analysed

  17. Diversity and adaptation of shelters in transitional settlements for IDPs in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmore, Joseph; Babister, Elizabeth; Corsellis, Tom; Fowler, Jon; Kelman, Ilan; McRobie, Allan; Manfield, Peter; Spence, Robin; Vitale, Antonella; Battilana, Rachel; Crawford, Kate

    2003-12-01

    The diversity of shelters used in transitional settlements for internally displaced persons (IDPs) in Herat, Afghanistan is described. The information is based on a field survey undertaken in March 2002 and highlights the adaptation techniques, which IDPs undertake to improve any provided shelter. Potential areas for improvement are indicated; for example, the possibility for using insulated, demountable liners to prevent cold-related deaths without sacrificing shelter flexibility along with the likely need for better agency coordination of the shelter responses they provide. The wider context in which the technical recommendations would be implemented must also be considered. Such issues include agency resources, political impediments to providing the desired option, and the preference of many IDPs that the best shelter would be their home. PMID:14725087

  18. Sharing the Burden? Assessing the Lithuanian Decision to Establish a Provincial Reconstruction Team in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maskaliūnaitė Asta

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper assesses theories explaining the states’ burden-sharing decisions in an alliance and uses them to evaluate the Lithuanian decision to establish a Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT in Afghanistan. In the literature, several influences on such decision-making are identified. These fall into two broad categories of systemic and domestic factors. From the former, threat perception, alliance dependence, systemic pressures of alliance politics are analysed; and from the latter three clusters of aspects such as: state autonomy, elite consensus, space of manoeuver of the executive; bureaucratic politics and organizational interests, and third, some additional elements of strategic culture/state identity. While most factors have some explanatory value, the analysis invites the conclusion that in case of the decision to lead a PRT, the two most important elements were alliance dependence from the first cluster and strategic culture and bureaucratic politics from the second.

  19. Image-based reconstruction of the Great Buddha of Bamiyan, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruen, Armin; Remondino, Fabio; Zhang, Li

    2003-01-01

    In the great valley of Bamiyan, north-west of Kabul, Afghanistan, two big standing Buddha statues were carved out of the sedimentary rock of the region around the second to fourth centuries AD. The larger statue was 53 meters high while the smaller Buddha measured 35 m. The two colossal statues were demolished on March 2001 by the Taleban, using mortars, dynamite, anti-aircraft weapons and rockets. After the destruction, a consortium was founded to rebuild the Great Buddha at original shape, size and place. Our group performed the required computer reconstruction, which serves as a basis for the physical reconstruction. The work has been done using three different types of imagery in parallel and in this paper we present our results of the 3D computer reconstruction of the statue.

  20. Effect of Weather on the Predicted PMN Landmine Chemical Signature for Kabul, Afghanistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEBB, STEPHEN W.; PHELAN, JAMES M.

    2002-11-01

    Buried landmines are often detected through the chemical signature in the air above the soil surface by mine detection dogs. Environmental processes play a significant role in the chemical signature available for detection. Due to the shallow burial depth of landmines, the weather influences the release of chemicals from the landmine, transport through the soil to the surface, and degradation processes in the soil. The effect of weather on the landmine chemical signature from a PMN landmine was evaluated with the T2TNT code for Kabul, Afghanistan. Results for TNT and DNT gas-phase and soil solid-phase concentrations are presented as a function of time of the day and time of the year.

  1. Molecular surveillance of Plasmodium vivax dhfr and dhps mutations in isolates from Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butt Waqar

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Analysis of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr and dihydropteroate synthase (dhps mutations in Plasmodium vivax wild isolates has been considered to be a valuable molecular approach for mapping resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP. The present study investigates the frequency of SNPs-haplotypes in the dhfr and dhps genes in P. vivax clinical isolates circulating in two malaria endemic areas in Afghanistan. Methods P. vivax clinical isolates (n = 171 were collected in two different malaria endemic regions in north-west (Herat and east (Nangarhar Afghanistan in 2008. All collected isolates were analysed for SNP-haplotypes at positions 13, 33, 57, 58, 61, 117 and 173 of the pvdhfr and 383 and 553 of the pvdhps genes using PCR-RFLP methods. Results All 171 examined isolates were found to carry wild-type amino acids at positions 13, 33, 57, 61 and 173, while 58R and 117N mutations were detected among 4.1% and 12.3% of Afghan isolates, respectively. Based on the size polymorphism of pvdhfr genes at repeat region, type B was the most prevalent variant among Herat (86% and Nangarhar (88.4% isolates. Mixed genotype infections (type A/B and A/B/C were detected in only 2.3% (2/86 of Herat and 1.2% (1/86 of Nangarhar isolates, respectively. The combination of pvdhfr and pvdhps haplotypes among all 171 samples demonstrated six distinct haplotypes. The two most prevalent haplotypes among all examined samples were wild-type (86% and single mutant haplotype I13P33F57S58T61N 117I173/A383A553 (6.4%. Double (I13P33S57R58T61N117I173/A383A553 and triple mutant haplotypes (I13P33S57R 58T61N117I173/G383A553 were found in 1.7% and 1.2% of Afghan isolates, respectively. This triple mutant haplotype was only detected in isolates from Herat, but in none of the Nangarhar isolates. Conclusion The present study shows a limited polymorphism in pvdhfr from Afghan isolates and provides important basic information to establish an epidemiological map of

  2. Airborne Hyperspectral Survey of Afghanistan 2007: Flight Line Planning and HyMap Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, K. Eric

    2008-01-01

    Hyperspectral remote sensing data were acquired over Afghanistan with the HyMap imaging spectrometer (Cocks and others, 1998) operating on the WB-57 high altitude NASA research aircraft (http://jsc-aircraft-ops.jsc.nasa.gov/wb57/index.html). These data were acquired during the interval of August 22, 2007 to October 2, 2007, as part of the United States Geological Survey (USGS) project 'Oil and Gas Resources Assessment of the Katawaz and Helmand Basins'. A total of 218 flight lines of hyperspectral remote sensing data were collected over the country. This report describes the planning of the airborne survey and the flight lines that were flown. Included with this report are digital files of the nadir tracks of the flight lines, including a map of the labeled flight lines and corresponding vector shape files for geographic information systems (GIS).

  3. Lessons Learned in Afghanistan: A Multi-national Military Mental Health Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randall C. Nedegaard

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available America has been at war for almost 10 years. Because of this, continuing missions in the Middle East require the support and cooperation of our allied North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO forces from around the world. In this paper we provide an overview of the mission at Kandahar Air Field (KAF and the Multi-National Role 3 hospital located at KAF. Next, we explain the mental health capabilities and unique perspectives among our teammates from Canada, Great Britain, and the United States to include a discussion of the relevant cross-cultural differences between us. Within this framework we also provide an overview of the mental health clientele seen at KAF during the period of April 2009 through September 2009. Finally, we discuss the successes, limitations, and lessons learned during our deployment to Kandahar, Afghanistan.

  4. An analysis of the failure of U.S. counter-narcotics policy in the Afghanistan conflict from 2001 to 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Mathieu, Andrée Nelly

    2010-01-01

    From 2001 to 2009, Afghanistan was the epicentre of drugs and violence in Central Asia. The vicious cycle of drugs, violence, and political instability highlights the disconnect that existed between United States (US) security and counter-drug operations in the country. This project explores how and why two American policies for intervention in Afghanistan – counter-narcotics and counter-terrorism/counter-insurgency – have been operationalized and implemented by the Drug Enforcement Administr...

  5. The Perception Of Afghan-American Leaders’ Role In Economic Development Efforts In Afghanistan: A Study Of Gender Differences And Repatriation To The Motherland

    OpenAIRE

    Belal A. Kaifi; Mujtaba, Bahaudin G.; Yan Xie

    2011-01-01

    The majority of Afghanistan’s best educated and experienced generations of workers have become scattered expatriates living throughout the world. This brain-drain has taken place over a thirty-year period due to continuous violence, tragedy, and war throughout Afghanistan. As such, a rebuilding process now largely depends on the international community. This study of 58 male and 42 female Afghan-American respondents analyzes their perceptions regarding development opportunities in Afghanistan...

  6. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abadi MH

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Melissa Harris Abadi1, Stephen R Shamblen1, Knowlton Johnson1, Kirsten Thompson1, Linda Young1, Matthew Courser1, Jude Vanderhoff1, Thom Browne21Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation – Louisville Center, Louisville, KY, USA; 2United States Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social functioning, especially for female drug abusers. This study of Afghan women in drug abuse treatment (DAT centers assesses (a the extent to which these women have experienced human rights violations and mental health problems prior to entering the DAT centers, and (b whether there are specific risk factors for human rights violations among this population. A total of 176 in-person interviews were conducted with female patients admitted to three drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan in 2010. Nearly all women (91% reported limitations with social functioning. Further, 41% of the women indicated they had suicide ideation and 27% of the women had attempted suicide at least once 30 days prior to entering the DAT centers due to feelings of sadness or hopelessness. Half of the women (50% experienced at least one human rights violation in the past year prior to entering the DAT centers. Risk factors for human rights violations among this population include marital status, ethnicity, literacy, employment status, entering treatment based on one’s own desire, limited social functioning, and suicide attempts. Conclusions stemming from the results are discussed.Keywords: Afghanistan, women, human rights, mental health, drug abuse treatment

  7. Eopolydiexodina (Middle Permian giant fusulinids) from Afghanistan: Biometry, morphometry, paleobiogeography, and end-Guadalupian events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colpaert, Clémentine; Monnet, Claude; Vachard, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The most spectacular macroevolutionary trend presented by the genera of schwagerinoid fusulinids, during the Pennsylvanian -Permian, is an enormous increase in size, which culminated in the Middle Permian with Eopolydiexodina. However, this potential major biogeographic marker, during the Kubergandian-early Midian time interval, is as yet hampered by its poor taxonomic characterization. Hence, Eopolydiexodina is revised here using biometric and morphometric methods applied to large collections from Afghanistan and selected taxa in the literature. These multivariate analyses consist of classical linear test parameters, as well as new area parameters acquired by computer image analysis. The Afghan species are re-defined, and some other species, occasionally described as Cimmerian, are re-discussed. These methods, combined with classical morphological analyses, also permit to conclude that the largest Eopolydiexodina of Afghanistan are microspheric specimens (probably agamonts) of E. afghanensis and E. bithynica. Two megalospheric groups of individuals (probably gamonts and schizonts) are represented in both species, as well as in E. persica and E. darvasica. Due to this presence of gamonts, agamonts and schizonts in several species, Eopolydiexodina is probably the oldest identified trimorphic genus among the large benthic foraminifers. Biostratigraphically, Eopolydiexodina appears restricted to the late Kubergandian to early Midian. The associated Afghan fusulinids (Dunbarula, Kahlerina, Afghanella, Yangchienia, Sumatrina, and Codonofusiella) allow proposing an accurate biostratigraphy of the Eopolydiexodina species in the Murgabian-Midian boundary interval. Paleobiogeographically, Eopolydiexodina was essentially located in the Laurentian and Perigondwanan borders of the Tethys. The possible presence of Eopolydiexodina in the Cimmerian Continent and in some regions of China has never been irrefutably demonstrated. This paleobiological revision of Eopolydiexodina and

  8. Atmospheric variability of methane over Pakistan, Afghanistan and adjoining areas using retrievals from SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2015-12-01

    In the present work we have studied spatial and temporal variability of methane total column (MTC) over Pakistan and neighboring regions of Afghanistan, India and Iran by using observations of SCanning Imaging Absorption SpectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) aboard EOS ENVISAT. Satellite measurements show large spatio-temporal variations in MTC over the study domain at different time scales. We find an average MTC of 1787±22 ppb (annual average±standard deviation) with 3.7% (slope 7.14±1.28, y-intercept 1751±7.19, r=0.91) increase during the period of January 2003 to April 2012. An enhanced MTC is observed mostly over the Indo-Gangetic Plain and areas with high anthropogenic activities. MTC exhibits a seasonal peak of 1804±28 ppb in summer followed by autumn (1800±25 ppb) and winter (1777±24 ppb). We have also discussed anthropogenic emission estimates in the study area obtained from EDGAR database. Substantial increments of 77% and 61% are observed in anthropogenic CH4 emissions for Pakistan and Afghanistan, respectively, during 1990-2008. Anthropogenic CH4 emissions from enteric fermentation and livestock sectors are found to be the highest. EDGAR data have also identified megacity Lahore, Sukkur, megacity Karachi, Dera Ghazi Khan, megacity Delhi and Ahmedabad as large point sources of CH4 emissions in the region. The emissions from Karachi show the highest increase of 107%, while Lahore is found with the highest annual average emissions of 8.8×10-10 kg m-2 s-1.

  9. After Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Gorm Rye

    2015-01-01

    aimed at explaining the European Union's crisis management policy towards the region and in particular its strong focus on failed states and terrorism. First, there is a perception among EU decision-makers that Europe's security is threatened by a “Somaliasation” of African states. The second argument...... states that EU decision-makers are so strongly influenced by French and US security priorities that fighting terrorism becomes a remarkably high priority of the Union's Africa policy. Third, EU decision-makers share a common notion that immigrant communities in Europe might be inspired by the...... radicalisation taking place among Muslims in some African countries. Thereby, the Muslim immigrant communities may contribute to breeding “home-grown” terrorists. The article concludes that the perception of a threat stemming from “Somaliasation” in Africa, the impact of French and US security priorities and the...

  10. Change in attitudes and knowledge of problem drug use and harm reduction among a community cohort in Kabul, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todd, C S; Stanekzai, M R; Nasir, A; Fiekert, K; Orr, M G; Strathdee, S A; Vlahov, D

    2016-03-01

    This pre-post evaluation aimed to measure changes in knowledge and attitudes towards drug users among community representatives in Kabul, Afghanistan, over a period of expansion of harm reduction and drug dependence programming. A convenience sample of 160 professionals aged 18+ years completed interview questionnaires in 2007 and 2009. Views endorsing programme quality and the provision of condoms, infection counselling/testing and needle/syringe distribution increased significantly over the 2-year period. In 13 of 38 statements, there was a substantial (> 10%) change in agreement level, most commonly among men and medical professionals. Attitudes concerning support of drug users remained largely positive, with substantial attitude changes in some subgroups of the population. Further community education through the media and a more cohesive government drug policy may be needed to strengthen community support for harm reduction/drug treatment in Afghanistan. PMID:27334075

  11. ANALYSIS OF TEXTBOOKS IN AFGHANISTAN : Analysis of science textbooks from a Socio-Scientific Issue (SSI) perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Ghairat, Mohamad Sabir

    2013-01-01

    A Socio-scientific issue (SSI) is a controversial issue that engages with both science and society. SSIs are very useful tools in school education since they can improve students’ scientific knowledge and literacy, as well as promote critical thinking. In Afghanistan the curriculum is heavily textbook-driven. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to investigate if and which kind of SSIs, that are used in Afghan science textbooks. Since these textbooks are newly revised it is important to inve...

  12. Attentional bias for trauma-related words: exaggerated emotional Stroop effect in Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans with PTSD

    OpenAIRE

    Ashley, Victoria; Honzel, Nikki; Larsen, Jary; Justus, Timothy; Swick, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves debilitating symptoms that can disrupt cognitive functioning. The emotional Stroop has been commonly used to examine the impact of PTSD on attentional control, but no published study has yet used it with Afghanistan and Iraq war veterans, and only one previous study has compared groups on habituation to trauma-related words. Methods We administered the emotional Stroop, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and the PTSD Checklist (PCL) ...

  13. Iraq, Afghanistan, and now Syria – America’s foreign policy has a dangerous and counterproductive love affair with exiles

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The two major US military actions of the last 15 years – the invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan – were informed and spurred on by the voices of exiles writes Adam Weinstein. He warns that while listening to such exiles may be attractive to administrations in Washington DC, they should consider that the information they give may be inaccurate, and that exiles may not prove to be a positive force in their home countries after US military action has ended.

  14. Enhancing governance and health system accountability for people centered healthcare: an exploratory study of community scorecards in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Edward, Anbrasi; Osei-Bonsu, Kojo; Branchini, Casey; Yarghal, Temor shah; Arwal, Said Habib; Naeem, Ahmad Jan

    2015-01-01

    Background The premise of patient-centered care is to empower patients to become active participants in their own care and receive health services focused on their individual needs and preferences. Afghanistan has evidenced enormous gains in coverage and utilization, but the quality of care remains suboptimal, as evidenced in the balanced scorecard (BSC) performance assessments. In the United States and throughout Africa and Asia, community scorecards (CSC) have proved effective in improving ...

  15. Business as unusual. An explanation of the increase of private economic activity in high-conflict areas in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Ciarli, Tommaso; Kofol, Chiara; Menon, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we use a unique dataset that combines spatial detailed information on conflict events and on households' activity, to show a positive and significant correlation between violent conflict and entrepreneurship in Afghanistan. We build spatial and IV identifications to estimate the effect of different measures of conflict on the investment in a range of private economic activities of nearby households. The results consistently show that the level of conflict, its impact, and to a l...

  16. A Kind Word and a Gun : Counterinsurgency in Three Provinces on the Border of Afghanistan and Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    This thesis examines how the American counterinsurgency effort is developing in three provinces of northeastern Afghanistan: Kunar, Nangarhar and Nuristan. Also, it examines what features of the relationship between Pakistan and the United States that are affecting the counterinsurgency effort there. The focus is not only on internal issues within the provinces but also on whether and how external issues, mainly security issues originating from Pakistan’s border areas, are compounding difficu...

  17. ‘You don’t need to love us’: Civil-Military Relations in Afghanistan, 2002–13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Haysom

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the growing involvement of militaries in the delivery of assistance in conflict-affected areas under the rubric of stabilisation or comprehensive approaches has become a key concern for humanitarian agencies, raising questions about the adequacy of existing guidance and current approaches to civil-military coordination. In order to better understand the challenges of principled and effective dialogue between military forces and independent humanitarian actors in the context of combined international and national military forces pursuing stabilisation, this article charts the evolution of the civil-military dialogue in Afghanistan from 2002 until 2012. Drawing on semi-structured interviews with a range of former staff of aid agency, military, and donor organisations who were present in Afghanistan in this period as well as audits, official guidelines, and other written documents, this article provides an analytical overview of the development of stabilisation approaches in Afghanistan and the strategies aid agencies pursued in response, in particular the trajectory of mechanisms for structured dialogue. Lastly, it identifies several implications that can be drawn from this experience for aid agencies, NATO, and troop contributing nations.

  18. Reducing Anemia Prevalence in Afghanistan: Socioeconomic Correlates and the Particular Role of Agricultural Assets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Martinez, Artemisa; Zanello, Giacomo; Shankar, Bhavani; Poole, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to examine the socio-economic correlates of anemia in women, and potential sources of iron in household diets in Afghanistan. It also examines whether ownership of agricultural (particularly livestock) assets and their use in food production has a role in alleviating anaemia, especially where local markets may be inadequate. We analyse data from the 2010/11 Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, estimating a logistic regression to examine how anemia status of women is associated with socio-economic covariates. A key result found is that sheep ownership has a protective effect in reducing anemia (prevalence odds ratio of sheep ownership on anemia of 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.94) after controlling for wealth and other covariates. This association is found to be robust to alternative model specifications. Given the central role of red meat in heme iron provision and absorption of non-heme iron, we hypothesise that sheep ownership promotes mutton consumption from own-production in a setting where market-sourced provision of nutritious food is a challenge. We then use the 2011/12 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment household data to understand the Afghan diet from the perspective of dietary iron provision, and to understand interactions between own-production, market sourcing and mutton consumption. Sheep ownership is found to increase the likelihood that a household consumed mutton (odds ratio of 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15-1.42), the number of days in the week that mutton was consumed (prevalence rate ratio of 1.24. 95% CI: 1.12-1.37) and the quantity of mutton consumed (7 grams/person/week). In the subsample of mutton consumers, households sourcing mutton mostly from own production consumed mutton 1.5 days more frequently on average than households relying on market purchase, resulting in 100 grams per person per week higher mutton intake. Thus this analysis lends support to the notion that the linkage between sheep ownership

  19. Reducing Anemia Prevalence in Afghanistan: Socioeconomic Correlates and the Particular Role of Agricultural Assets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemisa Flores-Martinez

    Full Text Available This research aims to examine the socio-economic correlates of anemia in women, and potential sources of iron in household diets in Afghanistan. It also examines whether ownership of agricultural (particularly livestock assets and their use in food production has a role in alleviating anaemia, especially where local markets may be inadequate. We analyse data from the 2010/11 Afghanistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, estimating a logistic regression to examine how anemia status of women is associated with socio-economic covariates. A key result found is that sheep ownership has a protective effect in reducing anemia (prevalence odds ratio of sheep ownership on anemia of 0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.73-0.94 after controlling for wealth and other covariates. This association is found to be robust to alternative model specifications. Given the central role of red meat in heme iron provision and absorption of non-heme iron, we hypothesise that sheep ownership promotes mutton consumption from own-production in a setting where market-sourced provision of nutritious food is a challenge. We then use the 2011/12 National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment household data to understand the Afghan diet from the perspective of dietary iron provision, and to understand interactions between own-production, market sourcing and mutton consumption. Sheep ownership is found to increase the likelihood that a household consumed mutton (odds ratio of 1.27, 95% CI: 1.15-1.42, the number of days in the week that mutton was consumed (prevalence rate ratio of 1.24. 95% CI: 1.12-1.37 and the quantity of mutton consumed (7 grams/person/week. In the subsample of mutton consumers, households sourcing mutton mostly from own production consumed mutton 1.5 days more frequently on average than households relying on market purchase, resulting in 100 grams per person per week higher mutton intake. Thus this analysis lends support to the notion that the linkage between

  20. Does contracting of health care in Afghanistan work? Public and service-users' perceptions and experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cockcroft Anne

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In rebuilding devastated health services, the government of Afghanistan has provided access to basic services mainly by contracting with non-government organisations (NGOs, and more recently the Strengthening Mechanism (SM of contracting with Provincial Health Offices. Community-based information about the public's views and experience of health services is scarce. Methods Field teams visited households in a stratified random sample of 30 communities in two districts in Kabul province, with health services mainly provided either by an NGO or through the SM and administered a questionnaire about household views, use, and experience of health services, including payments for services and corruption. They later discussed the findings with separate community focus groups of men and women. We calculated weighted frequencies of views and experience of services and multivariate analysis examined the related factors. Results The survey covered 3283 households including 2845 recent health service users. Some 42% of households in the SM district and 57% in the NGO district rated available health services as good. Some 63% of households in the SM district (adjacent to Kabul and 93% in the NGO district ordinarily used government health facilities. Service users rated private facilities more positively than government facilities. Government service users were more satisfied in urban facilities, if the household head was not educated, if they had enough food in the last week, and if they waited less than 30 minutes. Many households were unwilling to comment on corruption in health services; 15% in the SM district and 26% in the NGO district reported having been asked for an unofficial payment. Despite a policy of free services, one in seven users paid for treatment in government facilities, and three in four paid for medicine outside the facilities. Focus groups confirmed people knew payments were unofficial; they were afraid to talk about

  1. Increasing Prevalence of Chronic Lung Disease in Veterans of the Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Mary Jo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Leung, Kar-Wei; Faverio, Paola; Fleming, Nicholas; Mortensen, Eric; Amuan, Megan E; Wang, Chen-Pin; Eapen, Blessen; Restrepo, Marcos; Morris, Michael J

    2016-05-01

    Research from the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have focused on traumatic brain injury (TBI) and mental health conditions; however, it is becoming clear that other health concerns, such as respiratory illnesses, warrant further scientific inquiry. Early reports from theater and postdeployment health assessments suggested an association with deployment-related exposures (e.g., sand, burn pits, chemical, etc.) and new-onset respiratory symptoms. We used data from Veterans Affairs medical encounters between fiscal years 2003 and 2011 to identify trends in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma, and interstitial lung disease in veterans. We used data from Veterans Affairs and Department of Defense sources to identify sociodemographic (age, sex, race), military (e.g., service branch, multiple deployments) and clinical characteristics (TBI, smoking) of individuals with and without chronic lung diseases. Generalized estimating equations found significant increases over time for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma in both unadjusted and adjusted analyses. Trends for interstitial lung disease were significant only in adjusted analyses. Age, smoking, and TBI were also significantly associated with chronic lung diseases; however, multiple deployments were not associated. Research is needed to identify which characteristics of deployment-related exposures are linked with chronic lung disease. PMID:27136656

  2. Antibacterial and COX-1 Inhibitory Effect of Medicinal Plants from the Pamir Mountains, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Anne S.; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K.

    2012-01-01

    Plants used to treat inflammatory ailments, pain, fever and infections in the Pamir Mountains in northeastern Afghanistan, were tested for antibacterial and COX-1 inhibitory activity. Water and ethanol extracts of 20 species were tested for antibacterial activity against two gram positive and two gram negative bacteria. The ethanol extract of Arnebia guttata inhibited Staphylococcus aureus with a MIC of 6 µg/mL. Water and ethanol extracts of Ephedra intermedia and the ethanol extracts of Lagochilus cabulicus and Peganum harmala inhibited Staphylococcus aureus at 0.5 mg/mL,and the P. harmala extract further inhibited the growth of Bacillus subtilis and E. coli, also with MICs of 0.5 mg/mL. Ethanol extracts of Artemisia persica (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL), Dragocephalum paulsenii (IC50: 0.5 µg/mL), Ephedra intermedia (IC50: 3.8 µg/mL), Hyoscyamus pusillus, Nepeta parmiriensis (IC50: 0.7 µg/mL) and Rumex patientia subsp. pamiricus (IC50: 3.5 µg/mL) exhibited COX-1 inhibitory activity. The observed in vitro activities support the use of some of the plant species in the traditional medicine systems of the Pamir Mountains.

  3. Stigma of persons with disabilities in Afghanistan: Examining the pathways from stereotyping to mental distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trani, Jean-Francois; Ballard, Ellis; Peña, Juan B

    2016-03-01

    Despite evidence that stigma of disability is frequently reflected through stereotyping and often results in mental distress, very limited literature demonstrates the pathways through which stereotyping has an impact on mental health. Drawing from a large sample of 1449 participants interviewed between December 2012 and September 2013 from an Afghan community-based rehabilitation program, we examined the structure of stigma associated with disability in Afghanistan. Labeling and negative stereotypes, associated with a specific cause of disability, result in social exclusion that in turn impacts mental health. Using structural equation modeling with latent variables, we examined the mediation effect of stereotypes associated with disability on mental distress and anxiety. We found a mediating role of social exclusion between stereotypes and mental distress but only in the case of persons with disabilities from birth. Comparing the total effect of 'disabled at birth' and mental distress 0.195 (95% CI: 0.018-0.367) the effect size of this mediation effect was 0.293 (95% CI: 0.173-0.415). There was no significant direct effect between 'disabled at birth' and mental distress once mediation effect was accounted for in our model. These findings suggest that a multipronged policy approach that recognizes the driving forces of stigma and promotes social participation directly alongside psychosocial interventions on mental distress of persons with disabilities is necessary to achieve wellbeing for a group that has been historically and systematically excluded from development interventions. PMID:26928587

  4. Safety, Tolerability, and Compliance with Long-Term Antimalarial Chemoprophylaxis in American Soldiers in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, David L; Garges, Eric; Manning, Jessica E; Bennett, Kent; Schaffer, Sarah; Kosmowski, Andrew J; Magill, Alan J

    2015-09-01

    Long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis is currently used by deployed U.S. military personnel. Previous small, short-term efficacy studies have shown variable rates of side effects among patients taking various forms of chemoprophylaxis, though reliable safety and tolerability data on long-term use are limited. We conducted a survey of troops returning to Fort Drum, NY following a 12-month deployment to Operation Enduring Freedom, Afghanistan from 2006 to 2007. Of the 2,351 respondents, 95% reported taking at least one form of prophylaxis during their deployment, and 90% were deployed for > 10 months. Compliance with daily doxycycline was poor (60%) compared with 80% with weekly mefloquine (MQ). Adverse events (AEs) were reported by approximately 30% with both MQ and doxycycline, with 10% discontinuing doxycycline compared with 4% of MQ users. Only 6% and 31% of soldiers reported use of bed nets and skin repellents, respectively. Compliance with long-term malaria prophylaxis was poor, and there were substantial tolerability issues based on these anonymous survey results, though fewer with MQ than doxycycline. Given few long-term antimalarial chemoprophylaxis options, there is an unmet medical need for new antimalarials safe for long-term use. PMID:26123954

  5. Stress management and factors related to the deployment of Italian peacekeepers in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nicola, Marta; Occhiolini, Lucius; Di Nicola, Lorella; Vellante, Piero; Di Mascio, Rocco; Guizzardi, Marco; Colagrande, Vittorio; Ballone, Enzo

    2007-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the stress levels in Italian military personnel involved in a peacekeeping (PK) mission in Afghanistan and a homogeneous group stationed in Italy (SI group). The study was performed from April 2004 to June 2004 in a sample of 160 long-time, career volunteers of the Rossi Barracks of the Alpini di L'Aquila (Italy) (SI group, n=120; PK group, n=40). A 10-item, self-evaluation questionnaire proposed in the U.N. Stress Management Booklet was administered to each volunteer. The total item score (TIS) values for the 10 items for the two groups were calculated. These values were greater for the PK group than for the SI group for all 10 items. The TIS values were grouped into three classes of symptoms, anxiety symptoms (items 1-4), stress-induced depression (items 5-7), and posttraumatic stress (items 8-10). The class total item score (CTIS) values were then calculated as the sum of the respective TIS values. The three CTIS values for the PK group were greater than those for the SI group. In particular, the anxiety CTIS was 72 points greater in the PK group (p peacekeepers were inclined to have a greater increase in anxiety symptoms. Consequently, antipanic techniques could be used to reduce anxiety and progressive muscular relaxation training, an important preventive relaxation technique, to face stressors and to reduce clinical anxiety. PMID:17357766

  6. Prevalence of contraindications to mefloquine use among USA military personnel deployed to Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietrusiak Paul P

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mefloquine has historically been considered safe and well-tolerated for long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis, but its prescribing requires careful attention to rule out contraindications to its use, including a history of certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. The prevalence of these disorders has not been defined in cohorts of U.S. military personnel deployed to areas where long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis is indicated. Methods Military medical surveillance and pharmacosurveillance databases were utilized to identify contraindications to mefloquine use among a cohort of 11,725 active duty U.S. military personnel recently deployed to Afghanistan. Results A total of 9.6% of the cohort had evidence of a contraindication. Females were more than twice as likely as males to have a contraindication (OR = 2.48, P Conclusion These findings underscore the importance of proper systematic screening prior to prescribing and dispensing mefloquine, and the need to provide alternatives to mefloquine suitable for long-term administration among deployed U.S. military personnel.

  7. Characterization of potential mineralization in Afghanistan: four permissive areas identified using imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Trude V.V.; Berger, Byron R.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the U.S. Geological Survey and Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations natural resources revitalization activities in Afghanistan, four permissive areas for mineralization, Bamyan 1, Farah 1, Ghazni 1, and Ghazni 2, have been identified using imaging spectroscopy data. To support economic development, the areas of potential mineralization were selected on the occurrence of selected mineral assemblages mapped using the HyMap™ data (kaolinite, jarosite, hydrated silica, chlorite, epidote, iron-bearing carbonate, buddingtonite, dickite, and alunite) that may be indicative of past mineralization processes in areas with limited or no previous mineral resource studies. Approximately 30 sites were initially determined to be candidates for areas of potential mineralization. Additional criteria and material used to refine the selection and prioritization process included existing geologic maps, Landsat Thematic Mapper data, and published literature. The HyMapTM data were interpreted in the context of the regional geologic and tectonic setting and used the presence of alteration mineral assemblages to identify areas with the potential for undiscovered mineral resources. Further field-sampling, mapping, and supporting geochemical analyses are necessary to fully substantiate and verify the specific deposit types in the four areas of potential mineralization.

  8. Musculoskeletal Injuries in Iraq and Afghanistan: Epidemiology and Outcomes Following a Decade of War.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmont, Philip J; Owens, Brett D; Schoenfeld, Andrew J

    2016-06-01

    The combined wars in Afghanistan and Iraq represent the longest ongoing conflicts in American military history, with a combined casualty estimate of >59,000 service members. The nature of combat over the last decade has led to precipitous increases in severe orthopaedic injuries, including traumatic amputations and injuries to the spine. Nearly 75% of all injuries sustained in combat now are caused by explosive mechanisms, and fractures comprise 40% of all musculoskeletal injuries. Injuries to the axial skeleton are more frequent among personnel exposed to combat, and spinal trauma is identified in nearly 40% of those killed. Musculoskeletal injuries are expensive and generate some of the highest rates of long-term disability. Noncombat musculoskeletal injuries are endemic within deployed military service members and occur at a greater than threefold rate compared with combat musculoskeletal injuries. Service members with musculoskeletal injuries or behavioral health conditions, such as posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and psychosis, and those occupying a low socioeconomic status, have an increased risk of inferior outcomes. PMID:27115793

  9. Heuristic economic assessment of the Afghanistan construction materials sector: cement and dimension stone production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossotti, Victor G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past decade, the U.S. Government has invested more than $106 billion for physical, societal, and governmental reconstruction assistance to Afghanistan (Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction, 2012a). This funding, along with private investment, has stimulated a growing demand for particular industrial minerals and construction materials. In support of this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey released a preliminary mineral assessment in 2007 on selected Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2007). More recently, the 2007 mineral assessment was updated with the inclusion of a more extensive array of Afghan nonfuel minerals (Peters and others, 2011). As a follow-up on the 2011 assessment, this report provides an analysis of the current use and prospects of the following Afghan industrial minerals required to manufacture construction materials: clays of various types, bauxite, gypsum, cement-grade limestone, aggregate (sand and gravel), and dimension stone (sandstone, quartzite, granite, slate, limestone, travertine, marble). The intention of this paper is to assess the: Use of Afghan industrial minerals to manufacture construction materials, Prospects for growth in domestic construction materials production sectors, Factors controlling the competitiveness of domestic production relative to foreign imports of construction materials, and Feasibility of using natural gas as the prime source of thermal energy and for generating electrical energy for cement production. The discussion here is based on classical principles of supply and demand. Imbedded in these principles is an understanding that the attributes of supply and demand are highly variable. For construction materials, demand for a given product may depend on seasons of the year, location of construction sites, product delivery time, political factors, governmental regulations, cultural issues, price, and how essential a given product might be to the buyer. Moreover, failure on the

  10. Shah Shuja’s ‘Hidden History’ and its Implications for the Historiography of Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The essay uses colonial archival materials from the Archives of the Punjab Province in Lahore to address the thirty-year period between the two reigns of the Durrani Afghan Monarch Shah Shuja (r. 1803-1809 and 1839-1842. Focusing on the 1809-1839 period, the first part of the essay deals with Mountstuart Elphinstone’s 1809 diplomatic mission and Shuja’s flight from Peshawar. The second part of the article considers the communication between Shah Shuja’s primary wife and colonial officials that culminated in Shuja’s receipt of housing and a monthly British pension in Ludhiana in 1816. The third part of the essay treats Shuja’s aborted attempt to recapture Kabul without British support in 1832-1833 and its consequences for him in Ludhiana. Shuja’s lack of Pashto credentials, his dependency on British capital, and his circular migration pattern are viewed as normative rather than exceptional for Afghan rulers, and as such this essay contributes to a revision of the traditional historiography of Afghanistan that views the country through the incompatible lenses of Pashtun ethnic domination of the Afghan state structure and Pashtun tribal resistance to Afghan state formation.1

  11. An Analysis of the Published Mineral Resource Estimates of the Haji-Gak Iron Deposit, Afghanistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Haji-Gak iron deposit of eastern Bamyan Province, eastern Afghanistan, was studied extensively and resource calculations were made in the 1960s by Afghan and Russian geologists. Recalculation of the resource estimates verifies the original estimates for categories A (in-place resources known in detail), B (in-place resources known in moderate detail), and C1 (in-place resources estimated on sparse data), totaling 110.8 Mt, or about 6% of the resources as being supportable for the methods used in the 1960s. C2 (based on a loose exploration grid with little data) resources are based on one ore grade from one drill hole, and P2 (prognosis) resources are based on field observations, field measurements, and an ore grade derived from averaging grades from three better sampled ore bodies. C2 and P2 resources are 1,659.1 Mt or about 94% of the total resources in the deposit. The vast P2 resources have not been drilled or sampled to confirm their extent or quality. The purpose of this article is to independently evaluate the resources of the Haji-Gak iron deposit by using the available geologic and mineral resource information including geologic maps and cross sections, sampling data, and the analog-estimating techniques of the 1960s to determine the size and tenor of the deposit.

  12. Epidemiological geomatics in evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan: introducing population weighted raster maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andersson Neil

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Evaluation of mine risk education in Afghanistan used population weighted raster maps as an evaluation tool to assess mine education performance, coverage and costs. A stratified last-stage random cluster sample produced representative data on mine risk and exposure to education. Clusters were weighted by the population they represented, rather than the land area. A "friction surface" hooked the population weight into interpolation of cluster-specific indicators. The resulting population weighted raster contours offer a model of the population effects of landmine risks and risk education. Five indicator levels ordered the evidence from simple description of the population-weighted indicators (level 0, through risk analysis (levels 1–3 to modelling programme investment and local variations (level 4. Using graphic overlay techniques, it was possible to metamorphose the map, portraying the prediction of what might happen over time, based on the causality models developed in the epidemiological analysis. Based on a lattice of local site-specific predictions, each cluster being a small universe, the "average" prediction was immediately interpretable without losing the spatial complexity.

  13. The essential role of democracy in the Bush Doctrine: the invasions of Iraq and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Helena de Castro Santos

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Everyone knows that democracy played a role in the Bush Doctrine. What not everyone knows is that this role was essential for the doctrine to be put into operation under which the Iraq invasion was prepared and launched. We argue moreover that, even if aggressive, the Bush doctrine is compatible with the American Liberal Tradition. To demonstrate these arguments we analyze the links between democracy, security, and the US national interests as expressed in the pillars of the American foreign policy since the end of Cold War. The consequential belief of the Bush Administration on the positive effect of exporting democracy by the use of force to Afghanistan and Iraq to fight terrorism will be remarked. It will be shown, however, that in the first years of the Bush Administration, among the justifications for the military interventions in the two countries, security reasons prevailed over democratic concerns, although the latter was significantly present since the early hours after September 11. It was only when it became clear that WMDs did not exist in Iraq that the exporting of democracy as the ultimate weapon to fight terrorism grew remarkably and prevailed over security reasons to invade those rogue states. The paper uses quantitative and qualitative content analysis of the speeches of President Bush and his Secretaries of State and Defense.

  14. Diagnostic values of Brain CT-Scan in Tuberculous Meningitis; A Major Health Problem in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Rasouly

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available   "nTuberculous meningitis (TBM is the most serious complication of tuberculosis (TB in children. Afghanistan is one of the highest burden TB countries; the incidence rate is estimated at 161/100,000 of the population per year. "nEarly diagnosis of TBM is a challenge because of non-specific initial clinical features. "nDelay of diagnosis is associated with higher morbidity and mortality rate. "nRadiological evaluation has a major rule in the early diagnosis of the disease which includes chest X-Ray in case of association with pulmonary TB, cranial CT scan and MRI. "nCT scan findings in TBM are quite interesting and important and have great impact on the management of the patients. "nGenerally CT findings differ according to the presentation of patients and are usually divided into two groups of non-complicated cases and complicated cases. "nCT finding in case of non-complicated TBM can be entirely normal and sometimes we may find diffuse brain edema and lepto-meningeal inflammation with increased uptake of contrast material in CECT. The meningeal enhancement is more pronounced in the basal cisterns. "nCT finding of complicated cases are more catastrophic including communicating hydrocephalus, ventriculitis, venous or dural thrombosis with presence of delta sign (finding in sagittal sinus thrombosis, parenchymal spread (infarction, cerebritis and abscess, hygroma or empyema (epidural, subdural, and appearance of tuberculomas in the brain.  

  15. The Perception Of Afghan-American Leaders’ Role In Economic Development Efforts In Afghanistan: A Study Of Gender Differences And Repatriation To The Motherland

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    Belal A. Kaifi

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Afghanistan’s best educated and experienced generations of workers have become scattered expatriates living throughout the world. This brain-drain has taken place over a thirty-year period due to continuous violence, tragedy, and war throughout Afghanistan. As such, a rebuilding process now largely depends on the international community. This study of 58 male and 42 female Afghan-American respondents analyzes their perceptions regarding development opportunities in Afghanistan as well as their willingness to take part in the rebuilding process. It appears that there are some differences in the responses of males and females. The younger generation seems to be much more willing to go back and help in the rebuilding process. There seems to be a longevity effect: those who have been away from Afghanistan for a longer period of time are less willing to return for the rebuilding initiatives. Results and implications are presented.

  16. Treating cutaneous leishmaniasis patients in Kabul, Afghanistan: cost-effectiveness of an operational program in a complex emergency setting

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    Reithinger Richard

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although Kabul city, Afghanistan, is currently the worldwide largest focus of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL with an estimated 67,500 cases, donor interest in CL has been comparatively poor because the disease is non-fatal. Since 1998 HealthNet TPO (HNTPO has implemented leishmaniasis diagnosis and treatment services in Kabul and in 2003 alone 16,390 were treated patients in six health clinics in and around the city. The aim of our study was to calculate the cost-effectiveness for the implemented treatment regimen of CL patients attending HNTPO clinics in the Afghan complex emergency setting. Methods Using clinical and cost data from the on-going operational HNTPO program in Kabul, published and unpublished sources, and discussions with researchers, we developed models that included probabilistic sensitivity analysis to calculate ranges for the cost per disability adjusted life year (DALY averted for implemented CL treatment regimen. We calculated the cost-effectiveness of intralesional and intramuscular administration of the pentavalent antimonial drug sodium stibogluconate, HNTPO's current CL 'standard treatment'. Results The cost of the standard treatment was calculated to be US$ 27 (95% C.I. 20 – 36 per patient treated and cured. The cost per DALY averted per patient cured with the standard treatment was estimated to be approximately US$ 1,200 (761 – 1,827. Conclusion According to WHO-CHOICE criteria, treatment of CL in Kabul, Afghanistan, is not a cost-effective health intervention. The rationale for treating CL patients in Afghanistan and elsewhere is discussed.

  17. LiDAR and IFSAR-Based Flood Inundation Model Estimates for Flood-Prone Areas of Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, W. C.; Goldade, M. M.; Kastens, J.; Dobbs, K. E.; Macpherson, G. L.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme flood events are not unusual in semi-arid to hyper-arid regions of the world, and Afghanistan is no exception. Recent flashfloods and flashflood-induced landslides took nearly 100 lives and destroyed or damaged nearly 2000 homes in 12 villages within Guzargah-e-Nur district of Baghlan province in northeastern Afghanistan. With available satellite imagery, flood-water inundation estimation can be accomplished remotely, thereby providing a means to reduce the impact of such flood events by improving shared situational awareness during major flood events. Satellite orbital considerations, weather, cost, data licensing restrictions, and other issues can often complicate the acquisition of appropriately timed imagery. Given the need for tools to supplement imagery where not available, complement imagery when it is available, and bridge the gap between imagery based flood mapping and traditional hydrodynamic modeling approaches, we have developed a topographic floodplain model (FLDPLN), which has been used to identify and map river valley floodplains with elevation data ranging from 90-m SRTM to 1-m LiDAR. Floodplain "depth to flood" (DTF) databases generated by FLDPLN are completely seamless and modular. FLDPLN has been applied in Afghanistan to flood-prone areas along the northern and southern flanks of the Hindu Kush mountain range to generate a continuum of 1-m increment flood-event models up to 10 m in depth. Elevation data used in this application of FLDPLN included high-resolution, drone-acquired LiDAR (~1 m) and IFSAR (5 m; INTERMAP). Validation of the model has been accomplished using the best available satellite-derived flood inundation maps, such as those issued by Unitar's Operational Satellite Applications Programme (UNOSAT). Results provide a quantitative approach to evaluating the potential risk to urban/village infrastructure as well as to irrigation systems, agricultural fields and archaeological sites.

  18. Trends in the quality of health care for children aged less than 5 years in Afghanistan, 2004-2006

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    Anbrasi Edward

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study trends in the quality of the health care provided to children aged less than 5 years in Afghanistan between 2004 and 2006. In particular, to determine the effect on such quality of a basic package of health services (BPHS, including Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI, introduced in 2003. METHODS: In each year of the study, 500-600 health facilities providing the BPHS were selected by stratified random sampling in 29 provinces of Afghanistan. We observed consultations for children aged less than 5 years, interviewed their caretakers, interviewed health-care providers and measured adherence to case management standards for assessment and counselling in a random sample. FINDINGS: The quality of the assessment and counselling provided to sick children aged less than 5 years improved significantly between 2004 and 2006. A 43.4% increase in the assessment index and a 28.7% increase in the counselling index (P < 0.001 were noted. Assessment quality improved significantly every year and was statistically associated with certain characteristics of the provider (being a doctor, having a higher knowledge score, being trained in IMCI, being part of a "contracting-in" mechanism and providing a longer consultation time and the child (being younger and having a female caretaker. Counselling quality was also significantly associated with these characteristics, except for provider cadre and child age. The presence of clinical guidelines and the frequency of supervision were significantly associated with improved quality scores in 2006 (P < 0.05 and < 0.01, respectively. CONCLUSION: Quality of care improved over the study period, but performance remained suboptimal in some areas. Continued investments in Afghanistan's health system capacity are needed.

  19. Fortifying food in the field to boost nutrition: case studies from Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia.

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    van den Briel, Tina; Cheung, Edith; Zewari, Jamshid; Khan, Rose

    2007-09-01

    Deficiencies in micronutrients such as iron, vitamin A, and iodine affect billions of people worldwide, causing death, disease, and disability. The UN World Food Programme (WFP) has long been recognised for its ability to deliver food to some of the most remote locations, under the toughest conditions: refugees in border camps, populations cut off by conflict, extremely poor and marginalised people like ethnic minorities, orphans, and widows. Relatively little, however, is known about its efforts to ensure that the food it delivers not only provides enough calories for immediate survival but also provides the vitamins and minerals needed for healthy growth and development. Much of the food delivered by WFP is fortified with iron, vitamin A, and other micronutrients before being shipped. But there are several reasons to mill and fortify food as close to the beneficiaries as possible. For instance, milling and fortifying food locally helps to overcome the problems of the short shelf-life of whole fortified maizemeal. It also enhances the nutritional value of locally procured cereals. And it can foster demand for fortified foods among local consumers beyond WFP beneficiaries, thus nurturing an industry with potentially significant benefits for the health of entire communities. This paper outlines three approaches by WFP to fortifying cereals in Afghanistan, Angola, and Zambia. It examines the challenges faced and the outcomes achieved in an effort to share this knowledge with others dedicated to improving the nutritional status of poor and food-insecure people. In Afghanistan, attempts to mill and fortify wheat flour using small-scale chakki mills were successful but much larger-scale efforts would be needed to promote demand and reach the level of consumption required to address serious iron deficiencies across the country. In Angola, maize has been fortified to combat the persistent occurrence of pellagra, a micronutrient deficiency disease found among people whose

  20. Les réformes agraires en Afghanistan,de la fin de la monarchie à la chute des talibans

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    Pierre Centlivres

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Après avoir esquissé la situation de la paysannerie et des modes de production agricoles en Afghanistan à la veille du coup d’État marxiste d’avril 1978, les auteurs présentent la réforme agraire promulguée par le Conseil révolutionnaire, les problèmes posés par sa mise en place, et analysent les raisons de son échec.

  1. Evolutionary analysis of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during 2002–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia;

    2011-01-01

    ) or for all four capsid proteins (P1, seven representative samples) of the serotype A FMD viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan were determined. Phylogenetic analysis of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1-coding sequences from these countries collected between 2002 and 2009 revealed...... of FMDV serotype A in the region. The A22/Iraq FMDV vaccine is antigenically distinct from the A-Iran05BAR-08 viruses. Mapping of the amino acid changes between the capsid proteins of the A22/Iraq vaccine strain and the A-Iran05BAR-08 viruses onto the A22/Iraq capsid structure identified candidate amino...

  2. Heavy metal and microbial loads in sewage irrigated vegetables of Kabul, Afghanistan

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    Andreas Buerkert

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about the heavy metal and microbial contamination of vegetables produced in Central Asian cities. We therefore measured the concentration of cadmium (Cd, copper (Cu, lead (Pb, and zinc (Zn and of faecal pathogens (Coliform bacteria, Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., Ascaris lubricoides, Entamoeba sp. and pinworms [Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis] in soil, irrigation water, and marketed vegetables of Kabul City, Afghanistan. Leaf Pb and Zn concentrations of leafy vegetables were with 1–5 and 33–160 mg kg^{-1} dry weight (DW several-fold above respective international thresholds of 0.3 mg Pb kg^{-1} and 50 mg Zn kg^{-1}. The tissue concentration of Cu was below threshold limits in all samples except for spinach in one farm. Above-threshold loads of microbes and parasites on vegetables were found in five out of six gardens with coliforms ranging from 0.5–2 × 10^7 cells 100g^{-1} fresh weight (FW, but no Salmonella and Shigella were found. Contamination with 0.2 × 10^7 eggs 100g^{-1} FW of Ascaris was detected on produce of three farms and critical concentrations of Entamoeba in a single case, while Oxyuris vermicularis, and Enterobius vermicularis were found on produce of three and four farms, respectively. Irrigation water had Ascaris, Coliforms, Salmonella, Shigella, Entamoeba, and Oxyuris vermicularis syn. Enterobius vermicularis ranging from 0.35 × 10^7 to 2 × 10^7 cells l^{-1}. The heavy metal and microbial loads on fresh UPA vegetables are likely the result of contamination from rising traffic, residues of the past decades of war and lacking treatment of sewage which needs urgent attention.

  3. A major light rare-earth element (LREE) resource in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, southern Afghanistan

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    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Horton, Forrest; Buttleman, Kim; Scott, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    The rapid rise in world demand for the rare-earth elements (REEs) has expanded the search for new REE resources. We document two types of light rare-earth element (LREE)-enriched rocks in the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of southern Afghanistan: type 1 concordant seams of khanneshite-(Ce), synchysite-(Ce), and parisite-(Ce) within banded barite-strontianite alvikite, and type 2 igneous dikes of coarse-grained carbonatite, enriched in fluorine or phosphorus, containing idiomorphic crystals of khanneshite-(Ce) or carbocernaite. Type 1 mineralized barite-strontianite alvikite averages 22.25 wt % BaO, 4.27 wt % SrO, and 3.25 wt % ∑ LREE2O3 (sum of La, Ce, Pr, and Nd oxides). Type 2 igneous dikes average 14.51 wt % BaO, 5.96 wt % SrO, and 3.77 wt % ∑ LREE2O3. A magmatic origin is clearly indicated for the type 2 LREE-enriched dikes, and type 1 LREE mineralization probably formed in the presence of LREE-rich hydrothermal fluid. Both types of LREE mineralization may be penecontemporaneous, having formed in a carbonate-rich magma in the marginal zone of the central vent, highly charged with volatile constituents (i.e., CO2, F, P2O5), and strongly enriched in Ba, Sr, and the LREE. Based on several assumptions, and employing simple geometry for the zone of LREE enrichment, we estimate that at least 1.29 Mt (million metric tonnes) of LREE2O3 is present in this part of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex.

  4. Pre-design and life cycle cost analysis of a hybrid power system for rural and remote communities in Afghanistan

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    Mir Sayed Shah Danish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present situation of the Afghanistan electricity sector, the photovoltaic and diesel generator stand-alone hybrid power system is increasingly attractive for application in rural and remote communities. Thousands of rural communities in Afghanistan depend solely on traditional kerosene for illumination and rarely have access to electricity sources such as DC battery for radio and other small appliances. This study is conducted to offer real-life solution to this problem. The hybrid system is investigated to meet the domestic load demand that is estimated based on the communities’ electricity consumption culture. At first, customary pre-design is pursued. Afterwards, the break-even point and net present value algorithms are applied for economic analysis. That makes this study differ from the previous academic literature. The concepts developed in this study are targeted for a cost-effective hybrid system, which is appropriate for rural and remote residents’ lifestyle change and improvement. Based on the academic research methods, overall analysis procedures can fit as an analogy, especially for developing countries.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGY ON BATTLEFIELD TERRAIN AND IT’S AFFECTS ON MILITARY OPERATIONS IN MOUNTAINS AND KARST REGIONS: EXAMPLES FROM WW1 AND AFGHANISTAN

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    Marko Zečević

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During the World War I conflict between the Austrian and Italian army, Austrian engineer units constructed hallways in the karst region of Soča river. Those hallways, karst phenomena (caverns, caves and other fortifications, gave the Austrian army a tactical advantage. The construction principle of caverns is the consequence of the geological structure of the terrain. We are watching another military conflict in Afghanistan. In country where many armies in history have been defeated, where the terrain morphology condition a guerilla tactic, where the function effect of modern military technology is limited by battlefield configuration and with low military value of individual target, we are creating a "picture" of the possible view of the future battlefield. Al-Qai'da operatives in east Afghanistan take advantage of the opportunity of geological structure of the terrain and construct tunnel network across natural caves. Although the tunnel network in Afghanistan is constructed mostly in sandstones and metamorphic rocks, we may partly compare it with Austrian hallways. In that sense this work shows the influence of geological structure of the terrain on the effect of military operations in mountains and karst regions, and the analogy between military operations on the Soča river and military operations in Afghanistan.

  6. Numbing and Dysphoria Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans: A Review of Findings and Implications for Treatment

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    Hassija, Christina M.; Jakupcak, Matthew; Gray, Matt J.

    2012-01-01

    Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans experience significant rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other trauma-related mental health conditions. Understanding how specific PTSD symptomatology affects physical health and psychosocial functioning may be useful in improving the conceptualization of PTSD nosology and informing treatment…

  7. Risk factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan: a prospective cohort study.

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    Adam R Aluisio

    Full Text Available Childhood diarrheal illnesses are a major public health problem. In low-income settings data on disease burden and factors associated with diarrheal illnesses are poorly defined, precluding effective prevention programs. This study explores factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses among children in Kabul, Afghanistan.A cohort of 1-11 month old infants was followed for 18 months from 2007-2009. Data on diarrheal episodes were gathered through active and passive surveillance. Information on child health, socioeconomics, water and sanitation, and hygiene behaviors was collected. Factors associated with recurrent diarrheal illnesses were analyzed using random effects recurrent events regression models.3,045 children were enrolled and 2,511 (82% completed 18-month follow-up. There were 14,998 episodes of diarrheal disease over 4,200 child-years (3.51 episodes/child-year, 95%CI 3.40-3.62. Risk of diarrheal illness during the winter season was 63% lower than the summer season (HR = 0.37, 95%CI 0.35-0.39, P<0.001. Soap for hand washing was available in 72% of households and 11.9% had toilets with septic/canalization. Half of all mothers reported using soap for hand washing. In multivariate analysis diarrheal illness was lower among children born to mothers with post-primary education (aHR = 0.79, 95%CI 0.69-0.91, p = 0.001, from households where maternal hand washing with soap was reported (aHR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.74-0.92, p<0.001 and with improved sanitation facilities (aHR = 0.76, 95%CI 0.63-0.93, p = 0.006. Malnourished children from impoverished households had significantly increased risks for recurrent disease [(aHR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.03-1.29, p = 0.016 and (aHR = 1.20, 95%CI 1.05-1.37, p = 0.006 respectively].Maternal hand washing and improved sanitation facilities were protective, and represent important prevention points among public health endeavors. The discrepancy between soap availability and utilization suggests barriers to access and

  8. Acute malnutrition among under-five children in Faryab, Afghanistan: prevalence and causes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frozanfar, Muhammad Kamel; Yoshida, Yoshitoku; Yamamoto, Eiko; Reyer, Joshua A; Dalil, Suraya; Rahimzad, Abdullah Darman; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2016-02-01

    Acute malnutrition affects more than 50 million under-five (U5) children, causing 8.0% of global child deaths annually. The prevalence of acute malnutrition (wasting) among U5 children in Afghanistan was 9.5% nationally and 3.7% in Faryab province in 2013. A cross-sectional study was conducted for 600 households in Faryab to find the prevalence and causes of acute malnutrition. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using a logistic model. Demographic results of this study showed that 54.0% of the household heads and 92.3% of the mothers had no education. Three-fourths of households had a monthly income ≤ 250 USD. According to the measurement of weight for height Z-score (WHZ), 35.0% (210/600) of the children had acute malnutrition (wasting, WHZ water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) conditions were poor. When adjusted, a significant association of acute malnutrition among U5 children was found with the education level of household heads (OR=1.49; 95% CI, 1.02-2.17), age of household heads (OR=2.01; 95% CI, 1.21-3.35), income (OR=1.66; 95% CI, 1.04-2.27), education level of mothers (OR=2.21; 95% CI, 1.00-4.88), age of children (OR=1.99; 95% CI, 1.32-2.93), history of children with diarrhea in the last two weeks of data collection (OR=1.57; 95% CI, 1.10-2.27), feeding frequency (OR=3.01; 95% CI, 1.21-7.46), water sources (OR=1.89; 95% CI, 1.26-2.83), and iodized salt (OR=0.59; 95% CI, 0.39-0.88). The present study indicated that an increase in education level of parents, household income, and quality of WASH would result in a significant decrease in prevalence of wasting among U5 children. PMID:27019527

  9. Genetic diversity of Leishmania tropica strains isolated from clinical forms of cutaneous leishmaniasis in rural districts of Herat province, Western Afghanistan, based on ITS1-rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhar, Mahdi; Pazoki Ghohe, Hossein; Rasooli, Sayed Abobakar; Karamian, Mehdi; Mohib, Abdul Satar; Ziaei Hezarjaribi, Hajar; Pagheh, Abdol Sattar; Ghatee, Mohammad Amin

    2016-07-01

    Despite the high incidence of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) in Afghanistan, there is a little information concerning epidemiological status of the disease and phylogenetic relationship and population structure of causative agents. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and distribution of CL cases and investigate the Leishmania tropica population structure in rural districts of Heart province in the West of Afghanistan in comparison to neighboring foci. Overall, 4189 clinically suspected CL cases from 177 villages (including 12 districts) in Herat province were enrolled in the referral laboratory of WHO sub-office in Herat city from January 2012 to December 2013. 3861 cases were confirmed as CL by microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained slides. ITS1 PCR-RFLP analysis showed dominance of L. tropica (more than 98%) among 127 randomly chosen samples. Analysis of the ITS1 sequences revealed 4 sequence types among the 21 L. tropica isolates. Comparison of sequence types from Herat rural districts with the representatives of L. tropica from Iran, India, and Herat city showed two main population groups (cluster A and B). All isolates from Herat province, India and Southeast, East, and Central Iran were found exclusively in cluster A. The close proximity of West Afghanistan focus and Birjand county as the capital of Southern Khorasan province in East Iran can explain relatively equal to the genetic composition of L. tropica in these two neighboring regions. In addition, two populations were found among L. tropica isolates from Herat rural districts. Main population showed more similarity to some isolates from Birjand county in East Iran while minor population probably originated from the Southeast and East Iranian L. tropica. Recent study provided valuable information concerning the population structure of L. tropica and epidemiology of ACL in the West of Afghanistan, which could be the basis for molecular epidemiology studies in other regions of Afghanistan

  10. Genetic diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype O in Pakistan and Afghanistan, 1997–2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia;

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan; serotypes O, A and Asia-1 of the virus are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries with FMDV type O usually being the most common. In the present study, the nucleotide sequences encoding the FMDV capsid protein VP1 from...... in the region were found to be 6.65×10−3 (95% CI=5.49–7.80×10−3) and 7.80×10−3 (95% CI=6.72–8.89×10−3) substitutions per nucleotide per year, respectively. The present study reveals the presence of multiple (sub-)lineages of FMDV serotype O co-circulating in the region and that significant new variants...

  11. Peace and War: Trajectories of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder symptoms before, during, and after military deployment in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Dorthe; Johannessen, Kim Berg; Thomsen, Yvonne D.;

    2012-01-01

    In the study reported here, we examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 746 Danish soldiers measured on five occasions before, during, and after deployment to Afghanistan. Using latent class growth analysis, we identified six trajectories of change in PTSD symptoms. Two resilient...... trajectories had low levels across all five times, and a new-onset trajectory started low and showed a marked increase of PTSD symptoms. Three temporary-benefit trajectories, not previously described in the literature, showed decreases in PTSD symptoms during (or immediately after) deployment, followed by...... increases after return from deployment. Predeployment emotional problems and predeployment traumas, especially childhood adversities, were predictors for inclusion in the nonresilient trajectories, whereas deployment-related stress was not. These findings challenge standard views of PTSD in two ways. First...

  12. ASTER spectral analysis and lithologic mapping of the Khanneshin carbonatite volcano, Afghanistan

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    Mars, J.C.; Rowan, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data of the early Quaternary Khanneshin carbonatite volcano located in southern Afghanistan were used to identify carbonate rocks within the volcano and to distinguish them from Neogene ferruginous polymict sandstone and argillite. The carbonatitic rocks are characterized by diagnostic CO3 absorption near 11.2 ??m and 2.31-2.33 ??m, whereas the sandstone, argillite, and adjacent alluvial deposits exhibit intense Si-O absorption near 8.7 ??m caused mainly by quartz and Al-OH absorption near 2.20 ??m due to muscovite and illite. Calcitic carbonatite was distinguished from ankeritic carbonatite in the short wave infrared (SWIR) region of the ASTER data due to a slight shift of the CO3 absorption feature toward 2.26 ??m (ASTER band 7) in the ankeritic carbonatite spectra. Spectral assessment using ASTER SWIR data suggests that the area is covered by extensive carbonatite flows that contain calcite, ankerite, and muscovite, though some areas mapped as ankeritic carbonatite on a pre existing geologic map were not identified in the ASTER data. A contact aureole shown on the geologic map was defined using an ASTER false color composite image (R = 6, G = 3, B = 1) and a logical operator byte image. The contact aureole rocks exhibit Fe2+, Al-OH, and Fe, Mg-OH spectral absorption features at 1.65, 2.2, and 2.33 ??m, respectively, which suggest that the contact aureole rocks contain musco vite, epidote, and chlorite. The contact aureole rocks were mapped using an Interactive Data Language (IDL) logical operator. A visible through short wave infrared (VNIR-SWIR) mineral and rock-type map based on matched filter, band ratio, and logical operator analysis illustrates: (1) laterally extensive calcitic carbonatite that covers most of the crater and areas northeast of the crater; (2) ankeritic carbonatite located southeast and north of the crater and some small deposits located within the crater; (3) agglomerate that

  13. The Effect of Accessibility on Language Vitality: The Ishkashimi and the Sanglechi Speech Varieties in Afghanistan

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    Simone Beck

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sociolinguistic assessment of the Ishkashimi and Sanglechi speech varieties based on data collected during a survey conducted between July 21st and July 29th 2007 in the Ishkashim area and the Sanglech valley. The research was carried out under the auspices of the International Assistance Mission, a Non-Government Organization working in Afghanistan. The goal was to determine whether Dari, one of the two national languages, is adequate to be used in literature and primary school education, or whether the Ishkashimi and the Sanglechi people would benefit from language development, including literature development and primary school education in the vernacular. It was important to find out how closely the two speech varieties, Ishkashimi and Sanglechi, are related to determine whether one written form would suffice for both varieties, in case language development is deemed to be necessary. The researchers administered sociolinguistic and village elder questionnaires, elicited word lists, tested mutual intelligibility of Ishkashimi and Sanglechi, and observed and asked about bilingualism in Dari. In this way they aimed to determine the domains of language use, the attitude towards the other speech variety and Dari, to investigate bilingualism in Dari, and intelligibility between Ishkashimi and Sanglechi. Sanglechi was found to be unintelligible to the Ishkashimi speakers. However, Ishkashimi is more intelligible to Sanglechi speakers. The Ishkashimi speak Dari and their vernacular at home and in the community; in all other domains they primarily speak Dari. All Sanglechi speak only their vernacular in their homes and in the community. They speak Dari and some Sanglechi with guests, when travelling outside the area, with government officials, in school and in the religious domain. School is the only domain that exposes girls and young women to Dari; older women have virtually no contact with Dari. In both places, people display

  14. Toward universal coverage in Afghanistan: A multi-stakeholder assessment of capacity investments in the community health worker system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Anbrasi; Branchini, Casey; Aitken, Iain; Roach, Melissa; Osei-Bonsu, Kojo; Arwal, Said Habib

    2015-11-01

    Global efforts to scale-up the community health workforce have accelerated as a result of the growing evidence of their effectiveness to enhance coverage and health outcomes. Reconstruction efforts in Afghanistan integrated capacity investments for community based service delivery, including the deployment of over 28,000 community health workers (CHWs) to ensure access to basic preventive and curative services. The study aimed to conduct capacity assessments of the CHW system and determine stakeholder perspectives of CHW performance. Structured interviews were conducted on a national sample from 33 provinces and included supervisors, facility providers, patients, and CHWs. Formative assessments were also conducted with national policymakers, community members and health councils in two provinces. Results indicate that more than 70% of the NGO's provide comprehensive training for CHWs, 95% CHWs reported regular supervision, and more than 60% of the health posts had adequate infrastructure and essential commodities. Innovative strategies of paired male and female CHWs, institution of a special cadre of community health supervisors, and community health councils were introduced as systems strengthening mechanisms. Reported barriers included unrealistic and expanding task expectations (14%), unsatisfactory compensation mechanisms (75%), inadequate transport (69%), and lack of commodities (40%). Formative assessments evidenced that CHWs were highly valued as they provided equitable, accessible and affordable 24-h care. Their loyalty, dedication and the ability for women to access care without male family escorts was appreciated by communities. With rising concerns of workforce deficits, insecurity and budget constraints, the health system must enhance the capacity of these frontline workers to improve the continuum of care. The study provides critical insight into the strengths and constraints of Afghanistan's CHW system, warranting further efforts to contextualize

  15. The impact of a conditional cash transfer program on the utilization of non-targeted services: Evidence from Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witvorapong, Nopphol; Foshanji, Abo Ismael

    2016-03-01

    While existing research suggests that health-related conditional cash transfer (CCT) programs have positive impacts on the utilization of CCT-targeted health services, little is known as to whether they also influence the utilization of non-targeted health services-defined as general health services for which program participants are not financially motivated. Based on a sample of 6649 households in a CCT program that took place in May 2009-June 2011 in Afghanistan, we evaluate the impact of the receipt of CCTs on the utilization of non-targeted health services both by women, who were direct beneficiaries of the program, and by members of their households. We estimate the outcomes of interest through four probit models, accounting for potential endogeneity of the CCT receipt and dealing with lack of credible exclusion restrictions in different ways. In comparison with the control group, the receipt of CCTs is found to be associated with an increase in the probability of utilizing non-targeted services among household members across regression models. The results are mixed, with regard to the utilization by women, suggesting that there exist non-economic barriers to health care, unique to women, that are not captured by the data. The results confirm the importance of accounting for direct as well as indirect effects in policy evaluation and suggest that future studies investigate more deeply the role of community health workers in removing non-economic barriers for Afghan women and the possibility of introducing an incentive structure to motivate them to contribute more actively to population health in Afghanistan. PMID:26851407

  16. ANTI-TERRORISM POLICY THE USA HAD CARRIED OUT IN AFGHANISTAN: PERIOD OF SUCCESS AT THE INITIAL STAGE OF OPERATION (2001 TO 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgy Eminovich ASATRYAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explored the warfare in Afghanistan that fol-lowed the acts of terror incurred to New York and Wash-ington on September 11th, 2001, that turned to be an un-precedented terrorist attack over the history of mankind. After the attacks and subsequent to them the U.S had launched an "Operation Enduring Freedom", with the purpose of exterminating the leaders of "Al Qaeda" and of "Taliban" Movement. At the first stage of operation, the USA has attained some success, both at the field of anti-terrorist military actions and in building the state in Af-ghanistan. However, the situation turned to be soon be-yond the U.S control.

  17. 4 July 2016 - S. Dalil Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva signing the Guest Book with Director-General F. Gianotti. P. Fassnacht present throughout.

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2016-01-01

    Her Excellency Dr Suraya Dalil Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary Permanent Representative of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan to the United Nations Office and other international organisations in Geneva

  18. Do soldiers seek more mental health care after deployment? Analysis of mental health consultations in the Netherlands Armed Forces following deployment to Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Vermetten, Eric; Taal, Elisabeth M; van Schaik, Digna (Anneke) J.F.; Leenstra, Tjalling

    2014-01-01

    Background: Military deployment to combat zones puts military personnel to a number of physical and mental challenges that may adversely affect mental health. Until now, few studies have been performed in Europe on mental health utilization after military deployment.Objective: We compared the incidence of mental health consultations with the Military Mental Health Service (MMHS) of military deployed to Afghanistan to that of non-deployed military personnel.Method: We assessed utilization of t...

  19. A retrospective cohort study of U.S. service members returning from Afghanistan and Iraq: is physical health worsening over time?

    OpenAIRE

    Falvo Michael J; Serrador Jorge M; McAndrew Lisa M; Chandler Helena K; Lu Shou-En; Quigley Karen S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background High rates of mental health disorders have been reported in veterans returning from deployment to Afghanistan (Operation Enduring Freedom: OEF) and Iraq (Operation Iraqi Freedom: OIF); however, less is known about physical health functioning and its temporal course post-deployment. Therefore, our goal is to study physical health functioning in OEF/OIF veterans after deployment. Methods We analyzed self-reported physical health functioning as physical component summary (PCS...

  20. THE ROLE OF VISUAL AIDS IN TEACHING : A study of visual aids used by TTC teachers in two provinces of Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Baser, Abdul Jabar

    2013-01-01

    This research is about the usage of visual aids in education which takes place in teacher training colleges (TTCs) of Afghanistan. The data is collected from two TTCs, Kabul and Wardak provinces. It covers a specific area, which is the use of visual aids during teaching and learning. The views of 100 teachers regarding usage of visual aids, providing visual aids, as well as male and female differences are considered and views of experienced and less experienced teachers are investigated. The ...

  1. The Challenge of Reconstructing “Failed” States What lessons can be learned from the mistakes made by the international aid community in Afghanistan?

    OpenAIRE

    Serge MICHAILOF

    2011-01-01

    For more than forty years, developing countries have experienced a series of wars and armed conflicts. These have essentially been internal conflicts like in Afghanistan, Cambodia, Rwanda, and Colombia, although they have had astrong tendency to involve neighboring countries. Many such conflicts have affected countries without significantly upsetting the ability of the government to continue functioning. This is currently the case, for example, in the Ivory Coast, even though, paradoxically, ...

  2. Counting Lives in a Theater of Terror - an Analysis of Media-oriented Hostage Takings in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith Tinnes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes key findings of a quantitative and qualitative analysis of media-oriented hostage takings involving local people and foreigners in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Saudi Arabia during a five-year period (01-01-2004 to 12-31-2008. Based on a long-term tracking of Islamist online publications, the chosen approach did not only allow to identify static values, but also granted insights into developments over time. Characteristic patterns regarding responsible organizations, nationalities of victims, distribution channels for hostage media, etc. could in this way be identified.  The kidnappers' organizational affiliation turned out to be the most significant variable. It decisively affected other factors like number of abductions, likelihood of fatal outcome or duration of a kidnapping. As a consequence, the highest attention should be given to  this parameter when dealing with hostage situations. Another key finding is that insurgents have been increasingly refraining from broadcasting visual representations of extreme violence. This article is based on the German-language dissertation J. Tinnes. “Internetnutzung islamistischer Terror- und Insurgentengruppen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung von medialen Geiselnahmen im Irak, Afghanistan, Pakistan und Saudi-Arabien” -  in English: “Internet Usage of Islamist Terrorist and Insurgent Groups with Special Regard for Media-oriented Hostage Takings in Iraq, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Saudi Arabia”.[1] In the following I shall summarize key findings in order to make them accessible to non-German speaking readers.

  3. Quality of caesarean delivery services and documentation in first-line referral facilities in Afghanistan: a chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Young-Mi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Increasing appropriate use and documentation of caesarean section (CS has the potential to decrease maternal and perinatal mortality in settings with low CS rates. We analyzed data collected as part of a comprehensive needs assessment of emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC facilities in Afghanistan to gain a greater understanding of the clinical indications, timeliness, and outcomes of CS deliveries. Methods Records were reviewed at 78 government health facilities expected to function as EmONC providers that were located in secure areas of the country. Information was collected on the three most recent CS deliveries in the preceding 12 months at facilities with at least one CS delivery in the preceding three months. After excluding 16 facilities with no recent CS deliveries, the sample includes 173 CS deliveries at 62 facilities. Results No CS deliveries were performed in the previous three months at 21% of facilities surveyed; all of these were lower-level facilities. Most CS deliveries (88% were classified as emergencies, and only 12% were referrals from another facility. General anesthesia was used in 62% of cases, and spinal or epidural anesthesia in 34%. Only 28% of cases were managed with a partograph. Surgery began less than one hour after the decision for a CS delivery in just 30% of emergency cases. Among the 173 cases, 27 maternal deaths, 28 stillbirths, and 3 early neonatal deaths were documented. In cases of maternal and fetal death, the most common indications for CS delivery were placenta praevia or abruption and malpresentation. In 62% of maternal deaths, the fetus was stillborn or died shortly after birth. In 48% of stillbirths, the fetus had a normal heart rate at the last check. Information on partograph use was missing in 38% of cases, information on parity missing in 23% of cases and indications for cesareans missing in 9%. Conclusions Timely referral within and to EmONC facilities would decrease

  4. A Retrospective Case Series of Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) Placement at the Afghan National Police Hospital, Kabul, Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertl, Christian W; Royal, David; Arzoiey, Humayoon Abdul; Shefa, Azizullah; Sultani, Salim; Mosafa, Mohammed Omar; Sadat, Safiullah; Zirkle, Lewis

    2016-01-01

    In Afghanistan, adequate and cost-effective medical care for even routine conditions is lacking; especially for complex injuries like long-bone fractures. The Surgical Implant Generation Network (SIGN) intramedullary nail is used for treatment of long-bone fractures from blunt injuries and does not require imaging. We are reporting for the first time results of the SIGN intramedullary nail at the Afghan National Police Hospital, a tertiary care facility in Kabul. 71 records from the SIGN Online Surgical Database were reviewed for gender, age, date of injury, implant date, patient's home of record, and type/ mechanism of injury. Mean age was 26.7 years, all but one being male; time from injury to implant ranged 1 to 401 days, with mean of 40.6 days. Long-bone fractures from motor vehicle accidents remained constant, and war injuries peaked in summer. Follow-up is limited because of security and financial burdens of travel. However, personal communication with Afghan National Police Hospital surgeons suggests that patients included in the current study have not experienced any adverse outcomes. While it remains to be seen if the SIGN Online Surgical Database will facilitate more comprehensive outcome studies, our results provide support for the efficacy of SIGN nails in treating long-bone fractures from war injuries. PMID:26741473

  5. Rare earth element mineralogy, geochemistry, and preliminary resource assessment of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Belkin, Harvey E.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Peters, Stephen G.; Buttleman, Kim P.

    2011-01-01

    There is increased concern about the future availability of rare earth elements (REE) because of China's dominance as the supplier of more than 95 percent of world REE output, their decision to restrict exports of rare earth products, and the rapid increase in world-wide consumption of rare earth product. As a result, countries such as the United States, Japan, and member nations of the European Union face a future of tight supplies and high prices for rare earth products unless other sources of REE are found and developed (Long and others, 2010; U.S. Geological Survey, 2011, p. 128-129, 184-185). We report and describe a significant new deposit of light rare earth elements (LREE), estimated at 1 Mt, within the Khanneshin carbonatite complex of south Afghanistan. The potential resource is located in a remote and rugged part of the igneous complex in a region previously identified by Soviet geologists in the 1970s. This report reviews the geologic setting of LREE deposit, presents new geochemical data documenting the grade of LREE mineralization, briefly describes the mineralogy and mineralogical associations of the deposit, and presents a preliminary estimate of LREE resources based on our current understanding of the geology.

  6. Molecular characterization of serotype Asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in Pakistan and Afghanistan; emergence of a new genetic Group and evidence for a novel recombinant virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, Giancarlo; Ahmed, Safia;

    2011-01-01

    Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The FMD virus serotypes O, A and Asia-1 are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries. Diverse strains of FMDV, even within the same serotype, co-circulate. Characterization of the viruses in circulation can facilitate...... appropriate vaccine selection and tracing of outbreaks.The present study characterized foot-and-mouth disease serotype Asia-1 viruses circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan during the period 1998–2009. Phylogenetic analysis of FMDV type Asia-1 revealed that three different genetic Groups of serotype Asia-1...... of the A-Iran05AFG-07 sub-lineage. The Asia-1 FMDVs currently circulating in Pakistan and Afghanistan are not efficiently neutralized by antisera raised against the Asia-1/Shamir vaccine strain. Thus, new Asia-1 vaccine strains may be required to block the spread of the current Asia-1 viruses....

  7. Protocol Additional to the agreement between the Republic of Afghanistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the application of safeguards in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Protocol Additional to the Agreement between the Republic of Afghanistan and the International Atomic Energy Agency for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Additional Protocol on 1 March 2005. It was signed on 19 July 2005 in Vienna. Pursuant to Article 17 of the Additional Protocol, the Protocol entered into force on 19 July 2005, upon signature by the representatives of Afghanistan and the Agency

  8. Geologic Map of Quadrangle 3368 and Part of Quadrangle 3370, Ghazni (515), Gardez (516), and Part of Jaji-Maydan (517) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maldonado, Florian; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  9. La guerre en Afghanistan : portée, forces et faiblesses du concept de culture de guerre appliqué aux guerres modernes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aycha Fleury

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available L'objectif de cet article est d’analyser la portée, les forces et les faiblesses du concept de « culture de guerre » appliqué à la guerre en Afghanistan. La théorie constructiviste, utilisée en sciences sociales, permet de comprendre les constructions sociales que sous-tend une culture de guerre ainsi que les quatre dimensions autour desquelles elle s’articule : violence, haine, consentement à la guerre et ferveur religieuse. La guerre en Afghanistan est un nouveau type d'affrontement, symptomatique des changements qui surviennent dans les stratégies de maintien de la paix. Le concept de culture de guerre permet de comprendre certains aspects bien spécifiques des problèmes qui entourent ces nouvelles guerres. Le conflit en Afghanistan nous montre cependant les limites de cette approche, notamment le manque d’un facteur « temporel » et l'absence de prise en considération de la construction historique de la guerre. Le concept de culture de guerre ne permet donc pas de comprendre et d'analyser toute la complexité d’un conflit comme celui qui se déroule en Afghanistan, mais il permet de faire émerger de nouvelles perspectives et remet en question certains faits tenus pour acquis.The aim of this article is to analyze the range, the strengths and weaknesses of the concept of «war culture» as it is applied to the war in Afghanistan. The constructivist theory used in social sciences permits to comprehend the social constructions behind a culture of war and its four dimensions: violence, hatred, consent to warfare and religious zeal. The war in Afghanistan is a new war, typical of changes that occur in peace keeping missions. This concept of «war culture» permits us to comprehend certain quite specific aspects of the problems that surround this new warfare. The conflict in Afghanistan also demonstrates the limits of this approach, notably the lack of a «temporal» factor and the absence of consideration of the

  10. Self reported incidence and morbidity of acute respiratory illness among deployed U.S. military in Iraq and Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony W Soltis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Historically, respiratory infections have had a significant impact on U.S. military missions. Deployed troops are particularly at high risk due to close living conditions, stressful work environments and increased exposure to pathogens. To date, there are limited data available on acute respiratory illness (ARI among troops deployed in support of ongoing military operations, specifically Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF. METHODS: Using self-report data from two sources collected from troops deployed to Iraq, Afghanistan and the surrounding region, we analyzed incidence and risk factors for ARI. Military personnel on mid-deployment Rest & Recuperation (R&R or during redeployment were eligible to participate in the voluntary self-report survey. RESULTS: Overall, 39.5% reported having at least one ARI. Of these, 18.5% sought medical care and 33.8% reported having decreased job performance. The rate of self-reported ARI was 15 episodes per 100 person-months among those taking the voluntary survey, and 24.7 episodes per 100 person-months among those taking the clinic health questionnaire. Negative binomial regression analysis found female sex, Navy branch of service and lack of flush toilets to be independently associated with increased rates of ARI. Deployment to OIF, increasing age and higher rank were also positively associated with ARI risk. CONCLUSIONS: The overall percentage of deployed military personnel reporting at least one acute respiratory illness decreased since earlier parts of OIF/OEF. However, the reported effect on job performance increased tremendously. The most important factors associated with increased respiratory infection are female sex, Navy branch of service, lack of improved latrine facilities, deployment to OIF, increasing age and higher rank.

  11. Low vitamin B12 levels among newly-arrived refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: a multicentre Australian study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Benson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian states and territories. METHODS: In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we collected Vitamin B12, folate and haematological indices on all refugees (n = 916; response rate 94% of eligible population who had been in Australia for less than one year, and attended one of the collaborating health services between July 2010 and July 2011. RESULTS: 16.5% of participants had Vitamin B12 deficiency (<150 pmol/L. One-third of participants from Iran and Bhutan, and one-quarter of participants from Afghanistan had Vitamin B12 deficiency. Contrary to our hypothesis, low Vitamin B12 levels were more prevalent in males than females. A higher prevalence of low Vitamin B12 was also reported in older age groups in some countries. The sensitivity of macrocytosis in detecting Vitamin B12 deficiency was only 4.6%. CONCLUSION: Vitamin B12 deficiency is an important population health issue in newly-arrived refugees from many countries. All newly-arrived refugees should be tested for Vitamin B12 deficiency. Ongoing research should investigate causes, treatment, and ways to mitigate food insecurity, and the contribution of such measures to enhancing the health of the refugee communities.

  12. Horizontal equity and efficiency at primary health care facilities in rural Afghanistan: a seemingly unrelated regression approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, Benjamin; Steinhardt, Laura; Walker, Damian G; Peters, David H; Bishai, David

    2013-07-01

    Producing services efficiently and equitably are important goals for health systems. Many countries pursue horizontal equity - providing people with the same illnesses equal access to health services - by locating facilities in remote areas. Staff are often paid incentives to work at such facilities. However, there is little evidence on how many fewer people are treated at remote facilities than facilities in more densely settled areas. This research explores if there is an association between the efficiency of health centers in Afghanistan and the remoteness of their location. Survey teams collected data on facility level inputs and outputs at a stratified random sample of 579 health centers in 2005. Quality of care was measured by observing staff interact with patients and determining if staff completed a set of normative patient care tasks. We used seemingly unrelated regression to determine if facilities in remote areas have fewer outpatient visits than other rural facilities. In this analysis, one equation compares the number of outpatient visits to facility inputs, while another compares quality of care to determinants of quality. The results indicate remote facilities have about 13% fewer outpatient visits than non-remote facilities, holding inputs constant. Our analysis suggests that facilities in remote areas are realizing horizontal equity since their clients are receiving comparable quality of care to those at non-remote facilities. However, we find the average labor cost for a visit at a remote facility is $1.44, but only $0.97 at other rural facilities, indicating that a visit in a remote facility would have to be 'worth' 1.49 times a visit at a rural facility for there to be no equity - efficiency trade-off. In determining where to build or staff health centers, this loss of efficiency may be offset by progress toward a social policy objective of providing services to disadvantaged rural populations. PMID:23726212

  13. Water-Balance Simulations of Runoff and Reservoir Storage for the Upper Helmand Watershed and Kajakai Reservoir, Central Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vining, Kevin C.; Vecchia, Aldo V.

    2007-01-01

    A study was performed to provide information on monthly historical and hypothetical future runoff for the Upper Helmand watershed and reservoir storage in Kajakai Reservoir that could be used by Afghanistan authorities to make economic and demographic decisions concerning reservoir design and operation, reservoir sedimentation, and development along the Helmand River. Estimated reservoir volume at the current spillway elevation of 1,033.5 meters decreased by about 365 million cubic meters from 1968 to 2006 because of sedimentation. Water-balance simulations indicated a good fit between modeled and recorded monthly runoff at the two gaging stations in the watershed for water years 1956-79 and indicated an excellent fit between modeled and recorded monthly changes in Kajakai Reservoir storage for water years 1956-79. Future simulations, which included low starting reservoir water levels and a spillway raised to an elevation of 1,045 meters, indicated that the reservoir is likely to fill within 2 years. Although Kajakai Reservoir is likely to fill quickly, multiyear deficits may still occur. If future downstream irrigation demand doubles but future precipitation, temperature, and reservoir sedimentation remain similar to historical conditions, the reservoir would have more than a 50-percent chance of being full during April or May of a typical year. Future simulations with a 10-percent reduction in precipitation indicated that supply deficits would occur more than 1 in 4 years, on average, during August, September, or October. The reservoir would be full during April or May fewer than 1 in 2 years, on average, and multiyear supply deficits could occur. Increased sedimentation had little effect on reservoir levels during April through July, but the frequency of deficits increased substantially during September and October.

  14. The role and types of antibiotics, depending on the injuries of soldiers of IX and X Polish military contingent in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemba, Radosław

    2012-01-01

    The frequency of external wounds sustained by soldiers on the modern battlefield is not declining. In particular, this concerns participants in humanitarian and stabilization missions in the third world countries, almost daily attacked with improvised booby-traps and firing missiles or multi-caliber weapons. The wound infection rate is high, which requires often the empirical use of antibiotics, both in local dressings, as well as the overall dose. The knowledge of the probable causative agent of a wound infection, its theoretical susceptibility to the antibiotic and spectrum antibiotics that are currently available, is a factor which is conditional in the success of treatment. In order to investigate, how the supply of PKW Afghanistan in antibiotics and chemotherapeutic drugs is presented and whether this supply range is suitable for medical problems, we analyzed the consumption of these drugs. Data for the years: 2010-2011 were available. The supply structure was dominated by antibiotics penicillin, cephalosporin, amino glycoside and macrolide. It was stated that each year the supply and consumption of antibiotics increased by 127.9%, with a stable number of serving people and a stable number of sustained injuries. Compared to 2010, in 2011 there were purchases of antibiotics used in severe, complicated infections caused by opportunistic multi-drug-resistant pathogens. This proves that the epidemiological situation was deteriorating on the area of PKW Afghanistan service mission. PMID:23285678

  15. ‘This place isn't worth the left boot of one of our boys’: Geopolitics, militarism and memoirs of the Afghanistan war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Rachel; Jenkings, K. Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the continued significance of the text as a source and focus in critical geopolitical inquiry. It establishes the utility of the military memoir in explorations of popular contemporary geopolitical imaginaries, and considers the memoir as a vector of militarism. The paper examines the memoirs written by military personnel about service in Afghanistan with the British armed forces, specifically about deployments to Helmand province between 2006 and 2012. The paper explores how Afghanistan is scripted through these texts, focussing on the explanations for deployment articulated by their authors, on the representations they contain and promote about other combatants and about civilian non-combatants, and the constitution and expression of danger in the spaces and places of military action which these texts construct and convey. The paper then turns to consider how a reading of the military memoir with reference to the genre of testimonio might extend and inform our understanding and use of these texts as a source for exploring popular geopolitics and militarism. PMID:23805031

  16. 'This place isn't worth the left boot of one of our boys': Geopolitics, militarism and memoirs of the Afghanistan war.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Rachel; Jenkings, K Neil

    2012-11-01

    This paper argues for the continued significance of the text as a source and focus in critical geopolitical inquiry. It establishes the utility of the military memoir in explorations of popular contemporary geopolitical imaginaries, and considers the memoir as a vector of militarism. The paper examines the memoirs written by military personnel about service in Afghanistan with the British armed forces, specifically about deployments to Helmand province between 2006 and 2012. The paper explores how Afghanistan is scripted through these texts, focussing on the explanations for deployment articulated by their authors, on the representations they contain and promote about other combatants and about civilian non-combatants, and the constitution and expression of danger in the spaces and places of military action which these texts construct and convey. The paper then turns to consider how a reading of the military memoir with reference to the genre of testimonio might extend and inform our understanding and use of these texts as a source for exploring popular geopolitics and militarism. PMID:23805031

  17. Reporting Military Sexual Trauma: A Mixed-Methods Study of Women Veterans' Experiences Who Served From World War II to the War in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Kristina B; Mills, Peter D

    2016-08-01

    Since 2004, there has been increased effort to reduce military sexual trauma (MST) in the U.S. military. Although MST covers a range of inappropriate behaviors, the majority of research, treatment, and outreach are focused on sexual assault and the experiences of individuals serving in Afghanistan and Iraq. During a study on veterans' involvement in a national peace organization, participants were asked about their military experiences. Veterans served from World War II to current conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Emerging out of the responses were descriptions of women's experiences with MST, barriers to reporting incidents of sexual misconduct and sexual assault, and the challenges they faced when seeking care. Data were gathered using anonymous questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Out of 52 female veterans, the majority (90%) was subjected to at least one form of MST, and 15% (8) attempted to report the incident(s). Over half of the assailants were of a higher rank than the survivors. The majority of veterans remained silent due to lack of options to report, the status of perpetrators, and fear of retaliation. These data provide a glimpse into the challenges many women veterans faced when seeking assistance reporting incidents or obtaining health care for their MST. PMID:27483522

  18. Guest Editorial: Annual reports on Department of Veterans Affairs healthcare utilization among Iraq and Afghanistan war Veterans with traumatic brain injury and comorbidities to inform policy, research, and practice

    OpenAIRE

    Brent C. Taylor, PhD, MPH; Nina A. Sayer, PhD

    2014-01-01

    The past decade of research has demonstrated that a significant proportion of Veterans are returning from U.S. combat operations in and around Afghanistan and Iraq (referred to as Operation Iraqi Freedom, Operation Enduring Freedom, and Operation New Dawn [OIF/OEF/OND]) with mental health disorders, reintegration problems, and physical injuries.

  19. Situation Reports--Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, Yemen Arab Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in 17 foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Afghanistan, Bahrein, Brazil, Ecuador, Indonesia, Iraq, Morocco, Paraguay, People's Democratic Republic of Yemen, Peru, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sri Lanka, St. Christopher/Nevis, Sudan, United Arab Emirates, and…

  20. The conservation of the Shahr-e-Zohak archaeological site (central Afghanistan): Geomorphological processes and ecosystem-based mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margottini, Claudio; Fidolini, Francesco; Iadanza, Carla; Trigila, Alessandro; Ubelmann, Yves

    2015-06-01

    The archaeological remains of Shahr-e Zohak are part of the Bamiyan valley, which has been recognized by UNESCO as World Heritage and is famous for hosting the main heritage of the Buddhist culture in Afghanistan. The site comprises the remains of the Zohak fortress, which is placed on a steep hill at the confluence of the Bamiyan and Kalu rivers. The fortress is protected by ramparts, built along the steep cliffs bounding the site, which are equipped with several watchtowers. The citadel is protected by three more orders of walls and is located on the topmost part of the hill. All the structures are made of mudbricks placed on top of stony foundations. Due to the prolonged exposure to weathering, the lack of conservation measures and the misuse during war periods, many constructions collapsed or are prone to collapse. A new topography (1 m contour lines) of the site was produced using drone-derived 3D photogrammetry combined with GPS data. Then a detailed geomorphological survey of the whole site was carried out in order to identify the main geomorphic processes acting on the land surface and structures. GIS analysis allowed defining the internal drainage system of the studied area. The site is affected by incised erosional phenomena on the eastern side, while the hilltop is mainly hit by diffuse erosion and soil mobilization during snowmelt. Monument deterioration is coupled with the lack of an adequate drainage system to collect runoff. Ramparts located on the steep hillslopes are severely affected by gully erosion and siphoning, which cause depressions infilled by eroded and weathered building material. The access path is locally eroded or buried by debris cones. The western margin of the plateau has been rapidly retreating due to collapses, while the citadel is in danger due to diffuse or gully erosional processes developed on all its sides. A mitigation strategy with low environmental impact (ecosystem-based approach) is proposed in order to adopt sustainable

  1. Organic petrology of subbituminous carbonaceous shale samples from Chalaw, Kabul Province, Afghanistan: Considerations for paleoenvironment and energy resource potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, Paul C.; SanFilipo, John R. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 956 National Center, Reston VA, 20192 (United States); Azizi, Gul Pacha [Afghanistan Geological Survey, Macroryan Square, Kabul (Afghanistan); Davis, Philip A. [U.S. Geological Survey, 520 N. Park Avenue, Tucson AZ, 85719 (United States); Starratt, Scott W. [U.S. Geological Survey, MS 910, 345 Middlefield Rd, Menlo Park CA, 94025 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Neogene (?) subbituminous carbonaceous shale deposits from Chalaw, Afghanistan, were investigated through organic petrology techniques and standard coal analyses to determine paleoenvironment and potential for resource utilization. The Chalaw deposit, approximately 30 km southeast of Kabul, currently is exploited for brick making and domestic heating and cooking. Three multiple-bench channel samples of the mined bed at Chalaw were collected and evaluated. The presence of significant huminite (ranging from 0.2 to 59.0 vol.%, mineral-inclusive basis) is suggestive of a terrestrial lignin-rich precursor plant material. Measured reflectance values of 0.38-0.55% indicate subbituminous rank. This rank suggests burial depths of approximately 1500 m and maximum temperatures of approximately 50 C. Structured liptinite macerals generally are absent except for some fluorescing morphologies interpreted to be poorly-preserved root cork suberinite. Sponge spicule bioliths including gemmoscleres and megascleres are common. These petrographic observations, in addition to high mineral matter content (33 to > 95 vol.%), medium to high sulfur content (2.1-11.5 wt.%, dry basis; db), and the presence of common gastropod? shell fragments and an aragonite-needle chalk bed are consistent with, but not directly indicative of, a marginal marine or estuarine mangrove depositional environment. However, additional data are necessary to confirm this hypothesis and deposition in a freshwater environment cannot be ruled out at this time. Commercial-scale development and utilization of the Chalaw deposit as a thermal fuel resource may be possible using a fluidized bed combustion system which could accept the low-quality mine product currently produced. Samples examined herein contain high-ash yield (45-90 wt.%, db), high total moisture content (17-39 wt.%), low calorific value (980-6860 Btu/lb, m,mmf), and have poor agglomerating properties (FSI = 0), consistent with fuels utilized in fluidized

  2. Geology and undiscovered resource assessment of the potash-bearing Central Asia Salt Basin, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan: Chapter AA in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, Jeff; Orris, Greta J.; Dunlap, Pamela; Cocker, Mark D.; Bliss, James D.

    2016-01-01

    Undiscovered potash resources in the Central Asia Salt Basin (CASB) of Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan were assessed as part of a global mineral resource assessment led by the U.S. Geological Survey. The term “potash” refers to potassium-bearing, water-soluble salts derived from evaporite basins, where seawater dried up and precipitated various salt compounds; the word for the element “potassium” is derived from potash. Potash is produced worldwide at amounts exceeding 30 million metric tons per year, mostly for use in fertilizers. The term “potash” is used by industry to refer to potassium chloride, as well as potassium in sulfate, nitrate, and oxide forms. For the purposes of this assessment, the term “potash” refers to potassium ores and minerals and potash ore grades. Resource and production values are usually expressed by industry in terms of K2O (potassium oxide) or muriate of potash (KCl, potassium chloride).

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Danish Soldiers 2.5 Years after Military Deployment in Afghanistan: The Role of Personality Traits as Predisposing Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Hellerup Nielsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD implicates research regarding factors besides the preceding traumatic event. This study investigated the influence of predisposing personality traits on development of PTSD in a group of Danish Soldiers deployed to Afghanistan (N = 445. Using a prospective design data was collected using questionnaires including the NEO Five Factor Inventory and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist. The results showed a PTSD-prevalence of 9.2% in the total sample 2.5 years after homecoming. Using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Spearman¡'s rho significant relationships were identified between pre-existing personality traits of neuroticism and agreeableness with development of PTSD symptoms 2.5 years after homecoming, however, a number of additional cofounders were identified.

  4. La violación de los Derechos de la mujer en Afganistán/The violation of the rights of women in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Anguiano (México

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available De acuerdo con su propia cultura, en Afganistán se practican determinadas costumbres que infringen un severo sufrimiento a las mujeres y niñas, al no respetarse la integridad del cuerpo femenino; su sexualidad, dignidad o identidad ni las libertades de movimiento, asociación y expresión. Todos estos aspectos serán vistos en las siguientes líneas. In accordance with their own culture, Afghanistan practice certain customs that infringe a severe suffering to women and girls, to not respect the integrity of the female body; their sexuality, dignity or identity or freedom of movement, association and expression. All these situations are going to be seen in the following lines.

  5. The influence of pre-deployment cognitive ability on post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms and trajectories: The Danish USPER follow-up study of Afghanistan veterans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Andersen, Soren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: New trajectories of PTSD symptoms have recently been identified in war exposed army veterans. The aim of this army veterans study was to examine whether pre-deployment cognitive ability is associated with the risk of developing PTSD symptoms or non-resilient PTSD trajectories. METHOD......: Follow up study in 428 Danish soldiers, deployed to Afghanistan in 2009, who were assessed at six occasions from pre-deployment to three years post-deployment. Pre-deployment vulnerabilities, deployment and homecoming stressors were measured. Pre-deployment cognitive test scores on Børge Priens Prøve......-Civilian Version (PCL-C) 2.5 years post-deployment (OR=0.97; 95% CI 0.95-1.00) after adjustment for educational length, baseline PCL-C score and perceived war-zone stress. Compared to a resilient trajectory, a non-resilient relieved-worsening trajectory (high baseline mental symptoms, being symptom free during...

  6. Topographic and Hydrographic GIS Datasets for the Afghanistan Geological Survey and U.S. Geological Survey 2014 Mineral Areas of Interest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Malpeli, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    Mineral extraction and associated industries play an important role in the Afghan economy, particularly in the “transitional era” of declining foreign aid and withdrawal of foreign troops post 2014. In addition to providing a substantial source of government revenue, other potential benefits of natural resource development include boosted exports, employment opportunities, and strengthened industrialization (Joya, 2012). Continued exploration and investment in these industries has resulted in large economic improvements since 2007, when this series of studies was initiated. At that time, the “Preliminary Non-Fuel Mineral Resource Assessment of Afghanistan” was completed by members of the U.S. Geological Survey and Afghanistan Geological Survey (Peters and others, 2007). The assessment published a series of country-wide datasets, including a digital elevation model (DEM), elevation contours, hydrography, transportation routes, geophysics, and cultural datasets (Peters and others, 2007). It also delineated 20 mineralized areas for further study using a geologic-based methodology. A second data product, “Summaries of Important Areas for Mineral Investment and Production Opportunities of Nonfuel Minerals in Afghanistan,” was released by Peters and others in 2011. This work highlighted geologic, geohydrologic, and hyperspectral studies that were carried out in specific Areas of Interest (AOIs) to assess the location and characteristics of mineral resources. Also included in the 2011 publication is a collection of appendixes and inventories of Geographic Information System (GIS) datasets for each of the 24 identified AOIs. A third data product was released in 2013 (Casey and Chirico, 2013), publishing datasets for five different AOIs, two subareas, and one AOI extension. Each dataset contains vector shapefiles of the AOI boundary, streams, roads, and contours at 25-, 50-, and 100-meter (m) intervals, as well as raster files of the AOI’s DEM and hillshade.

  7. FEMALE ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN AFGHANISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    MAGNUS HOLMÉN; THAW TAR MIN; EMILIA SAARELAINEN

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the motivations of eight female Afghan entrepreneurs to start up their own business and the problems they encountered during start-up and operations. Income generation was the most important push factor but pull factors including desire for independence and autonomy were also important. However, in contrast to studies in other countries, the desire for achievement was not emphasized. An unexpected finding was the emphasis on the desire to help non-family members by running...

  8. Afghanistan / Pakistan Information Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The Pak & Afghan Info systems perform (or will perform) many functions which are not handled by existing Agency systems. Among these are the collection of...

  9. Natural-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3064, 3066, 2964, and 2966, Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), Sreh-Chena (707), Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), and Samandkhan-Karez (713) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a natural-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The natural colors were generated using calibrated red-, green-, and blue-wavelength Landsat image data, which were correlated with red, green, and blue values of corresponding picture elements in MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) 'true color' mosaics of Afghanistan. These mosaics have been published on http://www.truecolorearth.com and modified to match more closely the Munsell colors of sampled surfaces. Peak elevations are derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) digital data, averaged over a pixel representing an area of 85 m2, and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding local point. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  10. Long-term impact of battle injuries; five-year follow-up of injured Dutch servicemen in Afghanistan 2006-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigo Hoencamp

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Units deployed to armed conflicts are at high risk for exposure to combat events. Many battle casualties (BCs have been reported in the recent deployment to Afghanistan. The long-term impact of these combat injuries, at their five-year end point, is currently unknown. To date, no systematic inventory has been performed of an identified group of BCs in comparison to non-injured service members from the same operational theatre. DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional cohort study. SETTING: Open online survey among Dutch BCs that deployed to Afghanistan (2006-2010. PARTICIPANTS: The Dutch BCs (n = 62 were compared to two control groups of non-injured combat groups (battle exposed [n = 53], and non-battle exposed [n = 73]. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants rated their impact of trauma exposure (Impact of Events [IES], post deployment reintegration (Post Deployment Reintegration Scale [PDRS], general symptoms of distress (Symptom Checklist 90 [SCL-90], as well as their current perceived quality of life (EuroQol-6D [EQ-6D]. Also cost effectiveness (Short From health survey [SF-36] and care consumption were assessed (Trimbos/iMTA questionnaire. RESULTS: Over 90% of BCs were still in active duty. The mean scores of all questionnaires (IES, EQ-6D, SF-36, and SCL-90 of the BC group were significantly higher than in the control groups (p<0.05. The PDRS showed a significantly lower (p<0.05 outcome in the negative subscales. The mean consumption of care was triple that of both control groups. A lower score on quality of life was related to higher levels of distress and impact of trauma exposure. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed a clear long-term impact on a wide range of scales that contributes to a reduced quality of life in a group of BCs. Low perceived cost effectiveness matched with high consumption of care in the BC group in comparison to the control groups. These results warrant continuous monitoring of BCs.

  11. Prevalence of and factors influencing posttraumatic stress disorder among mothers of children under five in Kabul, Afghanistan, after decades of armed conflicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemat Shafiqullah

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the period following wars and other forms of armed conflict, health and quality of life of mothers is a major concern as they have the closest contact with children. The present study was performed to examine the impact of exposure to events related to armed conflicts on post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD among women raising children, and to identify factors that alleviate the negative consequences of exposure to traumatic events. Methods A structured interview survey was conducted in Kabul Province, Afghanistan, in 2006. The subjects were the mothers of children less than 5 years old randomly selected from 1400 households in Kabul Province, Afghanistan. Symptoms of PTSD were assessed according to the criteria of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV. Exposure to traumatic events related to armed conflict, experience of hardship with regard to basic needs, resources that the subjects seek for mental health support, and socioeconomic variables were evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between PTSD symptoms and predictor variables. Results The prevalence rate of PTSD among 1172 women participated in this study was 29.8%. The most prevalent symptom was arousal (74.8%, followed by re-experiencing (54.9% and avoidance (33.7%. The prevalence rate of PTSD symptoms among subjects who reported having experienced at least one event related to armed conflict (52.7% was significantly higher than that among those who reported no such experiences (9.6%. Experience of food shortage was independently associated with PTSD. Seeking support for mental health was related to lower prevalence of PTSD symptoms among those who reported no direct experience of events related to armed conflict. However, no such relationship was observed with PTSD symptoms among those who reported having direct experience of events related to armed conflict. Conclusion Direct

  12. Deployment Experiences, Social Support, and Mental Health: Comparison of Black, White, and Hispanic U.S. Veterans Deployed to Afghanistan and Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muralidharan, Anjana; Austern, David; Hack, Samantha; Vogt, Dawne

    2016-06-01

    Compared to their White counterparts, Black and Hispanic Vietnam-era, male, combat veterans in the United States have experienced discrimination and increased trauma exposure during deployment and exhibited higher rates of postdeployment mental health disorders. The present study examined differences in deployment experiences and postdeployment mental health among male and female Black, Hispanic, and White veterans deployed in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in Afghanistan and Operation Iraqi Freedom in Iraq. Data were drawn from a national survey of veterans (N = 924) who had returned from deployment within the last 2 years. Ethnoracial minority veterans were compared to White veterans of the same gender on deployment experiences and postdeployment mental health. The majority of comparisons did not show significant differences; however, several small group differences did emerge (.02 < η(2) < .04). Ethnoracial minority veterans reported greater perceived threat in the warzone and more family-related concerns and stressors during deployment than White veterans of the same gender. Minority female veterans reported higher levels of postdeployment symptoms of anxiety than their White counterparts, which were accounted for by differences in deployment experience. These differences call for ongoing monitoring. PMID:27191777

  13. Application of ultrasound examination in tactical conditions illustrated with an example of the Field Hospital of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machała, Waldemar; Wiśniewski, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Robert

    2014-12-01

    It is assumed that tactical medicine encompasses all therapeutic activities performed by a military medical service during military and humanitarian missions. Its scope is only apparently limited by the standards which, when referred to the NATO member countries, have been collected in the Joint Theater Trauma System - Clinical Practice Guidelines. The stage-structured character of medical assistance and treatment of the wounded, injured and sick patients assumes that the scope of therapeutic activities performed at each stage is limited only to essential actions. Consequently, more injured patients may be saved - those for whom life-saving activities are performed prior to their transfer to a higher level. The second level is represented by a field hospital. Its first structure is the trauma room in which a rescue team saves and qualifies the injured for further medical activities. Each injured patient undergoes an eFAST ultrasound examination which allows for a quick decision about a surgical treatment to be provided. Moreover, this technique is helpful in vascular cannulation. The authors present their own experiences with using an ultrasound examination during the work in the Field Hospital of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan. PMID:26673805

  14. Relationship of screen-based symptoms for mild traumatic brain injury and mental health problems in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans: Distinct or overlapping symptoms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shira Maguen, PhD

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study used factor analytic techniques to differentiate distinct from overlapping screen-based symptoms of traumatic brain injury (TBI, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and depression in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. These symptoms were derived from screen results of 1,549 veterans undergoing Department of Veterans Affairs postdeployment screening between April 2007 and January 2010. Veterans with positive TBI screens were approximately twice as likely to also screen positive for depression and PTSD (adjusted relative risks = 1.9 and 2.1, respectively. Irritability was a shared symptom between TBI and PTSD, and emotional numbing was a shared symptom between PTSD and depression. Symptoms unique to TBI included dizziness, headaches, memory problems, and light sensitivity. Four separate constructs emerged: TBI, PTSD, depression, and a fourth construct consisting of hypervigilance and sleep problems. These findings illuminate areas of overlap between TBI and common postdeployment mental health problems. Discriminating symptoms of TBI from mental health problems may facilitate diagnosis, triage to specialty care, and targeted symptom management. The emergence of a fourth factor consisting of sleep problems and hypervigilance highlights the need to attend to specific symptoms in the postdeployment screening process.

  15. Heterotopic ossification in combat amputees from Afghanistan and Iraq wars: Five case histories and results from a small series of patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ted Melcer, PhD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic ossification (HO is excess bone growth in soft tissues that frequently occurs in the residual limbs of combat amputees injured in Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom, or Iraq and Afghanistan wars, respectively. HO can interfere with prosthetic use and walking and delay patient rehabilitation. This article describes symptomatic and/or radiographic evidence of HO in a patient series of combat amputees rehabilitating at a military amputee care clinic (27 patients/33 limbs. We conducted a retrospective review of patient records and physician interviews to document evidence of HO symptoms in these limbs (e.g., pain during prosthetic use, skin breakdown. Results showed HO-related symptoms in 10 of the 33 residual limbs. Radiographs were available for 25 of the 33 limbs, and a physician identified at least moderate HO in 15 of the radiographs. However, 5 of the 15 patients who showed at least moderate radiographic HO did not report adverse symptoms. Five individual patient histories described HO onset, symptoms, treatments, and outcomes. These case histories illustrated how HO location relative to pressure-sensitive/pressure-tolerant areas of the residual limb may determine whether patients experienced symptoms. These histories revealed the uncommon but novel finding of potential benefits of HO for prosthetic suspension.

  16. Provision of mental health services in resource-poor settings: a randomised trial comparing counselling with routine medical treatment in North Afghanistan (Mazar-e-Sharif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayoughi Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Psychosocial stress caused by war, ongoing conflict, lack of security, and restricted access to resources promotes mental suffering and diseases in many resource-poor countries. In an exemplary setting, the present study compares the efficacy of psychosocial counselling with routine pharmacological treatment in a randomised trial in Mazar-e-Sharif (Afghanistan. Methods Help seeking Afghan women (N = 61, who were diagnosed with mental health symptoms by local physicians either received routine medical treatment(treatment as usual or psychosocial counselling (5-8 sessions following a specifically developed manualised treatment protocol. Primary outcome measures were symptoms of depression and anxiety assessed before treatment and at follow-up using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist and the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Secondary outcome measures were psychosocial stressors and coping mechanisms. Results At 3-month follow-up, psychosocial counselling patients showed high improvements with respect to the severity of symptoms of depression and anxiety. In addition, they reported a reduction of psychosocial stressors and showed an enhancement of coping strategies. At the same time, the severity of symptoms, the quantity of psychosocial stressors and coping mechanisms did not improve in patients receiving routine medical treatment. Conclusion These results indicate that psychosocial counselling can be an effective treatment for mental illnesses even for those living in ongoing unsafe environments. Trial registration NCT01155687

  17. Veteraners psykiske velbefindende 7-8 måneder efter hjemkomst. Undersøgelse af udsendte til Afghanistan i perioden februar-august 2013

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løngaard, Katja; Nielsen, Anni Brit Sternhagen; Andersen, Søren Bo; Karstoft, Karen-Inge

    Baggrund Denne undersøgelse omhandler det psykiske helbred blandt dansk personel udsendt med International Security Assistance Force (ISAF) hold 15 til Afghanistan fra februar til august 2013. Den har til formål at afdække forekomsten af symptomer på depression og posttraumatisk stresslidelse (PTSD......) fra før udsendelsen til 7-8 måneder efter hjemkomst samt identificere faktorer målt før udsendelse, der øger sårbarheden for at udvikle symptomer på PTSD. Herudover vil rapporten indeholde en sammenligning af forekomsten af PTSD- og depressionssymptomer på ISAF15 med forekomsten af symptomer på ISAF7...... besvarelser) og fik tilsendt spørgeskemaer 7-8 måneder efter hjemkomst (340 besvarelser). Ud fra disse besvarelser opgør vi forekomsten af symptomer på PTSD og depression, analyserer udviklingen af PTSD-symptomer over tid og identificerer sårbarhedsfaktorer, der øger risikoen for at tilhøre en PTSD...

  18. An Outbreak of Hepatic Veno-Occlusive Disease in Western Afghanistan Associated with Exposure to Wheat Flour Contaminated with Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are known to cause hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD). Outbreaks have occurred in Western Afghanistan since 1974, the latest in February 2008. We conducted an outbreak investigation using a case-control design. Sixty-seven cases of VOD were compared with 199 community controls. Consumption of bread was strongly associated with disease (adjusted odds ratio: 35.8 [95%CI: 7.6 168.2]). Toxic doses of PA were found in plant extracts and in samples of wheat flour taken from the study area. Compared to wheat flour there was 1000 times less PA in milk and whey and in water samples the PA content was zero. Although direct analysis was not possible, contaminated wheat flour used to make bread was the likely source of PA causing the outbreak. Eating a more varied diet including meat and fruit may be protective. Prevention and control measures will rely on community awareness and agricultural interventions to ensure safety of the food supply.

  19. Fear of Losing Emotional Control Is Associated With Cognitive Processing Therapy Outcomes in U.S. Veterans of Afghanistan and Iraq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Shannon R; Smith, Tracey L; Maieritsch, Kelly P; Ahearn, Eileen P

    2015-10-01

    Evidence-based treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can reduce symptoms and improve veterans' psychological health. Unfortunately, many veterans leave treatment before receiving maximum benefit. Fear of emotions is related to severity of PTSD, and changes in fear of emotions are correlated with changes in PTSD symptoms. This study built upon the literature linking greater fear of emotions to PTSD severity by examining whether pretreatment fear of emotions, measured by the Affect Control Scale, was associated with completion of cognitive processing therapy (CPT) and severity of posttreatment PTSD in a sample of 89 U.S. veterans who had served in Afghanistan and Iraq. About 60% of veterans completed 10 or more therapy sessions. A logistic regression on 51 of the 89 subjects that more fear of anxiety at pretreatment was associated with decreased likelihood of completing treatment, OR = 0.93, 95% CI [0.87, 1.00]. Of those veterans who completed treatment, higher fear of anger at pretreatment was negatively related to severity of PTSD posttreatment (β = -.29, p = .037), in a model with the other predictors. Assessing veterans for fear of anxiety and anger before CPT and teaching emotion regulation skills to those in need may reduce treatment dropout. PMID:26397721

  20. False-Color-Image Map of Quadrangles 3064, 3066, 2964, and 2966, Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), Sreh-Chena (707), Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), and Samandkhan-Karez (713) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2007-01-01

    This map is a false-color rendition created from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus imagery collected between 1999 and 2002. The false colors were generated by applying an adaptive histogram equalization stretch to Landsat bands 7 (displayed in red), 4 (displayed in green), and 2 (displayed in blue). These three bands contain most of the spectral differences provided by Landsat imagery and, therefore, provide the most discrimination between surface materials. Landsat bands 4 and 7 are in the near-infrared and short-wave-infrared regions, respectively, where differences in absorption of sunlight by different surface materials are more pronounced than in visible wavelengths. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Cultural features were not derived from the Landsat base and consequently do not match it precisely. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (U.S. Geological Survey/Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The OFR numbers range in sequence from 1092 to 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS in cooperation with the AGS and AGCHO.

  1. An Analysis of Chinese enterprises to invest in Afghanistan mining industry risks and preventive measures%阿富汗矿业投资风险分析及防范策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彤荔

    2013-01-01

    随着我国综合国力的提升,中国企业境外矿产投资规模不断扩大。阿富汗作为我国邻国,其矿产资源开发潜力巨大,绝大部分处于未开发状态。长期的动荡局势制约了阿国矿业的发展,为吸引外国投资,阿富汗致力改善本国投资环境。从事阿矿业投资存在安全形势严峻、法律不健全、人才短缺、基础设施落后等风险因素,安全风险尤为突出。投资者需谨慎决策、制定应急方案、尊重当地传统、密切与政府关系、合法经营并热心公益事业,有助于规避风险。%With the upgrading of China's comprehensive national strength ,the scale of investment of Chinese enterprises overseas mineral expanding .Afghanistan is our neighbor ,the development of mineral resources has great potential ,most of the undeveloped state .The long-term unrest restricted the development of the Argentine Mining ,Afghanistan is committed to improve its investment environment to attract foreign investment .Engaged in mining investment in Afghanistan security situation is grim ,the law is not perfect ,talent shortage ,poor infrastructure and other risk factors ,especially security risk .Investors need to be cautious decision-making ,development of contingency plans ,respectful of local traditions and close relations with the government ,legitimate business and public-spirited undertakings ,helps to avoid risks .

  2. Geologic Map of Quadrangles 3064, 3066, 2964, and 2966, Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), Sreh-Chena (707), Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), and Samandkhan-Karez (713) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Dennis W.; Whitney, John W.; Bohannon, Robert G.

    2007-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Geologic data and the international boundary of Afghanistan were taken directly from Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). It is the primary intent of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to present the geologic data in a useful format while making them publicly available. These data represent the state of geologic mapping in Afghanistan as of 2005, although the original map was released in the late 1970s (Abdullah and Chmyriov, 1977). The USGS has made no attempt to modify original geologic map-unit boundaries and faults; however, modifications to map-unit symbology, and minor modifications to map-unit descriptions, have been made to clarify lithostratigraphy and to modernize terminology. The generation of a Correlation of Map Units (CMU) diagram required interpretation of the original data, because no CMU diagram was presented by Abdullah and Chmyriov (1977). This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles shown on the index map. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file report (OFR) number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The

  3. Transformation of Mental Health Care for U.S. Soldiers and Families During the Iraq and Afghanistan Wars: Where Science and Politics Intersect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, Charles W; Ivany, Christopher G; Brusher, Edward A; Brown, Millard D; Shero, John C; Adler, Amy B; Warner, Christopher H; Orman, David T

    2016-04-01

    The cumulative strain of 14 years of war on service members, veterans, and their families, together with continuing global threats and the unique stresses of military service, are likely to be felt for years to come. Scientific as well as political factors have influenced how the military has addressed the mental health needs resulting from these wars. Two important differences between mental health care delivered during the Iraq and Afghanistan wars and previous wars are the degree to which research has directly informed care and the consolidated management of services. The U.S. Army Medical Command implemented programmatic changes to ensure delivery of high-quality standardized mental health services, including centralized workload management; consolidation of psychiatry, psychology, psychiatric nursing, and social work services under integrated behavioral health departments; creation of satellite mental health clinics embedded within brigade work areas; incorporation of mental health providers into primary care; routine mental health screening throughout soldiers' careers; standardization of clinical outcome measures; and improved services for family members. This transformation has been accompanied by reduction in psychiatric hospitalizations and improved continuity of care. Challenges remain, however, including continued underutilization of services by those most in need, problems with treatment of substance use disorders, overuse of opioid medications, concerns with the structure of care for chronic postdeployment (including postconcussion) symptoms, and ongoing questions concerning the causes of historically high suicide rates, efficacy of resilience training initiatives, and research priorities. It is critical to ensure that remaining gaps are addressed and that knowledge gained during these wars is retained and further evolved. PMID:26552941

  4. Sexual Health in Male and Female Iraq and Afghanistan U. S. War Veterans With and Without PTSD: Findings From the VALOR Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breyer, Benjamin N; Fang, Shona C; Seal, Karen H; Ranganathan, Gayatri; Marx, Brian P; Keane, Terence M; Rosen, Raymond C

    2016-06-01

    We sought to determine whether posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with sexual health in returned warzone-deployed veterans from the recent Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. We studied 1,581 males and females from the Veterans After-Discharge Longitudinal Registry, a gender-balanced U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs registry of health care-seeking veterans with and without PTSD. Approximately one quarter (25.1%) of males (n = 198) and 12.7% of females (n = 101) had a sexual dysfunction diagnosis and/or prescription treatment for sexual dysfunction. Both genders were more likely to have a sexual dysfunction diagnosis and/or prescription treatment if they had PTSD compared with those without PTSD (male: 27.3% vs. 21.1%, p = .054; female: 14.9% vs. 9.4%, p = .022). Among the 1,557 subjects analyzed here, males with PTSD had similar levels of sexual activity compared to those without PTSD (71.2% vs. 75.4%, p = .22), whereas females with PTSD were less likely to be sexually active compared to females without PTSD (58.7% vs. 72.1%, p < .001). Participants with PTSD were also less likely to report sex-life satisfaction (male: 27.6% vs. 46.0%, p < .001; female: 23.0% vs. 45.7%, p < .001) compared with those without PTSD. Although PTSD was not associated with sexual dysfunction after adjusting for confounding factors, it was significantly negatively associated with sex-life satisfaction in female veterans with a prevalence ratio of .71, 95% confidence interval [.57, .90]. PMID:27128485

  5. Topographic Map of Quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Robert G.

    2006-01-01

    This map was produced from several larger digital datasets. Topography was derived from Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) 85-meter digital data. Gaps in the original dataset were filled with data digitized from contours on 1:200,000-scale Soviet General Staff Sheets (1978-1997). Contours were generated by cubic convolution averaged over four pixels using TNTmips surface-modeling capabilities. Minor artifacts resulting from the auto-contouring technique are present. Streams were auto-generated from the SRTM data in TNTmips as flow paths. Flow paths were limited in number by their Horton value on a quadrangle-by-quadrangle basis. Peak elevations were averaged over an area measuring 85 m by 85 m (represented by one pixel), and they are slightly lower than the highest corresponding point on the ground. Cultural data were extracted from files downloaded from the Afghanistan Information Management Service (AIMS) Web site (http://www.aims.org.af). The AIMS files were originally derived from maps produced by the Afghanistan Geodesy and Cartography Head Office (AGCHO). Because cultural features were not derived from the SRTM base, they do not match it precisely. Province boundaries are not exactly located. This map is part of a series that includes a geologic map, a topographic map, a Landsat natural-color-image map, and a Landsat false-color-image map for the USGS/AGS (Afghan Geological Survey) quadrangles covering Afghanistan. The maps for any given quadrangle have the same open-file number but a different letter suffix, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively. The open-file report (OFR) numbers for each quadrangle range in sequence from 1092 - 1123. The present map series is to be followed by a second series, in which the geology is reinterpreted on the basis of analysis of remote-sensing data, limited fieldwork, and library research. The second series is to be produced by the USGS

  6. Health hazards of uranium dust from radioactive battlefields of the Balkan conflicts, Eastern Afghanistan and Iraq after the Gulf wars. Lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify key health hazards of uranium dust from the radioactive battlefields (Balkan, Middle East and Eastern Afghanistan conflicts) to draw lessons for civil protection in the terrorist scenario of radiological dispersion devices (RDD). Gulf War I (GW I) in 1991 resulted in 350 metric tons of depleted uranium (DU) deposited in the environment and 3 to 6 million grams of DU aerosol dust particles released into the atmosphere, by the most conservative estimates. Its possible legacy (Gulf War disease) continues after the military conflicts (Operation Enduring Freedom, OEF, in Afghanistan and Gulf War II in Iraq). The symptoms of the multiorgan incapacitating progressive disease have been as numerous as their names, including incapacitating fatigue, musculoskeletal and joint pains, headaches, neuropsychiatric disorders, affects changes, confusion, visual problems, changes of gait, loss of memory, lympadenopathies, respiratory impairment, impotence, and urinary tract morphological and functional alterations. The disease is still a matter of controversy regarding etiology and pathogenesis of the syndrome commonly named Gulf War disease. It was underestimated and subsequently evolved in its clinical description through recognition of progressive symptomatology. Methods: UMRC's studies of the human contamination with uranium isotopes were conducted with the exposed subjects of Jalalabad, Spin Gar, Tora Bora, and Kabul areas in Afghanistan after OEF as well as Samawah, Baghdad and Basrah in Iraq after GW II. The urine samples of the subjects were analysed by the plasma mass spectrometry. The analytical methodology involved pre-concentration of the uranium using co-precipitation and/or evaporation, oxidation of organic matter, purification of uranium with ion exchange chromatography, and mass spectrometry with a double focusing Thermo-Elemental Plasma54 multi-collector ICP-MS equipped with a

  7. « Preserving Early Afghan Publications Through Digital Technology ». L’art d’Afghanistan de la préhistoire à nos jours : nouvelles données. Actes d’une journée d’étude, Unesco, 11 mars 2005, s.l. [Paris], Centre d’Études et de Recherc

    OpenAIRE

    Szuppe, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Exposé précis d’un important projet en cours à la New York University, dirigé par l’auteur, sur l’élaboration d’une « bibliothèque afghane numérique » des livres imprimés publiés en Afghanistan depuis l’arrivée de l’imprimerie dans ce pays, ca. 1871, jusqu’aux premières décennies du XXe s. ; au total sur environ 60 ans (Afghanistan Digital Library, ADL). Ce projet tout à fait unique est mené en collaboration avec le Ministère de l’Information et de la Culture afghan et les Archives nationales...

  8. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; King, Trude V.V.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected carbonates, phyllosilicates, sulfates, altered minerals, and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. The map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Epidote or chlorite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  9. Hyperspectral surface materials map of quadrangles 2964, 2966, 3064, and 3066, Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), Samandkhan-Karez (713), Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), and Sreh-Chena (707) quadrangles, Afghanistan, showing iron-bearing minerals and other materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoefen, Todd M.; King, Trude V.V.; Kokaly, Raymond F.; Livo, Keith E.; Giles, Stuart A.; Johnson, Michaela R.

    2013-01-01

    This map shows the spatial distribution of selected iron-bearing minerals and other materials derived from analysis of airborne HyMap™ imaging spectrometer (hyperspectral) data of Afghanistan collected in late 2007. This map is one in a series of U.S. Geological Survey/Afghanistan Geological Survey quadrangle maps covering Afghanistan. Flown at an altitude of 50,000 feet (15,240 meters (m)), the HyMap™ imaging spectrometer measured reflected sunlight in 128 channels, covering wavelengths between 0.4 and 2.5 μm. The data were georeferenced, atmospherically corrected and converted to apparent surface reflectance, empirically adjusted using ground-based reflectance measurements, and combined into a mosaic with 23-m pixel spacing. Variations in water vapor and dust content of the atmosphere, in solar angle, and in surface elevation complicated correction; therefore, some classification differences may be present between adjacent flight lines. The reflectance spectrum of each pixel of HyMap™ imaging spectrometer data was compared to the reference materials in a spectral library of minerals, vegetation, water, and other materials. Minerals occurring abundantly at the surface and those having unique spectral features were easily detected and discriminated, while minerals having slightly different compositions but similar spectral features were less easily discriminated; thus, some map classes consist of several minerals having similar spectra, such as “Goethite and jarosite.” A designation of “Not classified” was assigned to the pixel when there was no match with reference spectra.

  10. Local-area-enhanced, 2.5-meter resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of the Ghazni1 mineral district in Afghanistan: Chapter DD in Local-area-enhanced, high-resolution natural-color and color-infrared satellite-image mosaics of mineral districts in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Philip A.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Defense Task Force for Business and Stability Operations, prepared databases for mineral-resource target areas in Afghanistan. The purpose of the databases is to (1) provide useful data to ground-survey crews for use in performing detailed assessments of the areas and (2) provide useful information to private investors who are considering investment in a particular area for development of its natural resources. The set of satellite-image mosaics provided in this Data Series (DS) is one such database. Although airborne digital color-infrared imagery was acquired for parts of Afghanistan in 2006, the image data have radiometric variations that preclude their use in creating a consistent image mosaic for geologic analysis. Consequently, image mosaics were created using ALOS (Advanced Land Observation Satellite; renamed Daichi) satellite images, whose radiometry has been well determined (Saunier, 2007a,b). This part of the DS consists of the locally enhanced ALOS image mosaics for the Ghazni1 mineral district, which has spectral reflectance anomalies indicative of clay, aluminum, gold, silver, mercury, and sulfur deposits. ALOS was launched on January 24, 2006, and provides multispectral images from the AVNIR (Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer) sensor in blue (420-500 nanometer, nm), green (520-600 nm), red (610-690 nm), and near-infrared (760-890 nm) wavelength bands with an 8-bit dynamic range and a 10-meter (m) ground resolution. The satellite also provides a panchromatic band image from the PRISM (Panchromatic Remote-sensing Instrument for Stereo Mapping) sensor (520-770 nm) with the same dynamic range but a 2.5-m ground resolution. The image products in this DS incorporate copyrighted data provided by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency ((c)JAXA, 2008, 2009), but the image processing has altered the original pixel structure and all image values of the JAXA ALOS data, such

  11. The US framework for understanding, preventing, and caring for the mental health needs of service members who served in combat in Afghanistan and Iraq: a brief review of the issues and the research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Andrew Castro

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the psychological health research conducted in the United States in support of combat veterans from Iraq and Afghanistan, using the Military Psychological Health Research Continuum, which includes foundational science, epidemiology, etiology, prevention and screening, treatment, follow-up care, and services research. The review is limited to those studies involving combat veterans and military families. This review discusses perplexing issues regarding the impact of combat on the mental health of service members such as risk and resilience factors of mental health, biomarkers of posttraumatic stress syndrome (PTSD, mental health training, psychological screening, psychological debriefing, third location decompression, combat and suicide, the usefulness of psychotherapy and drug therapy for treating PTSD, role of advanced technology, telemedicine and virtual reality, methods to reduce stigma and barriers to care, and best approaches to the dissemination of evidence-based interventions. The mental health research of special populations such as women, National Guardsmen and reservists, and military families is also presented. The review concludes by identifying future areas of research.

  12. Análisis del agente lesivo en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán Analysis of the injuring agent in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navarro Suay

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: El conocimiento sobre aspectos relacionados con el armamento mejoran el diagnóstico y el tratamiento global del herido, sobretodo en el caso del médico militar. Se exponen los agentes lesivos de los principales conflictos recientes. El objetivo del estudio es el análisis del agente lesivo de las bajas atendidas en el Hospital Militar (ROLE 2 de Herat (Afganistán entre 2005 y 2008. Material y método: Se ha diseñado un estudio descriptivo, transversal sobre todo el personal civil y militar que hubiese recibido herida por arma de fuego o por artefacto explosivo en la Región Oeste de Afganistán, y fuese atendido por el ROLE 2 español de Herat (Afganistán durante los años 2005-2008. Resultados: El número total de casos analizados fue de 256. La mayor parte de los pacientes fueron heridos por artefacto explosivo, como los "Improvised Explosive Device" (IEDs (n = 183, 71%, mientras que el resto presentó lesiones por proyectiles de arma de fuego (n = 73, 29%. Conclusiones: En nuestro estudio, el mecanismo lesivo predominante ha sido el explosivo, seguido de las armas de fuego. Este dato es semejante al obtenido en otros estudios anglosajones sobre las bajas en combate durante los conflictos en Irak y Afganistán.Introduction: The medical officer's knowledge about armament-related aspects improves the diagnosis and medical care of the casualty. In this article the injuring agents in the main recent conflicts are presented. The objective of this study is the analysis of the injuring agent in the casualties received in the military hospital in Herat (Afghanistan between 2005 and 2008. Materials and methods: A descriptive, transversal study was carried out including all civilian and military personnel wounded by firearms or explosive devices in the West Region of Afghanistan, and taken care of in the Spanish Role 2 in Herat (Afghanistan during the years 2005-2008. Results: The total number of cases was 256. The majority of the

  13. The Challenge of Reconstructing "Failed" States Le défi de la reconstruction des États «faillis» : Quelles leçons tirer des erreurs commises en Afghanistan ? El desafío de la reconstrucción de estados fracasados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serge Michailof

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available While international aid has significantly increased its support for the reconstruction of fragile countries and "failed" states emerging from severe crises or civil war,  we begin today to realize that the disaster in Afghanistan is largely due to mistakes made by the Western coalition, and in particular, to the disorganization of its development support efforts in this country. In this uncompromising article, Serge Michailof undertakes a systematic analysis of international donors' mistakes in Afghanistan between 2002 and 2010. His purpose is to draw lessons that can be applied more broadly and thus avoid repeating the same mistakes in other contexts.After reminding the reader that aid efficiency in countries emerging from a crisis is a source of considerable disappointment, and that not only promises and flashy announcements but considerable financial resources are required to rebuild those countries, Serge Michailof next makes a candid analysis of donors’ poor performance in Afghanistan. He emphasizes the lack of a coherent strategy and clear goals to guide their actions. He stresses the fact that ensuring the safety of the people and providing a local administration is critical in these circumstances, although largely forgotten by donors. Since foreign forces cannot fulfill this need indefinitely, building reliable national security forces is essential. He then describes the consequences of the lack of coordination and strategic management of aid, which results in severe inconsistencies in resource allocation, and proposes a new aid model to address such deficiencies. From the Afghan case analysis, he draws general conclusions regarding the principles governing aid coordination in fragile countries and the inadequacy of the millennium development goals as a conceptual framework in such contexts. He stresses the dire consequences of approaches governed by donors' short-term concerns, which end up establishing a parallel donor

  14. National suicide prevention strategy for Afghanistan (NSPS)

    OpenAIRE

    Sarwari, Bashir Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    RESUMO: Do suicídio no Afeganistão é uma prioridade de saúde pública. O Afeganistão é um país de baixo rendimento, emergindo de três décadas de conflitos. Há uma alta prevalência de sofrimento psicológico, perturbações mentais e abuso de substâncias. Existem várias questões sociais, tais como, desequilíbrio/violência de género, pobreza, atitudes e costumes obsoletos, rápidas mudanças sócio-culturais, violação dos direitos humanos e especialmente dos direitos das mulheres e das crianças. Estes...

  15. Lealtades incómodas: argumentos y debates en torno a la presencia de España en Afganistán (2001-2009 | Unconfortable loyalties: arguments and debates on the role of Spain in Afghanistan (2001-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuria DEL VISO PABÓN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available El artículo aborda la presencia de España en Afganistán desde 2001 y los argumentos esgrimidos para justificar o criticar la misión. Después de repasar el entorno general, el texto analiza las posiciones durante tres legislaturas de los gobiernos españoles responsables de la misión. El perfil discreto de España hasta 2008 no ha impedido un continuado aunque cauteloso aumento de su implicación. En 2009, con la victoria de Obama, se aprecia un cambio de tendencia y un apoyo más entusiasta a la operación. Igualmente, se analiza la evolución de las posiciones de los grupos parlamentarios y las tendencias en la opinión pública. El artículo concluye que, en una etapa de mayores compromisos, y en respuesta al respaldo a la misión que el gobierno pide a los ciudadanos, debe realizarse un proceso de reflexión y debate público sobre el papel de España en Afganistán; ello permitirá clarificar posiciones e idealmente alcanzar consensos.The article deals with the role of Spain in the international operation in Afghanistan from 2001, and the reasons to justify or criticize the mission. After reviewing the general context of the operation, the text analyses the positions of the three governments responsible for the mission. The discreet, modest presence of Spain in Afghanistan until 2008 didn’t prevented a cautious but continuous rise of its implication. From 2009 -the author argues-, in coincidence with Obama’s victory, there is a change of trend in the Spanish role towards the mission, with a more enthusiastic support.The article also examines the evolution in the positions towards the operation both of the Spanish Parliamentary groups and the public opinion. The text concludes arguing that in a phase of increased Spanish commitments and aswering the request of support that the Spanish Government is asking to the citizenship, a process of reflexion and public debate -absent up to now- should be undertaken; it will allow to clarify

  16. Análisis descriptivo del personal militar español asistido por el Servicio de Psicología del ROLE 2 de Herat, Afganistán A descriptive analysis of the Spanish military personnel attended by the Psychology Service at ROLE 2, Herat, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.A. Martínez Sánchez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Desde 2005, el Servicio de Psicología del ROLE 2 de la Base de Apoyo Avanzado de Herat (Afganistán presta asistencia psicológica al personal militar español desplegado en dicha provincia afgana. Esta asistencia adquiere un gran valor para el bienestar de nuestras tropas, dadas las características de riesgo y peligrosidad de las misiones que realizan en Afganistán. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal del personal atendido por el Servicio de Psicología del ROLE 2 entre mayo de 2005 y septiembre de 2009. Resultados: El número total de casos analizados fue 172. Los trastornos de ansiedad y los trastornos adaptativos fueron las categorías diagnósticas asignadas con mayor frecuencia, siendo la actitud terapéutica más común el control de la ansiedad, la terapia cognitiva y la repatriación o adelanto de la vuelta a territorio nacional. Conclusión: Para favorecer la adaptación de nuestro personal a zona de operaciones es necesario impartir programas formativos y educativos que permitan identificar, prevenir y afrontar estos trastornos: Del mismo modo, es preciso mejorar el perfil profesiográfico de cada individuo en misiones en el exterior.Introduction: Since 2005, the Service of Psychology of ROLE 2 of the Forward Support Base, Herat (Afghanistan, provides psychological assistance to the Spanish military personnel deployed in this Afghan province. This assistance takes a large value for the welfare of our troops, given the nature of risk and danger of the missions in Afghanistan. Methods: Observational, descriptive, transversal of military people assisted by the Service of Psychology ROLE 2 between May 2005 and September 2009. Results: The total number of cases analyzed was 172. Anxiety disorders and adjustment disorders were the diagnostic categories the more frequently assigned, being the most common therapeutic approach to control anxiety, cognitive therapy and repatriation or return to

  17. Despliegue y capacidades sanitarias en la región oeste de Afganistán (provincia de Badghis y Herat de agosto a noviembre 2012 Deployment and medical capabilities in the west region of Afghanistan (Badghis and Herat provinces from august to november 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navarro Suay

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En la actualidad despliegan en la misión de la Fuerza Internacional de Asistencia a la Seguridad (ISAF aproximadamente 1500 militares españoles y 40 Guardias Civiles. Este contingente se distribuye principalmente en las localidades de Qala i Now, Herat, Ludina, Muqur y Kabul. La sanidad militar española está presente en estos destacamentos, sus miembros están cumpliendo su misión y se están obteniendo importantes experiencias sobre el terreno. El objetivo del presente estudio es describir cuál es el personal sanitario desplegado, su ubicación, las capacidades materiales de cada escalón, su función y las lecciones identificadas por los autores durante sus estancias en la zona de operaciones de Afganistán.Actually, in International Security Assistance Force (ISAF are deployed approximately 1500 Spanish soldiers and 40 Guardia Civil members. This force is located in Qala I Now, Herat, Ludina, Muqur and Kabul. The Spanish medical Corp is in these camps too, their members are carry out the mission and they are learning important medical experiences in the field. The objective is to show which is the medical personnel deployed, position, material capability in each echelon, function and the lessons identified by authors during their deployment in Afghanistan.

  18. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte I: Características clínicas y reducción de la duración de la fiebre con el uso de oseltamivir Outbreak of new influenza a H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan during july and august 2009. Part I: Clinical features and reducing the duration of fever with the use of oseltamivir during the outbreak of new influenza A H1N1 in Spanish forces in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maimir Jané

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Desde la declaración de alerta fase 6 por la OMS se han presentado brotes de gripe A H1N1 en todo el mundo. Presentamos los resultados del estudio realizado en el brote de nueva gripe A H1N1 en la Base Militar de Camp Arena en Herat (Afganistán. Método: Estudio prospectivo de serie de casos, de pacientes controlados por el Servicio de Sanidad del Role 2, valorando la edad, síntomas al ingreso, duración de la fiebre, test de despistaje rápido, complicaciones, intolerancia al oseltamivir. En el grupo inicial de paciente se valoró RT-PCR. Se compararon los grupos con y sin tratamiento con oseltamivir para la duración de la fiebre. Resultados: Estudio de 106 pacientes, con edad media 27,17 años, los síntomas más frecuentes fueron la tos seca y mal estado general. Los pacientes tratados sin oseltamivir presentaron una duración media de la fiebre de 3,71 días, y con oseltamivir de 2,54 días (pIntroduction: Since the warning statement of Phase 6 by WHO, the world has presented Influenza A H1N1 outbreaks. We present the results of the study of a new Influenza A H1N1 outbreak in the Military Base Camp Arena, in Heart (Afghanistan. Methods: Prospective case series of patients monitored by the Health Service of the Role 2, assessing the age, symptoms at admission, duration of fever, rapid screening test, complications, intolerance to oseltamivir. The initial group of patients was evaluated RT-PCR. We compared groups with and without treatment with oseltamivir for the duration of fever. Results: Study of 106 patients, mean age 27.17 years, the most common symptoms were dry cough and general disrepair. Patients without oseltamivir showed an average of 3.71 days of fever and with oseltamivir of 2.54 days (p <0.001. There were a total of 13 complications, the most frequent bronchitis. Intolerance to oseltamivir was presented in 11.29% of patients. Conclusions: Oseltamivir reduces the duration of fever significantly, with onset of

  19. Análisis de la topografía lesional en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán Analysis of the lesional topography in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Navarro Suay

    2011-06-01

    officers deployed in the military hospital in Herat (Afghanistan about the body parts injured in combat casualties from 2005 to 2008. Materials and Methods: A descriptive, transversal study was carried out including all civilian and military personnel wounded by explosive artifacts or firearms in the West Region of Afghanistan and taken care of in the Spanish Role 2 from 2005 to 2008. Results: The total number of cases analyzed was 256. In the studied casualties the most affected area was the lower limbs (n=123; 48%, followed by the upper limbs (n=99; 39% and abdomen (n=56; 22%. The anatomical area where explosives (n=85 and firearms (n=38 have caused more injuries is the lower limbs. A little more than half the casualties (n=142; 55% presented only one affected area: 59 (23%. Conclusions: In our study the lower and upper limbs have been the anatomical areas most affected by explosives as well as firearms. These data coincides with the results obtained in other series.

  20. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte II: Medidas clínicas y preventivas Outbreak of Influenza A H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan during july and august 2009. Part II: Clinical and preventive measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Maimir Jané

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available La Base de Camp "Arena" en Herat (Afganistán presentó durante los pasados meses de julio y agosto de 2009 un total de 121 casos de gripe A H1N1, 22 de ellos casos confirmados y el resto diagnosticados por "vínculo epidemiológico". Presentamos en el presente artículo las medidas clínicas y preventivas que fueron tomadas en la Base, en el intento de controlar el número de casos y asegurar la operatividad de la Base y el cumplimiento de la misión encomendada al contingente. Se revisan las características de la Base, las medidas tomadas con los pacientes, las medidas tomadas con los contactos, reflejando las dos distintas organizaciones que se realizaron al inicio del brote y posteriormente, las medidas generales tomadas en la Base y las medidas especiales características por tratarse de una unidad militar en una Zona de Operaciones. Finalmente realizamos una reflexión sobre algunas de las medidas tomadas.The Base Camp "Arena" in Herat (Afghanistan presented during the months of July and August 2009 a total of 121 cases of Flu A H1N1 (22 confirmed cases and the rest were diagnosed by epidemiological link. We present in this article the clinical and preventive measures taken at the base in an attempt to control the number of cases and ensure the operability of the base and fulfilling the mission entrusted to the quota. We review the characteristics of the Base, measures taken with patients, the measures taken with the contacts reflecting the two different organizations taken initially and during the second period that conducted at the outset of the outbreak, the general measures taken on the base and special measures because it features of a military unit in an area of operations. Finally we perform a reflection of some taken actions.

  1. Planning Kabul: The politics of urbanization in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Calogero, Pietro Anders

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is an analysis of how the city of Kabul is being planned. This study addresses a gap in planning scholarship, which rarely focuses on the planning of cities in "developing" countries. Kabul is uniquely important in the geopolitics of security; and at the same time, Kabul is a mid-sized, rapidly-growing city with limited resources and substantial constraints to effective governing. In these respects, the case of Kabul is representative of the way most of the world's urbanizat...

  2. Panetta Awarded Bronze Star for Afghanistan Intel Mission

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2008-01-01

    Fellow officers in full dress uniform, family and friends ringed the room in rapt attention as Naval Reserve Lt. James Panetta was awarded the Bronze Star Medal by Naval Postgraduate School President Daniel Oliver in a special ceremony in the President's Conference Room, Dec. 9.

  3. Afghanistan: Håbet lever – og elektrikerne er tilkaldt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestenskov, David

    2013-01-01

    Håbet for den civile afghaner kan til tider virke som et skamskudt fyrtårn, og det bliver næppe genopbygget af kritiske observationer og selvretfærdig debat. Operationens fokus forud for de udenlandske troppers exit er at udvikle sikkerhedsinstitutionerne og skabe arbejdspladser...

  4. Invisible Wars: Iraq, Afghanistan, and Teaching Insurgencies in Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Christopher L.

    2012-01-01

    This author contends that contemporary issues classes no longer have currency, as standardized test results are the litmus test for education. In many schools, students are isolated from firsthand accounts and formal study of events that textbooks will one day proclaim as defining experiences of their generation. According to Doyle, schools tend…

  5. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of four ethnic groups of Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Whale, John

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondrial DNA is a small genome, 16569 base pairs in length, which is found in high quantities within mitochondria inside a typical somatic cell. Mitochondrial DNA is also unilaterally inherited via the maternal line. As such, mitochondrial DNA is inherited relatively unmolested from mother to offspring, with exception to mutational episodes, enabling the historical analysis of a population, group of populations or a species. Mitochondrial DNA analysis examines both the coding and non-cod...

  6. Crippling Violence: Conflict and Incident Polio in Afghanistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Norris

    Full Text Available Designing effective public health campaigns in areas of armed conflict requires a nuanced understanding of how violence impacts the epidemiology of the disease in question.We examine the geographical relationship between violence (represented by the location of detonated Improvised Explosive Devices and polio incidence by generating maps of IEDs and polio incidence during 2010, and by comparing the mean number of IED detonations in polio high-risk districts with non polio high-risk districts during 2004-2009.We demonstrate a geographic relationship between IED violence and incident polio. Districts that have high-risk for polio have highly statistically significantly greater mean numbers of IEDs than non polio high-risk districts (p-values 0.0010-0.0404.The geographic relationship between armed conflict and polio incidence provides valuable insights as to how to plan a vaccination campaign in violent contexts, and allows us to anticipate incident polio in the regions of armed conflict. Such information permits vaccination planners to engage interested armed combatants to co-develop strategies to mitigate the effects of violence on polio.

  7. TERRORISM IN AFGHANISTAN AND INSTABILITY IN CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    Farajirad, Abdolreza; Khansari, Javad; Radmehr, Zahra; Darkhor, Mohamad

    2011-01-01

    Throughout human history, there have been many threats to the security of nations. These threats have brought about large-scale losses of life, the destruction of property, widespread illness and injury, the displacement of large numbers of people, and devastating economic loss. Recent technological advances and ongoing international political unrest are components of the increased risk to security. Terrorism, as one of these threats to human security, literally means “the use of force or vio...

  8. Establishing local government in fragile states: experimental evidence from Afghanistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Jochem; I. Murtazashvili; J. Murtazashvili

    2016-01-01

    International and domestic policy makers often promote elections to establish village government in fragile states. However, two additional options are available in such countries: formalization of self-governing village councils and formalization of community development councils (CDCs). We designe

  9. Faces of Change. Five Rural Societies in Transition: Bolivia, Kenya, Afghanistan, Taiwan, China Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Norman N., Ed.; Spitzer, Manon L., Ed.

    The multidisciplinary film project focuses attention on what is happening to rural populations of the world, particularly among developing countries. The roles of women, education, social and economic systems, and the effects of modernization on values are themes explored in each of five rural settings--Bolivian highlands, northern Kenya, northern…

  10. Perceived job demands during military deployment : What soldiers say in Afghanistan (abstract)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Euwema, M.

    2012-01-01

    Military deployment is inherently demanding and military organizations have to prepare their personnel for a broad range of operational demands. So far, it remains unclear how perceptions of operational demands differ between distinct military units. Using a cross-sectional design, this study explor

  11. Post-Conflict Security Sector and Public Finance Management : Lessons from Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Middlebrook, Peter; Simpson, Rima; Melloul, Karene

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, international organizations have concluded that standard principles of Public Finance Management (PFM) are equally applicable to all areas of the national budget, including the security sector. In many cases long-term external assistance may be required for the security sector, generating severe trade-offs with other priority sectors which also require long-term external ...

  12. Pediatric Wartime Injuries in Afghanistan and Iraq: What Have We Learned?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaoming; Edwards, Mary J

    2016-01-01

    The majority of the documented experience in pediatric trauma care during the past decade of conflict is from the inpatient Role 3 mission. Pediatric patients (defined as 14 years of age or less) accounted for 5% to 10% of combat admissions. Care for these patients was resource intensive and mortality rates significantly higher than those seen in pediatric hospitals in the United States. The largest documented experience to date with explosive injuries and massive transfusions in children were reported from this conflict. Improvements in logistic and personnel support was seen throughout the decade of conflict, however long-term outcomes and clinical practice guidelines to direct future care for these children are lacking. PMID:27215884

  13. Prevalence of contraindications to mefloquine use among USA military personnel deployed to Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin, Remington L.; Pietrusiak, Paul P; Caci, Jennifer B

    2008-01-01

    Background Mefloquine has historically been considered safe and well-tolerated for long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis, but its prescribing requires careful attention to rule out contraindications to its use, including a history of certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. The prevalence of these disorders has not been defined in cohorts of U.S. military personnel deployed to areas where long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis is indicated. Methods Military medical surveillance and pharmacosu...

  14. Prevalence of contraindications to mefloquine use among USA military personnel deployed to Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Pietrusiak Paul P; Nevin Remington L; Caci Jennifer B

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Mefloquine has historically been considered safe and well-tolerated for long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis, but its prescribing requires careful attention to rule out contraindications to its use, including a history of certain psychiatric and neurological disorders. The prevalence of these disorders has not been defined in cohorts of U.S. military personnel deployed to areas where long-term malaria chemoprophylaxis is indicated. Methods Military medical surveillance and p...

  15. Mathematics Education in Secondary School in Afghanistan : Teachers’ View and Practices on Teaching Problem Solving

    OpenAIRE

    Halimi, Nargis

    2013-01-01

    Although Mathematics is seen as one of the most important knowledge and school subject, it is believed that math teaching in school is very much of abstract nature and does not promote critical and analytical thinking skills. I was supposed to do a research about problem solving approaches in afghan schools, in Kabul city. So three points were very important to know: teachers’ points of view about mathematic knowledge and problem solving approaches, teachers practice while they teach problems...

  16. New Mathematics Text Books for Secondary schools in Afghanistan : Teacher’s Views

    OpenAIRE

    Hedayatzai, Raheema

    2013-01-01

    Education is one of the personal human rights of individuals. It is very valuable right for an indi-vidual or a whole society to be educated. This study has been done to know teachers’ views about problems and challenges that teachers face during teaching of mathematics text book in upper secondary As we know mathematics education is necessary for development of mental discipline and capacity. It helps student in critical thinking and increase their power of analyzing the world. In Afghanista...

  17. De effects-based approach to operations in Afghanistan : meten van het onmeetbare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klumper, Willem Maarten

    2014-01-01

    Recent examples of international military intervention have shown that the strategic thinking behind the deployment of military forces in crisis situations is changing. Military intervention no longer serves an exclusively military objective, but is part of a broader range of activities conducted by

  18. Criminal Justice Involvement, Trauma, and Negative Affect in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbogen, Eric B.; Johnson, Sally C.; Newton, Virginia M.; Straits-Troster, Kristy; Vasterling, Jennifer J.; Wagner, H. Ryan; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although criminal behavior in veterans has been cited as a growing problem, little is known about why some veterans are at increased risk for arrest. Theories of criminal behavior postulate that people who have been exposed to stressful environments or traumatic events and who report negative affect such as anger and irritability are at…

  19. Insomnia treatment acceptability and preferences of male Iraq and Afghanistan combat Veterans and their healthcare providers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana R. Epstein, PhD, RN

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sleep difficulty is a prevalent problem among returning Veterans. Although there is strong evidence for the efficacy and durability of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I in the general population, the interventions require motivation, attention, and adherence from patients to achieve successful outcomes. Given the unique characteristics of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF Veterans who have experienced blast-related injuries and other trauma, CBT-I for these patients may require modification, including alternative delivery methods, to ensure effective implementation and positive outcomes. We interviewed 18 OIF/OEF Veterans who screened positive for mild traumatic brain injury and 19 healthcare providers to determine the acceptability of insomnia treatments and preferences for the interventions and treatment delivery. Veterans and providers had distinct preferences for insomnia treatment and its delivery. The treatments the Veterans found most acceptable were also the ones they preferred: relaxation treatment and pharmacotherapy. The providers identified relaxation therapy as the most acceptable treatment. Veterans preferred the individual treatment format as well as electronic methods of treatment delivery. Despite some differences between patients and providers, a compromise through modification of empirically supported behavioral treatments is feasible, and implications for preference-based insomnia intervention development and testing are discussed.

  20. Gender Differences Among Veterans Deployed in Support of the Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq

    OpenAIRE

    Street, Amy E.; Gradus, Jaimie L; Giasson, Hannah L.; Vogt, Dawne; Resick, Patricia A.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND The changing scope of women’s roles in combat operations has led to growing interest in women’s deployment experiences and post-deployment adjustment. OBJECTIVES To quantify the gender-specific frequency of deployment stressors, including sexual and non-sexual harassment, lack of social support and combat exposure. To quantify gender-specific post-deployment mental health conditions and associations between deployment stressors and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to ...

  1. Pressure-temperature evolution of Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the Welayati Formation (Kabul Block), Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Stephen; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2015-11-01

    The Welayati Formation, consisting of alternating layers of mica-schist and quartzite with lenses of amphibolite, unconformably overlies the Neoarchean Sherdarwaza Formation of the Kabul Block that underwent Paleoproterozoic granulite-facies and Neoproterozoic amphibolite-facies metamorphic events. To analyze metamorphic history of the Welayati Formation and its relations to the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation, petrographic study and pressure-temperature (P-T) pseudosection modeling were applied to staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mica-schists, which crop out to the south of Kabul City. Prograde metamorphism, identified by inclusion trails and chemical zonation in garnet from the micaschists indicates that the rocks underwent burial from around 6.2 kbar at 525 °C to maximum pressure conditions of around 9.5 kbar at temperatures of around 650 °C. Decompression from peak pressures under isothermal or moderate heating conditions are indicated by formation of biotite and plagioclase porphyroblasts which cross-cut and overgrow the dominant foliation. The lack of sillimanite and/or andalusite suggests that cooling and further decompression occurred in the kyanite stability field. The results of this study indicate a single amphibolite-facies metamorphism that based on P-T conditions and age dating correlates well with the Neoproterozoic metamorphism in the underlying Sherdarwaza Formation. The rocks lack any paragenetic evidence for a preceding granulite-facies overprint or subsequent Paleozoic metamorphism. Owing to the position of the Kabul Block, within the India-Eurasia collision zone, partial replacement of the amphibolite-facies minerals in the micaschist could, in addition to retrogression of the Neoproterozoic metamorphism, relate to deformation associated with the Alpine orogeny.

  2. The circulation of ‘New Music’ between Afghanistan and its transnational community

    OpenAIRE

    Baily, John S.

    2007-01-01

    From the late 1940s the radio station in Kabul had become the centre for innovation and patronage in the creation of a new popular music suitable for radio broadcasting. In a country where there was no university department of music, no conservatories, no music as part of the school curriculum, no national sound archive, the radio station was the centre of musical activity and creativity. It employed a large number of musicians, singers, male and female, and composers. It ran various orchestr...

  3. Water for Warfighters in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Summary of Lessons Learned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Steven C; Lundquist, Arthur H; Richards, Todd E

    2016-01-01

    The Army is the Department of Defense executive agent for land-based field water supplies. The Army Corps of Engineers, Army Quartermaster Corps, and Army Medical Department coordinate to provide the necessary support to obtain, treat, disinfect, certify, distribute, and monitor drinking water during deployments. This collaboration is necessary to ensure that an adequate quantity of acceptable quality drinking water is available for deployed personnel at all base camps and in all operations. Important lessons were learned from the beginning of operations in Iraq in 2003 continuing throughout 2 wars. These included lessons about the employment and management of bottled water during deployments, the quality and potential usefulness of "wastewater" from the reverse osmosis water purifiers, the usefulness and acceptability of military packaged water, and our lack of preparedness to readily address the drinking water needs of small squad and platoon-sized operations lasting more than a few days. The lessons we learned have and will continue to enhance our ability to readily meet Warfighters' requirements for that most critical of supplies--sustaining a supply of safe, aesthetically pleasing drinking water. PMID:27215890

  4. Psychopathology, Iraq and Afghanistan Service, and Suicide among Veterans Health Administration Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilgen, Mark A.; McCarthy, John F.; Ignacio, Rosalinda V.; Bohnert, Amy S. B.; Valenstein, Marcia; Blow, Frederic C.; Katz, Ira R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Despite concerns regarding elevated psychiatric morbidity and suicide among veterans returning from Operations Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF), little is known about the impact of psychiatric conditions on the risk of suicide in these veterans. To inform tailored suicide prevention efforts, it is important to assess…

  5. Newspaper Coverage of Zebra Mussels in North America : A Case of "Afghanistanism"?

    OpenAIRE

    Roush, Donny; Fortner, Rosanne

    1996-01-01

    Few environmental issues have arisen so abruptly, spread so rapidly, and been so clearly linked to human activity as has the introduction of nonindigenous zebra mussels to the surface freshwater of North America. This research examines communication patterns in information about zebra mussels as an example of how the mass media deal with threats to the environment.

  6. Comparison of outpatient health care utilization among returning women and men Veterans from Afghanistan and Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mattocks Kristin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of women serving in the United States military increased during Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF and Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF, leading to a subsequent surge in new women Veterans seeking health care services from the Veterans Administration (VA. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences among OEF/OIF Veterans in utilization of VA outpatient health care services. Methods Our retrospective cohort consisted of 1,620 OEF/OIF Veterans (240 women and 1380 men who enrolled for outpatient healthcare at a single VA facility. We collected demographic data and information on military service and VA utilization from VA electronic medical records. To assess gender differences we used two models: use versus nonuse of services (logistic regression and intensity of use among users (negative binomial regression. Results In our sample, women were more likely to be younger, single, and non-white than men. Women were more likely to utilize outpatient care services (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47, 95% confidence interval [CI]:1.09, 1.98, but once care was initiated, frequency of visits over time (intensity did not differ by gender (incident rate ratio [IRR] = 1.07; 95% CI: 0.90, 1.27. Conclusion Recently discharged OEF/OIF women Veterans were more likely to seek VA health care than men Veterans. But the intensity of use was similar between women and men VA care users. As more women use VA health care, prospective studies exploring gender differences in types of services utilized, health outcomes, and factors associated with satisfaction will be required.

  7. Structural contours of the Upper Campanian through Paleocene Ghory formation of northern Afghanistan (ghorydpafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines that describe structural contours of subsea elevation of the top of the Upper Campanian through Paleocene Ghory formation in...

  8. Cross Cultural Awareness in International Military Operation: International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jowita Brudnicka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiculturalism defined as a multitude of cultures can be typified as a major trend in international relations, what is a chellenge for every participant of global affairs. The phenomen of multiculturalism is absolutely nothing new, but under conditions of progresive globalisation mechanism its importance has been appreciated.In practise multinational forces have to operate in culturally heterogeneous environment in an array of tasks to combat threats of mostly a non-military transnational nature. All the time there are a highly complex relations within coalition personnel, in cuturally diverse society living in the theatre of operation and between all them mutually.

  9. Multisectorial Afghan perspectives on girl child marriage: foundations for change do exist in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Anita; Gomez, Charlemagne S; Silverman, Jay G

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify Afghan perspectives on the causes of and potential solutions to child and forced marriage in the country. Open-ended interviews (N = 102 interviews) were conducted with religious leaders, police, teachers, and nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and government officials in Kabul, Jalalabad, and Mazar. Informants reported recognition of the poor social and health consequences of these practices for mothers and infants, citing poverty, tradition, conflict-related insecurity, low status of women, and ignorance of religious and civil laws as causes of these practices. Recommended solutions centered on child marriage prevention; most informants felt little can be done for married girls. PMID:21450680

  10. Shah Shuja’s ‘Hidden History’ and its Implications for the Historiography of Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Shah Mahmoud Hanifi

    2012-01-01

    The essay uses colonial archival materials from the Archives of the Punjab Province in Lahore to address the thirty-year period between the two reigns of the Durrani Afghan Monarch Shah Shuja (r. 1803-1809 and 1839-1842). Focusing on the 1809-1839 period, the first part of the essay deals with Mountstuart Elphinstone’s 1809 diplomatic mission and Shuja’s flight from Peshawar. The second part of the article considers the communication between Shah Shuja’s primary wife and colonial officials th...

  11. The Causes and Effects of English Teachers' Turnover: A Case from Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawary, Omidullah; Ali, Sajid

    2015-01-01

    One of the challenging issues that educational organizations in developing countries face in staffing classrooms with qualified teachers is the high rate of teachers' turnover. It creates problems for schools, which eventually leads to substandard instruction and low student achievement. This research explores the causes of English teachers'…

  12. Insomnia treatment acceptability and preferences of male Iraq and Afghanistan combat Veterans and their healthcare providers

    OpenAIRE

    Dana R. Epstein, PhD, RN; Judith L. Babcock-Parziale, PhD; Patricia L. Haynes, PhD; Christine A. Herb, MC, RN

    2012-01-01

    Sleep difficulty is a prevalent problem among returning Veterans. Although there is strong evidence for the efficacy and durability of cognitive-behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) in the general population, the interventions require motivation, attention, and adherence from patients to achieve successful outcomes. Given the unique characteristics of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF) Veterans who have experienced blast-related injuries and other trauma, CBT-I ...

  13. From Afghanistan to Abeche : The Norwegian contribution to MINURCAT: applying a framework of interests and values

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This thesis aims to shed light on the various motivational factors that affected the political decision-making processes of Norway’s contribution to the UN-led operation in Chad 2009/10 (MINURCAT). By applying a theoretical framework of interests and values, this thesis discovered a set of variables that contributed to the understanding of the two political decisions of entering and exiting Chad. The study traces the shifting discourse from the outspoken ambitions in Soria Moria to ‘increase ...

  14. Examining human rights and mental health among women in drug abuse treatment centers in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Abadi MH; Shamblen SR; Johnson K; Thompson K; Young L; Courser M; Vanderhoff J; Browne T

    2012-01-01

    Melissa Harris Abadi1, Stephen R Shamblen1, Knowlton Johnson1, Kirsten Thompson1, Linda Young1, Matthew Courser1, Jude Vanderhoff1, Thom Browne21Pacific Institute for Research and Evaluation – Louisville Center, Louisville, KY, USA; 2United States Department of State, Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement, Washington, DC, USAAbstract: Denial of human rights, gender disparities, and living in a war zone can be associated with severe depression and poor social function...

  15. Modeling the world heroin market : Assessing the consequences of changes in Afghanistan production (project summary)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paoli, L.; Reuter, P.; Greenfield, V.

    2006-01-01

    This document (16 pages) describes the project objectives and methods and summarizes its key findings. A book presenting in detail the project findings is published in 2009 by Oxford University Press. The information in this summary must be considered preliminary.

  16. Iraq and Afghanistan Veterans report symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness one year after deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa M. McAndrew, PhD

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Many Veterans returning from service in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF experience chronic pain. What is not known is whether for some OIF/OEF Veterans this pain is part of a larger condition of diffuse multisystem symptoms consistent with chronic multisymptom illness (CMI. We use data from a prospective longitudinal study of OIF/OEF Veterans to determine the frequency of CMI. We found that 1 yr after deployment, 49.5% of OIF/OEF Veterans met criteria for mild to moderate CMI and 10.8% met criteria for severe CMI. Over 90% of Veterans with chronic pain met criteria for CMI. CMI was not completely accounted for either by posttraumatic stress disorder or by predeployment levels of physical symptoms. Veterans with symptoms consistent with CMI reported significantly worse physical health function than Veterans who did not report symptoms consistent with CMI. This study suggests that the presence of CMI should be considered in the evaluation of OIF/OEF Veterans. Further, it suggests that the pain management for these Veterans may need to be tailored to take CMI into consideration.

  17. Prevalence and associated risk factors for obesity in Jalalabad city – Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khwaja Mir Islam Saeed

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Approximately one third of adult population in Jalalabad city is suffering from obesity which is a cause of concern. Blood lipid profile is either borderline or more than average among study participants which could contribute to non-communicable diseases. Measures such as raising awareness and lifestyle modifications may help to reduce the burden of obesity among Jalalabad adults.

  18. A Progress Report on Women's Education in Post-Taliban Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvi-Aziz, Hayat

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relative progress and major setbacks in the education of Afghan women from the end of the Taliban regime until the present, focusing on government and NGO reconstruction efforts. It is argued that these projects promote the agendas of the state and of NGOs over the needs of women and girls. The adversities arising from…

  19. 75 FR 71079 - Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and Afghanistan Under...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... of the Secretary Determination on Use of Cooperative Threat Reduction Funds in Pakistan and... Defense has determined that the obligation and expenditure of Cooperative Threat Reduction (CTR) funds for... further determined that these cooperative threat reduction activities will be completed within a...

  20. Electrification Using Decentralized Micro-Hydro Power Plants in Northern Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchandra Bhandari

    2015-03-01

    In order to identify the operational status of installed MHP plants in four North-eastern provinces (i.e. Badakhshan, Baghlan, Balkh and Takhar and to assess their socio-economic impacts, an extensive field monitoring had been carried out. The major parameters studied were spatial distribution of MHP plants, investment costs, operational models, end user electricity tariffs, productive use of electricity, community satisfaction, etc. Altogether, 421 MHP installations (about 11 MW installed capacity were visited. The outcomes obtained from those surveys are presented in detail in this paper.

  1. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states-Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Mauch; D. Weil; A. Munim; F. Boillot; R. Coninx; S. Huseynova; C. Powell; A. Seita; H. Wembanyama; S. van den Hof

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived.

  2. Beyond Individual War Trauma: Domestic Violence against Children in Afghanistan and Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catani, Claudia; Schauer, Elisabeth; Neuner, Frank

    2008-01-01

    To date, research on the psychosocial consequences of mass trauma resulting from war and organized violence on children has primarily focused on the individual as the unit of treatment and analysis with particular focus on mental disorders caused by traumatic stress. This body of research has stimulated the development of promising…

  3. Comparison of the virulence markers of helicobacter pylori and their associated diseases in patients from Pakistan and Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javed Yakoob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacteria, which is associated with development of gastroduodenal diseases. The prevalence of H. pylori and the virulence markers cytotoxin-associated gene A and E (cagA, cagE and vacuolating-associated cytotoxin gene (vacA alleles varies in different parts of the world. H. pylori virulence markers cagA, cagE, and vacA alleles in local and Afghan nationals with H. pylori-associated gastroduodenal diseases were studied. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and ten patients with upper gastrointestinal symptoms and positive for H. pylori by the urease test and histology were included. One hundred and nineteen were local nationals and 91 were Afghans. The cagA, cagE, and vacA allelic status was determined by polymerase chain reaction. Results: The nonulcer dyspepsia (NUD was common in the Afghan patients (P = 0.025. In Afghan H. pylori strains, cagA was positive in 14 (82% with gastric carcinoma (GC compared with 29 (45% with NUD (P = 0.006, whereas cagE was positive in 11 (65% with GC and 4 (67% with duodenal ulcer (DU compared with 12 (18% with NUD (P < 0.001 and 0.021, respectively. The vacA s1a/b1was positive in 10 (59% of GC compared with 20 (31% in NUD (P = 0.033. In Pakistani strains, cagE was positive in 12 (60% with GC, 7 (58% with GU, 12 (60% with DU compared with 11 (16% with NUD (P < 0.001, 0.004, and < 0.001, respectively. In Pakistani strains, cagA/s1a/m1 was 39 (33% compared with Afghans in 17 (19% (P = 0.022. Moderate to severe mucosal inflammation was present in 51 (43% Pakistani patients compared with 26 (28% (P = 0.033 in Afghans. It was also associated with grade 1 lymphoid aggregate development in Pakistani patients 67 (56% compared with 36 (40% (P = 0.016 in Afghans. Conclusion: Distribution of H. pylori virulence marker cagE with DU was similar in Afghan and Pakistan H. pylori strains. Chronic active inflammation was significantly associated with Pakistani H. pylori strains.

  4. Il cinema come campo di battaglia. Cineaste iraniane, la guerra con l’Iraq e la crisi in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Vanzan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Globally speaking, War Cinema is predominantly a male construction. Though Iranian cinema makes no exception, in this rich cinematic production some women directors have been trying to build a gender constructed narrative of war. The article explores how women artists are using external conflicts problematically, as a metaphor for the internal war Iranian women have been fighting in the last decades.

  5. Pain-related psychological distress, self-rated health and significance of neuropathic pain in Danish soldiers injured in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duffy, J R; Warburg, Finn; Koelle, S-F T;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pain and mental health concerns are prevalent among veterans. While the majority of research has focused on chronic pain as an entity, there has been little work directed towards investigating the role of neuropathic pain in relation to psychological comorbidity. As such, we...... hypothesised that participants with signs of neuropathic pain would report higher levels of psychological distress and diminished self-rated health compared to those without a neuropathic component. METHODS: A retrospective review of standardised questionnaires (PainDETECT Questionnaire, Post-traumatic Stress...... pain correlated positively with the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian score (rho = 0.469, P < 0.001) and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale subscale for anxiety score (rho = 0.357, P = 0.009), and inversely with the EuroQOL Visual Analogue Scale score (rho = -0.361, P = 0.008). In...

  6. Job Satisfaction among Afghan Teacher Educators. : A study of Job Satisfaction in four Teacher Training Colleges in northern Afghanistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Alemi, Beheshta

    2013-01-01

    Job satisfaction is a much disputed issue in the field of education, because it affects the system in many ways and may affect productivity and achievements of an organization. This descriptive study is aimed to find out the level of teacher educators’ job satisfaction in relation to their personal demographics such as gender, age, years of experience, level of education, marital status and location. The study was conducted by using convenient sampling with the participation of 132 teacher ed...

  7. Low Vitamin B12 Levels among Newly-Arrived Refugees from Bhutan, Iran and Afghanistan: A Multicentre Australian Study

    OpenAIRE

    Benson, Jill; Phillips, Christine; Kay, Margaret; Murray T Webber; Alison J Ratcliff; Correa-Velez, Ignacio; Lorimer, Michelle F.

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin B12 deficiency is prevalent in many countries of origin of refugees. Using a threshold of 5% above which a prevalence of low Vitamin B12 is indicative of a population health problem, we hypothesised that Vitamin B12 deficiency exceeds this threshold among newly-arrived refugees resettling in Australia, and is higher among women due to their increased risk of food insecurity. This paper reports Vitamin B12 levels in a large cohort of newly arrived refugees in five Australian...

  8. Informing Education Policy in Afghanistan: Using Design of Experiments and Data Envelopment Analysis to Provide Transparency in Complex Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Education planning provides the policy maker and the decision maker a logical framework in which to develop and implement education policy. At the international level, education planning is often confounded by both internal and external complexities, making the development of education policy difficult. This research presents a discrete event…

  9. The Financial Legacy of Afghanistan and Iraq: How Wartime Spending Decisions Will Constrain Future U.S. National Security Budgets

    OpenAIRE

    Linda J. Bilmes

    2014-01-01

    The Afghan and Iraqi conflicts, taken together, will be the most expensive wars in United States history, totaling somewhere between US$4 to US$6 trillion. This includes long-term medical care and disability compensation for service members, veterans and families, military replenishment, and social and economic costs. The largest portion of that bill is yet to be paid. Since 2001, the U.S. has expanded the quality, quantity, availability, and eligibility of benefits for military personnel and...

  10. De la Bosnie à l’Afghanistan : l’OTAN, l’information et les médias

    OpenAIRE

    Arboit, Gérald; Mathien, Michel

    2010-01-01

    International audience Au sortir de la Guerre froide, l’OTAN se trouve face à un problème majeur de communication : justifier son existence après la disparition de l’Union soviétique. Pour cela, elle développe un message suffisamment ambivalent, qui la rend incontournable pour bâtir une Europe de la défense. Dans le même temps, les médias connaissent une mutation du fait de la première guerre du Golfe. L’apparition de conflits en Europe conduit l’OTAN à adopter des techniques de guerre de ...

  11. Public and Private Schools in Afghanistan : Comparing some aspects of public and private schools in Kabul city

    OpenAIRE

    Sherani, Kulsoom Saffarudin

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore similarities and differences between private and public schools in Kabul city. Data was collected using questioner and structured interviews. Principals, teachers, parents and students of grade six were the participants of the research. This research focuses on: Curricula, textbooks, and media of instruction, teachers’ education and experiences as well as student’s gender, socio-economic background and distribution within the two types of schools. Advantage...

  12. Depletion of Water Resources, Issues and Challenges of Water Supply Management in Mazar-i-Sharif City, Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabirullah Muradi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with aim of providing valuable information for emerging water supply system management and better realize in water demand of Mazar-i-Sharif city. Most of the Mazar-i-Sharif city inhabitants lack an adequate, safe supply of water. Lack of water resources, management regulation, compounded by the recent year climate changes; In addition, lack of basic infrastructure, Moreover, extensively extent of urbanization, Issues and challenges in water management and increasing in population. The purpose of this study is to manage water resource for reasonable use of water supply system within the area. To this, large amount of data derived from 80 of water boreholes, like water level/Table, Type of geological materials, Hydraulic conductivity. In addition, hydrological data collected and analyzed. Due to reduction of aquifer recharge and precipitation 190 mm/year, progressing of population, increasing of water consumption; Thus, this study suggest, additional water resources for the area.

  13. Teaching Socio-Scientific Issues (SSI) in Takhar Province, Afghanistan : Methods of Teaching SSI inUpper Secondary Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Safiullah

    2013-01-01

    Teaching Socio-scientific issues (SSI) has been identified as an important factor for improving students’ scientific literacy, argumentation, critical thinking, students learning interests and achievement. However, to what extent SSI is included in science teaching, how it is taught (by which methods) and if it is perceived important by teachers is unknown in an Afghan context. Hence, the general aim of this study was to investigate what methods of teaching SSI upper secondary school science ...

  14. The Effects of Alcohol Problems, PTSD, and Combat Exposure on Nonphysical and Physical Aggression Among Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans

    OpenAIRE

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Hellmuth, Julianne C.; Simpson, Tracy; Jakupcak, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Aggression among combat veterans is of great concern. Although some studies have found an association between combat exposure and aggressive behavior following deployment, others conclude that aggression is more strongly associated with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and that alcohol misuse may influence this association. Many of these studies have assessed aggression as a single construct, whereas the current study explored both nonphysical aggression only and physical agg...

  15. Latent Trajectories of Trauma Symptoms and Resilience: The 3-Year Longitudinal Prospective USPER Study of Danish Veterans Deployed in Afghanistan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Søren B.; Karstoft, K. I.; Bertelsen, Mette;

    2014-01-01

    also found. Symptom fluctuation was predicted independently by predeployment risk factors (depression [OR = 1.27; 95% CI, 1.16-1.39], neuroticism [OR = 1.10; 95% CI, 1.00-1.21], and earlier traumas [OR = 1.09; 95% CI, 1.03-1.16]) and deployment-related stressors (danger/injury exposure [OR = 1.20; 95...

  16. Brief report: Comparison of methods to identify Iraq and Afghanistan war veterans using Department of Veterans Affairs administrative data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Bangerter, BS

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA has made treatment and care of Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF veterans a priority. Researchers face challenges identifying the OIF/OEF population because until fiscal year 2008, no indicator of OIF/OEF service was present in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA administrative databases typically used for research. In this article, we compare an algorithm we developed to identify OIF/OEF veterans using the Austin Information Technology Center administrative data with the VHA Support Service Center OIF/OEF Roster and veterans' self-report of military service. We drew data from two different institutional review board-approved funded studies. The positive predictive value of our algorithm compared with the VHA Support Service Center OIF/OEF Roster and self-report was 92% and 98%, respectively. However, this method of identifying OIF/OEF veterans failed to identify a large proportion of OIF/OEF veterans listed in the VHA Support Service Center OIF/OEF Roster. Demographic, diagnostic, and VA service use differences were found between veterans identified using our method and those we failed to identify but who were in the VHA Support Service Center OIF/OEF Roster. Therefore, depending on the research objective, this method may not be a viable alternative to the VHA Support Service Center OIF/OEF Roster for identifying OIF/OEF veterans.

  17. DOES U.S. ARMY HUMINT DOCTRINE ACHIEVE ITS OBJECTIVES? WHAT HAVE IRAQ AND AFGHANISTAN TAUGHT US?

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    The most vital source of National Intelligence information is derived from Human Intelligence (HUMINT). HUMINT, the eldest intelligence discipline, has proven to be a force multiplier for commanders during the Global War on Terror. As the Army downsizes its forces, refocuses priorities, and prepares for its Army 20/20 vision, it will need to ensure that HUMINT remains at the forefront. In the coming years, the Army plans to downsize its force by 80,000 troops; it will also shift its focus tow...

  18. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Health Risk Behaviors among Afghanistan and Iraq War Veterans Attending College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Kehle, Shannon M.; Carlson, Kathleen F.; Laska, Melissa Nelson; Gulden, Ashley; Lust, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine if post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with health risk behaviors among Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans attending college. Method: Using 2008 Boynton College Student Health Survey data, we tested associations between self-reported PTSD diagnosis and self-reported risk behaviors…

  19. Application of ultrasound examination in tactical conditions illustrated with an example of the Field Hospital of the Polish Military Contingent in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Machała, Waldemar; Wiśniewski, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Robert

    2014-01-01

    It is assumed that tactical medicine encompasses all therapeutic activities performed by a military medical service during military and humanitarian missions. Its scope is only apparently limited by the standards which, when referred to the NATO member countries, have been collected in the Joint Theater Trauma System – Clinical Practice Guidelines. The stage-structured character of medical assistance and treatment of the wounded, injured and sick patients assumes that the scope of therapeutic...

  20. A case study of exam test items from different perspectives in Afghanistan : Analysis of test items of math in grade seven in relation to Bloom’s Taxonomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mansory, Alamshah

    2013-01-01

    Teachers assess and try to judge their students as how much s/he learns, s/he passes or fails, and as well judgment of how much the students who learn in class. Based on exam test items teachers receive equality in education in a class. The test items which are made by individual teachers as to the learning of learners are assessed. The exam test items are different from each other. So the exams are not standardized, mathematic is seen as an abstract subject in particular. The experience of a...

  1. Childhood Trauma Exposure in Iraq and Afghanistan War Era Veterans: Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Adult Functional Social Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Voorhees, Elizabeth E.; Dedert, Eric A.; Calhoun, Patrick S.; Brancu, Mira; Runnals, Jennifer; Beckham, Jean C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship among childhood trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and adult social support in a large sample of veterans who served in the military after 09/11/2001, with a specific focus on the potential role of the PTSD avoidance and numbing cluster as intervening in the association between…

  2. Intelligence in complex conflicts - does intelligence provide decision-makers with relevant knowledge? With a case study on the Dutch operation in Uruzgan province, Southern Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Van Vliet, Arie

    2010-01-01

    The shift from ‘industrial wars’ to the contemporary paradigm of ‘war amongst the people’ has had enormous consequences for the theory, concepts and ideas about how contemporary wars (complex conflicts) are waged. What is the impact of this paradigm shift on the role and influence of intelligence? How relevant are intelligence reports for the decision-making processes concerning these complex conflicts? The purpose of this study is to support the intelligence community in the p...

  3. The role of identity in cross-organizational engineering projects: the case of Dutch military engineers in Mazar e Sjarif Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Wijnmaalen, J.R.; Dewulf, G.P.M.R.; Voordijk, J.T.; Javernick-Will, A.; Chinowsky, P.

    2012-01-01

    There is a rise in the use of global and cross-organizational teams in engineering projects, consequently issues such as team coherence and commitment have gained growing attention in engineering literature and practice (Davies & Hobday, 2005). Creating effective cooperation in project teams which consist of individuals from various countries, organizations and with various expertises is difficult. Apparently, merely placing people together does not create an effective team (Salas, Burke & Ca...

  4. Vers une analyse sociologique des opérations militaires multinationales: regards croisés en Afghanistan, en Bosnie et au Liban

    OpenAIRE

    Resteigne, Delphine H.R.G.G.

    2009-01-01

    Au cours de ces dernières années, les forces armées de différents pays ont de plus en plus été amenées à travailler sur les mêmes théâtres d’opérations. Cette collaboration militaire multinationale, même si elle n’est pas souhaitée par tous, s’est généralisée à l’ensemble des missions militaires. C’est ce cadre multinational et de spécialisation croissante, mais aussi le caractère interagence à travers les contacts entretenus avec les intervenants civils et les populations locales qui caracté...

  5. The PsENOD12 gene is expressed at two different sites in Afghanistan Pea Pseudonodules induced by Auxin transport inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.; McKhann, H.I.; Zalensky, A.; Löbler, M.; Bisseling, T.; Hirsch, A.M.

    1992-01-01

    A number of early nodulin genes are expressed in specific cell types as pea (Pisum sativum) root nodules develop. The Pisum sativum early nodulin PsENOD2 is detected only in the uninfected cells of the nodule parenchyma, whereas PsENOD12 is expressed at two spatially removed sites: in root hairs and

  6. Geologic map of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, Helmand Province, Afghanistan, modified from the 1976 original map compilation of V.G. Cheremytsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Robert D.; Peters, Stephen G.; Schulz, Klaus J.; Renaud, Karine M.; Stettner, Will R.; Masonic, Linda M.; Packard, Patricia H.

    2011-01-01

    This map is a modified version of the Geological map of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex, scale 1:10,000, which was compiled by V.G. Cheremytsin in 1976. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Afghan Geological Survey and the Task Force for Business and Stability Operations of the U.S. Department of Defense, studied the original map and also visited the field area in September 2009, August 2010, and February 2011. This modified map, which includes cross sections, illustrates the geologic structure of the Khanneshin carbonatite complex. The map reproduces the topology (contacts, faults, and so forth) of the original Soviet map and cross sections and includes modifications based on our examination of that map and a related report, and based on observations made during our field visits. (Refer to the References section in the Map PDF for complete citations of the original map and related report.) Elevations on the cross section are derived from the original Soviet topography and may not match the newer topography used on the current map. We have attempted to translate the original Russian terminology and rock classification into modern English geologic usage as literally as possible without changing any genetic or process-oriented implications in the original descriptions. We also use the age designations from the original map. The unit colors on the map and cross sections differ from the colors shown on the original version. The units are colored according to the color and pattern scheme of the Commission for the Geological Map of the World (CGMW) (http://www.ccgm.org).

  7. Altered functioning of the glucocorticoid receptor pathway is a vulnerability factor for development of PTSD symptomatology in response to military deployment to Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjam van Zuiden; Elbert Geuze; Eric Vermetten; Annemieke Kavelaars; Cobi Heijnen

    2012-01-01

    Rationale : PTSD is associated with changes in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) pathway. We hypothesized that altered functioning of the GR pathway is already present before development of PTSD and thus represents a biological vulnerability factor for the development of PTSD. Therefore, we investigated the predictive value of several GR pathway components for the development of high levels of PTSD symptoms. Methods : We included a cohort of 1,032 Dutch soldiers prior to deployment to Afghanis...

  8. "I'm Coming Home, Tell the World I'm Coming Home". The Long Homecoming and Mental Health Treatment of Iraq and Afghanistan War Veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozanova, Julia; Noulas, Paraskevi; Smart, Kathleen; Roy, Alicia; Southwick, Steven M; Davidson, Larry; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan

    2016-09-01

    This study explored the journey of American armed forces personnel from their decision to join the service, through their service in an active military conflict and how these factors may be associated with potential resistance for mental healthcare. The data came from qualitative interviews with 46 OIF/OEF/OND active-duty military, reservists, and discharged veterans of the average age of 25 years, who presented for a new episode of mental health treatment to a large Veterans Affairs Hospital (VAH) in Northeastern United States in 2011-2012. Qualitative analysis of veterans' perceptions revealed several major themes describing how a mental health diagnosis would negatively impact both their sense of identity and pragmatic career-building goals: enlisting as a career-building avenue, 'noble superhero' identity, escaping from hardship, and mental illness as a career-killer. Findings suggest that factors making young veterans resist mental healthcare may be reduced by partnering VAH psychiatrists with career counselors, and by enhancing military leadership's awareness and understanding about how to support soldiers with emotional and mental health needs, with a goal to eliminating stigma. PMID:26566926

  9. 五角大楼:"混合战争"替代"两场战争"%Hybrid War is Edging out the Current Wars in Iraq and Afghanistan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健翚; 张顺; 卓越

    2010-01-01

    @@ 2010年2月,美国五角大楼公布了引人瞩目的,其正文共分为六个部分,分别是国防战略、军力调整、军人福利、军事外交、国防采购和危机管理.最引人瞩目的地方是用"混合战争"代替"两场战争"的作战思想,混合战争最早由美国海军陆战队作战发展司令部研究员富兰克·霍夫曼中校在报告中提出,其核心思想是美国未来面临的威胁包括多种因素,军队未来的作战任务和行动具有多样化特点,未来战争形态将是战争主体多元化、常规战争与非常规战争界限日益模糊的"混合型战争".这一新作战思想的出笼,有着其深刻的历史背景和原因,同时也必将对美军未来的军事规划产生深远的影响.

  10. A comparative analysis on the European Union's policies towards refugees : policies, strategies and discrepancies the case of Bosnia, Syria and Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    Sater, Joe Hassib Abdul

    2015-01-01

    A questão dos refugiados continua a ser um problema por excelência para tomadores de decisões que tendem a moldar políticas quer em esfera local, regional ou mesmo internacional, a fim de resolver essa situação de acordo com os melhores interesses de seus países.. Eventualmente isto levou a disparidades em termos de lidar com essas pessoas dependendo da localização geográfica afetada pela crise. Focando-se nas políticas da União Européia, esta dissertação procura saber porque a...

  11. LEARNING ACHIEVEMENTS : Gender differences in math achievements and teacher educators’ perspectives on students’ learning achievements at Teacher Training Collage in Afghanistan.

    OpenAIRE

    Sangar, Sharifa

    2013-01-01

    The differences in learning achievements between male and female students in math have been an important topic in educational research field. In this field many international studies e.g. Trend in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS), Program for International Student Assessment (PISA)) have been conducted for many years. TIMSS study around 40 countries in the world in grade five shows that, in most countries boys and girls do similar in math. PISA study shows 15 years old boys...

  12. Jurassic evaporite facies of the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins in northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas (evapfacafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polygons that describe the spatial extent of Jurassic age evaporite facies (Gaurdak formation) in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins.

  13. Thickness of Jurassic evaporite facies in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins of northern Afghanistan and adjacent areas (evapisoafg.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This shapefile contains polylines (isopachs) that describe the thickness of Jurassic age evaporite facies (Gaurdak formation) in the Afghan-Tajik and Amu Darya basins

  14. Availability and distribution of human resources for provision of comprehensive emergency obstetric and newborn care in Afghanistan: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Faqir, Manizha; Zainullah, Partamin; Tappis, Hannah; Mungia, Jaime; Currie, Sheena; Kim, Young Mi

    2015-01-01

    Background For over a decade, Afghanistan’s Ministry of Public Health and its international development partners have invested in strengthening the national health workforce and establishing a system of primary health care facilities and hospitals to reduce the high levels of maternal and child mortality that were documented shortly after the fall of the Taliban in 2001. Significant progress has been made, but many challenges remain. The objective of this study is to assess the availability a...

  15. Still in the Fold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Afghanistan remains part of the U.S. grand plan for the region Afghanistan has long been a country of strategic importance, being a vital trade and transport link in Asia's heartland for centuries. Despite Afghanistan's currently appearing to be playing second fiddle to the tempestuous events in Iraq, the struggling coun-

  16. Over zwijgen gesproken : een medisch-antropologische studie onder vluchtelingenvrouwen in Nederland, afkomstig uit Afghanistan, Bosnië-Herzegovina en Zuid-Soedan, naar het omgaan met ervaringen van aan oorlog gerelateerd seksueel geweld

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tankink, Maria Theodora Antonia

    2009-01-01

    This study discusses the question of how refugee women in the Netherlands, as indi-viduals and as members of a family and a group, act in response to their experiences of sexual violence, and why they regard silence as the best coping strategy. The women who participated in the research have differe

  17. Low validity of self-report in identifying recent mental health diagnosis among U.S. service members completing Pre-Deployment Health Assessment (PreDHA) and deployed to Afghanistan, 2007: a retrospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Nevin Remington L

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Since 1998, the U.S. Armed Forces has used the mandatory Pre-Deployment Health Assessment (PreDHA) screening questionnaire as a means of assessing the health and suitability of U.S. service members for deployment. Limited data exists to quantify the validity of the self-reported PreDHA. This study was conducted to assess the validity of self-reporting in PreDHA to identify deployed service members who have had a recent mental health disorder diagnosis. Methods A retrospect...

  18. On Military Memoirs. Soldier-authors, publishers, plots and motives.: A mixed-method study into military Afghanistan autobiographies from the US, the UK, Canada, Germany and the Netherlands published between 2001 and 2010.

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinreesink, Esmeralda

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary Although there are quite a few soldiers who write autobiographies about their deployment experiences, a comprehensive profile does not exist that provides reliable, quantifiable insight into 21st century soldier-authors that exceeds the Anglo-American view, especially when it comes to (self-published) books. This study makes up for these deficiencies by studying all non-fiction, autobiographical books, first published between 2001 and 2010 in Dutch, English or German i...

  19. Maps of Quadrangles 3064, 3066, 2964, and 2966, Laki-Bander (611), Jahangir-Naweran (612), Sreh-Chena (707), Shah-Esmail (617), Reg-Alaqadari (618), and Samandkhan-Karez (713) Quadrangles, Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    2007-01-01

    By selecting one of the four series options shown below, namely, -A, -B, -C, and -D for the geologic, topographic, Landsat natural-color, and Landsat false-color maps, respectively, the user will be taken to that map.

  20. On Military Memoirs. Soldier-authors, publishers, plots and motives. : A mixed-method study into military Afghanistan autobiographies from the US, the UK, Canada, Germany and the Netherlands published between 2001 and 2010.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.H.E. Kleinreesink (Esmeralda)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstractSummary Although there are quite a few soldiers who write autobiographies about their deployment experiences, a comprehensive profile does not exist that provides reliable, quantifiable insight into 21st century soldier-authors that exceeds the Anglo-American view, especially when

  1. Dismantling the Afghan Opiate economy a cultural and historical policy assessment, with policy recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Byrom, Christopher L.

    2005-01-01

    This thesis applies lessons drawn from a historical-cultural analysis of rural power structures in Afghanistan to understand the nature of the threat posed by that country's opiate economy and to assess the counter-narcotics policies of the United Kingdom, the Government(s) of Afghanistan, and the United States. It argues that that the opiate economy should be considered an Afghan-specific problem involving narcotics, not a "drug war" problem involving Afghanistan. Specific lessons are taken ...

  2. Globalization and Asymmetrical Warfare: Operation Athena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Clep

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Since 2003, Operation Athena represents Canada’s contribution to the International Security Assistance Force (ISAF in Afghanistan. This article explains the Canadian role as an international security provider in general and a closer look on the background, the rationale and the structure of Operation Athena - how it supports the Canadian priorities and objectives in Afghanistan toward 2011.

  3. UN Peacekeepers: Soldiers with a Difference. Headline Series No. 292.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, Augustus Richard; Weiss, Thomas George

    United Nations (UN) peacekeepers, symbolic neutral military units whose presence has made a difference in areas as diverse as Afghanistan, Central America, and Namibia, are in a unique position to affect the course of international peace. With recent UN successes negotiating resolutions in Afghanistan and the Iran-Iraq war, and with radically…

  4. Education of Hazara Girls in a Diaspora: Education as Empowerment and an Agent of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Changezi, Sofie Haug; Biseth, Heidi

    2011-01-01

    Afghanistan is a country which has experienced years of conflict and war. This unrest has forced large numbers of Afghans into diasporas, Hazaras comprising one of these groups. Hazaras have mainly fled from rural Hazarajat to more urban areas in Pakistan. Marginalization of Hazaras in general and girls in particular, both in Afghanistan and…

  5. 77 FR 34179 - Freedom of Information Act and Privacy Act Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ...The Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction is issuing a final rule, revising its regulations establishing procedures for the public to obtain information from the Special Inspector General for Afghanistan Reconstruction under the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) and the Privacy Act of 1974. These procedures will facilitate public interaction with...

  6. Useful plants of Wakhan and Pamir - ریماپ و ناخاو دنمدوس تاتابن

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soelberg, Jens

    Contains names and information on 77 plants used for medicine, fodder, vegetables, fruits, dyes, construction, incense and cosmetics in among the Wakhi and the Kyrgyz of Wakhan and Pamir, Afghanistan.......Contains names and information on 77 plants used for medicine, fodder, vegetables, fruits, dyes, construction, incense and cosmetics in among the Wakhi and the Kyrgyz of Wakhan and Pamir, Afghanistan....

  7. 77 FR 25055 - Addition of Certain Persons to the Entity List

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... Construction Company, Golaye Park, Shari Naw, Kabul, Afghanistan; and Dasht Qala, Takhar Province, Afghanistan; (2) Haji Khalil Construction Company, Wazir Akbar Khan, Road Number 10, In front of National Bank... Pakistan); (7) Onyx Construction Company, Shahr-e-Now, Charahi Haji Yaqoub, In front of the AIB...

  8. 77 FR 38784 - Applications, Reports, and Other Records for the 2011-2012 Award Year: Student Assistance General...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Assistance for College and Higher Education Grant Program; 84.408 Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant Program... Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant, and the Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant... Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant Program Submission Dates for...

  9. 78 FR 40731 - Deadline Dates for Reports and Other Records Associated With the Free Application for Federal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-08

    ... Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant Program, and the Iraq and Afghanistan... participating in certain Federal student aid programs authorized under title IV of the Higher Education Act of... Education Assistance for College and Higher Education (TEACH) Grant, and Iraq and Afghanistan Service...

  10. Educating Prisoners of Tradition: Visual Narratives of Afghan Women on Social Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelodar, Esmaeil Zeiny; Hashim, Ruzy Suliza; Yusof, Noraini Md; Raihanah, M. M.; Hamdan, Shahizah Ismail; Zandi, Peivand

    2014-01-01

    More than a decade after the US-led intervention of Afghanistan, traditional and tribal customs still play a significant role in the everyday lives of people, especially women. History has proven that women have been playing a significant role in shaping the course of Afghanistan but unfortunately, they are always subjected to different degrees of…

  11. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...

  12. Danish Rhizobium leguminosarum strains nodulating ‘Afghanistan’ pea (Pisum sativum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Erik Steen; Sørensen, Lasse Holst; Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    A wild pea (Pisum sativum L.) native to Afghanistan normally known to be resisant to nodulation with European strains of Rhizobium leguminosarum was nodulated early and effectively in field soil in Denmark. Isolates from nodules formed effective nodules abundantly on 'Afghanistan' on reinfection...... pattern with Rhizobium leguminosarum strains isolated from a modern pea variety cultivated in the same field....

  13. Brote de gripe A H1N1 en la base española de Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afganistán) durante julio y agosto de 2009. Parte I: Características clínicas y reducción de la duración de la fiebre con el uso de oseltamivir Outbreak of new influenza a H1N1 in Spanish base Camp "Arena" (Herat, Afghanistan) during july and august 2009. Part I: Clinical features and reducing the duration of fever with the use of oseltamivir during the outbreak of new influenza A H1N1 in Spanish forces in Afghanistan

    OpenAIRE

    F. Maimir Jané; J.M. García Ortiz; M.A. Sánchez Gil; R.L. García de Guadiana; C. Gutiérrez Ortega

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: Desde la declaración de alerta fase 6 por la OMS se han presentado brotes de gripe A H1N1 en todo el mundo. Presentamos los resultados del estudio realizado en el brote de nueva gripe A H1N1 en la Base Militar de Camp Arena en Herat (Afganistán). Método: Estudio prospectivo de serie de casos, de pacientes controlados por el Servicio de Sanidad del Role 2, valorando la edad, síntomas al ingreso, duración de la fiebre, test de despistaje rápido, complicaciones, intolerancia al ose...

  14. A Question of Honour: Why the Taliban Fight and What to Do About It

    OpenAIRE

    Atran, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Afghanistan is not like Iraq. What may work well in Iraq, or elsewhere, may not be a wise policy in Afghanistan. The original alliance between the Taliban and Al-Qaeda was largely one of convenience between a poverty-stricken national movement and a transnational cause that brought material help. Unlike Al-Qaeda, the Taliban are interested in their homeland, not ours. The Taliban know how costly keeping Qaeda can be. Even if the Taliban took control of Afghanistan it is not clear that Al-Qaed...

  15. Sådan kan Danmarks fire nyeste krige undersøges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmesen, Michael Hesselholt

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen understreger behovet for hurtigst muligt komme i gang med delprojekter for at redde arkivalierne fra Danmarks krigsdeltagelse i Kosovo, Irak og Afghanistan. Den anviser i slutningen en mulig, pragmatisk vej frem....

  16. 48 CFR 52.225-11 - Buy American Act-Construction Materials under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, or...); (3) A least developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi..., Madagascar, Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome...

  17. 48 CFR 252.225-7045 - Balance of Payments Program-Construction Material Under Trade Agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, Slovak... developed country (Afghanistan, Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Bhutan, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cambodia, Central..., Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Rwanda, Samoa, Sao Tome and...

  18. Find an ACFAS Physician

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba ... Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia and Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Terr Brunei Darussalam Bulgaria Burkina ...

  19. Find an ENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Afghanistan Aland Islands Albania Algeria American Samoa Andorra Angola Anguilla Antarctica Antigua and Barbuda Argentina Armenia Aruba ... Bermuda Bhutan Bolivia Bosnia-Herzegovina Botswana Bouvet Island Brazil British Indian Ocean Terr British Virgin Islands Brunei- ...

  20. 75 FR 1119 - Agency Information Collection (Survey of Appropriate and Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... Timely Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases (Malaria), VA Form 10-0476a. OMB Control Number: 2900-New (VA... acquired while in Iraq or Afghanistan compared to veterans residing in urban areas. An agency may...

  1. Leishmaniasis FAQs

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have become infected in various countries, such as Iraq and Afghanistan Back To Top Is leishmaniasis found ... source: Global Health - Division of Parasitic Diseases and Malaria Notice: Linking to a non-federal site does ...

  2. Update: malaria, U.S. Armed Forces, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    U.S. service members are at risk of malaria when they are assigned to endemic areas (e.g., Korea), participate in operations in endemic areas (e.g., Afghanistan, Africa) and visit malarious areas during personal travel. In 2011, 124 service members were reported with malaria. Nearly three-fourths of cases were presumably acquired in Afghanistan (n=91) and one-fifth were considered acquired in Africa (n=24). One-quarter of cases were caused by P. vivax and one-fifth by P. falciparum (including 6 Afghanistan-acquired infections); most cases were reported as "unspecified" malaria. Malaria was diagnosed/reported from 51 different medical facilities in the United States, Afghanistan, Kyrgyzstan, Iraq, Germany and Korea. Providers of care to military members should be knowledgeable regarding and vigilant for clinical presentations of malaria outside of endemic areas. PMID:22309389

  3. 7 CFR 305.17 - Authorized treatments; exceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Central America, or Mexico. (2) Citrus with peel from Afghanistan, Andaman Islands, Argentina, Bangladesh..., that will be processed into another form (e.g., for puree, juice, or mashed vegetables)....

  4. IRAN THE BEATING HEART OF ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Iran is a vast country covering 1,648,000 square kilometers in southwestern Asia. Its neighbors are Turkmenistan, Azerbaijan and Armenia on the north, Afghanistan and Pakistan on the east, and Turkey and Iraq on the west.

  5. A Comprehensive Framework for Human Resources for Health System Development in Fragile and Post-Conflict States

    OpenAIRE

    Noriko Fujita; Zwi, Anthony B.; Mari Nagai; Hidechika Akashi

    2011-01-01

    Noriko Fujita and colleagues offer a comprehensive framework for human resource system development, based upon experiences in three fragile and post-conflict health systems: Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of Congo, and Cambodia.

  6. 77 FR 15361 - Gainful Employment Reporting Deadline Date for the 2011-2012 Award Year

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-15

    ... authorized under title IV of the Higher Education Act of 1965, as amended (HEA), for the 2011-2012 award year... Education Assistance for College and Higher Education Grant, and Iraq and Afghanistan Service Grant...

  7. Pecularities of Afghanistan’s criminal law

    OpenAIRE

    Omirzhanov Yesbol; Seraj Qutbul Arefin

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses the peculiarities of Afghanistan’s criminal law. It includes brief information about criminal law of Afghanistan, afghan penal code, the role of Shari’a and its relationship with the criminal law of Afghanistan. Also, this article discusses the core components of the afghan criminal law: the elements of a crime, criminal liability, punishment, and crimes proscribed under Afghan law. Some recommendations are focused in the article to remove the weak points and problems o...

  8. Active Learning in Kabul Schools : Afghan Teachers’ Views and Practices Heelai Sahar Faculty: Art

    OpenAIRE

    Sahar, Heelai

    2013-01-01

    Afghanistan is one of those countries where the education system is influenced by traditional system where the teachers has a central position while students is passive and do not have chance to express their opinions. However, active learning is essential need for educational context of Afghanistan. So, the aim of the study is to explore some teachers’ perspectives and practices in relation to active learning and identify some of the main challenges of this approach in Afghan schools.This st...

  9. On the road to Qalamkar : the block seller of Kabul

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C.; Benham, A.

    2010-01-01

    In 2004 the British Geological Survey (BGS) embarked on a 3-year DfID (Department for International Development)funded institutional strengthening project at the Afghanistan Geological Survey. This project was designed to support the Afghan mineral industry through training and investment promotion. The BGS has supported the marble sector through investment promotion activities including the ‘Marbles of Afghanistan’ brochure and the Afghanistan Marble Promotion Showcase in Dubai, September 20...

  10. Fertility and Family Planning Among Immigrant Afghan Women in an Iranian City: A Research Note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajede Vaezzade

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent estimates of fertility level of women in Afghanistan suggest that Afghan women have a very high fertility level as they marry young and continue to have children through the end of reproductive period. However, when Afghan women move to Iran as immigrants, they quickly adopt the fertility patterns of Iran. On the average the Afghan immigrant women in Iran has three children fewer than the average number of children ever born to women in Afghanistan.

  11. Education in Conflict Zones: a Web and Mobility Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmood, Shah; Nazar, Ismatullah

    2012-01-01

    We propose a new framework for education in conflict zones, considering the explosive growth of social media, web services, and mobile Internet over the past decade. Moreover, we focus on one conflict zone, Afghanistan, as a case study, because of its alarmingly high illiteracy rate, lack of qualified teachers, rough terrain, and relatively high mobile penetration of over 50%. In several of Afghanistan's provinces, it is hard to currently sustain the traditional bricks-and-mortar school model...

  12. 75 FR 32233 - Privacy Act of 1974; Notice of Privacy Act System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-07

    ... of Iraq and Afghanistan, 2004 (Pub. L. 108-106; 117 Stat. 1209, 1234- 1238; 5 U.S.C. app. 8G note.... 108-106; 117 Stat. 1209, 1234- 1238; 5 U.S.C. app. 8G note), as cumulatively amended, and the... and Afghanistan, 2004 (Pub. L. 108-106; 117 Stat. 1209, 1234- 1238; 5 U.S.C. app. 8G note),...

  13. Análisis del agente lesivo en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán) Analysis of the injuring agent in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Navarro Suay; A. Hernández-Abadía de Barbará; C. Gutiérrez Ortega; R. Tamburri Bariain; E. Bartolomé Cela; F. Gilsanz Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: El conocimiento sobre aspectos relacionados con el armamento mejoran el diagnóstico y el tratamiento global del herido, sobretodo en el caso del médico militar. Se exponen los agentes lesivos de los principales conflictos recientes. El objetivo del estudio es el análisis del agente lesivo de las bajas atendidas en el Hospital Militar (ROLE 2) de Herat (Afganistán) entre 2005 y 2008. Material y método: Se ha diseñado un estudio descriptivo, transversal sobre todo el personal civi...

  14. Análisis de la topografía lesional en la baja de combate: Experiencia de la Sanidad Militar española desplegada en Herat (Afganistán) Analysis of the lesional topography in the combat casualty: The Spanish Medical Service experience in Herat (Afghanistan)

    OpenAIRE

    R. Navarro Suay; A. Hernández-Abadía de Barbará; C. Gutiérrez Ortega; E. Bartolomé Cela; R. Tamburri Bariain; F. Gilsanz Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Introducción: La localización corporal de las lesiones por arma de fuego y por artefactos explosivos en el combatiente ha seguido un patrón diferente a lo largo de la historia. La distribución anatómica de dichas lesiones en los últimos conflictos ha demostrado que las áreas más afectadas son las extremidades, seguidas de la cabeza y el cuello. El objetivo del estudio es describir la experiencia de Médicos Militares españoles desplegados en el Hospital Militar Role 2 de Herat (Afganistán) sob...

  15. Barriers to Repatriation of Afghan Refugees (A Case Study of Afghan Community at Shah and Khusar Colony Board Area Peshawar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Alam

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to explore the barriers to the repatriation of Afghan refugees. The data were collected from board area Peshawar from 76 respondents selected through simple random sampling technique and were interviewed. The study shows that Afghan refugees migrated to Pakistan mainly due to Soviet invasion in Afghanistan in year 1979. Despite having stay of almost three decades in Pakistan they have to repatriate to Afghanistan, but a large majority of the respondents had no intentions to repatriate while small number of respondents reported intention to repatriate mainly due to strict policies of Pakistan government. Those had no intention pointed out the political reasons such as lack of peace and stability in Afghanistan and bad law and order situation, they had no property/ land in Afghanistan, supplemented by lack of job opportunities while they have livelihood sources and better socioeconomic conditions in Pakistan. Socially in Afghanistan a new culture has been developed mostly favoring those like war. Social services are completely destroyed and many refugees called the new culture as alien for them especially to the new generation of Afghan refugees who have been grown in Pakistan. Many of them especially women and children enjoyed a life style that did not exist even before 1979 in Afghanistan. Refugees consider themselves more the part of Pakistani culture and hesitate to go back home. The overall impact shows that those people who had intention to repatriate mainly due to the use of force by government, destruction of houses and shops in camps. Study recommends that the repatriation process can be enhanced if peace and stability in Afghanistan is improved along with the availability of social services and job opportunities.

  16. Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the 21st Century: Interests, Perceptions and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangar Kaneshko

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Since President Barack Obama set the end of 2014 as the deadline to complete the planned troop withdrawal from Afghanistan, numerous commentators have sought to assess Russia’s Afghan policy since September 11, 2001 and anticipate Moscow’s strategy in ‘post-2014’ Afghanistan. This paper maintains that an assessment/evaluation of Afghanistan’s significance for Russia in the current system of international relations is needed to understand Moscow’s current and future Afghan strategy. Hence, the aim of this study is to identify and analyse the major factors, which lead to a conceptualization of Russia’s interests in Afghanistan. When assessing Russia’s interests in Afghanistan, one must take into account a plethora of significant issues, including Putin’s ‘great-power’ rhetoric; geopolitical, geostrategic, and geo-economic rivalries in the wider region; security threats such as the illegal narcotics emanating from Afghanistan and global terrorism and Islamic fundamentalism; the rivalry and competition for energy resources; and control over pipeline routes and energy corridors. The analysis of these substantiating factors demonstrate why in the 21st century the Afghan problem remains a significant challenge to Russia’s ‘great power’ identity, to its international strategy abroad, to its strategically important ‘near abroad,’ and to the country’s domestic socio-economic policy

  17. Welfare Impacts of Afghan Trade on the Pakistani Provinces of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Shabbir

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Amidst all the concerns of uncertainty over the future of Afghanistan, recent developments have given hope to the world, specifically south and central Asia. A coalition government has now been established following the deadlock that came after the May 2014 elections. President Ashraf Ghani and Chief Executive Officer Abdullah have already signed a Bilateral Security Agreement (BSA between Kabul and Washington, according to which 9800 troops will remain in Afghanistan beyond 2015. Furthermore, the government of Afghanistan seeks the support of the neighbouring countries to keep peace in the region. Despite all these concrete steps, there has been an increased number of terror attacks and drone operations which has put a big question mark on the stability of the country. How Afghanistan tackles these rising problems will be crucial in defining its future, the trickle-down effects of which will determine the stability of the Afghan-Pakistan region. Concerns about what the future holds for this region with a long history of violence and insurgency are currently being voiced at many levels of society, including on talk shows, at government meetings, within NGOs, and at business forums. Unlike most of the studies done on the Afghan-Pakistan region that focus on the security of the region, this article focuses on the welfare and economic impacts of post-2014 Afghanistan on the neighbouring Pakistani provinces of Balochistan and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, at the household level.

  18. Detection and genetic characterization of foot‐and‐mouth disease viruses in samples from clinically healthy animals in endemic settings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jamal, Syed Muhammad; Ferrari, G.; Hussain, M.;

    2012-01-01

    A total of 1501 oral swab samples from Pakistan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan were collected from clinically healthy animals between July 2008 and August 2009 and assayed for the presence of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) RNA. The oral swab samples from two (of four) live animal markets...... in Pakistan (n = 245), one (of three) live animal market in Afghanistan (n = 61) and both the live animal markets in Tajikistan (n = 120) all tested negative. However, 2 of 129 (∼2%) samples from Gondal and 11 of 123 (9%) from Chichawatni markets in Pakistan were positive for FMDV RNA. Similarly, 12 of 81 (15......%) samples from Kabul and 10 of 20 (50%) from Badakhshan in Afghanistan were found to be positive. Serotypes A and O of FMDV were identified within these samples. Oral swab samples were also collected from dairy colonies in Harbanspura, Lahore (n = 232) and Nagori, Karachi (n = 136), but all tested negative...

  19. Geophysical and Geologic Training of the Afghan Geological Survey, May, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooney, W. D.; Bohannon, R.; Abraham, J.; Medlin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Afghanistan lies within the Alpine-Himalayan orogeny, and consists of four primary tectonic units: (1) the North Afghan Platform, part of the greater Kazakhstan craton that includes Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan; (2) the mountainous Hindu Kush-Pamirs in the northeast; (3) the transpressional plate boundary at the Chaman fault near the border with Pakistan; and (4) the southern accreted terranes located south of the east-west oriented Herat fault. The diverse geology of Afghanistan affords the country abundant natural resources, as well as many natural hazards. In order to assist in the identification of these resources and to map hazardous faults, a multi-agency consortium including the Afghan Ministry of Mines and Industry, the USGS and the US Navel Research Lab conducted a detailed airborne geophysical survey of the western half of Afghanistan during 2007. Over 110,000 km of data were collected, including aeromagnetic, gravity, hyperspectral imagery, synthetic aperture radar and photogrammetric data. These data provide remarkable images of the surficial and sub-surface structure of the country. Armed with these new, high quality data, USGS trainers conducted an in-depth training course at the offices of the Afghan Geological Survey (AGS) during May, 2008. Eighty staff members of the AGS attended the four-day course which covered the following topics: (1) the geology and tectonics of Afghanistan; (2) a synthesis of modern plate tectonic processes; (3) use of geophysical and geological data to identify natural resources and hazardous faults. Particular emphasis was placed on oil and gas, mineral, coal and water resources. Earthquake and landslide hazards in Afghanistan were also discussed in detail. The building of scientific and technical capabilities at the AGS is a high priority because the development of their natural resources will have a positive impact on economic growth in Afghanistan. Future courses will benefit from hands-on training in methods of

  20. Political Reforms in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of Pakistan (FATA) : Will it End the Current Militancy?

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Sayed Wiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    The resurgence of the Taliban and the al Qaida are interwoven with the rising tide of militancy in the tribal areas of Pakistan. After the Taliban’s ouster from Afghanistan, the al Qaida and its supporters regrouped in the FATA and launched attacks on the US and NATO troops in Afghanistan. Pakistan, a major ally of the US on war upon terror tried to quell the insurgents but did not succeed. The cross-border infiltration and attacks on US troops continued, causing serious doubts about Pakistan...

  1. Annexe I. Liste des participants aux sommets du mouvement des pays non alignés

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Sommet de Belgrade, 1961 Membres (25) Afghanistan Indonésie Algérie Irak Arabie Saoudite Liban Birmanie Mali Cambodge Maroc Ceylon Népal Chypre République arabe unie Congo (Léopoldville) Somalie Cuba Soudan Ethiopie Tunisie Ghana Yémen Guinée Yougoslavie Inde Observateurs (3) Bolivie Brésil Equateur Sommet du Caire, 1964 Membres (47) Afghanistan Birmanie Algérie Burundi Angola Cambodge Arabie Saoudite Cameroun Ceylon Maroc Chypre Mauritanie Congo (Brazzaville) Népal Cuba Nigéria Dahomey Ouga...

  2. Study of Hassan’s Tragedy from Three Aspects in The Kite Runner

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车春柳

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes a novel Kite Runner of Khaled Hosseini, published in 2003. It is the first novel of Hosseini which had been one of the bestselling in New York Times ranking list. It studies Hassan’s tragedy from three aspects, including the so-cial environment in Afghanistan, the loyalty of Hassan, and the selfishness of Amir. Besides, it also discusses the friendship and be-trayal between two boys-Hassan and Amir. Finally, the terrible life of Hassan in Afghanistan is under investigated.

  3. Implications of the War On Terror for Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2010-01-01

    The US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan conducted for the aim of eliminating Al- Qaeda and Osama-bin-Laden has brought about enormous economic, social and political changes in the region. Pakistan’s role as a front-line state in the War on Terror has had profound implications for its domestic politics and foreign policy. Pakistan not only took a U-turn on its Afghanistan policy, but also had to crack down on internal extremism and terrorism. Several military operations were carried out agains...

  4. An Uzbekistan Perspective on the Afghan Issue

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gulnara Karimova

    2010-01-01

    @@ The decision by President Barack Obama to send up to 30,000 more U.S. troops to Afghanistan underlines that the Afghan dilemma is coming to the fore in world politics. This is due not only to the fact that the resurgence of the Taliban and Al-Qaeda is once again making Afghanistan a zone with a high potential for destabilization, but also because the Afghan conflict directly affects the vital interests of virtually all the major global centers of power.

  5. Iran's Nuclear Programme - A regional perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Meiner-Jensen,Nicklas

    2010-01-01

    Iran has long been a pariah state in the international community. Despite the fact that Ayatollah Ali Khamenei condemned the attack of World Trade Center and that Iran did not object to USA invading Afghanistan, the relationship between USA and Iran has not improved. On one side Iran indirectly supported the war in Afghanistan by not protesting. But on the other side the Islamic Republic of Iran was still seeking what they have always been seeking, which is to be a role model for all the Musl...

  6. 75 FR 18035 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Iraq...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: A. Background DoD published an interim rule at 73 FR 53151 on September 15, 2008, to..., 225, and 252, which was published at 73 FR 53151, September 15, 2008, is adopted as a final rule with... Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Acquisitions in Support of Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan (DFARS...

  7. School or Madrassa? Parents' Choice and the Failure of State-Run Education in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Jehanzaib

    2012-01-01

    Two major assumptions have dominated much of the discourse on Islamic schools in Pakistan since the rise of the Taliban in the 1990s and following the US attack on Afghanistan in October 2001. First, the Pakistani state-run education system is failing. Because of the poor quality of education at public schools, parents choose to send their…

  8. Debates in the Literature on Islamic Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbih, Randa

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary global events, such as the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the unresolved conflict in the Middle East, and the pessimistic relationships with Muslim countries, pose challenges for Muslims living in the United States in all walks of life. In addition, Muslims encounter daily struggles to live within a society that follows considerably…

  9. Meeting EFA: How Do Complementary Models Meet the Education Needs of Underserved Populations in Developing Countries? Issues Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Joseph; Moore, Audrey-Marie Schuh; Balwanz, David; Hartwell, Ash

    2006-01-01

    This issues brief describes how complementary education approaches that rely on community, nongovernmental, and ministry collaboration present a promising response to the challenge to the limitations of conventional primary schooling. The brief is based on nine case studies of successful complementary education programs in Afghanistan, Bangladesh,…

  10. Transnational Links of Afghan Madrasas: Implications for the Reform of Religious Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchgrevink, Kaja

    2013-01-01

    Described as "terrorist factories", the South Asian madrasas have become the subject of great controversy since September 11, 2001. In Afghanistan, people commonly blame Pakistani madrasas for recruiting Afghan youth into militant groups. In response, the Afghan government has initiated a comprehensive reform of the Islamic education sector. Yet,…

  11. Implications of the War On Terror for Khyber Pukhtunkhwa, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manzoor Ahmad

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The US-led War on Terror in Afghanistan conducted for the aim of eliminating Al- Qaeda and Osama-bin-Laden has brought about enormous economic, social and political changes in the region. Pakistan’s role as a front-line state in the War on Terror has had profound implications for its domestic politics and foreign policy. Pakistan not only took a U-turn on its Afghanistan policy, but also had to crack down on internal extremism and terrorism. Several military operations were carried out against the so- called terrorist factions in tribal areas and some other parts of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP, renamed as Khyber Pukhtunkhwa (KPK under the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of 1973 of Pakistan. With a majority Pashtun population, KPK has been a target of the War on Terror due to its social structure, cultural restraints and the religion of its inhabitants on the boundary with Afghanistan. The socio-cultural similarities and geographical proximity with Afghanistan have made it a sanctuary for Al-Qaeda members. The War on Terror in KPK has had negative political, economic and social repercussions for the region and thus has created hatred among the Pashtuns. This paper is an attempt to analyze the factors which made the Pashtuns of this area prone to militancy. It will analyze the political, economic and social implications of the War on Terror for KPK in general and its Pashtun population in particular.

  12. Perceived demands during modern military operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boermans, S.M.; Kamphuis, W.; Delahaij, R.; Korteling, J.E.; Euwema, M.

    2013-01-01

    Using a cross-sectional design, this study explored operational demands during the International Security Assistance Force for Afghanistan (2009-2010) across distinct military units. A total of 1,413 Dutch soldiers, nested within four types of units (i.e., combat, combat support, service support, an

  13. The Role of Music in Education: Forming Cultural Identity and Making Cross-Cultural Connections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascale, Louise M.

    2013-01-01

    In this reflection, Louise Pascale describes the evolution, development, and outcomes of the Afghan Children's Songbook Project, which is reintroducing children's ethnic songs to the children of Afghanistan and Afghan expats as well as to American schoolchildren. Her reflection highlights the potential for music to unify and strengthen…

  14. War News Radio: Conflict Education through Student Journalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Emily

    2009-01-01

    In this essay Emily Hager presents an example of conflict education through student journalism. War News Radio is a student-organized and student-produced program developed at Swarthmore College in which participants produce for a global audience nonpartisan weekly radio shows and podcasts focused on the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Hager shares…

  15. Eyeless in America: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article examines 50 films produced and released between the years 2001 and 2012 that are concerned with the American wars in Iraq and Afghanistan. Using Jacques Ellul's theories set out in his book "Propaganda," the article argues that while the films have failed at the box office, they were intended to function as integration propaganda. The…

  16. Eyeless in America, the Sequel: Hollywood and Indiewood's Iraq War on Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackmore, Tim

    2012-01-01

    This article builds on conclusions drawn in the article "Eyeless in America," by the same author and considers how 50 American films about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan intended to function as what Jacques Ellul called "integration propaganda" fared. This article considers and rejects a number of theories about why most feature war films failed…

  17. Transnational Feminist Rhetorics in a Digital World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, Mary

    2008-01-01

    In this essay, the author examines the digital circulations of representations of one Afghan women's rights organization--the Revolutionary Association of Women of Afghanistan (RAWA)--to demonstrate the importance of a global and digital field for feminist rhetorical analysis. Specifically, this analysis traces how women's self-representations are…

  18. 论《追风筝的人》中的风筝意象%Research on the Kite Image of"Kite Runner"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞雪

    2015-01-01

    《追风筝的人》是阿富汗作家卡勒德胡塞尼的处女作,发表之后,一时间就大受读者的一致好评。在阿富汗,斗风筝是一项全民参与的体育活动,在阿富汗的首都喀布尔的上空,总是飘着色彩斑斓的风筝。在阿富汗的文化里,风筝是具有特殊意义的,它承载着阿富汗的多元的文化和精神内涵。而在《追风筝的人》中,胡塞尼也利于风筝这一意象来进行叙事和表达情感。%"Kite Runner "is the debut of Afghan writer Khaled husaini,which was published for a time and got great popular-ity.In Afghanistan,the kite fighting is a universal participation in sports activities over in Afghanistan's capital Kabul,we can always wave colorful kites.In the kite culture of Afghanistan,it is of special significance,it carries the diverse cultural and spiritual connotation of Afghanistan.In the "Kite Runner",Husaini also makes use of this image to carry narrative and emo-tional expression.

  19. 31 CFR 545.508 - Transactions related to telecommunications authorized.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... telecommunications authorized. 545.508 Section 545.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and... related to telecommunications authorized. All transactions ordinarily incident to the receipt or transmission of telecommunications involving the territory of Afghanistan controlled by the Taliban...

  20. 一扇民主之门

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    法满; EmilioMorenatti

    2005-01-01

    Afghan women wearing burqas line up to vote at a polling station in Kabul on October.9.2004.Across Afghanistan voters went to the polls in the country's first ever presidential election .Hannd Karzai was elected president and sworn in on December 8.

  1. Evaluation of insecticides and repellents for the control of the sand fly Phlebotomus papatasi to protect deployed U.S. Military personnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phlebotomine sand flies, including Phlebotomus papatasi, are important blood feeders and vectors that transmit the disease agents (Leishmania) that cause Leishmaniasis. Deployed U.S. Military Personnel in Iraq and Afghanistan suffered from sand fly bites and the disease they transmit. A USDA-DoD joi...

  2. Jihadisme in Noordelijk Afrika : drijfveren, daden en deelgenoten van AQIM en Boko Haram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ait-Hida, S.; Brinkel, T.

    2011-01-01

    Sinds de jaren negentig zijn op veel plaatsen in de wereld jihadistische terroristische organisaties actiefl. Zoals bijvoorbeeld in Afghanistan, Irak, Indonesië en Somalië. Niet alleen ver weg, ook in het meer nabije Noord Afrika baart een terroristische organisatie die zichzelf noemt "Al-Qaida in d

  3. Determinants of Second Language Proficiency among Refugees in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tubergen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the language acquisition of refugees in Western countries. This study examines how pre- and post-migration characteristics of refugees are related to their second language proficiency. Data are from a survey of 3,500 refugees, who were born in Afghanistan, Iran, Iraq, former Yugoslavia and Somalia, and who resided in the…

  4. Putting Evidence into Practice: The PLoS Medicine Series on Global Mental Health Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Ventevogel, Peter; van de Put, Willem; Faiz, Hafizullah; van Mierlo, Bibiane; Siddiqi, Majeed; Komproe, Ivan H

    2012-01-01

    As one article in a series on Global Mental Health Practice, Peter Ventevogel and colleagues provide a case study of their efforts to integrate brief, practice-oriented mental health training into the Afghanistan health care system at a time when the system was being rebuilt from scratch.

  5. Le marché des stupéfiants dans une société mondialisée / Drug trafficking in globalized society

    OpenAIRE

    Brochu Serge; Perras Chantal

    2010-01-01

    International co-operation treaties exist for decades, as well as the international drug traffic. However, they did not yet succeed in efficiently fighting international drug trafficking. This paper reviews the history of international traffic and illustrate the discussion with known examples like those of Colombia and Afghanistan

  6. Le marché des stupéfiants dans une société mondialisée / Drug trafficking in globalized society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brochu Serge

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available International co-operation treaties exist for decades, as well as the international drug traffic. However, they did not yet succeed in efficiently fighting international drug trafficking. This paper reviews the history of international traffic and illustrate the discussion with known examples like those of Colombia and Afghanistan

  7. Strategic Planning for Higher Education in Developing Countries: Challenges and Lessons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayward, Fred M.

    2008-01-01

    The study presented in this article focuses on strategic planning in developing countries, drawing on the author's experiences in a dozen developing countries in Asia and Africa and focus groups in three of those countries: Afghanistan, Madagascar, and South Africa. It looks at the special challenges faced by planners in developing countries and…

  8. LEXICOGRAPHICAL PROBLEMS IN PASHTO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CHAVARRIS-AGUILAR, O.L.; PENZL, HERBERT

    PROBLEMS IN DEVELOPING SUITABLE DICTIONARIES OF PASHTO WERE REPORTED. PASHTO WAS DESCRIBED AS A MEMBER OF THE IRANIAN BRANCH OF THE INDO-EUROPEAN LANGUAGES SPOKEN IN EASTERN AND SOUTHERN AFGHANISTAN AND IN NORTHEASTERN PAKISTAN. FIVE TOPICS DEALING WITH THE PASHTO LANGUAGE WERE DISCUSSED--(1) STATISTICS, (2) WRITTEN CORPUS AND LEXICAL STUDIES, (3)…

  9. Family Reintegration Difficulties and Couples Therapy for Military Veterans and Their Spouses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayers, S. L.

    2011-01-01

    There is compelling evidence that mental health problems complicate the process of family reintegration of military service members after a wartime deployment. Couples in which one spouse has recently returned from military deployment in Iraq or Afghanistan and are experiencing marital problems can present a significant treatment challenge. There…

  10. Dubsky v Ireland

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Liam

    2005-01-01

    Core issue: 1. Whether allowing over-flight and landing of military aircraft en route to Afghanistan in accordance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1368 (2001) constitutes a breach of Ireland's neutral status. 2. Whether the 1907 Hague Convention constitutes customary international law. 3. Whether the United Nations Security Council can compel Ireland to commit an unconstitutional act.

  11. Responding to the Psychological Needs of OEF-OIF Military: A Commentary on Progress in Treatment Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, Terence M.

    2011-01-01

    America's involvement in the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq (i.e., OEF-OIF) is entering its 9th year with casualties exceeding 5,000 American deaths and many times that number with serious physical injuries. Epidemiological surveys and mental health screening concurrent with service and at the point of discharge provide us with important information…

  12. Maximalist Islamic Education as a Response to Terror: Some Thoughts on Unconditional Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waghid, Yusef; Davids, Nuraan

    2015-01-01

    Inasmuch as Muslim governments all over the world dissociate themselves from despicable acts of terror, few can deny the brutality and violence perpetrated especially by those in authoritative positions like political governments against humanity. Poignant examples are the ongoing massacre of Muslim communities in Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and…

  13. Krigspolitik(k)en under angreb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villaume, Poul

    2008-01-01

    I de sidste 17-18 år har dansk udenrigs- og sikkerhedspolitik undergået en markant militarisering, med Danmarks aktive deltagelse i krigene i Afghanistan og Irak som hidtidige højdepunkter. Den anmeldte bog, Jørgen Bonde Jensens "Politiken og krigspolitikken. Et læserbrev", gennemgår kritisk dagb...

  14. Zahraniční a pohraniční politika

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holman, Jaroslav

    1.doplněné. Praha : Lidové noviny, 2008, s. 748-769 ISBN 978-80-7106-493-0. - (Dějiny států) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z90210515 Keywords : India * Afghanistan * Burma * Big Game Subject RIV: AB - History

  15. 48 CFR 225.7702 - Acquisition of small arms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition of small arms... Operations in Iraq or Afghanistan 225.7702 Acquisition of small arms. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, when acquiring small arms for assistance to the Army of Iraq, the Army...

  16. Presidendi kantselei: Ilves ei üritanud sõjaraamatut tsenseerida / Merje Pors

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Pors, Merje

    2011-01-01

    Presidendi kantselei lükkab ümber Briti ajalehe The Telegraph väite, nagu oleks president Toomas Hendrik Ilves avaldanud survet Toby Harndeni raamatu "Dead Men Risen: The Welsh Guards and the Real Story of Britain's War in Afghanistan "("Ülestõusnud surnud: Walesi kaardivägi ja tegelik lugu brittide sõjast Afganistanis") tsenseerimiseks

  17. Ilves enters Afghan conflict

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2011-01-01

    Presidendi kantselei sõnul ei üritanud president Toomas Hendrik Ilves tsenseerida Toby Harndeni raamatut "Dead Men Risen: The Welsh Guards and the Real Story of Britain's War in Afghanistan", nagu seda oli väitnud Briti ajaleht The Telegraph

  18. Corps Intelligence Director Stresses the Value of Man Over Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Naval Postgraduate School Public Affairs Office

    2009-01-01

    Brig. Gen. Richard Lake, Director of Intelligence for Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C., speaks to students during a Secretary of the Navy Guest Lecture (SGL) April 21 in King Hall. Lake’s lecture focused on current and future global challenges, with detailed discussions about Iraq, Afghanistan, global population growth, technology and irregular warfare.

  19. Protecting the integrity of UNESCO World Heritage properties: the role of heritage information in decision-making

    OpenAIRE

    Santana Quintero, Mario

    2011-01-01

    This lecture will underlay the role of heritage information in the nomination, management and monitoring of UNESCO World Heritage properties. Concepts and fundamentals in recording, documenting and preparation of information systems will be presented, as well as, first hand examples from the following UNESCO World Heritage properties: Bamiyan (Afghanistan), Petra (Jordan), Baalbek (Lebanon) and UNESCO's World Heritage portal.

  20. A key to the bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) of South Asia

    OpenAIRE

    C. Srinivasulu; Racey, Paul A.; Shahroukh Mistry

    2010-01-01

    A checklist and dichotomous key to 128 species of bats known from South Asia including Afghanistan, India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka and Maldives is provided. Character matrices for families, genera and species are also included. This article also briefly reviews their distribution (both physiographic and country-wise), status and main identification characters