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Sample records for affymetrix genechip wheat

  1. Large-scale analysis of antisense transcription in wheat using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array

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    Settles Matthew L

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Natural antisense transcripts (NATs are transcripts of the opposite DNA strand to the sense-strand either at the same locus (cis-encoded or a different locus (trans-encoded. They can affect gene expression at multiple stages including transcription, RNA processing and transport, and translation. NATs give rise to sense-antisense transcript pairs and the number of these identified has escalated greatly with the availability of DNA sequencing resources and public databases. Traditionally, NATs were identified by the alignment of full-length cDNAs or expressed sequence tags to genome sequences, but an alternative method for large-scale detection of sense-antisense transcript pairs involves the use of microarrays. In this study we developed a novel protocol to assay sense- and antisense-strand transcription on the 55 K Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array, which is a 3' in vitro transcription (3'IVT expression array. We selected five different tissue types for assay to enable maximum discovery, and used the 'Chinese Spring' wheat genotype because most of the wheat GeneChip probe sequences were based on its genomic sequence. This study is the first report of using a 3'IVT expression array to discover the expression of natural sense-antisense transcript pairs, and may be considered as proof-of-concept. Results By using alternative target preparation schemes, both the sense- and antisense-strand derived transcripts were labeled and hybridized to the Wheat GeneChip. Quality assurance verified that successful hybridization did occur in the antisense-strand assay. A stringent threshold for positive hybridization was applied, which resulted in the identification of 110 sense-antisense transcript pairs, as well as 80 potentially antisense-specific transcripts. Strand-specific RT-PCR validated the microarray observations, and showed that antisense transcription is likely to be tissue specific. For the annotated sense

  2. Modelling background intensity in Affymetrix Genechips

    CERN Document Server

    Kroll, K M; Carlon, E

    2008-01-01

    DNA microarrays are devices that are able, in principle, to detect and quantify the presence of specific nucleic acid sequences in complex biological mixtures. The measurement consists in detecting fluorescence signals from several spots on the microarray surface onto which different probe sequences are grafted. One of the problems of the data analysis is that the signal contains a noisy background component due to non-specific binding. This paper presents a physical model for background estimation in Affymetrix Genechips. It combines two different approaches. The first is based on the sequence composition, specifically its sequence dependent hybridization affinity. The second is based on the strong correlation of intensities from locations which are the physical neighbors of a specific spot on the chip. Both effects are incorporated in a background functional which contains 24 free parameters, fixed by minimization on a training data set. In all data analyzed the sequence specific parameters, obtained by min...

  3. Coverage and characteristics of the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100K SNP set.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Improvements in technology have made it possible to conduct genome-wide association mapping at costs within reach of academic investigators, and experiments are currently being conducted with a variety of high-throughput platforms. To provide an appropriate context for interpreting results of such studies, we summarize here results of an investigation of one of the first of these technologies to be publicly available, the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Mapping 100K set of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. In a systematic analysis of the pattern and distribution of SNPs in the Mapping 100K set, we find that SNPs in this set are undersampled from coding regions (both nonsynonymous and synonymous and oversampled from regions outside genes, relative to SNPs in the overall HapMap database. In addition, we utilize a novel multilocus linkage disequilibrium (LD coefficient based on information content (analogous to the information content scores commonly used for linkage mapping that is equivalent to the familiar measure r2 in the special case of two loci. Using this approach, we are able to summarize for any subset of markers, such as the Affymetrix Mapping 100K set, the information available for association mapping in that subset, relative to the information available in the full set of markers included in the HapMap, and highlight circumstances in which this multilocus measure of LD provides substantial additional insight about the haplotype structure in a region over pairwise measures of LD.

  4. Discovery and mapping of single feature polymorphisms in wheat using Affymetrix arrays

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    Hu Shengwa

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is a staple food crop worldwide. The wheat genome has not yet been sequenced due to its huge genome size (~17,000 Mb and high levels of repetitive sequences; the whole genome sequence may not be expected in the near future. Available linkage maps have low marker density due to limitation in available markers; therefore new technologies that detect genome-wide polymorphisms are still needed to discover a large number of new markers for construction of high-resolution maps. A high-resolution map is a critical tool for gene isolation, molecular breeding and genomic research. Single feature polymorphism (SFP is a new microarray-based type of marker that is detected by hybridization of DNA or cRNA to oligonucleotide probes. This study was conducted to explore the feasibility of using the Affymetrix GeneChip to discover and map SFPs in the large hexaploid wheat genome. Results Six wheat varieties of diverse origins (Ning 7840, Clark, Jagger, Encruzilhada, Chinese Spring, and Opata 85 were analyzed for significant probe by variety interactions and 396 probe sets with SFPs were identified. A subset of 164 unigenes was sequenced and 54% showed polymorphism within probes. Microarray analysis of 71 recombinant inbred lines from the cross Ning 7840/Clark identified 955 SFPs and 877 of them were mapped together with 269 simple sequence repeat markers. The SFPs were randomly distributed within a chromosome but were unevenly distributed among different genomes. The B genome had the most SFPs, and the D genome had the least. Map positions of a selected set of SFPs were validated by mapping single nucleotide polymorphism using SNaPshot and comparing with expressed sequence tags mapping data. Conclusion The Affymetrix array is a cost-effective platform for SFP discovery and SFP mapping in wheat. The new high-density map constructed in this study will be a useful tool for genetic and genomic research in wheat.

  5. Genome-wide loss of heterozygosity and copy number alteration in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma using the Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 10 K array

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    Goldstein Alisa M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC is a common malignancy worldwide. Comprehensive genomic characterization of ESCC will further our understanding of the carcinogenesis process in this disease. Results Genome-wide detection of chromosomal changes was performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip 10 K single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array, including loss of heterozygosity (LOH and copy number alterations (CNA, for 26 pairs of matched germ-line and micro-dissected tumor DNA samples. LOH regions were identified by two methods – using Affymetrix's genotype call software and using Affymetrix's copy number alteration tool (CNAT software – and both approaches yielded similar results. Non-random LOH regions were found on 10 chromosomal arms (in decreasing order of frequency: 17p, 9p, 9q, 13q, 17q, 4q, 4p, 3p, 15q, and 5q, including 20 novel LOH regions (10 kb to 4.26 Mb. Fifteen CNA-loss regions (200 kb to 4.3 Mb and 36 CNA-gain regions (200 kb to 9.3 Mb were also identified. Conclusion These studies demonstrate that the Affymetrix 10 K SNP chip is a valid platform to integrate analyses of LOH and CNA. The comprehensive knowledge gained from this analysis will enable improved strategies to prevent, diagnose, and treat ESCC.

  6. Comparative Transcriptomic Profiling of Vitis vinifera Under High Light Using a Custom-Made Array and the Affymetrix GeneChip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Luisa C. Carvalho; Belmiro J. Vilela; Phil M. Mullineaux; Sara Am(a)ncio

    2011-01-01

    Understanding abiotic stress responses is one of the most important issues in plant research nowadays.Abiotic stress,including excess light,can promote the onset of oxidative stress through the accumulation of reactive oxygen species.Oxidative stress also arises when in vitro propagated plants are exposed to high light upon transfer to ex vitro.To determine whether the underlying pathways activated at the transfer of in vitro grapevine to ex vitro conditions reflect the processes occurring upon light stress,we used Vitis vinifera Affymetrix GeneChip (VvGA) and a custom array of genes responsive to light stress (LSCA) detected by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR).When gene-expression profiles were compared,‘protein metabolism and modification',‘signaling',and ‘anti-oxidative' genes were more represented in LSCA,while,in VvGA,‘cell wall metabolism' and ‘secondary metabolism' were the categories in which gene expression varied more significantly.The above functional categories confirm previous studies involving other types of abiotic stresses,enhancing the common attributes of abiotic stress defense pathways.The LSCA analysis of our experimental system detected strong response of heat shock genes,particularly the protein rescuing mechanism involving the cooperation of two ATP-dependent chaperone systems,Hsp100 and Hsp70,which showed an unusually late response during the recovery period,of extreme relevance to remove non-functional,potentially harmful polypeptides arising from misfolding,denaturation,or aggregation brought about by stress.The success of LSCA also proves the feasibility of a custommade qRT-PCR approach,particularly for species for which no GeneChip is available and for researchers dealing with a specific and focused problem.

  7. Development and application of a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix Genechip® for massively parallel discovery of single position polymorphisms in lettuce (Lactuca spp.

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    Stoffel Kevin

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High-resolution genetic maps are needed in many crops to help characterize the genetic diversity that determines agriculturally important traits. Hybridization to microarrays to detect single feature polymorphisms is a powerful technique for marker discovery and genotyping because of its highly parallel nature. However, microarrays designed for gene expression analysis rarely provide sufficient gene coverage for optimal detection of nucleotide polymorphisms, which limits utility in species with low rates of polymorphism such as lettuce (Lactuca sativa. Results We developed a 6.5 million feature Affymetrix GeneChip® for efficient polymorphism discovery and genotyping, as well as for analysis of gene expression in lettuce. Probes on the microarray were designed from 26,809 unigenes from cultivated lettuce and an additional 8,819 unigenes from four related species (L. serriola, L. saligna, L. virosa and L. perennis. Where possible, probes were tiled with a 2 bp stagger, alternating on each DNA strand; providing an average of 187 probes covering approximately 600 bp for each of over 35,000 unigenes; resulting in up to 13 fold redundancy in coverage per nucleotide. We developed protocols for hybridization of genomic DNA to the GeneChip® and refined custom algorithms that utilized coverage from multiple, high quality probes to detect single position polymorphisms in 2 bp sliding windows across each unigene. This allowed us to detect greater than 18,000 polymorphisms between the parental lines of our core mapping population, as well as numerous polymorphisms between cultivated lettuce and wild species in the lettuce genepool. Using marker data from our diversity panel comprised of 52 accessions from the five species listed above, we were able to separate accessions by species using both phylogenetic and principal component analyses. Additionally, we estimated the diversity between different types of cultivated lettuce and

  8. Lr34-mediated leaf rust resistance in wheat: transcript profiling reveals a high energetic demand supported by transient recruitment of multiple metabolic pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat gene Lr34 confers partial resistance to all races of Puccinia triticina, the causal agent of wheat leaf rust. However, the biological basis for the exceptional durability of Lr34 is unclear. We used the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array to compare transcriptional changes of wheat in a...

  9. Thermodynamic scaling behavior in genechips

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    Van Hummelen Paul

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affymetrix Genechips are characterized by probe pairs, a perfect match (PM and a mismatch (MM probe differing by a single nucleotide. Most of the data preprocessing algorithms neglect MM signals, as it was shown that MMs cannot be used as estimators of the non-specific hybridization as originally proposed by Affymetrix. The aim of this paper is to study in detail on a large number of experiments the behavior of the average PM/MM ratio. This is taken as an indicator of the quality of the hybridization and, when compared between different chip series, of the quality of the chip design. Results About 250 different GeneChip hybridizations performed at the VIB Microarray Facility for Homo sapiens, Drosophila melanogaster, and Arabidopsis thaliana were analyzed. The investigation of such a large set of data from the same source minimizes systematic experimental variations that may arise from differences in protocols or from different laboratories. The PM/MM ratios are derived theoretically from thermodynamic laws and a link is made with the sequence of PM and MM probe, more specifically with their central nucleotide triplets. Conclusion The PM/MM ratios subdivided according to the different central nucleotides triplets follow qualitatively those deduced from the hybridization free energies in solution. It is shown also that the PM and MM histograms are related by a simple scale transformation, in agreement with what is to be expected from hybridization thermodynamics. Different quantitative behavior is observed on the different chip organisms analyzed, suggesting that some organism chips have superior probe design compared to others.

  10. Analysis of genome-wide gene expression in root of wheat hybrid and its parents using Barley1 GeneChip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yinhong; NI Zhongfu; YAO Yingyin; ZHAO Jun; SUN Qixin

    2006-01-01

    Previous studies indicated that differential gene expression between hybrids and their parents is responsible for the heterosis. In this paper, we report genome-wide gene expression analysis in roots of a highly heterotic inter-specific hybrid 3338/2463 and its parental inbreds using Barley GeneChip. A total of 1187 genes displayed difference in gene expressions between hybrid 3338/2463 and its parents, and they can be clustered into eight differential expression patterns. Further analysis revealed that among these 1187 genes, 975genes showed high sequence similarity to the GenBank entries, and represented diverse functional categories, such as metabolism, cell growth and maintenance, signal transduction, response to stress, transcription regulation and others. Fourteen genes were selected for RT-PCR analysis and expression patterns of 9 (64.29%) genes were confirmed. Remarkably, 380 differentially expressed genes could be mapped on the Chinese Spring deletion bins, and with the number of genes in seven homoeologous groups being 158, 148, 121, 140,132, 94 and 127 respectively. It is concluded that a combination of systematic identification of differentially expressed genes with comparative mapping would provide further insight into understanding of molecular basis of heterosis.

  11. Combining Affymetrix microarray results

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    Doerge RW

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the use of microarray technology becomes more prevalent it is not unusual to find several laboratories employing the same microarray technology to identify genes related to the same condition in the same species. Although the experimental specifics are similar, typically a different list of statistically significant genes result from each data analysis. Results We propose a statistically-based meta-analytic approach to microarray analysis for the purpose of systematically combining results from the different laboratories. This approach provides a more precise view of genes that are significantly related to the condition of interest while simultaneously allowing for differences between laboratories. Of particular interest is the widely used Affymetrix oligonucleotide array, the results of which are naturally suited to a meta-analysis. A simulation model based on the Affymetrix platform is developed to examine the adaptive nature of the meta-analytic approach and to illustrate the usefulness of such an approach in combining microarray results across laboratories. The approach is then applied to real data involving a mouse model for multiple sclerosis. Conclusion The quantitative estimates from the meta-analysis model tend to be closer to the "true" degree of differential expression than any single lab. Meta-analytic methods can systematically combine Affymetrix results from different laboratories to gain a clearer understanding of genes' relationships to specific conditions of interest.

  12. AffyMiner: mining differentially expressed genes and biological knowledge in GeneChip microarray data

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yuannan; Nguyen The V; Lu Guoqing; Fromm Michael

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background DNA microarrays are a powerful tool for monitoring the expression of tens of thousands of genes simultaneously. With the advance of microarray technology, the challenge issue becomes how to analyze a large amount of microarray data and make biological sense of them. Affymetrix GeneChips are widely used microarrays, where a variety of statistical algorithms have been explored and used for detecting significant genes in the experiment. These methods rely solely on the quanti...

  13. Prevalence of gene expression additivity in genetically stable wheat allohexaploids.

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    Chelaifa, Houda; Chagué, Véronique; Chalabi, Smahane; Mestiri, Imen; Arnaud, Dominique; Deffains, Denise; Lu, Yunhai; Belcram, Harry; Huteau, Virginie; Chiquet, Julien; Coriton, Olivier; Just, Jérémy; Jahier, Joseph; Chalhoub, Boulos

    2013-02-01

    The reprogramming of gene expression appears as the major trend in synthetic and natural allopolyploids where expression of an important proportion of genes was shown to deviate from that of the parents or the average of the parents. In this study, we analyzed gene expression changes in previously reported, highly stable synthetic wheat allohexaploids that combine the D genome of Aegilops tauschii and the AB genome extracted from the natural hexaploid wheat Triticum aestivum. A comprehensive genome-wide analysis of transcriptional changes using the Affymetrix GeneChip Wheat Genome Array was conducted. Prevalence of gene expression additivity was observed where expression does not deviate from the average of the parents for 99.3% of 34,820 expressed transcripts. Moreover, nearly similar expression was observed (for 99.5% of genes) when comparing these synthetic and natural wheat allohexaploids. Such near-complete additivity has never been reported for other allopolyploids and, more interestingly, for other synthetic wheat allohexaploids that differ from the ones studied here by having the natural tetraploid Triticum turgidum as the AB genome progenitor. Our study gave insights into the dynamics of additive gene expression in the highly stable wheat allohexaploids. PMID:23278496

  14. Genotyping and annotation of Affymetrix SNP arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lamy, Philippe; Andersen, Claus Lindbjerg; Wikman, Friedrik;

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we develop a new method for genotyping Affymetrix single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array. The method is based on (i) using multiple arrays at the same time to determine the genotypes and (ii) a model that relates intensities of individual SNPs to each other. The latter point...... allows us to annotate SNPs that have poor performance, either because of poor experimental conditions or because for one of the alleles the probes do not behave in a dose-response manner. Generally, our method agrees well with a method developed by Affymetrix. When both methods make a call they agree in...... 99.25% (using standard settings) of the cases, using a sample of 113 Affymetrix 10k SNP arrays. In the majority of cases where the two methods disagree, our method makes a genotype call, whereas the method by Affymetrix makes a no call, i.e. the genotype of the SNP is not determined. By visualization...

  15. A powerful method for detecting differentially expressed genes from GeneChip arrays that does not require replicates

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    Hein Anne-Mette K

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies of differential expression that use Affymetrix GeneChip arrays are often carried out with a limited number of replicates. Reasons for this include financial considerations and limits on the available amount of RNA for sample preparation. In addition, failed hybridizations are not uncommon leading to a further reduction in the number of replicates available for analysis. Most existing methods for studying differential expression rely on the availability of replicates and the demand for alternative methods that require few or no replicates is high. Results We describe a statistical procedure for performing differential expression analysis without replicates. The procedure relies on a Bayesian integrated approach (BGX to the analysis of Affymetrix GeneChips. The BGX method estimates a posterior distribution of expression for each gene and condition, from a simultaneous consideration of the available probe intensities representing the gene in a condition. Importantly, posterior distributions of expression are obtained regardless of the number of replicates available. We exploit these posterior distributions to create ranked gene lists that take into account the estimated expression difference as well as its associated uncertainty. We estimate the proportion of non-differentially expressed genes empirically, allowing an informed choice of cut-off for the ranked gene list, adapting an approach proposed by Efron. We assess the performance of the method, and compare it to those of other methods, on publicly available spike-in data sets, as well as in a proper biological setting. Conclusion The method presented is a powerful tool for extracting information on differential expression from GeneChip expression studies with limited or no replicates.

  16. Hepatic gene expression profiling using GeneChips in zebrafish exposed to 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone

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    Hoffmann, J.L.; Thomason, R.G.; Lee, D.M.; Brill, J.L.; Price, B.B.; Carr, G.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States); Versteeg, D.J. [Miami Valley Innovation Center, Procter and Gamble Company, P.O. Box 538707, Cincinnati, OH 45253-8707 (United States)], E-mail: versteeg.dj@pg.com

    2008-04-28

    Concentration and time-dependent changes in hepatic gene expression were examined in adult, female zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L of a model androgen, 17{alpha}-methyldihydrotestosterone (MDHT). At 24 and 168 h, fish were sacrificed and liver was extracted for gene expression analysis using custom Affymetrix GeneChip Zebrafish Genome Microarrays. In an effort to link gene expression changes to higher levels of biological organization, blood was collected for measurement of plasma steroid hormones (17{beta}-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T)) and vitellogenin (VTG) using ELISA. Body and ovary weight were also measured. A significant reduction in E2 occurred at 24 h (0.7 and 4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) following MDHT exposure. In contrast, T was significantly increased at 24 h (4.9 {mu}g/L) and 168 h (0.1, 0.7, 4.9 {mu}g/L). 171 and 575 genes were significantly affected in a concentration-dependent manner at either 24 or 168 h by MDHT exposure at p {<=} 0.001 and p {<=} 0.01, respectively. Genes involved in retinoic acid metabolism (e.g. aldehyde dehydrogenase 8, member A1; retinol dehydrogenase 12), steroid biosynthesis and metabolism (e.g. hydroxysteroid (11{beta}) dehydrogenase 2; hydroxy-delta-5-steroid dehydrogenase, 3 beta-), hormone transport (e.g. sex hormone binding globulin), and regulation of cell growth and proliferation (e.g. N-myc downstream regulated gene 1; spermidinespermine N(1)-acetyltransferase) were affected by MDHT exposure. In this study, we identified genes involved in a variety of biological processes that have the potential to be used as markers of exposure to androgenic substances. Genes identified in this study provide information on the potential mode of action of strong androgens in female fish. In addition, when used for screening of EDC's, these genes may also serve as sensitive markers of exposure to androgenic compounds.

  17. Ranking differentially expressed genes from Affymetrix gene expression data: methods with reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity

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    Shimizu Kentaro

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs from microarray data, users of the Affymetrix GeneChip system need to select both a preprocessing algorithm to obtain expression-level measurements and a way of ranking genes to obtain the most plausible candidates. We recently recommended suitable combinations of a preprocessing algorithm and gene ranking method that can be used to identify DEGs with a higher level of sensitivity and specificity. However, in addition to these recommendations, researchers also want to know which combinations enhance reproducibility. Results We compared eight conventional methods for ranking genes: weighted average difference (WAD, average difference (AD, fold change (FC, rank products (RP, moderated t statistic (modT, significance analysis of microarrays (samT, shrinkage t statistic (shrinkT, and intensity-based moderated t statistic (ibmT with six preprocessing algorithms (PLIER, VSN, FARMS, multi-mgMOS (mmgMOS, MBEI, and GCRMA. A total of 36 real experimental datasets was evaluated on the basis of the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC as a measure for both sensitivity and specificity. We found that the RP method performed well for VSN-, FARMS-, MBEI-, and GCRMA-preprocessed data, and the WAD method performed well for mmgMOS-preprocessed data. Our analysis of the MicroArray Quality Control (MAQC project's datasets showed that the FC-based gene ranking methods (WAD, AD, FC, and RP had a higher level of reproducibility: The percentages of overlapping genes (POGs across different sites for the FC-based methods were higher overall than those for the t-statistic-based methods (modT, samT, shrinkT, and ibmT. In particular, POG values for WAD were the highest overall among the FC-based methods irrespective of the choice of preprocessing algorithm. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that to increase sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility in microarray analyses, we need

  18. A new genotype calling method for affymetrix SNP arrays.

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    Fu, Bilin; Xu, Jin

    2011-12-01

    Current genotype-calling methods such as Robust Linear Model with Mahalanobis Distance Classifier (RLMM) and Corrected Robust Linear Model with Maximum Likelihood Classification (CRLMM) provide accurate calling results for Affymetrix Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) chips. However, these methods are computationally expensive as they employ preprocess procedures, including chip data normalization and other sophisticated statistical techniques. In the small sample case the accuracy rate may drop significantly. We develop a new genotype calling method for Affymetrix 100 k and 500 k SNP chips. A two-stage classification scheme is proposed to obtain a fast genotype calling algorithm. The first stage uses unsupervised classification to quickly discriminate genotypes with high accuracy for the majority of the SNPs. And the second stage employs a supervised classification method to incorporate allele frequency information either from the HapMap data or from a self-training scheme. Confidence score is provided for every genotype call. The overall performance is shown to be comparable to that of CRLMM as verified by the known gold standard HapMap data and is superior in small sample cases. The new algorithm is computationally simple and standalone in the sense that a self-training scheme can be used without employing any other training data. A package implementing the calling algorithm is freely available at http://www.sfs.ecnu.edu.cn/teachers/xuj_en.html. PMID:22084010

  19. Computational method for reducing variance with Affymetrix microarrays

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    Brooks Andrew I

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Affymetrix microarrays are used by many laboratories to generate gene expression profiles. Generally, only large differences (> 1.7-fold between conditions have been reported. Computational methods to reduce inter-array variability might be of value when attempting to detect smaller differences. We examined whether inter-array variability could be reduced by using data based on the Affymetrix algorithm for pairwise comparisons between arrays (ratio method rather than data based on the algorithm for analysis of individual arrays (signal method. Six HG-U95A arrays that probed mRNA from young (21–31 yr old human muscle were compared with six arrays that probed mRNA from older (62–77 yr old muscle. Results Differences in mean expression levels of young and old subjects were small, rarely > 1.5-fold. The mean within-group coefficient of variation for 4629 mRNAs expressed in muscle was 20% according to the ratio method and 25% according to the signal method. The ratio method yielded more differences according to t-tests (124 vs. 98 differences at P Conclusion The ratio method reduces inter-array variance and thereby enhances statistical power.

  20. DMET-Analyzer: automatic analysis of Affymetrix DMET Data

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    Guzzi Pietro

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical Bioinformatics is currently growing and is based on the integration of clinical and omics data aiming at the development of personalized medicine. Thus the introduction of novel technologies able to investigate the relationship among clinical states and biological machineries may help the development of this field. For instance the Affymetrix DMET platform (drug metabolism enzymes and transporters is able to study the relationship among the variation of the genome of patients and drug metabolism, detecting SNPs (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism on genes related to drug metabolism. This may allow for instance to find genetic variants in patients which present different drug responses, in pharmacogenomics and clinical studies. Despite this, there is currently a lack in the development of open-source algorithms and tools for the analysis of DMET data. Existing software tools for DMET data generally allow only the preprocessing of binary data (e.g. the DMET-Console provided by Affymetrix and simple data analysis operations, but do not allow to test the association of the presence of SNPs with the response to drugs. Results We developed DMET-Analyzer a tool for the automatic association analysis among the variation of the patient genomes and the clinical conditions of patients, i.e. the different response to drugs. The proposed system allows: (i to automatize the workflow of analysis of DMET-SNP data avoiding the use of multiple tools; (ii the automatic annotation of DMET-SNP data and the search in existing databases of SNPs (e.g. dbSNP, (iii the association of SNP with pathway through the search in PharmaGKB, a major knowledge base for pharmacogenomic studies. DMET-Analyzer has a simple graphical user interface that allows users (doctors/biologists to upload and analyse DMET files produced by Affymetrix DMET-Console in an interactive way. The effectiveness and easy use of DMET Analyzer is demonstrated through different

  1. ExonMiner: Web service for analysis of GeneChip Exon array data

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    Imoto Seiya; Saito Ayumu; Nagasaki Masao; Yoshida Ryo; Numata Kazuyuki; Miyano Satoru

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Some splicing isoform-specific transcriptional regulations are related to disease. Therefore, detection of disease specific splice variations is the first step for finding disease specific transcriptional regulations. Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array can measure exon-level expression profiles that are suitable to find differentially expressed exons in genome-wide scale. However, exon array produces massive datasets that are more than we can handle and analyze on personal...

  2. Software comparison for evaluating genomic copy number variation for Affymetrix 6.0 SNP array platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Copy number data are routinely being extracted from genome-wide association study chips using a variety of software. We empirically evaluated and compared four freely-available software packages designed for Affymetrix SNP chips to estimate copy number: Affymetrix Power Tools (APT), Aroma.Affymetrix, PennCNV and CRLMM. Our evaluation used 1,418 GENOA samples that were genotyped on the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 6.0. We compared bias and variance in the locus-level copy number data, the concordance amongst regions of copy number gains/deletions and the false-positive rate amongst deleted segments. Results APT had median locus-level copy numbers closest to a value of two, whereas PennCNV and Aroma.Affymetrix had the smallest variability associated with the median copy number. Of those evaluated, only PennCNV provides copy number specific quality-control metrics and identified 136 poor CNV samples. Regions of copy number variation (CNV) were detected using the hidden Markov models provided within PennCNV and CRLMM/VanillaIce. PennCNV detected more CNVs than CRLMM/VanillaIce; the median number of CNVs detected per sample was 39 and 30, respectively. PennCNV detected most of the regions that CRLMM/VanillaIce did as well as additional CNV regions. The median concordance between PennCNV and CRLMM/VanillaIce was 47.9% for duplications and 51.5% for deletions. The estimated false-positive rate associated with deletions was similar for PennCNV and CRLMM/VanillaIce. Conclusions If the objective is to perform statistical tests on the locus-level copy number data, our empirical results suggest that PennCNV or Aroma.Affymetrix is optimal. If the objective is to perform statistical tests on the summarized segmented data then PennCNV would be preferred over CRLMM/VanillaIce. Specifically, PennCNV allows the analyst to estimate locus-level copy number, perform segmentation and evaluate CNV-specific quality-control metrics within a single software package

  3. Genome-wide analysis of antisense transcription with Affymetrix exon array

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    Jung Yong-chul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large number of natural antisense transcripts have been identified in human and mouse genomes. Study of their potential functions clearly requires cost-efficient method for expression analysis. Results Here we show that Affymetrix Exon arrays, which were designed to detect conventional transcripts in the sense orientation, can be used to monitor antisense expression across all exonic loci in mammalian genomes. Through modification of the cDNA synthesis protocol, we labeled single-strand cDNA in the reverse orientation as in the standard protocol, thus enabling the detection of antisense transcripts using the same array. Applying this technique to human Jurkat cells, we identified antisense transcription at 2,088 exonic loci of 1,516 UniGene clusters. Many of these antisense transcripts were not observed previously and some were validated by orientation-specific RT-PCR. Conclusion Our results suggest that with a modified protocol Affymetrix human, mouse and rat Exon arrays can be used as a routine method for genome-wide analysis of antisense transcription in these genomes.

  4. Wheat Allergy

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    ... and Luncheons Create Your Own Events Educational Events Wheat Allergy Wheat allergy is most common in children, ... texture you are trying to achieve. Differences between Wheat Allergy and Celiac Disease or Gluten Intolerance A ...

  5. Comparison of Gene Expression in Leymus Tiller and Rhizome Meristems Using Heterologous Affymetrix Wheat and Barley Gene Chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial Leymus wildrye tillers and rhizomes develop from similar underground axillary meristems, but display different response to gravity and perhaps other cues that govern branch angle and overall patterns of subterranean growth. Corresponding variation in growth habit is an important component...

  6. μ-CS: An extension of the TM4 platform to manage Affymetrix binary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cannataro Mario

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A main goal in understanding cell mechanisms is to explain the relationship among genes and related molecular processes through the combined use of technological platforms and bioinformatics analysis. High throughput platforms, such as microarrays, enable the investigation of the whole genome in a single experiment. There exist different kind of microarray platforms, that produce different types of binary data (images and raw data. Moreover, also considering a single vendor, different chips are available. The analysis of microarray data requires an initial preprocessing phase (i.e. normalization and summarization of raw data that makes them suitable for use on existing platforms, such as the TIGR M4 Suite. Nevertheless, the annotations of data with additional information such as gene function, is needed to perform more powerful analysis. Raw data preprocessing and annotation is often performed in a manual and error prone way. Moreover, many available preprocessing tools do not support annotation. Thus novel, platform independent, and possibly open source tools enabling the semi-automatic preprocessing and annotation of microarray data are needed. Results The paper presents μ-CS (Microarray Cel file Summarizer, a cross-platform tool for the automatic normalization, summarization and annotation of Affymetrix binary data. μ-CS is based on a client-server architecture. The μ-CS client is provided both as a plug-in of the TIGR M4 platform and as a Java standalone tool and enables users to read, preprocess and analyse binary microarray data, avoiding the manual invocation of external tools (e.g. the Affymetrix Power Tools, the manual loading of preprocessing libraries, and the management of intermediate files. The μ-CS server automatically updates the references to the summarization and annotation libraries that are provided to the μ-CS client before the preprocessing. The μ-CS server is based on the web services technology

  7. Exon array data analysis using Affymetrix power tools and R statistical software

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The use of microarray technology to measure gene expression on a genome-wide scale has been well established for more than a decade. Methods to process and analyse the vast quantity of expression data generated by a typical microarray experiment are similarly well-established. The Affymetrix Exon 1.0 ST array is a relatively new type of array, which has the capability to assess expression at the individual exon level. This allows a more comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome, and in particular enables the study of alternative splicing, a gene regulation mechanism important in both normal conditions and in diseases. Some aspects of exon array data analysis are shared with those for standard gene expression data but others present new challenges that have required development of novel tools. Here, I will introduce the exon array and present a detailed example tutorial for analysis of data generated using this platform. PMID:21498550

  8. ArrayInitiative - a tool that simplifies creating custom Affymetrix CDFs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kevin J

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Probes on a microarray represent a frozen view of a genome and are quickly outdated when new sequencing studies extend our knowledge, resulting in significant measurement error when analyzing any microarray experiment. There are several bioinformatics approaches to improve probe assignments, but without in-house programming expertise, standardizing these custom array specifications as a usable file (e.g. as Affymetrix CDFs is difficult, owing mostly to the complexity of the specification file format. However, without correctly standardized files there is a significant barrier for testing competing analysis approaches since this file is one of the required inputs for many commonly used algorithms. The need to test combinations of probe assignments and analysis algorithms led us to develop ArrayInitiative, a tool for creating and managing custom array specifications. Results ArrayInitiative is a standalone, cross-platform, rich client desktop application for creating correctly formatted, custom versions of manufacturer-provided (default array specifications, requiring only minimal knowledge of the array specification rules and file formats. Users can import default array specifications, import probe sequences for a default array specification, design and import a custom array specification, export any array specification to multiple output formats, export the probe sequences for any array specification and browse high-level information about the microarray, such as version and number of probes. The initial release of ArrayInitiative supports the Affymetrix 3' IVT expression arrays we currently analyze, but as an open source application, we hope that others will contribute modules for other platforms. Conclusions ArrayInitiative allows researchers to create new array specifications, in a standard format, based upon their own requirements. This makes it easier to test competing design and analysis strategies that depend on probe

  9. ExonMiner: Web service for analysis of GeneChip Exon array data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imoto Seiya

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Some splicing isoform-specific transcriptional regulations are related to disease. Therefore, detection of disease specific splice variations is the first step for finding disease specific transcriptional regulations. Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST Array can measure exon-level expression profiles that are suitable to find differentially expressed exons in genome-wide scale. However, exon array produces massive datasets that are more than we can handle and analyze on personal computer. Results We have developed ExonMiner that is the first all-in-one web service for analysis of exon array data to detect transcripts that have significantly different splicing patterns in two cells, e.g. normal and cancer cells. ExonMiner can perform the following analyses: (1 data normalization, (2 statistical analysis based on two-way ANOVA, (3 finding transcripts with significantly different splice patterns, (4 efficient visualization based on heatmaps and barplots, and (5 meta-analysis to detect exon level biomarkers. We implemented ExonMiner on a supercomputer system in order to perform genome-wide analysis for more than 300,000 transcripts in exon array data, which has the potential to reveal the aberrant splice variations in cancer cells as exon level biomarkers. Conclusion ExonMiner is well suited for analysis of exon array data and does not require any installation of software except for internet browsers. What all users need to do is to access the ExonMiner URL http://ae.hgc.jp/exonminer. Users can analyze full dataset of exon array data within hours by high-level statistical analysis with sound theoretical basis that finds aberrant splice variants as biomarkers.

  10. OpenADAM: an open source genome-wide association data management system for Affymetrix SNP arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sham P C

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large scale genome-wide association studies have become popular since the introduction of high throughput genotyping platforms. Efficient management of the vast array of data generated poses many challenges. Description We have developed an open source web-based data management system for the large amount of genotype data generated from the Affymetrix GeneChip® Mapping Array and Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array platforms. The database supports genotype calling using DM, BRLMM, BRLMM-P or Birdseed algorithms provided by the Affymetrix Power Tools. The genotype and corresponding pedigree data are stored in a relational database for efficient downstream data manipulation and analysis, such as calculation of allele and genotype frequencies, sample identity checking, and export of genotype data in various file formats for analysis using commonly-available software. A novel method for genotyping error estimation is implemented using linkage disequilibrium information from the HapMap project. All functionalities are accessible via a web-based user interface. Conclusion OpenADAM provides an open source database system for management of Affymetrix genome-wide association SNP data.

  11. The Affymetrix DMET Plus Platform Reveals Unique Distribution of ADME-Related Variants in Ethnic Arabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma M. Wakil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The Affymetrix Drug Metabolizing Enzymes and Transporters (DMET Plus Premier Pack has been designed to genotype 1936 gene variants thought to be essential for screening patients in personalized drug therapy. These variants include the cytochrome P450s (CYP450s, the key metabolizing enzymes, many other enzymes involved in phase I and phase II pharmacokinetic reactions, and signaling mediators associated with variability in clinical response to numerous drugs not only among individuals, but also between ethnic populations. Materials and Methods. We genotyped 600 Saudi individuals for 1936 variants on the DMET platform to evaluate their clinical potential in personalized medicine in ethnic Arabs. Results. Approximately 49% each of the 437 CYP450 variants, 56% of the 581 transporters, 56% of 419 transferases, 48% of the 104 dehydrogenases, and 58% of the remaining 390 variants were detected. Several variants, such as rs3740071, rs6193, rs258751, rs6199, rs11568421, and rs8187797, exhibited significantly either higher or lower minor allele frequencies (MAFs than those in other ethnic groups. Discussion. The present study revealed some unique distribution trends for several variants in Arabs, which displayed partly inverse allelic prevalence compared to other ethnic populations. The results point therefore to the need to verify and ascertain the prevalence of a variant as a prerequisite for engaging it in clinical routine screening in personalized medicine in any given population.

  12. A Bayesian calibration model for combining different pre-processing methods in Affymetrix chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richardson Sylvia

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In gene expression studies a key role is played by the so called "pre-processing", a series of steps designed to extract the signal and account for the sources of variability due to the technology used rather than to biological differences between the RNA samples. At the moment there is no commonly agreed gold standard pre-processing method and each researcher has the responsibility to choose one method, incurring the risk of false positive and false negative features arising from the particular method chosen. Results We propose a Bayesian calibration model that makes use of the information provided by several pre-processing methods and we show that this model gives a better assessment of the 'true' unknown differential expression between two conditions. We demonstrate how to estimate the posterior distribution of the differential expression values of interest from the combined information. Conclusion On simulated data and on the spike-in Latin Square dataset from Affymetrix the Bayesian calibration model proves to have more power than each pre-processing method. Its biological interest is demonstrated through an experimental example on publicly available data.

  13. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Soaringwheat prices are unlikely to endanger globalgrain security chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June, jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia,wheat prices increased 70 percent recently.And Europe’s wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  14. Wheat Woes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING SHENGJUN

    2010-01-01

    @@ Chicago wheat futures began to skyrocket in early June,jumping 62 percent and reaching their highest level since September 2008. In Russia, wheat prices increased 70 percent recently. And Europe's wheat prices also rose 8 percent within a short time.

  15. High Fidelity Copy Number Analysis of Formalin-Fixed and Paraffin-Embedded Tissues Using Affymetrix Cytoscan HD Chip

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yan P.; Amantha Michalopoulos; Ying Ding; George Tseng; Jian-Hua Luo

    2014-01-01

    Detection of human genome copy number variation (CNV) is one of the most important analyses in diagnosing human malignancies. Genome CNV detection in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues remains challenging due to suboptimal DNA quality and failure to use appropriate baseline controls for such tissues. Here, we report a modified method in analyzing CNV in FFPE tissues using microarray with Affymetrix Cytoscan HD chips. Gel purification was applied to select DNA with good qualit...

  16. ‘maskBAD’ – a package to detect and remove Affymetrix probes with binding affinity differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dannemann Michael

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hybridization differences caused by target sequence differences can be a confounding factor in analyzing gene expression on microarrays, lead to false positives and reduce power to detect real expression differences. We prepared an R Bioconductor compatible package to detect, characterize and remove such probes in Affymetrix 3’IVT and exon-based arrays on the basis of correlation of signal intensities from probes within probe sets. Results Using completely mouse genomes we determined type 1 (false negatives and type 2 (false positives errors with high accuracy and we show that our method routinely outperforms previous methods. When detecting 76.2% of known SNP/indels in mouse expression data, we obtain at most 5.5% false positives. At the same level of false positives, best previous method detected 72.6%. We also show that probes with differing binding affinity both hinder differential expression detection and introduce artifacts in cancer-healthy tissue comparison. Conclusions Detection and removal of such probes should be a routine step in Affymetrix data preprocessing. We prepared a user friendly R package, compatible with Bioconductor, that allows the filtering and improving of data from Affymetrix microarrays experiments.

  17. Eat Wheat!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    This pamphlet contains puzzles, games, and a recipe designed to teach elementary school pupils about wheat. It includes word games based on the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and on foods made from wheat. The Food Guide Pyramid can be cut out of the pamphlet and assembled as a three-dimensional information source and food guide.…

  18. Wheat Newsletter

    Science.gov (United States)

    This review was written for readers of the Annual Wheat Newsletter, Volume 53. It summarizes activities on wheat research during 2006 at the U.S. Grain Marketing Research Laboratory (USGMRL). The article includes technical abstracts of research accomplishments from the Grain Quality and Structure ...

  19. Gene-chip studies of adipogenesis-regulated microRNAs in mouse primary adipocytes and human obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher Iain J

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adipose tissue abundance relies partly on the factors that regulate adipogenesis, i.e. proliferation and differentiation of adipocytes. While components of the transcriptional program that initiates adipogenesis is well-known, the importance of microRNAs in adipogenesis is less well studied. We thus set out to investigate whether miRNAs would be actively modulated during adipogenesis and obesity. Methods Several models exist to study adipogenesis in vitro, of which the cell line 3T3-L1 is the most well known, albeit not the most physiologically appropriate. Thus, as an alternative, we produced EXIQON microarray of brown and white primary murine adipocytes (prior to and following differentiation to yield global profiles of miRNAs. Results We found 65 miRNAs regulated during in vitro adipogenesis in primary adipocytes. We evaluated the similarity of our responses to those found in non-primary cell models, through literature data-mining. When comparing primary adipocyte profiles, with those of cell lines reported in the literature, we found a high degree of difference in 'adipogenesis' regulated miRNAs suggesting that the model systems may not be accurately representing adipogenesis. The expression of 10 adipogenesis-regulated miRNAs were studied using real-time qPCR and then we selected 5 miRNAs, that showed robust expression, were profiled in subcutaneous adipose tissue obtained from 20 humans with a range of body mass indices (BMI, range = 21-48, and all samples have U133+2 Affymetrix profiles provided. Of the miRNAs tested, mir-21 was robustly expressed in human adipose tissue and positively correlated with BMI (R2 = 0.49, p Conclusion In conclusion, we provide a preliminary analysis of miRNAs associated with primary cell in vitro adipogenesis and demonstrate that the inflammation-associated miRNA, mir-21 is up-regulated in subcutaneous adipose tissue in human obesity. Further, we provide a novel transcriptomics database of

  20. Wheat: The Whole Story.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This publication presents information on wheat. Wheat was originally a wild grass and not native to the United States. Wheat was not planted there until 1777 (and then only as a hobby crop). Wheat is grown on more acres than any other grain in this country. Soft wheats are grown east of the Mississippi River, and hard wheats are grown west of the…

  1. Dissecting an alternative splicing analysis workflow for GeneChip® Exon 1.0 ST Affymetrix arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Raffaele A

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new microarray platform (GeneChip® Exon 1.0 ST has recently been developed by Affymetrix http://www.affymetrix.com. This microarray platform changes the conventional view of transcript analysis since it allows the evaluation of the expression level of a transcript by querying each exon component. The Exon 1.0 ST platform does however raise some issues regarding the approaches to be used in identifying genome-wide alternative splicing events (ASEs. In this study an exon-level data analysis workflow is dissected in order to detect limit and strength of each step, thus modifying the overall workflow and thereby optimizing the detection of ASEs. Results This study was carried out using a semi-synthetic exon-skipping benchmark experiment embedding a total of 268 exon skipping events. Our results point out that summarization methods (RMA, PLIER do not affect the efficacy of statistical tools in detecting ASEs. However, data pre-filtering is mandatory if the detected number of false ASEs are to be reduced. MiDAS and Rank Product methods efficiently detect true ASEs but they suffer from the lack of multiple test error correction. The intersection of MiDAS and Rank Product results efficiently moderates the detection of false ASEs. Conclusion To optimize the detection of ASEs we propose the following workflow: i data pre-filtering, ii statistical selection of ASEs using both MiDAS and Rank Product, iii intersection of results derived from the two statistical analyses in order to moderate family-wise errors (FWER.

  2. High-throughput identification of ionizing radiation-sensitive plant genes and development of radiation indicator plant and radiation sensing Genechip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Sub; Kim, Jinbaek; Ha, Bokeun; Kim, Sang Hoon; Kim, Sunhee

    2013-05-15

    Physiological analysis of monocot model plant (rice) in response to ionizing radiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - Identification of antioxidant characters through cytochemical analysis. - Comparison of antioxidant activities in response to ionizing irradiation. - Evaluation of anthocyanin quantity in response to ionizing irradiation. Ionization energy response gene family analysis via bioinformatic validation. - Expression analysis of monocot and dicot gene families. - In silico and bioinformatic approach to elucidate gene function. Characterization and functional analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing irradiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - High throughput trancriptomic analysis of plants under ionizing radiation using microarray. - Promotor and cis-element analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing radiation. - Validation and function analysis of candidate genes. - Elucidation of plant mechanism of sensing and response to ionization energy. Development of bioindicator plants detecting ionization energy. - Cloning and identification of 'Radio marker genes (RMG)'. - Development of Over-expression (O/E) or Knock-out (K/O) plant using RMG. Development of Genechip as an ionization energy detector. - Expression profiling analysis of genes specifically expression in response to ionization energy. - Prepare high-conserved gene specific oligomer. - Development of ionization energy monitoring Genechip and application.

  3. High-throughput identification of ionizing radiation-sensitive plant genes and development of radiation indicator plant and radiation sensing Genechip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physiological analysis of monocot model plant (rice) in response to ionizing radiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - Identification of antioxidant characters through cytochemical analysis. - Comparison of antioxidant activities in response to ionizing irradiation. - Evaluation of anthocyanin quantity in response to ionizing irradiation. Ionization energy response gene family analysis via bioinformatic validation. - Expression analysis of monocot and dicot gene families. - In silico and bioinformatic approach to elucidate gene function. Characterization and functional analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing irradiation (cosmic-ray, gamma-ray, Ion beam). - High throughput trancriptomic analysis of plants under ionizing radiation using microarray. - Promotor and cis-element analysis of genes specifically expressed in response to ionizing radiation. - Validation and function analysis of candidate genes. - Elucidation of plant mechanism of sensing and response to ionization energy. Development of bioindicator plants detecting ionization energy. - Cloning and identification of 'Radio marker genes (RMG)'. - Development of Over-expression (O/E) or Knock-out (K/O) plant using RMG. Development of Genechip as an ionization energy detector. - Expression profiling analysis of genes specifically expression in response to ionization energy. - Prepare high-conserved gene specific oligomer. - Development of ionization energy monitoring Genechip and application

  4. Pushing Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharp, Paul Richard

    This paper documents the evolution of variables central to understanding the creation of an Atlantic Economy in wheat between the US and the UK in the nineteenth century. The cointegrated VAR model is then applied to the period 1838-1913 in order to find long-run relationships between these...

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglong Yu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20 during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further information about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  6. Transcriptome analysis reveals key differentially expressed genes involved in wheat grain development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yonglong Yu; Dong Zhu; Chaoying Ma; Hui Cao; Yaping Wang; Yanhao Xu; Wenying Zhang; Yueming Yan

    2016-01-01

    Wheat seed development is an important physiological process of seed maturation and directly affects wheat yield and quality. In this study, we performed dynamic transcriptome microarray analysis of an elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar (Jimai 20) during grain development using the GeneChip Wheat Genome Array. Grain morphology and scanning electron microscope observations showed that the period of 11–15 days post-anthesis (DPA) was a key stage for the synthesis and accumulation of seed starch. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and significance analysis of microarrays revealed that the period from 11 to 15 DPA was more important than the 15–20 DPA stage for the synthesis and accumulation of nutritive reserves. Series test of cluster analysis of differential genes revealed five statistically significant gene expression profiles. Gene ontology annotation and enrichment analysis gave further informa-tion about differentially expressed genes, and MapMan analysis revealed expression changes within functional groups during seed development. Metabolic pathway network analysis showed that major and minor metabolic pathways regulate one another to ensure regular seed development and nutritive reserve accumulation. We performed gene co-expression network analysis to identify genes that play vital roles in seed development and identified several key genes involved in important metabolic pathways. The transcriptional expression of eight key genes involved in starch and protein synthesis and stress defense was further validated by qRT-PCR. Our results provide new insight into the molecular mechanisms of wheat seed development and the determinants of yield and quality.

  7. Comparison of seven methods for producing Affymetrix expression scores based on False Discovery Rates in disease profiling data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gruber Stephen B

    2005-02-01

    given greater consideration when comparing Affymetrix processing methods.

  8. Distinct molecular phenotype of inflammatory breast cancer compared to non-inflammatory breast cancer using Affymetrix-based genome-wide gene-expression analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Van Laere, S; Van der Auwera, I; Van den Eynden, G; Van Hummelen, P; van Dam, P; Van Marck, E; Vermeulen, P B; Dirix, L

    2007-01-01

    The present study aims at a platform-independent confirmation of previously obtained cDNA microarray results on inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) using Affymetrix chips. Gene-expression data of 19 IBC and 40 non-IBC specimens were subjected to clustering and principal component analysis. The performance of a previously identified IBC signature was tested using clustering and gene set enrichment analysis. The presence of different cell-of-origin subtypes in IBC was investigated and confirmed us...

  9. Proteomics of Wheat Flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat is a major food crop grown on more than 215 million hectares of land throughout the world. Wheat flour provides an important source of protein for human nutrition and is used as a principal ingredient in a wide range of food products, largely because wheat flour, when mixed with water, has un...

  10. Wheat: Science and Trade

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is for a book review of Wheat: science and trade, edited by B.F. Carver. The book provides an indepth review of wheat biology, production, breeding, processing, and trade and is organized in four sections. "Making of a Wheat Plant" reviews domestication, evolution, development, and molecular ...

  11. Gene and protein expression proifling analysis of young spike development in large spike wheat germplasms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Dan; ZHANG Jin-peng; LIU Wei-hua; WU Xiao-yang; YANGXin-ming; LIXiu-quan; LUYu-qing; LI Li-hui

    2016-01-01

    The wheat grain number per spike (GNPS) is a major yield-limiting factor in wheat-breeding programs. Germplasms with a high GNPS are therefore valuable for increasing wheat yield potential. To investigate the molecular characteristics of young spike development in large-spike wheat germplasms with high GNPS, we performed gene and protein expression proifling analysis with three high-GNPS wheat lines (Pubing 3228, Pubing 3504 and 4844-12) and one low-GNPS control variety (Fukuho). The phenotypic data for the spikes in two growth seasons showed that the GNPS of the three large-spike wheat lines were signiifcantly higher than that of the Fukuho control line. The Affymetrix wheat chip and isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation-tandam mass spectrometry (iTRAQ-MS/MS) technology were employed for gene and protein expression proifling analyses of young spike development, respectively, at the lforet primordia differentiation stage. A total of 598 differentialy expressed transcripts (270 up-regulated and 328 down-regulated) and 280 proteins (122 up-regulated and 158 down-regulated) were identiifed in the three high-GNPS lines compared with the control line. We found that the expression of some lforal development-related genes, includingWknox1b, theAP2 domain protein kinase and the transcription factorHUA2, were up-regulated in the high-GNPS lines. The expression of theSHEPHERD (SHD) gene was up-regulated at both the transcript and protein levels. Overal, these results suggest that multiple regulatory pathways, including theCLAVATApathway and the meristem-maintaining KNOX protein pathway, take part in the development of the high-GNPS phenotype in our wheat germplasms.

  12. Comparative transcriptomics in the Triticeae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Barley and particularly wheat are two grass species of immense agricultural importance. In spite of polyploidization events within the latter, studies have shown that genotypically and phenotypically these species are very closely related and, indeed, fertile hybrids can be created by interbreeding. The advent of two genome-scale Affymetrix GeneChips now allows studies of the comparison of their transcriptomes. Results We have used the Wheat GeneChip to create a "gene expression atlas" for the wheat transcriptome (cv. Chinese Spring. For this, we chose mRNA from a range of tissues and developmental stages closely mirroring a comparable study carried out for barley (cv. Morex using the Barley1 GeneChip. This, together with large-scale clustering of the probesets from the two GeneChips into "homologous groups", has allowed us to perform a genomic-scale comparative study of expression patterns in these two species. We explore the influence of the polyploidy of wheat on the results obtained with the Wheat GeneChip and quantify the correlation between conservation in gene sequence and gene expression in wheat and barley. In addition, we show how the conservation of expression patterns can be used to elucidate, probeset by probeset, the reliability of the Wheat GeneChip. Conclusion While there are many differences in expression on the level of individual genes and tissues, we demonstrate that the wheat and barley transcriptomes appear highly correlated. This finding is significant not only because given small evolutionary distance between the two species it is widely expected, but also because it demonstrates that it is possible to use the two GeneChips for comparative studies. This is the case even though their probeset composition reflects rather different design principles as well as, of course, the present incomplete knowledge of the gene content of the two species. We also show that, in general, the Wheat GeneChip is not able

  13. WheatGenome.info: A Resource for Wheat Genomics Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao

    2016-01-01

    An integrated database with a variety of Web-based systems named WheatGenome.info hosting wheat genome and genomic data has been developed to support wheat research and crop improvement. The resource includes multiple Web-based applications, which are implemented as a variety of Web-based systems. These include a GBrowse2-based wheat genome viewer with BLAST search portal, TAGdb for searching wheat second generation genome sequence data, wheat autoSNPdb, links to wheat genetic maps using CMap and CMap3D, and a wheat genome Wiki to allow interaction between diverse wheat genome sequencing activities. This portal provides links to a variety of wheat genome resources hosted at other research organizations. This integrated database aims to accelerate wheat genome research and is freely accessible via the web interface at http://www.wheatgenome.info/ . PMID:26519407

  14. GeneChip expression profiling reveals the alterations of energy metabolism related genes in osteocytes under large gradient high magnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Chen, Zhi-Hao; Yin, Chun; Ma, Jian-Hua; Li, Di-Jie; Zhao, Fan; Sun, Yu-Long; Hu, Li-Fang; Shang, Peng; Qian, Ai-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The diamagnetic levitation as a novel ground-based model for simulating a reduced gravity environment has recently been applied in life science research. In this study a specially designed superconducting magnet with a large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF), which can provide three apparent gravity levels (μ-g, 1-g, and 2-g), was used to simulate a space-like gravity environment. Osteocyte, as the most important mechanosensor in bone, takes a pivotal position in mediating the mechano-induced bone remodeling. In this study, the effects of LG-HMF on gene expression profiling of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 were investigated by Affymetrix DNA microarray. LG-HMF affected osteocyte gene expression profiling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and data mining were further analyzed by using bioinfomatic tools, such as DAVID, iReport. 12 energy metabolism related genes (PFKL, AK4, ALDOC, COX7A1, STC1, ADM, CA9, CA12, P4HA1, APLN, GPR35 and GPR84) were further confirmed by real-time PCR. An integrated gene interaction network of 12 DEGs was constructed. Bio-data mining showed that genes involved in glucose metabolic process and apoptosis changed notablly. Our results demostrated that LG-HMF affected the expression of energy metabolism related genes in osteocyte. The identification of sensitive genes to special environments may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone loss or osteoporosis. PMID:25635858

  15. GeneChip expression profiling reveals the alterations of energy metabolism related genes in osteocytes under large gradient high magnetic fields.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Wang

    Full Text Available The diamagnetic levitation as a novel ground-based model for simulating a reduced gravity environment has recently been applied in life science research. In this study a specially designed superconducting magnet with a large gradient high magnetic field (LG-HMF, which can provide three apparent gravity levels (μ-g, 1-g, and 2-g, was used to simulate a space-like gravity environment. Osteocyte, as the most important mechanosensor in bone, takes a pivotal position in mediating the mechano-induced bone remodeling. In this study, the effects of LG-HMF on gene expression profiling of osteocyte-like cell line MLO-Y4 were investigated by Affymetrix DNA microarray. LG-HMF affected osteocyte gene expression profiling. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs and data mining were further analyzed by using bioinfomatic tools, such as DAVID, iReport. 12 energy metabolism related genes (PFKL, AK4, ALDOC, COX7A1, STC1, ADM, CA9, CA12, P4HA1, APLN, GPR35 and GPR84 were further confirmed by real-time PCR. An integrated gene interaction network of 12 DEGs was constructed. Bio-data mining showed that genes involved in glucose metabolic process and apoptosis changed notablly. Our results demostrated that LG-HMF affected the expression of energy metabolism related genes in osteocyte. The identification of sensitive genes to special environments may provide some potential targets for preventing and treating bone loss or osteoporosis.

  16. 21 CFR 137.195 - Crushed wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Crushed wheat. 137.195 Section 137.195 Food and... Related Products § 137.195 Crushed wheat. Crushed wheat, coarse ground wheat, is the food prepared by so crushing cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested by the...

  17. MEASUREMENT OF WHEAT DENSITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯跟胜; 党金春; 等

    1995-01-01

    A method used for on line determining the change of wheat density with a automatic watering machine in a lqarge flour mill has been studied.The results show that the higher distinguishing ability is obtained when using 241Am as a γ-ray source for measuring the wheat density than using 137Cs.

  18. Simulation of wheat ontogenesis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miglietta, F.

    1992-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to understand wheat ontogenesis and to formulate a simulation model of the development of wheat for application under field conditions. The basic idea that is behind this work is that plant development can be accurately simulated on the basis of leaf appearance prov

  19. Genotype-dependent Burst of Transposable Element Expression in Crowns of Hexaploid Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. during Cold Acclimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Laudencia-Chingcuanco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The expression of 1,613 transposable elements (TEs represented in the Affymetrix Wheat Genome Chip was examined during cold treatment in crowns of four hexaploid wheat genotypes that vary in tolerance to cold and in flowering time. The TE expression profiles showed a constant level of expression throughout the experiment in three of the genotypes. In winter Norstar, the most cold-hardy of the four genotypes, a subset of the TEs showed a burst of expression after vernalization saturation was achieved. About 47% of the TEs were expressed, and both Class I (retrotransposons and Class II (DNA transposons types were well represented. Gypsy and Copia were the most represented among the retrotransposons while CACTA and Mariner were the most represented DNA transposons. The data suggests that the Vrn-A1 region plays a role in the stage-specific induction of TE expression in this genotype.

  20. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theresa A Hill

    Full Text Available The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP. Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and

  1. Characterization of Capsicum annuum genetic diversity and population structure based on parallel polymorphism discovery with a 30K unigene Pepper GeneChip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theresa A; Ashrafi, Hamid; Reyes-Chin-Wo, Sebastian; Yao, JiQiang; Stoffel, Kevin; Truco, Maria-Jose; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W; Van Deynze, Allen

    2013-01-01

    The widely cultivated pepper, Capsicum spp., important as a vegetable and spice crop world-wide, is one of the most diverse crops. To enhance breeding programs, a detailed characterization of Capsicum diversity including morphological, geographical and molecular data is required. Currently, molecular data characterizing Capsicum genetic diversity is limited. The development and application of high-throughput genome-wide markers in Capsicum will facilitate more detailed molecular characterization of germplasm collections, genetic relationships, and the generation of ultra-high density maps. We have developed the Pepper GeneChip® array from Affymetrix for polymorphism detection and expression analysis in Capsicum. Probes on the array were designed from 30,815 unigenes assembled from expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Our array design provides a maximum redundancy of 13 probes per base pair position allowing integration of multiple hybridization values per position to detect single position polymorphism (SPP). Hybridization of genomic DNA from 40 diverse C. annuum lines, used in breeding and research programs, and a representative from three additional cultivated species (C. frutescens, C. chinense and C. pubescens) detected 33,401 SPP markers within 13,323 unigenes. Among the C. annuum lines, 6,426 SPPs covering 3,818 unigenes were identified. An estimated three-fold reduction in diversity was detected in non-pungent compared with pungent lines, however, we were able to detect 251 highly informative markers across these C. annuum lines. In addition, an 8.7 cM region without polymorphism was detected around Pun1 in non-pungent C. annuum. An analysis of genetic relatedness and diversity using the software Structure revealed clustering of the germplasm which was confirmed with statistical support by principle components analysis (PCA) and phylogenetic analysis. This research demonstrates the effectiveness of parallel high-throughput discovery and application of genome

  2. The environment exerts a greater influence than the transgene on the transcriptome of field-grown wheat expressing the Pm3b allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Carolina Diaz; Brunner, Susanne; Keller, Beat; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Sautter, Christof

    2015-02-01

    Wheat provides 20 % of the calories consumed worldwide. Powdery mildew infections of wheat can result in more than 30 % yield loss but it has been demonstrated that wheat overexpressing Pm3b, an allele of the R gene Pm3, has enhanced resistance against powdery mildew under field conditions. A gene expression profile study using GeneChip Wheat Genome Array and Fluidigm 96.96 Dynamic Arrays was performed to obtain insights into the mode of action of Pm3b and to elucidate the molecular basis of pleiotropic effects observed in three out of four independent transgenic events under field conditions. A cluster analysis of the microarray data and a principal component analysis of the Fluidigm 96.96 Dynamic Arrays data showed that transgenic lines and null segregants grouped together. The microarray analysis of samples from fungicide-treated plants revealed that significantly fewer genes were differentially expressed in Pm3b#1 than in Pm3b#2, which had a pleiotropic phenotype in the field, compared to their null segregants. Together, our data provide evidence that the environment influenced gene expression in the Pm3b lines more than the transgene itself. PMID:25095900

  3. Heat tolerance in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari

    As a consequence of global climate change, heat stress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an important determinant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop of the world feeding one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate...... climate, wheat is sensitive to heat stress. We need to understand how our crops will perform in these changing climatic conditions and how we can develop varieties, which are more tolerant. The PhD study focussed on understanding heat tolerance in wheat with a combined approach of plant physiology and...... genetic determination (GD). An initial mass screening of 1,274 wheat cultivars (diverse origin) showed a GD of 8.5%. A stronger heat treatment was given in the second screening with 138 selected cultivars resulting in larger differentiation of cultivars (GD 15.4%). The GD further increased to 27.9% in the...

  4. Induced spherococcoid hard wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A mutant has been obtained - a spheroccocoid line -through irradiation of hard wheat seed with fast neutrons. It is distinguished by semispherical glumes and smaller grain; the plants have low stem with erect leaves but with shorter spikes and with lesser number of spikelets than those of the initial cultivar. Good productive tillering and resistance to lodging contributed to 23.5% higher yield. The line was superior to the standard and the initial cultivars by 14.2% as regards protein content, and by up to 22.8% - as to flour gluten. It has been successfully used in hybridization producing high-yielding hard wheat lines resistant to lodging, with good technological and other indicators. The possibility stated is of obtaining a spherococcoid mutant in tetraploid (hard) wheat out of the D-genome as well as its being suited to hard wheat breeding to enhance protein content, resistance to lodging, etc. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 137.190 - Cracked wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cracked wheat. 137.190 Section 137.190 Food and... Related Products § 137.190 Cracked wheat. Cracked wheat is the food prepared by so cracking or cutting into angular fragments cleaned wheat other than durum wheat and red durum wheat that, when tested...

  6. Wheat for Kids! [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idaho Wheat Commission, Boise.

    "Wheat for Kids" contains information at the elementary school level about: the structure of the wheat kernel; varieties of wheat and their uses; growing wheat; making wheat dough; the U.S. Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid and nutrition; Idaho's part of the international wheat market; recipes; and word games based on the information…

  7. Growth factors in multiple myeloma: a comprehensive analysis of their expression in tumor cells and bone marrow environment using Affymetrix microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meißner Tobias

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by a strong dependence of the tumor cells on their microenvironment, which produces growth factors supporting survival and proliferation of myeloma cells (MMC. In the past few years, many myeloma growth factors (MGF have been described in the literature. However, their relative importance and the nature of the cells producing MGF remain unidentified for many of them. Methods We have analysed the expression of 51 MGF and 36 MGF receptors (MGFR using Affymetrix microarrays throughout normal plasma cell differentiation, in MMC and in cells from the bone marrow (BM microenvironment (CD14, CD3, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stromal cells and osteoclasts. Results 4/51 MGF and 9/36 MGF-receptors genes were significantly overexpressed in plasmablasts (PPC and BM plasma cell (BMPC compared to B cells whereas 11 MGF and 11 MGFR genes were overexpressed in BMPC compared to PPC. 3 MGF genes (AREG, NRG3, Wnt5A and none of the receptors were significantly overexpressed in MMC versus BMPC. Furthermore, 3/51 MGF genes were overexpressed in MMC compared to the the BM microenvironment whereas 22/51 MGF genes were overexpressed in one environment subpopulation compared to MMC. Conclusions Two major messages arise from this analysis 1 The majority of MGF genes is expressed by the bone marrow environment. 2 Several MGF and their receptors are overexpressed throughout normal plasma cell differentiation. This study provides an extensive and comparative analysis of MGF expression in plasma cell differentiation and in MM and gives new insights in the understanding of intercellular communication signals in MM.

  8. Growth factors in multiple myeloma: a comprehensive analysis of their expression in tumor cells and bone marrow environment using Affymetrix microarrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by a strong dependence of the tumor cells on their microenvironment, which produces growth factors supporting survival and proliferation of myeloma cells (MMC). In the past few years, many myeloma growth factors (MGF) have been described in the literature. However, their relative importance and the nature of the cells producing MGF remain unidentified for many of them. We have analysed the expression of 51 MGF and 36 MGF receptors (MGFR) using Affymetrix microarrays throughout normal plasma cell differentiation, in MMC and in cells from the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment (CD14, CD3, polymorphonuclear neutrophils, stromal cells and osteoclasts). 4/51 MGF and 9/36 MGF-receptors genes were significantly overexpressed in plasmablasts (PPC) and BM plasma cell (BMPC) compared to B cells whereas 11 MGF and 11 MGFR genes were overexpressed in BMPC compared to PPC. 3 MGF genes (AREG, NRG3, Wnt5A) and none of the receptors were significantly overexpressed in MMC versus BMPC. Furthermore, 3/51 MGF genes were overexpressed in MMC compared to the the BM microenvironment whereas 22/51 MGF genes were overexpressed in one environment subpopulation compared to MMC. Two major messages arise from this analysis 1) The majority of MGF genes is expressed by the bone marrow environment. 2) Several MGF and their receptors are overexpressed throughout normal plasma cell differentiation. This study provides an extensive and comparative analysis of MGF expression in plasma cell differentiation and in MM and gives new insights in the understanding of intercellular communication signals in MM

  9. Wheat Production and Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgilany Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The crop in the irrigated scheme has faced by manifold problems contributed to low level of productivity and high cost of production of wheat. The crop is commonly produced under pump irrigation from the River Nile. In River Nile State (RNS, wheat is grown under the irrigated sector, the State is considered as a suitable environment for producing this crop. The study was conducted at Elzeidab irrigated scheme of RNS which is regarded as the oldest and biggest scheme belonging to the Ministry of Agriculture of RNS. Approach: Primary data was collected by using structured questionnaire for (70 randomly selected respondents. More than one technique used to assess economic aspects of the crop. Cobb-Douglas production function, descriptive statistics and partial budgeting have been employed to analyze the primary data. The study detected that the major socioeconomic characteristics of Elzeidab farmers were educated, the scheme tenants have had a cumulative experience in agriculture and average farm size is found to be small and the majority 50% of surveyed tenants in Elzeidab scheme were rented. The farming system of Elzeidab scheme is dominated by wheat production which counts to 25% of the farm land. The yield gab with the potential yield obtained by Agricultural Research Corporation (ARC in the State amounts 66%. The microfinance market in Elzeidab scheme is not well developed. Water charges in the scheme were high. About 53% of the annual running expenses were allocated for fuel that made irrigation costs to be the highest single component of production costs of the crop, while irrigation water cost was considered as the most agricultural constraint, this item was found to be as 19% of the total cost of production as the highest percentage overall the variable cost items. Results: The regression analysis revealed that the most factors affecting wheat productivity under the study were: the average of tenants age, family labor

  10. Undesirable metals content in wheat of different wheat varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Stefanović Violeta Ž.; Filipović Nada K.; Jovanović Bogdan M.

    2008-01-01

    Selected samples of the different wheat varieties grown in the local region were tested for the content of undesirable metals in wheat grains, bran and flourdetermined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The results obtained show significant variations in undesirable metals content in different wheat grains varieties. These results were compared to the maximum values allowed by the pertinent regulations.

  11. PESTICIDES EFFICIENCY IN WHEAT PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Glinushkin, Aleksey

    2009-01-01

    It is suggested that the Karate Zeon insecticide is highly effective in wheat protection against pests. The profitability of soft spring wheat production with the above preparation used is about 176%. The economic effect of Karate Zeon is the same as that of Krezatsin, Mival and TMTD Plus preparations that are used for wheat seeds treatment against plant diseases

  12. Uniquely identifying wheat plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uniquely naming wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) plant parts is useful for communicating plant development research and the effects of environmental stresses on normal wheat development. Over the past 30+ years, several naming systems have been proposed for wheat shoot, leaf, spike, spikelet, ...

  13. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  14. A diploid wheat TILLING resource for wheat functional genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rawat Nidhi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Triticum monococcum L., an A genome diploid einkorn wheat, was the first domesticated crop. As a diploid, it is attractive genetic model for the study of gene structure and function of wheat-specific traits. Diploid wheat is currently not amenable to reverse genetics approaches such as insertion mutagenesis and post-transcriptional gene silencing strategies. However, TILLING offers a powerful functional genetics approach for wheat gene analysis. Results We developed a TILLING population of 1,532 M2 families using EMS as a mutagen. A total of 67 mutants were obtained for the four genes studied. Waxy gene mutation frequencies are known to be 1/17.6 - 34.4 kb DNA in polyploid wheat TILLING populations. The T. monococcum diploid wheat TILLING population had a mutation frequency of 1/90 kb for the same gene. Lignin biosynthesis pathway genes- COMT1, HCT2, and 4CL1 had mutation frequencies of 1/86 kb, 1/92 kb and 1/100 kb, respectively. The overall mutation frequency of the diploid wheat TILLING population was 1/92 kb. Conclusion The mutation frequency of a diploid wheat TILLING population was found to be higher than that reported for other diploid grasses. The rate, however, is lower than tetraploid and hexaploid wheat TILLING populations because of the higher tolerance of polyploids to mutations. Unlike polyploid wheat, most mutants in diploid wheat have a phenotype amenable to forward and reverse genetic analysis and establish diploid wheat as an attractive model to study gene function in wheat. We estimate that a TILLING population of 5, 520 will be needed to get a non-sense mutation for every wheat gene of interest with 95% probability.

  15. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cianferoni A

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antonella Cianferoni Department of Pediatrics, Division of Allergy and Immunology, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, USA Abstract: Triticum aestivum (bread wheat is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy. A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker’s asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE or eosinophilic gastritis (EG, which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a

  16. Durum wheat modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Ranieri, R.; Matese, A.;

    2012-01-01

    durum wheat during phenological development, at regional scale. We present an innovative system capable of predicting spatial yield variation and temporal yield fluctuation in long-term analysis, that are the main purposes of regional crop simulation study. The Delphi system was applied to simulate...... growth and yield of durum wheat in the major Italian supply basins (Basilicata, Capitanata, Marche, Tuscany). The model was validated and evaluated for three years (1995–1997) at 11 experimental fields and then used in operational mode for eleven years (1999–2009), showing an excellent/good accuracy in...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1322 - Wheat gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Wheat gluten. 184.1322 Section 184.1322 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1322 Wheat gluten. (a) Wheat gluten (CAS Reg. No. 8002-80-0) is the principal protein component of wheat and consists mainly of gliadin and glutenin. Wheat gluten is...

  18. Registration of "Merl" Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Merl’ (Reg. No. CV- , PI 658598) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)developed and tested as VA03W-412 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2009. Merl was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ / Pioneer Brand ‘2643’ // ‘38158’ (PI 619052). Merl is a...

  19. Registration of 'Cowboy' wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Cowboy' (Reg. No. CV-1095, PI 668564) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Colorado Agricultural Experiment Station and released cooperatively by Colorado State University (CSU) and the University of Wyoming (UWYO) in August 2011. In addition to researchers at CSU and U...

  20. Registration of Camelot Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Camelot ' (PI 653832) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in 2008. In addition to researchers at the releasing institutions, USDA-ARS researchers at Manhattan, KS, and St. Paul, MN, ...

  1. Registration of 'Chesapeake' Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Chesapeake’ (Reg. No. CV-1011, PI 643935) is a soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Plant Science and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2005. Ches...

  2. Registration of 'Juniper' Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Juniper’ (PI 639951) is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experimental Station and released in February 2006. Juniper, named for the town of Juniper, Idaho, was released for its superior yield and quality compared with previous full stature hard red...

  3. Registration of Howard Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Howard’ (Reg. no. CV-998, PI 642367) is a hard red spring wheat (HRSP) (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed at North Dakota State University (NDSU) and released by the North Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station (NDAES) in January 2006. Howard was released because it combines a good level of...

  4. Wheat allergy: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianferoni, Antonella

    2016-01-01

    Triticum aestivum (bread wheat) is the most widely grown crop worldwide. In genetically predisposed individuals, wheat can cause specific immune responses. A food allergy to wheat is characterized by T helper type 2 activation which can result in immunoglobulin E (IgE) and non-IgE mediated reactions. IgE mediated reactions are immediate, are characterized by the presence of wheat-specific IgE antibodies, and can be life-threatening. Non-IgE mediated reactions are characterized by chronic eosinophilic and lymphocytic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. IgE mediated responses to wheat can be related to wheat ingestion (food allergy) or wheat inhalation (respiratory allergy). A food allergy to wheat is more common in children and can be associated with a severe reaction such as anaphylaxis and wheat-dependent, exercise-induced anaphylaxis. An inhalation induced IgE mediated wheat allergy can cause baker's asthma or rhinitis, which are common occupational diseases in workers who have significant repetitive exposure to wheat flour, such as bakers. Non-IgE mediated food allergy reactions to wheat are mainly eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) or eosinophilic gastritis (EG), which are both characterized by chronic eosinophilic inflammation. EG is a systemic disease, and is associated with severe inflammation that requires oral steroids to resolve. EoE is a less severe disease, which can lead to complications in feeding intolerance and fibrosis. In both EoE and EG, wheat allergy diagnosis is based on both an elimination diet preceded by a tissue biopsy obtained by esophagogastroduodenoscopy in order to show the effectiveness of the diet. Diagnosis of IgE mediated wheat allergy is based on the medical history, the detection of specific IgE to wheat, and oral food challenges. Currently, the main treatment of a wheat allergy is based on avoidance of wheat altogether. However, in the near future immunotherapy may represent a valid way to treat IgE mediated reactions to

  5. Genome-Wide analysis of allelic imbalance in laser microdissected prostate cancer tissue using the Affymetrix 50K Mapping array identifies genomic patterns associated with metastasis and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tørring, Niels; Borre, Michael; Sørensen, Karina;

    2007-01-01

    to be developed for patient stratification based on risk of progression. We analysed laser-microdissected prostate tumour tissue from 43 patients with histologically verified PCa, using the new high-resolution Affymetrix Mapping 50K single-nucleotide polymorphism array. The results showed six major...... loss. However, tumour progression towards a metastatic stage, as well as poor differentiation, was identified by specific patterns of copy number gains of genomic regions located at chromosomes 8q, 1q, 3q and 7q. Androgen ablation therapy was further characterised by copy gain at chromosomes 2p and 10q...

  6. Wheat 2012 outdoor

    OpenAIRE

    Brufau Segues, Eduard; Vos, J.; Evers, J. B.; Anten, N. P. R.

    2013-01-01

    This dataset contains the underlying data for the MSc thesis: Effects of population density on tillering in wheat and barley. Tillering is the formation of lateral shoots from the base of the stem which is produced specially in grasses and cereals. It is an important property in crops (cereals and grasses) of the Poaceae family. It enables these crops to cope with intraspecific competition by optimizing the formation of ear-bearing shoots in relation to the resources available. The present st...

  7. Registration of Vision 40 Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The potential exists to develop and market hard winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the eastern United States, where a majority of the mills, bakeries, and consumers reside. The primary objective of this study was to develop adapted and competitive hard winter wheat cultivars possessing high-valu...

  8. Wheat 2006 outdoor

    OpenAIRE

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.; Yin, X; Romero, P; Putten, van, T.; Struik, P. C.

    2006-01-01

    This dataset contains the underlying data for the study: Evers JB, Vos J, Yin X, Romero P, van der Putten PEL, Struik PC. 2010. Simulation of wheat growth and development based on organ-level photosynthesis and assimilate allocation. Journal of Experimental Botany, 61: 2203-2216 http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jxb/erq025 Intimate relationships exist between form and function of plants, determining many processes governing their growth and development. However, in most crop simulation models that ha...

  9. PRICE LINKAGES IN THE INTERNATIONAL WHEAT MARKET

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshray, Atanu; Lloyd, Tim A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper brings time series techniques to bear on the relationships between the prices of the principal types of wheat traded internationally. In all, the relationships between eleven wheat prices (categorised by wheat quality, harvest date and port of despatch) are scrutinised to uncover the structure of the wheat market implicit in the behaviour its prices reveal. The statistical evidence supports the notion of a highly integrated market that is segmented according to wheat strength-the p...

  10. Wheat ferritins: Improving the iron content of the wheat grain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Søren; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Tauris, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    The characterization of the full complement of wheat ferritins show that the modern hexaploid wheat genome contains two ferritin genes, TaFer1 and TaFer2, each represented by three homeoalleles and placed on chromosome 5 and 4, respectively. The two genes are differentially regulated and expressed...... functional different and acting in heteropolymer structures of ferritin in cereals. Iron biofortification of the wheat grain is possible. Endosperm targeted intragenic overexpressing of the TaFer1-A gene results in a 50-85 % higher iron content in the grain....

  11. The Agricultural Policies Applied for Wheat and Problems of Wheat Producers’ in the Thrace Region

    OpenAIRE

    O. Gaytancioglu; S. Konyali

    2007-01-01

    Wheat which is an important agriculture product for Turkey, has the most share in grain products making of production in Turkey. The aim of this study is to examine the agricultural policies applied for wheat and wheat producers’ problems in Thrace Region. Also by doing field working, in Thrace Region wheat producers’ basic problems are determined as the agricultural input (seed, fertilizer, chemical substance) usage levels are being high, wheat price is low for producers and wheat trades are...

  12. Drought Tolerance in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Nezhadahmadi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops’ production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants’ vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea, responsive to abscisic acid (Rab, rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST, and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress.

  13. Drought tolerance in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nezhadahmadi, Arash; Prodhan, Zakaria Hossain; Faruq, Golam

    2013-01-01

    Drought is one of the most important phenomena which limit crops' production and yield. Crops demonstrate various morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses to tackle drought stress. Plants' vegetative and reproductive stages are intensively influenced by drought stress. Drought tolerance is a complicated trait which is controlled by polygenes and their expressions are influenced by various environmental elements. This means that breeding for this trait is so difficult and new molecular methods such as molecular markers, quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping strategies, and expression patterns of genes should be applied to produce drought tolerant genotypes. In wheat, there are several genes which are responsible for drought stress tolerance and produce different types of enzymes and proteins for instance, late embryogenesis abundant (lea), responsive to abscisic acid (Rab), rubisco, helicase, proline, glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and carbohydrates during drought stress. This review paper has concentrated on the study of water limitation and its effects on morphological, physiological, biochemical, and molecular responses of wheat with the possible losses caused by drought stress. PMID:24319376

  14. Linked gene networks involved in nitrogen and carbon metabolism and levels of water-soluble carbohydrate accumulation in wheat stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, C Lynne; Casu, Rosanne E; Rattey, Allan; Dreccer, M Fernanda; Kam, Jason W; van Herwaarden, Anthony F; Shorter, Ray; Xue, Gang Ping

    2011-12-01

    High levels of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) provide an important source of stored assimilate for grain filling in wheat. To better understand the interaction between carbohydrate metabolism and other metabolic processes associated with the WSC trait, a genome-wide expression analysis was performed using eight field-grown lines from the high and low phenotypic tails of a wheat population segregating for WSC and the Affymetrix wheat genome array. The 259 differentially expressed probe sets could be assigned to 26 functional category bins, as defined using MapMan software. There were major differences in the categories to which the differentially expressed probe sets were assigned; for example, probe sets upregulated in high relative to low WSC lines were assigned to category bins such as amino acid metabolism, protein degradation and transport and to be involved in starch synthesis-related processes (carbohydrate metabolism bin), whereas downregulated probe sets were assigned to cell wall-related bins, amino acid synthesis and stress and were involved in sucrose breakdown. Using the set of differentially expressed genes as input, chemical-protein network analyses demonstrated a linkage between starch and N metabolism via pyridoxal phosphate. Twelve C and N metabolism-related genes were selected for analysis of their expression response to varying N and water treatments in the field in the four high and four low WSC progeny lines; the two nitrogen/amino acid metabolism genes demonstrated a consistent negative association between their level of expression and level of WSC. Our results suggest that the assimilation of nitrogen into amino acids is an important factor that influences the levels of WSC in the stems of field-grown wheat. PMID:21789636

  15. International Competitiveness in Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Jay C.; Condie, Frank A.

    1989-01-01

    The future competitiveness of U.S. wheat producers who have exported more than half their crop in recent years was analyzed. Trends in production and trade, and enterprise accounts and budgeting were used to assess the comparative costs of various competing U.S. and foreign producers. The future success of U.S. wheat producers is dependent on their own efficiency, government agricultural programs, weather, and many factors pertaining to general government policies. Relative currency values, s...

  16. WHEAT GRASS HEALTH BENEFITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akula Annapurna

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nutraceutical is a food or food product that provides health and medical benefits, including the preventionand treatment of disease. Nutraceuticals are the products typically claim to prevent chronic diseases, improve health,delay the aging process, and increase life expectancy.Let us know something about one such nutraceutical.Wheatgrass is a commonly found herb in India contains enzymes like protease, cytrochrome, amylase, lipase,transhydrogenase and SOD (super oxide dismutase. Besides these enzymes, it also contains all the essential aminoacids especially alanine, asparatic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and serine, which are helpful in providing good amountof protein in body which builds and repair tissues. Wheatgrass contains chlorophyll and flavonoids in good amount.It also contains vitamins like vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E and minerals like iron, calcium and magnesium.Chlorophyll has been shown to build red blood cells quickly,cures anemia, normalise blood pressure by dilating theblood vessels. Chlorophyll has been shown to produce an unfavourable environment for bacterial growth in the bodyand therefore effective in increasing the body's resistance to illness. Probably the most important benefit ofwheatgrass is, it is a cancer fighting agent. Many people strongly believe that the benefits of wheatgrass on cancerare real and that consuming wheat grass can help in the treatment and even in the prevention of cancer. Wheatgrassproduces an immunization effect against many dietary carcinogens..Additional benefits of wheatgrass are bettercomplexion and a healthy glow. The slowing of graying hair is also a benefit believed to come from wheatgrass. Wecan grow wheat grass in small cups, pots and trays very conveniently in our homes, so that we will have fresh juiceand powder with minimum cost.

  17. 21 CFR 137.200 - Whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat flour. 137.200 Section 137.200 Food... Flours and Related Products § 137.200 Whole wheat flour. (a) Whole wheat flour, graham flour, entire wheat flour is the food prepared by so grinding cleaned wheat, other than durum wheat and red...

  18. Economic Value of Information: Wheat Protein Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Ruiqing; David A. Hennessy

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study U.S. wheat farmers’ willingness to pay for near infrared (NIR) sensor that can segregates wheat grains according to their protein concentration. We first develop a microeconomic optimization model of wheat farmers’ segregating and commingling decisions. Then we use U.S. wheat prices and stocks to estimate a wheat protein stock demand system. This allows us to establish the effects of changes in the protein profile of wheat stocks on protein premiums. The paper’s simulat...

  19. Cadmium minimization in wheat: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, Muhammad; Ali, Shafaqat; Abbas, Tahir; Zia-Ur-Rehman, Muhammad; Hannan, Fakhir; Keller, Catherine; Al-Wabel, Mohammad I; Ok, Yong Sik

    2016-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its subsequent transfer to food chain is a major environmental issue worldwide. Understanding wheat response to Cd stress and its management for aiming to reduce Cd uptake and accumulation in wheat may help to improve wheat growth and grain quality. This paper reviewed the toxic effects, tolerance mechanisms, and management of Cd stress in wheat. It was concluded that Cd decreased germination, growth, mineral nutrients, photosynthesis and grain yield of wheat and plant response to Cd toxicity varies with cultivars, growth conditions and duration of stress applied. Cadmium caused oxidative stress and genotoxicity in wheat plants. Stimulation of antioxidant defense system, osmoregulation, ion homeostasis and over production of signalling molecules are important adaptive strategies of wheat under Cd stress. Exogenous application of plant growth regulators, inorganic amendments, proper fertilization, silicon, and organic, manures and biochar, amendments are commonly used for the reduction of Cd uptake in wheat. Selection of low Cd-accumulating wheat cultivars, crop rotation, soil type, and exogenous application of microbes are among the other agronomic practices successfully employed in reducing Cd uptake by wheat. These management practices could enhance wheat tolerance to Cd stress and reduce the transfer of Cd to the food chain. However, their long-term sustainability in reducing Cd uptake by wheat needs further assessment. PMID:27062345

  20. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited - tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat single-nucleotide polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hugo R.; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W; Leigh, Fiona J.; Lister, Diane L.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure...

  1. Overexpression of TaNAC69 Leads to Enhanced Transcript Levels of Stress Up-Regulated Genes and Dehydration Tolerance in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang-Ping Xue; Heather M. Way; Terese Richardson; Janneke Drenth; Priya A. Joyce; C.Lynne Mclntyre

    2011-01-01

    NAC proteins are plant-specific transcription factors and enriched with members involved in plant response to drought stress. In this study, we analyzed the expression profiles of TaNAC69 in bread wheat using Affymetrix Wheat Genome Array datasets and quantitative RT-PCR. TaNAC69 expression was positively associated with wheat responses to both abiotic and biotic stresses and was closely correlated with a number of stress up-regulated genes. The functional analyses of TaNAC69 in transgenic wheat showed that TaNAC69 driven by a barley drought-inducible HvDhn4s promoter led to marked drought-inducible overexpression of TaNAC69 in the leaves and roots of transgenic lines. The HvDhn4s:Ta-NAC69 transgenic lines produced more shoot biomass under combined mild salt stress and water-limitation conditions,had longer root and more root biomass under polyethylene glycol-induced dehydration. Analysis of transgenic lines with constitutive overexpression of TaNAC69 showed the enhanced expression levels of several stress up-regulated genes.DNA-binding assays revealed that TaNAC69 and its rice homolog (ONAC131)were capable of binding to the promoter elements of three rice genes (chitinase, ZIM, and glyoxalase I)and an Arabidopsis glyoxalase I family gene, which are homologs of TaNAC69 up-regulated stress genes. These data suggest that TaNAC69 is involved in regulating stress up-regulated genes and wheat adaptation to drought stress.

  2. A genetic linkage map with 178 SSR and 1 901 SNP markers constructed using a RIL population in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hui-jie; FENG Zhi-yu; LIU Xin-ye; CHENG Xue-jiao; PENG Hui-ru; YAO Ying-yin; SUN Qi-xin; NI Zhong-fu

    2015-01-01

    The construction of high density genetic linkage map provides a powerful tool to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling agronomically important traits. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and Illumina 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genechip were employed to construct one genetic linkage map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross Yu 8679xJing 411. This map included 1 901 SNP loci and 178 SSR loci, covering 1 659.9 cM and 1 000 marker bins, with an average interval distance of 1.66 cM. A, B and D genomes covered 719.1,703.5 and 237.3 cM, with an average interval distance of 1.66, 1.45 and 2.9 cM, respectively. Notably, the genetic linkage map covered 20 chromosomes, with the exception of chromosome 5D. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 1 754 (92.27%) of 1 901 mapped SNP loci could be aligned to 1 215 distinct wheat unigenes, among which 1 184 (97.4%) were located on one single chromosome, and the rest 31 (2.6%) were located on 2 to 3 chromosomes. By performing in silico comparison, 214 chromosome deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 1 043 Brachypodium genes and 1 033 rice genes were further added onto the genetic linkage map. This map not only integrated genetic and physical maps, SSR and SNP loci, respectively, but also provided the information of Brachypodium and rice genes corresponding to 1 754 SNP loci. Therefore, it will be a useful tool for comparative genomics analysis, fine mapping of QTL/gene controlling agronomically important traits and marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat.

  3. A genetic linkage map with 178 SSR and 1 901 SNP markers constructed using a RIL population in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Hui-jie; FENG Zhi-yu; LIU Xin-ye; CHENG Xue-jiao; PENG Hui-ru; YAO Ying-yin; SUN Qi-xin; NI Zhong-fu

    2015-01-01

    The construction of high density genetic linkage map provides a powerful tool to detect and map quantitative trait loci (QTLs) control ing agronomical y important traits. In this study, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and Il umina 9K iSelect single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genechip were employed to construct one genetic linkage map of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using 191 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross Yu 8679×Jing 411. This map included 1 901 SNP loci and 178 SSR loci, covering 1 659.9 cM and 1 000 marker bins, with an average interval distance of 1.66 cM. A, B and D genomes covered 719.1, 703.5 and 237.3 cM, with an average interval distance of 1.66, 1.45 and 2.9 cM, respectively. Notably, the genetic linkage map covered 20 chromosomes, with the exception of chromosome 5D. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that 1 754 (92.27%) of 1 901 mapped SNP loci could be aligned to 1 215 distinct wheat unigenes, among which 1 184 (97.4%) were located on one single chromosome, and the rest 31 (2.6%) were located on 2 to 3 chromosomes. By performing in silico comparison, 214 chromosome deletion bin-mapped expressed sequence tags (ESTs), 1 043 Brachypodium genes and 1 033 rice genes were further added onto the genetic linkage map. This map not only integrated genetic and physical maps, SSR and SNP loci, respectively, but also provided the information of Brachypodium and rice genes corresponding to 1 754 SNP loci. Therefore, it wil be a useful tool for comparative genomics analysis, ifne mapping of QTL/gene control ing agronomical y important traits and marker-assisted selection breeding in wheat.

  4. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Gregorová; Peter Socha; Marína Maglovski; Jana Moravčíková; Jana Libantová; Roman Kuna; Pavol Hauptvogel; Matušíková Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively) are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta) cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was dete...

  5. Marketing Australia's Wheat Crop: The Way Ahead

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    The 1989 Wheat Marketing Act has set in motion forces, in particular the deregulation of the domestic market for wheat and the establishment of the Wheat Industry Fund, which have irrevocably altered the way in which wheat and other grains are marketed in Australia. This article examines these forces and subsequent developments and seeks to address which marketing structure is best suited to maximise the position of Australian growers into the next century. Using some tenets drawn from indust...

  6. Population Density and Distribution of Wheat Bugs Infesting Durum Wheat in Sardinia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Salis, Luigi; Goula, Marta; Izquierdo, Jordi; Gordún, Elena

    2013-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop in Italy, and is infested by wheat bugs belonging to the genera Eurygaster (Hemiptera: Scutellaridae) and Aelia (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae). Many wheat bug infestations have been reported in the north, south, and center of Italy, both in the past as well as recently. The present study was carried out in Sardinia, Italy, during two years (2007 and 2008). The objective of this study was to determine the species and distribution of wheat bugs in durum wheat fields in...

  7. Growing Wheat. People on the Farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC. Office of Governmental and Public Affairs.

    This booklet, one in a series about life on modern farms, describes the daily life of the Don Riffel family, wheat farmers in Kansas. Beginning with early morning, the booklet traces the family's activities through a typical harvesting day in July, while explaining how a wheat farm is run. The booklet also briefly describes the wheat growing…

  8. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.;

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...

  9. Biotechnology Assisted Wheat Breeding for Organic Agriculture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias

    Common bunt of wheat is a major seed borne disease of wheat worldwide. It is of particular importance to organic farming, where systemic fungicides cannot be applied. The knowledge about location and mechanisms of common bunt resistance in wheat is limited, and only three race specific genes have...

  10. Improvement of wheat for resistance to Russian Wheat Aphid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breeding for resistance against Russian wheat aphid in Kenya is reported. Results of six of the lines were found to have high to moderate resistance to Russian wheat aphid. Popular lines were susceptible in the greenhouse when subjected to aphid pressure but showed moderate susceptibility when screened under field conditions, indicating that in years or location with low aphid pressure farmers may still get a crop. However in areas of high aphid pressure or bad years they may lose their crop. Consequently, developing resistant/torerant varieties is urgent

  11. Ancient Wheat Species Can Extend Biodiversity of Cultivated Crops

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, Petr; Stehno, Zdenek; Capouchova, Ivana; Moudry, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Wheat genetic resources may be grown in organic farming systems or in less favourable areas for bread wheat species. Characteristics of hulled wheat species (23 varieties of einkorn, emmer wheat, spelt wheat) were studied and evaluated within a two-year trial period (which was executed on certified organic fields) and they were compared to characteristics of landraces and modern bread wheat varieties. The main aim of our study was to evaluate the potential uses of genetic resources of wheat i...

  12. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on...... dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...... VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...

  13. Integrated weed management in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper summarizes the results of an experiment conducted on wheat at Kohat, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan during winter 2004-05. Randomized complete block design with split-split-plot arrangement was used where wheat line and broadcast sowing were kept in main plots. Seed rates (100 and 150 kg ha-1) were assigned as sub-plots, while four herbicides (Topik, Isoproturon, Puma super and Buctril super) and weed check were assigned to sub-sub-plots. Results revealed that higher biological yield was recorded in line sowing. However, higher wheat seed rate decreased weed biomass and increased biological yield. Herbicides proved to be effective in decreasing weed biomass and enhancing grain yield and its contributing traits. It was suggested that line sowing in combination with higher seeding rate and Buctril super should be used in an integrated weed management fashion. However further studies are required to investigate various ranges of seeding rate and herbicides doses. (author)

  14. Adverse Effects of Wheat Gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koning, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Man began to consume cereals approximately 10,000 years ago when hunter-gatherers settled in the fertile golden crescent in the Middle East. Gluten has been an integral part of the Western type of diet ever since, and wheat consumption is also common in the Middle East, parts of India and China as well as Australia and Africa. In fact, the food supply in the world heavily depends on the availability of cereal-based food products, with wheat being one of the largest crops in the world. Part of this is due to the unique properties of wheat gluten, which has a high nutritional value and is crucial for the preparation of high-quality dough. In the last 10 years, however, wheat and gluten have received much negative attention. Many believe that it is inherently bad for our health and try to avoid consumption of gluten-containing cereals; a gluten-low lifestyle so to speak. This is fueled by a series of popular publications like Wheat Belly; Lose the Wheat, Lose the Weight, and Find Your Path Back to Health. However, in reality, there is only one condition where gluten is definitively the culprit: celiac disease (CD), affecting approximately 1% of the population in the Western world. Here, I describe the complexity of the cereals from which gluten is derived, the special properties of gluten which make it so widely used in the food industry, the basis for its toxicity in CD patients and the potential for the development of safe gluten and alternatives to the gluten-free diet. PMID:26606684

  15. Arabidopsis transcriptional responses differentiating closely related chemicals (herbicides) and cross-species extrapolation to Brassica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Using whole genome Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChips we characterized the transcriptional response of Arabidopsis thaliana Columbia 24 hours after treatment with five different herbicides. Four of them (chloransulam, imazapyr, primisulfuron, sulfometuron) inhibit acetolactate synthase (A...

  16. Patterns of suspected wheat-related allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten; Eller, Esben; Mortz, Charlotte G;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy to wheat can present clinically in different forms: Sensitization to ingested wheat via the gastrointestinal tract can cause traditional food allergy or in combination with exercise, Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (WDEIA). Sensitization to inhaled wheat flour may...... lead to occupational rhinitis and/or asthma. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the case notes of 156 patients (age 0.7 - 73.3 years) with a case history of wheat allergy. The population was divided into three groups, 1: Wheat allergy elicited by ingestion, 2: By inhalation and 3: WDEIA. All patients...... were examined with detailed case history, specific IgE (sIgE), Skin Prick Test (SPT) and wheat challenge (nasal or oral ± exercise). Details of the case history were extracted from the patients´ case records. RESULTS: Group 1: Twenty one of 95 patients were challenge positive (15 children, 6 adults...

  17. 21 CFR 139.138 - Whole wheat macaroni products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...)(3), and (g), except that: (1) Whole wheat flour or whole durum wheat flour or both are used as the... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat macaroni products. 139.138 Section 139... and Noodle Products § 139.138 Whole wheat macaroni products. (a) Whole wheat macaroni products are...

  18. Adapting wheat to uncertain future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Mikhail; Stratonovitch, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    This study describes integration of climate change projections from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) multi-model ensemble with the LARS-WG weather generator, which delivers an attractive option for downscaling of large-scale climate projections from global climate models (GCMs) to local-scale climate scenarios for impact assessments. A subset of 18 GCMs from the CMIP5 ensemble and 2 RCPs, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5, were integrated with LARS-WG. Climate sensitivity indexes for temperature and precipitation were computed for all GCMs and for 21 regions in the world. For computationally demanding impact assessments, where it is not practical to explore all possible combinations of GCM × RCP, climate sensitivity indexes could be used to select a subset of GCMs from CMIP5 with contrasting climate sensitivity. This would allow to quantify uncertainty in impacts resulting from the CMIP5 ensemble by conducting fewer simulation experiments. As an example, an in silico design of wheat ideotype optimised for future climate scenarios in Europe was described. Two contrasting GCMs were selected for the analysis, "hot" HadGEM2-ES and "cool" GISS-E2-R-CC, along with 2 RCPs. Despite large uncertainty in climate projections, several wheat traits were identified as beneficial for the high-yielding wheat ideotypes that could be used as targets for wheat improvement by breeders.

  19. Registration of 'Red Ruby' Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Red Ruby’ soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Michigan Agricultural Experiment Station and released in 2007 via an exclusive licensing agreement through Michigan State University (MSU) Technologies. Red Ruby was selected from the cross Pioneer ‘2552’/Pioneer ‘2737W’ ma...

  20. Multimodel ensembles of wheat growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martre, Pierre; Wallach, Daniel; Asseng, Senthold;

    2015-01-01

    such studies are difficult to organize and have only recently begun. We report on the largest ensemble study to date, of 27 wheat models tested in four contrasting locations for their accuracy in simulating multiple crop growth and yield variables. The relative error averaged over models was 24–38% for...

  1. Registration of TAM401 wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    'TAM 401', a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L) cultivar (PI658500) with experimental designation TX03M1096, was developed and released by Texas AgriLife Research in 2008. TAM 401 is an F4 derived line from the cross 'Mason' (PI 594044)/'Jagger' (PI593688). TAM 401 is an early maturing apic...

  2. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  3. REGISTRATION OF 'OK BULLET' WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘OK Bullet’ is a hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar developed cooperatively by the Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn. (AES), USDA-ARS, and the Texas AES and released by the Oklahoma AES and the USDA-ARS in 2005. OK Bullet is recommended for grain-only and dual-purpose production systems t...

  4. Characterisation of wheat flour allergens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šotkovský, Petr; Fuchs, M.; Havranová, M.; Tučková, Ludmila

    Vienna : Basic Science in Allergology, 2006, s. 416-416. [Congress of the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology /25./. Vienna (AT), 10.06.2006-14.06.2006] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : wheat flour * allergen * protein Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  5. Identification methods for irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of irradiation on wheat seeds was examined using various kinds of analytical methods for the identification of irradiated seeds. In germination test, the growth of sprouts was markedly inhibited at 500Gy, which was not affected by storage. The decrease in germination percentage was detected at 3300Gy. The results of enzymatic activity change in the germ measured by Vita-Scope germinator showed that the seeds irradiated at 10kGy could be identified. The content of amino acids in ungerminated and germinated seeds were analyzed. Irradiation at 10kGy caused the decrease of lysine content but the change was small which need very careful operation to detect it. The chemiluminescence intensity increased with radiation dose and decreased during storage. The wheat irradiated at 10kGy could be identified even after 3 months storage. In the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrum analysis, the signal intensity with the g value f 2.0055 of skinned wheat seeds increased with radiation dose. Among these methods, germination test was the most sensitive and effective for identification of irradiated wheat. (author)

  6. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali-Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Shear-Degraded Wheat Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  7. Transferring alien genes to wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In broad terms an alien gene can be considered to be any gene transferred to wheat from a related species. As described above by Maan (section 7D) the genus Triticum contains a broad range of species, some of which cross readily with the cultivated tetraploid (T. Turgidum L.) or hexaploid (T. aestivum L.) wheats, and others only with great difficulty. In addition, wheat will also cross with species in a number of other genera including Agropyron, Elymus, Elytrigia (=Agropyron), Haynaldia, Hordeum, and Secale (Riley and Kimber, 1966; Knobloch, 1968; Feldman and Sears, 1981). In discussing the Triticum and Aegilops spp., the classification by Kimber and Sears, section SA-I, above, will be followed. For the Agropyron and related species the classification described by Dewey (1983) will be used. To avoid confusion, in referring to the literature the designations used by the authors will be given, followed by the new designation. The wild relatives of wheat are adapted to a broad range of environments and carry a large reservoir of useful genes (Zohary et al., 1969; Kerber and Dyck, 1973; Brezhnev, 1977; Feldman and Sears, 1981; Limin and Fowler, 1981; Sharma et aI., 1981; McGuire and Dvorak, 1981). Initially they were considered to be primarily sources of disease resistance, but more recently they have been recognized as potential sources of genes for high protein, cold tolerance, salt tolerance, drought tolerance, lodging resistance, early maturity, and even yield. Extensive screening of the wild relatives of wheat needs to be done before their useful genes can be fully utilized

  8. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed b...

  9. Pre-harvest Forecasting of County Wheat Yield and Wheat Quality Conditional on Weather Information

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Byoung-Hoon; Kenkel, Philip L.; Brorsen, B. Wade

    2011-01-01

    Wheat regression models that account for the effect of weather are developed to forecast wheat yield and quality. Spatial lag effects are included. Wheat yield, protein, and test weight level are strongly influenced by weather variables. The forecasting power of the yield and protein models was enhanced by adding the spatial lag effect. Out of sample forecasting tests confirm the models’ usefulness in accounting for the variations in average wheat yield and qualities.

  10. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the intr...

  11. Concept, Characteristics and Future of Cold-type Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Songwu

    2007-01-01

    Cold types of wheat are the kinds of wheat whose canopy temperature keeps slightly lower and has a series of advantageous traits, which are favorable for wheat to have high and stable yield and stable high quality. The paper expatiates on the advances and important problems in the research of cold types of wheat and predicts the future of cold types of wheat and the influences of the research about cold types of wheat on other crops and plants.

  12. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Zifeng Guo; Ping Xu; Zhengbin Zhang; Yunna Guo

    2012-01-01

    Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA) and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR) were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD) was used as the female parent. Thes...

  13. Genetic resources of hulled wheat species in Czech organic farming

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, Petr; Capouchova, Ivana; Stehno, Zdenek

    2012-01-01

    As organic farmers are searching for new market and sale opportunities, the organic farming system may grow and process a wider range of species than the conventional farming system. Concerning wheat especially the hulled wheat species einkorn, emmer wheat and spelt wheat are in recent years of growing interest for organic farmers. Field trials were carried out at three Czech locations from 2009 to 2010 to study the performance of 4 einkorn, 8 emmer wheat and 7 spelt wheat accessions. All tri...

  14. Factors affecting wheat nutritional value for broiler chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Gutierrez del Alamo Oms, A.

    2009-01-01

    In Europe, broiler chickens are fed with balanced diets where the energy is mainly supplied by wheat. The feed industry considers wheat a moderately uniform raw material and therefore its energy content and nutrient digestibility are taken from feeding tables (tabulated values) and assigned to all wheat grains. However, all major wheat-producing countries report considerable variability in energy content of wheat which invalidates the assumption of uniformity among wheat grains and forces the...

  15. Weather, disease, and wheat breeding effects on Kansas wheat varietal yields, 1985 to 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields in Kansas have increased due to wheat breeding and improved agronomic practices, but are subject to climate and disease challenges. The objective of this research is to quantify the impact of weather, disease, and genetic improvement on wheat yields of varieties g...

  16. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (H...

  17. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Yu; Menghua Qin; Xuemei Lu; Yinbo Qu; Peiji Gao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phanerochatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated and untreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  18. BIOPULPING OF WHEAT STRAW WITH PHANEROCHAETE CHRYSOSPORIUM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HongYu; MenghuaQin; XuemeiLu; YinboQu; PeijiGao

    2004-01-01

    Wheat straw was cut into a certain size range and treated with a strain of the white rot fungus Phaneroehatete Chrysosporium for 5 days before subjected to a chemi-mechanical treatment. Chemical analyses revealed the effects of the white rot fungus on the wheat straw components. SEM was applied to observe the changes in fiber micromorphological structures. CODcr of the effluent from the sulfonation treatment of wheat straw was also discussed. Handsheets made from the treated anduntreated wheat straw exhibited different optical and physical properties after chemi-mechanical pulping.

  19. Identification of Wheat Bunts in Southern Shanxi

    OpenAIRE

    Sirui Pan; Yinhong Shi; Qianying Pan

    2013-01-01

    Each seed of the wheat plants infected by common bunts is completely filled with black spores containing poisonous trimethylamine and giving off a fishy odor. A single infected seed, usually called “bunt ball”, contains at least 10 millions of teliospores that can be easily dispersed in many ways to possibly infect the next generation of wheat plants, or contaminate commercial wheat grains, food and/or feed. Infections of wheat bunts have been reported in at least 16 provinces and cities incl...

  20. Mutation Breeding of Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive programme on experimental mutagenesis was started in 1956 for both genetic research and mutation breed ing at the Nuclear Center. Remarkable efforts were produced on durum wheat over the past 20 years and a lot of knowledge was gained on several aspects of this crop: radiobiology, mutagenesis, cytology and cytogenetics, genetics and breeding. This review concern: radiogenetical studies, isolation of useful mutations, agronomic evaluation of mutant lines and use of mutations in hybridization programs. Details are given on the genetic contribution of mutagenesis to the evolution of new cultivars in durums and on the economic evaluation of the cultivars obtained by mutation breeding. An economic return on mutation breeding of durum wheat is attempted. (author)

  1. Organic winter wheat: optimising planting

    OpenAIRE

    Haigh, Z. E. L.; Baddeley, J. A.; Boyd, H. E.; Clarke, S.; Jones, H; Rees, R. M.; Wolfe, M S

    2008-01-01

    Data from the second year of experiments at three sites (Wakelyns in SE and Sheepdrove in SW England; and Chapel Farm in SE Scotland) to investigate the effects of interactions among a range of agronomic practices (row spacing, seed density, weeding and undersowing with clover) on winter wheat performance are presented, and compared with first year results. Trends seen at all years and sites indicate that narrow row drill arrangements with high seed rates result in the highest yields. This co...

  2. Limiting mycotoxins in stored wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Magan, Naresh; Aldred, David; Mylona, Kalliopi; Lambert, Ronald J.W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The quality of harvested wheat grain can deteriorate markedly during the post-harvest management stages. The biotic factors such as grain type and ripeness, coupled with the prevailing abiotic factors such as water content and temperature, and also preservative concentration will influence the safe storage life and the level of contamination with mycotoxins such as deoxynivalenol (DON) produced pre-harvest and zearalenone (ZEA) produced post-harvest by Fusarium graminearum...

  3. Winter wheat and summer shade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artru, S.; Garre, S.; Lassois, L.; Dupraz, C.

    2014-12-01

    Agroforestry research is in full expansion, but uncertainty remains on the performance of combinations of species with regard to the broad range of possible species associations. In addition, the variability of environmental conditions under which agroforestry stands can be successfully developed is unknown. Under Belgian pedoclimatic conditions, tree-crop competition for light might be the principal limiting factor in the agroforestry context. Most studies show that shade stress induces a systematic reduction of final crop yield. However, the response of a specific crop to shade is highly dependent on environmental conditions. In agroforestry systems, the tree canopy reduces the incident radiation for the crop following a dynamic spatio-temporal pattern. In this study, we will report on the efficiency of wheat under artificial dynamic shade in the experimental farm of Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Belgium in order to evaluate it's potential for agroforestry purposes in the same region. Wheat productivity and development under artificial shade conditions have been monitored during 1 year and the observations will be continued for 2 more years. We constructed an artificial shade structure, which mimics the light environment observed under hybrid walnut agroforestry trees: periodic fluctuation in radiation transmittance and discontinuous light quantity. We collected information on biomass development, soil state and radiation patterns in the field. Using this data, we evaluated the influence of dynamic shade, light availability and the efficiency with which energy is converted in wheat dry matter under the artificial shade treatment. This, in combination with modeling, will allow a thorough study of the potential of wheat-walnut agroforestry systems in the Hesbaye region in Belgium.

  4. Salt acclimation processes in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Tibor; Darko, Éva; Shehata, Sami; Kovács, Viktória; Pál, Magda; Szalai, Gabriella

    2016-04-01

    Young wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Mv Béres) were exposed to 0 or 25 mM NaCl for 11 days (salt acclimation). Thereafter the plants were irrigated with 500 mM NaCl for 5 days (salt stress). Irrigating the plants with a low concentration of NaCl successfully led to a reduction in chlorotic symptoms and in the impairment of the photosynthetic processes when the plants were exposed to subsequent high-dose salt treatment. After exposure to a high concentration of NaCl there was no difference in leaf Na content between the salt-acclimated and non-acclimated plants, indicating that salt acclimation did not significantly modify Na transport to the shoots. While the polyamine level was lower in salt-treated plants than in the control, salt acclimation led to increased osmotic potential in the leaves. Similarly, the activities of certain antioxidant enzymes, namely glutathione reductase, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase, were significantly higher in salt-acclimated plants. The results also suggest that while SOS1, SOS2 or NHX2 do not play a decisive role in the salt acclimation processes in young wheat plants; another stress-related gene, WALI6, may contribute to the success of the salt acclimation processes. The present study suggested that the responses of wheat plants to acclimation with low level of salt and to treatment with high doses of salt may be fundamentally different. PMID:26854409

  5. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2013-01-01

    A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...... from refined wheat flour made iso-DF by adding Vitacel. The pigs were fitted with catheters in the mesenteric artery and the portal vein, which allow studying the enrichment of nutrient in plasma after passing the gastrointestinal tract. LC–MS measurements showed the presence of oxygenated fatty acids...

  6. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  7. Identification of wheat allergens using proteomic approach

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šotkovský, Petr; Hubálek, M.; Hernychová, L.; Novák, Petr; Havranová, M.; Fuchs, M.; Stulík, J.; Tučková, Ludmila

    Latina : Allergy data laboratories, 2007, s. 41-41. [International Symposium on Molecular Allergology /2./. Roma (IT), 22.04.2007-24.04.2007] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : wheat flour * wheat allergens * proteins Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  8. Registration of ‘Yellowstone’ wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    'Yellowstone' hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station and released in September 2005. Yellowstone was released for its high yield potential and broad adaptation to Montana winter wheat production environments. Yellowstone was named in...

  9. Price Responsiveness of Wheat Class Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Gallagher, Paul; Wilson, William W.; Riepe, Jean

    1988-01-01

    This paper identifies the price responsiveness and preferences for wheat classes using a "Case" Function specification. Results indicate there have been numerous changes in market shares of wheat classes from the different exporters in specific markets. In general, quality differentials are important in some international markets, whereas others are very price responsive.

  10. Using Transcriptomics to Understand the Wheat Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important food crops in the world, and transcriptomics studies of this crop promise to reveal the expression dynamics of genes that control many agriculturally important traits. In this review of wheat transcriptomics research, the current status of tr...

  11. Selecting wheat varieties for tortilla production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat flour tortillas are the second most consumed bread product behind white pan bread. Manufactured tortillas are formulated with highly viscoelastic hard red wheat flours selected and grown for bread making. However, the inherent properties of the bread making flours require costly reducing agent...

  12. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  13. 21 CFR 137.205 - Bromated whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bromated whole wheat flour. 137.205 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.205 Bromated whole wheat flour. Bromated whole wheat flour... of ingredients, prescribed for whole wheat flour by § 137.200, except that potassium bromate is...

  14. 7 CFR 810.2201 - Definition of wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Definition of wheat. 810.2201 Section 810.2201... GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Terms Defined § 810.2201 Definition of wheat. Grain that, before the removal of dockage, consists of 50 percent or more common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), club...

  15. WHEAT DIFFERENTIATION AND RESPONSE TO POLICY REFORM IN THE EU

    OpenAIRE

    Frahan, Bruno Henry de; Tritten, Christian; Sumner, Daniel A.

    2001-01-01

    Agenda 2000 reduces the bias in favor of low quality wheat in European Union (EU) production, but also improves access for imports of high quality wheat. Therefore, this paper uses a partial equilibrium displacement model that differentiates wheat according to its origin and end use to investigate the impact of Agenda 2000 on wheat supply and demand in France.

  16. Phospholipase A2 activity during cold acclimation of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phospholipase A2 (EC 3.1.1.4; PLA2) activity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crown tissue from plants undergoing cold acclimation and/or chilling stress was investigated in a moderately cold tolerant winter wheat, a spring wheat, and a poorly cold tolerant winter wheat. Activity levels were inv...

  17. Sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sensibility of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation was studied. The results showed that the survival rate of 21 wheat varieties (strains) at the dose of 6 x 1016 Ar+/cm2 could be divided into five groups: surplus sensitive varieties (strains), sensitive varieties (strains), transitional varieties (strains), obtuse varieties (strains) and surplus obtuse varieties (strains). The sensibility of wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ injection is high-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > medium-moisture-fertility wheat varieties (strains) > dry land wheat varieties (strains). The study has provided theoretical basis in induced mutation medial lethal dose of different wheat varieties (strains) to Ar+ implantation. (authors)

  18. Effects of Processing on Wheat Tortilla Quality: Benefits of Hard White Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Tilley; Valquiria Pierucci; Katherine A Tilley; Okkyung Kim Chung

    2006-01-01

    The suitability of Kansas hard white winter (HWW) wheat milled at a high extraction rate for tortilla production was investigated. All of the Kansas varieties of white wheat, milled to 80% extraction, performed as well as, if not better than, a standard commercial tortilla flour milled to 72% extraction when various quality factors were compared. Tortillas were made from eight wheat cultivars milled at 80% extraction: four HWW wheat cultivars included Betty, Heyne, Oro Blanco and NuWest; three hard red winter (HRW) wheat samples were Jagger and Ike grown at Hutchinson, Kansas (Ike-Hutch) and at Hays, Kansas (Ike-Hays); and one hard white spring (HWS) wheat cultivar, Idaho 377-S. Tortillas made from these flours were compared to tortillas made from one commercial tortilla-flour milled to 72% extraction from a blend of HRW wheat. Mixograph parameters, starch pasting properties,dough-handling characteristics and tortilla- making attributes of the new Kansas HWW wheat cultivars, Betty and Heyne, were superior. In summary, Kansas HWW wheat flours, milled to 80% extraction, produced tortillas which were equal to, or superior to,those made from 80%-extraction HRW wheat flours and 72%-extraction commercial tortilla flour.

  19. The Agricultural Policies Applied for Wheat and Problems of Wheat Producers’ in the Thrace Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gaytancioglu

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat which is an important agriculture product for Turkey, has the most share in grain products making of production in Turkey. The aim of this study is to examine the agricultural policies applied for wheat and wheat producers’ problems in Thrace Region. Also by doing field working, in Thrace Region wheat producers’ basic problems are determined as the agricultural input (seed, fertilizer, chemical substance usage levels are being high, wheat price is low for producers and wheat trades are being done by lots of association / institution. Within the study, sampling is done for reveal wheat agricultural dimensions’ in Thrace Region and making suggestion of general properties what producers’ expectations on wheat agriculture. Sampling results comprises 131 villages, and each village with 2 producers has been selected and 262 questionnaires have been done. Collected data also has been examined with “factor analysis” and, factors which affected the producers’ decision on wheat agriculture have been determined. Within this analysis, 14 factors were being set which were affected to wheat agriculture in region. From the result of factor analysis, “producers’ education, rising of flour consumption, divided lands, not to obey alternation and yield loss”, were the most important problems that appeared. Also at the result of research, suggestions were presented for appearing problems.

  20. Induction of mutations in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on toxicity of various mutagenic factors including gamma radiation, X-rays and fast neutrons and their optimal doses for valuble mutation breeding of bread winter, spring and durum wheat have been carried out. Data on sublethal doses of mutagens and chromosome aberration frequency for different doses of mutagens have been collected. It is observed that the greater general frequency of visible mutations by a mutagen does not ensure the greater relative yield of valuable mutations. In the course of the investigations, about 90 valuable mutant forms and mutant hybrids are selected for further breeding studies. (M.G.B.)

  1. GRAIN QUALITY AND NORTH AMERICAN HARD WHEAT EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Dahl, Bruce L.

    1998-01-01

    Past debate on competition and quality in international wheat markets has focused on class and country of origin as the salient source of differentiation. This study analyzes changes in demand for both wheat classes and grades. Comparisons are made between Canadian and U.S. hard wheats, principal competitors in the hard wheat market. Both countries are dominant producers of Hard Red Spring Wheat (HRS in the United States and Canadian Western Red Spring [CWRS] in Canada); the United States is ...

  2. DIFFERENTIATION AND IMPLICIT PRICES OF U.S. WHEAT EXPORTS

    OpenAIRE

    Uri, Noel D; Hyberg, Bengt

    1996-01-01

    This investigation looks at whether the grade determining and official criteria factors identified by the Federal Grain Inspection Service influence the price of wheat for export and, in turn, the competitiveness of United States wheat in the world market. Using data on the transactions price for hard red winter wheat, hard red spring wheat, and soft white wheat and the associated quality characteristics covering the period January 1990 through December 1991 and exported to 63 countries, the ...

  3. Wheat products as acceptable substitutes for rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, B H; Kies, C

    1993-07-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the acceptability to semi-trained US American and Asian palatability panelist, of four wheat products processed to be possible replacers of rice in human diets. Products evaluated using rice as the control standard of excellence were steamed whole wheat, couscous (steamed, extracted wheat flour semolina), rosamarina (rice shaped, extracted wheat flour pasta), and bulgar (steamed, pre-cooked partly debranned, cracked wheat). Using a ten point hedonic rating scale, both groups of panelists gave rosamarina closely followed by couscous, most favorable ratings although these ratings were somewhat lower than that of the positive control, steamed polished rice. Bulgar wheat was given the lowest evaluation and was, in general, found to be an unacceptable replacement for rice by both American and Asian judges because of its dark, 'greasy' color and distinctive flavor. In their personal dietaries, judges included rice from 0.25 to 18 times per week with the Asian judges consuming rice significantly more times per week than did the American judges (10.8 +/- 4.71 vs 1.75 +/- 1.65, p < 0.01). However, rice consumption patterns, nationality, race, or sex of the judges was not demonstrated to affect scoring of the wheat products as rice replacers. PMID:8332588

  4. Separability study of wheat and small grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennington, R. K.; Marquina, N. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Barley showed significant separability from spring wheat, both multitemporally and on a single date chosen near the turning time for barley. Oats showed occasional multitemporal separability from barley and spring wheat; however, the cause of this separability was not well understood. Oats showed no significant separability from spring wheat on any single date during the growing season. By pooling data from segments having an acquisition near the turning time for barley, a fixed unitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of barley versus spring wheat and oats was constructed. This projection has about the same separability of barley from spring wheat and oats as the unitemporal greeness versus brightness plot. The new fixed projection has the advantage that barley occurs consistently in the same general location on the plot with respect to spring wheat and oats. Attempts to construct a fixed multitemporal or a segment-dependent multitemporal projection for aiding in the labeling of spring wheat versus other small grains were unsuccessful due to segment availability and the fact that each segment has a unique acquisition history.

  5. Influence of ionising radiation on macromolecular components of wheat; possible use in detecting irradiated wheat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jabir, A.-W.Sh.

    1992-01-01

    The treatment of food by ionising radiation is already permitted by many governments and is under consideration by many others. Cereal are irradiated as a means of disinfestation, this study investigates the effects of such processing on the components of wheat and examines using such radiation induced changes to detect irradiation. Wheat has been irradiated with ionising radiation in the dose range up to 1 kGy. The rheological properties of doughs prepared from this irradiated wheat have been investigated. An immunological assay has been employed to investigate the effect of wheat irradiation on the integrity of gliadin. A method has been developed for the routine isolation of DNA from wheat. Radiation-induced disruption of the DNA double helix has been assessed in DNA extracted from irradiated wheat and calf thymus DNA irradiated in aqueous solution. (author).

  6. Exploiting mutagenesis for wheat improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chemical mutagen, ethylmethanesulphonate, is being used to introduce into wheat novel variation that can be exploited for crop improvement. We have created mutagenised populations of diploid (Einkorn), tetraploid (Durum) and hexaploid (bread) wheat. The forward genetic approach enables the identification of high yielding or novel phenotypes that can be exploited in conventional breeding programmes. A powerful reverse genetic strategy, TILLING (Targetting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), allows the detection of induced point mutations in the populations of mutagenised individuals and allows gene function to be examined. Genetic redundancy in the tetraploid and hexaploid species allows them to tolerate a high level of mutation (up to one mutation per 25kbp). This mutation frequency makes it relatively easy to identify lesions in each homeologue of a particular gene which can then be combined for crop improvement or functional genomics. Novel variation created can be exploited without the regulatory restrictions imposed on genetically modified organisms. Gene targets have been selected in relation to plant architecture, primary metabolism, disease resistance and stress tolerance and over 50 TILLING mutants have so been identified, including mis-sense, non-sense and splice site mutations (author)

  7. Effects of legumes, fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen (N) and water are the main limiting factors for good wheat production in the Central Anatolia Region of Turkey. A traditional wheat-fallow cropping system is used by the majority of the farmers in the region. Inserting legumes in the rotation would, however, improve the soil fertility primarily through symbiotic N2-fixation. The main objectives of the present study were: a) to determine the N2-fixation capacity of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of the 15N technique; b) to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume; c) to assess the water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed conditions by using 15N and neutron probe techniques. In order to achieve these goals field experiments were conducted in two years (1992 and 1993) at three different locations, Ankara, Eskishir and Konya. In 1992, for each experimental layout there were 7 treatments at each site consisting of 4 legume plots, 2 wheat plots and 1 fallow plot. Only the legume plots received labelled (15NH4)2SO4 fertilizer for their isotope sub-plots. In 1993, winter wheat (Gerek-79) was sown to all plots and the 15N labelled fertilizer was applied on the opposite sites of the 1992 experimental plots. These results make us to suggest a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Meanwhile, the evaluation of the soil moisture balance at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicates that the winter lentil-wheat rotation should be preferred in these areas, due to more efficient use of water by the wheat crop after this rotation. 15 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    OpenAIRE

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy i...

  9. Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the...... wheat straw significantly, and the pelletizing analyses have shown that these changes correlate to changes in the pelletizing properties. Torrefaction increase the friction in the press channel and pellet strength and density decrease with an increase in torrefaction temperature....

  10. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  11. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Laddomada

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the beneficial effects of phenolic acids as well as of other wheat bran components is encouraging the use of wheat bran as an ingredient of functional foods. After an overview of the chemistry, function, and bioavailability of wheat phenolic acids, the discussion will focus on how technologies can allow the formulation of new, functional whole wheat products with enhanced health-promoting value and safety without renouncing the good-tasting standards that are required by consumers. Finally, this review summarizes the latest studies about the stability of phenolic acids in wheat foods fortified by the addition of wheat bran, pearled fractions, or wheat bran extracts.

  12. Physicochemical properties of wheat-canna and wheat-konjac composite flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2014-09-01

    Physicochemical properties of composite flours made of wheat from low to high protein contents and canna or konjac at different levels of substitution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) were prepared and analyzed. Compared to that of wheat flour alone, increasing levels of canna inclusions significantly increased the amount of resistant starch (RS) but decreased the protein content of composite flours. This substitution did not alter the total starch (TS), amylase and amylopectin contents of these mixtures. Changes in physicochemical properties were also observed in wheat-konjac composite flours. Increasing amounts of konjac flour decreased the TS, amylase, amylopectin, and protein content of the mixtures, but increased the amount of RS. Substitution of wheat flour with 75 % of canna or konjac flours in HPWC (High Protein Wheat-Canna), HPWK (High Protein Wheat-Konjac), and LPWK (Low Protein Wheat-Konjac) increased the swelling power of these mixtures at 80 and 90 °C. In general, substitution of wheat flour with up to 50 % of canna or konjac flours did not cause any other observable decline. In addition, the substitution of wheat flour with canna or konjac flours increased the gelatinization temperature of all composite flours. PMID:25190833

  13. Research and application of hybrid wheat in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Changping

    2013-01-01

    Hybrid wheat is recognized as a preferred approach to improve wheat yield,and it will be a competi-tion focus in high-tech seed industry in the future. We have made a breakthrough for the first time in creation of two-line hybrid wheat system,which reaches the world leading level in wheat research and has laid an important foundation for the future direction of the world wheat research. Similar to hybrid rice,the innovation of two-line hybrid wheat system is another achievement in science and technology. The application of hybrid wheat in China will greatly increase the food production,and make a great significance to food production and food security. This paper introduces the development process and major breakthrough of hybrid wheat in China,and the main bottle-neck and countermeasures in the application of hybrid wheat.

  14. Segregation ratios of colored grains in F1 hybrid wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Guo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nutritious and functional foods from wheat have received great attention in recent years. Colored-grain wheat contains a large number of nutrients such as anthocyanins and hence the breeding is interesting. In this work, colored-grained wheat lines of mixed pollination of einkorn wheat (Triticum boeoticum, AA and French rye (French Secale cereale, RR were used as male parents and wheat line Y1642 (derived from common wheat and Agropyron elongatum, AABBDD was used as the female parent. These colored wheat were used for diallel cross to study the segregation ratios of F1 colored grains. Results show that the color inheritance of purple-grained wheat follows a maternal inheritance pattern and that the blue-grained wheat expresses xenia in most cases. In some circumstances, the grains with different color shades appear in the same spike.

  15. Benchmark data set for wheat growth models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asseng, S; Ewert, F.; Martre, P;

    2015-01-01

    The data set includes a current representative management treatment from detailed, quality-tested sentinel field experiments with wheat from four contrasting environments including Australia, The Netherlands, India and Argentina. Measurements include local daily climate data (solar radiation...

  16. Production of ethanol from wheat straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smuga-Kogut Małgorzata

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a method for the production of ethanol from wheat straw lignocellulose where the raw material is chemically processed before hydrolysis and fermentation. The usefulness of wheat straw delignification was evaluated with the use of a 4:1 mixture of 95% ethanol and 65% HNO3 (V. Chemically processed lignocellulose was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis to produce reducing sugars, which were converted to ethanol in the process of alcoholic fermentation. Chemical processing damages the molecular structure of wheat straw, thus improving ethanol yield. The removal of lignin from straw improves fermentation by eliminating lignin’s negative influence on the growth and viability of yeast cells. Straw pretreatment facilitates enzymatic hydrolysis by increasing the content of reducing sugars and ethanol per g in comparison with untreated wheat straw.

  17. Common bunt resistant wheat composite cross populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffan, Philipp Matthias; Borgen, A.; Backes, Gunter Martin;

    stability. However, a number of challenges must be met before diverse wheat populations can be introduced into commercial wheat production: one of these is the development of breeding technologies based on mass selection which enable breeders and farmers to improve specific traits in populations and...... maintain diversity at the same time. BIOBREED is a project which commenced in Denmark in 2011 to meet these challenges for wheat population breeding. The project focuses on the development of tools and methods for mass selection of traits relevant for organic and low input production, where it is expected...... that the highest benefits of utilizing diverse populations can be achieved. BIOBREED focuses on three main aspects of wheat population breeding for organic and low input production systems: i) common bunt (caused by Tilletia caries) resistance, ii) selection for improved protein content and iii) the...

  18. Formation of nanoporous aerogels from wheat starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeyitogullari, Ali; Ciftci, Ozan N

    2016-08-20

    Biodegradable nanoporous aerogels were obtained from wheat starch using a simple and green method based on supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) drying. Effects of processing parameters (temperature, wheat starch concentration and mixing rate during gelatinization; temperature, pressure, and flow rate of CO2, during SC-CO2 drying) on the aerogel formation were investigated, and optimized for the highest surface area and smallest pore size of the aerogels. At the optimized conditions, wheat starch aerogels had surface areas between 52.6-59.7m(2)/g and densities ranging between 0.05-0.29g/cm(3). The average pore size of the starch aerogels was 20nm. Starch aerogels were stable up to 280°C. Due to high surface area and nanoporous structure, wheat starch aerogels are promising carrier systems for bioactives and drugs in food and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:27178916

  19. Rice-wheat research - At the crossroads?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There exists a direct experience with rice-wheat research derives from an ACIAR-funded project over the past four years. The project involves cropping systems experiments carried out with BARI and BRRI at three sites in Bangladesh, and crop modeling work in conjunction with an Australian partner, CSIRO Land and Water, at Griffith, NSW. In Bangladesh, the rice-wheat system has developed following the introduction of wheat into a still-dominant rice economy. Much land is only suited to rice during the monsoon period, pre-monsoon crops suffer waterlogging towards the end of the season, and wheat requires irrigation for high productivity during its winter-spring period of growth. The thermal environment is marginal for wheat such that its production is only feasible in the northern, cooler part of the country. The experiments we have established have sought to push the system to a high level of productivity. This has involved including a third crop, mungbean or maize, after wheat and before rice and comparing productivity of the system at two levels of fertilizer input, so called farmers' practice and and researchers' recommendations. The legume was included to study the potential for N fixation in the system. The inclusion of maize provides an extreme extractive system for comparison.Rice-wheat, with or without a third crop, is a highly extractive system at the levels of yield that are being sought from it. The design and management of the system presents a challenge increasingly facing modern agronomy, viz, the development and management of highly productive systems that are also sustainable. In current Rice - Wheat systems, the level of extraction is exacerbated by the frequent harvest of straw, as well as grain, and the limited supply of organic matter and nutrients that can be returned as farm-yard manure because of competing use as fuel for cooking

  20. LIBERALIZATION OF THE TAIWAN WHEAT MILLING INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Stiegert, Kyle W.; Peng, Hsing Ming

    1998-01-01

    Taiwan, in just the past two years, lifted quoto restrictions on wheat imports and lowered tariff barriers. These changes along with the antitrust movement and severe overcapacity will be the catalysts for tremendous structural changes in the way wheat millers compete for domestic market share and contracts for flour. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of liberalization on the Taiwan milling industry.

  1. Wheat production in controlled environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Frank B.; Bugbee, Bruce; Bubenheim, David

    Our goal is to optimize conditions for maximum yield and quality of wheat to be used in a controlled-environment, life-support system (CELSS) in a Lunar or Martian base or perhaps in a space craft. With yields of 23 to 57 g m-2 d-1 of edible biomass, a minimum size for a CELSS would be between 12 and 30 m2 per person, utilizing about 600 W m-2 of electrical energy for artificial light. Temperature, irradiance, photoperiod, carbon-dioxide levels, humidity, and wind velocity are controlled in state-of-the-art growth chambers. Nutrient solutions (adjusted for wheat) are supplied to the roots via a recirculating system that controls pH by adding HNO3 and controlling the NO3/NH4 ratio in solution. A rock-wool plant support allows direct seeding and densities up to 10,000 plants per meter2. Densities up to 2000 plants m-2 appear to increase seed yield. Biomass production increases almost linearily with increasing irradiance from 400 to 1700 μmol m-2 s-1 of photosynthetic photon flux (PPF), but the efficiency of light utilization decreases over this range. Photoperiod and temperature both have a profound influence on floral initiation, spikelet formation, stem elongation, and fertilization. High temperatures (25 to 27°C) and long days shorten the life cycle and promote rapid growth, but cooler temperatures (20°C) and shorter days greatly increase seed number per head and thus yield (g m-2). The life cycle is lengthened in these conditions but yield per day (g m-2 d-1) is still increased. We have evaluated about 600 cultivars from around the world and have developed several breeding lines for our controlled conditions. Some of our ultra-dwarf lines (30 to 50 cm tall) look especially promising with high yields and high harvest indices (percent edible biomass).

  2. Evaluation of irradiated wheat populations. Vol. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out from 1992 to 1994. It aimed to study genetic behaviour for plant height, dry weight/plant, earliness, grain yield/plant, and 100-grain weight at harvest time in three wheat cultivars Mexi back, Giza 155, and Saka 69; and and their hybrids in F3 - M1, and F4 - M2 mutagenic generations after treatment of dry seeds with gamma ray doses of 75, 100, and 125 Gy. All doses caused an increase or decrease in growth, yield, and yield attributes of the wheat cultivars. In G155 Mexi back hybrid wheat the 100 Gy caused an increase in 100 - grain weight, grain yield/plant, and dry weight/plant in F4 - M2 generation only. But in Mexi back X G155 hybrid wheat the 75 Gy increased plant height, 100 - grain weight, grain yield/plant, and dry weight/plant in both generations F3 - M1 and F4 -M2. SK69 X Mexi back hybrid wheat at 75 Gy caused earliness by about 13 days, and high grain yield in F4 - M2 generation only. however, in Mexi back x SK69 hybrid wheat, 100 Gy caused earliness about 7 days but with low grain yield. 3 tabs

  3. 75 FR 41963 - Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... (36 FR 13804) relating to notices of proposed rulemaking and public participation in rulemaking... 7 CFR part 3015, subpart V, published in the Federal Register on June 24, 1983 (48 FR 29115... Corporation 7 CFR Part 1413 RIN 0560-AH72 Wheat and Oilseed Programs; Durum Wheat Quality Program AGENCY:...

  4. Viscoelastic Properties of Rubber Composites Reinforced by Wheat Gluten and Wheat Starch Co-filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Due to different abilities of wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) to increase the modulus of rubber composites, the composite properties can be adjusted by varying the ratio of WG to WS as a co-filler. This study shows that the co-filler composites became more temperature dependent as the WG co...

  5. Wheat CBL-interacting protein kinase 25 negatively regulates salt tolerance in transgenic wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xia; Sun, Tao; Wang, Xiatian; Su, Peipei; Ma, Jingfei; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2016-01-01

    CBL-interacting protein kinases are involved in plant responses to abiotic stresses, including salt stress. However, the negative regulating mechanism of this gene family in response to salinity is less reported. In this study, we evaluated the role of TaCIPK25 in regulating salt response in wheat. Under conditions of high salinity, TaCIPK25 expression was markedly down-regulated in roots. Overexpression of TaCIPK25 resulted in hypersensitivity to Na(+) and superfluous accumulation of Na(+) in transgenic wheat lines. TaCIPK25 expression did not decline in transgenic wheat and remained at an even higher level than that in wild-type wheat controls under high-salinity treatment. Furthermore, transmembrane Na(+)/H(+) exchange was impaired in the root cells of transgenic wheat. These results suggested that TaCIPK25 negatively regulated salt response in wheat. Additionally, yeast-one-hybrid, β-glucuronidase activity and DNA-protein-interaction-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent assays showed that the transcription factor TaWRKY9 bound W-box in the TaCIPK25 promoter region. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays showed concomitantly inverted expression patterns of TaCIPK25 and TaWRKY9 in wheat roots under salt treatment, ABA application and inhibition of endogenous ABA condition. Overall, based on our results, in a salt stress condition, the negative salt response in wheat involved TaCIPK25 with the expression regulated by TaWRKY9. PMID:27358166

  6. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  7. Economic Analysis of Wheat Forecasting Analysis and Price Shocks in Wheat Market in Pakistan: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Latif

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Pakistani wheat growers and their economic implications are analyzed through alternative specifications of the Demand Model. Existences, nature of production lags, and the choice between expected wheat and gross returns were taken as the preferred explanatory variables of producers’ response to the changing economic condition. The analyses indicate that there are lags which are, primarily, due to the difficulties and cost of rapid adjustment rather than to the time required to revise expectations. The statistical results were similar for the alternative specification of gross margins and wheat as the economic decision available. However, the wheat elasticity derived using the gross margins specification were about a third of those using the wheat specification.

  8. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami", and...... "fresh grass" mostly characterized wheat endosperm. Low-extraction bread made from four different varieties also differentiated for five odour- and six flavour descriptors. These results indicate that variations in wheat flavour and odour directly affect bread flavour and odour even in low...

  9. Residual phosphorus and zinc influence wheat productivity under rice-wheat cropping system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanullah; Inamullah

    2016-01-01

    Continuous cropping of rice (Oryza sativa L.) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) deplete soil fertility and crop productivity. One strategy to increase crop productivity under rice-wheat system is balanced application of crop nutrients. Field experiment was conducted to assess the impact of phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 120 kg P ha(-1)) and zinc (0, 5, 10, 15 kg Zn ha(-1)) on the productivity of rice genotypes (fine and coarse) and their residual effects on the grain yield (GY) and its components (YC) of the succeeding wheat crop under rice-wheat cropping system (RWCS) in North Western Pakistan during 2011-12 and 2012-13. After rice harvest in both years, wheat variety "Siren-2010" was grown on the same layout but no additional P, K and Zn was applied to wheat crop in each year. The GY and YC of wheat significantly increased in the treatments receiving the higher P levels (120 > 80 > 40 > 0 kg P ha(-1)) and Zn (15 > 10 > 5 > 0 kg Zn ha(-1)) in the previous rice crop. The residual soil P and Zn contents after rice harvest, GY and YC of wheat increased significantly under low yielding fine genotype (B-385) as compared to the high yielding coarse genotypes (F-Malakand and Pukhraj). The residual soil P and Zn, GY and of wheat increased significantly in the second year as compared with the first year of experiment. These results confirmed strong carry over effects of both P and Zn applied to the previous rice crop on the subsequent wheat crop under RWCS. PMID:27026947

  10. "Determination the best cereal substitute for wheat in wheat allergic children "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiasy Esfahany Z "

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food allergy is one of the most important among other allergic diseases. Although it is less prevalent in adult but in infants it’s prevalence was reported as much as 8 percent. In part, wheat is one of the six main food allergens in infant and in other part there is extensive cross reactivity between the cereals. Therefore the aim of this study is selection of the best food substitute for wheat among other cereals. Materials and Methods: 24 patients with definitive diagnosis of type one hypersensitivity reaction to wheat were entered in this study. Skin prick test and serum specific IgE (Eliza with 6 members of cereals family (wheat, barley, oat, Rye-Rice & Corn were performed for them and open food challenge test was also done with three more available of the cereals (corn, Rice, barley in our food culture and so comparison between allergenicity of wheat flour and wheat bran with skin prick test were done. Results: The Skin prick tests (SPTs were positive in 66.7 percent for Barley, 100 percent for wheat bran and 80-100 percent for other cereals. The results of specific IgE for wheat, Barley were positive in 94.5 percent, 68 percent, 39 percent of patients respectively and the results for other cereals were positive in less than 11 percent of cases. The results of food challenge test, for barley were positive in 60 percent of cases and for Rice and Corn were negative in all cases. Conclusion: In the base of food challenge test as the gold standard test, the best food substitute for wheat sensitive patient between other cereals, were Corn and Rice respectively. It is important to emphasis that will be needed to perform oral food challenge in hospital with complete emergency equipment before introducing any other cereals as food substitute for wheat, specially Barley.

  11. Virginia Tech forms new partnership to develop better wheat varieties

    OpenAIRE

    Greiner, Lori A.

    2010-01-01

    Virginia Tech and Monsanto announced today a mutually beneficial public-private collaborative agreement that will allow both parties to improve their wheat breeding programs and generate improved wheat varieties for growers in Virginia.

  12. Do we need to worry about eating wheat?

    OpenAIRE

    Shewry, P R; Hey, S. J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Wheat is a staple food throughout the temperate world and an important source of nutrients for many millions of people. However, the last few years have seen increasing concerns about adverse effects of wheat on health, particularly in North America and Europe, with the increasing adoption of wheat‐free or gluten‐free diets. This relates to two concerns: that wheat products are disproportionally responsible for increases in obesity and type 2 diabetes and that wheat gluten proteins c...

  13. ISSUES IN DEVELOPMENT AND ADOPTION OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED (GM) WHEATS

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Janzen, Edward L.; Dahl, Bruce L.; Wachenheim, Cheryl J.

    2003-01-01

    Development of genetically modified (GM) wheat varieties is proceeding; however, several critical issues remain the focus of contention. This project summarizes the current state of knowledge on some of these critical issues for commercialization of GM wheats. Background on the evolution of GM Wheats is presented. Then, agronomic adoption and competitiveness of GM crops; research on GM traits in wheat; consumer acceptance of GM crops (a separate section is included on issues related to consum...

  14. Exploiting resource use efficiency and resilience in ancient wheat species

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Anisha

    2014-01-01

    Modern bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) initially derived from wild progenitors which underwent hybridisation and domestication events. It is hypothesised that modern plant breeding has reduced the genetic variation among modern cultivars (Sparkes, 2010). Ancient wheat species form a conduit between wild ancient wheat and cultivated Triticum species, and may harbour the genetic variation required to supplement the modern bread wheat gene pool. The current work investigated a range of morpholog...

  15. Fusarioses of certain wheat grain categories and their mycotoxicological infection

    OpenAIRE

    Stojanović Tatjana V.; Škrinjar Marija M.; Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2005-01-01

    Certain climatological conditions favor the infection of wheat by field moulds, and influence very much the yield, the overall quality and the hygienic properties of the wheat. The investigations included 6 wheat varieties from the first locality and 5 varieties from the second locality. The investigated samples were most often contaminated by fungi of the genus Fusarium. Each wheat sample was classified with respect to the degree of contamination by these fungi as slightly fusarious contamin...

  16. Emmer wheat using and growing in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, Petr; Stehno, Zdenek; Capouchova, Ivana; Moudry, Jan; Juza, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Emmer wheat [(Triticum dicoccum Schrank (Schuebl)] is after bread, durum and spelt wheat further species of wheat used for economic purposes. Organic farmers and producers have become more and more interested in marginal crops such as the tetraploid emmer wheat because of its suitability for organic farming. In spite of its historical role, present distribution of emmer is very limited. The work analyzes the problem of growing possibilities of emmer and its suitability for cultivation i...

  17. 21 CFR 139.180 - Wheat and soy noodle products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Wheat and soy noodle products. 139.180 Section 139...) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION MACARONI AND NOODLE PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Macaroni and Noodle Products § 139.180 Wheat and soy noodle products. (a) Wheat and soy noodle products are...

  18. Residue management tactics for corn following spring wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Producers are interested in tactics for managing crop residues when growing corn after spring wheat. We compared five systems of managing spring wheat residues: conventional tillage, no-till, strip-till, cover crop (hairy vetch) with no-till, and cover crop with strip-till following spring wheat. ...

  19. 7 CFR 407.17 - Group risk plan for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Group risk plan for wheat. 407.17 Section 407.17..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GROUP RISK PLAN OF INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 407.17 Group risk plan for wheat. The provisions of the Group Risk Plan for Wheat for the 2000 and succeeding crop years are as follows:...

  20. 7 CFR 782.18 - Wheat purchased for export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Wheat purchased for export. 782.18 Section 782.18... § 782.18 Wheat purchased for export. (a) This section applies to an importer or subsequent buyer who imports or purchases Canadian-produced wheat for the purpose of export to a foreign country...

  1. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  2. Geographic Distribution of Stem Rust Resistance in Wheat Landraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat stem rust disease, caused by Puccinia graminis (Pers.) f. sp. tritici, is of renewed concern due to the emergence of new virulent races in East Africa. Landrace accessions of common wheat, Triticum aestivum L. subsp. aestivum, and durum wheat, T. turgidum L. subsp. durum, from the National Sma...

  3. Improvement of protein content in winter wheat with physicochemical mutagens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutation is one of the approaches to improve the protein content of wheat. In present experiments the wheat mutation contained high protein, gluten and lysine were obtained by means of treating dry seeds with different physicochemical mutation. The procedure of breeding for improving the qiality of wheat was found

  4. Review on wheat mutation breeding in Shandong province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history, achievements and current status of wheat mutation breeding in Shandong province are briefly reviewed. The common used techniques and steps for mutation breeding of wheat are introduced. Suggestions and prospect of wheat mutation breeding in Shandong province are listed. (authors)

  5. Wheat mill stream properties for discrete element method modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    A discrete phase approach based on individual wheat kernel characteristics is needed to overcome the limitations of previous statistical models and accurately predict the milling behavior of wheat. As a first step to develop a discrete element method (DEM) model for the wheat milling process, this s...

  6. Microsatellites in wheat and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of large panels of simply analyzable genetic markers for diversity studies and tagging, agronomically important genes in hexaploid bread wheat is an important goal in applied cereal genetic research. We have isolated and sequenced over two-hundred clones containing microsatellites from the wheat genome, and have tested 150 primer pairs for genetic polymorphism using a panel of ten wheat varieties, including the parents of our main mapping cross. A total of 125 loci were detected by 82 primer pairs, of which 105 loci from 63 primer pairs can be unequivocally allocated to one of the wheat chromosomes. A relatively low frequency of the loci detected are from the D-genome (24%). Generally, the microsatellites show high levels of genetic polymorphism and an average 3.5 alleles per locus with an average polymorphism information content (PIC) value of 0.5. The observed levels of polymorphism are positively correlated with the length of the microsatellite repeats. A high proportion, approximately one half, of primer pairs designed to detect simple sequence repeat (SSR) variation in wheat do not generate the expected amplification products and, more significantly, often generate unresolvable Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) products. In general our results agree closely with those obtained from other recent studies using microsatellites in plants. (author)

  7. Adapting wheat in Europe for climate change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, M A; Stratonovitch, P; Alghabari, F; Gooding, M J

    2014-05-01

    Increasing cereal yield is needed to meet the projected increased demand for world food supply of about 70% by 2050. Sirius, a process-based model for wheat, was used to estimate yield potential for wheat ideotypes optimized for future climatic projections for ten wheat growing areas of Europe. It was predicted that the detrimental effect of drought stress on yield would be decreased due to enhanced tailoring of phenology to future weather patterns, and due to genetic improvements in the response of photosynthesis and green leaf duration to water shortage. Yield advances could be made through extending maturation and thereby improve resource capture and partitioning. However the model predicted an increase in frequency of heat stress at meiosis and anthesis. Controlled environment experiments quantify the effects of heat and drought at booting and flowering on grain numbers and potential grain size. A current adaptation of wheat to areas of Europe with hotter and drier summers is a quicker maturation which helps to escape from excessive stress, but results in lower yields. To increase yield potential and to respond to climate change, increased tolerance to heat and drought stress should remain priorities for the genetic improvement of wheat. PMID:24882934

  8. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve drought resistance and productivity in modern wheat cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne eMerchuk-Ovnat

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum and bread (T. aestivum wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4 were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm and water-limited (290–320 mm conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS, and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS. In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass - specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background, under both treatments (2BS QTL, and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL. The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance.

  9. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the introgressed genomic regions and evaluated in two consecutive years under well-watered (690–710 mm) and water-limited (290–320 mm) conditions. Three of the introgressed QTLs were successfully validated, two in the background of durum wheat cv. Uzan (on chromosomes 1BL and 2BS), and one in the background of bread wheat cvs. Bar Nir and Zahir (chromosome 7AS). In most cases, the QTL x environment interaction was validated in terms of improved grain yield and biomass—specifically under drought (7AS QTL in cv. Bar Nir background), under both treatments (2BS QTL), and a greater stability across treatments (1BL QTL). The results provide a first demonstration that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles can enhance productivity and yield stability across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of drought resistance. PMID:27148287

  10. Wheat improvement by induced mutations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The genetic constitution of the allohexaploid Triticum aestivum offers enormous opportunities of induction and exploitation of mutations for qualitative as well as for quantitative characters. The paper presents and discusses experimental data on the evolution of Mutant 115 with reference to the improvement of grain yield and related characters. The mutant produced significantly (P >= 0.05) higher grain yield than the commercial varieties (Pak-70 and Mexi-Pak) and the mother cultivar (Nayab). In the zonal trials conducted on Government farms and farmer's fields, Mutant 115 gave 10% and 25% more yield than Pak-70 and Mexi-Pak respectively. The stability parameters of the mutant were computed. The mutant was characterized by having b > 1.0 and medium s.e. (b). The mutant exhibited resistance to Puccinia graminis tritici and Puccinia recondita. The technological properties of the mutant were at par with the existing commercial varieties. The radiation treatment also removed two original defects of the mother cultivar Nayab viz. apical sterility and red grain colour. Induced mutations can thus be exploited successfully for the improvement of contemporary wheat cultivars. (author)

  11. Soil chemicals properties and wheat genotype impact on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour

    OpenAIRE

    Krunoslav Karalić; Ante Nevistić; Brigita Popović; Zdenko Lončarić; Zorica Jurković; Meri Engler

    2012-01-01

    Aim To determine impact of soil chemical properties and different wheat genotypes in Croatia on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour. Methods Research was conducted and soil samples were collected from two different production areas in the Republic of Croatia: Ovčara and Dalj. Besides soil samples, grain samples of four different Croatian wheat genotypes were also collected and analyzed. In total, 40 samples of soil and 40 samples of wheat grain were analysed for t...

  12. Determination of sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper, zinc and mercury in contaminated wheat and wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The wheat and wheat flour samples from district Khairpur, were dissolved in acids and analyzed spectrophotometrically for mercury contents, using dithiozone method. Mercury was found in 0.92-5.8 mg/ kg range, above the safe limits for human consumption, samples were also analysed for sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and zinc, after dry ashing, followed by acid dissolution and flame atomic absorption determination. Metal ions were found within the normal limits reported for wheat and wheat flour. (author)

  13. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus) in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i) continuous reduction in growth over time, ii) weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii) remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in wheat. PMID

  14. Variation in susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among wild and domesticated wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim Nygren

    Full Text Available We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp. and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp. and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV. The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed by polyploidization and domestication. We studied whether the strong selection during these evolutionary processes, leading to genetic bottlenecks, may have resulted in a loss of resistance in domesticated wheat. In addition, we investigated whether putative fluctuations in intensity of selection imposed on the host-pathogen interactions have resulted in a variation in susceptibility to WDV. To test our hypotheses we evaluated eighteen wild and domesticated wheat taxa, directly or indirectly involved in wheat evolution, for traits associated with WDV disease such as leaf chlorosis, different growth traits and WDV content. The plants were exposed to viruliferous leafhoppers (Psammotettix alienus in a greenhouse trial and evaluated at two time points. We found three different plant response patterns: i continuous reduction in growth over time, ii weak response at an early stage of plant development but a much stronger response at a later stage, and iii remission of symptoms over time. Variation in susceptibility may be explained by differences in the intensity of natural selection, shaping the coevolutionary interaction between WDV and the wild relatives. However, genetic bottlenecks during wheat evolution have not had a strong impact on WDV resistance. Further, this study indicates that the variation in susceptibility may be associated with the genome type and that the ancestor Ae. tauschii may be useful as genetic resource for the improvement of WDV resistance in

  15. Development and characterization of wheat lines with Sr37 for stem rust resistance derived from wild Timopheev's wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The stem rust resistance gene Sr37, an effective gene against the newly emerged Ug99 races of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici in wheat, was originally transferred from wild Timopheev's wheat (Triticum timopheevii Zhuk, AAGG genomes) through a translocation between wheat chromosome 4B and T. timophe...

  16. Related changes of wheat yield and photosynthetically active radiation in paulownia/wheat intercropping system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect pf crown shading on the photosynthetically active radiation(PAR)and yield of wheat was analysed focusing on the PAR-key factor of paulownia/wheat intercropping system, and the law of light energy utilization was detected. Results showed that under a north-south tree row the crown shading affected PAR differently with different distances from tree row and different growth periods of paulownia trees. Crown shading had no significant effect on the number of effective ears and kernels of wheat, but it significantly affected total grain weight and 1000-grain weight, and its affected degree was different depending on the distances from tree row. (author)

  17. Effects legumes, Fallow and wheat on subsequent wheat production in Central Anatolia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the Nsub2-fixation capacities of lentil, vetch, chickpea and fodderpea in a legume-wheat rotation by using the A-value method of N15 technique, and to assess the amount of carry-over of N to wheat from the previous legume as well as water contribution of fallow, wheat and legumes to the following wheat under rainfed Central Anatolia conditions field experiments were conducted in 1992 and 1993 at three different provinces using completely randomized block design with 5 replications. Results we obtained showed that %Ndff values among legumesdid not differ significantly neither within or between locations. Legumesvaried significantly (P<0.05) in their %Ndfa values at each location and highest values of %Ndfa were obtained at Eskisehir. In general, %Ndfa varied from59-84, and 36-85 for chickpea,lentils and vetchs. The evaluation of the yield and N data obtained in 1993 indicated that lentil (winter or summer) -wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir conditions and chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya conditions should be prefered, due to the higher seed and total yields, higher N yields and higher %NUE values obtained from these rotations in comparison to the others. In order to estimate the carry-over of nitrogen from legumes to the succeeding wheat crop, % nitrogen derived from unknown (%Ndfu) were also calculated. Highest amount of carry-over from the legumesto the succeeding wheat were 31.1 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Ankara; 16.9 kgN/ha from summer lentil at Eskisehir; and 8.0 kgN/ha from chickpea at Konya. These results obtined showed that a lentil-wheat rotation at Ankara and Eskisehir and a chickpea-wheat rotation at Konya. Mean while, the evaluation of the soil and WUE data at both Eskisehir and Ankara indicated that winter lentil-wheat rotation should be prefered in these areas due to more efficient use of water by wheat crop after this rotation system

  18. Rising temperatures reduce global wheat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asseng, S; Ewert, F; Martre, P; Rötter, R P; Lobell, D B; Cammarano, D; Kimball, B A; Ottman, M J; Wall, G W; White, J W; Reynolds, M P; Alderman, P D; Prasad, P V V; Aggarwal, P K; Antothai, J; Basso, B; Biernath, C; Challinor, A J; De Sanctis, G; Doltra, J; Fereres, E; Garcia-Vila, M; Gayler, S; Googenboom, G; Hunt, L A; Izaurralde, R C; Jabloun, Mohamed; Jones, C D; Kersebaum, K C; Koehler, A -K; Müller, C; Naresh Kumar, S; Nendel, C; O’Leary, G; Olesen, Jørgen E; Palosuo, T; Priesack, E; Eyshi Rezaei, E; Ruane, A C; Semenov, M A; Shcherbak, I; Stöckle, C; Stratonovitch, P; Streck, T; Supit, I; Tao, F; Thorburn, P; Waha, K; Wang, E; Wallach, D; Wolf, J; Zhao, Z; Zhu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Crop models are essential tools for assessing the threat of climate change to local and global food production1. Present models used to predict wheat grain yield are highly uncertain when simulating how crops respond to temperature2. Here we systematically tested 30 different wheat crop models of....... Global wheat production is estimated to fall by 6% for each °C of further temperature increase and become more variable over space and time....... the Agricultural Model Intercomparison and Improvement Project against field experiments in which growing season mean temperatures ranged from 15 °C to 32 °C, including experiments with artificial heating. Many models simulated yields well, but were less accurate at higher temperatures. The model...

  19. Plasma-Assisted Pretreatment of Wheat Straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Jensen, Nadja; Leipold, Frank; Bindslev, Henrik;

    2011-01-01

    O3 generated in a plasma at atmospheric pressure and room temperature, fed with dried air (or oxygen-enriched dried air), has been used for the degradation of lignin in wheat straw to optimize the enzymatic hydrolysis and to get more fermentable sugars. A fixed bed reactor was used combined with a...... CO2 detector and an online technique for O3 measurement in the fed and exhaust gas allowing continuous measurement of the consumption of O3. This rendered it possible for us to determine the progress of the pretreatment in real time (online analysis). The process time can be adjusted to produce wheat...... and milled particle size (the extent to which the wheat straw was milled) were investigated and optimized. The developed methodology offered the advantage of a simple and relatively fast (0.5–2 h) pretreatment allowing a dry matter concentration of 45–60%. FTIR measurements did not suggest any...

  20. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Caverzan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L., which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals.

  1. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caverzan, Andréia; Casassola, Alice; Brammer, Sandra Patussi

    2016-03-01

    Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of ROS is sustained by enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants. In the present review, we offer a brief summary of antioxidant defense and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) signaling in wheat plants. Wheat plants increase antioxidant defense mechanisms under abiotic stresses, such as drought, cold, heat, salinity and UV-B radiation, to alleviate oxidative damage. Moreover, H2O2 signaling is an important factor contributing to stress tolerance in cereals. PMID:27007891

  2. NUTRITIONAL CHARACTERISTICS OF EMMER WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the nutritional compounds (fat, sugars, crude protein, soluble fiber, ash and starch of four emmer wheat varieties grown under the conditions of organic farming system. The experiment was established on Scientific Research base Dolná Malanta, near Nitra in Slovakia during 2010 – 2011 and 2011 – 2012 growing seasons. Nutritional parameters, except crude protein content, were not influenced by the variety and weather conditions. Agnone variety had the highest content of fat, crude protein and starch but the lowest content of soluble dietary fiber. The lowest values of fat, crude protein had Molise sel Colli variety; Farvento variety had the lowest sugars and starch content. Emmer wheat as ancient wheat has a unique composition in secondary components, such as starch, which may play a role as functional food ingredients.

  3. GLASS TRANSITION OF HYDRATED WHEAT GLIADIN POWDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shao-min Sun; Li Zhao; Yi-hu Song; Qiang Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Modulated-temperature differential scanning calorimetric and dynamic mechanical analyses and dielectric spectroscopy were used to investigate the glass transition of hydrated wheat gliadin powders with moisture absorption ranged from 2.30 db% to 18.21 db%. Glass transition temperature (Tg) of dry wheat gliadin was estimated according to the GordonTaylor equation. Structural heterogeneity at high degrees of hydration was revealed in dielectric temperature and frequency spectra. The activation energies (Ea) of the two relaxations were calculated from Arrhenius equation.

  4. A recombinant wheat serpin with inhibitory activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren K; Dahl, Søren Weis; Nørgård, Anette;

    1996-01-01

    A full-length clone encoding the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) serpin WSZ1 was isolated from a cDNA library based on mRNA from immature grain. The 398 amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA was corroborated by sequencing CNBr peptides of WSZ1 purified from resting grain. WSZ1 belongs to the...... sequencing indicated that only few serpins are encoded by wheat, but at least three distinct genes are expressed in the grain. Cleavage experiments on a chymotrypsin column suggested a Gln-Gln reactive site bond not previously observed in inhibitory serpins....

  5. Production costs of Soft Wheat in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Tiberti, M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates production costs of soft wheat by applying the FACEPA cost of production model to the Italian data (RICA) for 2005-2009. Estimates are obtained by carrying out a SUR, allowing for correlated errors between the set of equations and for imposing constraints to coefficients The main aim of this study is to provide a robust analysis of the cost, per hectare and per quintal, of soft wheat in order to analytically support a negotiation bargain on the contractual price for so...

  6. Antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates evaluated in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yun-hui; WANG Zhang; XU Shi-ying

    2006-01-01

    Wheat germ protein hydrolysates were prepared by protease hydrolysis, ultrafiltration and dynamical adsorption of resin. The total amount of amino acids in 100 g wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 93.95 g. Wheat germ protein hydrolysates are primarily composed of 4 fractions: 17.78 % in the relative molecular mass range of 11 563 -1 512, 17.50% in 1512 -842, 27.38% in 842- 372 and 30.65% in 372- 76, respectively. The antioxidant properties of wheat germ protein hydrolysates were evaluated by using different antioxidant tests in vitro. 1.20 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit 78.75% inhibition of peroxidation in linolei acid system; and 1.6 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates show 81.11% scavenging effect on the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhrazyl radical. The reducing power of 2.50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates is 0. 84. Furthermore, the scavenging activity of 0.60 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates against superoxide radical is 75. 40%; 0. 50 g/L wheat germ protein hydrolysates exhibit63.35 % chelating effect on ferrous ion. These antioxidant activities of wheat germ protein hydrolsates increase with the increase of its concentration. Experimental results suggest that wheat germ protein hydrolysate is a suitable natural antioxidant rich in nutrition and nontoxic.

  7. Study on Wheat Cold Source and Its Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Song-wu; WANG Chang-fa

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of tests and studies for many years, wheat cold source has been discovered in natural world. It is a donor material supplying a low temperature and causing stronger cooling effect, that is,the canopy temperature of its progeny can be descended universally and some non-cold type acceptor wheat can turn into cold type wheat having good metabolic functions under the condition of that acceptor wheat accepts the gamete of donor wheat supplying a low temperature. Contrast between wheat cold source and general wheat having no the ability of supplying a low temperature shows that second heat source temperature and plant temperature of wheat cold source not only are lower than those of general wheat but its root vigor, rate of awn etiolation, functional duration of leaf, chlorophyll content, soluble protein content, SOD activity, net photosynthetic rate, etc, are also more excellent than those of general wheat, and these all provide certain ecological and physiological bases for the distinction and selection of wheat cold source.

  8. Application of Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat Derived from T.Durum, Ae. taushiiin Common Wheat Breeding for FHB Resistance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The F1 and F4 plants of 'synthetic hexaploid wheat/common wheat'crosses and part of their parents were inoculated with Fusarium graminearum to evaluate FHB resistance.The results showed tht the scab resistance in the F1 varied with the synthetic wheat accessions used as crossing parents.In the F4,some resistant head lines were generated from the crosses,although their parents had different scab resistance levels.It indicated that synthetic hexaploid wheat are useful in wheat breeding for scab resistance.

  9. Fractionated extracts of Russian wheat aphid eliciting defense responses in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapitan, Nora L V; Li, You-Chun; Peng, Junhua; Botha, Anna-Maria

    2007-06-01

    It is hypothesized that the interaction between aphids and plants follows a gene-for-gene model. The recent appearance of several new Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) (Homoptera: Aphididae), biotypes in the United States and the differential response of wheat, Triticum aestivum L., genotypes containing different resistance genes also suggest a gene-for-gene interaction. However, aphid elicitors remain unknown. This study was conducted to identify fractionated Russian wheat aphid extracts capable of eliciting differential responses between resistant and susceptible wheat genotypes. We extracted whole soluble compounds and separated proteins and metabolites from two Russian wheat aphid biotypes (1 and 2), injected these extracts into seedlings of susceptible wheat Gamtoos (dn7) and resistant 94M370 (Dn7), and determined phenotypic and biochemical plant responses. Injections of whole extract or protein extract from both biotypes induced the typical susceptible symptom, leaf rolling, in the susceptible cultivar, but not in the resistant cultivar. Furthermore, multiple injections with protein extract from biotype 2 induced the development of chlorosis, head trapping, and stunting in susceptible wheat. Injection with metabolite, buffer, or chitin, did not produce any susceptible symptoms in either genotype. The protein extract from the two biotypes also induced significantly higher activities of three defense-response enzymes (catalase, peroxidase, and beta-glucanase) in 94M370 than in Gamtoos. These results indicate that a protein elicitor from the Russian wheat aphid is recognized by a plant receptor, and the recognition is mediated by the Dn7-gene product. The increased activities of defense-response enzymes in resistant plants after injection with the protein fraction suggest that defense response genes are induced after recognition of aphid elicitors by the plant. PMID:17598566

  10. Wheat Bran Phenolic Acids: Bioavailability and Stability in Whole Wheat-Based Foods

    OpenAIRE

    Barbara Laddomada; Sofia Caretto; Giovanni Mita

    2015-01-01

    Wheat bran is generally considered a byproduct of the flour milling industry, but it is a great source of fibers, minerals, and antioxidants that are important for human health. Phenolic acids are a specific class of wheat bran components that may act as antioxidants to prevent heart disease and to lower the incidence of colon cancer. Moreover, phenolic acids have anti-inflammatory properties that are potentially significant for the promotion of gastrointestinal health. Evidence on the benefi...

  11. Physicochemical properties of wheat-canna and wheat-konjac composite flours

    OpenAIRE

    Aprianita, Aprianita; Vasiljevic, Todor; Bannikova, Anna; Kasapis, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Physicochemical properties of composite flours made of wheat from low to high protein contents and canna or konjac at different levels of substitution (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) were prepared and analyzed. Compared to that of wheat flour alone, increasing levels of canna inclusions significantly increased the amount of resistant starch (RS) but decreased the protein content of composite flours. This substitution did not alter the total starch (TS), amylase and amylopectin contents of these mi...

  12. World Food Grain Trade, 1962-83, Wheat, Rice, and Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Arthur B.; Hiemstra, Stephen W.; Rosen, Stacey L.

    1985-01-01

    World trade in food grains (wheat, rice, and wheat flour) more than doubled from 1962 to 1983, while the number of countries participating in world trade increased 85 percent. Food grain consumption has increased faster than production in most countries so more countries entered world trade for their food needs, thereby increasing the volume and changes the patterns of world trade in food grains. This report is based primarily on the United Nation's world trade data and foreign trade statisti...

  13. Reinforcement Effect of Alkali Hydrolyzed Wheat Gluten and Starch in Carboxylated Styrene-Butadiene Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat gluten (WG) and wheat starch (WS) are the protein and carbohydrate obtained from wheat flours. Wheat gluten is not water soluble or dispersible due to its hydrophobic nature. To prepare wheat gluten dispersions, an alkali hydrolysis reaction was carried out to produce a stable aqueous disper...

  14. Research on the Expression of Hemolysin Genes of Leptospira in vivo by Genechip%基因芯片技术对赖型钩端螺旋体溶血素基因体内诱导差异表达的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 鲍朗

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨经宿主体内环境诱导前后赖型钩端螺旋体溶血素致病基因表达的差异.方法 以赖型钩端螺旋体56601株的染色体DNA为模板,PCR扩增出溶血素基因片段为探针,并通过VersArray Chipwriter系统构建基因芯片.提取感染宿主前后钩端螺旋体RNA,逆转录为cDNA,用随机引物PCR扩增,以HEX和CY5双色荧光标记并与基因芯片进行杂交,使用Genepix 4000B扫描仪扫描芯片,通过检测芯片上的荧光信号比值来研究钩端螺旋体溶血素基因在宿主体内的表达情况.结果 成功构建赖型钩端螺旋体56601株溶血素基因芯片,芯片检测发现在宿主感染后钩体溶血素基因LA1029(Ratio=0.65)、LA1027(Ratio=0.53)具有明显上调表达(Ratio<0.67);LA3540(Ratio= 1.88)、IA3937(Ratio=5.58)、LA1029(Ratio= 3.00)在宿主肝脏中的表达比在血液中有明显增高(Ratio> 1.5),而LA4004的表达在宿主肝脏中要明显低于血液中(Ratio=0.67);LA3937(Ratio= 2.28)和LA1029 (Ratio= 2.20)在宿主肾脏中的表达要明显高于血液中(Ratio>1.5).结论 钩体溶血素基因的体内外表达和不同器官间的表达存在差异,这些差异表达的溶血素基因及产物在钩体病的致病中可能起重要的作用.%Objective To explore the expression of hemolysin genes of Leptospira in infected host. Methods Amplified the gene segment of hemolysin genes from the genome of Leptospira by PCR for gene probe. Manufacture genechip by the VersArray Chipwriter systerm. The total RNAs of Leptospira before and after infection host were extracted, reversely transcribed to cDNA, after the random PCR, the products were marked with HEX and CY5 respectively, and hybridized to genechip to demonstrate the expression of hemolysin genes of Leptospira. Results The hemolysin genes LA1029 (Ratio=0. 65),LA1027 (Ratio=0.53) were up-regulated after infection of host;LA3540 (Ratio=1.88), LA3937 (Ratio=5. 58), LA1029 (Ratio = 3. 00) were up

  15. Registration of ‘UI Darwin’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘UI Darwin’ (PI 639953) is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in February 2006. UI Darwin, named for English naturalist Charles Darwin, was released for selected improvements in bread quality relative to hard white wi...

  16. Winter Wheat Root Growth and Nitrogen Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Irene Skovby

    in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L). Field experiments on the effect of sowing date, N fertilization and cultivars were conducted on a sandy loam soil in Taastrup, Denmark. The root studies were conducted by means of the minirhizotron method. Also, a field experiment on the effect of defoliation...

  17. Registration of ‘Shirley’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Shirley’ (Reg. No. CV-1039, PI 656753) soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), developed and tested as VA03W-409 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station, was released in March 2008. Shirley was derived from the three-way cross VA94-52-25/‘Coker 9835’//VA96-54-234. Shirley is wid...

  18. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeck, van den H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread ma

  19. Registration of Anton Hard White Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Anton’ (Reg. No. CV PI 651043) hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the USDA-ARS and the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and released in December, 2007. "Anton" was selected from the cross WA691213-27/N86L177//‘Platte’. Anton primarily was released for its lo...

  20. Registration of ‘3434’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar 3434 (Reg. No. CV-1040, PI 656754) developed and tested as VA03W-434 by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station was released in March 2008. Cultivar 3434 was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’/‘Coker 9835’//VA96W-270. Cultivar 34...

  1. REGISTRATION OF ‘CHOPTANK’ WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Choptank’ (Reg. no. CV-976, PI 639724) is a soft red winter wheat (triticum aestivum L.) that was jointly developed and released by the Maryland Agricultural Experiment Station, Department of Natural Resource Sciences and Landscape Architecture, and the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station in 2...

  2. Centromere synteny among Brachypodium, wheat, and rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, wheat and Brachypodium are plant genetic models with variable genome complexity and basic chromosome numbers, representing two subfamilies of the Poaceae. Centromeres are prominent chromosome landmarks, but their fate during this convoluted chromosome evolution has been more difficult to deter...

  3. Wheat productivity estimates using LANDSAT data. [Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Colwell, J. (Principal Investigator); Rice, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. An initial demonstration was made of the capability to make direct production forecasts for winter wheat using early season LANDSAT data. The approach offers the potential to make production forecasts quickly and simply, possibly avoiding some of the complexities of alternate procedures.

  4. Registration of ‘Bearpaw’ wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Bearpaw’ (Reg. No. CV-1083, PI 665228) hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed and released by the Montana Agricultural Experiment Station in September 2011. Bearpaw is of unknown pedigree, derived from a composite of five crosses made to the same F1 male sterile parent in ...

  5. Germinated wheat: Phytochemical composition and mixing characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germinated grain recently attracts interest due to its beneficial effect on human health. In this research, whole wheat flour samples obtained after three days and five days of germination were analyzed for biochemical components, mixing quality, and effects on human breast cancer cells. Germinati...

  6. Registration of ‘UI Winchester’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘UI Winchester’ (PI 642362) hard red spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in July 2009. UI Winchester was released for its improved stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis Westend f. sp. tritici) resistance combined with resistance to ...

  7. REGISTRATION OF ‘LOUISE’ WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Louise’ soft white spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Reg. No. CV-987, PI 634865) was developed and jointly released in August 2005 by the Agricultural Research Center of Washington State University in cooperation with the Agricultural Experiment Stations (AESs) of the University of Idaho and Ore...

  8. Registration of ‘3434’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The soft red winter (SRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivar ‘3434’ (Reg. No. CV-, PI) was developed by the Virginia Agricultural Experiment Station and released in March 2008. Cultivar 3434 was derived from the three-way cross ‘Roane’ (PI 612958) / ’Coker 9835’ (PI 548846 PVPO) // VA96W-270. Cul...

  9. Molecular genetic studies on irradiated wheat plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Composite genotype(octamer hybrid) was obtained from crossing among eight Egyptian hexaploid wheat cultivars differing in their tolerance to drought stress to produce a genotype, which can economize on the irrigation water requirements or can tolerate drought stress. Gamma irradiation with 10-Krad was used to induce mutations, which could improve drought tolerance for this composite. From eight Egyptian wheat cultivars, two were chosen as drought tolerant and drought sensitive genotypes (G-160 and Sk-61, respectively. They were evaluated along with their F1 and F2 for their relative drought tolerance for some yield-related traits. Bulked segregating analysis developed some RAPD and SSR markers with different primers, which were considered as molecular for drought tolerance in wheat. Hal 2-like gene was introduced into Egyptian wheat cultivar G-164 via micro projectile bombardment. Two putative transgenic plants were successfully detected by leaf painting with the herbicide basta. PCR/ Southern blotting analysis indicated the presence of both/either bar and/or Hal 2-like genes in the genomic background of the two transgenic plants

  10. Identification of wheat quality using THz spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Hongyi; Jiang, Yuying; Xu, Zhaohui; Lian, Feiyu; Zhang, Yuan; Xia, Shanhong

    2014-05-19

    The terahertz (THz) spectra in the range of 0.2-1.6 THz (6.6-52.8 cm-1) of wheat grains with various degrees of deterioration (normal, worm-eaten, moldy, and sprouting wheat grains) were investigated by terahertz time domain spectroscopy. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed to extract feature data according to the cumulative contribution rates; the top four principal components were selected, and then a support vector machine (SVM) method was applied. Several selection kernels (linear, polynomial, and radial basis functions) were applied to identify the four types of wheat grain. The results showed that the materials were identified with an accuracy of nearly 95%. Furthermore, this approach was compared with others (principal component regression, partial least squares regression, and back-propagation neural networks). The comparisons showed that PCA-SVM outperformed the others and also indicated that the proposed method of THz technology combined with PCA-SVM is efficient and feasible for identifying wheat of different qualities. PMID:24921371

  11. INTERNATIONAL WHEAT PRICE TRANSMISSION AND CAP REFORM

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Stanley R.; Bohl, Martin T.

    1999-01-01

    We illustrate how CAP policy reforms influence the transmission of world prices to domestic markets. Monthly wheat price data in Germany are used to obtain price transmission elasticities. Correctly accounting for structural breaks and the time series properties of the data yield transmission elasticities that differ dramatically among policy regimes.

  12. TEXTURE OF COOKED SPELT WHEAT NOODLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are limited and incomplete data on the ability of spelt to produce alimentary pasta of suitable quality. Noodles are traditional cereal-based food that is becoming increasingly popular worldwide because of its convenience, nutritional qualities, and palatability. It is generally accepted that texture is the main criterion for assessing overall quality of cooked noodles. We present selected indicators of noodle texture of three spelt cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. A texture analyzer TA.XT PLUS was used to determine cooked spelt wheat noodle firmness (N (AACC 66-50. The texture of cooked spelt wheat noodles was expressed also as elasticity (N and extensibility (mm. Statistical analysis showed significant influence of the variety and year of growing on the firmness, elasticity and extensibility of cooked noodles. The wholemeal spelt wheat noodles were characterized with lower cutting firmness than the flour noodles. Flour noodles were more tensile than wholemeal noodles. The best elasticity and extensibility of flour noodles was found in noodles prepared from Rubiota however from wholemeal noodles it was Oberkulmer Rotkorn. Spelt wheat is suitable for noodle production, however also here it is necessary to differentiate between varieties. According to achieved results, wholemeal noodles prepared from Oberkulmer Rotkorn can be recommended for noodle industry due to their consistent structure and better texture quality after cooking.

  13. Flowering time control in European winter wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Martin Langer

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Flowering time is an important trait in wheat breeding as it affects adaptation and yield potential. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetic architecture of flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars. To this end a population of 410 winter wheat varieties was evaluated in multi-location field trials and genotyped by a genotyping-by-sequencing approach and candidate gene markers. Our analyses revealed that the photoperiod regulator Ppd-D1 is the major factor affecting flowering time in this germplasm set, explaining 58% of the genotypic variance. Copy number variation at the Ppd-B1 locus was present but explains only 3.2% and thus a comparably small proportion of genotypic variance. By contrast, the plant height loci Rht-B1 and Rht-D1 had no effect on flowering time. The genome-wide scan identified six QTL which each explain only a small proportion of genotypic variance and in addition we identified a number of epistatic QTL, also with small effects. Taken together, our results show that flowering time in European winter bread wheat cultivars is mainly controlled by Ppd-D1 while the fine tuning to local climatic conditions is achieved through Ppd-B1 copy number variation and a larger number of QTL with small effects.

  14. Specific patterns of gene space organisation revealed in wheat by using the combination of barley and wheat genomic resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waugh Robbie

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of its size, allohexaploid nature and high repeat content, the wheat genome has always been perceived as too complex for efficient molecular studies. We recently constructed the first physical map of a wheat chromosome (3B. However gene mapping is still laborious in wheat because of high redundancy between the three homoeologous genomes. In contrast, in the closely related diploid species, barley, numerous gene-based markers have been developed. This study aims at combining the unique genomic resources developed in wheat and barley to decipher the organisation of gene space on wheat chromosome 3B. Results Three dimensional pools of the minimal tiling path of wheat chromosome 3B physical map were hybridised to a barley Agilent 15K expression microarray. This led to the fine mapping of 738 barley orthologous genes on wheat chromosome 3B. In addition, comparative analyses revealed that 68% of the genes identified were syntenic between the wheat chromosome 3B and barley chromosome 3 H and 59% between wheat chromosome 3B and rice chromosome 1, together with some wheat-specific rearrangements. Finally, it indicated an increasing gradient of gene density from the centromere to the telomeres positively correlated with the number of genes clustered in islands on wheat chromosome 3B. Conclusion Our study shows that novel structural genomics resources now available in wheat and barley can be combined efficiently to overcome specific problems of genetic anchoring of physical contigs in wheat and to perform high-resolution comparative analyses with rice for deciphering the organisation of the wheat gene space.

  15. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galinha, C. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Anawar, H.M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Freitas, M.C., E-mail: cfreitas@itn.pt [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Pacheco, A.M.G. [CERENA-IST, Technical University of Lisbon, Av. Rovisco Pais 1, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal); Almeida-Silva, M. [Instituto Tecnoclogico e Nuclear, URSN, E.N. 10, 2686-953 Sacavem (Portugal); Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S. [INRB/INIA-Elvas, National Institute of Biological Resources, Est. Gil Vaz, 7350-228 Elvas (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit <22 mg/kg) indicating that soils should be supplemented with Zn during cultivation. The concentrations of metals in roots and straw of both varieties of wheat decreased in the order of K>Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation

  16. Wheat Transpiration Response to Soil Heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langensiepen, M.; Kupisch, M.; Cai, G.; Vanderborght, J.; Stadler, A.; Hüging, H.; Ewert, F.

    2014-12-01

    Measuring sap-flow in thin wheat tillers has been difficult so far due to technical difficulties associated with the application of the heat-balance method for this purpose. We developed a new method which solved this problem (Langensiepen et al. 2014) and applied it during four consecutive vegetation seasons for determining tiller transpiration rates in a wheat field with strong soil heterogeneity. The transpiration rates differed insignificantly between different field sections characterized by strong differences in physical soil conditions, regardless whether the crop was irrigated or supplied with variable rainwater. Tiller transpiration in a sheltered section was slightly reduced. Maximum leaf vapor conductance didn't differ among these different conditions, except under severe water stress conditions. Leaf water potential varied considerably during daily cycles under all circumstances. These responses are typical for plants with anisohydric behaviors which are characterized by small sensitivities of guard cells to critical leaf water potential thresholds and high photosynthetic productivity under absent or mild water stress. Recent studies conducted in Eucalyptus, tomato, and Arabidopsis plants have shown that the transition from mild to severe stress in anisohydric plants is marked by an increasing sensitivity of stomatal control to the transpiration rate. The results of this study demonstrate that this also seems to be the case for wheat. This practically implies that the parameterization of models calculating wheat canopy flux responses to soil heterogeneity patterns must not only account for the crop-type specific soil-vegetation pattern interaction under absent or mild stress, but also for additional mechanisms which kick in when water stress becomes severe. Langensiepen, M., Kupisch, M., Graf, A., Schmidt, M., Ewert, F. (2014) Improving the stem heat balance method for determining sap-flow in wheat. Agric. For. Met. 186: 34-42

  17. Research Status Quo and Future of Low Temperature Wheat Genotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Low temperature wheat genotypes are a group of wheat with a slightly low canopy (plant) temperature, and the research on their biological characters and utilization in wheat breeding has been done at home and abroad for more than 20 years, and has made great progress. The research contents and advances include the following respects: Wheat genotypes with slightly low canopy temperature have been verified to exist in nature; these wheat genotypes, which present cold temperature, are superior to conventional wheat materials in some important biological characters and particularly prominently in metabolic function and cellular structure; when they suffer stresses such as drought, high temperature and overcast and rainy weather, they still retain their superiority in some of their important biological characters and therefore have a wide range of ecological adaptability; slightly low canopy temperatures of these genotypes are closely correlated with low temperatures of their second heat sources and their vigorous plants; since their low canopy temperatures can be inherited, they can exert favorable influence on the temperatures of their offspring while crossing with other wheat materials, and in particular, the discovery of cold-source wheat as a contributor to low temperature, has further formed good conditions for breeding high and stable quality low temperature wheat varieties with a high and stable yield. Thus, low temperature wheat genotypes are of great research importance and have great prospects.

  18. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long

    2015-06-01

    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. PMID:25747845

  19. Molecular Characteristics of New Wheat Starch and Its Digestion Behaviours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zhong-kai; HUA Ze-tian; YANG Yan; ZHENG Pai-yun; ZHANG Yan; CHEN Xiao-shan

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of starch molecular characteristics on the gel structure, which subsequently inlfuence the gel digestion behaviours, three wheat starches, control (conventional wheat starch), two new wheat cultivars with different genetic backgrounds (by knocking out SBE IIb and SBE IIa, respectively) were used in this study. In comparison with control, slight differences in the morphology of the starch granules of new wheat 1 were observed, whereas the starch granules of new wheat 2 had irregular shapes both for A-type granules and B-type granules. Starch molecular weight size was determined by SE-HPLC, and the results indicate that there was a subtle increase in the amylose content in the starch of new wheat 1 compared to that of control. The starch of new wheat 2 had the highest amylose content, and the molecular weight (MW) of its amylopectin was the lowest among the three starches. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate starch gel structure and the results suggest that the molecules of starch gel from new wheat 2 are more likely to re-associate to form an organized conformation. The digestion behaviours of the three starch gels were measured using a mixture of pancreatinα-amylase and amyloglucosidase. The results indicated that the starch gels of control and new wheat 1 had very high digestibility of 91.7 and 91.9%, respectively, whereas the digestibility of wheat 2 starch gel was only 36.2%. In comparison with the digestion curve patterns of control and new wheat 1 starch gels, the new wheat 2 exhibited a much lower initial velocity. These results indicated that the molecules in the starch of new wheat 2 are more readily to re-associate to form an organized structure during gel formation because of its unique molecular characteristics.

  20. Binary mixtures of waxy wheat and conventional wheat as measured by NIR reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwiche, Stephen R; Graybosch, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Waxy wheat contains very low concentration (generally infrared (NIR) reflectance spectroscopy, a technique widely used in the cereals industry for proximate analysis, is a logical candidate for measuring contamination level and thus is the subject of this study. Two sets of wheat samples, harvested, prepared and scanned one year apart, were used to evaluate the NIR concept. One year consisted of nine pairs of conventional:waxy preparations, with each preparation consisting of 29 binary mixtures ranging in conventional wheat fraction (by weight) of 0-100% (261 spectral samples). The second year was prepared in the same fashion, with 12 preparations, thus producing 348 spectral samples. One year's samples were controlled for protein content and moisture level between pair components in order to avoid the basis for the conventional wheat fraction models being caused by something other than spectral differences attributed to waxy and nonwaxy endosperm. Likewise the second year was controlled by selection of conventional wheat for mixture preparation based on either protein content or cluster analysis of principal components of candidate spectra. Partial least squares regression, one and two-term linear regression, and support vector machine regression models were examined. Validation statistics arising from sets within the same year or across years were remarkably similar, as were those among the three regression types. A single wavelength on second derivative transformed spectra, namely 2290 nm, was effective at estimating the mixture level by weight, with standard errors of performance in the 6-9% range. Thus, NIR spectroscopy may be used for measuring conventional hard wheat 'contamination' in waxy wheat at mixture levels above 10% w/w. PMID:26695296

  1. Irradiation-Induced Wheat-Alien Translocation Lines and their Application in Wheat Breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild relatives are rich gene resources for wheat improvement. Transfer of useful alien genes to wheat through development of wheat-alien translocations, especially small alien segment translocations, is important for wheat breeding. Wheat-alien genetic stocks such as amphiploid, addition or substitution lines were irradiated for translocation induction. Mature male or female gametes before flowering on the spikes were irradiated by 60Co-Gamma-rays at doses ranging from 800 to 2240 rad. Chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) was used to identify chromosome translocation. Backcross of M1 plants using normal fresh pollen of common wheat was employed to enhance the transmission rate of various structural changes in their progenies. The results showed that a dose of 800∼1200 rad was suitable for pollen irradiation while 1500∼2000 rad was suitable for female-gamete irradiation. Irradiation treatment just before gamete maturation is advantageous to acquire more M1 hybrids with a high frequency of chromosome structural variation. The frequency of plants with at least one translocation chromosome in M1 could be increased up to 70% through pollen irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid. More than 100 translocated chromosomes have been identified in the BC1 and BC2. Translocations with small alien chromosome segments, 57 terminal and 80 intercalary, were induced through female gamete irradiation conducted on T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line. For the 2240 Rad dosage treatment, the induction frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than those previously reported. The T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation has been used in wheat breeding and many elite cultivars, such as Nannong 9918, Neimai 9, Shimai 14, etc. have been developed and released. (author)

  2. Effects of single and double infections of winter wheat by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus on yield determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. It is transmitted by wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella Keifer) which also transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Wheat mosaic virus. In a gree...

  3. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  4. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  5. Proteomic Analysis of Wheat Seed in Response to Drought Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yu-feng; HUANG Xiu-wen; WANG Li-li; WEI Liu; WU Zhi-hui; YOU Ming-shan; LI Bao-yun

    2014-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the major factors affecting in wheat yield and grain quality. In order to investigate how drought stress might inlfuence wheat quality during grain iflling, three wheat cultivars Gaocheng 8901, Jagger and Nongda 3406 were subjected to drought stress during the grain iflling stage. Neither globulin and glutenin, nor the relative percentage of amylose signiifcantly changed following drought treatments, whereas albumin and gliadin concentrations did. The SDS-sedimentation, which has a strong linear correlation with wheat baking quality was markedly decreased following drought stress. These results indicated that drought had an adverse effect on wheat quality. In order to investigate the protein complexes in the wheat lfour, the data from native PAGE and SDS-PAGE were combined and a total of 14 spots were successfully identiifed, and of these eight protein types were determined to be potential complex forming proteins.

  6. Wheat flour based propionic acid fermentation: an economic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagliwal, Lalit D; Survase, Shrikant A; Singhal, Rekha S; Granström, Tom

    2013-02-01

    A process for the fermentative production of propionic acid from whole wheat flour using starch and gluten as nutrients is presented. Hydrolysis of wheat flour starch using amylases was optimized. A batch fermentation of hydrolysate supplemented with various nitrogen sources using Propionibacterium acidipropionici NRRL B 3569 was performed. The maximum production of 48.61, 9.40, and 11.06 g of propionic acid, acetic acid and succinic acid, respectively, was found with wheat flour hydrolysate equivalent to 90 g/l glucose and supplemented with 15 g/l yeast extract. Further, replacement of yeast extract with wheat gluten hydrolysate showed utilization of gluten hydrolysate without compromising the yields and also improving the economics of the process. The process so developed could be useful for production of animal feed from whole wheat with in situ production of preservatives, and also suggest utilization of sprouted or germinated wheat for the production of organic acids. PMID:23357590

  7. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0–30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy. - Highlights: Ø γ-irradiation was found to inactivate Lipase present in Wheat Germ. Ø The treatment did not result in significant changes in Total Ash, Moisture and Protein Content of Wheat Germ. Ø The irradiation at 30 kGy resulted in 31.2 % inactivation of Lipase in Wheat Germ

  8. Efficient detection of internal infestation in wheat based on biophotonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Weiya; Jiao, Keke; Liang, Yitao; Wang, Feng

    2016-02-01

    In the process of grain storage, there are many losses of grain quantity and quality for the sake of insects. As a result, it is necessary to find a rapid and economical method for detecting insects in the grain. The paper innovatively proposes a model of detecting internal infestation in wheat by combining pattern recognition and BioPhoton Analytical Technology (BPAT). In this model, the spontaneous ultraweak photons emitted from normal and insect-contaminated wheat are firstly measured respectively. Then, position, distribution and morphological characteristics can be extracted from the measuring data to construct wheat feature vector. Backpropagation (BP) neural network based on genetic algorithm is employed to take decision on whether wheat kernel has contaminated by insects. The experimental results show that the proposed model can differentiate the normal wheat from the insect-contaminated one at an average accuracy of 95%. The model can also offer a novel thought for detecting internal infestation in the wheat. PMID:26774558

  9. Neutron activation analysis of wheat samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The deficiency of essential micronutrients and excess of toxic metals in cereals, an important food items for human nutrition, can cause public health risk. Therefore, before their consumption and adoption of soil supplementation, concentrations of essential micronutrients and metals in cereals should be monitored. This study collected soil and two varieties of wheat samples-Triticum aestivum L. (Jordao/bread wheat), and Triticum durum L. (Marialva/durum wheat) from Elvas area, Portugal and analyzed concentrations of As, Cr, Co, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) to focus on the risk of adverse public health issues. The low variability and moderate concentrations of metals in soils indicated a lower significant effect of environmental input on metal concentrations in agricultural soils. The Cr and Fe concentrations in soils that ranged from 93-117 and 26,400-31,300 mg/kg, respectively, were relatively high, but Zn concentration was very low (below detection limit Fe>Na>Zn>Cr>Rb>As>Co. Concentrations of As, Co and Cr in root, straw and spike of both varieties were higher than the permissible limits with exception of a few samples. The concentrations of Zn in root, straw and spike were relatively low (4-30 mg/kg) indicating the deficiency of an essential micronutrient Zn in wheat cultivated in Portugal. The elemental transfer from soil to plant decreases with increasing growth of the plant. The concentrations of various metals in different parts of wheat followed the order: Root>Straw>Spike. A few root, straw and spike samples showed enrichment of metals, but the majority of the samples showed no enrichment. Potassium is enriched in all samples of root, straw and spike for both varieties of wheat. Relatively to the seed used for cultivation, Jordao presented higher transfer coefficients than Marialva, in particular for Co, Fe, and Na. The Jordao and Marialva cultivars accumulated not statistically significant different

  10. Effect of 137Cs on spring wheat and transfer in soil-wheat systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study emphasized on the effect of 137Cs on spring wheat and transfer factors in soil-wheat system. The results show that the spring wheat grown normally under the experimental conditions and no adverse effects appeared; the absorption trends of 137Cs by spring wheat were in the order of Dayawan soil > Qinshan soil > Beijing soil; the specific radioactivity of 137Cs in wheat increased in the magnitude order varying with the radioactivity of 137Cs applied in the soils and the relationship was significant difference in positive; the transfer factor (TF) of 137Cs in the soil-plant systems varied with the characteristic of soil and the range was within n x 10-2- n x 100 in the same activity of contamination; in the same soil-plant system the TF value increased varying with the radioactivity of 137Cs contamination in the range of 2.2 x 10-2 - 5.4 x 10-2 for Beijing soil plant system, 1.04 - 2.09 for Dayawan soil-plant system and 0.51 - 1.21 for Qinshan soil-plant system

  11. Biochemical analysis of whole wheat (triticum aestivum) flour of different wheat cultivars commonly grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour of six different NWFP wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars named as Ghaznavi-98, Auqab, Fakhr-e-sarhad Saleem-2000, Khyber-87 and Pirsabak-2005 were evaluated for Biochemical, Physical and Sensory characteristics in order to highlight their nutritional significance. The maximum level of Protein content (16.11%) was found in wheat cultivar Pirsabak-2005 where as minimum protein content was found in Auqab (11.73%). Crude fat content of whole-wheat flour was found lower in Khyber-87 (1.74%)and higher in Fakhr-e-sarhad (2.21%), Ghaznavi-98 was found to have maximum crude fiber value (0.74%) while Saleem-2000 was found to have minimum value (0.40%). Maximum ash content was found for Fakhr-e-sarhad (2.12%) and minimum was found for Saleem-2000 (1.05%). Wheat cultivars Ghaznavi-98 was found to have maximum moisture content (14%), while Pirsabak-2005 was found to have lower moisture content (13.11%). The wet gluten content was recorded in the range of 8.7 to 5.2% while dry gluten content was found in the ranged of 2.82 to 2.03% and The falling number was recorded in the range of 64 to 214 and significantly higher in saleem-2000 (214). For Sensory Evaluation, it is evidence that maximum overall acceptability were found both for Ghaznavi-98 and Pirsabak-2000 and Minimum for Saleem-2000 (6.4). (author)

  12. Study and Experiment on a Wheat Precision Seeding Robot

    OpenAIRE

    Lin Haibo; Dong Shuliang; Liu Zunmin; Yi Chuijie

    2015-01-01

    The wheat precision seeding technology provided an advanced agricultural support for the high yield of wheat. But the lack of effective agricultural machine made this technique difficult to apply widely. In this paper a wheel mobile robot to achieve the wheat precision seeding technology was designed. The kinematic model of the robot was built and simulated. And experimental study was taken under different operating conditions. Because of multiple effort factors, a quadratic orthogonal rotati...

  13. Quality-Oriented Technical Change in Japanese Wheat Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Yoko; Kondo, Takumi; Osanami, Fumio

    2007-01-01

    The article presents a productivity analysis of Japanese Wheat Breeding research. Given recent policy change, wheat breeders may breed high quality, i.e. high protein content, wheat. We regard breeding research as multi-output process, and examine breeding program with output distance function. Also, we will analyze the effect of gene recharge rate on breeding productivity, and withdraw the policy implication for property rights.

  14. Baking Quality of Winter Wheat Varieties in Organic Farming

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, PETR; Moudry, Jan; Capouchova, Ivana

    2009-01-01

    The technological value of wheat is negatively influenced by organic methods of cultivation. The critical factor is the crude protein content and quality. The aim of this paper is to identify diferences in the quality of eight varieties and two strains of wheat recommended in conventional or organic conditions. Correlation analysis of the qualitative parameters of wheat shows a clear relationship between crude protein content, wet gluten content and Zeleny - sedimentation value. According to ...

  15. The Efficient Transformation of Wheat in Planta by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Dao-yi; LI Zhong-cun; WANG Hong-gang

    2003-01-01

    Transformation of wheat was performed by pipetting spikelets with Agrobacterium tumefaciens which contained expression vectors using Npt Ⅱ as reporter gene. Transformants were identified through kanamycin resistance, PCR and Southern blot. The results showed that transformation efficiency was within 2.0 to 3. 2 % in all tested varieties of wheat. Then the simple and efficient protocol of wheat transformation by Agrobacterium tumefaciens in planta was primarily established.

  16. Quality of organically produced wheat from diverse origin

    OpenAIRE

    HUSSAIN, Abrar

    2012-01-01

    The health benefits of organically grown whole grain wheat are derived from various nutritional compounds such as dietary fibre, minerals, vitamins and phytochemicals, while baking quality is influenced by the protein content and composition. Genetic improvement and production of wheat to increase the amounts of the nutritional compounds therefore enhance the health benefits. Also, the baking quality of organic wheat can be improved by increasing protein quality of the grain. This study scree...

  17. RAPD analysis of the genetic polymorphism in european wheat genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tímea Kuťka Hlozáková; Zdenka Gálová; Edita Gregová; Martin Vivodík; Želmíra Balážová; Dana Miháliková

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the main crops for human nutrition. The genetic variability of grown wheat has been reduced by modern agronomic practices, which inturn prompted the importance of search for species that could be useful as a genepool for the improving of flour quality for human consumption or for other industrial uses. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the genetic diversity among 24 European wheat genotypes based on Random Amplified Polymorphism (RAPD) mar...

  18. RECYCLING OF CHEMICAL PULP FROM WHEAT STRAW AND CORN STOVER

    OpenAIRE

    James Barsness; Ulrike Tschirner; Tamara Keeler

    2007-01-01

    Handsheets produced from corn stalks and wheat straw soda AQ pulps were recycled in the lab. Pulping of corn stalks resulted in a low pulp yield, low bonding strength, and low recyclability. Conversely, wheat straw fiber had a better yield, very good tensile properties, and showed a considerably better response to recycling. The tensile index of wheat straw fibers retained 67% of its original value after four cycles. It could be shown that recycling caused only small changes in chemical compo...

  19. Spring Wheat Leaf Appearance and Temperature: Extending the Paradigm?

    OpenAIRE

    McMaster, Gregory S.; WILHELM, W. W.; PALIC, D. B.; Porter, John R.; Jamieson, P. D.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive research shows temperature to be the primary environmental factor controlling the phyllochron, or rate of leaf appearance, of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Experimental results suggest that soil temperature at crown depth, rather than air temperature above the canopy, would better predict wheat leaf appearance rates. To test this hypothesis, leaf appearance in spring wheat (‘Nordic’) was measured in a 2‐year field experiment (Nunn clay loam soil; fine, smectitic, mesic Aridic, Argiu...

  20. Assimilation of uranium by wheat and tomato plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse conditions have been used for the study of uptake of uranium by wheat and tomato plants as affected by its concentration in soil and irrigation applied. The highest yield of wheat was obtained at 3.0 ppm of uranium whereas the tomato yield decreased with the increase of uranium in the soil. The analysis shows that Uranium uptake by wheat and tomato not only depends upon the uranium concentration in the soil but also on the amount of irrigation applied. (orig.)

  1. Alkali pretreated of wheat straw and its enzymatic hydrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lirong Han; Juntao Feng; Shuangxi Zhang; Zhiqing Ma; Yonghong Wang; Xing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose can be improved by various pretreatments of the substrate. In order to increase the efficiency of enzymatic saccharification of the wheat straw, we determined the effect of different pretreatments on the physical structure, chemical components and enzymatic saccharification of wheat straw. Our results showed that combination of grinding and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) treatment had high effect on the enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat straws. The opt...

  2. Climate change and Australia’s comparative advantage in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sanderson, Todd; Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.

    2010-01-01

    Australia has long been a major exporter of wheat, a commodity well suited to the economic and climatic conditions of Australia. According to the conventional wisdom, Australia holds a comparative advantage in wheat. However, the future validity of this proposition is sensitive to the proposed impacts of climate change. This paper develops a framework with which to examine the future patterns of comparative advantage in wheat given the projections of several global climate models. We find sup...

  3. ACCUMULATION OF AMYLOLYTIC ENZYMES IN WHEAT GRAIN DURING MALTING PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Марина Феликсовна Ростовская; Анастасия Николаевна Извекова; Алексей Григорьевич Клыков

    2014-01-01

    The content of protein, starch, amylolytic enzymes in the grain of the two varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in the Primorye Territory was determined. The accumulation of amylolytic enzymes in the germination process of wheat with different levels of proteins in the grain was investigated. The effect of mode of germination to accumulation amylolytic enzymes in order to optimize the malting process of  grain in obtaining wheat malt also was studied.

  4. ACCUMULATION OF AMYLOLYTIC ENZYMES IN WHEAT GRAIN DURING MALTING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Марина Феликсовна Ростовская

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The content of protein, starch, amylolytic enzymes in the grain of the two varieties of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in the Primorye Territory was determined. The accumulation of amylolytic enzymes in the germination process of wheat with different levels of proteins in the grain was investigated. The effect of mode of germination to accumulation amylolytic enzymes in order to optimize the malting process of  grain in obtaining wheat malt also was studied.

  5. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits

    OpenAIRE

    PhilippeMonneveux; RuilianJing; SatishMisra

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production however slowed after 1980, except in China, India and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, whea...

  6. Phenotyping for drought adaptation in wheat using physiological traits

    OpenAIRE

    MONNEVEUX, Philippe; Jing, Ruilian; Misra, Satish C.

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum spp) is one of the first domesticated food crops. It represents the first source of calories (after rice) and an important source of proteins in developing countries. As a result of the Green Revolution, wheat yield sharply increased due to the use of improved varieties, irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. The rate of increase in world wheat production, however, slowed after 1980, except in China, India, and Pakistan. Being adapted to a wide range of moisture conditions, ...

  7. Production of wheat preceded with fallow versus continuous wheat or following chickpea or lentil in the Syrian Arab Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two crop rotation experiments with 9 treatments and 4 replicates were laid down in a split plot design two sides, in the Northern and Southern Provinces of Syria. The experimental treatments were three 2-course crop rotations: fallow-wheat, chickpea/lentil-wheat and wheat-wheat (continuous wheat), with three rates of N fertilizer applications. 15N-labelled fertilizer was used as tracer to measure fertilizer use efficiency (UFE) and residual N transferred to the second, subsequent crop in the rotation. Total dry matter production of wheat following legumes was higher than continuous wheat or fallow-wheat rotation. Depending on soil inorganic N, dry matter yields were either increased with N addition or there was almost no effect. Measurements of soil water content during the growing season showed that the soil water storage over depth of 120 cm at harvest was higher after fallow than after chickpea, lentil or wheat. However, the observed differences were diminished at the beginning of the subsequent growing season. Contributions of fertilizer N to total N yield were 5-20% for wheat, 1-4% for chickpea, and 4% for lentil. Chickpea fixed 46-127 kg N ha-1 which contributed 65-85% of the total N yield in the crop. Fixed nitrogen was somewhat low for lentil, amounting to only 22-32% of the total N yield. Mineral nitrogen enrichment of the soil resulting from fallow was about 8-13 kg N ha-1. Residual N transferred to the subsequent wheat crop from lentil was rather low. However, it was detectable (3 kg N ha-1). No residual N benefits could be measured from chickpea. Fertilizer use efficiency varied depending on the crop: 22-57, 17-21, and 8-12% for wheat, lentil and chickpea, respectively. Rotation revenues, based on equivalent starch values (STE) from one cycle of rotation showed that wheat-wheat and chickpea-wheat rotations had almost similar revenues. However, they were higher than lentil-wheat and fallow-wheat rotations. (author). 8 refs, 9 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Clinical presentation, allergens, and management of wheat allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quirce, Santiago; Boyano-Martínez, Teresa; Díaz-Perales, Araceli

    2016-05-01

    IgE-mediated allergy to wheat proteins can be caused by exposure through ingestion, inhalation, or skin/mucosal contact, and can affect various populations and age groups. Respiratory allergy to wheat proteins is commonly observed in adult patients occupationally exposed to flour, whereas wheat food allergy is more common in children. Wheat allergy is of growing importance for patients with recurrent anaphylaxis, especially when exercise related. The diagnosis of wheat allergy relies on a consistent clinical history, skin prick testing with well-characterized extracts and specific IgE tests. The accuracy of wheat allergy diagnosis may be improved by measuring IgE responses to several wheat components. However, a high degree of heterogeneity has been found in the recognition pattern of allergens among patient groups with different clinical profiles, as well as within each group. Thus, oral provocation with wheat or the implicated cereal is the reference test for the definitive diagnosis of ingested wheat/cereal allergy. PMID:26800201

  9. Analysis of homeolog specific transcription in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Grønvold, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, BBAADD) is one of the most important food-crops world-wide. The genome of bread wheat is allohexaploid, meaning that it contains three related diploid genomes (termed A, B and D). This implies that most wheat genes exist in three similar copies (i.e. homeologs), which together with the fact that the genome mainly consists of repeats from transposable elements, makes the wheat genome very hard to sequence and assemble. Currently there is an effort by the Interna...

  10. Wet explosion og wheat straw and codigestion with swine manure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Guangtao; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Skiadas, Ioannis V.;

    2009-01-01

    with wheat straw in a continuous operated system was investigated, as a method to increase the efficiency of biogas plants that are based on anaerobic digestion of swine manure. Also, the pretreatment of wheat straw with the wet explosion method was studied and the efficiency of the wet explosion...... process was evaluated based on (a) the sugars release and (b) the methane potential of the pretreated wheat straw compared to that of the raw biomass. It was found that, although a high release of soluble sugars was observed after wet explosion, the methane obtained from the wet-exploded wheat straw was...

  11. RECYCLING OF CHEMICAL PULP FROM WHEAT STRAW AND CORN STOVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Barsness

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Handsheets produced from corn stalks and wheat straw soda AQ pulps were recycled in the lab. Pulping of corn stalks resulted in a low pulp yield, low bonding strength, and low recyclability. Conversely, wheat straw fiber had a better yield, very good tensile properties, and showed a considerably better response to recycling. The tensile index of wheat straw fibers retained 67% of its original value after four cycles. It could be shown that recycling caused only small changes in chemical compo-sition, but that the crystallinity index increased considerably. To be able to understand the behavior of wheat straw fiber as part of a commercial papermaking furnish, a paper containing 20% wheat straw fiber was produced on a 24 inch pilot paper machine and was recycled using a handsheet mold with white water return. Chemical analysis of the control (no wheat fiber and the wheat-containing paper demonstrated slightly higher xylan content for the wheat-containing material. Recyclability increased slightly with addition of wheat fibers to a commercial furnish.

  12. Wheat trade - does Russia price discriminate across export destinations?

    OpenAIRE

    Pall, Zsombor; Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr; Teuber, Ramona; Glauben, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Significant changes have taken place on the world wheat market over the last decade. Russia, a former net wheat importer has become a leading exporter with a world market share of 13.8 percent in 2009/2010. Though there are several studies on the pricing behaviour of Canadian and US wheat exporters, there is none on the pricing behaviour of Russian wheat exporters. The present paper tries to fill this lack of research by providing a quantitative analysis of the pricing behaviour of Russian wh...

  13. The Marketing Performance of Illinois and Kansas Wheat Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    Dietz, Sarah N.; Aulerich, Nicole M.; Irwin, Scott H.; Good, Darrel L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the marketing performance of wheat farmers in Illinois and Kansas over 1982-2004. The results show that farmer benchmark prices for wheat in Illinois and Kansas fall in the middle-third of the price range about half to three-quarters of the time. Consistent with previous studies, this refutes the contention that Illinois and Kansas wheat farmers routinely market the bulk of their wheat crop in the bottom portion of the price range. Tests of the aver...

  14. Antioxidant activity of wheat and buckwheat flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedej Ivana J.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidative activities of wheat flours (type 500 and wholegrain and buckwheat flours (light and wholegrain were tested using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH·-scavenging activity, reducing power and chelating activity on Fe2+. Also, the content of the total phenolics of ethanolic extracts was estimated. Polyphenolics content (expressed as gallic acid equivalent, GAE in wheat flours varied between 37.1 and 137.2 μg GAE/g extract, while its content in buckwheat flour were at least four time higher and ranged between 476.3 and 618.9μg GAE/g extract. Ethanolic extracts of buckwheat flours exhibited higher antioxidant activities in all the assays, except for chelating activity. Regarding all the obtained results, it can be concluded that bakery products produced with buckwheat flour could be regarded as potential functional foods.

  15. Control of fungal diseases in winter wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wiik, Lars

    2009-01-01

    The relationships between plant diseases, winter wheat characteristics, air temperature and precipitation, site factors and agricultural practices were investigated. Regression analyses revealed that control of LBDs (Leaf Blotch Diseases, including septoria tritici blotch, stagonospora nodorum blotch and tan spot) explained 74% of the yield increase achieved by fungicide treatment at GS 45-61, followed by powdery mildew (20%), brown rust (5%) and yellow rust (1%). Yield of both untreated and ...

  16. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Budak; Melda Kantar; Kuaybe Yucebilgili Kurtoglu

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of c...

  17. Drought Resistance in Bread Wheat Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ali

    1998-01-01

    Development of drought-resistant cultivars is one of the major goals in plant breeding programs. Twentysix wheat genotypes were evaluated for drought resistance using the criteria of leaf relative water content (LRWC), leaf relative water loss (LRWL) and drought susceptibility index (DSI) under Erzurum conditions in the crop seasons of 1995-96 and 1996-97. The results showed that differences among the genotypes in LRWC, LRWL and DSI were significant. In rainfed condition; LRWC, LRWL and DSI ...

  18. The quest for celiac-safe wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Broeck, van den, H.C.

    2010-01-01

    Gluten proteins from wheat have the unique property to interact with each other and form a network in dough preparation. In this gluten network gas bubbles can be retained that are produced by yeast, which is added during dough preparation. The result is a voluminous, viscoelastic dough for bread making. Besides these network forming properties, gluten proteins contain remarkably high amounts of the amino acids proline and glutamine. Therefore, these proteins can not be degraded completely in...

  19. Bioactive compounds in whole grain wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Mateo Anson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Bread can be healthier! Consuming whole-grain foods can prevent cardiovascular diseases, type-2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. This is due to bioactive compounds in whole grain, such as antioxidants and anti-inflammatory compounds. We found that the different fractions of a wheat grain vary much in their content. The external fractions of the grain, the bran and specially the aleurone, are the richest. We observed that processing the bran in whole-grain breads increased three times the leve...

  20. Photosynthetic acclimation to high temperatures in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sayed, O. H.

    1992-01-01

    Growth and photosynthetic performance were assessed for the Finnish wheat Triticum aestivum L. var. APU under a cool (13/10�C day/night) and a warm (30/25�C day/night) regime. Plants exhibited a certain degree of acclimation to warm growth conditions. This acclimation appeared to involve enhanced performance of both photosystem II and whole-chain electron transport. Enhanced thermal stability of photophosphorylation was also observed in warm-grown plants.

  1. Genetic Resources for Disease Resistance in Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hysing, Shu-Chin

    2007-01-01

    Bread wheat is affected by many diseases that cause yield and quality losses. The incorporation of resistance genes is a user- and environmentally friendly method to manage disease. It is highly desirable that the resistance is durable and that the genes have a positive or no influence on agronomic performance. The characterization of genetic resources for resistance is a prerequisite for their utilization in plant breeding. The aim of the present thesis was to characterize resistance against...

  2. A survey of wheat landraces in Oman

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhanjari, S.; Hammer, K; Bürkert, Andreas; Khan, I. (Imran); Al-Maskri, A.

    2005-01-01

    Little is known about the diversity of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Oman. Therefore, a survey was conducted in northern Oman to collect landraces of Triticum durum, T. aestivum and T. dicoccon for subsequent morphological characterization and investigations on stress adaptation. The results show that the cultivation of these landraces (the genetic composition of which remains to be studied in more detail) is done primarily by traditional farmers who preserve the inherited germplasm on often ti...

  3. Africa's Growing Dependence on Imported Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Mahendra; Fischer, Gunther; Kromer, Gerhard; Parikh, Kirit

    1987-01-01

    Food production in many African countnes has in recent years not expanded fast enough to keep up with population growth. Dimimshmgself-sufficiency and food security and the consequent increase in food imports of many African countnes are causing great concern. Amongst all food items, wheat stands out as the one commodity whose influence in consumption seems to be growing rapidly This paper highlights the results of a detailed study investigating the underlying causes of past trends, estimatin...

  4. Prospects of doubling global wheat yields

    OpenAIRE

    Hawkesford, M.J.; Araus Ortega, José Luis; Park, R; Calderini, D.; Miralles, D.; Shen, T.; Zhang, J.; Parry, M.A.J.

    2013-01-01

    While an adequate supply of food can be achieved at present for the current global population, sustaining this into the future will be difficult in the face of a steadily increasing population, increased wealth and a diminishing availability of fertile land and water for agriculture. This problem will be compounded by the new uses of agricultural products, for example, as biofuels. Wheat alone provides ≥20% of the calories and the protein for the world's population, and the value and need to ...

  5. Modelling Indian Wheat and Rice Sector Policies

    OpenAIRE

    Kozicka, Marta; Kalkuhl, Matthias; Saini, Shweta; Brockhaus, Jan

    2015-01-01

    This paper serves to disentangle the complex system of Indian food policies related to wheat and rice procurement, storage, distribution and trade. Using nationally aggregated time series data, these policies are econometrically analysed. Based on the estimation results, their market implications are assessed. Eventually, different scenarios, including the implementation of the National Food Security Act, are simulated with respect to fiscal costs and public stocks.

  6. Antioxidant responses of wheat plants under stress

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Caverzan; Alice Casassola; Sandra Patussi Brammer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Currently, food security depends on the increased production of cereals such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), which is an important source of calories and protein for humans. However, cells of the crop have suffered from the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which can cause severe oxidative damage to the plants, due to environmental stresses. ROS are toxic molecules found in various subcellular compartments. The equilibrium between the production and detoxification of RO...

  7. Winter Wheat Row Spacing and Alternative Crop Effects on Relay-Intercrop, Double-Crop, and Wheat Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Leah Sandler; Kelly A. Nelson; Christopher Dudenhoeffer

    2015-01-01

    In Missouri as well as much of the Midwest, the most popular double-cropping system was winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) followed by soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr). These two crops can also be used in an intercrop system, but optimal row spacing was important to increase crop productivity. Research was conducted to evaluate (1) winter wheat inter- and double-crop production systems, using a variety of alternative crops, and (2) the impact of different wheat row spacings on intercrop estab...

  8. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    OpenAIRE

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R. E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of Puccinia triticina in 26 spring wheat cultivars/lines. Small but significant cultivar x isolate interactions were observed for LP and IF in seedlings of host genotypes. Isolate specific effect for LP at...

  9. Breeding wheat for disease resistance in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yellow rust caused by Puccinia striformis and stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis tritici are most destructive diseases in Kenya. In wheat improvement, development of varieties of wheat with resistance to these diseases has been among the foremost contributions in wheat breeding. In breeding programs each disease is considered as a separate problem. Attention has been given to varieties resistant to stem rust, yellow rust and leaf rust among other diseases. In the year 2001 program stem rust and yellow rust were recorded in all the sites where NPT was performed. Breeding for resistance for the two diseases is approached through the Introductions and Hybridisation. The Doubled Haploid Technique is used to quicken the time of homozygous lines production. The introduction and the homozygous lines are then evaluated for yield and disease resistance in the field under preliminary yield trials and the National Performance Trials (NPT) in 2001, 18 lines and 2 check varieties were included in the NPT. The results show that there were some differences in reaction to the three diseases where lines R946, K7972-1 and R899 had the lowest score of the diseases in all sites. In the commercial variety trial the results show that all the varietieshave become susceptible to stem rust and so the need to develop new cultivars which will be resistance to the rusts. Yombi a newly developed variety showed a substantially high level resistance. (author)

  10. Nitrate movement in soil under irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In field experiments on wheat from 1994 to 1998, grain yields and yield-contributing components increased with the amount of fertilizer N; however, differences with 120 and 180 kg N ha-1 were not statistically significant. Grain yields ranged between 1.22 to 5.25 Mg ha-1 over the four growing seasons. Water-use efficiency values increased with amount of fertilizer N applied. Total-N uptake was always highest with the 180 kg N ha-1 treatment, i.e. with 50% more fertilizer applied than the locally recommended 120 kg N ha-1. The use of 15N revealed that percent N derived from fertilizer from the first split application at planting, 40 or 60 kg N ha-1, was lower than that applied as a second split of 80 and 120 kg N ha-1, respectively, at growth stage Z-30; this trend prevailed in all the cropping seasons. Fertilizer-N uptake was highest with 180 kg N ha-1 and varied from 16 to 50% of that applied. Nitrogen applied to the wheat had positive residual effects on subsequently grown rice in comparison with the zero-N checks. The downward flux of water measured in a nearby plot increased with depth, but showed a decreasing trend with wheat growth; the fertilizer-N fraction was relatively lower with depth. A minor fraction of applied N moved down to 120 cm, indicating little likelihood of pollution of groundwater by NO3- from fertilizer. (author)

  11. Response of Durum Wheat Seedlings to Salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet YILDIRIM

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is an important source of abiotic stress, limiting crop performance in most arid and semi-arid areas of the world. This research was conducted to determine the effects of salinity on physiological parameters of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes. The research was conducted in the tissue culture laboratory at the Agriculture Faculty of Dicle University. The study consisted of one durum wheat commercial cultivar, five local cultivars and four advanced genotypes. There were three replications in a split-plot experimental design. Genotypes were germinated in four NaCl concentrations (0, 50, 100, 150 mM in plastic boxes. There were statistically assured significant differences among the genotypes for all salt concentrations and all observed parameters (coleoptile length, seedling length, root length, seedling fresh weight, root fresh weight, seedling dry weight, root dry weight, germination rate and seedling vigor. There was significant decrease in all examined parameters depending on the increase of salt concentration. The ‘Sorgul’ genotype was most tolerant to salinity, in terms of root length and root dry weight, whereas ‘Altintoprak 98’ was most tolerant as measured by the impact of salinity on coleoptile length, seedling fresh weight, germination rate and seedling vigour. The ‘Beyaziye’ genotype was the most sensitive to salinity-induced stress. The results from this study demonstrated differences among durum wheat genotypes for seedling parameters measured in the presence of salinity stress.

  12. Rain-induced spring wheat harvest losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, A.; Black, A. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    When rain or a combination of rain and high humidity delay wheat harvest, losses can occur in grain yield and/or grain quality. Yield losses can result from shattering, from reduction in test weight, and in the case of windrowed grain, from rooting of sprouting grain at the soil: windrow contact. Losses in grain quality can result from reduction in test weight and from sprouting. Sprouting causes a degradation of grain proteins and starches, hence flour quality is reduced, and the grain price deteriorates to the value of feed grain. Although losses in grain yield and quality are rain-induced, these losses do not necessarily occur because a standing or windrowed crop is wetted by rain. Spike water concentration in hard red spring wheat must be increased to about 45-49% before sprouting is initiated in grain that has overcome dormancy. The time required to overcome this dormancy after the cultivar has dried to 12 to 14% water concentration differs with hard red spring cultivars. The effect of rain on threshing-ready standing and windrowed hard red spring wheat grain yeild and quality was evaluated. A goal was to develop the capability to forecast the extent of expected loss of grain yield and quality from specific climatic events that delay threshing.

  13. STUDY OF WHEAT PROTEIN DEGRADATION DURING GERMINATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Michalcová

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Glutens, the storage proteins of cereals, play significant role in technological and nutraceutical quality of cereal grains. Whereas the high content of glutens allows making better structure of dough, consummation of foods with high gluten content can cause digestive problems. In our work, we studied ability of wheat proteases to degrade proteins, especially glutens. Wheat grains were germinated for up to seven days at three different temperatures 15, 20, 30 °C and pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.5, 7.0, 8.0. Proteins were fractionated into salt-soluble albumins and globulins, alcohol-soluble gliadins and base-soluble glutenins. In these fractions, protein content and their composition were analyzed by Bradford method and SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The results showed that remarkable degradation of glutens started after three days and the lowest concentration was measured at the seventh day of germination of wheat grain at temperature 20 °C, pH 5.5.

  14. Development of taxon-specific sequences of common wheat for the detection of genetically modified wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Mayu; Yamashiro, Satomi; Yamakawa, Hirohito; Hayakawa, Katsuyuki; Kuribara, Hideo; Kodama, Takashi; Furui, Satoshi; Akiyama, Hiroshi; Maitani, Tamio; Hino, Akihiro

    2005-08-10

    Qualitative and quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) systems aimed at the specific detection and quantification of common wheat DNA are described. Many countries have issued regulations to label foods that include genetically modified organisms (GMOs). PCR technology is widely recognized as a reliable and useful technique for the qualitative and quantitative detection of GMOs. Detection methods are needed to amplify a target GM gene, and the amplified results should be compared with those of the corresponding taxon-specific reference gene to obtain reliable results. This paper describes the development of a specific DNA sequence in the waxy-D1 gene for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and the design of a specific primer pair and TaqMan probe on the waxy-D1 gene for PCR analysis. The primers amplified a product (Wx012) of 102 bp. It is indicated that the Wx012 DNA sequence is specific to common wheat, showing homogeneity in qualitative PCR results and very similar quantification accuracy along 19 distantly related common wheat varieties. In Southern blot and real-time PCR analyses, this sequence showed either a single or a low number of copy genes. In addition, by qualitative and quantitative PCR using wx012 primers and a wx012-T probe, the limits of detection of the common wheat genome were found to be about 15 copies, and the reproducibility was reliable. In consequence, the PCR system using wx012 primers and wx012-T probe is considered to be suitable for use as a common wheat-specific taxon-specific reference gene in DNA analyses, including GMO tests. PMID:16076109

  15. Genetic evolution and utilization of wheat germplasm resources in Huanghuai winter wheat region of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the genetic variation of wheat germplasm resources and improve their use in wheat breeding, 215 wheat cultivars and advanced lines from the Huanghuai Wheat Region of China were used to identify 14 agronomic traits and 7 quality traits, as well as the evolution and utilization of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) and low molecular weight-glutenin subunits (LMW-GS). From land race cultivars to current cultivars there had been significant increases in grain numbers spike/sip -1/, grain weight spike/sup -1/, 1000-kernel weight, grain weight plant/sup -1/, spikelet number spike/sup -1/, sterile spikelet numbers spike/sup -1/, flag leaf width, and flag leaf area. There had been significant decreases in spike number plant/sup -1/, plant height, the first inter node length, flag leaf length, kernel protein content and wet gluten content. Based on Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results, a novel HMW-GS combination 20/8 was identified in 1B chromosome of Chinese landrace cultivar Heputou. Subunits 22, 20/8, 2.2+12, and GluB3a were only found in cultivars before the 1960s, and subunits 6+8, 13+16, 3+12, and 4+12 were only found in the cultivars after the 1980s. The average diversity index of 21 traits and allele variance of HMW-GS showed a decreasing-increasing-decreasing tendency. HMW-GS and LMW-GS combination-type cultivars showed an increasing-decreasing tendency. Before the 1980s, most parental strains were from foreign cultivars and landrace cultivars, while after the 1980s, most parental strains were from released cultivars and germplasm created by distant hybridization. This study provided useful information for improvement of wheat breeding in Huanghuai winter wheat region. (author)

  16. Irradiation induced wheat-alien translocation lines and their application in wheat breeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild relatives are rich gene resources for wheat improvement. Transfer of alien useful genes to wheat through development of wheat-alien translocations, especially small alien segment translocations, is important for wheat breeding. Wheat-alien genetic stocks such as amphiploid, addition or substitution lines were irradiated for translocation induction. Mature male or female gametes before flowering on the spikes were irradiated by 60Co-γ-rays at doses ranged from 8 to 22.4Gy. Chromosome C-banding and genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) were used to identify chromosome translocation. Backcross of M1 plants using normal fresh pollen of common wheat was employed to enhance the transmission rate of various structural changes in their progenies. The results showed that the dose of 8∼12Gy was suitable for pollen irradiation while 15∼20Gy was suitable for female-gamete irradiation. Irradiation treatment just before gamete maturation is advantageous to acquisition of more M1 hybrids with high frequency of chromosome structural variation. The frequency of plants with at least one translocation chromosome in M1 could be increased up to 70% through pollen irradiation of Triticum durum-Haynaldia villosa amphiploid. More than one hundred translocated chromosomes have been identified in the BC1 and BC2. 57 terminal and 80 intercalary translocations with small alien chromosome segments were induced through female-gamete irradiation conducted on T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation line. For the 22.4Gy dosage treatment, the induction frequencies of interstitial translocation, terminal translocation and deletion were 21.02%, 14.01%, and 14.65%, respectively, which were much higher than that previously reported. These genetic stocks will be useful for physical mapping of alien genes such as Pm21. Some compensate translocations conveying useful agronomic traits would be useful in wheat breeding. The T.aestivum-H.villosa 6VS/6AL translocation has been used in wheat

  17. NUTRITIONAL AND BAKING QUALITY OF LOW PHYTIC ACID WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytic acid is the major storage form of phosphorus in wheat grain. Non-ruminant animals cannot utilize phytic acid phosphorus, and phytic acid reduces the nutritional availability of important minerals. We have identified a wheat mutant (Lpa1-1) with reduced phytic acid P and increased inorganic ...

  18. 77 FR 25375 - United States Standards for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-30

    ...-AB12 United States Standards for Wheat Correction PART 810 In proposed rule document 2012-9182... 4.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 Total \\1\\ 3.0 5.0 8.0 12.0 20.0 Wheat of other classes: \\2\\ Contrasting classes...

  19. Reprint of: Pelletizing properties of torrefied wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Nielsen, Niels Peter K.; Hansen, Hans Ove;

    2013-01-01

    of wheat straw have been analyzed. Laboratory equipment has been used to investigate the pelletizing properties of wheat straw torrefied at temperatures between 150 and 300 °C. IR spectroscopy and chemical analyses have shown that high torrefaction temperatures change the chemical properties of the...

  20. Registration of 'NE01481' hard red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    'NE01481' (Reg. No. PI 659689) hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was developed cooperatively by the Nebraska Agricultural Experiment Station and the USDA-ARS and released in April, 2010. Nebraska wheat growers, in addition to superior agronomic performance, would like to have increased r...

  1. Quality Differences and Price Responsiveness of Wheat Class Demands

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, William W.; Gallagher, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Price responsiveness and preferences for wheat classes are measured using a Case function specification. Results indicate there have been numerous changes in market shares of wheat classes from different exporters in specific markets. In general, quality differentials are important in some international markets; in others, relative prices are more important in determining market shares.

  2. Bioconversion of lime pretreated wheat straw to fuel ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lime pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification methods were evaluated for conversion of wheat straw cellulose and hemicellulose to fermentable sugars. The maximum yield of monomeric sugars from wheat straw (8.6%, w/v) by lime pretreatment (100 mg/g straw, 121 deg C, 1 h) and enzymatic hydrolysis ...

  3. Management Effects On Quality of Organically Grown Winter Wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Ingrid Kaag; Schweinzer, A.; Friedel, J. K.;

    2013-01-01

    gluten in wheat following pre-crop pea. Danish grains generally contained more soluble polymers of less interest for the baking process than the Austrian ones. The study emphasizes the challenges in improving the quality of organically grown wheat beyond what is predetermined by environmental growth...

  4. Ridge Regression: A tool to forecast wheat area and production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasir Jamal

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available This research study is designed to develop forecasting models for acreage and production of wheat crop for Chakwal district of Rawalpindi region keeping in view the assumptions of OLS estimation. The forecasting models are developed on the basis of 15 years data from 1984-85 to 1998-99 then wheat area and production for next five years from 1999-2000 to 2003-04 is forecasted through the models and compared with the actual figures. After evaluating the accuracy of the models, final models are developed on the basis of 20 years data for the period 1984-85 to 2003-04. These linear models can be used to forecast wheat area and production of next five years. The Urea fertilizer, DAP fertilizer and manures plays a significant role to enhance the production of wheat crop. Number of ploughs in the wheat fields is significant factor to increase the production of wheat crop. Good rains in the month of October and November significantly contributes to increase the production of wheat crop and mean maximum temperature in the month of March is a significant factor to reduce the production of wheat crop.

  5. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND CONTROL OF STRIPE RUST ON WHEAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stripe rust of wheat, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most important diseases of wheat worldwide. This review presents basic and recent information on stripe rust epidemiology, pathogen virulence changes and population structure, and movement of the pathogen in the Unit...

  6. Segregation of Soft White Wheat by Density for Improved Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyers of wheat desire grain that is high quality and performs consistently. Grain quality is dependant on many factors and can vary significantly not only within a given field, but also within an individual head of wheat. This research was conducted to determine if grain of varying quality could ...

  7. A whole-genome, radiation hybrid map of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generating a reference sequence of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a challenging task because of its large, highly repetitive and allopolyploid genome. Ordering of BAC- and NGS-based contigs in ongoing wheat genome-sequencing projects primarily uses recombination and comparative genomics-base...

  8. Wheat Forages Contain Variable Levels of Condensed Tannin Reactive Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Even though winter wheat pasture in the southern Great Plains is considered excellent forage, devastating losses of stocker cattle can occur due to pasture bloat. Tannins are known to reduce the incidence and severity of bloat. We examined tannins in adapted wheat varieties that are commonly grazed ...

  9. Survey of diverse wheat lines for forage tannins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the main cool-season forage grown in the southern Great Plains. The high digestibility, soluble protein, and intake of lush growing wheat contribute to pasture bloat, leading to substantial economic loss. In the 1999-2000 grazing season in OK 40% of animal deat...

  10. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  11. Wheat and barley differently affect porcine intestinal microbiota

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiss, Eva; Aumiller, Tobias; Spindler, Hanns K;

    2016-01-01

    Diet influences the porcine intestinal microbial ecosystem. Barrows were fitted with ileal T-cannulas to compare short-term effects of eight different wheat or barley genotypes and period-to-period effects on seven bacterial groups in ileal digesta and faeces by qPCR. Within genotypes of wheat an...

  12. Alien Introgression for FHB Resistance in Wheat - Challenges and Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over one thousand accessions of wheat relatives at different ploidy levels and wheat-alien species derivatives with varied chromosome constitutions were evaluated for Fusarium head blight (FHB) resistance. FHB resistance identified from the relatives and derivatives were introgressed into adapted br...

  13. Molecular interactions between wheat and cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae): analysis of changes to the wheat proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, Natalie; Stavroulakis, Stylianos; Guan, Wenzhu; Davison, Gillian M; Bell, Howard A; Weaver, Robert J; Down, Rachel E; Gatehouse, John A; Gatehouse, Angharad M R

    2011-05-01

    Aphids are major insect pests of cereal crops, acting as virus vectors as well as causing direct damage. The responses of wheat to infestation by cereal aphid (Sitobion avenae) were investigated in a proteomic analysis. Approximately, 500 protein spots were reproducibly detected in the extracts from leaves of wheat seedlings after extraction and 2-DE. Sixty-seven spots differed significantly between control and infested plants following 24 h of aphid feeding, with 27 and 11 up-regulated, and 8 and 21 down-regulated, in local or systemic tissues, respectively. After 8 days, 80 protein spots differed significantly between control and aphid treatments with 13 and 18 up-regulated and 27 and 22 down-regulated in local or systemic tissues, respectively. As positive controls, plants were treated with salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate; 81 and 37 differentially expressed protein spots, respectively, were identified for these treatments. Approximately, 50% of differentially expressed protein spots were identified by PMF, revealing that the majority of proteins altered by aphid infestation were involved in metabolic processes and photosynthesis. Other proteins identified were involved in signal transduction, stress and defence, antioxidant activity, regulatory processes, and hormone responses. Responses to aphid attack at the proteome level were broadly similar to basal non-specific defence and stress responses in wheat, with evidence of down-regulation of insect-specific defence mechanisms, in agreement with the observed lack of aphid resistance in commercial wheat lines. PMID:21500340

  14. Virulence of wheat yellow rust races and resistance genes of wheat cultivars in Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochoa, J.B.; Danial, D.L.; Paucar, B.

    2007-01-01

    Virulence factors of the yellow rust, Puccinia striiformis, populations in bread wheat were studied in Ecuador between 1973 and 2004. The number of virulence factors has increased markedly from very few in the early seventies to 16 at the end of the 90s. Isolates belonging to race 0E0 seem to be the

  15. Population divergence in the wheat leaf rust fungus Puccinia triticina is correlated with wheat evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this study was to determine if the evolutionary history of the obligate pathogen on wheat, Puccinia triticina, is correlated with adaptation to hosts with different ploidy levels. Sequence data from 15 loci with different levels of polymorphism were generated. Phylogenetic analyses ...

  16. CLIMATE CHANGE AND ITS IMPACT ON WHEAT PRODUCTION IN KANSAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua C. Howard

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effect of climate change on wheat production in Kansas using annual time series data from 1949 to 2014. For the study, an error correction model is developed in which the price of wheat, the price of oats (substitute good, average annual temperature and average annual precipitation are used as explanatory variables with total output of wheat being the dependent variable. Time series properties of the data series are diagnosed using unit root and cointegration tests. The estimated results suggest that Kansas farmers are supply responsive to both wheat as well as its substitute (oat prices in the short run as well as in the long run. Climate variables; temperature has a positive effect on wheat output in the short run but an insignificant effect in the long run. Precipitation has a positive effect in the short run but a negative effect in the long run.

  17. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities.

  18. 40 CFR 406.40 - Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... bulgur wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.40 Section 406.40 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.40 Applicability; description of the bulgur wheat flour milling... wheat is parboiled, dried, and partially debranned in the production of bulgur....

  19. 40 CFR 406.30 - Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... normal wheat flour milling subcategory. 406.30 Section 406.30 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Wheat Flour Milling Subcategory § 406.30 Applicability; description of the normal wheat flour milling... wheat and other grains are milled by dry processes into flour and millfeed....

  20. The influence of soft kernel texture on the flour and baking quality of soft durum wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum (T. turgidum subsp. durum) wheat production worldwide is substantially less than that of common wheat (Triticum aestivum). Durum kernels are extremely hard; leading to most durum wheat being milled into semolina. Durum wheat production is limited in part due to the relatively limited end-user ...

  1. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...

  2. Alien DNA introgression and wheat DNA rearrangements in a stable wheat line derived from the early generation of distant hybridization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG; Lianquan; LIU; Dengcai; YAN; Zehong; ZHENG; Youlia

    2005-01-01

    Polyploidy has been found to be common in plants. Bread or common wheat (Triticum aestivum L., 2n = 42) is a good example of allopolyploid made up of three diploid genomes A, B and D. In recent years, by the study of mimicking the origination of common wheat, it was found that changes of DNA sequence and gene expression occurred at the early stages of artificial allohexaploid between tetraploid wheat and Aegilops tauschii, which was probably favorable to genetic diploidization of new synthetic hexaploid wheat. Common wheat 99L2 is a new line stable in genetic, which was derived from the early self-pollinated generation of wide hybrids between common wheat and rye. In this study, it was found that at least two rye DNA segments had been introgressed into 99L2. This result suggested that a mechanism of alien DNA introgression may exist, which was different from the traditional mechanism of chromosome pairing and DNA recombination between wheat and alien species. Meanwhile, during the introgression process of alien rye DNA segments, the changes in DNA sequences of wheat itself occurred.

  3. Registration of OK05312, a high-yielding hard winter wheat donor of Cmc4 for wheat curl mite resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) is a devastating disease in the High Plains region that is advancing eastward toward lower elevations. Its control is best achieved by combining known disease resistance genes with resistance to the insect vector. A hard red winter (HRW) wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germpla...

  4. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus in wheat lines carrying Wsm1 and Wsm3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are important viruses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of United States. In addition to agronomic practices to prevent damage from these viruses, temperature sensitive resistance genes Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3, have bee...

  5. Effects of wheat streak mosaic virus on root development and water-use efficiency of hard red winter wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse and field studies were conducted to determine the effects of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV), a member of the family Potyviridae, on root development and water-use efficiency (WUE) of two hard red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars, one susceptible and one resistant to WSMV. In t...

  6. Fermentation of wheat: effects of backslopping different proportions of pre-fermented wheat on the microbial and chemical composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moran, C.A.; Scholten, R.H.J.; Tricarico, J.M.; Brooks, P.H.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the study was to examine effect of backslop on the chemical and microbiological characteristics of fermented wheat (FW). Coarsely ground wheat was mixed with water (1:3 wt/wt) and inoculated with 6 log cfu ml(-1) each of an overnight culture of Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcu

  7. Diverse expression pattern of wheat transcription factors against abiotic stresses in wheat species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloglu, Mehmet Cengiz; Inal, Behcet; Kavas, Musa; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-15

    Abiotic stress including drought and salinity affects quality and yield of wheat varieties used for the production of both bread and pasta flour. bZIP, MBF1, WRKY, MYB and NAC transcription factor (TF) genes are the largest transcriptional regulators which are involved in growth, development, physiological processes, and biotic/abiotic stress responses in plants. Identification of expression profiling of these TFs plays a crucial role to understand the response of different wheat species against severe environmental changes. In the current study, expression analysis of TaWLIP19 (wheat version of bZIP), TaMBF1, TaWRKY10, TaMYB33 and TaNAC69 genes was examined under drought and salinity stress conditions in Triticum aestivum cv. (Yuregir-89), Triticum turgidum cv. (Kiziltan-91), and Triticum monococcum (Siyez). After drought stress application, all five selected genes in Kiziltan-91 were induced. However, TaMBF1 and TaWLIP19 were the only downregulated genes in Yuregir-89 and Siyez, respectively. Except TaMYB33 in Siyez, expression level of the remaining genes increased under salt stress condition in all Triticum species. For determination of drought response to selected TF members, publicly available RNA-seq data were also analyzed in this study. TaMBF1, TaWLIP19 and TaNAC69 transcripts were detected through in silico analysis. This comprehensive gene expression analysis provides valuable information for understanding the roles of these TFs under abiotic stresses in modern wheat cultivars and ancient einkorn wheat. In addition, selected TFs might be used for determination of drought or salinity-tolerant and susceptible cultivars for molecular breeding studies. PMID:25130909

  8. Study on Eco-climate Type Regionalization of Wheat Growing Areas in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxin; LU; Limin; CAO; Zhongping; ZHANG; Hongbo; LI

    2013-01-01

    In order to provide an objective and scientific theoretical basis for rational distribution of wheat growth in Yunnan Province,according to the relationship between Yunnan weather conditions and wheat growth adaptability,a study on eco-climate type regionalization of wheat growing areas in Yunnan was conducted using principal component analysis and GIS technology. The results show that Yunnan Province could be divided into four types,namely southern warm and humid wheat growing area,central semi-arid wheat growing area,central semi-humid wheat growing area and north-central cold wheat growing area.

  9. NEGATIVE EFFECT OF METALLOID STRESS ON WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marína Maglovski

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic (As belongs to heavy metals and its accumulation in plants, besides damaging the organism itself, represents a potential health risk to animal and human consumers. Therefore, contamination of soils and waters with this compound is a serious environmental problem. In this work we focused on investigating a negative impact of As on selected parameters of growth of wheat plants (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Genoveva grown in hydropony. In the stage of first assimilation leaves we applied a solution of heavy metal (1 mg.kg-1 As3+ on wheat plants. For plants grown under hydropony conditions we observed different plant parameters such as length, weight, amount of fresh and dry biomass. Further we analyzed accumulation of hydrogen peroxide and products membrane lipid peroxidation as indicators of oxidative stress. In addition to these we also measured the content of photosynthetic pigments, maximal quantum yield and proline in plant tissue. Our data indicate reduction of the biomass of shoots forthcoming as a result of exposure of stressed plants to As. Decline of biomass accumulation was accompanied by increase of hydrogen peroxide in plant tissue. In contrast, level of lipid peroxidation was suppressed in stressed shoots. Contents of photosynthetic pigments soundly decreased. Interestingly, fluorescence (Fp=Fm in stressed wheat shoots increased. Similarly in tested shoots the content of proline was increased. The results indicate that the applied dose of As has a negative impact on the growth and photosynthetic performance of stressed plants. A better understanding of the mechanisms responsible for As resistance and toxicity in plants requires further investigation.

  10. Effects of Nitrogen Application in Different Wheat Growth Stages on the Floret Development and Grain Yield of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yun-ji; WANG Chen-yang; GUO Tian-cai; CUI Jin-mei; XIA Guo-jun; LIU Wan-dai; WANG Yong-hua

    2002-01-01

    The study was carried out on the effect of nitrogen application in different wheat growth stage on the floret development, the photosynthetic rate, the yield and its components of winter wheat. The result indicated that nitrogen application in the pistil-stamen primordium formation stage and the tetrad formation stage of wheat growth prolonged the duration of floret development, promoted the balance growth of floret and reduced the floret decadence number, thus increased the grain number per spike. Nitrogen application in the middle and in the late stages of wheat development increased the photosynthetic ability of the plant leaves in the later stage, and also lengthened the peak of grain filling stage, thus enhanced the grain weight and yield of wheat significantly.

  11. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...... biomass and grain production than wheat growing alone. However, two other experiments with adult plants harvested before wheat maturity showed no effect of corn cockle on wheat production per pot. Within the pots the presence of corn cockle influenced wheat in all three experiments. Wheat plants growing...... at the same position as a corn cockle plant were 20 to 50% larger than wheat plants standing alone....

  12. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2008-01-01

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters. Us....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  13. Chromium(Ⅵ) Reduction in Wheat Rhizosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Reduction of Cr(Ⅵ) to Cr(Ⅲ) were studied in a fresh wheat rhizosphere soil (Kuroboku, high humic andosol) pretreated with a basal fertilizer consisting of (NH4)2SO4, P2O5 and KH2PO4 and with K2Cr2O7 by using a rhizobox system. It was found that rhizosphere exerted a positive effect on Cr(Ⅵ) reduction.Part of the reason was the decrease of pH in the rhizosphere due to application of (NH4)2SO4, implying that application of physiologically acid fertilizers would reduce Cr(Ⅵ) toxicity to plants.

  14. Wheat Under LED's (Light Emitting Diodes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Astroculture is a suite of technologies used to produce and maintain a closed controlled environment for plant growth. The two most recent missions supported growth of potato, dwarf wheat, and mustard plants, and provided scientists with the first opportunity to conduct true plant research in space. Light emitting diodes have particular usefulness for plant growth lighting because they emit a much smaller amount of radiant heat than do conventional lighting sources and because they have potential of directing a higher percentage of the emitted light onto plants surfaces. Furthermore, the high output LED's have emissions in the 600-700 nm waveband, which is of highest efficiency for photosynthesis by plants.

  15. Productive potentials of short stemmed wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air dry F2 seeds of the cross Skorospelka-35xMexipak were gamma irradiated (5 krad). It was established that the new short-stemmed wheat mutants can olay an important role both in hybrid combination breeding and as direct cultivars. Some of these mutants (No. 65, 67-I, 67-II, etc.), proved very promising because of their high productivity combined with other valuable biological and economic characters. The results obtained show also the great potentials and the perspectives of the method of combining hybrid and induced mutant variability. (author)

  16. Expansion of the whole wheat flour extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    A new model framework is proposed to describe the expansion of extrudates with extruder operating conditions based on dimensional analysis principle. The Buckingham pi dimensional analysis method is applied to form the basic structure of the model from extrusion process operational parameters....... Using the Central Composite Design (CCD) method, whole wheat flour was processed in a twin-screw extruder with 16 trials. The proposed model can well correlate the expansion of the 16 trials using 3 regression parameters. The average deviation of the correlation is 5.9%....

  17. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Чебаков, М. П.

    2008-01-01

    Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and hard (Triticum durum Desf.) are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  18. Effect of fiber incorporation on rheological and chapati making quality of wheat flour

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, D. N.; Rajan, A.; Sharma, G. K.; Bawa, A. S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Indian unleavened bread (chapati) was prepared by incorporating wheat bran (insoluble fiber) and oat bran (soluble fiber) at different levels into whole wheat flour. Central composite rotatable design with 2 independent variables (wheat bran and oat bran) at 5 levels (wheat bran 3–9, oat bran 6–12%) was used to design the experiments. The flour samples containing different concentration of bran were analysed for pasting and mixing characteristics. Wheat bran had a negative (p ≤ 0....

  19. Addition of Manas barley chromosome arms to the hexaploid wheat genome

    OpenAIRE

    Türkösi, Edina; Cseh, András; Darkó, Éva; Molnár-Láng, Márta

    2016-01-01

    Background Cultivated barley belongs to the tertiary genepool of hexaploid wheat. Genes of interest can be transferred from barley into wheat through wide hybridization. The application of wheat-barley introgression lines could provide an excellent tool for the transfer of earliness, favourable amino acid composition, biotic stress resistance, abiotic stress tolerance, or good tillering ability into wheat. Results A set of 10 wheat-barley ditelosomic addition lines (2HS, 2HL, 3HS, 3HL, 4HS, 4...

  20. Substituting Normal and Waxy-Type Whole Wheat Flour on Dough and Baking Properties

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Induck; Kang, Chun-Sik; Cheong, Young-Keun; Hyun, Jong-Nae; Kim, Kee-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Normal (cv. Keumkang, KK) and waxy-type (cv. Shinmichal, SMC) whole wheat flour was substituted at 20 and 40% for white wheat flour (WF) during bread dough formulation. The flour blends were subjected to dough and baking property measurement in terms of particle size distribution, dough mixing, bread loaf volume and crumb firmness. The particle size of white wheat flour was the finest, with increasing coarseness as the level of whole wheat flour increased. Substitution of whole wheat flour de...

  1. Meta-Analysis Combines Affymetrix Microarray Results Across Laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Doerge, R. W.; John R. Stevens

    2005-01-01

    With microarray technology becoming more prevalent in recent years, it is now common for several laboratories to employ the same microarray technology to identify differentially expressed genes that are related to the same phenomenon in the same species. Although experimental specifics may be similar, each laboratory will typically produce a slightly different list of statistically significant genes, which calls into question the validity of each gene list (i.e. which list is best). A statist...

  2. Orthology between genomes of Brachypodium, wheat and rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balyan Harindra S

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the past, rice genome served as a good model for studies involving comparative genomics of grass species. More recently, however, Brachypodium distachyon genome has emerged as a better model system for genomes of temperate cereals including wheat. During the present study, Brachypodium EST contigs were utilized to resolve orthologous relationships among the genomes of Brachypodium, wheat and rice. Findings Comparative sequence analysis of 3,818 Brachypodium EST (bEST contigs and 3,792 physically mapped wheat EST (wEST contigs revealed that as many as 449 bEST contigs were orthologous to 1,154 wEST loci that were bin-mapped on all the 21 wheat chromosomes. Similarly 743 bEST contigs were orthologous to specific rice genome sequences distributed on all the 12 rice chromosomes. As many as 183 bEST contigs were orthologous to both wheat and rice genome sequences, which harbored as many as 17 SSRs conserved across the three species. Primers developed for 12 of these 17 conserved SSRs were used for a wet-lab experiment, which resolved relatively high level of conservation among the genomes of Brachypodium, wheat and rice. Conclusion The present study confirmed that Brachypodium is a better model than rice for analysis of the genomes of temperate cereals like wheat and barley. The whole genome sequence of Brachypodium, which should become available in the near future, will further facilitate greatly the studies involving comparative genomics of cereals.

  3. Distribution of Grain Hardness in Chinese Wheats and Genetic Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yan-hua; HE Zhong-hu; YAN Jun; ZHANG Yan; WANG De-sen; ZHOU Gui-ying

    2002-01-01

    A hundred winter wheat and 41 spring wheat cultivars and advanced lines were used to investigate the distribution of grain hardness in Chinese wheats and correlations between grain hardness and other kernel traits. P1, P2, F1, F2 and F3 from three crosses, i. e. , Liken2/Yumai2, 85Zhong33/Wenmai6 and 85Zhong33/95Zhong459 were sown to study the genetics of grain hardness. Significant correlation was observed between hardness measured by Single Kernel Characteristic System 4100 (SKCS 4100) and Near Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy, r ranging from 0. 85 to 0.94. Chinese wheat is a mixed population in terms of hardness, ranging from very soft to very hard. For autumn-sown wheat, on average, grain hardness decreases from north to south and spring-sown wheat is dominant with hard type. Hardness is negatively associated with flour color, and its associations with flour yield and ash content differ in winter and spring wheats. Grain hardness is controlled by a major gene and several minor genes with additive effect mostly, but dominant effect is also observed, with heritability of 0.78.

  4. METHOD FOR AUTOMATIC ANALYSIS OF WHEAT STRAW PULP CELL TYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikko Karjalainen,

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural residues are receiving increasing interest when studying renewable raw materials for industrial use. Residues, generally referred to as nonwood materials, are usually complex materials. Wheat straw is one of the most abundant agricultural residues around the world and is therefore available for extensive industrial use. However, more information of its cell types is needed to utilize wheat straw efficiently in pulp and papermaking. The pulp cell types and particle dimensions of wheat straw were studied, using an optical microscope and an automatic optical fibre analyzer. The role of various cell types in wheat straw pulp and papermaking is discussed. Wheat straw pulp components were categorized according to particle morphology and categorization with an automatic optical analyzer was used to determine wheat straw pulp cell types. The results from automatic optical analysis were compared to those with microscopic analysis and a good correlation was found. Automatic optical analysis was found to be a promising tool for the in-depth analysis of wheat straw pulp cell types.

  5. Chromosomal engineering and crop improvement in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bread wheat is not only the world's most important food crop but is also an excellent model system for genetic analysis of allopolyploid plants. Diploid nuclear and cytoplasm donors are now known for polyploid wheats. The origin of disomic allopolyploid species can be traced back to a single plant. Establishment of nucleocytoplasmic compatibility is critical in allopolyploid speciation. Polyploid wheats show disomic inheritance that is genetically controlled. Genetic expression arises from interactive and dosage dependent effects. Apart form polyploidy, the basic wheat genome (1n = 1x = 7) is also huge (5.3 x 109 bp). Because of the availability of a large number of cytogenic stocks, target mapping is possible. It shows that the gene rich, recombinogenic regions are restricted to the distal ends of the chromosome arms and gene cloning by chromosome landing is feasible. Because of polyploidy, the wheat genome is highly buffered and transfer of chromosome segments of large linkage blocks is more important than single genes. There are spectacular examples of alien chromosome segments transferred to wheat, either by physical means (irradiation) or by genetic manipulation, which have immensely improved productivity. Therefore, enhancing the efficiency of chromosome engineering protocols is a worthwhile goal in wheat improvement. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  7. Evaluation of Model Wheat/Hemp Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Model cereal blends were prepared from commercial wheat fine flour and 5 samples of hemp flour (HF, including fine (2 of conventional form, 1 of organic form and wholemeal type (2 of conventional form. Wheat flour was substituted in 4 levels (5, 10, 15, 20%. HF addition has increased protein content independently on tested hemp flour form or type. Partial model cereal blends could be distinguished according to protein quality (Zeleny test values, especially between fine and wholemeal HF type. Both flour types affected also amylolytic activity, for which a relationship between hemp addition and determined level of Falling Number was confirmed for all five model cereal blends. Solvent retention capacity profiles (SRC of partial models were influenced by both HF form and type, as well as by its addition level. Between both mentioned groups of quality features, significant correlation were proved - relationships among protein content/quality and lactic acid SRC were verifiable on p <0.01 (-0.58, 0.91, respectively. By performed ANOVA, a possibility to distinguish the HF form used in model cereal blend according to the lactic acid SRC and the water SRC was demonstrated. Comparing partial cereal models containing fine and wholemeal hemp type, HF addition level demonstrated its impact on the sodium carbonate SRC and the water acid SRC. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  8. Mutation breeding for nutritional value in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1981 two batches of 100,000 seeds of the spring wheat cultivars Austral and Huenufen were irradiated with gamma rays at 10 and 25 Krad doses. The source of radiation was 60Co, from the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear. Objectives of this irradiation program were to develop wheat cultivars well adapted to the Lakes Region of Chile (latitude south 39 to 400), whith higher content of protein and lysine and good yield. Generation M1 was sown densily under field conditions and harvested by mass selection. Plant selection was set up in generation M2 onwards. Selected mutants for protein content (DBC values) in generations M2 (1982-83) and M3 (1983-84) showed ranges from 18 to 22%. These contents were higher than in the controls. As regards lysine content of the proteins, the number of selected was low, however mutants with maximum lysine content overshot 4%. In M4 generation, the better mutants, with adequate number of controls, will be analyzed in the crop season 1984-85, in preliminary trials of production. The technique of horizontal polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis as an alternative technique to the identification and certification of mutants with high content of protein is examined. (Author)

  9. Production of Biocellulosic Ethanol from Wheat Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat straw is an abundant lignocellulosic feedstock in many parts of the world, and has been selected for producing ethanol in an economically feasible manner. It contains a mixture of sugars (hexoses and pentoses.Two-stage acid hydrolysis was carried out with concentrates of perchloric acid, using wheat straw. The hydrolysate was concentrated by vacuum evaporation to increase the concentration of fermentable sugars, and was detoxified by over-liming to decrease the concentration of fermentation inhibitors. After two-stage acid hydrolysis, the sugars and the inhibitors were measured. The ethanol yields obtained from by converting hexoses and pentoses in the hydrolysate with the co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites were higher than the ethanol yields produced with a monoculture of S. cerevisiae. Various conditions for hysdrolysis and fermentation were investigated. The ethanol concentration was 11.42 g/l in 42 h of incubation, with a yield of 0.475 g/g, productivity of 0.272 gl ·h, and fermentation efficiency of 92.955 %, using a co-culture of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipites

  10. Structuring an Efficient Organic Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stephen Baenziger

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Our long-term goal is to develop wheat cultivars that will improve the profitability and competitiveness of organic producers in Nebraska and the Northern Great Plains. Our approach is to select in early generations for highly heritable traits that are needed for both organic and conventional production (another breeding goal, followed by a targeted organic breeding effort with testing at two organic locations (each in a different ecological region beginning with the F6 generation. Yield analyses from replicated trials at two organic breeding sites and 7 conventional breeding sites from F6 through F12 nurseries revealed, using analyses of variance, biplots, and comparisons of selected lines that it is inappropriate to use data from conventional testing for making germplasm selections for organic production. Selecting and testing lines under organic production practices in different ecological regions was also needed and cultivar selections for organic production were different than those for conventional production. Modifications to this breeding protocol may include growing early generation bulks in an organic cropping system. In the future, our selection efforts should also focus on using state-of-the-art, non-transgenic breeding technologies (genomic selection, marker-assisted breeding, and high throughput phenotyping to synergistically improve organic and conventional wheat breeding.

  11. GLUTENIN LOCI VARIABILITY OF CROATIAN WHEAT GERMPLASM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Rukavina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Glutenins loci were used for variability estimation in 50 varieties of hexaploid winter wheat originated from Croatian breeding centres. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE in presence of sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS was used for determination of high molecular weight glutenins (HMW-GS. Number of allels per loci ranged from 3 at Glu-A1 to 5 at Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, the average number of allels was 4.33. The highest genetic diversity was found at loci Glu-B1 (He=0.687. The most frequent subunit at loci Glu-A1 was 2* (56%. At loci Glu-B1 the most common combination of subunits was 7+8 with 40%, and at loci Glu-D1 5+10 with 68%. The study also defines high quality varieties with largest number of Glu-scores. The results attained from this study allow further development of specific breeding programs for winter wheat quality improvement and improvers creation.

  12. Induction of Mutants in Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This investigation presents a breeding program for induction and development of a new genotype of durum wheat, resistant to lodging with high yield, by irradiation durum wheat hybrids (F2) with gamma rays 100 Gy, during 1990-1997 cultivation seasons. This program involves: induction of variability, selection evaluation of the mutants at three locations: Twaitha (Baghdad) Latifya ( Babylon) and Swari (Kutt). All mutants showed resistance to lodging and there was a significant reduction in plant height. Mutant SIXIZ-22 surpassed other mutants and its origin in lodging resistance and plant height (83.5,82.8 and 89.4 cm) in the three locations at generation M5 and M6, respectively. Also, there were significant differences between mutant and their origin in the number of spikes/M2 and grain yild during the two successive generation. On the other hand, mutant IZxCO-105 surpassed other mutants in the number of spikes/M2 (231.8,242.3 and 292) and grain yield (4336,3376 and 5232 kg/ha) in all testing location, respectively . (authors) 14 refs., 4 tabs

  13. Grain weight improvement in wheat through irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T. aestivum wheat variety NIAW 34 was developed by Agricultural Research Station, Niphad, and was released by Central Varietal Release Committee, for cultivation under irrigated late sown conditions of Peninsular Zone. The grains of NIAW 34 are medium sized with 40g 1000 grain weight. However, in market the bold sized grains (above 40g 1000 grain weight) are preferred by the traders and consumers. To overcome this lacuna, grains of wheat variety NIAW 34 were irradiated to exploit the possibilities of improvement in test weight. The material was irradiated with 15 and 20 kr dose of gamma rays. In M2 generation, mutants for various morphological characters were observed. The plants showing vigorous growth habit and desirable morphological characters were selected. These selected plants were studied for grain characters after harvest. On the basis of improved test weight as compared to parental line, selections were effected. The material was advanced to M6 generation and found stable for character of interest. The material selected comprised of total 10 lines showing improved test weight having range of 42-46 g i.e. increase of 4-6 g over the parental line NIAW 34. The lines selected are being evaluated in yield evaluation trials during Rabi 2006-07. Amongst the doses used, frequency of desired mutants was higher in treatment, of 15 kr

  14. Nitrogen-use efficiency of irrigated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Field experiments with irrigated wheat were conducted from 1994 to 1998, using 15N, with the objective of identifying appropriate ways of managing applied N to maximize economic profit, minimize N losses and avoid environmental pollution. Fertilizer application was partitioned with one third applied at sowing and two thirds added at Zadoks growth-stage 30 (Z-30), or two thirds at sowing and one third at Z-30, at total rates of 84, 167 and 250 kg N ha-1. Urea and ammonium sulphate were compared as N-sources at sowing, whereas ammonium nitrate was used at Z-30. The optimum agronomic rate based on the average of the first two years was 178 kg N ha-1. The economic optimum was 118 kg N ha-1. The uptake of N from ammonium fertilizer was 20% higher than that from nitrate. Soil mineral N was relatively high at sowing and subsequent mineralization resulted in uptake of 90 kg N ha-1 from the zero-applied-N control plots. Soil-supplied N is, however, not considered when farmers decide on the rate of fertilizer to be applied, potentially resulting in high losses. Nitrogen-15 constituted a useful tool for understanding the relative contributions of soil and fertilizer to the N-nutrition of wheat. (author)

  15. Wettability changes of wheat straw treated with chemicals and enzymes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Jiang-hua; LIU Zhi-ming; LI Jing; NIU Jing

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to test wettability changes of the wheat straw treated with different methods for the preparation of wheat straw particle board. The wheat straws were separately sprayed with two chemicals (0.6% NaOH, 0.3% H2O2) and three enzymes (lipase, xylanase,cellulase). The contact angle between water and the surface of wheat straw was measured and the spreading-penetration parameters (K-values) were also calculated with wetting model. The surfaces of treated wheat straw and control sample were scanned by means of Micro-FTIR, and their peaks arrangements were analyzed. The surface morphologies of treated wheat straw and control sample were also observed by SEM.Chemical etching was found on the exterior surfaces of the straws treated separately with 0.6% NaOH and 0.3% H2O2; furthermore, the spreading-penetration parameters (K-values) of the distilled water on the exterior surfaces of the treated wheat straw along the grain were higher than that of control. The wettability of exterior surfaces of the wheat straws treated separately with lipase, xylanase and cellulose were improved after treating for seven days, and among the three enzymes treatments, the tipase treatment showed best result. The lipase treatment and NaOH treatment were determined as better methods for improving the wettability of wheat straw surfaces. However, in the economic aspect, NaOHtreatment was more practical and easier in the pretreatment for the manufacture of straw particle board.

  16. Analysis of promoters in transgenic barley and wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J; Pellegrineschi, Alessandro

    2009-04-01

    Advances in the genetic transformation of cereals have improved the prospects of using biotechnology for plant improvement, and a toolbox of promoters with defined specificities would be a valuable resource in controlling the expression of transgenes in desired tissues for both plant improvement and molecular farming. A number of promoters have been isolated from the important cereals (wheat, barley, rice and maize), and these promoters have been tested mostly in homologous cereal systems and, to a lesser extent, in heterologous cereal systems. The use of these promoters across the important cereals would add value to the utility of each promoter. In addition, promoters with less sequence homology, but with similar specificities, will be crucial in avoiding homology-based gene silencing when expressing more than one transgene in the same tissue. We have tested wheat and barley promoters in transgenic barley and wheat to determine whether their specificity is shared across these two species. The barley bifunctional alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (Isa) promoter, specific to the pericarp in barley, failed to show any activity in wheat, whereas the wheat early-maturing (Em) promoter showed similar activity in wheat and barley. The wheat high-molecular-weight glutenin (HMW-Glu) and barley D-hordein (D-Hor) and B-hordein (B-Hor) storage protein promoters maintained endosperm-specific expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in wheat and barley, respectively. Using gfp, we have demonstrated that the Isa and Em promoters can be used as strong promoters to direct transgenes in specific tissues of barley and wheat grain. Differential promoter activity across cereals expands and adds value to a promoter toolbox for utility in plant biotechnology. PMID:19175520

  17. Energy productivity and efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is the second most important cereal crop in Bangladesh and production is highly sensitive to variations in the environment. We estimate productivity and energy efficiency of wheat farming in Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach while accounting for the environmental constraints affecting production. Wheat farming is energy efficient with a net energy balance of 20,596 MJ per ha and energy ratio of 2.34. Environmental constraints such as a combination of unsuitable land, weed and pest attack, bad weather, planting delay and infertile soils significantly reduce wheat production and its energy efficiency. Environmental constraints account for a mean energy efficiency of 3 percentage points. Mean technical efficiency is 88% thereby indicating that elimination of inefficiencies can increase wheat energy output by 12%. Farmers' education, access to agricultural information and training in wheat production significantly improves efficiency, whereas events such as a delay in planting and first fertilization significantly reduce it. Policy recommendations include development of varieties that are resistant to environmental constraints and suitable for marginal areas; improvement of wheat farming practices; and investments in education and training of farmers as well as dissemination of information. - Highlights: • Bangladesh wheat farming is energy efficient at 20,596 MJha−1; energy ratio 2.34. • Environmental factors significantly influence productivity and energy efficiency. • Environmental factors must be taken into account when estimating wheat productivity. • Government policies must focus on ways of alleviating environmental factors. • Farmers' education, training and information sources increase technical efficiency

  18. The Characteristic of Hyperspectral Image of Wheat Seeds during Sprouting

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jiayu; Chen, Honghui; Wang, Xiaodong; Yu, Chunhua; Wang, Cheng; Zhu, Dazhou

    2013-01-01

    The pre-harvest sprouting of wheat have significant influence for its quality and yield, therefore the fast detection of sprouting extent of wheat is very important for breeding and producing. In this study, the hyperspectral images of these seeds were collected by a near infrared hyperspectral imaging system, the wavelength of which was 850-1700 nm after wheat germination experiment at 0h, 12h, 24h, and 48h. The original light intensity of embryo and endosperm were extracted, and were then c...

  19. Report on sequencing the wheat chromosome 3B

    OpenAIRE

    Choulet, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Quesneville, Hadi; Brunel, Dominique; Gill, Bikram S; Appels, Rudi; Keller, Beat; Feuillet, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Because of its 17 Gb hexaploid genome, wheat genomics has been lagging behind the one of the other major crops. Two years after the establishment of the first physical map of the biggest wheat chromosome, the 3B, which represents 1 Gb, its complete sequencing is now underway (ANR project 3BSEQ). In order to prepare for its complete sequencing and analysis, we performed a pilot project on 18 Mb of large BAC contigs which allowed us to improve our understanding of the wheat genome composition a...

  20. Stable isotopes. Enriched wheat: a new chance for nutrition research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Plant Eco-physiology (DEV) from the CEA/Life Sciences Department of Cadarache (France) has artificially produced two kg of carbon 13 labelled wheat for nutrition research. It is the first successful stable isotope labelling of complex nutriments with a 10% enrichment in carbon 13. This wheat has been used for the manufacturing of pastas to follow the assimilation of nutrients by the organism. This short paper gives some details about the experimental procedure of labelled wheat cultivation. (J.S.)

  1. Lipase inactivation in wheat germ by gamma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Pankaj Kumar; Kudachikar, V. B.; Kumar, Sourav

    2013-05-01

    An attempt was made to improve the shelf life of wheat germ by optimizing processing conditions involving γ-irradiation. Studies were carried out to investigate the effect of γ-irradiation (0-30 kGy doses) on the chemical composition of wheat germ with respect to variation in moisture, total ash, crude fat, free fatty acid, protein and lipase activity. The results demonstrate that shelf stability of wheat germ was achieved by inactivation of lipase at doses of γ-irradiation greater than 12 kGy.

  2. Catering Gluten-Free When Simultaneously Using Wheat Flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kathryn; McGough, Norma; Urwin, Heidi

    2016-02-01

    A European law on gluten-free (GF) labeling came into force in 2012, covering foods sold prepacked and in food service establishments, and a similar U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulation covers GF labeling from August 2014. Gluten is found in the grains wheat, rye, and barley. A common source of gluten in the kitchen is wheat flour. This research aimed to determine variables that have a significant effect on gluten contamination in commercial kitchens when wheat flour is in use and to establish controls necessary to assure GF production. A pilot study was used to test the following hypotheses: (i) increasing duration of exposure to wheat flour would increase gluten contamination, (ii) increasing distance between the site of preparation and the site of wheat flour would reduce gluten contamination, (iii) the use of a ventilation hood would decrease gluten contamination, and (iv) the use of a barrier segregating the site of preparation of a GF meal and the use of wheat flour would decrease gluten contamination. Petri dishes containing GF rice pudding were placed in three directions at increasing distances (0.5 to 2 m) from a site of wheat flour use. A barrier was in place between a third of samples and the site of wheat flour. After wheat flour was handled for 0.5 and 4.0 h, petri dishes were sealed and the contents were analyzed for gluten. The experiment was duplicated with the ventilation hood on and off. The pilot study revealed that a distance of 2 m from the use of wheat flour was required to control gluten contamination at ≤20 ppm if wheat flour had been in use for 4.0 h. The identified control of distance was tested in five different study sites. In each of the study sites, a test meal was prepared a minimum of 2 m away from the site of wheat flour use. Although kitchens vary and must be considered individually, the established control of a minimum 2 m distance, along with good hygiene practices, was found to be effective in preparing GF meals

  3. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were pr...

  4. Grain yield losses in wheat by Russian wheat aphid diuraphis noxia (mordvilko)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eight wheat cultivars were sown at the Regional Agricultural Research Institute, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, to evaluate their response to Russian wheat aphid (RWA) Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko). Significant variability was observed among cultivars with respect to aphid infestation and yield losses. Cultivar V-2707 was the least infested with the aphid (6.3 aphids/tiller) giving maximum grain yield (4638 kg/ha), with cultivar V-2047 the second best with 6.43 aphids/ tiller infestation and grain yield of 4206 kg/ha. Commercial cultivars (Inqlab-91 and Punjab-96) were heavily infested with 14.4 and 12.6 aphids/tiller, respectively, and yielded 2245 and 2490 kg/ha harvest, respectively. Aphid population increased up to the fourth week of March and then declined. Aphid infestation resulted in 3.96 to 7.36% yield loss. The cultivar V-2707 was later released for general cultivation, under the name of Punjab-1. (author)

  5. Comparison of endosperm microstructure of wheat and durum wheat using digital image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Quattrucci E.; Sadowska J.; Jeliński T.; Fornal J.

    1999-01-01

    Six wheat varieties were analysed to quantify the relationship between the microstructure and hardness of endosperm. The microstructure of endosperms was characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Digital image analysis was used to transform the scanned microphotographs and to characterize the image objects. With the DIA algorithms employed for the microstructure quantifications, the grains of different hardness could be differentiated within the variety by analysing the endosper...

  6. The Wheat Black Jack: Advances Towards Sequencing the 21 Chromosomes of Bread Wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choulet, F.; Caccamo, M.; Wright, J.; Alaux, M.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; LeRoy, P.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Rogers, J.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.

    Volume 1. Managing, sequencing and mining genetic resources. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014 - (Tuberosa, R.; Graner, A.; Frison, E.), s. 405-438 ISBN 978-94-007-7571-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Wheat * Polyploid * Chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  7. The case of the missing wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobell, David B.

    2012-06-01

    In Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking Glass, Alice finds herself running as fast as she can but not moving anywhere. The Red Queen explains to her 'Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that.' Such is the situation in global agriculture. Global demand for agricultural products continues to rise as population grows and people get richer. As they get richer, people have fewer babies but eat more. And they use a lot more energy, which is increasingly derived from agricultural products. Crop technologies have to move incredibly fast just to keep up. Remarkably, over the past 50 years they have, with yields (production per hectare of land) for most crops more than doubling since 1960, and real prices of food falling for most of the period. In many ways we have come to take continued yield growth for granted. But, as Lin and Huybers show [1] elsewhere in this issue, there is increasing evidence that this growth has stalled in many regions. The question is not new—people have worried about the pace of yield growth since at least the days of Malthus [2, 3]. But Lin and Huybers [1] use updated data and bring a new rigor to identifying where stagnation is statistically significant, for example by taking care to account for year-to-year correlation in yields. They report that for slightly more than half of the regions that they inspected, it is likely (80% chance) that yield growth has already flattened out. For many of these countries, responsible for about one quarter of global wheat production, the stagnation has very likely occurred (95% chance). Why are yields of wheat stagnating in so many areas? At least four suspects seem plausible. One narrative is that for years the real price of wheat was declining, providing little incentive for innovation. The most obvious consequence was a major decline in investment in research and development in most

  8. [Population dynamics of ground carabid beetles and spiders in a wheat field along the wheat-alfalfa interface and their response to alfalfa mowing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wen-Hui; Hu, Yi-Jun; Hu, Wen-Chao; Hong, Bo; Guan, Xiao-Qing; Ma, Shi-Yu; He, Da-Han

    2014-09-01

    Taking the wheat-alfalfa and wheat-wheat interfaces as model systems, sampling points were set by the method of pitfall trapping in the wheat field at the distances of 3 m, 6 m, 9 m, 12 m, 15 m, 18 m, 21 m, 24 m, and 27 m from the interface. The species composition and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders captured in pitfalls were investigated. The results showed that, to some extent there was an edge effect on species diversity and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders along the two interfaces. A marked edge effect was observed between 15 m and 18 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface, while no edge effect was found at a distance over 20 m. The edge effect along the wheat-wheat interface was weaker in comparison to the alfalfa-wheat interface. Alfalfa mowing resulted in the migration of a large number of ground carabid beetles and spiders to the adjacent wheat filed. During ten days since mowing, both species and abundance of ground carabid beetles and spiders increased in wheat filed within the distance of 20 m along the alfalfa-wheat interface. The spatial distribution of species diversity of ground beetles and spiders, together with the population abundance of the dominant Chlaenius pallipes and Pardosa astrigera, were depicted, which could directly indicate the migrating process of natural enemy from alfalfa to wheat field. PMID:25757322

  9. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  10. Empirical rheology and pasting properties of soft-textured durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and hard-textured common wheat (T. aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puroindoline (PIN) proteins are the molecular basis for wheat kernel texture classification and affect flour milling performance. This study aimed at investigating the effect of PINs on kernel physical characteristics and dough rheological properties of common wheat (Alpowa cv, soft wheat) and durum...

  11. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  12. AgMIP wheat pilot data 4 release

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseng, S.; Ewert, F.; Martre, P.; Supit, I.; Wolf, J.

    2015-01-01

    The data set includes a current representative management treatment from detailed, quality-tested sentinel field experiments with wheat from four contrasting environments including Australia, The Netherlands, India and Argentina. Measurements include local daily climate data (solar radiation, maximu

  13. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Quanxiao Liu; Huaiyu Zhan; Beihai He; Shuhui Yang; Jianhua Liu; Jianlu Liu; Zhenxing Pang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin,polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4′-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  14. POLYETHER POLYURETHANE FROM MODIFIED WHEAT STRAW OXYGEN-ALKALINE LIGNIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QuanxiaoLiu; HuaiyuZhan; BeihaiHe; ShuhuiYang; JianhuaLiu; JianluLiu(1); ZhenxingPang

    2004-01-01

    Polyether polyurethane was synthesized from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin, polyethylene glycol and two different diisocyanates (diphenylemethane-4, 4'-diisocyanate, tolulene diisocyanate) by solution casting method, its properties were investigated. The results show that modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin can substitute part of polyethylene glycol to react with diisocyanate to synthesize polyurethane. The molar ratio of NCO to OH and modified wheat straw oxygen-alkaline lignin content affect the properties of lignin-based polyether polyurethane respectively. The addition of plasticizer in the polyurethane synthesis process improves the properties of synthesized polyurethane, especially the elasticity of polyurethane. The synthesized polyurethane from modified wheat straw oxygen-alkali lignin can be used as both engineering plastic and hard foam plastic in future.

  15. Thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stelte, Wolfgang; Clemons, Craig; Holm, Jens K.;

    2011-01-01

    The thermal transitions of the amorphous polymers in wheat straw were investigated using dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). The study included both natural and solvent extracted wheat straw, in moist (8–9% water content) and dry conditions, and was compared to spruce samples. Under these...... conditions two transitions arising from the glass transition of lignin and hemicelluloses have been identified. Key transitions attributed to softening of lignin were found at 53, 63 and 91 °C for moist samples of wheat straw, extracted straw and spruce, respectively. Transitions for hemicelluloses were...... determined at 2, −1 and 5 °C, respectively. Differences are likely due to different compositions of lignin and hemicelluloses from straw and spruce and structural differences between the raw materials. The high wax content in wheat straw resulted in a transition at about 40 °C which was absent in solvent...

  16. Food label guide for whole wheat bread (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains, like the kind found in whole wheat bread, contain fiber and antioxidants such as Vitamin E and selenium, iron, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins. Fiber is a very beneficial nutrient that ...

  17. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Thomas; Sandve, Simen R; Heier, Lise; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Wulff, Brande B H; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic. PMID:25035499

  18. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcussen, T.; Sandve, S. R.; Heier, L.; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.; Gill, B.; Friebe, B.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Endo, T. R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Febrer, M.; Clissold, L.; Jakobsen, K. S.; Wulff, B.H.; Steuernagel, B.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Olsen, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014). ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : POLYPLOID WHEAT * HYBRID SPECIATION * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014

  19. Improvement Mechanisms of Wheat Consultant Engineers (WCEs Project in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asaid

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes improvement mechanisms of Wheat Consultant Engineers (WCEs project or Wheat Advisory Services (WAS In Iran. A survey study was applied as a methodology of research work. Data were collected using structured questionnaires that addressed to evaluating extension expert and WCEs responses regarding to WCEs project improvement mechanisms. The result shown that the project was faced with many challenges such as land structure, logistic, coordination, strategic and etc. that policymakers and extension providers should be solving them until wheat consultant engineers can more better providing farmer information needs. The improvement mechanisms that would have been solved these challenges involved; Logistic, Communication, Performance, Project development and Communication mechanism improvements from view point wheat consultant engineers, also mechanism improvements such as Motivation, Selection, Participation, Logistic and Performance from view point extension experts has been selected.

  20. Fate of wheat bound malathion residues in rats during gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitsi, G A; Singh, K; Khan, S U; Akhtar, M H; Kacew, S; White, N D

    1994-08-01

    Malathion [S-1,2-di(ethoxycarbonyl) ethyl 0,0-dimethyl phosphorodithioate], treated wheat when stored for 28 months at 20 degrees C with or without food grade white mineral oil on grains contained about 62 and 79% of the applied insecticide as bound residues, respectively. These bound residues were present mainly in the form of the parent compound. The stored wheat containing bound malathion residues, as well as wheat material freshly spiked with malathion were fed to rats during gestation. No residues of malathion and/or metabolites were detected in urine, feces and body tissues. Further no significant effect on body weight, serum chemistry and cytochrome P450 levels were observed in the mothers. There was no evidence for the histopathological alteration or teratogenic anomalies in the fetuses. However, placental transfer of malathion was indicated by the presence of the insecticide residues in fetuses from rats fed wheat material containing bound residues. PMID:7922151

  1. EVOLUTION OF SUPPLY AND DEMAND OF WHEAT IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana-Elena MARIN

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the evolution of supply demand and of wheat in Romanian market. It is based on the statistical data provided by National Institute of Statistics and European Statistics (Eurostat. The data have been processed into the following indicators: cultivated surfaces, obtained production, consumption per capita. Wheat production is correlated with seeding surface, but, sometimes paradoxes appear, where even if the cultivated surface is large the production is low. During the analyzed period, cultivated surfaces remained constantly; the production has continuously increased, so that in the year 2013 there are 7,383 million tonnes of wheat in Romania. As a conclusion, Romania is able to support domestic demand for wheat and can also export a significant amount of this grain.

  2. Metals in wheat flour: comparative study and safety control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel L. Tejera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cereal industry and its derived products have a big economic and social importance worldwide. Therefore, as wheat flour is a commodity for all bread and bakery industry, it is safety is of high nutrition and toxicological interest. In this investigation we intend to study and determine the content of twelve metals in 50 samples of wheat flour coming from a wheat flour industry. Macro elements sodium, potassium magnesium and calcium, micro elements manganese, iron, copper, zinc, chrome and nickel as well as toxic trace elements cadmium and lead have been analysed. The estimated diary intake of each metal and their contribution in percentage terms to the RDI (macro and micro elements and to the PTWI (toxic elements has been determined. Contribution of Cd and Pb to the PTWI was very low, a fact that shows safety in this wheat flour concerning toxic metals.

  3. Wheat straw: An inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulosic composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lili; Jia, Yangyang; Zhang, Xiaomei; Feng, Xihong; Wu, Jinjuan; Wang, Lushan; Chen, Guanjun

    2016-06-01

    Composting is a promising method for the management of agricultural wastes. However, results for wheat straw composts with different carbon-to-nitrogen ratios revealed that wheat straw was only partly degraded after composting for 25days, with hemicellulose and cellulose content decreasing by 14% and 33%, respectively. No significant changes in community structure were found after composting according to 454-pyrosequencing. Bacterial communities were represented by Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes throughout the composting process, including relatively high abundances of pathogenic microbes such as Pseudomonas and Flexibacter, suggesting that innocent treatment of the composts had not been achieved. Besides, the significant lignocellulose degrader Thermomyces was not the exclusively dominant fungus with relative abundance only accounting for 19% of fungal communities. These results indicated that comparing with maize straw, wheat straw was an inefficient substrate for rapid natural lignocellulose-based composting, which might be due to the recalcitrance of wheat straw. PMID:26980627

  4. Elements of Integration in Winter Wheat Protection Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Cecylia Jańczak; Grażyna Filoda; Robert Matysiak

    2012-01-01

    In Poland winter wheat is grown on the area of 1.600.000 ha. Most of the plant protection treatments are being done without thorough analysis of real threats from pests and diseases. The aim of the research is to develop the optimal program of wheat protection against pests and diseases based on integration of various methods of plant protection. Two programs: conventional and integrated were compared. In integrated program the eventual needs and terms of treatments were estimated on the basi...

  5. Characterization of Brazilian wheat cultivars for specific technological applications

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer; Alicia de Francisco; Martha Zavariz de Miranda; Paulo José Ogliari; Gisele Torres; Valéria Limberger; Flávio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Ruffi; Sílvia Biondi

    2011-01-01

    Functional and technological properties of wheat depend on its chemical composition, which together with structural and microscopic characteristics, define flour quality. The aim of the present study was to characterize four Brazilian wheat cultivars (BRS Louro, BRS Timbauva, BRS Guamirim and BRS Pardela) and their respective flours in order to indicate specific technological applications. Kernels were analyzed for test weight, thousand kernel weight, hardness, moisture, and water activity. F...

  6. Sensitivity of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) to various postemergence herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Soltani; Christy Shropshire; Peter H. Sikkema

    2011-01-01

    There are a limited number of herbicide options available for durum wheat production in Ontario, Canada. Four field studies were conducted in Ontario, Canada over a three year period (2008, 2009 and 2010) to evaluate the sensitivity of spring planted durum wheat to post-emergence (POST) applications of dichlorprop/2,4-D, dicamba/ MCPA/mecoprop, clopyralid, bromoxynil/MCPA, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA amine, fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tralkoxydim and fenoxaprop-p-e...

  7. Effect of cleaning, milling, and baking on deoxynivalenol in wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Abbas, H. K.; Mirocha, C J; Pawlosky, R. J.; Pusch, D J

    1985-01-01

    Samples of wheat naturally infected by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe were obtained from mills in Oklahoma, Missouri, Kansas, and Minnesota and fields in Nebraska and Kansas in 1982; they were analyzed for deoxynivalenol (DON). The wheat was milled, and DON was found throughout all the milling fractions (bran, shorts, reduction flour, and break flour). The DON recoveries for each mill run ranged from 90 to 98%. These samples, regardless of DON concentration, also gave similar fractional distrib...

  8. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer; Bruna Mattioni; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto; Flávio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes-Ruffi; Sílvia Biondi; Mariana Kilpp; Alicia de Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends) along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability) and also to verify the specific volume...

  9. Alkylresorcinols as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake

    OpenAIRE

    Landberg, Rikard

    2009-01-01

    Dietary biomarkers are objective measures of food or nutrient intake and can be related to endpoints in epidemiological studies, used in the validation of dietary assessment instruments and used to check of compliance during intervention studies. Alkylresorcinols (AR), phenolic lipids present exclusively in the outer parts of wheat and rye grains, have been suggested as biomarkers of whole grain wheat and rye intake. The overall aim with this thesis was to evaluate AR as specific biomarkers o...

  10. The effect of light on nitrate uptake by wheat roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinzhi Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Illuminating shoots stimulates nitrate uptake by wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. ‘EM18’ roots. A method with a high time resolution (minutes, non-invasive technique, has enabled to measure the nitrate uptake time coarsely. The nitrate uptake by wheat roots increases in the light and decreases in the dark. The mechanism is thought to be via a signal carried in phloem, probably a sugar.

  11. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  12. Organic bread-wheat in New England, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Mallory, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In October 2010, researchers, farmers and millers from Maine and Vermont, USA, organized a trip to Denmark, in order to learn about local bread wheat production, milling and use from their more experienced counterparts with climates similar to their own. They have received a grant over four years for the project antitled Enhancing Farmers’ Capacity to Produce High Quality Organic Bread Wheat in which they will carry out research, development and education to improve the production and qual...

  13. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  14. Effect of wheat puroindoline alleles on functional properties of starch

    OpenAIRE

    Brites, Carla Moita; Santos, Carla Alexandra Lourenço; Bagulho, Ana Sofia; Beirão-da-Costa, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Puroindoline a and b (Pina, Pinb) form the molecular basis of bread wheat grain hardness. Varieties with a softer endosperm and a wild genotype, in which both Pina and Pinb were present, seemed to produce less damaged starch Xour than hard varieties, where Pin mutations occurred and changed the starch rheological properties. The functional property of starch samples extracted from wheat varieties with diVerent Pin alleles was evaluated. Starch morphology was characteri...

  15. Wheat policy and economy-wide reform in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Orlando Monteiro da; Grennes,Thomas

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, the wheat sector in Brazil has moved from governmental protection and public intervention to a free market and privatization. In this study, those changes are analyzed through measures of governmental intervention on nominal rates of protection and on welfare of producers and consumers. Elasticities of demand and supply of wheat are estimated, and the effects of changes in policies are analyzed under official and shadow exchange rates. Welfare measures indicate that almost US...

  16. ASYMMETRIC PRICE TRANSMISSION BETWEEN POLISH AND GERMAN FEED WHEAT MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Hamulczuk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper was an assessment of possible asymmetry in price transmission between Polish and German feed wheat prices. TAR and M-TAR procedures were employed for testing price symmetry, as well as ECM framework. The results obtained indicate the existence of the long-run relationship between Polish and German wheat prices, as well as asymmetric adjustment of prices to the long-run equilibrium relationship. 

  17. ASYMMETRIC PRICE TRANSMISSION BETWEEN POLISH AND GERMAN FEED WHEAT MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Mariusz Hamulczuk

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the paper was an assessment of possible asymmetry in price transmission between Polish and German feed wheat prices. TAR and M-TAR procedures were employed for testing price symmetry, as well as ECM framework. The results obtained indicate the existence of the long-run relationship between Polish and German wheat prices, as well as asymmetric adjustment of prices to the long-run equilibrium relationship. 

  18. Cytogenetic and biochemical effects of imazethapyr in wheat (Triticum durum)

    OpenAIRE

    RAD, Manijeh HOSEINY; AIVAZI, Ali Ashraf; JAGANNATH, Shobha

    2011-01-01

    Mitotic abnormalities, chromosomal behavior, and protein content in wheat (Triticum durum) due to imazethapyr (IM) treatment were determined. Wheat seeds (variety HI-8663) were exposed to 5 IM concentrations (0.5, 0.89, 1.58, 2.81, and 5 ppm) according to the between paper method, in laboratory conditions. The protein content in the root-shoot axis and endosperm decreased significantly with the dosage increase. Cytological observations showed that the mitotic frequency in the root meristemati...

  19. Split-gene system for hybrid wheat seed production

    OpenAIRE

    Kempe, Katja; Rubtsova, Myroslava; Gils, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Global food security demands the development of new technologies to increase and secure cereal production on finite arable land without increasing water and fertilizer use. Although the use of heterosis through hybrid breeding has produced tremendous economic benefits in worldwide crop production, less than 1% of the global wheat area is planted with hybrids. One of the greatest bottlenecks in breeding hybrid wheat is the lack of an efficient sterility system to block self-pollination. This r...

  20. Combining ability and heterosis effect in hexaploid wheat group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titan Primož

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of hybrid wheat breeding is the identification of parents with high specific combining ability for grain yield and other agronomic traits. This kind of data facilitate the development of hybrid combinations with high level of heterosis in first filial generation (F1 generation. The use of species from the hexaploid wheat group (e.g. Triticum spelta L. Triticum compactum HOST... is representing an opportunity for the increase of heterosis level in the germplasm of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The study of combining ability and heterosis effect in hexaploid wheat group was carried out using crosses between thirteen inbred lines of common wheat (6 lines x 7 testers and inter-species crosses (T. aestivum L. × T. spelta L., T. aestivum L. × T. compactum HOST, T. aestivum L. × T. sphaerococcum PERCIV., T. aestivum L. × T. macha DEKAPR. et MENABDE, T. aestivum L. × T. petropavlovskyi UDACZ. et MIGUSCH, T. aestivum L. × T. vavilovii (THUM. JAKUBZ.. The 42 common wheat F1 hybrids were tested during two seasons (2010/11 and 2011/12 on the Selection center Ptuj. The experiment was carried out in a randomized block design with four replications. The 43 interspecies F1 hybrids were tested on the same location in the season 2011/12 and the experiment was designed as an randomized block with three replications. The results were analyzed using statistical package AGROBASE generation II and STATGRAPHICS Centurion XVI. The analysis of variance was significant for both, GCA and SCA variances (P < 0,01. Generally, SCA variances were lower than GCA variances. We could state, that the improvement of heterosis level in the common wheat germplasm through the use of relatives with the same genome (genome BAD is possible. As an example we can point out the interspecies F1 hybrid between common wheat variety Garcia and an accession of the Triticum sphaerococcum PERCIV. species (accession number 01C0201227.

  1. Combining ability of wheat parents in two generations

    OpenAIRE

    Elesandro Bornhofen; Giovani Benin; Gilvani Matei; Cristiano Lemes da Silva; Eduardo Beche; Eduardo Stefani Pagliosa; Thaís Raquel Hagemann; Cilas Pinnow

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study were to estimate the general ability and specific combining ability in ten wheat genotypes in two generations (F1 and F2) to indicate parents and hybrid combinations that are promising to achieve new favorable combinations. Ten wheat genotypes were hybridized in a complete diallel, without reciprocals, totaling 45 hybrid combinations. F1 hybrids and the F2 populations and parents were evaluated in a randomized block design with three replicates in spaced plant. The...

  2. Combining ability and heterosis effect in hexaploid wheat group

    OpenAIRE

    Titan Primož; Meglič Vladimir; Iskra Jernej

    2012-01-01

    The main goal of hybrid wheat breeding is the identification of parents with high specific combining ability for grain yield and other agronomic traits. This kind of data facilitate the development of hybrid combinations with high level of heterosis in first filial generation (F1 generation). The use of species from the hexaploid wheat group (e.g. Triticum spelta L. Triticum compactum HOST...) is representing an opportunity for the increase of heterosis lev...

  3. Selected items of wheat variation - from palaeobotany to molecular biology

    OpenAIRE

    Romuald Kosina

    2014-01-01

    The usefulness of data on ecotypes of wheat as well as of information about distribution of genes of hybrid necrosis for an interpretation of some questionable detections of fossil materials is emphasized. Variability of contemporary wheats is illustrated by means of morphology of lodicules, anatomical structure of caryopsis, morphology of embryo and features of epidermis of inflorescence bracts. These structures exhibit often a trend dependent on ploidy level. Discrimination of similar grain...

  4. Taxonomical classification and origin of Kamut(A (R)) wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Michalcová, V.; Dušinský, R.; Sabo, M.; Al Beyroutiová, M.; Hauptvogel, P.; Ivaničová, Z. (Zuzana); Švec, M.

    2014-01-01

    Bioagriculture and healthy lifestyle are trends of the twenty-first century. Bioagriculture involves the breeding of crops without using modern synthetic substances. Kamut brand wheat is one of the popular biocereals grown mainly in the USA and Europe. This cereal has the status of ancient wheat, not only because it has been grown since the era of the ancient Egyptian civilization, but also for its properties favorable for modern breeding programs and modern food marketing. In spite of Kamut'...

  5. Wheat and barley seed systems in Ethiopia and Syria

    OpenAIRE

    Bishaw, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Keywords: Wheat,Triticumspp., Barley,Hordeumvulgare L., Seed Systems, Formal Seed Sector, Informal Seed Sector, National Seed Program, Seed Source, Seed Selection, Seed Management, Seed Quality, Genetic Diversity, Ethiopia, SyriaInEthiopiaandSyria, wheat and barley are the two most important principal cereal crops grown since ancient times.Manygenerations of natural and human selection led into highly adapted and diverse populations of local landraces. For most of the history of agriculture, ...

  6. The fungal community changes over time in developing wheat heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Morten; Jensen, Iben Ravnborg; Jensen, Laura Østergaard; Thomsen, Søren Nøhr; Winde, Jacob; Dueholm, Morten Simonsen; Sørensen, Lydia Henriette; Wollenberg, Rasmus Dam; Sørensen, Hans Otto; Sondergaard, Teis Esben; Sørensen, Jens Laurids

    2016-04-01

    Under normal conditions, wheat is colonized by a multitude of fungi that can have beneficial or adverse effects on plant growth and yield. To study the effect of spraying wheat heads with fungicides on the fungal community from emergence to harvest we applied an amplicon sequencing approach on single wheat heads. The climatic data showed that the spring of 2014 was very dry and without precipitation in the two weeks around flowering. An initial quantitative PCR showed that the total amount of fungal DNA increased during the entire period, without significant difference between sprayed and control wheat heads. Amplicon sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region showed that operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified as Sporobolomyces roseus dominated in the first weeks, whereas Alternaria infectoria OTUs dominated in the last weeks before harvest. The only observed significant difference was that the control wheat heads contained more of the powdery mildew causing Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici OTUs compared with the sprayed wheat heads. The dry conditions around flowering most likely also had an effect on Fusarium head blight infection as Fusarium OTUs were only sporadically encountered. Analyses of secondary metabolites produced by Fusarium and Alternaria in the wheat heads confirmed the observations from the amplicon sequencing. Enniatin B was the most frequent contaminant present in four sprayed (49-538 ng/g) and three control (56-355 ng/g) wheat heads. The A. infectoria secondary metabolites infectopyrone and 4Z-infectopyrone were however consistently observed in all samples collected the last five weeks before harvest. PMID:26836252

  7. Drug transporters of the fungal wheat pathogen Mycosphaerella graminicola

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roohparvar, R.

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is the most important cereal crop in the world. It occupies 17% of the cultivated land and is the main source of food for 35% of the world population. InIran, wheat is the most important agricultural crop and b

  8. Effect of warming temperatures on US wheat yields

    OpenAIRE

    Tack, Jesse; Barkley, Andrew; Nalley, Lawton Lanier

    2015-01-01

    This study provides insights for wheat breeding efforts, public policy, and agricultural decision making related to climate change. Our findings provide opportunities for the international wheat breeding community to intensify research efforts to increase resistance to heat stress during focused developmental stages. These efforts could result in net positive warming effects since reduced exposure to freeze was found to be a yield-enhancing benefit of warming. Our results indicate that advanc...

  9. Marker Gene Delivery to Mature Wheat Embryos Via Particle Bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    Öktem, Hüseyin Avni; EYİDOGAN, Füsun (İnci); ERTUĞRUL, Fahriye; Yücel, Meral

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of transferring genes to mature wheat embryos ( Triticum aestivumL. and T. durum Desf.) via accelerated and DNA-coated tungsten particles was investigated. Mature embryos isolated from bread (cv. Atay) and durum (cv. Çakmak) wheat were utilised as targets for bombardment. DNA in the form of circular plasmid (pBSGUSINT) was precipitated on tungsten particles (ca. 2 mm diameter) using the calcium nitrate method. Mature embryos were bombarded by a microprocessor-controlled partic...

  10. Grain filling parameters and yield components in wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Brdar Milka; Kobiljski Borislav; Balalić-Kraljević Marija

    2006-01-01

    Grain yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is influenced by number of grains per unit area and grain weight, which is result of grain filling duration and rate. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationships between grain filling parameters in 4 wheat genotypes of different earliness and yield components. Nonlinear regression estimated and observed parameters were analyzed. Rang of estimated parameters corresponds to rang of observed parameters. Stepwise MANOVA indicated that the ...

  11. Amino acid protein composition of grain of common wheat mutants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative ratio of some amino acids changes in the grain of soft wheat morphological mutants with a high protein content. The soft wheat mutants developed, valuable for breeding, surpass the initial varieties in total protein content and the content of some amino acids in grain. The relative content of some amino acids in protein varies, and the stable sum of irreplaceable amino acids in it is retained

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Pretzel with Wheat Bran

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Păucean; Simona Man; Sevastiţa Muste; Anamaria Pop

    2015-01-01

    It is well supported that a significant intake of dietary fibre reduces the risk of several chronic diseases. The development of staple foods enriched with fibre is an important contribution to a broader supply of food products with health beneficial effect. In this context, partial substitution of wheat flour with wheat bran at levels of 3%, 5% and 10% was carried out to investigate physicochemical (moisture, ash, fiber and acidity)  and sensory properties of pretzel.  Sensory analyses inclu...

  13. Cleaner Production of Wheat Straw Pulp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄国林; 陈中胜; 张成芳

    2002-01-01

    A pulping method using NH4OH with less amount of KOH as cooking liquor on wheat straw was developed. KOH could reduce consumption of NH3 and cooking time for its strong alkalinity. The effects of various pulping conditions such as composition of cooking liquor, liquid-to-solid ratio, maximum temperature, cooking time to the maximum temperature and cooking time at the maximum temperature were studied. Experimental results indicated that the rate of delignification was 85.12( and the pulp yield was 49.65% under suitable pulping conditions. It looks promising to use black liquor containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium and organic substance as fertilizer resources for agricultural production. A new pattern of ecological cycling may be set up between paper industry and farming.

  14. Effects of gamma irradiation on wheat quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of gamma irradiation at the doses of 2.5,5.0,7.5,10.0 and 12.5 kGy on two bread wheat samples (Bezostaya and Gerek) with distinct physical and technological properties was investigated in this study.Irradiation at the levels used had no significant effect on the flour yields of both varieties.No apparent changes were observed in ash,protein and wet gluten contents of the irradiated samples and control.However,as the radiation level was increased the falling number and sedimentation values of the irradiated samples showed a steady decrease.Thiamine and riboflavin contents also decreased significantly with irradiation.Farinograph absorption increased with increasing radiation exposure.However, dough development time,stability and valorimeter values decreased as radiation levels increased.Maximum resistance to extension(Rm), resistance at constant deformation (R 5) and area(A) values of extensograms decreased in both varieties as radiation levels increased

  15. Somaclonal variation for disease resistance in wheat and production of dihaploids through wheat x maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeshwant R. Mehta

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Seven wheat cultivars having some degree of resistance to Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea or Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu provided somaclonal variation for disease resistance. Callus induction varied from 69.4 to 100% across the cultivars, whereas regeneration frequency of R1 plants (regenerated plants of first generation varied between 2.7 and 23.1%. Resistance variation in the R2-regenerated second generation plants was observed for B. sorokiniana and M. grisea but not for Xcu. Attempts were made to fix the resistance characteristics of R3-regenerated third generation somaclones through wheat x maize hybrids. Wheat and maize hybridization of seven wheat somaclones yielded 81 embryos. A total of 11,624 somaclone florets were pollinated, of which 8.4% produced haploid embryos across the seven wheat genotypes. Hybrid embryo production varied between 0 and 25%. The somaclones had a constant chromosome number as observed in their original hexaploid wheat genotypes (2n = 6x = 42 whereas the haploid plants had n = 21. Hybrid embryo production and haploid and dihaploid plant production were affected by 2,4-D concentration, but not by the wheat genotype.Sete cultivares de trigo possuindo certo nível de resistência a Bipolaris sorokiniana, Magnaporthe grisea, Xanthomonas campestris pv. undulosa (Xcu, foram usadas para variação somaclonal, a fim de induzir um nível maior de resistência. A freqüência de indução de calos variou entre 69,4 e 100 entre as cultivares, enquanto que, a freqüência de regeneração de plantas R1 variou entre 2,7 e 23,1, dependendo da cultivar. A variação para resistência entre as plantas de R2 foi observada para B. sorokiniana e M. grisea, mas não para Xcu. Procurou-se fixar as características de resistência dos somaclones (R3 através de hibridação com milho. A hibridação entre trigo e milho produziu 81 embriões zigotos. Um total de 11.624 flores de somaclones foram polinizadas, das

  16. An econometric analysis of U.S. vital wheat gluten imports

    OpenAIRE

    Ortalo-Magne, Francois; Goodwin, Barry K.

    1992-01-01

    In light of the wheat wet milling industry's development in the E. C. and of the prominent role U.S imports play in the international market for wheat gluten, this paper discusses the international market for wheat gluten, an important component of processed grain products. An econometric analysis of the U.S. import demand for wheat gluten is undertaken. The price of flour, income, and the U.S. value of wheat protein are found to be important determinants of wheat gluten imports.

  17. Molecular characterization and functional analysis of elite genes in wheat and its related species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jirui Wang; Pengfei Qi; Yuming Wei; Dengcai Liu; George Fedak; Youliang Zheng

    2010-12-01

    The tribe Triticeae includes major cereal crops (bread wheat, durum wheat, triticale, barley and rye), as well as abundant forage and lawn grasses. Wheat and its wild related species possess numerous favourable genes for yield improvement, grain quality enhancement, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, and constitute a giant gene pool for wheat improvement. In recent years, significant progress on molecular characterization and functional analysis of elite genes in wheat and its related species have been achieved. In this paper, we review the cloned functional genes correlated with grain quality, biotic and abiotic stress resistance, photosystem and nutrition utilization in wheat and its related species.

  18. ESR detection of wheat flour before and after irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoyama, Yuhei; Ukai, Mitsuko; Nakamura, Hideo

    2006-03-01

    We revealed free radicals in wheat flour before and after γ-ray irradiation and their thermal behavior during heat-treatment using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The ESR spectrum of wheat flour before irradiation consists of a sextet centered at g = 2.0 and a singlet signal at the same g-value position. The first one is attributable to a signal with hyperfine (hf) interactions of Mn 2+ ion (hf constant: 7.4 mT). The second is originated from carbon-centered radical. Upon γ-ray irradiation, however, a new signal with two triplet lines at the low and high field ends was detected in wheat flour on top of the Mn 2+ sextet lines. We analyzed the triplet ESR lines as powder spectra (rhombic g-tensor symmetry) with nitrogen ( 14N) hyperfine interactions. This indicates that a new organic radical was induced in the conjugated protein portion of wheat flour by the γ-ray irradiation. Intensity of the organic free radical at g = 2.0 detected in irradiated wheat flour increased monotonically by the thermal treatment. The analysis of the time-dependent evolution and decay process based on the theory of transient phenomena as well as the nonlinear least-squares numerical method provided a unique time constant for the radical evolution and decay in wheat flour during the heat-treatment.

  19. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads. PMID:24915406

  20. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  1. New evidence for grain specific C4 photosynthesis in wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangan, Parimalan; Furtado, Agnelo; Henry, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    The C4 photosynthetic pathway evolved to allow efficient CO2 capture by plants where effective carbon supply may be limiting as in hot or dry environments, explaining the high growth rates of C4 plants such as maize. Important crops such as wheat and rice are C3 plants resulting in efforts to engineer them to use the C4 pathway. Here we show the presence of a C4 photosynthetic pathway in the developing wheat grain that is absent in the leaves. Genes specific for C4 photosynthesis were identified in the wheat genome and found to be preferentially expressed in the photosynthetic pericarp tissue (cross- and tube-cell layers) of the wheat caryopsis. The chloroplasts exhibit dimorphism that corresponds to chloroplasts of mesophyll- and bundle sheath-cells in leaves of classical C4 plants. Breeding to optimize the relative contributions of C3 and C4 photosynthesis may adapt wheat to climate change, contributing to wheat food security. PMID:27530078

  2. Compositional Study for Improving Wheat Flour with Functional Ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Apostol

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Helianthus tuberosus L. is cultivated widely across for its edible tuber. As a source of inulin with aperient, cholagogue and tonic effects, its tubers have been used for the treatment of diabetes. Also, the leaves of Helianthus tuberosus L. show antipyretic, analgesic effects and are therefore used for the treatment of bone fracture, skin wound and pain. The main aim of this study is to establish the optimum dose from rheological and nutritional point of view of Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber flour and leaves flour used as functional ingredient in bakery products industry. The types of mixtures of flours used in this study was: P1–100% wheat flour; P2-93% wheat flour + 7% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 2% leaves; P3-92% wheat flour + 8% Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 3% leaves; P4- 90% wheat flour + 10%  Helianthus tuberosus (5% tuber + 5% leaves; P5 -100% Helianthus tuber; P6- Helianthus leaves. The potential functional of wheat flour enriched with the Helianthus tuberosus, in different proportions, was evaluated concerning chemical composition and rheological behaviour of the doughs. Adding of the Helianthus tuberosus L. tuber and leaves provoked an effect increasing the levels of inulin, minerals and fiber in wheat flour. The rheological properties of dough showed that P2, kept the rheological parameters for the technological behavior in order to obtain an acceptable quality of the bakery products. 

  3. Changes in Root Hydraulic Conductivity During Wheat Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang-Xing ZHAO; Xi-Ping DENG; Lun SHAN; Ernst STEUDLE; Sui-Qi ZHANG; Qing YE

    2005-01-01

    A better understanding of the mechanisms of water uptake by plant roots should be vital for improving drought resistance and water use efficiency (WUE). In the present study, we have demonstrated correlations between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics during evolution using six wheat evolution genotypes (solution culture) with different ploidy chromosome sets (Triticum boeoticum Bioss., T. monococcum L.: 2n = 2x = 14; T. dicoccides Koern., T. dicoccon (Schrank) Schuebl.: 2n = 4x = 28;T. vulgare Vill., T. aestivum L. cv. Xiaoyan No. 6: 2n = 6x = 42). The experimental results showed that significant correlations were found between root system hydraulic conductivity and root characteristics of the materials with the increase in ploidy chromosomes (2x→6x) during wheat evolution. Hydraulic conductivity of the wheat root system at the whole-plant level was increased with chromosome ploidy during evolution, which was positively correlated with hydraulic conductivity of single roots, whole plant biomass,root average diameter, and root growth (length, area), whereas the root/shoot ratio had an inverse correlation with the hydraulic conductivity of root system with increasing chromosome ploidy during wheat evolution. Therefore, it is concluded that that the water uptake ability of wheat roots was strengthened from wild to modern cultivated species during evolution, which will provide scientific evidence for genetic breeding to improve the WUE of wheat by genetic engineering.

  4. Physiological and molecular changes in barley and wheat under salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Aslihan; Gozukirmizi, Nermin

    2015-03-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare salinity-induced changes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bornova-92) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Gerek-79). Seeds were germinated under saline conditions (0, 50, 100, 250, and 500 mM NaCl) for 2 days and recovered under non-saline conditions for 2 days. At the end of the salt treatment, germination, water content (WC), total soluble protein content, and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity were affected in both species, while superoxide dismutase (SOD, EC 1.15.1.1) activity was affected in barley. Salinity affected WC, protein content, and CAT activity in both species, while it affected germination in barley and affected fresh weight and SOD activity in wheat after recovery. Physiological responses of both species were correlated. Expression of α-tubulin, Atls1, and Lls1 genes was down-regulated in barley after 250 mM NaCl treatment. HVA1 gene was highly (more than 50-fold) stimulated by salinity in barley. However, α-tubulin and Atls1 genes were down-regulated, and Lls1 gene was up-regulated in wheat after recovery from 250-mM NaCl treatment. Increase in HVA1 expression was not significant in wheat. The expression profiles of barley and wheat under salinity are different, and barley tended to regulate gene expression faster than wheat. PMID:25578157

  5. Morpho-physiological adaptations of wheat genotypes to salinity stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore morpho-physiological alteration in wheat for salinity tolerance, a glass house experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications at Nuclear Institute of Agriculture, (NIA) Tando Jam, Pakistan. Studies were conducted with two levels of salinity (Control, and 12 dS m-1 NaCl) and five wheat genotypes. Due to salinity stress morphological and yield attributes like plant height, total tillers, productive tillers, spike length, number of spikelets per spike, number of grain per spike, 1000 grain weight, grain weight per plant were decreased in all wheat genotypes, however, wheat ESW-9525 showed significantly less reduction in all these parameters than other wheat genotypes. Biochemical attributes like proline glycine betaine and total soluble sugars were increased in all the genotypes due to salinity. Wheat genotype Bakhtawar maintained the highest Na while the minimum Na contents were found in ESW-9525 that had the highest correlation with grain yield. The tolerant and stable cultivars were ESW-9525 and Sarsabz which had highest yield at 12 dS m-1 salinity than other cultivars. (author)

  6. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  7. Effect of salt solutions applied during wheat conditioning on lipase activity and lipid stability of whole wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doblado-Maldonado, Andrés F; Arndt, Elizabeth A; Rose, Devin J

    2013-09-01

    Lipolytic activity in whole wheat flour (WWF) is largely responsible for the loss in baking quality during storage. Metal ions affect the activity of seed lipases; however, no previous studies have applied this information to WWF in a way that reduces lipase activity, is practical for commercial manufacture, and uses common food ingredients. NaCl, KCl, Ca-propionate, or FeNa-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (FeNa-EDTA) were applied to hard red winter (HRW) and hard white spring (HWS) wheats during conditioning as aqueous solutions at concentrations that would be acceptable in baked goods. Salts affected lipase activity to different degrees depending on the type of wheat used. Inhibition was greater in HRW compared with HWS WWF, probably due to higher lipase activity in HRW wheat. In HRW WWF, 1% NaCl (flour weight) reduced hydrolytic and oxidative rancidity and resulted in higher loaf volume and lower firmness than untreated WWF after 24 weeks of storage. PMID:23578634

  8. Evolutionary history of the mitochondrial genome in Mycosphaerella populations infecting bread wheat, durum wheat and wild grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Stefano F F; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2011-02-01

    Plant pathogens emerge in agro-ecosystems following different evolutionary mechanisms over different time scales. Previous analyses based on sequence variation at six nuclear loci indicated that Mycosphaerella graminicola diverged from an ancestral population adapted to wild grasses during the process of wheat domestication approximately 10,500 years ago. We tested this hypothesis by conducting coalescence analyses based on four mitochondrial loci using 143 isolates that included four closely related pathogen species originating from four continents. Pathogen isolates from bread and durum wheat were included to evaluate the emergence of specificity towards these hosts in M. graminicola. Although mitochondrial and nuclear genomes differed greatly in degree of genetic variability, their coalescence was remarkably congruent, supporting the proposed origin of M. graminicola through host tracking. The coalescence analysis was unable to trace M. graminicola host specificity through recent evolutionary time, indicating that the specificity towards durum or bread wheat emerged following the domestication of the pathogen on wheat. PMID:21145978

  9. A trispecies Aspergillus microarray: Comparative transcriptomics of three Aspergillus species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Vongsangnak, Wanwipa; Panagiotou, Gianni; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Lehmann, Linda Olkjær; Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    The full-genome sequencing of the filamentous fungi Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus oryzae has opened possibilities for studying the cellular physiology of these fungi on a systemic level. As a tool to explore this, we are making available an Affymetrix GeneChip developed...

  10. Evaluation of the performance of a p53 sequencing microarray chip using 140 previously sequenced bladder tumor samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikman, Friedrik; Lu, Ming-Lan; Andersen, Thomas Thykjær;

    2000-01-01

    available chip and describes a method to increase the specificity of the chip. Methods: DNA from 140 human bladder tumors was extracted and subjected to a multiplex-PCR before loading onto the p53 GeneChip from Affymetrix. The same samples were previously sequenced by manual dideoxy sequencing. In addition...

  11. Analysis of Large Genomic Data in Silico: The EPICNorfolk Study of Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jing Hua; Luan, Jian'an; Tan, Qihua;

    In human genetics, large-scale data are now available with advances in genotyping technologies and international collaborative projects. Our ongoing study of obesity involves Affymetrix 500k genechips on approximately 7000 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC...

  12. Gene Expression Profiling and Functional Analysis of Spore Germination in Fusarium graminearum

    Science.gov (United States)

    A full genome study on conidia and ascospores has been carried out using F. graminearum Affymetrix GeneChips to compare gene expression during germination in complete medium at 0, 2, 8, 24 hours and after 10 days of drought stress. The total number of genes detected in at least one time point was si...

  13. Characterizing the porcine transcriptional regulatory response to infection by Salmonella: identifying putative new NFkB direct targets through comparative bioinformatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have collected data on host response to infection from RNA prepared from mesenteric lymph node of swine infected with either Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) or S. Choleraesuis (SC) using the porcine Affymetrix GeneChip. We identified 848 (ST) and 1,853 (SC) genes with statistical evi...

  14. QTL for leaf blotch resistance in spring wheat, and a method to inoculate wheat seedlings with Stagonospora nodorum

    OpenAIRE

    Ruud, Anja Karine

    2013-01-01

    Leaf blotch diseases caused by Stagonospora nodorum, Septoria tritici and Pyrenophora tritici-repentis are important foliar diseases in wheat. The inheritance of resistance to these diseases appears to be quantitative, but recent research indicates that several host-specific interactions are involved. In this thesis, quantitative resistance was evaluated on a doubled haploid spring wheat population derived from a cross between Arina × NK93604. Adult plant resistance to leaf blo...

  15. Influence of carrot pomace powder on the rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and on wheat rolls quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdová

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Background.Vegetable by-products are considered as good sources of dietary fibre and other biologically important compounds. Moreover, they are inexpensive and are available in large quantities. The objective of this study was to determine chemical composition and hydration properties of dietary fibrerich carrot pomace powder. The impact supplementation of carrot pomace at different levels (replacing of fine wheat flour with 1, 3, 5 and 10% of carrot pomace on farinographic properties of wheat dough and qualitative and sensory characteristics of wheat rolls were also evaluated. Material and methods. Chemical analyses included determination of moisture, ash, fat, proteins and total dietary fibre. Hydration properties such as water holding, water retention and swelling capacity were also de- termined. Rheological parameters of carrot pomace powder incorporated wheat doughs were determined by farinograph.Wheat rolls were evaluated for their qualitative (volume, cambering and sensory characteristics. Results.Carrot pomace powder was found as good source of total dietary fibre and showed high values of hydration properties. Incorporation of this by-product to wheat dough influences farinographic characteristics (increasing of water absorption, dough development time and dough stability, decreasing of mixing tolerance index of dough and qualitative parameters of final products (decreasing of loaf volume and cambering. From the sensory evaluation resulted that loaves incorporated with carrot pomace powder up to 3% were the most acceptable for assessors. Conclusions. Carrot pomace powder can be considered as suitable functional ingredient for wheat rolls. Enrichment wheat flour with low concentrations of carrot pomace powder (1 and 3% not only increases nutrition value of products but also did not have significantimpact on their quality and sensory acceptability.

  16. Using Synchrotron Radiation-Based Infrared Microspectroscopy to Reveal Microchemical Structure Characterization: Frost Damaged Wheat vs. Normal Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Xuewei Zhang; Hangshu Xin; Peiqiang Yu

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare: (1) protein chemical characteristics, including the amide I and II region, as well as protein secondary structure; and (2) carbohydrate internal structure and functional groups spectral intensities between the frost damaged wheat and normal wheat using synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (SR-FTIRM). Fingerprint regions of specific interest in our study involved protein and carbohydrate functional group band assignments,...

  17. Ancestral QTL alleles from wild emmer wheat improve grain yield, biomass and photosynthesis across enviroinments in modern wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Fahima, Tzion; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-10-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving drought resistance in domesticated wheat. Nevertheless, wild germplasm has not been widely used in wheat breeding for abiotic stress resilience. In the current study, a near isogenic line NIL-7A-B-2, introgressed with a drought-related QTL from wild emmer wheat on chromosome 7A, and its recurrent parent, bread wheat cv. BarNir, were investigated under four environments across 2 years-water-limited and well-watered conditions in a rain-protected screen-house (Year 1) and two commercial open field plots under ample precipitation (Year 2). NIL-7A-B-2 exhibited an advantage over BarNir in grain yield and biomass production under most environments. Further physiological analyses suggested that enhanced photosynthetic capacity and photochemistry combined with higher flag leaf area are among the factors underlying the improved productivity of NIL-7A-B-2. These were coupled with improved sink capacity in NIL-7A-B-2, manifested by greater yield components than its parental line. This study provides further support for our previous findings that introgression of wild emmer QTL alleles, using marker assisted selection, can enhance grain yield and biomass production across environments in domesticated wheat, thereby enriching the modern gene pool with essential diversity for the improvement of yield and drought resistance. PMID:27593460

  18. Winter Wheat Row Spacing and Alternative Crop Effects on Relay-Intercrop, Double-Crop, and Wheat Yields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leah Sandler

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Missouri as well as much of the Midwest, the most popular double-cropping system was winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. followed by soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. These two crops can also be used in an intercrop system, but optimal row spacing was important to increase crop productivity. Research was conducted to evaluate (1 winter wheat inter- and double-crop production systems, using a variety of alternative crops, and (2 the impact of different wheat row spacings on intercrop establishment and yields within the various cropping systems. Field research was conducted during droughts in 2012 and 2013. Spacing of wheat rows impacted wheat yields by 150 kg ha−1, as well as yields of the alternative crops. Narrower row spacings (150 kg ha−1 and the double-crop system (575 kg ha−1 increased yield due to the lack of interference for resources with wheat in 2013. Land equivalent ratio (LER values determining productivity of intercrop systems of 19 and 38 cm row showed an advantage for alternative crops in 2013, but not 2012. This signified that farmers in Northeast Missouri could potentially boost yield potential for a given field and produce additional forage or green manure yields in a year with less severe drought.

  19. Varying dietary levels of wheat pollard and wheat bran in growing pigs: effect on growth and carcass traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwesigwa, Robert; Mutetikka, David; Kabugo, Stephen; Kugonza, Donald Rugira

    2013-11-01

    To study the effect of increasing levels of wheat pollard as a replacement for wheat bran on growth and carcass characteristics of growing pigs, 64 crossbred (Landrace × Large white Yorkshire) pigs were fed with diets in which wheat pollard was added back to wheat bran in ratios of 15, 30, 45 and 60 %. The pigs were divided into groups of four, balanced for sex, ancestry and body weight. They were then allotted to the dietary treatments in a completely randomised design with four replications. The trial lasted 4 months and data were collected on feed intake and weight gain. A digestibility trial was carried out on eight male pigs per treatment during the growth period. At the end of the growth period, two pigs per replicate in each treatment (n = 32) were slaughtered for determination of carcass characteristics. There were significant differences in the rate of gain and efficiency of feed utilisation among treatments. Diet significantly affected weights of the liver, lungs and small intestine (P pigs and that substituting wheat bran by wheat pollard at 60 % improved the pig's average daily gain and feed efficiency. PMID:23846767

  20. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic Studies Of Wheat In The Mid Infrared

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinger, Jill M.; Griffiths, Peter R.

    1989-12-01

    Official grain standards of the United States state that wheat may be divided into seven classes which are: Durum, Red Durum, Hard Red Spring, Hard Red Winter, Soft Red Winter, White, and Mixed.1 Most end uses of wheat involve converting the grain into flour through one of a variety of grinding methods. The quality of wheat-based products is often very dependent upon the type or class of wheat which was used to make the flour. Pasta products, for example, are made almost exclusively from the flour of durum wheats, which are the hardest of the wheats listed above. The highest quality breads are produced using flour from wheats classed as hard, whereas cakes, cookies and pastries are considered best when flour from wheats classed as soft are used. It is obvious then that the capability of determining the class of a particular wheat, especially with respect to hardness, is of economic importance to growers, processors, and merchants of wheat and wheat products. Hardness has been measured in many different ways 2-5 but, as of yet, no one method has become the method of choice. This paper reports on the use of principal components analysis (PCA) of mid infrared diffuse reflectance (DR) spectra of diluted ground wheats to aid in the classification of those wheats with respect to their hardness. The theory and mathematics involved in a principal component analysis have been described elsewhere.9

  1. Pollen flow of wheat under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River Wheat Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ai-Qing; Zhang, Chun-Qing; Wu, Cheng-Lai; Gao, Qing-Rong

    2015-01-01

    The transgenic pollen spread is the main pathway of transgenic plant gene flow. The maximum distance of pollen dispersal (horizontal), the spatial dynamics of pollen movement (vertical), and the patterns of pollen dispersal are important considerations in biosafety assessments of genetically modified crops. To evaluate wheat (Triticum aestivum) pollen dispersal, we measured the pollen suspension velocity and analyzed pollen dispersal patterns under natural conditions in the Huanghuai River wheat-growing region in 2009. The pollen suspension velocity was 0.3-0.4 m/s. The highest pollen densities were detected in the north, northwest, and south of the pollen source. Pollen was dispersed over distances greater than 245 m in the northwest and northeast directions. At the pollen source center, pollen density decreased with increasing vertical height. In the north of the pollen source, the pollen density from 65 m to 225 m showed a wave-mode decrease with increasing height. The horizontal transport of pollen over longer distances fitted polynomial equations. In the north, the pollen density was highest at 45 m from the pollen source, and decreased with increasing distance. In the northwest, the pollen density showed a double-peak trend. In the northeast, pollen density was highest from 45 m to 125 m from the source. Wind speeds greater than the pollen suspension velocity and the duration of continuous gusts were the main factors affecting pollen dispersal. This information will be useful for determining the spatial isolation distances for hybrid seed production and for the commercial production of transgenic wheat. PMID:25658025

  2. A Knowledge Model System for Wheat Production Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yan; CAO Wei-Xing; DAI Ting-Bo; TIAN Yong-Chao; YAO Xia

    2007-01-01

    A knowledge model with temporal and spatial characteristics for the quantitative design of a cultural pattern in wheat production,using systems analysis and dynamic modeling techniques,was developed for wheat management,as a decision-making tool in digital farming.The fundamental relationships and algorithms of wheat growth indices and management criteria to cultivars,ecological environments,and production levels were derived from the existing literature and research data to establish a knowledge model system for quantitative wheat management using Visual C++.The system designed a cultural management plan for general management guidelines and crop regulation indices for timecourse control criteria during the wheat-growing period.The cultural management plan module included submodels to determine target grain yield and quality,cultivar choice,sowing date,population density,sowing rate,fertilization strategy,and Water management,whereas the crop regulation indices module included submodels for suitable development stages,dynamic growth indices,source-sink indices,and nutrient indices.Evaluation of the knowledge model by design studies on the basis of data sets of different eco-sites,cultivars,and soil types indicated a favorable performance of the model system in recommending growth indices and management criteria under diverse conditions.Practical application of the knowledge model system in comparative field experiments produced yield gains of 2.4%to 16.5%.Thus,the presented knowledge model system overcame some of the difficulties of the traditional wheat management patterns and expert systems,and laid a foundation for facilitating the digitization of wheat management.

  3. Price Conduction Mechanism of China’s Wheat Industry Chain Based on VECM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiyan; ZHU

    2015-01-01

    With the aid of the VECM( vector error correction model),this paper studied dynamic effect of wheat price and flour price conduction mechanism in the wheat industry chain. Study results indicate that in a long term,wheat price and flour price have equilibrium relationship. Through threshold co-integration test,it found that there is no threshold co-integration relationship between wheat price and flour price.This can be adjusted using the linear error correction mode. In a short term,the wheat price and flour price have Granger causality relationship. When the price deviates from equilibrium state,the flour price can be adjusted and regressed to equilibrium state,but the speed of wheat price regressing to equilibrium state is slow. Finally,the impulse response function analysis indicates that fluctuation of the wheat price can bring huge and sustained impact to wheat and flour market.

  4. Evaluation of Genetic Diversity in Wild Diploid Wheat Triticum boeoticum from Iran Using AFLP Markers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.R. Naghavi; M. Malaki; H. Alizadeh; M. Mardi; Fakhre-Tabatabaei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Although Iran is a main center of distribution of wild wheats, but little information is available regarding genetic variation in wild wheat relatives from this country (Tabatabaei and Massoumi, 2001).

  5. Mapping QTLs for Yield Stability in Durum Wheat Grown under Different Water Regimes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.C. Sanguineti; A. E1-Ahmed; I. Elouafi; F. Maalouf; V. Martos; M.M. Nachit; N.Nserallah; H. Ouabbou; Y. Rharrabti; S. Rhouma; C. Royo; M. Maccaferri; A. Slama; D. Villegas; R. Tuberosa; E. Natoli; J.L. Araus-Ortega; M.B. Salem; J.Bort; E. de Ambrogio; L.F.G. del Moral; A. de Montis

    2007-01-01

    @@ Among the most important Mediterranean annual crops, durum wheat is widely grown in drought-prone areas. Therefore, improving water-use efficiency (WUE) of durum wheat represents a major breeding goal.

  6. Studies on Maximum Yield of Wheat and Other Small Grains in Controlled Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, F. B.; Albrechtsen, R. S.; Campbell, W. F.; Dewey, W. G.

    1982-01-01

    Maximum yield of wheat and perhaps other small grains under controlled environmental conditions; cultivars, photosynthesis, nutrient levels, and humidity and plant water potential; promoting grain maturation; cross gradient chamber design; and single celled clonal multiplication of wheat plants are outlined.

  7. Tailoring wheat management to ENSO phases for increased wheat production in Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A. Ramirez-Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reported regional wheat yields in Paraguay vary from 1 to 3 t/ha from year to year, but appear not to be correlated with El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO phases. Historical weather data from two locations in representative wheat-growing regions of Paraguay, Encarnación-Itapúa and Ciudad del Este-Alto Paraná combined with crop modeling, were analyzed to optimize nitrogen (N fertilizer application rates according to the ENSO phase of a growing season. The ENSO phase of a growing season was defined based on the average of the sea surface temperature (SST anomalies in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific region for the period June–October using the El Niño region 3.0 index (Niño 3.0. Simulated average yields in Alto Paraná were higher in the drier and cooler La Niña wheat-growing seasons (average of 3.5 t/ha compared to the other phases (average of 3.2 t/ha and in Itapúa, in Neutral seasons (average of 3.8 t/ha compared to the other phases (average of 3.7 t/ha. Accordingly, optimal N fertilizer applications ranged between 20 and 60 kg N/ha between phases depending on the sowing date, soil type and initial amount of soil water content. Applying an ENSO or General Circulation Model (GCM-based forecast for ENSO-season-type specific N fertilizer applications resulted in benefits of >100 US$/ha when compared with current farmers’ practice of consistently low N fertilizer applications in Paraguay. When N management based on forecasts was compared with optimized N application without forecast, the benefits of the forecast was only up to 8 US$/ha. The ENSO-persistence-based forecast showed higher values than the GCM-based forecasts with two lead-times but lower skill. Using climate information can significantly increase current wheat yields and gross margins in Paraguay by tailoring N fertilizer applications to the Niño 3.0-defined ENSO phases, which can be forecasted with moderate skill at the beginning of the growing season.

  8. Reproduction and Population Dynamics as Biotypic Markers of Russian Wheat Aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov)

    OpenAIRE

    Watson Ngenya; Joyce Malinga; Isaiah Tabu; Emily Masinde

    2016-01-01

    Russian wheat aphid Diuraphis noxia (Kurdjumov) is widely established in wheat-growing countries where it causes significant economic losses. The development and use of Russian wheat aphid (RWA)-resistant wheat varieties has been constrained by the variation in resident RWA populations and the evolution of virulent biotypes. An experiment was set up at the Kenya Agricultural and Livestock Research Organization (KALRO), Njoro, to characterize RWA populations based on phenotypic characteristics...

  9. Genetic variation in wheat germplasm for salinity tolerance atseedling stage: improved statistical inference

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, Babar; KHAN, ABDUS SALAM; Ali, Zulfiqar

    2015-01-01

    Salinity is the major threat to global wheat production, particularly in arid and semiarid areas. Breeding salt-tolerant cultivars is one feasible solution, while the presence of genetic variation is a prerequisite for genetic improvement. To detect genetic variation for salt tolerance in wheat, a total of 150 wheat genotypes were tested for seedling-stage tolerance response at 300 mM NaCl in hydroponic culture. Significant differences (P ≤ 0.001) were identified in wheat for seedling ...

  10. EKSTRAKSI DAN ANALISIS FITOSTEROL LEMBAGA GANDUM [Extraction and analysis of Phytosterol from wheat germ (Triticum sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Latifah K. Darusman; Deddy Muchtadi2); Hidayat Syarief; Sri Anna Marliyati; Rimbawan Rimbawan

    2005-01-01

    Phytosterol may reduce the absorption of cholesterol, and used for preventing atherosclerosis. It is limited in soybean, but potentially abundant in wheat germ. Research on the utilization of wheat germ sterol had not been reported so far. Many aspects of germ sterol extraction from wheat germ and its characteristics were still unknown. In this research, the best extraction method, kinds and content of phytosterol from wheat germ were investigated.This research consisted of two steps: (1) ext...

  11. Genetic diversity for grain nutrients in wild emmer wheat—potential for wheat improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzav, Merav; Peleg, Zvi; Öztürk, Levent; Ozturk, Levent; Yazıcı, Mustafa Atilla; Yazici, Mustafa Atilla; Fahima, Tzion; ÇAKMAK, İsmail; Cakmak, Ismail; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2009-01-01

    Genetic diversity for grain nutrients in wild emmer wheat – A potential for wheat improvement Merav Chatzav1‡, Zvi Peleg1‡, Tzion Fahima2, Ismail Cakmak3, Yehoshua Saranga1* Abstract • Background and Aims - Mineral nutrient malnutrition, and particularly deficiency in zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe), afflicts over three billion people worldwide. In the current study wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides (Körn.) Thell.), the progenitor of domesticated wheats, was teste...

  12. Effects of Super Absorbent Resin on Quality and Yield in Dryland Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Yafei Wang; Liyuan Yan; Yan Shi

    2015-01-01

    In order to find an appropriate Super Absorbent Resin (SAR) application amount and improve the quality and yield in dryland wheat. The effects of SAR on quality and yield in dryland wheat had been studied with Jimai 22 as the experimental material. The results proved that, under the condition of this experiment, SAR improved the crude protein content and sedimentation value of wheat. It extended the developing time of wheat dough and shortened the settling time. Within a certain range, with t...

  13. De Novo Centromere Formation and Centromeric Sequence Expansion in Wheat and its Wide Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Xiang Guo; Handong Su; Qinghua Shi; Shulan Fu; Jing Wang; Xiangqi Zhang; Zanmin Hu; Fangpu Han

    2016-01-01

    Centromeres typically contain tandem repeat sequences, but centromere function does not necessarily depend on these sequences. We identified functional centromeres with significant quantitative changes in the centromeric retrotransposons of wheat (CRW) contents in wheat aneuploids (Triticum aestivum) and the offspring of wheat wide hybrids. The CRW signals were strongly reduced or essentially lost in some wheat ditelosomic lines and in the addition lines from the wide hybrids. The total loss ...

  14. Identification of New Aquaporin Genes and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, B.; P.Sharma; Pandey, D.M.; I Sharma; Chatrath, R.

    2013-01-01

    Major facilitators of water movement through plant cell membranes include aquaporin proteins. Wheat is among the largest and most important cereal crops worldwide; however, unlike other model plants such as rice, maize and Arabidopsis, little has been reported on wheat major intrinsic proteins (MIPs). This study presents a comprehensive computational identification of 349 new wheat expressed sequence tags (ESTs), encoding 13 wheat aquaporin genes. Identified aquaporins consist of 6 plasma mem...

  15. Role of Wheat in Diversified Cropping Systems in Dryland Agriculture of Central Asia

    OpenAIRE

    SULEIMENOV*, Mekhlis; AKHMETOV, Kanat; KASKARBAYEV, Zheksembay; KIREYEV, Aitkalym

    2005-01-01

    Wheat is major crop in dryland agriculture of Central Asia. In most cases both spring wheat and winter wheat are grown in rotation with summer fallow. Studies were conducted in order to identify alternative crops which possibly could replace part of summer fallow and part of wheat area. Summer fallow was found inefficient practice for soil moisture accumulation in semiarid steppes of northern and southern Kazakhstan as well as in Kyrgyzstan. Many alternative crops were identified in all zones...

  16. Impact of transgenic wheat with wheat yellow mosaic virus resistance on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirong Wu

    Full Text Available The transgenic wheat line N12-1 containing the WYMV-Nib8 gene was obtained previously through particle bombardment, and it can effectively control the wheat yellow mosaic virus (WYMV disease transmitted by Polymyxa graminis at turngreen stage. Due to insertion of an exogenous gene, the transcriptome of wheat may be altered and affect root exudates. Thus, it is important to investigate the potential environmental risk of transgenic wheat before commercial release because of potential undesirable ecological side effects. Our 2-year study at two different experimental locations was performed to analyze the impact of transgenic wheat N12-1 on bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil using polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE at four growth stages (seeding stage, turngreen stage, grain-filling stage, and maturing stage. We also explored the activities of urease, sucrase and dehydrogenase in rhizosphere soil. The results showed that there was little difference in bacterial and fungal community diversity in rhizosphere soil between N12-1 and its recipient Y158 by comparing Shannon's, Simpson's diversity index and evenness (except at one or two growth stages. Regarding enzyme activity, only one significant difference was found during the maturing stage at Xinxiang in 2011 for dehydrogenase. Significant growth stage variation was observed during 2 years at two experimental locations for both soil microbial community diversity and enzyme activity. Analysis of bands from the gel for fungal community diversity showed that the majority of fungi were uncultured. The results of this study suggested that virus-resistant transgenic wheat had no adverse impact on microbial community diversity and enzyme activity in rhizosphere soil during 2 continuous years at two different experimental locations. This study provides a theoretical basis for environmental impact monitoring of transgenic wheat when the

  17. Heteroplasmy and paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids during backcrosses with wheat parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksyonova, Elena; Sinyavskaya, Marina; Danilenko, Nina; Pershina, Lidia; Nakamura, Chiharu; Davydenko, Oleg

    2005-10-01

    Mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (ct) genome inheritance was studied in barley-wheat hybrids, as were their progenies obtained from backcrosses with different common wheat cultivars, by monitoring the composition of 4 mtDNA (coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob, nad3-orf156, and 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S) and 2 ctDNA (simple-sequence repeat locus downstream of trnS and a 3'-flanking region of rbcL) loci. In male sterile F1 and BC1 plants, maternal barley mtDNA fragments were mainly detected and very low levels of paternal wheat fragments were occasionally detected by PCR in coxI, a 5'-flanking region of cob and nad3-orf156, whereas a 5'-upstream region of 18S/5S showed clear heteroplasmy, containing both maternal and paternal copies, with maternal copies prevailing. Plants showing such heteroplasmic mtDNA composition remained either semisterile or became completely sterile in the later backcross generations. Only maternal ctDNA copies were detected in these plants. In 3 stable, self-fertile, and vigourous lines obtained in the advanced backcross generations and possessing recombinant wheat nuclear genome, however, only mt- and ctDNA copies of wheat parents were detected; thus, the original alloplasmic condition appeared to be lost. Our results suggest that transmission followed by selective replication of the paternal wheat organellar DNA leads to a paternally oriented shift of the organellar DNA composition in barley-wheat hybrids, which correlates with the restoration of fertility and plant vigour. These 2 processes seem to be related to nucleocytoplasmic compatibility and to be under the control of the nuclear genome composition. PMID:16391682

  18. Soil chemicals properties and wheat genotype impact on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krunoslav Karalić

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim To determine impact of soil chemical properties and different wheat genotypes in Croatia on micronutrient and toxic elements content in wheat integral flour. Methods Research was conducted and soil samples were collected from two different production areas in the Republic of Croatia: Ovčara and Dalj. Besides soil samples, grain samples of four different Croatian wheat genotypes were also collected and analyzed. In total, 40 samples of soil and 40 samples of wheat grain were analysed for total (aqua regia and plant available (EDTA extraction heavy metal content of Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd. Results Determined soil pHKCl ranged from 5.63 to 6.25 at Ovčara and from 6.95 to 7.37 at Dalj sampling sites. The highest total concentration of heavy metals in soil were determined for Fe, followed by Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and the lowest total concentration wasrecorded for Cd. The highest EDTA concentrations in soil were determined for Mn, than followed by Fe, Cu, Pb, and the lowest EDTA concentration was recorded for Cd. The highest concentration in integral wheat flour was found for Fe, than lower for Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb and the lowest concentration was found for Cd. If consumers in Croatia used daily 203 g of bread made of integral flour, they would take 2.31 to 8.44 µg Cd daily, depending on soil and wheat genotype.Conclusion The analysed soil and winter wheat genotypes have significant impact on potential daily intake of toxic and essentialheavy metals by integral flour or bread.

  19. Introgression of FHB Resistance from Alien Species-Derived Lines into Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have produced and collected over 300 wheat lines derived from the crosses of wheat with wild species related to wheat. Evaluation of these lines for reaction to Fusarium head blight (FHB) identified 74 lines with resistance comparable to “Sumai 3” in two greenhouse seasons. Most of the resistan...

  20. A wheat grazing model for simulating grain and beef production: model evaluation and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major livestock-cropping enterprises in the southern Great Palins is the grazing of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the fall and winter and harvesting grain in June. For example, nearly one million hectares of winter wheat were grazed in 2000 in Oklahoma. Grazing winter wheat duri...

  1. 7 CFR 810.2204 - Grades and grade requirements for wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades and grade requirements for wheat. 810.2204... OFFICIAL UNITED STATES STANDARDS FOR GRAIN United States Standards for Wheat Principles Governing the Application of Standards § 810.2204 Grades and grade requirements for wheat. (a) Grades and grade...

  2. Initial Study on Applications of French Wheat in Chinese Steamed Bread and Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiangqing; Cao Jian; Chen Fusheng; Zhao Renyong; Gu Xin; Wang Shu

    2000-01-01

    the physical-chemical properties of four kinds of French commercial wheat and its flour and its dough rheological properties were analyzed in more detail .The suitability of French wheat flour in Chinese traditional food products such as ste2med bread and noodle was preliminarily studied in order to get and spread more infomation on how to utilize French wheat in Chinese food.

  3. Molecular cytogenetic characterization and stem rust resistance of five wheat-thinopyrum ponticum partial amphiploids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partial amphiploids created by crossing common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and Thinopyrum ponticum (Podp.), Barkworth & D. R. Dewey may be resistant to major wheat diseases and are an important intermediate material in wheat breeding. In this study, we examined chromosome composition of five Xiaoy...

  4. Temperature-mediated developmental delay may limit yield of cotton in relay intercrops with wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.Z.; Werf, van der W.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In the Yellow River valley of China, more then 1.4 million ha of cotton are grown as relay intercrops with wheat. Cotton is sown in April when winter wheat is already in the reproductive phase; thus, a wheat crop with a fully developed canopy will compete for resources with cotton plants in the seed

  5. Recent invasion of world-wide wheat growing areas by two aggressive strains of Puccinia striiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walter, Stephanie; Ali, Sajid; Justesen, Annemarie Fejer;

    2012-01-01

    The ever more frequent and severe large-scale epidemics of wheat yellow/stripe rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis) pose a severe threat to the world’s wheat production (Hovmøller et al. 2010). The onset of a new series of world-wide wheat yellow rust epidemics in 2000 has been linked to...

  6. PRECEDING AFFECTS CADMIUM AND ZINC OF WHEAT GROWN IN SALINE SOILS OF CENTRAL IRAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enhanced Cd concentrations in wheat grain produced on saline soils of central Iran have been recently reported. Considering that wheat bread is a major dietary component for the Iranian people, finding some practical approaches to decrease Cd concentration in wheat grain were investigated. Thus, the...

  7. The Effect of Spring Wheat Starch Properties on Flour Tortilla Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The largest component of wheat flour is starch. Starch properties affect the end use quality of products made from wheat flour. Seven genotypes of wheat flour, having various amounts of amylose, were grown at three locations in North Dakota. Flour from these genotypes was tested for starch propertie...

  8. Light interception and utilization in relay intercrops of wheat and cotton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Werf, van der W.; Bastiaans, L.; Zhang, S.; Li, B.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2008-01-01

    In China, a large acreage of cultivated land is devoted to relay intercropping of winter wheat and cotton. Wheat is sown in strips with interspersed bare soil in October and harvested in June of the next year, while cotton is sown in the interspersed paths in the wheat crop in April and harvested be

  9. Influence of gelatinization on the extraction of phenolic acids from wheat fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of gelatinization on the analysis of phenolic acids from wheat bran, whole-wheat, and refined flour samples was investigated using two extraction procedures, namely, ultrasonic (UAE) and microwave (MAE). The total phenolic acid (TPA) concentration quantity in wheat bran (2711-2913 µg/g) w...

  10. Genome Mapping of Kernel Characteristics in Hard Red Spring Wheat Breeding Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernel characteristics, particularly kernel weight, kernel size, and grain protein content, are important components of grain yield and quality in wheat. Development of high performing wheat cultivars, with high grain yield and quality, is a major focus in wheat breeding programs worldwide. Here, we...

  11. Variation in Crude Protein and Initial in Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility of Wheat Forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annually 6 to 7 million spring-born calves (Bos taurus L.) are received in the southern Great Plains and pastured on winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) before feedlot finishing. Frothy bloat can be a serious problem for ruminant livestock grazing pastures of winter wheat. Wheat pastures have high...

  12. Biological control of take-all of wheat by fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. from China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Take-all disease of wheat caused by the soilborne fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) is one of the most important root diseases of wheat worldwide. In order to find biocontrol agents, bacteria were isolated from wheat at different stages of development in Hebei and Jiangsu provinces i...

  13. Induction of defense gene homologues in wheat roots during interactions with pseudomonas fluorescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specific strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens directly inhibit soilborne fungal pathogens of Triticum aestivum (wheat) during colonization of the wheat rhizosphere, but until now the impact of these beneficial bacteria on wheat gene expression was unknown. To test the hypothesis that P. fluorescens i...

  14. POPULATION GENETICS OF THE WHEAT LEAF RUST FUNGUS, PUCCINIA TRITICINA IN CENTRAL ASIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina, is a major disease of wheat in Central Asia. Single uredinial isolates from Armenia, Azerbaijan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, 131 in total, were tested for virulence to 20 isolines of Thatcher wheat with single leaf rust resistan...

  15. Dissection of Genetic Componenets of Preharvest Sprouting Resistance in White Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preharvest sprouting (PHS) in rain-affected wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a major constraint to the production of high-quality wheat, especially in regions where white grain wheat cultivars are preferred. To characterize quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for PHS resistance and seed dormancy (SD), we eva...

  16. Evaluation of nitrogen uptake patterns in spring and winter wheat in western Oregon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An understanding of the ground nitrogen (N) uptake pattern for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is essential to facilitate nitrogen management. The purpose of this study was to determine the nitrogen uptake pattern of spring and winter wheat grown in western Oregon, USA. Data used in this study were obtained from three different trials. For spring wheat rotation trials five spring wheat cultivars were used. Fertilizer N (16-16-16-4) at the rate of 140 kg ha/sup -1/ was applied at the time of planting. In small plot rotation trials five fertilizer treatments - 0, 50, 100,150 and 200 kg N ha/sup -1/ were used. Rotations include winter wheat following clover and winter wheat following oat. The N uptake and dry matter yield of winter wheat were also determined from unfertilized plots of wheat trial. The maximum N uptake for spring wheat and winter wheat were at 1100 and 2000 accumulated growing degree days (GDD), before Feekes 10, respectively. The maximum N uptake rate for spring wheat, 0.038 kg N GDD/sup -1/, occurred at 750 GDD and the peak N uptake was observed approximately 35 days after Feekes 2. Nitrogen uptake in winter wheat was significantly affected by rotations. (author)

  17. 40 CFR 406.100 - Applicability; description of the wheat starch and gluten subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... starch and gluten subcategory. 406.100 Section 406.100 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... Gluten Subcategory § 406.100 Applicability; description of the wheat starch and gluten subcategory. The... wheat flour as a raw material for production of wheat starch and gluten (protein) components...

  18. Fusarium spp. associated with head blight of wheat in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of wheat is caused by numerous Fusarium species, including trichothecene-producers. In South Africa, FHB is mostly associated with irrigated wheat rotated with maize. Twenty symptomatic wheat heads were collected from four cultivars each in irrigated fields in the Northern...

  19. Phenolic Acids from Wheat Show Different Absorption Profiles in Plasma: A Model Experiment with Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel;

    2013-01-01

    The concentration and absorption of the nine phenolic acids of wheat were measured in a model experiment with catheterized pigs fed whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone diets. Six pigs in a repeated crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and mesenteric artery to study the ...

  20. Assessment of wheat productivity vulnerability in Northern Kazakhstan under possible climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assessment of wheat productivity vulnerability in basic wheat-sowing regions of Kazakstan under possible climate changes is presented. Productivity calculation is carried out with use of CERES-Wheat numerical model under different scenarios of climate change, formed on the base of common atmospheric output data circulation models, received for conditions of carbon dioxide concentration doubling in atmosphere. (author)