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Sample records for affords long-term protection

  1. Cancer testis antigen vaccination affords long-term protection in a murine model of ovarian cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Chiriva-Internati

    Full Text Available Sperm protein (Sp17 is an attractive target for ovarian cancer (OC vaccines because of its over-expression in primary as well as in metastatic lesions, at all stages of the disease. Our studies suggest that a Sp17-based vaccine can induce an enduring defense against OC development in C57BL/6 mice with ID8 cells, following prophylactic and therapeutic treatments. This is the first time that a mouse counterpart of a cancer testis antigen (Sp17 was shown to be expressed in an OC mouse model, and that vaccination against this antigen significantly controlled tumor growth. Our study shows that the CpG-adjuvated Sp17 vaccine overcomes the issue of immunologic tolerance, the major barrier to the development of effective immunotherapy for OC. Furthermore, this study provides a better understanding of OC biology by showing that Th-17 cells activation and contemporary immunosuppressive T-reg cells inhibition is required for vaccine efficacy. Taken together, these results indicate that prophylactic and therapeutic vaccinations can induce long-standing protection against OC and delay tumor growth, suggesting that this strategy may provide additional treatments of human OC and the prevention of disease onset in women with a family history of OC.

  2. Stakeholder Protection, Varieties of Capitalism, and Long-Term Unemployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the literature the issue of the protection of stakeholder interests (of employees in particular is usually considered in a static context: how should the institutions of corporate governance be shaped having regard to already existing firms, conforming, in particular, to some subjective criteria of fairness and fair play. It is remarkable that no attention is paid to the basic fact that a company in order to exist must first be established, and that the founders-owners are the original shareholders. Moreover not necessarily the most appropriate protection of stakeholder interests can be provided by the institutions and practice of corporate governance, specific kinds of legal provision may be more suitable. But rather than substitution complementarity prevails between different legal provisions protecting the interests of stakeholders (in particular employees and the stakeholder protection afforded through the institutions of capital governance, conforming to the logic of the different "varieties of capitalism". An aspect of the latter that is emphasized in the paper, and is usually overlooked, are the much higher rates of long-term unemployment associated with the continental European variety as compared with the Liberal Market variety of the Anglo-Saxon tradition. But the Scandinavian Social-Democratic market model gives the best of both worlds: low long-term unemployment rates and incidence, together with high degrees of employment protection.

  3. Affordability and education: keys to San Antonio's long-term growth

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle Hahn; Keith Phillips; Michelle Olivier

    2009-01-01

    This article analyzes San Antonio's competitiveness compared with a group of peer MSAs defined by similar attributes of location, industry composition, demographics, tourism and population size. Our analysis finds that San Antonio remains very economically competitive and likely will continue to enjoy above-average growth in the long run, although the Alamo City does face long-term challenges due to a less-educated population.

  4. Simple, stable, and affordable: Towards long-term ecosystem scale flux measurements of VOCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, J.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.

    2016-04-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are key players in atmospheric chemistry and climate, yet our understanding of their emission dynamics is very limited. They dominate global emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) with estimated rates that are an order of magnitude higher than the anthropogenic VOC emissions. Since the publication of the first global BVOC emission inventories there have been efforts to develop more realistic and process-based models of BVOC emissions. However, there are only a few ecosystem-scale BVOC flux data for evaluation and improvement of these models. Thus a reliable network of observations is urgently needed. Surface layer flux measurements by micrometeorological methods provide the most suitable data for this purpose but there are some hindrances preventing the implementation of a long-term flux measurement network.

  5. Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beedlow, P.A.; Hartley, J.N.

    1984-04-01

    US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables.

  6. Long-term protection of uranium mill tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    US Environmental Protection Agency standards for the cleanup and disposal of inactive tailings sites require that control measures for disposal of tailings be designed to be effective for up to 1000 years if reasonably achievable, and, in any case, for 200 years at least. To control the escape of contaminants over such long periods, containment systems must be capable of adjusting to changing environmental conditions. Elements of a containment system include surface covers, biotic barriers, radon barriers, and, in some cases, liners. Each element of the system affects the others, and the whole system responds to the surrounding environment. Interaction is facilitated primarily by soil moisture. Consequently, the control of soil moisture is critical to the effectiveness of containment systems. Protective covers are necessary to prevent disruption of the containment system by physical or biological factors, to provide for the effective functioning of the radon barrier, and to prevent infiltration of excess water that could cause leaching. In order to design protective covers, a working knowledge of the factors and processes impacting tailings piles is required. This report characterizes the major factors and processes, and presents generic solutions based on current research. 65 references, 9 figures, 6 tables

  7. Results of long-term field tests of protective earthing device for vessel electric systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaginin V.A.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of prolonged natural tests of protective neutral earthing device for controlling the fire and electrical safety of vessel electric systems have been shown. The use of such devices provides safe single-phase fault currents and reducing arc overvoltage during the long-term operation of a ship. The results of long-term monitoring of the device operation as part of the existing vessel electric power system have confirmed its effectiveness

  8. Results of long-term field tests of protective earthing device for vessel electric systems

    OpenAIRE

    Blaginin V.A.; Kazhekin I.E.; Yusyp V.M.; Moskalyuk A.M.; Syrenko D.P.

    2015-01-01

    The results of prolonged natural tests of protective neutral earthing device for controlling the fire and electrical safety of vessel electric systems have been shown. The use of such devices provides safe single-phase fault currents and reducing arc overvoltage during the long-term operation of a ship. The results of long-term monitoring of the device operation as part of the existing vessel electric power system have confirmed its effectiveness

  9. Sense of Community as a Protective Factor against Long-Term Psychological Effects of Childhood Violence

    OpenAIRE

    Greenfield, Emily A.; Marks, Nadine F.

    2010-01-01

    This study uses a risk and resilience framework for conceptualizing the long-term effects of childhood family violence on mental health. It examines sense of community as a protective factor against adult psychological distress associated with experiences of physical or psychological violence in childhood from parents. Regression models are estimated using data from the 1995 National Survey of Midlife Development in the U.S. and from the 1996–97 National Study of Daily Experiences. Reported e...

  10. THE DYNAMIC CIPHERS – NEW CONCEPT OF LONG-TERM CONTENT PROTECTING

    OpenAIRE

    Grzegorz Szewczyk

    2008-01-01

    In the paper the original concept of a new cipher, targeted at this moment forcivil applications in technology (e.g. measurement and control systems) and business (e.g.content protecting, knowledge-based companies or long-term archiving systems) is presented.The idea of the cipher is based on one-time pads and linear feedback shift registers. Therapidly changing hardware and software environment of cryptographic systems has beentaken into account during the construction of the cipher. The mai...

  11. Immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, V; Morris, J F; Chu, A C

    1997-06-01

    Several studies have suggested a lack of correlation between sunscreen sun protection factor and protection of the skin immune system, potentially allowing greater damage to the skin by removing the natural protective erythemal response to sun exposure. Despite this, routine testing of immune protection afforded by sunscreens is not performed by industry. Current laboratory methods for investigating the efficacy of sunscreen protection of epidermal immune function use the induction of contact hypersensitivity or epidermal cell alloantigen presentation. Animal models, cell culture systems, and in vivo human studies are commonly employed, but all these systems have significant drawbacks for use in routine testing. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro system for testing the immunologic protection afforded by sunscreens in human skin. Five test sunscreens plus a vehicle control were tested in a "blind" fashion for their in vitro level of immune protection. Creams were applied in a standard manner to human whole skin explants and were irradiated over a range of physiologic doses using an Oriel solar simulator. A mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction was used to quantify epidermal alloantigen-presenting capacity, in the presence or absence of test cream, for five explants. Results consistently demonstrated that all the test sunscreens protected beyond their designated sun protection factors, whereas the vehicle conferred no protection. The explant-mixed epidermal lymphocyte reaction system gave consistent, reproducible results and may prove useful for the allocation of an immune protection factor to all sunscreens. PMID:9182811

  12. Intranasal immunization with protective antigen of Bacillus anthracis induces a long-term immunological memory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Sun-Je; Kang, Seok-Seong; Park, Sung-Moo; Yang, Jae Seung; Song, Man Ki; Yun, Cheol-Heui; Han, Seung Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Although intranasal vaccination has been shown to be effective for the protection against inhalational anthrax, establishment of long-term immunity has yet to be achieved. Here, we investigated whether intranasal immunization with recombinant protective antigen (rPA) of Bacillus anthracis induces immunological memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments. Intranasal immunization with rPA plus cholera toxin (CT) sustained PA-specific antibody responses for 6 months in lung, nasal washes, and vaginal washes as well as serum. A significant induction of PA-specific memory B cells was observed in spleen, cervical lymph nodes (CLNs) and lung after booster immunization. Furthermore, intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT remarkably generated effector memory CD4(+) T cells in the lung. PA-specific CD4(+) T cells preferentially increased the expression of Th1- and Th17-type cytokines in lung, but not in spleen or CLNs. Collectively, the intranasal immunization with rPA plus CT promoted immunologic memory responses in the mucosal and systemic compartments, providing long-term immunity. PMID:26278659

  13. The global climate system. Near term action for long term protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the time scale of climate change is very long, the time scale of climate policymaking is by necessity much shorter. This report connects long term protection of climate with near term global policy action, with the aim to support current climate negotiations. This is accomplished by using results from a computer model (IMAGE 2) to identify a 'Safe Emissions Corridor'. This corridor shows the allowable range of near term global emissions from 1990 to 2010 that complies with specified short and long term (2010 to 2100) climate goals (used here to mean limits on climate indicators). The corridor also takes into account restrictions on the maximum rates of emission reductions. For illustration, the corridor is computed for a range of climate goals. For one case the following limits were set: change of global surface temperature relative to 1990 2). (For reference, current emissions are about 9.6 Gt C/yr.) When these limits are set twice as strict (i.e. divided by two) the allowable range becomes only 6.9 to 9.1 Gt C/yr. This corridor is far below IPCC scenarios of emissions in 2010 assuming no controls on global emissions. Hence, in order for emissions to fall within the lowest corridor, the expected growth of emissions must be controlled. Assuming uncontrolled emissions in non Annex 1 countries, total emissions from Annex 1 countries must be lower in 2010 relative to 1990 to fall within the lowest safe emissions corridor. 6 figs., 2 tabs., 1 appendix, 8 refs

  14. Education and training in radiological protection in the Argentine region- IAEA, toward a long term commitment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Training Appraisal in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources' (EduTa). This process includes the invitation to an international mission to visit the country to observe the organization and training capacities in radiological protection and safety of the radiation sources, and the later signature of an agreement of long term in order to assure the continuity of the politicians in the matter. To conclude with success this significant effort will allow to take advantage of the resources efficiently to diffuse in systematic form the last knowledge and experience of radiological protection in Spanish to the whole region of Latin America and the Caribbean. (Author)

  15. Putting the Lid on Lobbying: Tariff Structure and Long-Term Growth when Protection is for Sale

    OpenAIRE

    Nathan Nunn; Daniel Trefler

    2006-01-01

    It has long been recognized that a country's tariffs are the endogenous outcome of a rent-seeking game whose equilibrium reflects national institutions. Thus, the structure of tariffs across industries provides insights into how institutions, as reflected in tariff policies, affect long-term growth. We start with the commonplace perception among politicians that protection of skill-intensive industries generates a growth-enhancing externality. Modifying the Grossman-Helpman protection for sal...

  16. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  17. Performance requirements for design of landfill covers for long term protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance requirements are presented for landfill covers designed for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project (UMTRAP) and the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP). Specialized design technology is discussed which addresses the issues of long term isolation of waste materials and integrity of cover components. The basis for the designs are given for UMTRAP and WSSRAP which resulted in the performance requirements established for each project. Performance requirements for each cover component are summarized, together with resulting cover components which meet the requirements

  18. Zero emission targets as long-term global goals for climate protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, assessments have robustly linked stabilization of global-mean temperature rise to the necessity of limiting the total amount of emitted carbon-dioxide (CO2). Halting global warming thus requires virtually zero annual CO2 emissions at some point. Policymakers have now incorporated this concept in the negotiating text for a new global climate agreement, but confusion remains about concepts like carbon neutrality, climate neutrality, full decarbonization, and net zero carbon or net zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Here we clarify these concepts, discuss their appropriateness to serve as a long-term global benchmark for achieving temperature targets, and provide a detailed quantification. We find that with current pledges and for a likely (>66%) chance of staying below 2 °C, the scenario literature suggests net zero CO2 emissions between 2060 and 2070, with net negative CO2 emissions thereafter. Because of residual non-CO2 emissions, net zero is always reached later for total GHG emissions than for CO2. Net zero emissions targets are a useful focal point for policy, linking a global temperature target and socio-economic pathways to a necessary long-term limit on cumulative CO2 emissions. (letter)

  19. Long-term aging of a CeO2 based nanocomposite used for wood protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A multi-scale methodology was used to characterize the long-term behavior and chemical stability of a CeO2-based nanocomposite used as UV filter in wood stains. ATR-FTIR and 13C NMR demonstrated that the citrate coated chelates with Ce(IV) through its central carboxyl- and its α-hydroxyl- groups at the surface of the unaged nanocomposite. After 42 days under artificial daylight, the citrate completely disappeared and small amount of degradation products remained attached to the surface even after 112 days. Moreover, the release/desorption of the citrate layer led to a surface reorganization of the nano-sized CeO2 core observed by XANES (Ce L3-edge). Such a surface and structural transformation of the commercialized nanocomposite could have implications in term of fate, transport, and potential impacts towards the environment. - Highlights: • Organic coating of the nano-composite is degradated after 1.5 month. • Structural reorganization of the nano-sized CeO2 core over aging. • Potential implications in term of exposure and impact towards biological organisms. - The long-term aging of a CeO2 nanocomposite lead to surface chemistry and structural changes in aquatic environments

  20. Protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident: the guidance of ICRP Publication 111

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after nuclear accidents or radiological emergencies in ICRP Publication 111 (Ann. ICRP 2009, 39(3)). The prolonged exposures resulting from such events are defined as existing exposure situations and the driving principle for managing exposure situations is the optimization of protection. In conjunction with optimization, the Commission recommends the use of reference levels to restrict individual doses. To be effective, protection strategies to maintain and reduce exposure as low as reasonably achievable should include actions implemented by public authorities and private businesses, but also by the affected population itself. The process through which inhabitants living in a contaminated environment identify problems and apply their own protective actions has been named 'self-help protection' by the Commission. Such a process supposes that affected individuals are fully aware of the situation and are well informed. It is the responsibility of the authorities to establish programmes for continuous radiation monitoring, information and education of the population. The involvement of local professionals and inhabitants in the definition and implementation of protection strategies is a key factor for the sustainability of long-term rehabilitation programmes. (note)

  1. Improving long term oxidation protection for {gamma}-TiAl substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobzin, K.; Schlaefer, T.; Bruehl, M.; Linke, T.F. [Thermisches Spritzen, Institut fuer Oberflaechentechnik (IOT), RWTH Aachen University (Germany); Warda, T.

    2011-11-15

    In previous work, a thermal spray multilayer system consisting of Zirconia (ZrO{sub 2}) and MCrAlY top coat showed promising results regarding the oxidation behavior of the Gamma Titanium Aluminides substrates tested, which encouraged further research activities. Diffusion of substrate material was successfully inhibited by a ceramic Zirconia coating. A building up of a dense and stable oxide layer could be achieved by additional application of an MCrAlY top coat, leading to improved oxidation resistance and thus showing feasibility. In this work the main focus for development was put on enhancing adhesion and lowering residual stresses of the coatings in order to allow long term and cyclic testing without delamination taking place. Being a very brittle material, Gamma Titanium Aluminides require special surface treatment to enable roughening which is crucial for a strong mechanical bond between substrate and coating. Alternatives to conventional grit blasting as a standard preparation method were investigated. These were micro-abrasive blasting and blasting at elevated temperature ({approx}300-550 C) to allow a more ductile behavior. The paper will highlight the implications by means of these measures and will also show the present development status of the multilayer system. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  2. Time to choose. Consumers who make a snap decision about long-term care use different criteria from those who can afford to deliberate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tudor, R K; Carley, S S

    1995-01-01

    When consumers face an immediate vs. future need for a long-term health care facility, their decision process is rushed. The authors investigate the possible effects of time on the use of and emphasis on specific evaluative criteria consumers employ in making their choice. Findings suggest that marketers of long-term care facilities should adopt a temporal-based approach to market segmentation. PMID:10144667

  3. A nonintegrative lentiviral vector-based vaccine provides long-term sterile protection against malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Coutant

    Full Text Available Trials testing the RTS,S candidate malaria vaccine and radiation-attenuated sporozoites (RAS have shown that protective immunity against malaria can be induced and that an effective vaccine is not out of reach. However, longer-term protection and higher protection rates are required to eradicate malaria from the endemic regions. It implies that there is still a need to explore new vaccine strategies. Lentiviral vectors are very potent at inducing strong immunological memory. However their integrative status challenges their safety profile. Eliminating the integration step obviates the risk of insertional oncogenesis. Providing they confer sterile immunity, nonintegrative lentiviral vectors (NILV hold promise as mass pediatric vaccine by meeting high safety standards. In this study, we have assessed the protective efficacy of NILV against malaria in a robust pre-clinical model. Mice were immunized with NILV encoding Plasmodium yoelii Circumsporozoite Protein (Py CSP and challenged with sporozoites one month later. In two independent protective efficacy studies, 50% (37.5-62.5 of the animals were fully protected (p = 0.0072 and p = 0.0008 respectively when compared to naive mice. The remaining mice with detectable parasitized red blood cells exhibited a prolonged patency and reduced parasitemia. Moreover, protection was long-lasting with 42.8% sterile protection six months after the last immunization (p = 0.0042. Post-challenge CD8+ T cells to CSP, in contrast to anti-CSP antibodies, were associated with protection (r = -0.6615 and p = 0.0004 between the frequency of IFN-g secreting specific T cells in spleen and parasitemia. However, while NILV and RAS immunizations elicited comparable immunity to CSP, only RAS conferred 100% of sterile protection. Given that a better protection can be anticipated from a multi-antigen vaccine and an optimized vector design, NILV appear as a promising malaria vaccine.

  4. Physical protection of mineralizable C in aggregates from long-term pasture and arable soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pulleman, M.M.; Marinissen, J.C.Y.

    2004-01-01

    Depending on agricultural management, soil aggregation can provide physical protection of organic matter against rapid decomposition. Within a given soil series, farm management affects the quality and quantity of organic inputs, soil disturbance and biological activity, and thereby the processes of

  5. Feed-back from long - term experience with offshore cathodic protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brazy, Jean-Louis; Tobiassen, Per [Total S.A., EP Technology Division, CSTJF, Avenue Larribeau, 64000 Pau (France); Roche, Marcel [Total S.A., EP Technology Division, Tour Michelet, 92069 Paris - La Defense (France)

    2004-07-01

    The experience of the Total Group has been compiled in matters of Cathodic Protection (CP) of offshore structures in order to draw conclusions from the cumulated field experience obtained for 40 years in various geographical areas (e.g. North Sea and Gulf of Guinea). More especially, results of monitoring have been used to evaluate the performance in the achieved potentials measured with in-situ reference electrodes together with anode current outputs measured from 'monitored galvanic anodes'. Some 'monitored cathodes' have also been installed giving interesting results on the evolution with time of cathodic current density consumed by steel in seawater. After some initial difficulties due to not adapted designs or low-quality galvanic anodes, CP has been achieved in very good conditions, preventing corrosion and fatigue corrosion failures. Protective potentials have been ensured with much lower current densities than values taken in calculations. It has been demonstrated that anodes have to be sized in such a way that initial output is high enough to ensure a rapid polarization. Current outputs necessary to maintain protection are then much lower, including in geographical areas where protective current density is considered as high. Consequently, residual lifetime of anodes systems is generally much higher than initially foreseen, which often allows interesting prolongation of the platform life when needed. In a few cases, it has been possible to evaluate very precisely any trace of corrosion on the structure and consumption rate and pattern of galvanic anodes when platforms have been removed after their use. The case of the Frcy platform, dismantled after 8 years of operation in the Norwegian sector of North Sea is exposed. It has been possible to check that consumption of anodes has been maximum at the locations foreseen by the modeling. (authors)

  6. Long-term protection of polyaspartic acid in experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity.

    OpenAIRE

    Swan, S K; Kohlhepp, S. J.; Kohnen, P. W.; Gilbert, D N; Bennett, W M

    1991-01-01

    Polyaspartic Acid (PAA) protects the kidney from experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity despite large increases in renal cortical gentamicin content. In these experiments, prominent cytoplasmic vacuoles were noted in all animals that received PAA with or without gentamicin. The present study showed that there were no renal structural or functional consequences of PAA given alone or with gentamicin for up to 14 days, followed by a 16-week washout period. Creatinine clearance was similar to tha...

  7. Fingolimod protects against neonatal white matter damage and long-term cognitive deficits caused by hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdar, Meray; Herz, Josephine; Kempe, Karina; Lumpe, Katharina; Reinboth, Barbara S; Sizonenko, Stéphane V; Hou, Xinlin; Herrmann, Ralf; Hadamitzky, Martin; Heumann, Rolf; Hansen, Wiebke; Sifringer, Marco; van de Looij, Yohan; Felderhoff-Müser, Ursula; Bendix, Ivo

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral white matter injury is a leading cause of adverse neurodevelopmental outcome in prematurely born infants involving cognitive deficits in later life. Despite increasing knowledge about the pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury, therapeutic options are limited. In the adult demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis the sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) receptor modulating substance fingolimod (FTY720) has beneficial effects. Herein, we evaluated the neuroprotective potential of FTY720 in a neonatal model of oxygen-toxicity, which is associated with hypomyelination and impaired neuro-cognitive outcome. A single dose of FTY720 (1mg/kg) at the onset of neonatal hyperoxia (24h 80% oxygen on postnatal day 6) resulted in improvement of neuro-cognitive development persisting into adulthood. This was associated with reduced microstructural white matter abnormalities 4 months after the insult. In search of the underlying mechanisms potential non-classical (i.e. lymphocyte-independent) pathways were analysed shortly after the insult, comprising modulation of oxidative stress and local inflammatory responses as well as myelination, oligodendrocyte degeneration and maturation. Treatment with FTY720 reduced hyperoxia-induced oxidative stress, microglia activation and associated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. In vivo and in vitro analyses further revealed that oxygen-induced hypomyelination is restored to control levels, which was accompanied by reduced oligodendrocyte degeneration and enhanced maturation. Furthermore, hyperoxia-induced elevation of S1P receptor 1 (S1P1) protein expression on in vitro cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells was reduced by activated FTY720 and protection from degeneration is abrogated after selective S1P1 blockade. Finally, FTY720s' classical mode of action (i.e. retention of immune cells within peripheral lymphoid organs) was analysed demonstrating that FTY720 diminished circulating lymphocyte counts independent from hyperoxia

  8. Nitrogen dioxide - long-term guideline value for health protection; Stickstoffdioxid - (Langzeit-)Richtwert zum Schutz der menschlichen Gesundheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tvrdy, C.; Hauck, H.; Neuberger, M. [Vienna Univ. (Austria). Inst. fuer Umwelthygiene

    1999-10-01

    On behalf of the Ministry of Environment the Austrian Academy of Science published guideline values for nitrogen dioxide in 1988. The scientific database concentrated on short-term effects of NO{sub 2} at that time. After checking the current literature it was clear that new data especially for long-term effects of NO{sub 2} were available which should lead to a limitation of an annual average. Two Austrian studies on children from Linz (capital of Upper Austria) showed that high long-term concentrations of NO{sub 2} were negatively associated with the flow parameters of terminal airways in spirometry (MEF{sub 25} and MEF{sub 50}) on a significant level. In addition the children showed an improvement in growth-dependent increase of lung function parameters when long-term NO{sub 2}-concentrations in the ambient air could be decreased by more than 40 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. The most pronounced benefit could be seen when the ambient level of NO{sub 2} decreased during periods of accelerated growth. Based on these and other results summarized in this review, the Austrian Academy of Science recommended an annual average of 30 {mu}g/m{sup 3} for NO{sub 2} in the ambient air not to be exceeded for health protection. (orig.) [German] In Oesterreich werden von der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (OeAW) im Auftrag des Bundesministeriums fuer Umwelt, Jugend und Familie fuer die konventionellen Luftschadstoffe wirkungsbezogene Immissionsgrenzkonzentrationen erarbeitet, die den jeweiligen Stand der (medizinischen) Wissenschaft repraesentieren. Ausgehend vom Basiswerk aus 1988 wurde 1998 eine neue Literaturstudie erstellt, die auch Publikationen der letzten Jahre umfasste. Anhand dieses neuen Datenmaterials zeigte sich, dass die Einfuehrung einer Langzeitimmissionsgrenzkonzentration aus umwelthygienischer Sicht notwendig war. In zwei Studien an Linzer Kindern konnte festgestellt werden, dass einerseits hohe NO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen signifikant negativ mit den

  9. Targeted demersal fish species exhibit variable responses to long-term protection from fishing at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornt, Katrina R.; McLean, Dianne L.; Langlois, Tim J.; Harvey, Euan S.; Bellchambers, Lynda M.; Evans, Scott N.; Newman, Stephen J.

    2015-12-01

    Natural fluctuations in the abundance and length of targeted fish are often disrupted by acute environmental changes and anthropogenic impacts, particularly fishing pressure. Long-term assessments of targeted fish populations inside and outside areas closed to fishing are often necessary to elucidate these effects, yet few of these studies extend over long time periods. We assessed trends in the abundance and length of six targeted fish species in areas open and closed to fishing on seven occasions spanning a 9-year period (2005-2010 and 2013) at the Houtman Abrolhos Islands, Western Australia. Shallow (8-12 m) and deep (22-26 m) coral-dominated reef sites were sampled across four geographically separated island groups using baited remote underwater stereo-video (stereo-BRUV). Between 2005 and 2010, populations of Lethrinus miniatus, Lethrinus nebulosus, Plectropomus leopardus, and Chrysophrys auratus became increasingly dominated by larger individuals, potentially indicative of an ageing population. Between 2010 and 2013, however, there was a significant increase in the proportion of smaller L. miniatus, L. nebulosus, and P. leopardus in both open and closed areas, reflecting increased recruitment perhaps due to changing environmental conditions associated with a marine heat wave anomaly. This recruitment pulse was not observed for the other species in this study ( Chr. auratus, Choerodon rubescens, and Glaucosoma hebraicum). Lethrinus miniatus, L. nebulosus, Chr. auratus, and P. leopardus were larger in closed areas relative to open areas; however, they were not more abundant. These complex responses to protection also varied across sampling years for certain species (e.g., P. leopardus). Monitoring changes over the long-term in areas open and closed to fishing provides a sound basis for separating environmental variability from that associated with fishing mortality, which is crucial for optimising fisheries management.

  10. ICRP Recommendations to the Protection of People Living in Long-Term Contaminated Areas ICRP publication 111 in brief

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main aim of the present study is to through some lights on ICRP free release publication at 4 April 2011-Internationally Known as ICRP publication 111. The title of the publication is (application of the commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency). Nuclear accidents or a radiation emergency may cause contamination. The contamination may be spread on a large area. There are people living in these areas. For many factors the people refuse to leave their homes. They want to stay along their life as in the case of the normal conditions. So, it is important to facilitate their stay and make it safe. This is not easy. But it is possible without neglect the radiation hazard. The radiation hazard is effective on the life fields. It is harmful in plants, animals, foods, water, milk and the buildings it self. With considering the radiological protection principles the living of the people for a long time could be a fact of the life and will be more easy and safe. Optimization principle has priority to apply. This publication achieves these purposes.The ICRP-111 is translated into Arabic at August 2012. This work is a continuation of the efforts series to translate some of the most important of the ICRP radiological protection references into the Arabic; aiming to maximize the benefit. The previous translations include, ICRP-105 (radiation protection in medicine) and ICRP -113 (education and training in radiological protection for diagnostic and interventional procedures).

  11. Earthworm Populations in Savannas of the Orinoco Basin. A Review of Studies in Long-Term Agricultural-Managed and Protected Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo López-Hernández

    2012-01-01

    Earthworm biomass and production in savannas are limited by seasonal precipitation and the lack of organic and nutrient resources; I hypothesize that after a long-term protection of savanna from fire and agricultural activities drastic changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil occur with a concomitant increase in earthworm abundance and activities. Similar changes might occur after a long-term fertilization of savannas with manure. This review article considers the eart...

  12. Long Term Study of Protective Mechanisms of Human Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on Cisplatin Induced Kidney injury in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Elhusseini, Fatma M; Saad, Mohamed-Ahdy A.A; Anber, Nahla; Elghannam, Doaa; Sobh, Mohamed-Ahmed; ALSAYED, AZIZA; El-dusoky, Sara; SHEASHAA, HUSSEIN; Abdel-Ghaffar, Hassan; Sobh, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Long-term evaluation of cisplatin induced nephrotoxicity and the probable renal protective activities of stem cells are lacking up until now. We evaluated the early and long-term role of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) in prevention or amelioration of cisplatin induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in Sprague-Dawley rats. For this, we determined the kidney tissue level of oxidative stress markers in conjugation with a renal histopathological scoring system o...

  13. Energy Efficiency in Building as a Basic Prerequisite for a Long Term Energy Strategies Realization, Environmental Protection and Sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy efficiency in buildings at the low-energy and 'passive house' standard levels is presently the basic prerequisite for considering and formulating long term strategies, which with the task of meeting energy needs and system maintenance respond to requests of environmental protection and improvements in the context of sustainable development. Orientation to sustainable development is integrated in the development strategies of Croatia. The application of renewable energy sources, in particular solar energy in passive and active systems in the architecture is permanently confirmed by conducting energy monitoring and growing number of domestic studies, projects and realizations. The long-time research project of the European Union Cost Efficient Passive Houses as European Standards (CEPHEUS) with scientific monitoring corroborated energy and economic efficiency of such architectural designs in Germany, France, Austria, and Switzerland. Thus, the 'passive house' is proposed as a standard of residential architecture, but also of the construction of other functional types of architecture in general. The accomplished energy efficiency and verified favorable profitability of investment developed new forms of incentives to low-energy and passive architecture and relevant changes in concepts of long term energy strategies in the European Union member states. In Austria the 1000th passive house was built, and the city of Frankfurt/M brought decision regarding financing building construction through the city budget at the 'passive house' level. The new Technical Regulation on energy savings and thermal protection in Croatia, which is effectively in force as of 1 July, is a long-awaited step towards energy efficiency. Although, according to this Regulation the tolerance in energy use for space heating goes, in worst case calculation, up to 89 kWh/m2 a year, any other more favorable calculation with obligation to calculate the share of solar radiation for buildings, opens

  14. Earthworm Populations in Savannas of the Orinoco Basin. A Review of Studies in Long-Term Agricultural-Managed and Protected Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo López-Hernández

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Earthworm biomass and production in savannas are limited by seasonal precipitation and the lack of organic and nutrient resources; I hypothesize that after a long-term protection of savanna from fire and agricultural activities drastic changes in the physical and chemical characteristics of the soil occur with a concomitant increase in earthworm abundance and activities. Similar changes might occur after a long-term fertilization of savannas with manure. This review article considers the earthworm communities and other soil quality indices in Trachypogon savannas of the Orinoco Basin in an organic agricultural forestal savanna (OAFS amended with compost over forty years in Puerto Ayacucho, Venezuela, and in an Experimental Station long-term protected (PS from fire and cattle raising from more than four decades in Central Llanos, Venezuela, comparison is made with results from similar savannas. Long-term additions of organic manure or a long protection have induced significant changes in the soil physical and chemical properties of the natural savanna (NS soils that induce a significant increase in the density and biomass of earthworm populations. On the other hand, the protection of the savanna promotes an improvement in the physical and chemical properties of the soil, which favors an increase in the density and biomass of earthworms in the PS compared with the NS subjected to recurrent burning and grazing. The results emphasize the importance of appropriate organic matter management and the relevance of earthworms in such agroecosystems.

  15. Armour Protection and Affordable Protection for Futuristic Combat Vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    V. Madhu; T. Balakrishna Bhat

    2011-01-01

    Protection creates a shift in the internal paradigm of the soldier and leads to multiplied psychological stamina for moving fearlessly in the battlefield which generates a major force-multiplier effect. Hence, the mechanized forces are still likely to be one of the dominant forces on the futuristic battlefield and would be the primary target of enemy forces capable of engaging from tank guns up to 4-5 km in a direct fire mode and up to 8-10 km in an indirect fire modes. Increased protection i...

  16. Protection and structural materials for fusion reactors: Main challenges, long term materials development needs, differences and commonalities with fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing plasma-facing and structural materials with Low nuclear Activation (LA), high heat and radiation resistance, is a challenge that the materials community has to address to enable reliable development and safe operation of fusion reactors in the future. This requires scientific innovation, new knowledge, and the exploration of a range of new materials. To address this challenge, the EU fusion programme has set up a Fusion Materials Topical Group to strengthen coordination of long-term fusion materials development for DEMO, and to undertake physically based modelling of radiation induced microstructure and degradation of mechanical properties required to guide the experimental developments. In this paper we describe main radiation effects induced by the intense flux of 14 MeV neutrons in the reference structural materials (i) for Tritium-Breeding Blanket (TBB) modules, LA Ferritic/Martensitic Steel EUROFER, Oxide Dispersion (ODS) EUROFER and ODS ferritic steels, and, (ii) for the divertor, W and W-alloys. Specific issues concerning the peculiar microstructure induced by the impact of α particles on the surface of tungsten, foreseen as a reference protection material, will also be discussed. Modelling radiation effects in EUROFER under fusion reactor relevant conditions is the first priority for the programme, in order to inter-correlate the data obtained with various neutron spectra, contribute to the definition of the irradiation matrix in the future intense source of 14 MeV neutrons, IFMIF, and bring comprehensive understanding and extrapolation capabilities towards the very large range of DEMO operating conditions. Formulating and developing predictive modelling tools is therefore a task of prime significance. Particular care has been taken (i) to focus the modelling effort on the scale where physics can be mastered, i.e. on the scale of the chemical bond, which is triggered by electronic correlation in the case of Fe-Cr system and body cubic centred

  17. Armour Protection and Affordable Protection for Futuristic Combat Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Madhu

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Protection creates a shift in the internal paradigm of the soldier and leads to multiplied psychological stamina for moving fearlessly in the battlefield which generates a major force-multiplier effect. Hence, the mechanized forces are still likely to be one of the dominant forces on the futuristic battlefield and would be the primary target of enemy forces capable of engaging from tank guns up to 4-5 km in a direct fire mode and up to 8-10 km in an indirect fire modes. Increased protection is possible only using advanced armour technology. Throughout the history of warfare, materials technologies have had a significant impact on land-combat force capabilities. Armour materials have progressed through improvements in metallic systems and development of advanced, lightweight (low areal density composite materials. The advancements in ceramic systems have further improved the performance. Similarly, the advances in development of explosive reactive armour has generated efficient armour system against all contemporary high explosive antitank (HEAT ammunition and missile threats for armoured vehicles. Yet, to achieve armour performance exceeding that of the current light combat vehicles and main battle tanks for new vehicular systems, weighing significantly less than the present combat vehicles, advances in new armour materials, systems, and survivability technologies are required. This paper describes various approaches and advancements in the metallic, ceramic, and composite armour materials and new dynamic armour systems that are essential to improve the survivability of armoured vehicles in the futurisitic multi-spectral battlefied scenarios.Defence Science Journal, 2011, 61(4, pp.394-402, DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.14429/dsj.61.365

  18. Long-term trends of coral cover in the Philippines : Trajectory, spatiotemporal patterns, and the efficacy of marine protected areas

    OpenAIRE

    Magdaong, Evangeline Tolentino

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are reportedly degrading worldwide due to combined local human impacts and global impacts of climate change. However, region-specific trends remain unclear. This study shows the long-term trends of coral cover in one of the most important regions for biodiversity. The Philippines, located in the tropics, has the highest diversity of reef species in the global center of marine biodiversity known as the Coral Triangle. This biodiversity ‘hot spot' has experienced reef degradation dr...

  19. Temporary Protected Status after 25 Years: Addressing the Challenge of Long-Term “Temporary” Residents and Strengthening a Centerpiece of US Humanitarian Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Bergeron

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1990, the United States has offered hundreds of thousands of non-citizens who are unable to return to their countries of origin because of war or a natural disaster a vital form of humanitarian protection: temporary protected status (TPS. While a grant of TPS does not place a non-citizen on a path to permanent residence, TPS recipients receive protection against deportation and temporary permission to live and work in the United States. Nearly 25 years after the statutory creation of TPS, however, the use of the program has been the subject of some debate, largely because of concerns over whether TPS grants are truly “temporary.”This paper examines the legal parameters of TPS and traces the program's legislative history, exploring congressional intent behind its creation. While acknowledging that extended designations of TPS are often the result of long-running international crises, the paper argues that extended TPS designations are problematic for two reasons. First, they run contrary to congressional intent, which was to create a temporary safe haven for individuals unable to return home due to emergency situations. Second, continued grants of TPS status effectively lock TPS beneficiaries into a "legal limbo," rendering them unable to fully integrate into life in the United States.This paper considers several administrative and legislative "fixes" to align the TPS program with the goal of providing temporary protection to certain individuals that do not meet the refugee definition, while also ensuring that long-term immigrants in the United States are fully able to integrate into the fabric of the country. It considers:Amending the US definition of a “refugee” to enable more would-be TPS beneficiaries to qualify for asylum;Creating a new form of subsidiary protection for individuals who cannot return home but do not meet the refugee definition;Permitting TPS holders who have resided in the United States for a certain number of

  20. Development of dual-purpose transport packing set with biological protection made of depleted uranium for transportation and long-term storage of 36 RFRA of WWER-1000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is devoted to the problem of development of a promising design of a dual-purpose transport packing set (TPS-117) with biological protection made of depleted uranium for transportation and long-term storage (not less than 50 years) of RNF of WWER-1000 reactors. Use of depleted uranium as effective gamma-protection and use of siloxane rubber as a solid neutron protection in TPS-117 design allow to reach the maximum loading of container with retired nuclear fuel at the given dimensions of TPS with compliance to all requirements of the IAEA on safety. (author)

  1. NEEM FORMULATIONS – SAFER SEED PROTECTANTS AGAINST PULSE BEETLE, CALLOSOBRUCHUS CHINENSIS FOR LONG TERM STORAGE OF BENGALGRAM.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rajasri

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of neem products like neem oil and commercially available neem formulations viz.,Econeem plus®, Neemindia ® and Neemazal ® were evaluated in the laboratory for the control of pulse beetle, C.chinensisin stored bengalgram. These were compared with deltamethrin treatment as a chemical check. Thebengalgram seed was treated with the neem formulations and stored under ambient conditions for storability studies.Observations on oviposition, insect damage, germination and seedling vigor index were recorded at three monthsinterval. All the neem formulations were found to be effective against C. chinensisin stored bengalgram up to 12months of storage. Surprisingly, deltamethrin treatment recorded highest oviposition of pulse beetle and insectdamage resulted in poor germination and vigour of stored bengalgram seed. This gives an indication of resistancedevelopment in C. chinensisagainst commonly used synthetic pyrethroid insecticide deltamethrin in bengalgram.Crude neem oil @ 5 ml/ kg seed affected badly the germinability and seedling vigour of bengalgram seed understorage. The results indicated that the neem formulations viz., Neemazal, Econeem plus and Neemindia were foundto be very effective against C. chinensisin stored bengalgram and also maintained high viability and vigour of seedup to twelve months of storage. Our results suggest that these neem formulations can be used as safer alternatives tochemicals for long term storage of pulses

  2. Long-term stability of grazing lawns in a small protected area, the Mountain Zebra National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Novellie

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We examined a heavily grazed plant community dominated by creeping grass species with the aim of, (1 determining its response to the exclusion of grazing and (2 its long-term persistence. This plant community was particularly favoured by wild ungulate species that prefer short grasses – blesbok (Damaliscus dorcas phillipsi, springbok (Antidorcas marsupialis and black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnou. Exclusion of grazing by large herbivores by means of fencing resulted in the virtual disappearance of the creeping grasses and their replacement by tall tufted species. On plots that remained unfenced, the plant species composition was found to be little changed after an interval of more than 20 years. The number large stock unit equivalents (LSU per ha carried by the plant community was used as a proxy for grazing intensity. Monitored for approximately 2 years at the start of the study, LSU per ha was found to greatly exceed levels recommended for commercial livestock production. This plant community conforms to a recently published definition of a grazing lawn, in that intense grazing promotes palatable, grazing-tolerant grass species.Conservation implications: The positive association between grazers and grazing-tolerant grass species evidently persisted for more than 20 years and there was no evidence of an increase in abundance of unpalatable plant species. Despite the small size of the park, which limited the extent of large herbivore movements, localised heavy grazing did not lead to range degradation.

  3. Rock riprap design methods and their applicability to long-term protection of uranium mill tailings impoundments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the more accepted or recommended riprap design methods currently used to design rock riprap protection against soil erosion by flowing water. The basic theories used to develop the various methods are presented. The Riprap Design with Safety Factors Method is identified as the logical choice for uranium mill tailings impoundments. This method is compared to the other methods and its applicability to the protection requirements of tailings impoundments is discussed. Other design problems are identified and investigative studies recommended

  4. Long-term trends in the use of a protected area by small cetaceans in relation to changes in population status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Cheney

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The requirement to monitor listed species in European designated sites is challenging for long-lived mobile species that only temporarily occupy protected areas. We use a 21 year time series of bottlenose dolphin photo-identification data to assess trends in abundance and conservation status within a Special Area of Conservation (SAC in Scotland. Mark–recapture methods were used to estimate annual abundance within the SAC from 1990 to 2010. A Bayesian mark–recapture model with a state-space approach was used to estimate overall population trends using data collected across the populations’ range. Despite inter-annual variability in the number of dolphins within the SAC, there was a >99% probability that the wider population was stable or increasing. Results indicate that use of the SAC by the wider population has declined. This is the first evidence of long-term trends in the use of an EU protected area by small cetaceans in relation to changes in overall population status. Our results highlight the importance of adapting the survey protocols used in long-term photo-identification studies to maintain high capture probabilities and minimise sampling heterogeneity. Crucially, these data demonstrate the value of collecting data from the wider population to assess the success of protected areas designated for mobile predators.

  5. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becattini, Barbara; Zani, Fabio; Breasson, Ludovic; Sardi, Claudia; D'Agostino, Vito Giuseppe; Choo, Min-Kyung; Provenzani, Alessandro; Park, Jin Mo; Solinas, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with oxidative stress, which may be implicated in the progression of obesity-related diseases. The kinase JNK1 has emerged as a promising drug target for the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. JNK1 is also a key mediator of the oxidative stress response, which can promote cell death or survival, depending on the magnitude and context of its activation. In this article, we describe a study in which the long-term effects of JNK1 inactivation on glucose homeostasis and oxidative stress in obese mice were investigated for the first time. Mice lacking JNK1 (JNK1(-/-)) were fed an obesogenic high-fat diet (HFD) for a long period. JNK1(-/-) mice fed an HFD for the long term had reduced expression of antioxidant genes in their skin, more skin oxidative damage, and increased epidermal thickness and inflammation compared with the effects in control wild-type mice. However, we also observed that the protection from obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, steatosis, and insulin resistance, conferred by JNK1 ablation, was sustained over a long period and was paralleled by decreased oxidative damage in fat and liver. We conclude that compounds targeting JNK1 activity in brain and adipose tissue, which do not accumulate in the skin, may be safer and most effective.-Becattini, B., Zani, F., Breasson, L., Sardi, C., D'Agostino, V. G., Choo, M.-K., Provenzani, A., Park, J. M., Solinas, G. JNK1 ablation in mice confers long-term metabolic protection from diet-induced obesity at the cost of moderate skin oxidative damage. PMID:27230858

  6. Introduction: Long term prediction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Making a decision upon the right choice of a material appropriate to a given application should be based on taking into account several parameters as follows: cost, standards, regulations, safety, recycling, chemical properties, supplying, transformation, forming, assembly, mechanical and physical properties as well as the behaviour in practical conditions. Data taken from a private communication (J.H.Davidson) are reproduced presenting the life time range of materials from a couple of minutes to half a million hours corresponding to applications from missile technology up to high-temperature nuclear reactors or steam turbines. In the case of deep storage of nuclear waste the time required is completely different from these values since we have to ensure the integrity of the storage system for several thousand years. The vitrified nuclear wastes should be stored in metallic canisters made of iron and carbon steels, stainless steels, copper and copper alloys, nickel alloys or titanium alloys. Some of these materials are passivating metals, i.e. they develop a thin protective film, 2 or 3 nm thick - the so-called passive films. These films prevent general corrosion of the metal in a large range of chemical condition of the environment. In some specific condition, localized corrosion such as the phenomenon of pitting, occurs. Consequently, it is absolutely necessary to determine these chemical condition and their stability in time to understand the behavior of a given material. In other words the corrosion system is constituted by the complex material/surface/medium. For high level nuclear wastes the main features for resolving problem are concerned with: geological disposal; deep storage in clay; waste metallic canister; backfill mixture (clay-gypsum) or concrete; long term behavior; data needed for modelling and for predicting; choice of appropriate solution among several metallic candidates. The analysis of the complex material/surface/medium is of great importance

  7. Parenteral adenoviral boost enhances BCG induced protection, but not long term survival in a murine model of bovine TB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Daryan A; Garcia-Pelayo, M Carmen; Webb, Paul R; Wooff, Esen E; Bachy, Véronique S; Hogarth, Philip J

    2016-07-25

    Boosting BCG using heterologous prime-boost represents a promising strategy for improved tuberculosis (TB) vaccines, and adenovirus (Ad) delivery is established as an efficacious boosting vehicle. Although studies demonstrate that intranasal administration of Ad boost to BCG offers optimal protection, this is not currently possible in cattle. Using Ad vaccine expressing the mycobacterial antigen TB10.4 (BCG/Ad-TB10.4), we demonstrate, parenteral boost of BCG immunised mice to induce specific CD8(+) IFN-γ producing T cells via synergistic priming of new epitopes. This induces significant improvement in pulmonary protection against Mycobacterium bovis over that provided by BCG when assessed in a standard 4week challenge model. However, in a stringent, year-long survival study, BCG/Ad-TB10.4 did not improve outcome over BCG, which we suggest may be due to the lack of additional memory cells (IL-2(+)) induced by boosting. These data indicate BCG-prime/parenteral-Ad-TB10.4-boost to be a promising candidate, but also highlight the need for further understanding of the mechanisms of T cell priming and associated memory using Ad delivery systems. That we were able to generate significant improvement in pulmonary protection above BCG with parenteral, rather than mucosal administration of boost vaccine is critical; suggesting that the generation of effective mucosal immunity is possible, without the risks and challenges of mucosal administration, but that further work to specifically enhance sustained protective immunity is required. PMID:27317453

  8. Respiratory syncytial virus-like nanoparticle vaccination induces long-term protection without pulmonary disease by modulating cytokines and T-cells partially through alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee YT

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Young-Tae Lee,1,* Eun-Ju Ko,1,2,* Hye Suk Hwang,1,2 Jong Seok Lee,1,3 Ki-Hye Kim,1 Young-Man Kwon,1 Sang-Moo Kang1,2 1Center for Inflammation, Immunity and Infection, Institute for Biomedical Sciences, 2Department of Biology, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3National Institute of Biological Resources, Incheon, South Korea *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: The mechanisms of protection against respiratory syncytial virus (RSV are poorly understood. Virus-like nanoparticles expressing RSV glycoproteins (eg, a combination of fusion and glycoprotein virus-like nanoparticles [FG VLPs] have been suggested to be a promising RSV vaccine candidate. To understand the roles of alveolar macrophages (AMs in inducing long-term protection, mice that were 12 months earlier vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV (FI-RSV or FG VLPs were treated with clodronate liposome prior to RSV infection. FI-RSV immune mice with clodronate liposome treatment showed increases in eosinophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, interleukin (IL-4+ T-cell infiltration, proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and, in particular, mucus production upon RSV infection. In contrast to FI-RSV immune mice with severe pulmonary histopathology, FG VLP immune mice showed no overt sign of histopathology and significantly lower levels of eosinophils, T-cell infiltration, and inflammatory cytokines, but higher levels of interferon-γ, which are correlated with protection against RSV disease. FG VLP immune mice with depletion of AMs showed increases in inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as eosinophils. The results in this study suggest that FG nanoparticle vaccination induces long-term protection against RSV and that AMs play a role in the RSV protection by modulating eosinophilia, mucus production, inflammatory cytokines, and T-cell infiltration. Keywords: alveolar macrophage, nanoparticle vaccine, VLP, FI-RSV, RSV disease

  9. Induction of long-term protective immune responses by influenza H5N1 virus-like particles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Moo Kang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recurrent outbreaks of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza virus pose a threat of eventually causing a pandemic. Early vaccination of the population would be the single most effective measure for the control of an emerging influenza pandemic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Influenza virus-like particles (VLPs produced in insect cell-culture substrates do not depend on the availability of fertile eggs for vaccine manufacturing. We produced VLPs containing influenza A/Viet Nam1203/04 (H5N1 hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and matrix proteins, and investigated their preclinical immunogenicity and protective efficacy. Mice immunized intranasally with H5N1 VLPs developed high levels of H5N1 specific antibodies and were 100% protected against a high dose of homologous H5N1 virus infection at 30 weeks after immunization. Protection is likely to be correlated with humoral and cellular immunologic memory at systemic and mucosal sites as evidenced by rapid anamnestic responses to re-stimulation with viral antigen in vivo and in vitro. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide support for clinical evaluation of H5N1 VLP vaccination as a public health intervention to mitigate a possible pandemic of H5N1 influenza.

  10. Long-term collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Collectes à long terme

    2007-01-01

    The Committee of the Long Term Collections (CLT) asks for your attention for the following message from a young Peruvian scientist, following the earthquake which devastated part of her country a month ago.

  11. The long-term climate change assessmenet task of the protective barrier developoment program for low-level waste site remediation at the Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study plan is being developed to guide a multiyear program to assess long-term climate change and optimize the design of protective barriers. A protective barrier alternative is being considered for the disposal of some low-level radioactive defense waste stored near the surface at the Hanford Site, Washington. These barriers are being designed to limit movement of radionuclides and other contaminants to the accessible environment for at least 1000 years and possibly as long as 10,000 years. A stepwise approach to climatic data acquisition will be relied on in obtaining needed information for concurrent barrier tasks, and in developing a local climate forecast model. This model will need to couple past climate patterns with models of regional and global climate drivers to provide bounding conditions for barrier performance assessment analyses. 9 refs., 3 figs

  12. Thermal performance of an integrated thermal protection system for long-term storage of cryogenic propellants in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitt, R. L.; Boyle, R. J.

    1977-01-01

    It was demonstrated that cryogenic propellants can be stored unvented in space long enough to accomplish a Saturn orbiter mission after 1,200-day coast. The thermal design of a hydrogen-fluorine rocket stage was carried out, and the hydrogen tank, its support structure, and thermal protection system were tested in a vacuum chamber. Heat transfer rates of approximately 23 W were measured in tests to simulate the near-Earth portion of the mission. Tests to simulate the majority of the time the vehicle would be in deep space and sun-oriented resulted in a heat transfer rate of 0.11 W.

  13. Efficacy of Soil-Applied Neonicotinoid Insecticides for Long-term Protection Against Emerald Ash Borer (Coleoptera: Buprestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitley, David R; Herms, Daniel A; Davis, Terrance W

    2015-10-01

    Protection of green ash trees (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall) from the emerald ash borer (EAB), Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire, by soil applications of neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin, and dinotefuran) was tested at five locations between 2005 and 2013. Application rate and spring versus fall application dates were evaluated in tests with neighborhood street trees and in one plantation of 65 ash trees. Insecticide treatments of ash trees at all five sites were initiated as the leading edge of the EAB invasion began to kill the first ash trees at each location. Trees were treated and evaluated at each site for 4 to 7 yr. Spring applications of imidacloprid were more efficacious than fall applications. Application rates of 0.8 g a.i./cm dbh or greater per year gave a higher level of protection and were more consistent than rates of 0.56 g a.i./cm dbh per year or less. The number of years between the first observation of canopy loss due to EAB and death of most of the control trees varied from three to seven years among test sites, depending on how many non-treated ash trees were nearby. PMID:26453723

  14. Novel polymer materials for protecting crew and structural elements of orbital station against microorganisms attack throughout long-term operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yu.; Rudenko, A.; Robota, L.; Koval, E.; Savelyeva, O.; Markovskaya, L.; Veselov, V.

    2009-01-01

    Novel polyurethanes, polyamidourethanes and polyurethane foams of stable to biocorrosion were synthesized. The polymers possess fungicidal/fungistatic and bactericidal/bacteriostatic activity. After the biological tests with using of mold fungi and yeasts, polymers totally keep their main exploitation characteristics: for most of polymers coefficients of strength and elasticity keeping are equal of 100%. Most of them possess the fungicidal properties of zero balls, according to the State Standard. Life-firmness investigation of the most aggressive extremophiles: mold fungi Penicillium and Aspergillus on the polymer surfaces showed that for some samples it made up from 3 to 10 days. Some polymers possess both anti-micotic and anti-bacterial action. Based on investigation results a special technological scheme of assured human protection against microorganisms attack in specific condition of his existence are to be elaborated.

  15. Long-term follow-up of protection efficacy of vena cava filters in the prevention of pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To analyze the protection efficacy of the vena cava filter from pulmonary thromboembolism and report the problems and complications after filter placement. Methods: Fifty-five Vena Tech-LGM filters (VTF) and 6 Titanium-Greenfield filters (TGF) were placed in 61 patients. Follow-up was obtained by means of duplex sonography of the inferior vena cava and abdominal radiography in 38 patients, and by means of computed tomography in 11 patients. Results: One case of pulmonary embolism was seen following filter placement. Filter thrombosis occurred in 9 cases. There had been 1 case of incomplete filter opening and one case of filter tilting. Filter migration was noted in 1 case. Conclusion: This experience suggests that vena cava filter is safe and effective for the prevention of pulmonary embolism. A vena cava filter should only be inserted in a patient when there is strict proof of the indication

  16. Multilayer graphene for long-term corrosion protection of stainless steel bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoot, Adam C.; Camilli, Luca; Spiegelhauer, Susie-Ann; Yu, Feng; Bøggild, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Motivated by similar investigations recently published (Pu et al., 2015), we report a comparative corrosion study of three sets of samples relevant as bipolar plates for polymer electrolyte fuel cells: stainless steel, stainless steel with a nickel seed layer (Ni/SS) and stainless steel with Ni seed layer coated by a multi-layered graphene thin film (G/Ni/SS). The graphene film, synthesized by chemical vapour deposition (CVD), has a moderate amount of defects according to Raman spectroscopy. Short/medium-term corrosion test shows no significant advantage of using G/Ni/SS rather than Ni/SS, both samples exhibiting a similar trend, thus questioning the short-term positive effect of graphene coatings. However, partial immersion in boiling seawater for three weeks reveals a clear superiority of the graphene coating with respect to steel just protected by Ni. After the test, the graphene film is still intact with unchanged defect density. Our results show that even non-perfect multilayer graphene films can considerably increase the lifetime of future-generation bipolar plates for fuel cells.

  17. Short term and long term radiation protection aspects of a nuclear accident: a Cd-Rom for a better stake holders' involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many players are involved in managing a nuclear accident apart from radiation protection and nuclear safety experts. In an emergency response situation, the decision making process involves many non-technical players who nonetheless have a major role to play: in France these may include the Prefet, the emergency and civil defence services, the health services, the police, the gendarmerie and local councillors, with advice from the safety and radiological protection authorities and expert evaluation organisations. Within the post-accident response, other players will be involved alongside those already described: professional bodies, particularly farming organisations, residents' associations, those responsible for environmental decontamination, agencies responsible for compensating victims, etc., etc. In both the short and the long-term phases of the crisis management process, it is essential to enable participants who may have very different backgrounds and professional experience to work together with co-operation and mutual understanding. If non-technical players are to contribute effectively, there needs to be a minimum level of mutual understanding between them and the technical players on what the nuclear risk really is and what is the rationale of the short and long term counter-measures aimed at protecting the public and restoring the contaminated environment. Local communities also need to share this basic understanding because their cooperation is required in order to implement the counter-measures properly. Conversely, if the experts are to advise the local authorities properly, they need to understand the criteria on which these local authorities and communities base their decisions: what psycho-sociological factors apply, what logistical support is needed, what are the concerns of the local communities?

  18. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Higgins, P.J. Jr. [USDOE Albuquerque Field Office, NM (United States). Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Project Integration Office

    1993-10-01

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs.

  19. Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs

  20. ICRP Publication 111 - Application of the Commission's recommendations to the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas after a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lochard, J; Bogdevitch, I; Gallego, E; Hedemann-Jensen, P; McEwan, A; Nisbet, A; Oudiz, A; Oudiz, T; Strand, P; Janssens, A; Lazo, T; Carr, Z; Sugier, A; Burns, P; Carboneras, P; Cool, D; Cooper, J; Kai, M; Lecomte, J-F; Liu, H; Massera, G; McGarry, A; Mrabit, K; Mrabit, M; Sjöblom, K-L; Tsela, A; Weiss, W

    2009-06-01

    In this report, the Commission provides guidance for the protection of people living in long-term contaminated areas resulting from either a nuclear accident or a radiation emergency. The report considers the effects of such events on the affected population. This includes the pathways of human exposure, the types of exposed populations, and the characteristics of exposures. Although the focus is on radiation protection considerations, the report also recognises the complexity of post-accident situations, which cannot be managed without addressing all the affected domains of daily life, i.e. environmental, health, economic, social, psychological, cultural, ethical, political, etc. The report explains how the 2007 Recommendations apply to this type of existing exposure situation, including consideration of the justification and optimisation of protection strategies, and the introduction and application of a reference level to drive the optimisation process. The report also considers practical aspects of the implementation of protection strategies, both by authorities and the affected population. It emphasises the effectiveness of directly involving the affected population and local professionals in the management of the situation, and the responsibility of authorities at both national and local levels to create the conditions and provide the means favouring the involvement and empowerment of the population. The role of radiation monitoring, health surveillance, and the management of contaminated foodstuffs and other commodities is described in this perspective. The Annex summarises past experience of longterm contaminated areas resulting from radiation emergencies and nuclear accidents, including radiological criteria followed in carrying out remediation measures. PMID:20472181

  1. Environmental protection in the management of closed uranium mining sites in France: A pluralistic expertise approach for assessing short, medium and long term options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Evolving public concern and regulations call for a growing stakeholder involvement in the protection of the public and the environment. When it comes to technically complex issues prone to diverging perceptions of risks, decision making processes can be usefully advised by the pluralistic examination of the issues by a group of institutional and non-institutional experts. Raising controversies over the remediation status of French closed uranium mining sites lead the French ministers for the environment, health, and industry to create such a pluralistic expert group (GEP) in the end of 2005, with a focus on central Limousin region. This group brings together more than 40 experts with various skills and backgrounds from public institutions, industry, local and national environmental organisations, as well as independent and foreign experts. The group is committed to three main tasks to: (a) contribute the critical analysis of the status of the sites, based on extensive technical assessments provided by the operator AREVA NC (formerly COGEMA) and by the French Institute for Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN); (b) provide the authorities and the operator with recommendations on long-term management and monitoring options for the facilities, with the aim of reducing the health and environmental impacts; (c) report to local stakeholders and to inform the general public. Work has been developed in three complementary areas: - improving the assessment of releases to the natural environment, - developing a more thorough assessment of health and environmental impacts; and - strengthening the principles of management and monitoring of the potential impacts on the longer term, in the light of the applying regulatory framework and the conventional wisdom on long term scenarios. The GEP, which is due to conclude its work in the end of 2009, therefore aims at demonstrating the usefulness of pluralistic expertise to develop a more comprehensive

  2. Long-Term Collections

    CERN Multimedia

    Comité des collectes à long terme

    2011-01-01

    It is the time of the year when our fireman colleagues go around the laboratory for their traditional calendars sale. A part of the money of the sales will be donated in favour of the long-term collections. We hope that you will welcome them warmly.

  3. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin;

    2010-01-01

    A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...

  4. Low-density lipoprotein receptor gene therapy using helper-dependent adenovirus produces long-term protection against atherosclerosis in a mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, S; Merched, A; Nour, E; Dieker, C; Oka, K; Chan, L

    2004-10-01

    We tested the efficacy of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) therapy using helper-dependent adenovirus (HD-Ad), comparing it with that of very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), an LDLR homolog. We treated high cholesterol diet fed LDLR-/- mice with a single intravenous injection of HD-Ad expressing monkey LDLR (1.5 x 10(13) or 5 x 10(12) VP/kg) or VLDLR. Throughout the 24-week experiment, plasma cholesterol of LDLR-treated mice was lower than that of VLDLR-treated mice, which was in turn lower than that of PBS-treated mice. Anti-LDLR antibodies developed in 2/10 mice treated with high-dose HD-Ad-LDLR but in none (0/14) of the other treatment groups. HD-Ad-treated mice displayed significant retardation of atherosclerotic lesion progression. We next tested the long-term efficacy of low-dose HD-Ad-LDLR injected into 12-week-old LDLR-/- mice. After 60 weeks, atherosclerosis lesions covered approximately 50% of the surface of aortas of control mice, whereas aortas of treated mice were essentially lesion-free. The lipid lowering effect of HD-Ad-LDLR lasted at least 108 weeks (>2 years) when all control mice had died. In addition to retarding lesion progression, treatment caused lesion remodeling from a vulnerable-looking to a more stable-appearing phenotype. In conclusion, HD-Ad-mediated LDLR gene therapy is effective in conferring long-term protection against atherosclerosis in a mouse model of familial hypercholesterolemia. PMID:15269711

  5. Long-term administration of a small molecular weight catalytic metalloporphyrin antioxidant, AEOL 10150, protects lungs from radiation-induced injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To determine whether administration of a catalytic antioxidant, Mn(III) tetrakis(N,N'-diethylimidazolium-2-yl) porphyrin, AEOL 10150, with superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimetic properties, reduces the severity of radiation-induced injury to the lung from single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy. Methods and Materials: Rats were randomly divided into four different dose groups (0, 1, 10, and 30 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150), receiving either short-term (1 week) or long-term (10 weeks) drug administration via osmotic pumps. Rats received single-dose irradiation (RT) of 28 Gy to the right hemithorax. Breathing rates, body weights, blood samples, histopathology, and immunohistochemistry were used to assess lung damage. Results: There was no significant difference in any of the study endpoints between the irradiated controls and the three groups receiving RT and short-term administration of AEOL 10150. For the long-term administration, functional determinants of lung damage 20 weeks postradiation were significantly worse for RT + phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and RT + 1 mg/kg/day of AEOL 10150 as compared with the irradiated groups treated with higher doses of AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day). Lung histology at 20 weeks revealed a significant decrease in structural damage and collagen deposition in rats receiving 10 or 30 mg/kg/day after radiation in comparison to the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated a significant reduction in macrophage accumulation, oxidative stress, and hypoxia in rats receiving AEOL 10150 (10 or 30 mg/kg/day) after lung irradiation compared with the RT + PBS and 1 mg/kg/day groups. Conclusions: The chronic administration of a novel catalytic antioxidant, AEOL 10150, demonstrates a significant protective effect from radiation-induced lung injury. AEOL 10150 has its primary impact on the cascade of events after irradiation, and adding the drug before irradiation and its short-term administration have no significant

  6. The protective role of long-term meditation on the decline of the executive component of attention in aging: a preliminary cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperduti, Marco; Makowski, Dominique; Piolino, Pascale

    2016-11-01

    Life expectancy is constantly increasing. However, a longer life not always corresponds to a healthier life. Indeed, even normal aging is associated with a decline in different cognitive functions. It has been proposed that a central mechanism that could contribute to this widespread cognitive decline is an ineffective inhibitory attentional control. Meditation, to the other hand, has been associated, in young adults, to enhancement of several attentional processes. Nevertheless, attention is not a unitary construct. An influent model proposed the distinction of three subsystems: the alerting (the ability to reach and maintain a vigilance state), the orienting (the capacity of focusing attention on a subset of stimuli), and the conflict resolution or executive component (the ability to resolve conflict or allocate limited resources between competing stimuli). Here, we investigated, employing the Attentional Network Task (ANT), the specific impact of age on these three subcomponents, and the protective role of long-term meditation testing a group of older adults naïve to meditation, a group of age-matched adults with long-term practice of meditation, and a group of young adults with no previous meditation experience. We reported a specific decline of the efficiency of the executive component in elderly that was not observed in age-matched meditators. Our results are encouraging for the investigation of the potential beneficial impact of meditation on other cognitive processes that decline in aging such as memory. Moreover, they could inform geriatric healthcare prevention and intervention strategies, proposing a new approach for cognitive remediation in elderly populations. PMID:26982654

  7. Successive Oral Immunizations Against Piscirickettsia Salmonis and Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus are Required to Maintain a Long-Term Protection in Farmed Salmonids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Iván; Arancibia, Sergio; Torres, Constanza; Vera, Verónica; Soto, Paola; Carrasco, Claudia; Alvarado, Marcelo; Neira, Eduardo; Arcos, Sandra; Tobar, Jaime A

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing demand to determine the protective status of vaccinated fish in order to prevent diseases outbreaks. A set of different parameters that include the infectious and immunological status of vaccinated salmonids from 622 Chilean farms were analyzed during 2011-2014. The aim of this study was to optimize the vaccination program of these centers through the determination of the protective state of vaccinated fish using oral immunizations. This state was determined from the association of the concentration of the immunoglobulin M (IgM) in the serum and the mortality rate of vaccinated fish. Salmonids were vaccinated with different commercial mono- or polyvalent vaccines against salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS) and infectious salmon anemia (ISA), first by the intraperitoneal injection of oil-adjuvanted antigens and then by the stimulation of mucosal immunity using oral vaccines as a booster vaccination. The results showed that high levels of specific IgM antibodies were observed after injectable vaccination, reaching a maximum concentration at 600-800 degree-days. Similar levels of antibodies were observed when oral immunizations were administrated. The high concentration of antibodies [above 2750 ng/mL for ISA virus (ISAv) and 3500 ng/mL for SRS] was maintained for a period of 800 degree-days after each vaccination procedure. In this regard, oral immunizations maintained a long-term high concentration of anti-SRS and anti-ISAv specific IgM antibodies. When the concentration of antibodies decreased below 2000 pg/mL, a window of susceptibility to SRS infection was observed in the farm, suggesting a close association between antibody levels and fish protective status. These results demonstrated that, in the field, several oral immunizations are essential to uphold a high level of specific anti-pathogens antibodies and, therefore, the protective status during the whole productive cycle. PMID:26074916

  8. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during {sup 131}I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clement, S.C. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rijn, R.R. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Radiology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Eck-Smit, B.L.F. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Trotsenburg, A.S.P. van [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, PO box 22660, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Caron, H.N.; Tytgat, G.A.M. [University of Amsterdam, Department of Pediatric Oncology, Emma Children' s Hospital, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Santen, H.M. van [Wilhelmina Children' s Hospital, University Medical Center Utrecht, Department of Pediatric Endocrinology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-04-01

    Treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to {sup 131}I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of {sup 131}I{sup -} on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with {sup 131}I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after {sup 131}I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with {sup 131}I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous {sup 131}I

  9. Long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis and future perspectives on thyroid protection during 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine treatment in children with neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treatment with 131I-MIBG is associated with significant thyroid damage. This study was undertaken to investigate the long-term efficacy of current thyroid prophylaxis, to explore the relationship between thyroid dysfunction and thyroid volume after exposure to 131I-MIBG and to evaluate the possible negative effects of 131I- on the parathyroid glands. Of 81 long-term surviving patients with neuroblastoma treated with 131I-MIBG during the period 1999-2012, 24 were finally evaluated. Patients received thyroxine (T4), methimazole and potassium iodide as thyroid protection. In all patients (para)thyroid function was evaluated and ultrasound investigation of the (para)thyroid gland(s) was performed. Thyroid dysfunction was defined as a plasma thyrotropin concentration >5.0 mU/L (thyrotropin elevation, TE) or as the use of T4 at the time of follow-up. Hyperparathyroidism was defined as a serum calcium concentration above the age-related reference range in combination with an inappropriately high parathyroid hormone level. At a median follow-up of 9.0 years after 131I-MIBG treatment, thyroid disorders were seen in 12 patients (50 %; 9 with TE, 5 with a thyroid nodule and 1 patient was subsequently diagnosed with differentiated thyroid carcinoma). No significant risk factors for the occurrence of thyroid damage could be identified. In 14 of 21 patients (67 %) in whom thyroid volume could be determined, the volume was considered small (<-2SD) for age and gender. Patients treated with T4 at the time of follow-up had significantly smaller thyroid volumes for age than patients without T4 treatment (p = 0.014). None of the patients was diagnosed with hyperparathyroidism. Thyroid protection during treatment with 131I-MIBG needs attention and must be further improved, as thyroid disorders are still frequently seen despite current thyroid prophylaxis. Reduced thyroid volume in neuroblastoma survivors may be related to previous 131I-MIBG therapy or current T4 treatment. No

  10. Variable wind, pack ice, and prey dispersion affect the long-term adequacy of protected areas for an Arctic sea duck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovvorn, James R; Anderson, Eric M; Rocha, Aariel R; Larned, William W; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M; Cooper, Lee W; Kolts, Jason M; North, Christopher A

    2014-03-01

    With changing climate, delineation of protected areas for sensitive species must account for long-term variability and geographic shifts of key habitat elements. Projecting the future adequacy of protected areas requires knowing major factors that drive such changes, and how readily the animals adjust to altered resources. In the Arctic, the viability of habitats for marine birds and mammals often depends on sea ice to dissipate storm waves and provide platforms for resting. However, some wind conditions (including weak winds during extreme cold) can consolidate pack ice into cover so dense that air-breathing divers are excluded from the better feeding areas. Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri) winter among leads (openings) in pack ice in areas where densities of their bivalve prey are quite high. During winter 2009, however, prevailing winds created a large region of continuous ice with inadequate leads to allow access to areas of dense preferred prey. Stable isotope and fatty acid biomarkers indicated that, under these conditions, the eiders did not diversify their diet to include abundant non-bivalve taxa but did add a smaller, less preferred, bivalve species. Consistent with a computer model of eider energy balance, the body fat of adult eiders in 2009 was 33-35% lower than on the same date (19 March) in 2001 when ice conditions allowed access to higher bivalve densities. Ice cover data suggest that the eiders were mostly excluded from areas of high bivalve density from January to March in about 30% of 14 winters from 1998 to 2011. Thus, even without change in total extent of ice, shifts in prevailing winds can alter the areal density of ice to reduce access to important habitats. Because changes in wind-driven currents can also rearrange the dispersion of prey, the potential for altered wind patterns should be an important concern in projecting effects of climate change on the adequacy of marine protected areas for diving endotherms in the Arctic. PMID

  11. A Single Dose Respiratory Recombinant Adenovirus-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Protection for Non-Human Primates from Lethal Ebola Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin Huk; Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Qiu, Xiangguo; Shedlock, Devon J; Strong, Jim; Xu, Jason X; Michie, Kelly L; Audet, Jonathan; Fernando, Lisa; Myers, Mark J; Weiner, David; Bajrovic, Irnela; Tran, Lilian Q; Wong, Gary; Bello, Alexander; Kobinger, Gary P; Schafer, Stephen C; Croyle, Maria A

    2015-08-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues and cases appear in the United States and other countries, the need for long-lasting vaccines to preserve global health is imminent. Here, we evaluate the long-term efficacy of a respiratory and sublingual (SL) adenovirus-based vaccine in non-human primates in two phases. In the first, a single respiratory dose of 1.4×10(9) infectious virus particles (ivp)/kg of Ad-CAGoptZGP induced strong Ebola glycoprotein (GP) specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses and Ebola GP-specific antibodies in systemic and mucosal compartments and was partially (67%) protective from challenge 62 days after immunization. The same dose given by the SL route induced Ebola GP-specific CD8+ T cell responses similar to that of intramuscular (IM) injection, however, the Ebola GP-specific antibody response was low. All primates succumbed to infection. Three primates were then given the vaccine in a formulation that improved the immune response to Ebola in rodents. Three primates were immunized with 2.0×10(10) ivp/kg of vaccine by the SL route. Diverse populations of polyfunctional Ebola GP-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and significant anti-Ebola GP antibodies were present in samples collected 150 days after respiratory immunization. The formulated vaccine was fully protective against challenge 21 weeks after immunization. While diverse populations of Ebola GP-specific CD4+ T cells were produced after SL immunization, antibodies were not neutralizing and the vaccine was unprotective. To our knowledge, this is the first time that durable protection from a single dose respiratory adenovirus-based Ebola vaccine has been demonstrated in primates. PMID:25363619

  12. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ciapała

    Full Text Available Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics, some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis.

  13. Suspended C60 nanoparticles protect against short-term UV and fluoranthene photo-induced toxicity, but cause long-term cellular damage in Daphnia magna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased production of nanotechnology materials is a potential source of nano-sized particles (NSPs) in aquatic ecosystems. Meanwhile, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), in the presence of ecologically relevant levels of ultraviolet radiation (UV), can be acutely toxic to aquatic species including fish and invertebrates. Considering that suspended carbon-based NSPs (e.g., C60 fullerenes) may act in similar ways as dissolved organic matter (DOM) by altering the bioavailability of PAHs, the objective of this research was to determine the effect of suspended C60 on the photo-induced toxicity of fluoranthene. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the presence of C60 protected cellular components (e.g., mitochondria, microvilli, and basal infoldings) in organisms exposed to UV and fluoranthene phototoxicity in short-term exposures. However, we found that long-term exposure (21 d) of low-level C60 caused significant cellular damage in the Daphnia magna alimentary canal. This paper highlights the importance of examining the interactions between existing stressors and nanoparticles in the aquatic environment.

  14. Methodological Aspects of the Potential Use of Dendrochronological Techniques When Analyzing the Long-Term Impact of Tourism on Protected Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciapała, Szymon; Adamski, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    Intensification of pedestrian tourism causes damage to trees near tourist tracks, and likewise changes the soil structure. As a result, one may expect that annual amount of trees growing near tracks is significantly lower than deeper in the forest. However, during the study of the long-term impact of tourism on the environment (determined from tree increment dynamics), some methodological problems may occur. It is particularly important in protected areas where law and administrative regulations related to nature conservation force research to be conducted using small samples. In this paper we have analyzed the data collected in the Polish part of the Tatra National Park in the two study plots divided into two zones each: the area directly under the influence of the tourist's trampling and the control group. The aim of such analyses was to present the potential effects of the factors which may affect the results of dendrochronological analysis: (i) small size of samples that affects their representativeness, (ii) spatial differences in the rates of the process, as a result of spatial variability of environmental factors and (iii) temporal differences in the rates of the process. This study confirms that the factors mentioned above could significantly influence the results and should be taken into consideration during the analysis. PMID:26325062

  15. Collectes à long terme

    CERN Document Server

    Collectes à long terme

    2014-01-01

    En cette fin d’année 2014 qui approche à grands pas, le Comité des Collectes à Long Terme remercie chaleureusement ses fidèles donatrices et donateurs réguliers pour leurs contributions à nos actions en faveur des plus démunis de notre planète. C’est très important, pour notre Comité, de pouvoir compter sur l’appui assidu que vous nous apportez. Depuis plus de 40 ans maintenant, le modèle des CLT est basé principalement sur des actions à long terme (soit une aide pendant 4-5 ans par projet, mais plus parfois selon les circonstances), et sa planification demande une grande régularité de ses soutiens financiers. Grand MERCI à vous ! D’autres dons nous parviennent au cours de l’année, et ils sont aussi les bienvenus. En particulier, nous tenons à remercier...

  16. Bioassay of thermal protection afforded by candidate flight suit fabrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, F S; Wachtel, T L; McCahan, G R

    1979-10-01

    The United States Army Aeromedical Research Laboratory (USAARL) porcine cutaneous bioassay technique was used to determine what mitigating effect four thermally protective flight suit fabrics would have on fire-induced skin damage. The fabrics were 4.8-ox twill weave Nomex aramide, 4.5-oz stabilized twill weave polybenzimidazole, 4.8-oz plain weave experimental high-temperature polymer (HT4), and 4.8-oz plain weave Nomex aramide (New Weave Nomex or NWN). Each fabric sample was assayed 20 times in each of four configurations: as a single layer in contact with the skin; as a single layer with a 6.35 mm (0.25 in) air gap between fabric and skin; in conjuction with a cotton T-shirt with no air gaps; and, finally, in conjuction with a T-shirt with a 6.35 mm air gap between T-shirt and fabric. Bare skin was used as a control. A JP-4 fueled furnace was used as a thermal source and was adjested to deliver a mean heat flux of 3.07 cal/cm2/s. The duration of exposure was 5 s. Four hundred burn sites were graded using clinical observation and microscopic techniques. Used as single layers, none of the fabrics demonstrated superiority in providing clinically significant protection. When used with a cotton T-shirt, protection was improved. Protection improved progressively for all fabrics and configuration when an air gap was introduced. The experimental high-temperature polymer consistently demonstrated lower heat flux transmission in all configurations, but did not significantly reduce clinical burns. PMID:518445

  17. 76 FR 41929 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-15

    ... E--Health Insurance Issuer Standards Related to the Transitional Reinsurance Program F. Subpart F... July 15, 2011 Part III Department of Health and Human Services 45 CFR Part 153 Patient Protection and... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Part 153 RIN 0938-AR07 Patient Protection and Affordable Care...

  18. 16 CFR 1061.8 - Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded. 1061.8 Section 1061.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.8 Information on the heightened degree of protection...

  19. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Drønen, Nils; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob

    2010-01-01

    concept often used in one-line modelling of cross-shore shifting of an otherwise constant shape cross-shore profile is applied for the case of a groyne and a detached breakwater. In the case of alongshore bar/nourishment migration an alternative parameterization is adopted. All examples are presented......A morphological modelling concept for long term nearshore morphology is proposed and examples of its application are presented and discussed. The model concept combines parameterised representations of the cross-shore morphology, with a 2DH area model for waves, currents and sediment transport in...... the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations, a...

  20. Long-term frequent use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs might protect patients with ankylosing spondylitis from cardiovascular diseases: a nationwide case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chan Tsai

    Full Text Available The objective of this case-control study was to investigate the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD following non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID use in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS. A total of 10,763 new AS patients were identified from the National Taiwan Health Insurance claims database during the period from 1997 to 2008. In all, 421 AS patients with CVD were recruited as cases, and up to 2-fold as many sex- and age-matched controls were selected. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR between NSAID use and CVD incidence. The medication possession rate (MPR was used to evaluate NSAID exposure during the study period. AS patients had increased risk of CVD (OR, 1.68; 95% confidence interval (CI, 1.57 to 1.80. Among frequent (MPR≥80% COX II users, the risks for all types of CVD were ten times lower than those among non-users at 24 months (OR, 0.08; 95% CI, 0.01 to 0.92. Among frequent NSAID users, the risks of major adverse cardiac event (MACE were significantly lower at 12 months (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.76--a trend showing that longer exposure correlated with lower risk. Regarding non-frequent NSAID users (MPR<80%, short-term exposure did carry higher risk (for 6 months: OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.07 to 1.86, but after 12 months, the risk no longer existed. We conclude that long-term frequent use of NSAIDs might protect AS patients from CVD; however, NSAIDs still carried higher short-term risk in the non-frequent users.

  1. Potent In Vitro Protection Against PM[Formula: see text]-Caused ROS Generation and Vascular Permeability by Long-Term Pretreatment with Ganoderma tsugae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Chia-Yi; Chung, Meng-Chi; Wang, Jhih-Syuan; Chang, Yu-Jung; Chang, Jing-Fen; Lin, Chin-Hung; Hseu, Ruey-Shyang; Chao, Ming-Wei

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies show increased particulate matter (PM[Formula: see text]) particles in ambient air are correlated with increased myocardial infarctions. Given the close association of capillaries and alveoli, the dysfunction is caused when inhaled PM[Formula: see text] particles come in close proximity to capillary endothelial cells. We previously suggested that the inhalation of PM[Formula: see text] diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces oxidative stress and upregulates the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway, inducing vascular permeability factor VEGFA secretion, which results in cell-cell adherens junction disruption and PM[Formula: see text] transmigratation into circulation. Here, we minimized the level that PM[Formula: see text] traveled in the bloodstream by pre-supplementing with a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) Ganoderma tsugae DMSO extract (GTDE) prior to PM[Formula: see text] exposure. Our results show that PM[Formula: see text] caused alterations in enzyme activities and cellular anti-oxidant balance. We found decreased glutathione levels, a reduced cellular redox ratio, increased ROS generation and cytotoxicity in the cellular fractions. The oxidative stress caused DNA damage and apoptosis, likely causing downstream molecular events that trigger vasculature permeabilization and, eventually, cardiovascular disorders. Our results show long-term GTDE treatment increased endogenous glutathione level, while PM[Formula: see text]-reduced glutathione levels and the cellular redox ratio. GTDE was protective against the genotoxic and apoptotic effects initiated by PM[Formula: see text] oxidative stress. Vascular permeability revealed that PM[Formula: see text] only accumulated on the surface of cells after GTDE treatment; no penetration was detected. After two weeks of GTDE treatment, VEGFA secretion was significantly reduced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and endothelial cell migration was blocked. Our results suggest GTDE prevents PM

  2. LONG TERM COLLECTIONS

    CERN Multimedia

    STAFF ASSOCIATION

    2010-01-01

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Long-Term Collections (CLT) committee would like to warmly thank its faithful donors who, year after year, support our actions all over the world. Without you, all this would not be possible. We would like to thank, in particular, the CERN Firemen’s Association who donated 5000 CHF in the spring thanks to the sale of their traditional calendar, and the generosity of the CERN community. A huge thank you to the firemen for their devotion to our cause. And thank you to all those who have opened their door, their heart, and their purses! Similarly, we warmly thank the CERN Yoga Club once again for its wonderful donation of 2000 CHF we recently received. We would also like to tell you that all our projects are running well. Just to remind you, we are currently supporting the activities of the «Réflexe-Partage» Association in Mali; the training centre of «Education et Développement» in Abomey, Benin; and the orphanage and ...

  3. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: Biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Fan; SANG WeiGuo; LI GuangQi; LIU RuiGang; CHEN LingZhi; WANG Kun

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud-ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.I.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex-ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn-over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity pattern

  4. Long-term protection effects of national reserve to forest vegetation in 4 decades: biodiversity change analysis of major forest types in Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The Changbai Mountain Nature Reserve (CNR) was established in 1960 to protect the virgin Korean pine mixed hardwood forest, a typical temperate forest of northeast China. We conducted systematic stud- ies of vascular diversity patterns on the north slope of the CNR mountainside forests (800-1700 m a.s.l.) in 1963 and 2006 respectively. The aim of this comparison is to assess the long-term effects of the protection on plant biodiversity of CNR during the interval 43 years. The research was carried out in three types of forests: mixed coniferous and broad-leaved forest (MCBF), mixed coniferous forest (MCF), and sub-alpine coniferous forest (SCF), characterized by different dominant species. The alpha diversity indicted by species richness and the Shannon-Wiener index were found different in the same elevations and forest types during the 43-year interval. The floral composition and the diversity of vascular species were generally similar along altitudinal gradients before and after the 43-year interval, but some substantial changes were evident with the altitude gradient. In the tree layers, the dominant species in 2006 were similar to those of 1963, though diversity declined with altitude. The indices in the three forest types did not differ significantly between 1963 and 2006, and these values even increased in the MCBF and MCF from 1963 to 2006. However, originally dominant species, P. koraiensis for ex- ample, tended to decline, while the proportion of broad-leaved trees increased, and the species turn- over in the succession layers trended to shift to higher altitudes. The diversity pattern of the under canopy fluctuated along the altitudinal gradient due to micro-environmental variations. Comparison of the alpha diversity in the three forests shows that the diversity of the shrub and herb layer decreased with time. During the process of survey, we also found some rare and medicinal species disappeared. Analysis indicates that the changes of the diversity

  5. The Adults in the Making Program: Long-Term Protective Stabilizing Effects on Alcohol Use and Substance Use Problems for Rural African American Emerging Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Gene H.; Yu, Tianyi; Chen, Yi-fu; Kogan, Steven M.; Smith, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This report addresses the long-term efficacy of the Adults in the Making (AIM) prevention program on deterring the escalation of alcohol use and development of substance use problems, particularly among rural African American emerging adults confronting high levels of contextual risk. Method: African American youths (M age, pretest =…

  6. The impact of distal embolization and distal protection on long-term outcome in patients with ST elevation myocardial infarction randomized to primary percutaneous coronary intervention - results from a randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønborg, Jacob; Kelbæk, Henning; Helqvist, Steffen;

    2014-01-01

    (p=0.30), and 44.4% for patients treated with distal protection with DE compared to 17.9% for patients without DE (p=0.005). DE was not related to mortality (p=0.52) or reinfarction (p=0.52) among patients treated with standard PCI, but was related to higher rates of mortality (p=0.012) and......OBJECTIVES: The impact of angiographically visible distal embolization (DE) and distal protection occurring during primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) on long-term outcome has not been studied in a contemporary ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) cohort. To evaluate the...... association between DE and long-term outcome in STEMI patients treated with primary PCI with or without distal protection. METHODS AND RESULTS: In this post-hoc analysis of a randomized study, 591 STEMI patients were randomized to conventional primary PCI or primary PCI with distal protection and followed for...

  7. Long term wet spent nuclear fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting showed that there is continuing confidence in the use of wet storage for spent nuclear fuel and that long-term wet storage of fuel clad in zirconium alloys can be readily achieved. The importance of maintaining good water chemistry has been identified. The long-term wet storage behaviour of sensitized stainless steel clad fuel involves, as yet, some uncertainties. However, great reliance will be placed on long-term wet storage of spent fuel into the future. The following topics were treated to some extent: Oxidation of the external surface of fuel clad, rod consolidation, radiation protection, optimum methods of treating spent fuel storage water, physical radiation effects, and the behaviour of spent fuel assemblies of long-term wet storage conditions. A number of papers on national experience are included

  8. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  9. 78 FR 54069 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, and Eligibility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ...; Exchange Standards for Employers, 77 FR 18310 (March 27, 2012). \\2\\ Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment, 77 FR 17220 (March 23, 2012... and Amendments to the HHS Notice of Benefit and Payment Parameters for 2014, 78 FR 15410 and...

  10. Long-term environmental stewardship.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, Michael David

    2010-08-01

    The purpose of this Supplemental Information Source Document is to effectively describe Long-Term Environmental Stewardship (LTES) at Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM). More specifically, this document describes the LTES and Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Programs, distinguishes between the LTES and LTS Programs, and summarizes the current status of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Project.

  11. Further development, quality assurance and long-term behaviour of vacuum insulation panels with mechanical protection; Weiterentwicklung, QS und Langzeitverhalten von Vakuumisolationspaneelen mit mechanischem Schutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmler, H.

    2008-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the results obtained for two long-term studies on the use of vacuum insulation panels. Along with temperature and humidity measurements, the vacuum in the panels in two installations - one as part of the floor insulation in a deep-freeze room and another as insulation for a flat roof - were monitored with special integrated sensors. The ageing and the (slight) deterioration of insulation values are commented on. The measurement methods used and the results obtained are compared with laboratory values. The further development of VIP vacuum insulation panels for facades is examined.

  12. A Two-Component DNA-Prime/Protein-Boost Vaccination Strategy for Eliciting Long-Term, Protective T Cell Immunity against Trypanosoma cruzi

    OpenAIRE

    Shivali Gupta; Garg, Nisha J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a two-component subunit vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. C57BL/6 mice were immunized with TcG2/TcG4 vaccine delivered by a DNA-prime/Protein-boost (D/P) approach and challenged with T. cruzi at 120 or 180 days post-vaccination (dpv). We examined whether vaccine-primed T cell immunity was capable of rapid expansion and intercepting the infecting T. cruzi. Our data showed that D/P vaccine elicited CD4+ (30-38%) and CD8+ (22-42%) ...

  13. A Single Dose Respiratory Recombinant Adenovirus-Based Vaccine Provides Long-Term Protection for Non-Human Primates from Lethal Ebola Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Jin Huk; Jonsson-Schmunk, Kristina; Qiu, Xiangguo; Shedlock, Devon J.; Strong, Jim; Xu, Jason X.; Michie, Kelly L.; Audet, Jonathan; Fernando, Lisa; Myers, Mark J.; Weiner, David; Bajrovic, Irnela; Tran, Lilian Q.; Wong, Gary; Bello, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    As the Ebola outbreak in West Africa continues and cases appear in the United States and other countries, the need for long-lasting vaccines to preserve global health is imminent. Here, we evaluate the long-term efficacy of a respiratory and sublingual (SL) adenovirus-based vaccine in non-human primates in two phases. In the first, a single respiratory dose of 1.4 × 109 infectious virus particles (ivp)/kg of Ad-CAGoptZGP induced strong Ebola glycoprotein (GP) specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cell res...

  14. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Sak, B.; Petrželková, K. (Klára Judita); Květoňová, D. (Dana); Mynářová, A.; Shutt, K. A.; Pomajbíková, K.; Kalousová, B.; Modrý, D; Benavides, J.; Todd, A; Kváč, M.

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel ge...

  15. Long-Term Unemployment in the Varieties of Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Chilosi

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers how the different varieties of capitalism affect the rate of long-term unemployment. The liberal market variety, where employment protection is the lowest, presents lower rates of long-term unemployment than the continental European, or the Mediterranean varieties. In the latter both employment protection and long-term unemployment are the highest and labour market participation the lowest. But the social-democratic Scandinavian variety gets the best of both worlds: low r...

  16. Life care: new options for financing and delivering long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M A

    1988-12-01

    Continuing care retirement communities provide full insurance protection for and access to long-term care services. A new model, which retains risk pooling for long-term care and provides benefits and protections similar to continuing care retirement communities, is called life care at home. Life care at home combines the financial and health security of a continuing care retirement community with the freedom and independence of living at home and is affordable to a greater proportion of elderly people. The feasibility of this model is, in part, supported by the fact that nursing home use in the fully insured access-guaranteed continuing care retirement community is not that different from use among the elderly living in the general community. PMID:10312968

  17. Successive Oral Immunizations Against Piscirickettsia Salmonis and Infectious Salmon Anemia Virus are Required to Maintain a Long-Term Protection in Farmed Salmonids

    OpenAIRE

    Tobar, Iván; Arancibia, Sergio; Torres, Constanza; Vera, Verónica; Soto, Paola; Carrasco, Claudia; Alvarado, Marcelo; Neira, Eduardo; Arcos, Sandra; Tobar, Jaime A.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, there is a growing demand to determine the protective status of vaccinated fish in order to prevent diseases outbreaks. A set of different parameters that include the infectious and immunological status of vaccinated salmonids from 622 Chilean farms were analyzed during 2011–2014. The aim of this study was to optimize the vaccination program of these centers through the determination of the protective state of vaccinated fish using oral immunizations. This state was determined from...

  18. 战储装备器材长效综合防护包装方法研究%Research on Long-term Effective and Comprehensive Protection and Packaging Method of Warfare Miscellaneous Equipment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张春和; 赵复涛; 吴志斌; 李敏堂

    2011-01-01

    分析了我军战储装备器材防护包装现状,提出了长效综合防护包装的思想,从器材分类、方案设计、工艺规范等方面研究了战储装备器材长效综合防护包装方法,并进行了实例验证和分析。%Current situation of protection and packaging of warfare miscellaneous equipment was analyzed. The theory of long-term effective and comprehensive protection and packaging was put forward. The method of protection and packaging was studied from equipment classification, conceptual design and process specification, which was validated and analyzed with living examples.

  19. Promoting functional health in midlife and old age: long-term protective effects of control beliefs, social support, and physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margie E Lachman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous studies have examined physical risk factors in relation to functional health, but less work has focused on the protective role of psychological and social factors. We examined the individual and joint protective contribution of control beliefs, social support and physical exercise to changes in functional health, beyond the influence of health status and physical risk factors in middle-aged and older adults. Given that functional health typically declines throughout adulthood, it is important to identify modifiable factors that can be implemented to maintain functioning, improve quality of life, and reduce disability. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a national longitudinal study, Midlife in the United States (MIDUS, with assessments in 1995-1996 and 2004-2006, and 3,626 community-residing adults, aged 32 to 84, were included in the analyses. Functional health (Physical Functioning subscale of the SF-36 and protective factors were measured at both occasions. While controlling for socio-demographic, health status, and physical risk factors (large waist circumference, smoking, and alcohol or drug problems, a composite of the three protective variables (control beliefs, social support, and physical exercise at Time 1 was significantly related to functional health change. The more of these factors at Time 1, the better the health maintenance over 10 years. Among middle-aged and older adults, declines in health were significantly reduced with an increased number of protective factors. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Age-related declines in health were reduced among those with more protective factors up to a decade earlier in life. Modifiable psychological, social, and physical protective factors, individually and in the aggregate, are associated with maintenance of functional health, beyond the damaging effects of physical risk factors. The results are encouraging for the prospect of developing interventions to promote

  20. Long term e-archiving

    OpenAIRE

    Dobratz, Susanne

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions of the breakout session "Long term e-archiving". Looking at the motto of this workshop “Gaining independence with e-Print archives and OAI” it suggests first of all that using e-Print publishing methods especially in the sense of a scholarly non-profit publishing independently from any commercial publishing house offers a unique chance to scientists.

  1. Long-term research of natural forests on permanent plots founded by Prof. A. Zlatník in protected areas of Transcarpathia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Buček, A.; Hrubý, Z.; Lacina, Jan

    Rakchiv : Karpatskij biosfernij zapovidnik, 2008, s. 80-94. ISBN 978-966-398-023-2. [ Protected area system development in Ukraine and formation of the Pan-European ecological network. Rakchiv (UA), 11.11.2008-13.11.2008] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : nature forests * geobiocoenology * Ukrainian Carpathians Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  2. Long-term state of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant protection in participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up with chronic coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activation of free-radical oxidation and insufficient level of free-radical protection is typical for participants of Chornobyl accident clean-up. The degree of these changes at irradiation at dose of 25 cSv more and myocardium ischemia 20 and more min/day was significantly higher. Oxidant stress in these subjects can influence the initiation of atherosclerosis development.

  3. Long-term clinical protection from falciparum malaria is strongly associated with IgG3 antibodies to merozoite surface protein 3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Roussilhon

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Surrogate markers of protective immunity to malaria in humans are needed to rationalize malaria vaccine discovery and development. In an effort to identify such markers, and thereby provide a clue to the complex equation malaria vaccine development is facing, we investigated the relationship between protection acquired through exposure in the field with naturally occurring immune responses (i.e., induced by the parasite to molecules that are considered as valuable vaccine candidates. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed, under comparative conditions, the antibody responses of each of six isotypes to five leading malaria vaccine candidates in relation to protection acquired by exposure to natural challenges in 217 of the 247 inhabitants of the African village of Dielmo, Senegal (96 children and 121 older adolescents and adults. The status of susceptibility or resistance to malaria was determined by active case detection performed daily by medical doctors over 6 y from a unique follow-up study of this village. Of the 30 immune responses measured, only one, antibodies of the IgG3 isotype directed to merozoite surface protein 3 (MSP3, was strongly associated with clinical protection against malaria in all age groups, i.e., independently of age. This immunological parameter had a higher statistical significance than the sickle cell trait, the strongest factor of protection known against Plasmodium falciparum. A single determination of antibody was significantly associated with the clinical outcome over six consecutive years in children submitted to massive natural parasite challenges by mosquitoes (over three parasite inoculations per week. Finally, the target epitopes of these antibodies were found to be fully conserved. CONCLUSIONS: Since anti-MSP3 IgG3 antibodies can naturally develop along with protection against P. falciparum infection in young children, our results provide the encouraging indication that these antibodies should be

  4. Radiation WBC monitoring of cesium 137 contents in children from the Chernobyl regions of Belarus and necessity of their long-term radiation protection by pectins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Institute of Radiation Safety 'Belrad' has performed 270 thousand measurements of cesium 137 in children of the Chernobyl regions of Belarus. In some cases there are some big value of the specific activity. In connection with this the Institute performed the pectin cures with the application of the preparation 'Vitapect' applied as means of radiation protection of the health of children with the purpose of the decrease of internal radiation dose. (authors)

  5. Long-term change in coral cover and the effectiveness of marine protected areas in the Philippines: a meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Magdaong, Evangeline T.; Fujii, Masahiko; Yamano, Hiroya; Licuanan, Wilfredo Y.; Maypa, Aileen; Campos, Wilfredo L.; Alcala, Angel C.; White, Alan T.; Apistar, Dean; Martinez, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    Although coral declines have been reported from major reefs of the world, region-specific trends still remain unclear, particularly in areas with high diversity such as the Philippines. We assessed the temporal patterns of the magnitude and trajectory of coral cover change in the Philippines using survey data collected from 317 sites. We examined the rate of change in coral cover in relation to time, effects of bleaching and protection against fishing and assessed the efficacy of marine prote...

  6. Nuclear Energy, Long Term Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are serious warnings about depletion of oil and gas and even more serious warnings about dangers of climate change caused by emission of carbon dioxide. Should developed countries be called to replace CO2 emitting energy sources as soon as possible, and the time available may not be longer then few decades, can nuclear energy answer the call and what are the requirements? Assuming optimistic contribution of renewable energy sources, can nuclear energy expand to several times present level in order to replace large part of fossil fuels use? Paper considers intermediate and long-term requirements. Future of nuclear power depends on satisfactory answers on several questions. First group of questions are those important for near and intermediate future. They deal with economics and safety of nuclear power stations in the first place. On the same time scale a generally accepted concept for radioactive waste disposal is also required. All these issues are in the focus of present research and development. Safer and more economical reactors are targets of international efforts in Generation IV and INPRO projects, but aiming further ahead these innovative projects are also addressing issues such as waste reduction and proliferation resistance. However, even assuming successful technical development of these projects, and there is no reason to doubt it, long term and large-scale nuclear power use is thereby not yet secured. If nuclear power is to play an essential role in the long-term future energy production and in reduction of CO2 emission, than several additional questions must be replied. These questions will deal with long-term nuclear fuel sufficiency, with necessary contribution of nuclear power in sectors of transport and industrial processes and with nuclear proliferation safety. This last issue is more political then technical, thus sometimes neglected by nuclear engineers, yet it will have essential role for the long-term prospects of nuclear power. The

  7. Thoughts on Beijing's Long-Term Rural Infrastructure Management and Protection Issues from the Perspective of the Government to Effectively Perform Their Duties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.

    To strengthen rural infrastructure management, give full play to the role of benefit of infrastructure, it has important significance for promoting the development of rural economy and society. Protection-use and facility energy-use issues are outstanding during Beijing rural infrastructure management. The comprehensive and detailed analysis of the cause of the problems put forward the concrete feasible countermeasures from the government to fulfill the effective function to rural infrastructure: A clear property ownership; Implementation of special funds audit system of the rural infrastructure management; Implementation of rural infrastructure maintenance and management assessment methods and so on.

  8. Prior infection with influenza virus but not vaccination leaves a long-term immunological imprint that intensifies the protective efficacy of antigenically drifted vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hyang; Liepkalns, Justine; Reber, Adrian J; Lu, Xiuhua; Music, Nedzad; Jacob, Joshy; Sambhara, Suryaprakash

    2016-01-20

    The role of pre-existing immunity for influenza vaccine responses is of great importance for public health, and thus has been studied in various contexts, yet the impact of differential priming on vaccine responses in the midst of antigenic drift remains to be elucidated. To address this with antigenically related viruses, mice were first primed by either infection or immunization with A/Puerto Rico/8/34 (PR8) virus, then immunized with whole-inactivated A/Fort Monmouth/1/47 (FM1) virus. The ensuing vaccine responses and the protective efficacy of FM1 were superior in PR8 infection-primed mice compared to PR8 immunization-primed or unprimed mice. Increased FM1-specific Ab responses of PR8 infection-primed mice also broadened cross-reactivity against contemporary as well as antigenically more drifted strains. Further, prior infection heightened the protective efficacy of antigenically distant strains, such as A/Brisbane/59/2006 infection followed by immunization with split pandemic H1N1 vaccine (A/California/07/2009). Therefore, influenza infection is a significant priming event that intensifies future vaccine responses against drift strains. PMID:26706277

  9. Long-lived antigen-induced IgM plasma cells demonstrate somatic mutations and contribute to long-term protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohannon, Caitlin; Powers, Ryan; Satyabhama, Lakshmipriyadarshini; Cui, Ang; Tipton, Christopher; Michaeli, Miri; Skountzou, Ioanna; Mittler, Robert S; Kleinstein, Steven H; Mehr, Ramit; Lee, Francis Eun-Yun; Sanz, Ignacio; Jacob, Joshy

    2016-01-01

    Long-lived plasma cells are critical to humoral immunity as a lifelong source of protective antibodies. Antigen-activated B cells-with T-cell help-undergo affinity maturation within germinal centres and persist as long-lived IgG plasma cells in the bone marrow. Here we show that antigen-specific, induced IgM plasma cells also persist for a lifetime. Unlike long-lived IgG plasma cells, which develop in germinal centres and then home to the bone marrow, IgM plasma cells are primarily retained within the spleen and can develop even in the absence of germinal centres. Interestingly, their expressed IgV loci exhibit somatic mutations introduced by the activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID). However, these IgM plasma cells are probably not antigen-selected, as replacement mutations are spread through the variable segment and not enriched within the CDRs. Finally, antibodies from long-lived IgM plasma cells provide protective host immunity against a lethal virus challenge. PMID:27270306

  10. Comparing long term energy scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Major projection studies by international organizations and senior analysts have been compared with reference to individual key parameters (population, energy demand/supply, resources, technology, emissions and global warming) to understand trends and implications of the different scenarios. Then, looking at the long term (i.e., 2050 and beyond), parameters and trends have been compared together to understand and quantify whether and when possible crisis or market turbulence might occur due to shortage of resources or environmental problems

  11. Chemical protection against long-term effects of whole-body exposure of mice to ionizing radiation. III. The effects of fractionated exposure to C57Bl mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mice of the C57Bl/Cnb strain were exposed to four fractionated doses delivered at weekly intervals (total doses from 4 x 50 to 4 x 375 R). One group of mice received a mixture of radioprotectors. The animals were followed to their natural death and investigated for histopathology. Life-shortening showed a sigmoid dependency on the dose in nonprotected and protected mice with a dose reduction factor of 2.1 at 50% life-shorteining. Thymic lymphoma was the most predominant cause of death in irradiated C57Bl mice. Radioprotectors diminished significantly the incidence of this disease but apparently did not reduce other causes of death. Reticulum cell sarcoma B also increased at the same low doses as thymic lymphoma. Both thymic lymphoma and reticulum cell sarcoma B increased in frequency after a fractionated dose compared to a single exposure with doses of 600 to 700 R and 300 to 400 R, respectively

  12. Patient navigator programs, cancer disparities, and the patient protection and affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Beverly; Chabner, Bruce A

    2011-01-01

    Patients in vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. Patient navigator programs have been shown to improve clinical outcomes. Among its provisions relevant to disparities in cancer care, The Patient Protection and Affordability Care Act authorizes continued funding of patient navigator programs. However, given the current economic and political environment, this funding is in jeopardy. This article describes patient navigator programs and summarizes the elements of the health care law that are relevant to these programs. It is vital that the entire oncology community remain committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among our most vulnerable patients. PMID:21804070

  13. Experiments for the validation of computer codes uses to assess the protection factors afforded by dwellings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two experimental campaigns were carried out to verify: 1) the method of assessing the mean kerma in a household used in the computer code BILL calculating the protection factor afforded by dwellings; 2) in what conditions the kerma calculated in cubic meshes of a given size (code PIECE) agreed with TLD measurements. To that purpose, a house was built near the caesium 137 source of the Ecosystem irradiator located at the Cadarache Nuclear Research Center. During the first campaign, four experiments with different house characteristics were conducted. Some 50 TLSs locations describing the inhabitable volume were defined in order to obtain the mean kerma. 16 locations were considered outside the house. During the second campaign a cobalt 60 source was installed on the side. Only five measurement locations were defined, each with 6 TLDs. The results of dosimetric measurements are presented and compared with the calculations of the two computer codes. The effects of wall heterogeneity were also studied

  14. Model-based prediction of long-term leaching of contaminants from secondary materials in road constructions and noise protection dams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Christof; Konrad, Wilfried; Rügner, Hermann; Bauer, Sebastian; Liedl, Rudolf; Grathwohl, Peter

    2009-02-01

    In this study, contaminant leaching from three different secondary materials (demolition waste, municipal solid waste incineration ash, and blast furnace slag) to groundwater is assessed by numerical modeling. Reactive transport simulations for a noise protection dam and a road dam (a typical German autobahn), in which secondary materials are reused as base layers, were performed to predict the breakthrough of a conservative tracer (i.e., a salt) and sorbing contaminants (e.g., PAHs like naphthalene and phenanthrene or heavy metals) at the groundwater table. The dam constructions have a composite architecture with soil covers in inclined layers and distinct contrasts in the unsaturated hydraulic properties of the used materials. Capillary barrier effects result in strong spatial variabilities of flow and transport velocities. Contaminant breakthrough curves at the groundwater table show significant tailing due to slow sorption kinetics and a wide distribution of travel times. While conservative tracer breakthrough depends primarily on subsoil hydraulic properties, equilibrium distribution coefficients and sorption kinetics represent additional controlling factors for contaminant spreading. Hence, the three secondary materials show pronounced differences in the temporal development of leached contaminant concentrations with consequences for breakthrough times and peak concentrations at the groundwater table. Significant concentration reductions due to dispersion occur only if the source concentrations decrease significantly prior to the arrival of the contaminant at the groundwater table. Biodegradation causes significant reduction of breakthrough concentrations only if flow velocities are low. PMID:18707860

  15. 78 FR 42823 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Standards for Navigators and Non...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-17

    ... choice of affordable health insurance, and give small businesses the same purchasing power as large... referrals to consumer assistance programs (CAPs) and health insurance ombudsmen for enrollees with... inform consumers about the Exchange and insurance affordability programs to encourage participation....

  16. Gamma Irradiation of in-Shell and Blanched Peanuts Protects against Mycotoxic Fungi and Retains Their Nutraceutical Components during Long-Term Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Guidolin Canniatti-Brazaca

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Peanut samples were irradiated (0.0, 5.2, 7.2 or 10.0 kGy, stored for a year (room temperature and examined every three months. Mycotoxic fungi (MF were detected in non-irradiated blanched peanuts. A dose of 5.2 kGy was found suitable to prevent MF growth in blanched samples. No MF was detected in in-shell peanuts, with or without irradiation. The colors of the control in-shell and blanched samples were, respectively, 44.72 and 60.21 (L *; 25.20 and 20.38 (Chroma; 53.05 and 86.46 (°Hue. The water activities (Aw were 0.673 and 0.425. The corresponding fatty acids were 13.33% and 12.14% (C16:0, 44.94% and 44.92% (C18:1, ω9 and 37.10% and 37.63% (C18:2, ω6. The total phenolics (TP were 4.62 and 2.52 mg GAE/g, with antioxidant activities (AA of 16.97 and 10.36 μmol TEAC/g. Storage time negatively correlated with Aw (in-shell peanuts or L *, linoleic acid, TP and AA (in-shell and blanched peanuts but positively correlated with Aw (blanched peanuts, and with oleic acid (in-shell and blanched peanuts. Irradiation positively correlated with antioxidant activity (blanched peanuts. No correlation was found between irradiation and AA (in-shell samples or fatty acids and TP (in-shell and blanched peanuts. Irradiation protected against MF and retained both the polyunsaturated fatty acids and polyphenols in the samples.

  17. Long-term aerobic exercise protects against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity by modulating the expression of IL-6 and HO-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Yasue Saito Miyagi

    Full Text Available Nephrotoxicity is substantial side effect for 30% of patients undergoing cancer therapy with cisplatin and may force them to change or even abandon the treatment. Studies regarding aerobic exercise have shown its efficacy for the treatment of many types of diseases and its capacity to reduce tumors. However, little is known about the impact of physical exercise on cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the role of physical exercise in AKI induced by cisplatin. We submitted C57Bl6 male mice to seven weeks of chronic exercise on a training treadmill and treated them with single i.p. injection of cisplatin (20 mg/kg in the last week. Exercise efficacy was confirmed by an increased capillary-to-fiber ratio in the gastrocnemius muscle of exercised groups (EX and CIS-EX. The group submitted to exercise before cisplatin administration (CIS-EX exhibited less weight loss and decreased serum urea levels compared to the cisplatin group (CIS. Exercise also showed a protective role against cisplatin-induced cell death in the kidney. The CIS-EX group showed a lower inflammatory response, with less TNF and IL-10 expression in the kidney and serum. In the same group, we observed an increase of IL-6 and HO-1 expression in the kidney. Taken together, our results indicate that chronic aerobic exercise is able to attenuate AKI by inducing IL-6 and HO-1 production, which results in lower inflammatory and apoptotic profiles in the kidney.

  18. Long term stability of power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P.; Gao, B. [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    Power system long term stability is still a developing subject. In this paper we provide our perspectives and experiences related to long term stability. The paper begins with the description of the nature of the long term stability problem, followed by the discussion of issues related to the modeling and solution techniques of tools for long term stability analysis. Cases studies are presented to illustrate the voltage stability aspect and plant dynamics aspect of long term stability. (author) 20 refs., 11 figs.

  19. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: the victory of unorthodox lawmaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaussier, Anne-Laure

    2012-10-01

    The 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act was a major legislative achievement of the 111th Congress. This law structurally reforms the US health care system by encouraging universal health care coverage through regulated competition among private insurance companies. When looking at the process for reform, what strikes an observer of US health care policy in the first place is that the Democratic majority was able to enact something in a political field characterized by strong resistance to change. This article builds on that observation. Arguments concentrate on the legislative process of the reform and support the idea that it may be partly explained by considering an evolution of US legislative institutions, mostly in the sense of a more centralized legislative process. Based on approximately one hundred semidirected interviews, I argue that the Democratic majority, building on lessons from both President Bill Clinton's health care reform attempt and the Republicans' strategy of using strong congressional leadership to pass social reforms, was able to overcome institutional constraints that have long prevented comprehensive change. A more centralized legislative process, which has been described as "unorthodox lawmaking," enabled the Democratic leadership to overcome multiple institutional and political veto players. PMID:22700946

  20. A systems thinking approach to analysis of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John C

    2015-01-01

    The public health community is challenged with understanding the many complexities presented by systems thinking and its applications in systems modeling. The model presented encompasses multiple variables needed (eg, model building) for the construction of a conceptual system model of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA). The model tracks the ACA from inception, through passage, March 2010, to its current state. Justification for the need to reform the current health care system rests, in part, on the heels of social justice. Proponents of the ACA have long argued that health reform was needed by the millions of uninsured person who suffered from health disparities, took little advantage of health prevention advice, and faced issues of access to providers as well as insurers. In addition the ACA seeks to address our uncontrollable spending on health care delivery. This article highlights the ACA from a systems perspective. The conceptual model presented encompasses both health reform variables (eg, health care provisions, key legislative components, system environment) and system variables (eg, inputs, outputs, feedback, and throughput) needed to understand current health care reform efforts from a systems perspective. The model presented shows how the interrelationships and interconnections of elements of a system come together to achieve its purpose or goal. PMID:25414950

  1. Health Education Specialists' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strong, Jessica; Hanson, Carl L; Magnusson, Brianna; Neiger, Brad

    2016-03-01

    The changing landscape of health care as a result of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) may provide new opportunities for health education specialists (HES). The purpose of this study was to survey HES in the United States on their knowledge and attitudes of the ACA and assess their perceptions of job growth under the law. A random sample of 220 (36% response rate) certified HES completed a 53-item cross sectional survey administered online through Qualtrics. Findings were compared to public opinion on health care reform. HES are highly favorable of the law (70%) compared to the general public (23%). A total of 85% of respondents were able to list a provision of the ACA, and most (81%) thought the ACA would be successful at increasing insured Americans. Over half (64.6%) believe job opportunities will increase. Those who viewed the law favorably were significantly more likely to score better on a knowledge scale related to the ACA. HES understand publicized provisions but are uncertain about common myths and specific provisions related to Title IV, "Prevention of Chronic Disease and Improving Public Health." Directed and continuing education to HES regarding the ACA is warranted. PMID:26272884

  2. The Yeast Homolog of Heme Oxygenase-1 Affords Cellular Antioxidant Protection via the Transcriptional Regulation of Known Antioxidant Genes*

    OpenAIRE

    Collinson, Emma J.; Wimmer-Kleikamp, Sabine; Gerega, Sebastien K.; Yang, Yee Hwa; Parish, Christopher R.; Dawes, Ian W.; Stocker, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) degrades heme and protects cells from oxidative challenge. This antioxidant activity is thought to result from the HO-1 enzymatic activity, manifested by a decrease in the concentration of the pro-oxidant substrate heme, and an increase in the antioxidant product bilirubin. Using a global transcriptional approach, and yeast as a model, we show that HO-1 affords cellular protection via up-regulation of transcripts encoding enzymes involved in cellular antioxidant defens...

  3. Long-term governance for sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meritxell Martell spoke of the long-term aspects of radioactive waste management. She pointed out that decision-making processes need to be framed within the context of sustainability, which means that a balance should be sought between scientific considerations, economic aspects and structural conditions. Focusing on structural aspects, Working Group 3 of COWAM-Spain came to the conclusion that the activity of the regulator is a key factor of long-term management. Another finding is that from a sustainability perspective multi-level governance is more effective for coping with the challenges of radioactive waste management than one tier of government-making decisions. The working group also felt that the current Local Information Committees need to evolve towards more institutionalized and legitimized mechanisms for long-term involvement. Ms. Martell introduced a study comparing the efficiency of economic instruments to advance sustainable development in nuclear communities vs. municipalities in mining areas. The study found that funds transferred to nuclear zones had become a means to facilitate local acceptance of nuclear facilities rather than a means to promote socio-economic development. Another finding is that economic instruments are not sufficient guarantees of sustainable development by themselves; additional preconditions include leadership, vision and entrepreneur-ship on the part of community leaders, private or public investments, among others. Finally, Ms. Martell summarised the challenges faced by the Spanish radioactive waste management programme, which include the need for strategic thinking, designing the future in a participatory fashion, and working with local and regional governments and citizens to devise mechanisms for social learning, economic development and environmental protection. (author)

  4. Exploring the impact of austerity-driven policy reforms on the quality of the long-term care provision for older people in Belgium and the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, David; Jongen, Wesley; Schröder-Bäck, Peter

    2016-08-01

    In this case study, European quality benchmarks were used to explore the contemporary quality of the long-term care provision for older people in the Belgian region of Flanders and the Netherlands following recent policy reforms. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with various experts on the long-term care provision. The results show that in the wake of the economic crisis and the reforms that followed, certain vulnerable groups of older people in Belgium and the Netherlands are at risk of being deprived of long-term care that is available, affordable and person-centred. Various suggestions were provided on how to improve the quality of the long-term care provision. The main conclusion drawn in this study is that while national and regional governments set the stage through regulatory frameworks and financing mechanisms, it is subsequently up to long-term care organisations, local social networks and informal caregivers to give substance to a high quality long-term care provision. An increased reliance on social networks and informal caregivers is seen as vital to ensure the sustainability of the long-term care systems in Belgium and in the Netherlands, although this simultaneously introduces new predicaments and difficulties. Structural governmental measures have to be introduced to support and protect informal caregivers and informal care networks. PMID:27531456

  5. Education and training in radiological protection in the Argentine region- IAEA, toward a long term commitment; Educacion y entrenamiento en proteccion radiologica en la region Argentina- OIEA, hacia un compromiso de largo plazo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terrado, C.; Arbor G, A.; Bozzo, R.; Larcher, A.; Menossi, C.; Sajaroff, P. [Autoridad Regulatoria Nuclear, Libertador 8250, Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. e-mail: cterrado@sede.arn.gov.ar

    2006-07-01

    ;Education and Training Appraisal in Radiation Protection and the Safety of Radiation Sources' (EduTa). This process includes the invitation to an international mission to visit the country to observe the organization and training capacities in radiological protection and safety of the radiation sources, and the later signature of an agreement of long term in order to assure the continuity of the politicians in the matter. To conclude with success this significant effort will allow to take advantage of the resources efficiently to diffuse in systematic form the last knowledge and experience of radiological protection in Spanish to the whole region of Latin America and the Caribbean. (Author)

  6. Study on Social Protective Mechanisms in HIV Long-term Non-progressors in Hengyang City%衡阳市HIV感染长期不进展者保护性社会机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴剑阁; 李桀; 罗小成; 邓荣婧; 于坤平; 郑军

    2012-01-01

    Objective The long- term non - progressors (LTNPs) with confirmed HIV infection were retrospectively investigated and analyzed to find the role of social protective mechanisms in the development of long - term non - progress. Methods Using AIDS comprehensive prevention and control information database, 40 LTNPs were selected from the HIV patients who regularly visited Hengyang Center for Disease Control and Prevention for detection of CD4+ T cells from October, 2007 to October, 2011. Meanwhile, 47 HIV cases with rapid progress were randomly selected as controls. A questionnaire survey was conducted. The investigation items included social demographic characteristics, sexual behavior satisfaction in recent five years, psychological factors, economic status, health condition and participation of social activities, etc. The correlation was statistically analyzed by chi - square test. Results Eighty seven HIV patients were investigated, with an average age of 47.4 years, among which patients aged 40 to 50 years accounted for 45.98%. Economic factors, participation in social activities and psychological factors were statistically different between LTNPs and controls (P < 0. 05 ). Conclusions HIV long - term non - progressors have better quality of life than HIV rapid progressors. Among many influencing factors, economic income, AIDS prevention knowledge, medical insurance, social activities and AIDS stigma are protective factors, which can be used to formulate pertinent protection measures.%目的 对确证的长期不进展HIV感染者(LTNP)进行回顾性调查分析,试图发现HIV感染长期不进展者保护性社会机制发挥的作用. 方法 从艾滋病综合防治信息数据库筛选出2007年10月- 2011年10月在衡阳市疾病预防控制中心检测CD4+T细胞的HIV感染者中LTNP者40例,同时随机选取快速进展者47例作为对照组.对两组人群进行问卷调查,调查内容包括社会人口学特征、HIV感染者性行为近五年满

  7. What Does Long-Term Care Include?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Video: "What Does Long-Term Care Include?" Long-term care involves a variety of services designed to meet a person's health or personal care needs during a short or long period of ...

  8. Long-term biosignals visualization and processing

    OpenAIRE

    Gomes, Ricardo Rafael Baptista

    2011-01-01

    Long-term biosignals acquisitions are an important source of information about the patients’state and its evolution. However, long-term biosignals monitoring involves managing extremely large datasets, which makes signal visualization and processing a complex task. To overcome these problems, a new data structure to manage long-term biosignals was developed. Based on this new data structure, dedicated tools for long-term biosignals visualization and processing were implemented. A mul...

  9. 中长期飞行对人体超重耐力影响及防护技术研究%Research on Effects of Mid-Long-Term Flight on Human +Gx Endurance and Protection Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴萍; 吴斌; 陈晓萍; 阚广悍; 谷志明; 黄伟芬; 白延强; 王跃; 刘敏

    2015-01-01

    为探讨中长期空间飞行(30 d以上)后飞船应急返回对机体超重耐力的影响及防护技术,首先选用42只健康雄性成年猕猴,随机分为4组,进行中长期模拟失重再超重的病理生理影响及其机理研究;之后选22名健康被试者,随机平均分为2组,分别穿着绳索拉紧式和充气式抗荷服,测定各自选定的高低2种压力制度时的下体负压耐力;最后选8名健康志愿者,测试在不穿抗荷服、穿着绳索拉紧式和充气式抗荷服三种状态下承受超重过载时的生理反应。实验表明,高+Gx作用,使猕猴脏器出现病理性损伤,相同G值猕猴头低位卧床后再超重组引起的病理损伤要比单纯超重组严重;绳索拉紧式抗荷服和充气式抗荷服可以提高人体下体负压耐力和超重耐力。%The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of spaceship emergency re-turn on body hyper-gravity endurance after mid-long-term flight ( over 30 days ) and the protection measures, and to provide theoretical basis for formulating the hyper-gravity medical standard for spaceship emergency return after mid-long-term flight and developing space protective suits .Forty-two healthy male rhesus monkeys were selected as the test subjects and were randomly divided into 4 groups, to study on the pathophysiological effects of long-term simulated weightlessness plus hyper-gravity and its mechanism .Twenty-two healthy subjects were selected and randomly divided into two groups, wearing rope taut anti-G suit and inflatable anti-G suit respectively .Lower body negative pressure tolerance was measured in the chosen pressure .Finally 8 healthy volunteers were selected and their physiological responses to hyper-gravity with anti-G suit, or rope taut anti-G suit or inflata-ble anti-G suits were measured .The results showed that high +Gx caused pathologic organ damage in rhesus monkeys , and pathological damage in the same G

  10. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  11. Managing Records for the Long Term - 12363

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing vast amounts of information documenting historical and current operations. This information is critical to the operations of the DOE Office of Legacy Management. Managing legacy records and information is challenging in terms of accessibility and changing technology. The Office of Legacy Management is meeting these challenges by making records and information management an organizational priority. The Office of Legacy Management mission is to manage DOE post-closure responsibilities at former Cold War weapons sites to ensure the future protection of human health and the environment. These responsibilities include environmental stewardship and long-term preservation and management of operational and environmental cleanup records associated with each site. A primary organizational goal for the Office of Legacy Management is to 'Preserve, Protect, and Share Records and Information'. Managing records for long-term preservation is an important responsibility. Adequate and dedicated resources and management support are required to perform this responsibility successfully. Records tell the story of an organization and may be required to defend an organization in court, provide historical information, identify lessons learned, or provide valuable information for researchers. Loss of records or the inability to retrieve records because of poor records management processes can have serious consequences and even lead to an organisation's downfall. Organizations must invest time and resources to establish a good records management program because of its significance to the organization as a whole. The Office of Legacy Management will continue to research and apply innovative ways of doing business to ensure that the organization stays at the forefront of effective records and information management. DOE is committed to preserving records that document our nation's Cold War legacy, and the Office of Legacy

  12. 78 FR 13405 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review'' (77 FR 70584). These standards apply to health... grandfathered health insurance coverage. \\3\\ The applicable definitions for ``individual market,'' ``small group... Affordable Care Act. \\4\\ See 45 CFR 144.103 for definitions of ``plan year'' and ``policy year.'' These...

  13. 77 FR 17219 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-23

    ... health insurance premium stabilization programs (that is, reinsurance, risk corridors, and risk... and the RFC, where relevant. On July 15, 2011, we published in the Federal Register (76 FR 41950-41956... Affordable Care Act; Standards Related to Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment; Final Rule...

  14. Long Term Preservation of Digital Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorie, Raymond A.

    The preservation of digital data for the long term presents a variety of challenges from technical to social and organizational. The technical challenge is to ensure that the information, generated today, can survive long term changes in storage media, devices, and data formats. This paper presents a novel approach to the problem. It distinguishes…

  15. Long term management practices influenced soil aggregation and carbon dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil aggregation protects soil organic C (SOC) against rapid decomposition, improves soil quality, and reduces soil erosion potential. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effects of long-term (21 yrs.) management practices on SOC, water stable aggregate (WSA), and aggregate-associated ...

  16. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, T.; Schieber, C. [CEPN, 92 - Fontenay-aux-Roses (France); Lavelle, S. [ICAM, 59 - Lille (France)

    2006-07-01

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  17. Issues for the long term management of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-level radioactive waste are currently managed in interim storage installations, providing an adequate protection of the public and the workers for the short term period. However, the long-term persistence of the radioactivity of the waste gives a new timescale dimension, never experimented by the society for the development of protection systems. In the framework of the European Commission research project 'COWAM-2' (COmmunity WAste Management) dedicated to the governance of radioactive waste management, the issues of 'long term governance' have been addressed by exploring the elements which can contribute to a better integration of the technical and societal time dimensions, taking into account technical, ethical, economic and organizational considerations. The originality of this project is to address the various issues within working groups involving stakeholders from different origins and European countries together with a research team. After a discussion on the time dimensions to be taken into account from the technical and societal perspective, this paper presents, mainly based on the findings of the COWAM-2 project, a brief analysis of the ethical criteria to be considered when future generations are concerned as well as some performance criteria regarding long term governance. Finally, it proposes a discussion on the interest for the radiation protection experts to engage a process with stakeholders concerned by radioactive waste management in order to favour the emergence of a sustainable management responding to the issues at stake and including radiation protection considerations for long term periods. (authors)

  18. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bohumil Sak

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. AIMS: To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. RESULTS: We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%, Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3 (4.0%, Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0% and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5% in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%. In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%, G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5% and C. muris TS03 (0.5%. CONCLUSION: Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best

  19. Allogeneic radiation chimeras: long-term studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lethally irradiated mice protected with allogeneic fetal liver cells or with syngeneic or allogeneic marrow and spleen cells treated with antisera to mouse immunoglobulins or to the T cell-associated 0 antigen and their controls were observed for up to 750 days. The best survival rates were found in the large groups given syngeneic marrow and spleen or allogeneic fetal liver cells (70-85 percent 700-day survival); in contrast, 43 percent of the group injected with allogeneic cells treated with anti-0 serum and 19 percent of those given antimmunoglobulin-treated cells were alive 700 days postradiation. Pulmonary infection was the most frequent cause of death of long-term survivors in all groups. Tumor incidence was increased in recipients of allogeneic cells (13 percent versus 4 percent among syngeneic chimeras), but the renal pathology seen in these groups was no greater than that noted in the syngeneic controls. Beginning 600 days after irradiation, mice from experimental and control groups were killed and their spleens were cultured with thymus-dependent antigens and the mitogens concanavalin Λ and lipopolysaccharide, Escherichia coli. The most frequent finding in all groups was mild to moderate impairment of T cell-dependent responses. (U.S.)

  20. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  1. Robotics for Long-Term Monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While long-term monitoring and stewardship means many things to many people, DOE has defined it as The physical controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms needed to ensure protection of people and the environment at sites where DOE has completed or plans to complete cleanup (e.g., landfill closures, remedial actions, and facility stabilization). Across the United States, there are thousands of contaminated sites with multiple contaminants released from multiple sources where contaminants have transported and commingled. The U.S. government and U.S. industry are responsible for most of the contamination and are landowners of many of these contaminated properties. These sites must be surveyed periodically for various criteria including structural deterioration, water intrusion, integrity of storage containers, atmospheric conditions, and hazardous substance release. The surveys, however, are intrusive, time-consuming, and expensive and expose survey personnel to radioactive contamination. In long-term monitoring, there's a need for an automated system that will gather and report data from sensors without costly human labor. In most cases, a SCADA (Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition) unit is used to collect and report data from a remote location. A SCADA unit consists of an embedded computer with data acquisition capabilities. The unit can be configured with various sensors placed in different areas of the site to be monitored. A system of this type is static, i.e., the sensors, once placed, cannot be moved to other locations within the site. For those applications where the number of sampling locations would require too many sensors, or where exact location of future problems is unknown, a mobile sensing platform is an ideal solution. In many facilities that undergo regular inspections, the number of video cameras and air monitors required to eliminate the need for human inspections is very large and far too costly. HCET's remote harsh

  2. Financing Purchase of long-term Property

    OpenAIRE

    Pastyřík, Jaroslav

    2012-01-01

    Bachelor’s thesis is focused on issues of financing a purchase of long-term property in specific company. Particular variations of purchase and financing of fixed assets are described in the teoretical part of the thesis, presentation of the specific company and long-term property that is purchased and variations of financing are described in the practical part of the thesis. The aim of the thesis is to assess possible recources of financing purchase of long-term property in the specific comp...

  3. Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strategic Plan Federal Initiatives Career Opportunities Contact Us Administration on Aging (AoA) Long-Term Care Ombudsman Program ( ... Section Q Fact Sheet Back to top Funding History Older Americans Act Title VII Chapter 2 (Ombudsman ...

  4. Long-Term Ownership by Industrial Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Børsting, Christa Winther; Kuhn, Johan Moritz; Poulsen, Thomas;

    2016-01-01

    Short-termism has become a serious concern for businesses and policy makers and this has inspired a search for governance arrangement to promote long term decision making. In this paper we study a particularly long-term ownership structure, which is fairly common in Northern Europe, particularly in...... Denmark. Industrial foundations are independent legal entities without owners or members typically with the dual objective of preserving the company and using excess profits for charity. We use a unique Danish data set to examine the governance of foundation-owned companies. We show that they are long......-term in several respects. Foundations hold on to their shares for longer. Foundation-owned companies replace managers less frequently. They have more conservative capital structures with less leverage. Their companies survive longer. Their business decisions appear to be more long term. This paper...

  5. Long-term outcome of meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roos, Ewa M.; Ostenberg, A; Roos, H; Ekdahl, C; Lohmander, L S

    2001-01-01

    To describe the long-term influence of meniscectomy on pain, functional limitations, and muscular performance. To assess the effects of radiographic osteoarthritis (OA), gender and age on these outcomes in patients with meniscectomy....

  6. Long Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Long-Term Care Minimum Data Set (MDS) is a standardized, primary screening and assessment tool of health status that forms the foundation of the comprehensive...

  7. Long-term Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Meliha Zengin Eroglu; Nurgul Ozpoyraz

    2010-01-01

    Although the importance of long-term prophylactic treatment is certain in bipolar disorder, there is stil debate on how to which patients and evaluate the treatment response. Efficacious long-term treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality significantly and improve quality of life of bipolar patients. The concept of ideal response should also be defined very clearly in order to discuss the difficulties of measuring the effectiveness of the prophylactic treatment. The aims of this paper are ...

  8. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Ditye, T.; A.H Javadi; Carbon, C.C.; Walsh, V

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted imag...

  9. Long-term e-arhiv

    OpenAIRE

    Petkovšek , Bojan

    2011-01-01

    With expansion of e-business and consequently with creating original electronic documents, legally compliant long-term digital preservation has become a commitment for organizations that do business electronically. Accepted legislation that equalizes the legal validity of electronic documents with their paper original, regulates the operating and preservation of documents, recommendations, existing standards and service and equipment providers for ensuring long-term digital preservation, enab...

  10. Databases Strengthen Long-Term Care Partnerships

    OpenAIRE

    Ann D Bagchi Jung Y Kim

    2008-01-01

    The Community Partnerships for Older Adults program provided grants to eight community partnerships to develop and implement creative strategies for improving awareness about long-term care and supportive services systems. This brief examines three partnerships—Aging Atlanta, El Paso Successful Aging Through Long-Term Strategic Alliances, and the San Francisco Partnership for Community-Based Care and Support—with different levels of information technology expertise that designed databases...

  11. Databases Strengthen Long-Term Care Partnerships.

    OpenAIRE

    Ann Bagchi; Jung Kim

    2008-01-01

    The Community Partnerships for Older Adults program provided grants to eight community partnerships to develop and implement creative strategies for improving awareness about long-term care and supportive services systems. This brief examines three partnerships—Aging Atlanta, El Paso Successful Aging Through Long-Term Strategic Alliances, and the San Francisco Partnership for Community-Based Care and Support—with different levels of information technology expertise that designed databases...

  12. Manganese in long term paediatric parenteral nutrition.

    OpenAIRE

    Reynolds, A. P.; Kiely, E; Meadows, N

    1994-01-01

    The current practice of providing manganese supplementation to neonates on long term parenteral nutrition is leading to a high incidence of hypermanganesaemia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in adults on long term manganese parenteral nutrition have shown changes in TI weighted MRI images and similar findings in a neonate receiving trace element supplementation are reported here. Whole blood manganese concentration in the infant was 1740 nmol/l (or 8.3 times upper reference limit). ...

  13. Evaluation of doses and protection afforded by dwellings against atmospheric releases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Grand, J.; Roux, Y. (CEA Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France). Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire); Patau, J.P. (Toulouse-3 Univ., 31 (France). Faculte de Pharmacie)

    1985-01-01

    A computer program library allowing complete simulation of photon transport for a radioactive cloud surrounding a simplified dwelling and a human phantom are described. Results on radiation spectra, doses and protection factors are presented.

  14. Biochemical analysis of plant protection afforded by a nonpathogenic endophytic mutant of Colletotrichum magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States) Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States). Dept. of Botany); Clifton, D.R.; Morrel, J.; Brown, G. (Geological Survey, Seattle, WA (United States)); Freeman, S. (Volcani Center, Bet Dagan (Israel). Dept. of Plant Pathology)

    1999-02-01

    A nonpathogenic mutant of Colletotrichum magna (path-1) was previously shown to protect watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) and cucumber (Cucumis sativus) seedlings from anthracnose disease elicited by wild-type C. magna. Disease protection was observed in stems of path-1-colonized cucurbits but not in cotyledons, indicating that path-1 conferred tissue-specific and/or localized protection. Plant biochemical indicators of a localized and systemic (peroxidase, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, lignin, and salicylic acid) plant-defense response were investigated in anthracnose-resistant and-susceptible cultivars of cucurbit seedlings exposed to four treatments: (1) water (control), (2) path-1 conidia, (3) wild-type conidia, and (4) challenge conditions (inoculation into path-1 conidia for 48 h and then exposure to wild-type conidia). Collectively, these analyses indicated that disease protection in path-1-colonized plants was correlated with the ability of these plants to mount a defense response more rapidly and to equal or greater levels than plants exposed to wild-type C. magna alone. Watermelon plants colonized with path-1 were also protected against disease caused by Colletotrichum orbiculare and Fusarium oxysporum. A model based on the kinetics of plant-defense activation is presented to explain the mechanism of path-1-conferred disease protection.

  15. Effects of urbanisation on the water balance - A long-term trajectory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The amount of land consumption required for housing and transport severely conflicts with both the necessity and the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs of current and future generations with regards to the protection of resources and climate change. Owing to an increasing intensity of soil use, soil conditions appear to have deteriorated in most city regions around the world, namely their filter and runoff regulating functions are impaired by land surfacing. As such soil functions depend on the soil's biophysical properties and the degree of imperviousness, the impact on the water balance caused by urban growth varies considerably. In response to the demand for sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating urban land use change on the long-term water balance should improve our understanding of the impact of urbanisation on the water household. Therefore, this paper analyses the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term urban water balance over a 130-year trajectory by using simple model approaches that are based on data available to the public. The test site is the city of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid to estimating changes of evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.

  16. MODELLING THE EFFECTS OF LONG-TERM URBAN LAND USE CHANGE ON THE WATER BALANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DAGMAR HAASE

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The level of land consumption for housing and transport contrasts sharply with both the necessity and the legal obligation to maintain the ecological potential afforded by open spaces to meet the needs ofcurrent and future generations in terms of resource protection and climate change. Owing to the increasing intensity of soil usage, in many urban landscapes the soil conditions has deteriorated. The natural filter and run-off regulating functions of soils are impaired or even disappeared altogether by land surfacing. Since such soil functions closely depend on the soil’s biophysical properties, thedecline of water balance functionality caused by urbanisation and increasing imperviousness varies. In response to the demand to sustainably secure urban water resources, it needs to be assessed exactly how land surfacing affects the functions concerned. Analysing and evaluating the urban land use change and the respective imperviousness on the long-term water balance ought to improve ourgeneral understanding of the water household related impact of urbanisation. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to assess the impact of urban land use change and land surfacing on the long-term waterbalance over a 130-year trajectory using the example of Leipzig. In particular, attention is to be paid to evapotranspiration, direct runoff and groundwater recharge.

  17. The costs of long-term care: distribution and responsibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, S S; Cohen, M A

    1988-01-01

    Long-term care costs will result in financial hardship for millions of elderly Americans and their families. The growing number of elderly people has focused public attention on the catastrophic problem of coverage for long-term care. Social insurance is unlikely to emerge as a solution in the USA. One reason is that the expected total cost is viewed as an unmanageable burden by both Federal and State governments. To others, it is the uncertainty surrounding the projected costs. This paper reports on the results of a double-decrement life-table analysis, based on a national survey of the elderly taken in early 1977 and one year later, that estimated the distribution and total lifetime nursing-home costs of the elderly. Combining the probability of nursing-home entry and length of stay, a 65-year-old faces a 43% chance of entering a nursing home and spending about +11,000 (1980 dollars). The distribution of lifetime costs is however very skewed with 13% of the elderly consuming 90% of the resources. Thus, while the costs of nursing-home care can be catastrophic for an individual, spread across a group they are not unmanageable. Given the distribution of income and assets among the elderly, a sizeable proportion could readily afford the necessary premiums of different emerging insurance and delivery programmes. Alternative private and public models of long-term care must be evaluated in terms of the goals of a finance and delivery system for long-term care. PMID:3129256

  18. 77 FR 67865 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... procedures for computing a targeted amount required under the new risk management provisions in Sec. 1.11... customer protections, risk management programs, internal monitoring and controls, capital and liquidity... better risk management systems and controls, along with an increase in risk-oriented oversight...

  19. High School Youth and Suicide Risk: Exploring Protection Afforded through Physical Activity and Sport Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taliaferro, Lindsay A.; Rienzo, Barbara A.; Miller, M. David; Pigg, R. Morgan, Jr.; Dodd, Virginia J.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death for adolescents. Recent data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) indicate that the adolescent suicide rate increased 18% between 2003 and 2004. Sport may represent a promising protective factor against adolescent suicide. This study examined the relative risk of…

  20. 78 FR 65045 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Program Integrity: Exchange, Premium Stabilization...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ... Federal Register on March 11, 2013 (78 FR 15541), related to risk corridors and cost-sharing reduction... Reinsurance, Risk Corridors and Risk Adjustment, 77 FR 17220 (March 23, 2012). \\3\\ Patient Protection and... Integrity: Exchange, SHOP, Premium Stabilization Programs, and Market Standards'' (78 FR 37032),...

  1. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... the United States, 2007: Results of a National Study, The American Journal of Medicine, Vol. 122, No... have a lower premium, protect against high out-of-pocket costs, and cover recommended preventive... final rule with comment period (76 FR 29964), to implement the annual review ] of unreasonable...

  2. Long-term follow-up study and long-term care of childhood cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon Jin Park

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The number of long-term survivors is increasing in the western countries due to remarkable improvements in the treatment of childhood cancer. The long-term complications of childhood cancer survivors in these countries were brought to light by the childhood cancer survivor studies. In Korea, the 5-year survival rate of childhood cancer patients is approaching 70%; therefore, it is extremely important to undertake similar long-term follow-up studies and comprehensive long-term care for our population. On the basis of the experiences of childhood cancer survivorship care of the western countries and the current Korean status of childhood cancer survivors, long-term follow-up study and long-term care systems need to be established in Korea in the near future. This system might contribute to the improvement of the quality of life of childhood cancer survivors through effective intervention strategies.

  3. Long-term alteration of cementitious materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the geological condition has been discussed for the safety assessment of radioactive waste disposal. This paper describes the status of understanding long-term chemical alteration of cement, by reviewing some of our investigations on this issue in which we developed a thermodynamic incongruent C-S-H dissolution/precipitation model and a reactive transport calculation code. Alteration of C-S-H gel in a saline groundwater and the change of chemical barrier performance of cementitious materials due to the alteration are also discussed. Some key issues to be discussed further are given and suggested for the future studies on the long-term alteration of cementitious materials in the repository environment. (author)

  4. Long-term visual health risks from solar ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ocular exposure to the ultraviolet radiation (UV) contained in sunlight may result in long-term visual health problems. UV plays a role in the etiology of cataracts and possibly in the etiology of visual impairments associated with solar retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, ocular aging, cystoid macular edema, retinitis pigmentosa, and senile macular degeneration. The exact does relationships between known UV bioeffects and these ocular problems is, however, uncertain. Thus, there are questions about the extent to which protective measures should be taken to reduce UV exposure of the eye. This paper identifies the long-term visual health problems potentially associated with ocular exposure to solar UV; proposes worst-case assumptions for the role of solar UV in these visual problems; and recommends protective measures based on damage thresholds and worst-case assumptions

  5. User Friendly Explosives Reactive Armour a Long term Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Dikshit

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract : There is a strong need to develop explosive reactive armour (ERA for protecting battle tanks against an emerging threat of kinetic and chemical energy missiles. In this context, global trends, principle and limitations of ERA and threat perception-based types of ERA have been dwelt upon. User-friendly ERA is a long-term reality. User-friendly ERA system is thus defined to be an efficient and protective system that not only provide full protection to the tank crew, but is also harmless to the supporting infantory. The indigenously-developed ERA system is close to be termed as a user-friendly ERA.

  6. KCNMA1 encoded cardiac BK channels afford protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soltysinska, Ewa; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Barthmes, Maria;

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondrial potassium channels have been implicated in myocardial protection mediated through pre-/postconditioning. Compounds that open the Ca2+- and voltage-activated potassium channel of big-conductance (BK) have a pre-conditioning-like effect on survival of cardiomyocytes after ischemia....../reperfusion injury. Recently, mitochondrial BK channels (mitoBKs) in cardiomyocytes were implicated as infarct-limiting factors that derive directly from the KCNMA1 gene encoding for canonical BKs usually present at the plasma membrane of cells. However, some studies challenged these cardio-protective roles of mito......BKs. Herein, we present electrophysiological evidence for paxilline- and NS11021-sensitive BK-mediated currents of 190 pS conductance in mitoplasts from wild-type but not BK-/- cardiomyocytes. Transmission electron microscopy of BK-/- ventricular muscles fibres showed normal ultra-structures and matrix...

  7. Idaho National Laboratory Site Long-Term Stewardship Implementation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. E. Olaveson

    2006-07-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy has established long-term stewardship programs to protect human health and the environment at sites where residual contamination remains after site cleanup. At the Idaho National Laboratory Site, Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERLA) long-term stewardship activities performed under the aegis of regulatory agreements, the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order for the Idaho National Laboratory, and state and federal requirements are administered primarily under the direction of the Idaho Cleanup Project. It represents a subset of all on-going environmental activity at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. This plan provides a listing of applicable CERCLA long-term stewardship requirements and their planned and completed implementation goals. It proffers the Long-Term Stewardship Environmental Data Warehouse for Sitewide management of environmental data. This plan will be updated as needed over time, based on input from the U.S. Department of Energy, its cognizant subcontractors, and other local and regional stakeholders.

  8. Long-term home care scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gamst, Mette; Jensen, Thomas Sejr

    In several countries, home care is provided for certain citizens living at home. The long-term home care scheduling problem is to generate work plans spanning several days such that a high quality of service is maintained and the overall cost is kept as low as possible. A solution to the problem...... provides detailed information on visits and visit times for each employee on each of the covered days. We propose a branch-and-price algorithm for the long-term home care scheduling problem. The pricing problem generates one-day plans for an employee, and the master problem merges the plans with respect...

  9. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Jäntti; Matti Sarvimäki; Roope Uusitalo

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  10. Long-Term Effects of Forced Migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope; Jäntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual-level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  11. Long-term effects of forced migration

    OpenAIRE

    Sarvimäki, Matti; Uusitalo, Roope; Jäntti, Markus

    2009-01-01

    We study the long-term effects of human displacement using individual-level panel data on forced migrants and comparable non-migrants. After World War II, Finland ceded a tenth of its territory to the Soviet Union and resettled the entire population living in these areas in the remaining parts of the country. We find that displacement increased the long-term income of men, but had no effect on that of women. We attribute a large part of the effect to faster transition from traditional (rural)...

  12. Blackberry subjected to in vitro gastrointestinal digestion affords protection against Ethyl Carbamate-induced cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei; Xu, Yang; Zhang, Lingxia; Su, Hongming; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2016-12-01

    Ethyl Carbamate (EC) was detected in many fermented foods. Previous studies indicated that frequent exposure to ethyl carbamate may increase the risk to suffer from cancers. Blackberry is rich in polyphenols and possesses potent antioxidant activity. This study aims to investigate the protective effect of blackberry homogenates produced before (BH) and after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion (BD) on EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Our results showed that blackberry homogenates after digestion (BD) was more effective than that before digestion (BH) in ameliorating EC-induced toxicity in Caco-2 cells. Further investigation revealed that BD remarkably attenuated EC-induced toxicity through restoring mitochondrial function, inhibiting glutathione depletion and decreasing overproduction of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, LC-MS result implied that the better protective capacity of BD may be related to the increased content of two anthocyanins (cyanidin-3-glucoside and cyanidin-3-dioxalyglucoside). Overall, the present study may give implication to prevent EC-induced health problem. PMID:27374576

  13. Long-Term Outcome of Idiopathic Macrocephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The neuroradiological, developmental, and psychological, long-term sequelae of 41 infants (30 boys, 11 girls diagnosed with macrocephaly (an occipito-facial head circumference [OFC] >95th centile at a family health service visit between 1985 and 1986 were studied at the Royal Alexandra Hospital for Children and other centers in Sydney, Australia.

  14. Long-Term Stability of Social Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyyppa, Markku T.; Maki, Juhani; Alanen, Erkki; Impivaara, Olli; Aromaa, Arpo

    2008-01-01

    The long-term stability of social participation was investigated in a representative urban population of 415 men and 579 women who had taken part in the nationwide Mini-Finland Health Survey in the years 1978-1980 and were re-examined 20 years later. Stability was assessed by means of the following tracking coefficients: kappa, proportion of…

  15. Long-term effects of ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper approaches the long-term effects of ionizing radiation considering the common thought that killing of cells is the basis for deterministic effects and that the subtle changes in genetic information are important in the development of radiation-induced cancer, or genetic effects if these changes are induced in germ cells

  16. Long-term fixed income market structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grilli, Luca

    2004-02-01

    Long-term fixed income market securities present a strong positive correlation in daily returns. By using a metrical approach and considering “modified” time series, I show how it is possible to show a more complex structure which depends strictly on the maturity date.

  17. Long term prospects for double beta decay

    OpenAIRE

    Zuber, K.

    2010-01-01

    In rather general terms the long term perspective of double beta decay is discussed. All important experimental parameters are investigated as well as the status of nuclear matrix element issues. The link with other neutrino physics results and options to disentangle the underlying physics process are presented.

  18. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vonkova, K.; Kysela, J., E-mail: von@ujv.cz [Nuclear Research Inst. Rez plc, Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Marcinsky, M. [ENEL-SE, NPP Mochovce, Mochovce (Slovakia); Martykan, M. [CEZ-ETE, NPP Temelin, Temelin (Czech Republic)

    2010-07-01

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  19. Hot functional test chemistry - long term experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary circuit materials undergo general corrosion in high temperature, deoxygenated, neutral or mildly alkaline solutions to form thin oxide films. These oxide layers (films) serve as protective film and mitigate the further corrosion of primary materials. Inner chromium-rich oxide layer has low cation diffusion coefficients and thus control iron and nickel transport from the metal surface to the outer layer and their dissolution into the coolant. Much less corrosion products are generated by the compact, integral and stable oxide (passivation) layer. For the latest Czech and Slovak stations commissioned (Temelin and Mochovce) a modified Hot Functional Test (HFT) chemistry was developed in the NRI Rez. Chromium rich surface layer formatted due to modified HTF chemistry ensures lower corrosion rates and radiation field formation and thus also mitigates crud formation during operation. This procedure was also designed to prepare the commissioned unit for the further proper water chemistry practise. Mochovce 1 (SK) was the first station commissioned using these recommendations in 1998. Mochovce 2 (1999) and Temelin 1 and 2 (CZ - 2000 and 2002) were subsequently commissioned using these guidelines too. The main principles of the controlled primary water chemistry applied during the hot functional tests are reviewed and importance of the water chemistry, technological and other relevant parameters is stressed regarding to the quality of the passive layer formed on the primary system surfaces. Samples from Mochovce indicated that duplex oxide layers up to 20 μm thick were produced, which were mainly magnetite substituted with nickel and chromium (e.g. 60-65% Fe, 18-28% Cr, 9-12% Ni, <1% Mn and 1-2% Si on a stainless steel primary circuit sample). Long term operation experience from both nuclear power plants are discussed in this paper. Radiation field, occupational radiation exposure and corrosion layers evolution during the first c. ten years of operation are

  20. Interim long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This interim long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  1. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney Disposal Site near Grand Junction, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Cheney Disposal Site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  2. Long-term surveillance plan for the Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site near Rifle, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Estes Gulch disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  3. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  4. Long-Term Care Financing: Lessons From France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Pamela; Nadash, Pamela; Racco, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    Context An aging population leads to a growing demand for long-term services and supports (LTSS). In 2002, France introduced universal, income-adjusted, public long-term care coverage for adults 60 and older, whereas the United States funds means-tested benefits only. Both countries have private long-term care insurance (LTCI) markets: American policies create alternatives to out-of-pocket spending and protect purchasers from relying on Medicaid. Sales, however, have stagnated, and the market's viability is uncertain. In France, private LTCI supplements public coverage, and sales are growing, although its potential to alleviate the long-term care financing problem is unclear. We explore whether France's very different approach to structuring public and private financing for long-term care could inform the United States’ long-term care financing reform efforts. Methods We consulted insurance experts and conducted a detailed review of public reports, academic studies, and other documents to understand the public and private LTCI systems in France, their advantages and disadvantages, and the factors affecting their development. Findings France provides universal public coverage for paid assistance with functional dependency for people 60 and older. Benefits are steeply income adjusted and amounts are low. Nevertheless, expenditures have exceeded projections, burdening local governments. Private supplemental insurance covers 11% of French, mostly middle-income adults (versus 3% of Americans 18 and older). Whether policyholders will maintain employer-sponsored coverage after retirement is not known. The government's interest in pursuing an explicit public/private partnership has waned under President François Hollande, a centrist socialist, in contrast to the previous center-right leader, President Nicolas Sarkozy, thereby reducing the prospects of a coordinated public/private strategy. Conclusions American private insurers are showing increasing interest in long-term

  5. The affordances of broken affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Martin Gielsgaard; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2015-01-01

    We consider the use of physical and virtual objects having one or more affordances associated to simple interactions with them. Based on Kaptelinin and Nardi’s notion of instrumental affordance, we investigate what it means to break an affordance, and the two ensuing questions we deem most...... important: how users may (i) achieve their goals in the presence of such broken affordances, and may (ii) repurpose or otherwise interact with artefacts with broken affordances. We argue that (A) thorough analyses of breakdowns of affordances and their associated signifiers and feedbacks have implication...

  6. What's Next After ARDS: Long-Term Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumello, Davide; Coppola, Silvia; Froio, Sara; Gotti, Miriam

    2016-05-01

    ARDS is a life-threatening organ failure due to several pulmonary and extrapulmonary injuries with an incidence between 5 and 60 cases/100,000 persons/y. Patients with ARDS have non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema and dyspnea often requiring invasive mechanical ventilation and intensive care admission. Although the short-term mortality rate has significantly decreased in the last decade, mainly due to the widespread application of lung-protective ventilation and better general support, long-term outcomes are still unsatisfactory. Besides simply evaluating the outcome at hospital discharge, several recent studies have assessed the health-related quality of life, neuropsychological disability, radiological findings, and pulmonary dysfunction up to 5 y. This paper reviews the literature regarding the long-term outcomes in patients with ARDS. PMID:27121623

  7. Operational and long-term performance assessment for Hanford grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Department of Energy and Rockwell Hanford Operations are preparing for the construction of a Transportable Grout Facility to immobilize selected radioactive liquid wastes now stored at Hanford. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is supporting the program by developing initial grout formulations for the facility. Pacific Northwest Laboratory is verifying the required operational characteristics of the grout formulation and evaluating the long-term performance of the grouted waste form. Preliminary assessments of the operational characteristics of the grout formulation show that the grout meets established criteria. Preliminary performance assessments indicate that the grouted waste form will provide long-term environmental protection. A series of laboratory and field tests are planned and ongoing to verify these assessments

  8. Long-term Treatment in Bipolar Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meliha Zengin Eroglu

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Although the importance of long-term prophylactic treatment is certain in bipolar disorder, there is stil debate on how to which patients and evaluate the treatment response. Efficacious long-term treatment can reduce morbidity and mortality significantly and improve quality of life of bipolar patients. The concept of ideal response should also be defined very clearly in order to discuss the difficulties of measuring the effectiveness of the prophylactic treatment. The aims of this paper are to determine whether our currently methods and criteria are valid, reliable and sensitive evaluating the efficacy of the treatment response and to briefly inform the clinicians about the drugs used in pharmacologic prophylaxis in accordance with relevant data.

  9. [Taiwan long-term care insurance and the evolution of long-term care in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hui-Wen; Liu, Shu-Hui; Pai, Yu-Chu

    2010-08-01

    The proportion of elderly (65 years of age and older) in Taiwan has exceeded 10% since 2008. With more elderly, the number of patients suffering from dementia and disabilities has also been rapidly increasing. Japan also has been facing increasing demand for long-term care due to an aging society. Prior to 2000, social welfare programs in Japan, working to cope with changing needs, typically provided insufficient services, and geriatric patients were hospitalized unnecessarily, wasting medical resources and causing undue patient hardship. In response, Japan launched its long-term care insurance program in April 2000. Under the program, city, town and village-based organizations should take responsibility for providing care to the elderly in their place of residence. The program significantly improved previous financial shortfalls and long-term care supply and demand has been met by existing social welfare organization resources. In Taiwan, the provision of long-term care by county / city authorities has proven inconsistent, with performance deemed poor after its first decade of long-term care operations. Service was found to be affected by differences in available resources and insufficient long-term care administration. The cultures of Taiwan and Japan are similar. The authors visited the Japan Long-Term Care Insurance Institute in August 2009. Main issues involved in the implementation and evolution of the Japan long-term Care Insurance are reported on in this paper. We hope such may be useful information to those working to develop long-term care programs in Taiwan. PMID:20661859

  10. Long term complications in juvenile diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Nordwall, Maria

    2006-01-01

    Background/aim. The incidence of microvascular complications has been reported to be unchanged the last decades. However, in randomized clinical trials it has been shown that improved metabolic control can reduce the development of long term complications. It has been debated whether it is possible to achieve the same results in an unselected population. In a previous study we found a decreased incidence of overt nephropathy, but unchanged incidence of severe laser treated retinopathy in a po...

  11. Clinical review: Long-term noninvasive ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Dominique; Argaud, Laurent

    2007-01-01

    Noninvasive positive ventilation has undergone a remarkable evolution over the past decades and is assuming an important role in the management of both acute and chronic respiratory failure. Long-term ventilatory support should be considered a standard of care to treat selected patients following an intensive care unit (ICU) stay. In this setting, appropriate use of noninvasive ventilation can be expected to improve patient outcomes, reduce ICU admission, enhance patient comfort, and increase...

  12. Have long-term inflation expectations declined?

    OpenAIRE

    Nechio, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Based on surveys of professional forecasters, expectations for price inflation 5 to 10 years ahead have edged down over the past few years. This decline seems to be primarily driven by revised expectations from forecasters who overestimated inflation in the aftermath of the Great Recession. Currently, the median survey-based expectation for long-term inflation is close to its pre-recession level and appears well anchored at the Fed’s 2% longer-run inflation objective.

  13. Long term prognosis of reactive salmonella arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Leirisalo-Repo, M; Helenius, P; Hannu, T; Lehtinen, A; Kreula, J; Taavitsainen, M; Koskimies, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Reactive joint complications triggered by salmonella gastroenteritis are increasingly reported, but the outcome and long term prognosis of the patients is incompletely known. This study looked at the prognosis of salmonella arthritis in patients hospitalised in 1970-1986.
METHODS—Hospital records from two hospitals in southern Finland were screened for patients with the discharge diagnosis of salmonellosis or reactive, postinfectious arthritis or Reiter's disease. For the patients ...

  14. Long-term consequences of anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Katulski, Krzysztof

    2013-07-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that occurs mainly in female adolescents and young women. The obsessive fear of weight gain, critically limited food intake and neuroendocrine aberrations characteristic of AN have both short- and long-term consequences for the reproductive, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal and skeletal systems. Neuroendocrine changes include impairment of gonadotropin releasing-hormone (GnRH) pulsatile secretion and changes in neuropeptide activity at the hypothalamic level, which cause profound hypoestrogenism. AN is related to a decrease in bone mass density, which can lead to osteopenia and osteoporosis and a significant increase in fracture risk in later life. Rates of birth complications and low birth weight may be higher in women with previous AN. The condition is associated with fertility problems, unplanned pregnancies and generally negative attitudes to pregnancy. During pregnancy, women with the condition have higher rates of hyperemesis gravidarum, anaemia and obstetric complications, as well as impaired weight gain and compromised intrauterine foetal growth. It is reported that 80% of AN patients are affected by a cardiac complications such as sinus bradycardia, a prolonged QT interval on electrocardiography, arrythmias, myocardial mass modification and hypotension. A decrease in bone mineral density (BMD) is one of the most important medical consequences of AN. Reduced BMD may subsequently lead to a three- to seven-fold increased risk of spontaneous fractures. Untreated AN is associated with a significant increase in the risk of death. Better detection and sophisticated therapy should prevent the long-term consequences of this disorder. The aims of treatment are not only recovery but also prophylaxis and relief of the long-term effects of this disorder. Further investigations of the long-term disease risk are needed. PMID:23706279

  15. Long Term Evolution of Plasma Wakefields

    OpenAIRE

    Sahai, Aakash A.; Katsouleas, T. C.; Tsung, F. S.; Mori, W. B.

    2014-01-01

    We study the long-term evolution (LTE) of plasma wakefields over multiple plasma-electron periods and few plasma-ion periods, much less than a recombination time. The evolution and relaxation of such a wakefield-perturbed plasma over these timescales has important implications for the upper limits of repetition-rates in plasma colliders. Intense fields in relativistic lasers (or intense beams) create plasma wakefields (modes around {\\omega}pe) by transferring energy to the plasma electrons. C...

  16. Long term evolution 4G and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Yacoub, Michel; Figueiredo, Fabrício; Tronco, Tania

    2016-01-01

    This book focus on Long Term Evolution (LTE) and beyond. The chapters describe different aspects of research and development in LTE, LTE-Advanced (4G systems) and LTE-450 MHz such as telecommunications regulatory framework, voice over LTE, link adaptation, power control, interference mitigation mechanisms, performance evaluation for different types of antennas, cognitive mesh network, integration of LTE network and satellite, test environment, power amplifiers and so on. It is useful for researchers in the field of mobile communications.

  17. Energy: solutions for the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Power towers' operated by sunlight, vertical-axis, windmills capable of generating electricity, breeder reactors producing more uranium than they consume, and power plants fuelled by nuclear fusion - these are some of the exotic energy sources to be created as long term alternatives under the U.S. Government's plan for energy and research development. International co-operation, which has already begun, could permit other nations to share with America the fruits of this investment in the future

  18. Long-term course of opioid addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hser, Yih-Ing; Evans, Elizabeth; Grella, Christine; Ling, Walter; Anglin, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Opioid addiction is associated with excess mortality, morbidities, and other adverse conditions. Guided by a life-course framework, we review the literature on the long-term course of opioid addiction in terms of use trajectories, transitions, and turning points, as well as other factors that facilitate recovery from addiction. Most long-term follow-up studies are based on heroin addicts recruited from treatment settings (mostly methadone maintenance treatment), many of whom are referred by the criminal justice system. Cumulative evidence indicates that opioid addiction is a chronic disorder with frequent relapses. Longer treatment retention is associated with a greater likelihood of abstinence, whereas incarceration is negatively related to subsequent abstinence. Over the long term, the mortality rate of opioid addicts (overdose being the most common cause) is about 6 to 20 times greater than that of the general population; among those who remain alive, the prevalence of stable abstinence from opioid use is low (less than 30% after 10-30 years of observation), and many continue to use alcohol and other drugs after ceasing to use opioids. Histories of sexual or physical abuse and comorbid mental disorders are associated with the persistence of opioid use, whereas family and social support, as well as employment, facilitates recovery. Maintaining opioid abstinence for at least five years substantially increases the likelihood of future stable abstinence. Recent advances in pharmacological treatment options (buprenorphine and naltrexone) include depot formulations offering longer duration of medication; their impact on the long-term course of opioid addiction remains to be assessed. PMID:25747921

  19. Long term nuclear programme for Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While it is difficult at this time to foreshadow a long term nuclear programme for Australia, the essential ingredients of the decision-making back-ground have been set out. The first involvement in the nuclear scene appears to be an entry as a uranium supplier in the late 1970s, though no indigenous use of uranium as a fuel is foreseen until after 1990. (J.R.)

  20. Managing soils for long-term productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Syers, J. K.

    1997-01-01

    Meeting the goal of long-term agricultural productivity requires that soil degradation be halted and reversed. Soil fertility decline is a key factor in soil degradation and is probably the major cause of declining crop yields. There is evidence that the contribution of declining soil fertility to soil degradation has been underestimated. Sensitivity to soil degradation is implicit in the assessment of the sustainability of land management practices, with wide recognition of the fact that soi...

  1. Timber joints under long-term loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldborg, T.; Johansen, M.

    This report describes tests and results from stiffness and strength testing of splice joints under long-term loading. During two years of loading the spicimens were exposed to cyclically changing relative humidity. After the loading period the specimens were short-term tested. The connectors were...... integral nail-plates and nailed steel and plywood gussets. The report is intended for designers and researchers in timber engineering....

  2. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer Robert L

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Or...

  3. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    OpenAIRE

    Folmer, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Heal...

  4. Procrastination on Long-Term Projects

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Ted; Rabin, Matthew

    2002-01-01

    Previous papers on time-inconsistent procrastination assume projects are completed once begun. We develop a model in which a person chooses whether and when to complete each stage of a long-term project. In addition to procrastination in starting a project, a naive person might undertake costly effort to begin a project but then never complete it. When the costs of completing different stages are more unequal, procrastination is more likely, and it is when later stages are more costly that ...

  5. Long-Term Trends in World Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Modelski

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A revisit, and an extension, of the paper “From Leadership to Organization: The Evolution of Global Politics,” originally presented at the University of Zurich in 1993. Three long-term processes: the evolution of global politics (or political globalization; the rise and decline of world powers (the long cycle of global politics; and the emergence of the world system, have been reviewed and updated.

  6. Long-term orbital lifetime predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, P. E.; Lyons, A. T.

    1990-10-01

    Long-term orbital lifetime predictions are analyzed. Predictions were made for three satellites: the Solar Max Mission (SMM), the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), and the Pegasus Boiler Plate (BP). A technique is discussed for determining an appropriate ballistic coefficient to use in the lifetime prediction. The orbital decay rate should be monitored regularly. Ballistic coefficient updates should be done whenever there is a significant change in the actual decay rate or in the solar activity prediction.

  7. Titanium for long-term tritium storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heung, L.K.

    1994-12-01

    Due to the reduction of nuclear weapon stockpile, there will be an excess of tritium returned from the field. The excess tritium needs to be stored for future use, which might be several years away. A safe and cost effective means for long term storage of tritium is needed. Storing tritium in a solid metal tritide is preferred to storing tritium as a gas, because a metal tritide can store tritium in a compact form and the stored tritium will not be released until heat is applied to increase its temperature to several hundred degrees centigrade. Storing tritium as a tritide is safer and more cost effective than as a gas. Several candidate metal hydride materials have been evaluated for long term tritium storage. They include uranium, La-Ni-Al alloys, zirconium and titanium. The criteria used include material cost, radioactivity, stability to air, storage capacity, storage pressure, loading and unloading conditions, and helium retention. Titanium has the best combination of properties and is recommended for long term tritium storage.

  8. [Long-term survival after severe trauma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutschler, W; Mutschler, M; Graw, M; Lefering, R

    2016-07-01

    Long-term survival after severe trauma is rarely addressed in German trauma journals although knowledge of life expectancy and identification of factors contributing to increased mortality are important for lifetime care management, development of service models, and targeting health promotion and prevention interventions. As reliable data in Germany are lacking, we compiled data mainly from the USA and Australia to describe life expectancy, risk factors, and predictors of outcome in patients experiencing traumatic spinal cord injury, traumatic brain injury, and polytrauma. Two years after trauma, life expectancy in all three categories was significantly lower than that of the general population. It depends strongly on severity of disability, age, and gender and is quantifiable. Whereas improvements in medical care have led to a marked decline in short-term mortality, surprisingly long-term survival in severe trauma has not changed over the past 30 years. Therefore, there is need to intensify long-term trauma patient care and to find new strategies to limit primary damage. PMID:27342106

  9. Long-term energy futures: the critical role of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper briefly reviews the results of a 5-year study conducted by IIASA jointly with the World Energy Council (WEC) on long term-energy perspectives. After summarizing the study's main findings, the paper addresses the crucial role of technological change in the evolution of long-term energy futures and in responding to key long-term uncertainties in the domains of energy demand growth, economics, as well as environmental protection. Based on most recent empirical and methodological findings, long-term dynamics of technological change portray a number of distinct features that need to be taken account of in technology and energy policy. First, success of innovation efforts and ultimate outcomes of technological are uncertain. Second, new, improved technologies are not a free good, but require continued dedicated efforts. Third, technological knowledge (as resulting from R and D and accumulation of experience, i.e. technological learning) exhibits characteristics of (uncertain) increasing returns. Forth, due to innovation - diffusion lags, technological interdependence, and infrastructure needs (network externalities), rates of change in large-scale energy systems are necessarily slow. This implies acting sooner rather than later as a contigency policy to respond to long-term social, economic and environmental uncertainties, most notably possible climate change. Rather than picking technological 'winners' the results of the IIASA-WEC scenario studies are seen most appropriate to guide technology and R and D portfolio analysis. Nonetheless, robust persistent patterns of technological change invariably occur across all scenarios. Examples of primising groups of technologies are given. The crucial importance of meeting long-energy demand in developing countries, assuring large-scale infrastructure investments, maintaining a strong and diversified R AND D protfolio, as well as to dvise new institutional mechnisms for technology development and diffusion for instance

  10. Characterization of aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The aluminum nanopowders produced by electrical explosion of wires after long-term storage (27 and 10 years) under natural conditions are characterized. • The phase composition and thermal stability of aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage are determined. • The surface chemical changes in the aged aluminum nanopowders are examined. • The high reactivity of aluminum nanopowder is due to the presence of the protective oxide–hydroxide layer on the particles surface. - Abstract: The characteristics of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electrical explosion of wires, passivated by air and stored for a long time under natural conditions are analyzed. The aluminum nanopowder produced in hydrogen had been stored for 27 years; the nanopowders produced in argon and nitrogen had been stored for 10 years. The powders were studied using X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The influence of the obtaining conditions and storage period of nanopowders on their thermal stability under heating in air is shown. The aluminum nanopowders after long-term storage in air under ambient conditions are found to be extremely active

  11. Early nutrition and health: short- and long-term outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruszfeld, Dariusz; Socha, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Maternal diet, nutritional status during pregnancy, and the early diet of the offspring play an important role in later health. The short- and long-term outcomes of early nutrition have been extensively studied in recent decades. One of the most commonly investigated nutritional interventions is breastfeeding, which is associated with a number of positive short- and long-term outcomes. A short-term effect of breastfeeding is reduced morbidity and mortality in children from poor living conditions and in preterm infants. Breastfeeding is associated with better cognitive development and also has a long-term protective effect on obesity risk, prevalence of type 2 diabetes, and a lowering effect on blood pressure. Selected nutrients have undergone extensive investigation to show their role in disease prevention or improved development, e.g. protein intake in infancy seems to be associated with a later risk of obesity or docosahexaenoic acid supplementation has a positive impact on cognitive function. Another consideration is the fast catch-up growth in small for gestational age infants as an important factor associated with adult risk of cardiovascular problems. On the other hand, high protein and energy intake seems to be positively associated with some indicators of cognitive development. Most of the evidence comes from observational studies that cannot exclude potential confounders. Animal studies demonstrate causality but should not be directly extrapolated to humans. The number of randomized controlled studies is increasing but long-term follow-ups are necessary to obtain convincing results. The majority of these trials compare different infant formula compositions and macro- or micronutrient supplementation. One of the major questions is to define a critical (or opportunity) window and a mechanism of nutritional influence on several health outcomes. PMID:24029784

  12. Long-Term Passivation of Strongly Interacting Metals with Single-Layer Graphene

    OpenAIRE

    Weatherup, Robert S.; D’Arsié, Lorenzo; Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Caneva, Sabina; Blume, Raoul; Robertson, John; Schloegl, Robert; Hofmann, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    The long-term (>18 months) protection of Ni surfaces against oxidation under atmospheric conditions is demonstrated by coverage with single-layer graphene, formed by chemical vapor deposition. In situ, depth-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of various graphene-coated transition metals reveals that a strong graphene–metal interaction is of key importance in achieving this long-term protection. This strong interaction prevents the rapid intercalation of oxidizing species at the graphen...

  13. Timber beams subjected to long - term loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sógel, K.

    2010-09-01

    Wood is a significant structural material, which is often used for timber bearing structures. Elements of timber structures must especially satisfy safety requirements, which are expressed by the ultimate limit states in the established standards. The structure must also satisfy the serviceability limit states. Local and global deformations make it impossible for the structure to serve the purpose it was designed for. It is important to take the deflections and their possible increase into account in the design to provide a structure which can be used during the whole period of service. Based on earlier examinations, it is known that a timber element over the course of long-term loading shows creep behavior. The structure of wood is able to adapt to the conditions of the surrounding environment. The properties of wood are especially affected by the relative humidity of the air and then by the type, intensity and duration of the loading. The most important factors affecting the serviceability of timber structures are volume changes caused by humidity and additional deflections caused by the effects of long-term loading. These phenomena emphasize the importance of serviceability limit states for timber structures. The paper deals with a long-term experimental investigation of timber girders that are currently often used. The aim was to obtain the deflection curves and mark the time dependence and the final deflections. The paper will also define the approximations for simulating the time-dependent deflections and obtain the creep coefficients for calculating the final deflections of the girders investigated.

  14. Long Term R&D for Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the Office of Defense Nuclear Non-proliferation Research and Development (DNN R&D), the Nuclear Weapons and Material Security Team conducts research to develop advanced detection and source technologies for the purposes of detecting and characterizing special nuclear materials (SNM); international safeguards and radiological source replacement; nuclear arms control treaty monitoring and verification; and supporting interdiction and nuclear security efforts across NNSA. Our safeguards-specific goal is to develop and demonstrate new technologies and capabilities to cooperatively quantify and track SNM in the nuclear fuel cycle and detect any diversion of these materials for illicit purposes. Our goals and objectives align with a technology goal of the International Atomic Energy's Long Term Strategy for 2012-2023 ''to improve the Department's technical capabilities by making use of scientific and technological innovation, and to enhance its readiness to safeguard new nuclear technology and support new verification missions.'' Toward that end, we work closely with the US Department of Energy's Next Generation Safeguards Initiative and the US Support Programme to meet their specific long term needs. In this talk we will give a brief overview of current research efforts and specifically describe several helium-3 replacement technologies, advanced spent nuclear fuel characterization methods, and upcoming tags and seals technologies. We will present additional research into cross cutting enabling technologies such as advancements in detector materials, electronics, and sources, and basic physics measurements that support long term safeguards R&D. (author)

  15. LTE (4G) – Long Term Evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Juhala, Arttu

    2014-01-01

    Tässä opinnäytetyössä käsitellään matkapuhelinverkko teknologian neljättä sukupolvea ja tarkemmin Long Term Evolutionia eli LTE:tä. Tutustutaan 4G LTE – matkapuhelinverkon historiaan, teknologian kehitykseen ja rakenteeseen. Lisäksi esitellään tarkemmin tekniikoita, joita LTE käyttää. Työssä on tehty pienimuotoinen mittausesimerkki pakettidatan siirrosta signaali analysaattorilla, sekä testattu käytännössä operaattorin tarjoamaa rajatonta 4G liittymää Tampereen keskustassa. Lopuksi työssä ver...

  16. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  17. Long-Term Effects of Class Size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  18. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2011-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich administrative data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are not only beneficial for cognitive test scores at age 13 but also for non-cognitive scores at that age, for cognitive test scores at ages 16 and 18, and for completed education and wages at age 27 to 42. The estimated effect on...

  19. Long-term effects of class size

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksson, Peter; Öckert, Björn; Oosterbeek, Hessel

    2012-01-01

    This paper evaluates the long-term effects of class size in primary school. We use rich data from Sweden and exploit variation in class size created by a maximum class size rule. Smaller classes in the last three years of primary school (age 10 to 13) are beneficial for cognitive and non-cognitive ability at age 13, and improve achievement at age 16. Most importantly, we find that smaller classes have positive effects on completed education, wages, and earnings at age 27 to 42. The estimated ...

  20. Declining Long-Term Employment in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    KAWAGUCHI Daiji; UENO Yuko

    2011-01-01

    This paper documents the secular decline of years of job tenure in Japan based on micro data from two representative government surveys, namely the household-based Employment Status Survey (ESS) and the establishment-based Basic Survey of Wage Structure (BSWS). Workers born in 1970 have experienced about 20 percent fewer years of job tenure than those born in 1945, based on an analysis of ESS data. The decline of the long-term employment relationship is uniformly observed across firm sizes an...

  1. The long-term stability of becquerelite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium-series disequilibria data, in conjunction with petrographic analyses, indicate that the uranyl oxide hydrate becquerelite can persist for hundreds of thousands of years, possibly longer. Becquerelite probably forms continuously as ground water compositions permit and is resistant to U leaching by ground water. On the time scale of interest for the geologic disposal of spent UO2 nuclear fuel, becquerelite is a long-lived sink for uranium in oxidizing, U and Ca-bearing ground waters. Such long-term stability also supports recent solubility experiments that indicate natural becquerelite has a lower solubility product than that determined for synthetic becquerelites

  2. Long Term Archiving and CCSDS Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucon, Danièle

    This article presents some conceptual and implementation CCSDS -Consultative Committee for Space Data Systemsstandards for long term archiving. It focuses on the most recent one, the Producer Archive Interface Specification (PAIS) standard. This standard, currently available as a draft on the CCSDS web site, will be published by the beginning of 2014. It will enable the Producer to share with the Archive a sufficiently precise and unambiguous formal definition of the Digital Objects to be produced and transferred, by means of a model. It will also enable a precise definition of the packaging of these objects in the form of Submission Information Packages (SIPs), including the order in which they should be transferred.

  3. The long term stability of lidar calibrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courtney, Michael; Gayle Nygaard, Nicolai

    Wind lidars are now used extensively for wind resource measurements. One of the requirements for the data to be accepted in support of project financing (so-called ‘banka-bility’) is to demonstrate the long-term stability of lidar cali-brations. Calibration results for six Leosphere WindCube li-dars......-ters pertaining in the different calibration periods. This is supported by sliding-window analyses of one lidar at one location where the same order of variation is observed as between pre-service and post-service calibrations....

  4. Long term youth unemployment or disposable workforce?

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Contini; Elisa Grand

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores a process which I denote as “young workforce disposal” (YWD). YWD reflects the fact that many young people enter the labor market as dependent employees, at some later time they are dismissed and (presumably) move into never-ending unemployment. Long term unemployment may last two, three, four years, but, in the end, it should lead to re-entry in working activities. If it does not, i.e. if we observe young men separating from their jobs for whatever reason, and, for as lon...

  5. Long Term Durability of Glass Reinforced Composites

    OpenAIRE

    Cain, Jason James

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation discusses topics related to the performance and long-term durability of glass-reinforced composites. The first portion of this dissertation describes work to assess the effect that post-curing has on widely used E-glass/vinyl-ester composites (E-glass/Derakane 510-A and E-glass/Derakane 8084). It is shown that post-curing can have significant positive effects on the initial material properties of glass-reinforced vinyl ester composites. Furthermore, the post-cure of 82Â...

  6. Human Behaviour in Long-Term Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session WP1, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Psychological Support for International Space Station Mission; Psycho-social Training for Man in Space; Study of the Physiological Adaptation of the Crew During A 135-Day Space Simulation; Interpersonal Relationships in Space Simulation, The Long-Term Bed Rest in Head-Down Tilt Position; Psychological Adaptation in Groups of Varying Sizes and Environments; Deviance Among Expeditioners, Defining the Off-Nominal Act in Space and Polar Field Analogs; Getting Effective Sleep in the Space-Station Environment; Human Sleep and Circadian Rhythms are Altered During Spaceflight; and Methodological Approach to Study of Cosmonauts Errors and Its Instrumental Support.

  7. Long-term plant availability of actinides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental releases of actinide elements raise issues about which data are very limited. Quantitative information is required to assess the long-term behavior of actinides and their potential hazards resulting from the transport through food chains leading to man. Of special interest is the effect of time on the changes in the availability of actinide elements for uptake by plants from soil. This study provides valuable information on the effects of weathering and aging on the uptake of actinides from soil by range and crop plants grown under realistic field conditions

  8. Providing long term care for sex offenders: liabilities and responsibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corson, Tyler Rogers; Nadash, Pamela

    2013-11-01

    The high risk for recidivism among sex offenders who need long term care (LTC) raises serious issues when they are cared for alongside frail, vulnerable adults. LTC providers must balance offenders' right to access care with other residents' right to be free from abuse and must assess and manage the risks associated with admitting offenders. This article identifies sources of legal liability that derive from sex offender management and discusses the need for the LTC community to develop reasonable, balanced guidance on how best to mitigate the risks associated with sex offenders, protect the rights of all residents, and reduce provider liabilities. PMID:24094899

  9. Small businesses and the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Nicholson, Jennifer L; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several short- and long-term provisions designed to help small businesses pay for and maintain health insurance for their workers, and to allow workers without employer coverage to gain access to affordable, comprehensive health insurance. Provisions include a small business tax credit to offset premium costs for firms that offer coverage starting this taxable year, establishment of state-based insurance exchanges that promise to lower administrative costs and pool risk more broadly, and creation of new market rules and an essential benefit standard to protect small firms and their workers. Analysis shows that up to 16.6 million workers are in firms that would be eligible for the tax credit in 2010 to 2013. Over the next 10 years, small businesses and organizations could receive an estimated $40 billion in federal support through the premium credit program. PMID:20812427

  10. Comparison of protective effect of HTK solution and Celsior solution on long-term cardiac preservation%HTK液及Celsior液对长时间低温保存心肌保护作用的对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏咏梅; 杨洪亮; 姚冬杰

    2012-01-01

    目的 比较不同种类心脏保存液对长时间低温保存心肌的保护作用.方法 将36只雄性Wistar大鼠随机分成4组,即KH组、常规停搏液组(RCP组)、HTK组及Celsior组,每组9只,制作大鼠离体工作心脏模型.RCP组、HTK组及Celsior组分别采用常规心脏停搏液、HTK液及Celsior液低温保存心脏8h后,检测冠状动脉流出液中乳酸脱氢酶和肌酸激酶同功酶含量及心肌组织形态学改变;KH组即刻恢复做功.结果 低温保存心脏8h后,Celsior组冠状动脉流出液中乳酸脱氢酶和肌酸激酶同功酶含量低于HTK组,HTK组明显低于RCP组,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 细胞外液型心脏保存液Celsior液心脏保存效果优于HTK液及常规心脏停搏液.%Objective To compare the different types of heart preservation solution for long-term hypothermic cardiac preservation. Methods Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KH group) , conventional cardioplegia (RCP group), HTK group and Celsior group, with 9 rats in each group. The isolated working heart rat model was produced. RCP group, HTK group and Celsior group were detected creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme content in coronary artery flow and myocardial pathological changes 8 hours after the using of conventional cardioplegic solution, HTK solution and Celsior solution respectively for cryopreservation. KH group immediately restored the power. Results After cryopreservation for 8 hours, the creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme content in coronary effluent were lower in Celsior group than those in HTK group, and were lower in HTK group than those in RCP group, which showed significant differences(P<0. 05). Conclusion Celsior solution is better than HTK solution and conventional cardiac arrest cardioplegia solution for cardiac preservation.

  11. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, ii) modelling, iii) countermeasures, iv) runoff v) spatial variations, and vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides 137Cs, 90Sr and 239-240Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  12. Long-Term Care Policy: Singapore's Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, Chee Wei Winston; Phua, Kai-Hong

    2016-01-01

    Singapore, like many developed countries, is facing the challenge of a rapidly aging population and the increasing need to provide long-term care (LTC) services for elderly in the community. The Singapore government's philosophy on care for the elderly is that the family should be the first line of support, and it has relied on voluntary welfare organizations (VWOs) or charities for the bulk of LTC service provision. For LTC financing, it has emphasized the principles of co-payment and targeting of state support to the low-income population through means-tested government subsidies. It has also instituted ElderShield, a national severe disability insurance scheme. This paper discusses some of the challenges facing LTC policy in Singapore, particularly the presence of perverse financial incentives for hospitalization, the pitfalls of over-reliance on VWOs, and the challenges facing informal family caregivers. It discusses the role of private LTC insurance in LTC financing, bearing in mind demand- and supply-side failures that have plagued the private LTC insurance market. It suggests the need for more standardized needs assessment and portable LTC benefits, with reference to the Japanese Long-Term Care Insurance program, and also discusses the need to provide more support to informal family caregivers. PMID:26808468

  13. Long term testing of PSI-membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huslage, J.; Brack, H.P.; Geiger, F.; Buechi, F.N.; Tsukada, A.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Long term tests of PSI membranes based on radiation-grafted FEP and ETFE films were carried out and FEP-based membranes were evaluated by monitoring the in-situ membrane area resistance measured by a current pulse method. By modifying our irradiation procedure and using the double crosslinking concept we obtain reproducible membrane cell lifetimes (in term of in-situ membrane resistance) of greater than 5000 hours at 60-65{sup o}C. Preliminary tests at 80-85{sup o}C with lifetimes of greater than 2500 demonstrate the potential long term stability of PSI proton exchange membranes based on FEP over the whole operating temperature range of low-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells. Radiation grafted PSI membranes based on ETFE have better mechanical properties than those of the FEP membranes. Mechanical properties are particularly important in large area cells and fuel cell stacks. ETFE membranes have been tested successfully for approximately 1000 h in a 2-cell stack (100 cm{sup 2} active area each cell). (author) 4 figs., 4 refs.

  14. Sleep facilitates long-term face adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditye, Thomas; Javadi, Amir Homayoun; Carbon, Claus-Christian; Walsh, Vincent

    2013-10-22

    Adaptation is an automatic neural mechanism supporting the optimization of visual processing on the basis of previous experiences. While the short-term effects of adaptation on behaviour and physiology have been studied extensively, perceptual long-term changes associated with adaptation are still poorly understood. Here, we show that the integration of adaptation-dependent long-term shifts in neural function is facilitated by sleep. Perceptual shifts induced by adaptation to a distorted image of a famous person were larger in a group of participants who had slept (experiment 1) or merely napped for 90 min (experiment 2) during the interval between adaptation and test compared with controls who stayed awake. Participants' individual rapid eye movement sleep duration predicted the size of post-sleep behavioural adaptation effects. Our data suggest that sleep prevented decay of adaptation in a way that is qualitatively different from the effects of reduced visual interference known as 'storage'. In the light of the well-established link between sleep and memory consolidation, our findings link the perceptual mechanisms of sensory adaptation--which are usually not considered to play a relevant role in mnemonic processes--with learning and memory, and at the same time reveal a new function of sleep in cognition. PMID:23986109

  15. Long-term environmental behaviour of radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F.; Moberg, L.; Suomela, M

    2000-04-01

    The radioactive pollution of the environment results from the atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (during the mid-years of twentieth century), from the development of the civilian nuclear industry and from accidents such as Chernobyl. Assessing the resulting radiation that humans might receive requires a good understanding of the long-term behaviour of radionuclides in the environment. This document reports on a joint European effort to advance this understanding, 3 multinational projects have been coordinated: PEACE, EPORA and LANDSCAPE. This report proposes an overview of the results obtained and they are presented in 6 different themes: (i) redistribution in the soil-plant system, (ii) modelling, (iii) countermeasures, (iv) runoff (v) spatial variations, and (vi) dose assessment. The long term behaviour of the radionuclides {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and {sup 239-240}Pu is studied through various approaches, these approaches range from in-situ experiments designed to exploit past contamination events to laboratory simulations. A broad scope of different ecosystems ranging from arctic and boreal regions down to mediterranean ones has been considered. (A.C.)

  16. Long term changes in the polar vortices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braathen, Geir O.

    2015-04-01

    As the amount of halogens in the stratosphere is slowly declining and the ozone layer slowly recovers it is of interest to see how the meteorological conditions in the vortex develop over the long term since such changes might alter the foreseen ozone recovery. In conjunction with the publication of the WMO Antarctic and Arctic Ozone Bulletins, WMO has acquired the ERA Interim global reanalysis data set for several meteorological parameters. This data set goes from 1979 - present. These long time series of data can be used for several useful studies of the long term development of the polar vortices. Several "environmental indicators" for vortex change have been calculated, and a climatology, as well as trends, for these parameters will be presented. These indicators can act as yardsticks and will be useful for understanding past and future changes in the polar vortices and how these changes affect polar ozone depletion. Examples of indicators are: vortex mean temperature, vortex minimum temperature, vortex mean PV, vortex "importance" (PV*area), vortex break-up time, mean and maximum wind speed. Data for both the north and south polar vortices have been analysed at several isentropic levels from 350 to 850 K. A possible link between changes in PV and sudden stratospheric warmings will be investigated, and the results presented.

  17. Factors affecting long-term integrity of transmission pipelines; Facteurs affectant l'integrite a long terme des gazoducs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagiwara, N.; Masuda, T.; Oguchi, N. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    For upgrading long-term integrity of transmission pipelines, two types of delayed fracture in regions of mechanical damage in pipelines were investigated. Experimental and numerical studies clarified factors affecting the fatigue behavior of line pipes containing an idealized flaw under fluctuating internal pressure. To investigate fatigue cracking at mechanical damage in pipelines, degradation of fracture toughness and fatigue properties due to plastic pre-strain was also evaluated. A fracture mechanics-based study revealed conditions necessarily for initiation of hydrogen stress cracking (HSC) at a surface defect in line pipes under cathodic protection. (authors)

  18. Use of quality indicators for long-term evaluation of heavy metals content in soils of an agro-ecological protected wetland: L'Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Valencia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Palop, Carla

    2015-04-01

    Due to the social, economical and environmental importance of agro-ecological wetlands, strategies for periodical evaluation of their environmental quality should be developed, particularly in those areas were a mixture of land uses are supporting the survival of wildlife and migrant species as is the case of most Mediterranean coastal wetlands. The aim of this work is to develop a strategy for a long-term assessment of the environmental quality of soils in a rice-wetland: L'Albufera Natural Park, Spain, in the surroundings of the metropolitan area of Valencia. The area was officially declared as Natural Park in 1986, integrating both the traditional irrigation system and the ecological importance derived from being a Mediterranean Wetland that is now transformed to a large extent in a rice-wetland allowing the presence of a large variety of migrant spices. The methodology consisted in the monitoring of 20 sites distributed in 5 sectors in and around the natural park of potentially contrasting anthropogenic pressure and land use. Soil samples collection were instrumented in two campaigns. The first one was in 1989 (three years after the official declaration as Natural Park of the wetland), and the second 19 years later in 2008. Seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. To evaluate the quality of soils at each sampling date four indicators were obtained, namely, Contamination Factor (CF), Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo), Pollution Load Index (PLI) and Potential Ecological Risk Index (PERI). Results obtained with quality indicators were further compared to obtain temporal and spatial trends using Geographical Information systems procedures. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average

  19. Long term performance of radon mitigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Researchers installed radon mitigation systems in 12 houses in Spokane, Washington and Coeur d'Alene, Idaho during the heating season 1985--1986 and continued to monitor indoor radon quarterly and annually for ten years. The mitigation systems included active sub-slab ventilation, basement over-pressurization, and crawlspace isolation and ventilation. The occupants reported various operational problems with these early mitigation systems. The long-term radon measurements were essential to track the effectiveness of the mitigation systems over time. All 12 homes were visited during the second year of the study, while a second set 5 homes was visited during the fifth year to determine the cause(s) of increased radon in the homes. During these visits, the mitigation systems were inspected and measurements of system performance were made. Maintenance and modifications were performed to improve system performance in these homes

  20. A long-term programme for IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At its fifth regular session in 1961, the IAEA General Conference adopted a resolution calling for the preparation of a long-term programme for the Agency's activities. The programme, which was prepared after extensive consultations with experts from many Member States and is intended to serve as a guide in planning and carrying out the Agency's work from 1965, has been presented to the seventh session of the General Conference by the Board of Governors and the Director General. It envisages that the Agency's main role during the next few years will be, on the one hand, to assist in preparing Member States for the introduction of atomic energy in its various peaceful uses, especially in the production of power, and, on the other, to stimulate and co-ordinate scientific and technological development with a view to making the advantages of peaceful atomic applications available to the maximum number of countries in the shortest possible time

  1. Estimating long-term health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term health effects from iodine 131 and cesium 137 as a result of the accident at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in the USSR are discussed. Computer-generated radiation exposure distributions to the population in Europe have resulted in the following estimates: 2000-40,000 thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 inhalation of which a few percent might be fatal; 10,000-250,000 potential thyroid tumor cases from iodine 131 absorbed via the grass-cow-milk route in the absence of actions by the public health authorities to block this exposure route; 3500-70,000 cancer cases from whole-body doses of cesium 137 (external and internal), of which approximately half might be fatal. Although there are uncertainties in these estimates they serve to indicate the magnitude of the problem

  2. Long-term variations of solar activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Using the Lomb-Scargle periodogram we analyzed two sunspot series: the one over the past 11000 years at the 10-year interval based upon the survey data of 14C concentration in tree-rings, reconstructed by Solanki et al.; and the sunspot number over the past 7000 years, derived from geomagnetic variations by Usoskin et al. We found the periods and quasi-periods in solar activity, such as about 225, 352, 441, 522 and 561 a, and near 1000 and 2000 a. An approach of wavelet transform was applied to check the two sunspot time series, with emphasis on investigating time-varying characteristics in the long-term fluctuations of solar activity. The results show that the lengths and amplitudes of the periods have changed with time, and large variations have taken place during some periods.

  3. Long-Term Stability of Horseshoe Orbits

    CERN Document Server

    Ćuk, Matija; Holman, Matthew J

    2012-01-01

    Unlike Trojans, horseshoe coorbitals are not generally considered to be long-term stable (Dermott and Murray, 1981; Murray and Dermott, 1999). As the lifetime of Earth's and Venus's horseshoe coorbitals is expected to be about a Gyr, we investigated the possible contribution of late-escaping inner planet coorbitals to the lunar Late Heavy Bombardment. Contrary to analytical estimates, we do not find many horseshoe objects escaping after first 100 Myr. In order to understand this behaviour, we ran a second set of simulations featuring idealized planets on circular orbits with a range of masses. We find that horseshoe coorbitals are generally long lived (and potentially stable) for systems with primary-to-secondary mass ratios larger than about 1200. This is consistent with results of Laughlin and Chambers (2002) for equal-mass pairs or coorbital planets and the instability of Jupiter's horseshoe companions (Stacey and Connors, 2008). Horseshoe orbits at smaller mass ratios are unstable because they must approa...

  4. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  5. 2003 Long-Term Surveillance and Maintenance Program Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2004-07-01

    Radioactive waste was created by the Federal Government and private industry at locations around the country in support of national defense, research, and civilian power-generation programs. If not controlled, much of this legacy waste would remain hazardous to human health and the environment indefinitely. Current technology does not allow us to render this waste harmless, so the available methods to control risk rely on consolidation, isolation, and long-term management of the waste. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has an obligation to safely control the radioactive waste and to inform and train future generations to maintain and, perhaps, improve established protections. DOE is custodian for much of the radioactive and other hazardous waste under control of the Federal Government. DOE established the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) in 1974 and the Defense Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) Program and the Surplus Facilities Management Program in the 1980s. Congress passed the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) in 1978. These federal programs and legislation were established to identify, remediate, and manage legacy waste. Remedial action is considered complete at a radioactive waste site when the identified hazardous material is isolated and the selected remedial action remedy is in place and functioning. Radioactive or other hazardous materials remain in place as part of the remedy at many DOE sites. Long-term management of radioactive waste sites incorporates a set of actions necessary to maintain protection of human health and the environment. These actions include maintaining physical impoundment structures in good repair to ensure that they perform as designed, preventing exposure to the wastes by maintaining access restrictions and warnings, and recording site conditions and activities for future custodians. Any actions, therefore, that will prevent exposure to the radioactive waste now or in the future

  6. Long-term reductions in tinnitus severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folmer Robert L

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study was undertaken to assess long-term changes in tinnitus severity exhibited by patients who completed a comprehensive tinnitus management program; to identify factors that contributed to changes in tinnitus severity within this population; to contribute to the development and refinement of effective assessment and management procedures for tinnitus. Methods Detailed questionnaires were mailed to 300 consecutive patients prior to their initial appointment at the Oregon Health & Science University Tinnitus Clinic. All patients were then evaluated and treated within a comprehensive tinnitus management program. Follow-up questionnaires were mailed to the same 300 patients 6 to 36 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. Results One hundred ninety patients (133 males, 57 females; mean age 57 years returned follow-up questionnaires 6 to 36 months (mean = 22 months after their initial tinnitus clinic appointment. This group of patients exhibited significant long-term reductions in self-rated tinnitus loudness, Tinnitus Severity Index scores, tinnitus-related anxiety and prevalence of current depression. Patients who improved their sleep patterns or Beck Depression Inventory scores exhibited greater reductions of tinnitus severity scores than patients who continued to experience insomnia and depression at follow-up. Conclusions Individualized tinnitus management programs that were designed for each patient contributed to overall reductions in tinnitus severity exhibited on follow-up questionnaires. Identification and treatment of patients experiencing anxiety, insomnia or depression are vital components of an effective tinnitus management program. Utilization of acoustic therapy also contributed to improvements exhibited by these patients.

  7. Long term radiological impact of thorium extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorium extraction produces a certain amount of radioactive wastes. Potential long term radiological impact of these residues has been calculated using the recent ICRP-68 ingestion dose factors in connection with the computing code DECAY, developed at Orsay and described in this work. This code solves the well known Bateman's equations which govern the time dependence of a set of coupled radioactive nuclei. Monazites will be very likely the minerals to be exploited first, in case of an extensive use of thorium as nuclear fuel. Because monazites contain uranium as well, mining residues will contain not only the descendants of 232Th and a certain proportion of non-extracted thorium (taken here to be 5%), but also this uranium, if left in the wastes for economical reasons. If no uranium would be present at all in the mineral, the potential radiotoxicity would strongly decrease in approximately 60 years, at the pace of the 5.8 years period of 228Ra, which becomes the longest-lived radionuclide of the 4n radioactive family in the residues. Moreover, there is no risk due to radon exhalation, because of the very short period of 220Rn. These significant differences between uranium and thorium mining have to be considered in view of some estimated long term real radiological impacts due to uranium residues, which could reach a value of the order of 1 mSv/year, the dose limit recommended for the public by the recent ICRP-60. (authors). 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs., 43 appendices

  8. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  9. The Formal and Informal Long-Term Caregiving for the Elderly: The Malaysian Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Goh

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the formal and informal caregiving for elderly in the Malaysian society under the absence of a structured long-term care environment. We surveyed 31 health care providers and 56 informal caregivers for elderly. The private for-profit care providers offer better facilities and services than non-profit centres. Females especially daughters were usually the informal caregivers to the elderly. Caregivers spent below USD$330 on long-term care expenses and relying heavily on public health care services. The results suggest government to implement a comprehensive social insurance for long-term care to ensure protection and equal treatment to be received by elderly.

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plant (LTSP) describes the US Department of energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remediation Action (UMTRA) Project's burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. No ground water monitoring will be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low-yield from the upper-most aquifer

  11. Long-term potentiation and long-term depression: a clinical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy V.P. Bliss

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Long-term potentiation and long-term depression are enduring changes in synaptic strength, induced by specific patterns of synaptic activity, that have received much attention as cellular models of information storage in the central nervous system. Work in a number of brain regions, from the spinal cord to the cerebral cortex, and in many animal species, ranging from invertebrates to humans, has demonstrated a reliable capacity for chemical synapses to undergo lasting changes in efficacy in response to a variety of induction protocols. In addition to their physiological relevance, long-term potentiation and depression may have important clinical applications. A growing insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying these processes, and technological advances in non-invasive manipulation of brain activity, now puts us at the threshold of harnessing long-term potentiation and depression and other forms of synaptic, cellular and circuit plasticity to manipulate synaptic strength in the human nervous system. Drugs may be used to erase or treat pathological synaptic states and non-invasive stimulation devices may be used to artificially induce synaptic plasticity to ameliorate conditions arising from disrupted synaptic drive. These approaches hold promise for the treatment of a variety of neurological conditions, including neuropathic pain, epilepsy, depression, amblyopia, tinnitus and stroke.

  12. Site selection for the long term storage of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The choice of underground sites depends on safety-protection criteria (geology, seismicity, hydraulics, kind of rocks, permeability, absorption), social economic criteria (site of little economic, strategic or touristic interest and with a low population density) and last, technical economic criteria (geographical position, ease of construction and operation). The long term storage is tied to the types of waste, for those of low and medium activity it can be guaranteed in the sub-surface with present techniques at reasonable costs, the safety of the storage will be based on the quality of the barrier system linked to the depot. In the case of the alpha waste and even more so for the vitrified fission products stored in deep geological formations, the site barriers play an essential role. In practice it will be necessary to optimize the storage centre to unite the safety-protection imperatives with all the constraints

  13. Comparison of long-term care in an acute care institution and in a long-term care institution

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, R; Kalant, N.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Acute care hospitals in Quebec are required to reserve 10% of their beds for patients receiving long-term care while awaiting transfer to a long-term care facility. It is widely believed that this is inefficient because it is more costly to provide long-term care in an acute care hospital than in one dedicated to long-term care. The purpose of this study was to compare the quality and cost of long-term care in an acute care hospital and in a long-term care facility. METHODS: A con...

  14. Elevated rheumatoid factor and long term risk of rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sune F; Bojesen, Stig E; Schnohr, Peter;

    2012-01-01

    To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis.......To test whether elevated concentration of rheumatoid factor is associated with long term development of rheumatoid arthritis....

  15. Measuring the Impact of Energy Technology Investment on Long-term Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Turton, H.

    2005-01-01

    The global energy system currently faces a number of significant challenges which have the potential to undermine long-term sustainable development, including the need to maintain secure access to affordable energy supplies and mitigate climate change. This report explores the role of energy technology investment policies, including R&D and demonstration and deployment (D&D) programs in overcoming these challenges. The analysis considers the mechanisms by which energy technology policy initia...

  16. DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS OF LONG TERM TONGUE ULCERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hegde Nidarsh D.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Oral ulcers is a very common disorder of the oral mucosa. Patients with signs or symptoms of oral ulcers are sometimes referred to gastroenterology clinics, however, in most instances the ulcers does not reflect gastrointestinal disease, some with a chronic non- healing ulcer are advised biopsy. Indeed, a spectrum of disorders can give rise to oral mucosal ulcers ranging from minor local trauma to significant local disease such as malignancy or systemic illness. Lesions of the tongue have a broad differential diagnosis ranging from benign idiopathic processes to infections, cancers, and infiltrative disorders. This article will focus on common ulcerative disorders of the tongue in aspects of their clinical features and differential diagnosis, two case reports with the diagnosis and conservative management for long-term chronic ulcers. The two cases which are reported in this article had a differential diagnosis of Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The clinical picture was craterlike lesion, having a velvety-red base and a rolled, indurated border and most important painless in both cases. Removal of the irritant which was the tooth, rehabilitation of the oral mucosa by lubrication with Cocus Nucifera resulted in the healing of the ulcers. Functional components of Cocus Nucifera are Squaline, tocopherol, phytosterols and other sterols which are all plant steroids.

  17. Long-term corrosion testing pan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2008-08-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations.

  18. Long-term corrosion testing plan.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, Frederick Douglas; Brown, Neil R. (Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-02-01

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  19. Long-Term Soft Denture Lining Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Chladek

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Long-term soft denture lining (LTSDL materials are used to alleviate the trauma associated with wearing complete dentures. Despite their established clinical efficacy, the use of LTSDLs has been limited due to the unfavorable effects of the oral environment on some of their mechanical and performance characteristics. The unresolved issue of LTSDL colonization by Candida albicans is particularly problematic. Silicone-based LTSDL (SLTSDL materials, which are characterized by more stable hardness, sorption and solubility than acrylic-based LTSDLs (ALTSDLs, are currently the most commonly used LTSDLs. However, SLTSDLs are more prone to debonding from the denture base. Moreover, due to their limitations, the available methods for determining bond strength do not fully reflect the actual stability of these materials under clinical conditions. SLTSDL materials exhibit favorable viscoelastic properties compared with ALTSDLs. Furthermore, all of the lining materials exhibit an aging solution-specific tendency toward discoloration, and the available cleansers are not fully effective and can alter the mechanical properties of LTSDLs. Future studies are needed to improve the microbiological resistance of LTSDLs, as well as some of their performance characteristics.

  20. Long-term corrosion testing plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing program. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to accommodate all future testing, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2008-4922 to address DOE comments.

  1. Long-term corrosion testing pan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document describes the testing and facility requirements to support the Yucca Mountain Project long-term corrosion testing needs. The purpose of this document is to describe a corrosion testing program that will (a) reduce model uncertainty and variability, (b) reduce the reliance upon overly conservative assumptions, and (c) improve model defensibility. Test matrices were developed for 17 topical areas (tasks): each matrix corresponds to a specific test activity that is a subset of the total work performed in a task. A future document will identify which of these activities are considered to be performance confirmation activities. Detailed matrices are provided for FY08, FY09 and FY10 and rough order estimates are provided for FY11-17. Criteria for the selection of appropriate test facilities were developed through a meeting of Lead Lab and DOE personnel on October 16-17, 2007. These criteria were applied to the testing activities and recommendations were made for the facility types appropriate to carry out each activity. The facility requirements for each activity were assessed and activities were identified that can not be performed with currently available facilities. Based on this assessment, a total of approximately 10,000 square feet of facility space is recommended to meet all future testing needs, given that all testing is consolidated to a single location. This report is a revision to SAND2007-7027 to address DOE comments and add a series of tests to address NWTRB recommendations

  2. Long term results of mandibular distraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batra Puneet

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Mandibular distraction osteogenesis has become a popular surgical modality due to its many advantages over conventional orthognathic surgical procedures. However, in spite of the technique having been used for over 15 years, no concrete long term results are available regarding the stability of results. We discuss the various studies which have reported either in favour or against the stablility of results after distraction. We report a series of 6 cases (3 unilateral and 3 bilateral distraction where distraction was carried out before puberty and followed them up to seven years after removal of distractors. This case series shows that results achieved by distraction osteogenesis are unstable or best unpredictable with respect to producing a permanent size increase in the mandible. The role of the distraction osteogenesis in overcoming the pterygomassetric sling is questionable. We suggest a multicenter study with adequate patient numbers treated with a similar protocol and documented after growth cessation to have meaningful conclusions on the debate of distraction osteogenesis versus orthognathic surgery.

  3. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  4. Long term prediction of flood occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Cristina; Montanari, Alberto; José Polo, María

    2016-05-01

    How long a river remembers its past is still an open question. Perturbations occurring in large catchments may impact the flow regime for several weeks and months, therefore providing a physical explanation for the occasional tendency of floods to occur in clusters. The research question explored in this paper may be stated as follows: can higher than usual river discharges in the low flow season be associated to a higher probability of floods in the subsequent high flow season? The physical explanation for such association may be related to the presence of higher soil moisture storage at the beginning of the high flow season, which may induce lower infiltration rates and therefore higher river runoff. Another possible explanation is persistence of climate, due to presence of long-term properties in atmospheric circulation. We focus on the Po River at Pontelagoscuro, whose catchment area amounts to 71 000 km2. We look at the stochastic connection between average river flows in the pre-flood season and the peak flows in the flood season by using a bivariate probability distribution. We found that the shape of the flood frequency distribution is significantly impacted by the river flow regime in the low flow season. The proposed technique, which can be classified as a data assimilation approach, may allow one to reduce the uncertainty associated to the estimation of the flood probability.

  5. Long term results of Wilms' tumor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen long term survivors of Wilms' tumor which were experienced in our deprtment were analyzed. No patients showed abnormalities in non-specific cell mediated immunity, endocrine function, secondary sexual development or renal function. In patients who were followed more than 10 years after surgery, the function of the remaining kidney, as determined by DMSA uptake, was well developed. In 15 patients who were treated by radiotherapy, changes in the spinal bodies were seen in all 15, scoliosis (average 9 deg) in 14 and hypoplasia in the iliac bone on the irradiated side in 12. In 14 patients who were examined by CT scan, atrophies of the erector spinae and illopsoas muscles on the irradiated side were seen in all cases. A significant correlation between the severity of the atrophic erector spinae muscle and the degree of scoliosis was obtained. Sixty nine patients with Wilms' tumor who survived more than ten years after surgery were found in the files of 13 institutions in our conutry. Our of them, 25 (36%) developed late disturbances and many of them were due to irradiation therapy. (author)

  6. Long term prospects for world gas trade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results are presented from a world gas trade model used to forecast long term gas markets. Assumptions that went into the model are described, including the extent of current proven gas reserves, production ratios, total energy and gas demand, gas supply cost curves for each producing country, available gas liquefaction and transportation facilities, and liquefied natural gas (LNG) shipping costs. The results indicate that even with generally very low supply costs for most gas producing basins, gas trade will continue to be restricted by the relatively high cost of transportation, whether by pipeline or tanker. As a consequence, future gas trade will tend to be regionally oriented. United States gas imports will come mostly from Canada, Venezuela, and Mexico; Western Europe will largely be supplied by the Soviet Union and Africa, and Japan's requirements will generally be met by Pacific Rim producers. Although the Middle East has vast quantities of gas reserves, its export growth will continue to be hampered by its remote location from major markets. 16 figs

  7. Long-term predictions using natural analogues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ewing, R.C. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10{sup 3}-10{sup 5} years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct validation of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems (e.g., {open_quotes}natural analogues{close_quotes}) provide perhaps the only means of partial {open_quotes}validation,{close_quotes} as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (nm to km) and temporal (10{sup 3}-10{sup 8} years) scales and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may affect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the {open_quotes}validation{close_quotes} of performance assessments.

  8. Effective long term operation for Dukovany NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dukovany NPP now started third decade of service that is also its last decade of design life time. It is clear that the NPP has all considerations for service past the design life time called Long Term Operation (LTO). This LTO has two main aspects, technical and economical, that influence each other. From technical view the age of NPP systems, structures and components (SSCs) affects negatively the ability to perform necessary design changes in a good quality and also the long lived SSC reliability. These possible impacts have also their safety aspects and to obtain regulatory body agreement with LTO of NPP it is necessary to show that these impacts are acceptable. It means to show that all applied design changes are done in agreement with NPP design bases (DB) and all ageing impacts on SSCs functions important for safety are properly managed. From economical view that is significant for NPP owner it is necessary to demonstrate a required profitability of investment for effective LTO. These are reasons why Dukovany NPP performs three following projects: - Safety design bases collation and reconstitution, - Enhancement of plant life management program (New program preparation), - Technical-economical (TE) study of NPP LTO. All of these projects are managed by Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc (NRI) and performed in close cooperation with NPP staff and different co-operaters. This presentation will be concentrated to the last named project.

  9. Downlink Scheduling in Long Term Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwar Hossain

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This is an investigated research article on resource block scheduling of Long Term Evolution (LTE. LTE is one of the evolutions of the Universal Mobile Telecommunication System (UMTS. It provides internet access to mobile users through smart phone, laptop and other android devices. LTE offers a high speed data and multimedia services. It supports data rates up to 100 Mbps in the downlink and 50 Mbps in the uplink transmission. Our research investigation was aim to the downlink scheduling. We have considered The Best CQI scheduling algorithm and the Round Robin scheduling algorithm. The implementation, analysis and comparison of these scheduling algorithms have been performed through MATLAB simulator. We have analyzed the impact of the scheduling schemes on the throughput and the fairness of both scheduling schemes. Here we have proposed a new scheduling algorithm that achieves a compromise between the throughput and the fairness. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM has been adopted as the downlink transmission scheme. We have considered the impact of the channel delay on the throughput. In addition, MIMO transceiver systems have been implemented to increase the throughput

  10. The long term macroeconomic role for energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arguments about the role of energy in economic systems are incomplete without analysis of the effects of changes in the price of energy. It may be true (because energy can substitute for so many other things) that we can continue to increase energy output per capita as long as we are prepared to increase energy consumption per unit of output, but if the price of energy is higher than consumers are prepared to pay the process will come to a stop. It follows that the output at any point in time is the result of an equilibrium between a great many factors in the economy one of which is the price of energy. The question that I now pose is whether the price of energy is an especially important factor. The subject is analyzed under the headings: the economics of energy price; a first attempt to model long-term effects; what is a price hike; modelling energy price hikes; implications and lessons for nuclear energy; the present reality. (author)

  11. Preventive Long-Term Effects of a Topical Film-Forming Medical Device with Ultra-High UV Protection Filters and DNA Repair Enzyme in Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Retrospective Study of Eight Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Giustini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is common in xeroderma pigmentosum (XP due to a DNA repair mechanisms genetic defect. Ultraviolet (UV exposure is the main cause of increased incidence of actinic keratosis (AK, basal cell carcinoma (BCC and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC observed in XP subjects. Photoprotection is therefore a mandatory strategy in order to reduce skin damage. A topical DNA repair enzyme has been shown to slow down the development of skin lesions in XP. However, there are no data regarding the effects of photoprotection combined with DNA repair strategies in this clinical setting. A film-forming medical device containing the DNA repair enzyme photolyase and very high-protection UV filters (Eryfotona AK-NMSC, Ery is currently available. We report retrospective data regarding the use of Ery in 8 patients (5 women, 3 men with a diagnosis of XP treated for at least 12 consecutive months, comparing the rate of new skin lesions (AK, BCC and SCC during active treatment with Ery and during 12 months just before the use of the product. New AK, BCC and SCC mean lesion numbers during the 1-year Ery treatment were 5, 3 and 0, respectively in comparison with 14, 6.8 and 3 lesions, respectively during the 1-year pre-treatment period. Ery use was associated with a 65% reduction in appearance of new AK lesions and with 56 and 100% reductions in the incidence of new BCC and SCC lesions, respectively. These data suggest that topical use of photoprotection and DNA repair enzyme could help lower skin cancer lesions in XP. Control prospective trials are advisable in this clinical setting.

  12. Long-term monitoring FBG-based cable load sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhichun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Chuan; Ou, Jinping

    2006-03-01

    Stay cables are the main load-bearing components of stayed-cable bridges. The cables stress status is an important factor to the stayed-cable bridge structure safety evaluation. So it's very important not only to the bridge construction, but also to the long-term safety evaluation for the bridge structure in-service. The accurate measurement for cable load depends on an effective sensor, especially to meet the long time durability and measurement demand. FBG, for its great advantage of corrosion resistance, absolute measurement, high accuracy, electro-magnetic resistance, quasi-distribution sensing, absolute measurement and so on, is the most promising sensor, which can cater for the cable force monitoring. In this paper, a load sensor has been developed, which is made up of a bushing elastic supporting body, 4 FBGs uniformly-spaced attached outside of the bushing supporting body, and a temperature compensation FBG for other four FBGs, moreover a cover for protection of FBGs. Firstly, the sensor measuring principle is analyzed, and relationship equation of FBG wavelength shifts and extrinsic load has also been gotten. And then the sensor calibration experiments of a steel cable stretching test with the FBG load sensor and a reference electric pressure sensor is finished, and the results shows excellent linearity of extrinsic load and FBG wavelength shifts, and good repeatability, which indicates that such kind of FBG-based load sensor is suitable for load measurement, especially for long-term, real time monitoring of stay-cables.

  13. Long-term experimental testing of a-silicon modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long-term stability of photovoltaic module electrical performance is critically important to the economic viability of PV in large-scale energy-generation applications. Equally important is having the means to conclusively demonstrate long life to potential users; this requires proven test methods that accurately predict field performance trends. To assess the long-term stability of a-Si modules and the usefulness of existing crystalline-Si test methods a number of first generation a-Si photovoltaic modules have been acquired from leading manufacturers and subjected to a variety of accelerated and real-time outdoor aging tests. Data to date indicate that the degradation of a-Si modules involves complex dependencies that negate some of the key test correlations previously established for crystalline-Si modules. Key research priorities are highlighted including light induced effects, cell corrosion leading to increased series resistance, glass breaking strength for large modules, and the development of protective encapsulants that meet the outdoor weathering and voltage isolation required for long module life

  14. Adapting Advances in Remediation Science to Long-Term Surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Dave [S.M. Stoller Corporation

    2006-03-01

    Several facets of groundwater remediation stand to gain from the advances made during recent years in disciplines that contribute to remediation science. Engineered remedies designed to aggressively remove subsurface contamination should benefit from this progress, and more passive cleanup methods and the long-term monitoring of such passive approaches may benefit equally well if not more. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management (LM) has adopted a strategic plan that is designed to take advantage of technological improvements in the monitoring and assessment of both active and passive groundwater remedies. Flexible adaptation of new technologies, as they become available, to long-term surveillance at LM sites is expected to reduce site stewardship costs while ensuring the future protection of human health and the environment. Some of the technologies are expected to come from government initiatives that focus on the needs of subsurface monitoring. Additional progress in monitoring science will likely result from continual improvements in our understanding of contaminant fate-and-transport processes in the groundwater and the vadose zone.

  15. Rationale and Safety Assessment of a Novel Intravaginal Drug-Delivery System with Sustained DL-Lactic Acid Release, Intended for Long-Term Protection of the Vaginal Microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstraelen, Hans; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean-Paul

    2016-01-01

    novel avenue to modulate and protect the vaginal microbiota. Trial Registration U.S. National Institutes of Health ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02314429 PMID:27093291

  16. 雌激素对模拟航天环境听觉器官的保护作用%Protective Effects of Estrogen on Cochlea during Mid-Long Term Simulated Manned Spacecraft Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张驰; 吴玮; 韩浩伦; 王刚; 周丽斌; 王鸿南; 李保卫; 丁瑞英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of compound factors of weightlessness and noise in spaceship on rat hearing and cochlear morphology, as well as protection against auditory damage by estrogen. Methods Thirty two SD rats were ran-domly divided into groups A and B (n=12 each) and group C (n=8) Animals in groups A and B were subjected to glued tail suspension to simulate weightlessness, and exposed to simulated spaceship noise for 8 weeks. Additionally, animals in group B were injected with 0.02 mg benzoate twice a week (first dose=0.04 mg) until the end of the experiment. Auditory brain-stem response (ABR) thresholds were tested bilaterally before and at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks and 8 weeks after noise exposure. The cochlea was harvested and processed for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies at the end. Re-sults ABR thresholds were significantly higher in group A than other groups (P0.05). ABR thresholds in group A were higher than in group C at all times (P0.05). ABR thresholds in group A were not significant-ly different from group B during the 1st week, but higher than group B at other time points (P< 0.05). SEM showed the most severe cochlear damage in group A, followed by group B. Only mild cochlear change was observed in group C. Con-clusions Simulated weightlessness and noise exposure can cause damage to hearing and changes of cochlear morphology in SD rats. Estrogen appears to protect against such damages.%目的:探讨模拟失重及飞船舱内噪声复合因素对大鼠听觉电生理与超微结构的影响,及雌激素对上述复合因素损伤的保护作用。方法32只SD大鼠随机分为A、B、C3组,其中A组(失重+噪声组)12只,B组(雌激素+失重+噪声组)12只,C组(对照组)8只。A组、B组动物均粘尾悬吊模拟失重,同时模拟飞船舱内噪声暴露8周,B组动物在此基础上每周两次肌注苯甲酸雌二醇0.02mg/只,首剂加倍,至暴露结束。

  17. Scientific Understanding from Long Term Observations: Insights from the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosz, J.

    2001-12-01

    The network dedicated to Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) in the United States has grown to 24 sites since it was formed in 1980. Long-term research and monitoring are performed on parameters thatare basic to all ecosystems and are required to understand patterns, processes, and relationship to change. Collectively, the sites in the LTER Network provide opportunities to contrast marine, coastal, and continental regions, the full range of climatic gradients existing in North America, and aquatic and terrestrial habitats in a range of ecosystem types. The combination of common core areas and long-term research and monitoring in many habitats have allowed unprecedented abilities to understand and compare complex temporal and spatial dynamics associated with issues like climate change, effects of pollution, biodiversity and landuse. For example, McMurdo Dry Valley in the Antarctic has demonstrated an increase in glacier mass since 1993 which coincides with a period of cooler than normal summers and more than average snowfall. In contrast, the Bonanza Creek and Toolik Lake sites in Alaska have recorded a warming period unprecedented in the past 200 years. Nitrogen deposition effects have been identified through long-term watershed studies on biogeochemical cycles, especially at Coweeta Hydrological Lab, Harvard Forest, and the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest. In aquatic systems, such as the Northern Temperate Lakes site, long-term data revealed time lags in effects of invaders and disturbance on lake communities. Biological recovery from an effect such as lake acidification was shown to lag behind chemical recovery. The long-term changes documented over 2 decades have been instrumental in influencing management practices in many of the LTER areas. In Puerto Rico, the Luquillo LTER demonstrated that dams obstruct migrations of fish and freshwater shrimp and water abstraction at low flows can completely obliterate downstream migration of juveniles and damage

  18. HLW Long-term Management Technology Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuels from the power generation is considered to be the unique method for the conservation of human being and nature in the present and future. In spite of spent nuclear fuels produced from power generation, based on the recent trends on the gap between supply and demand of energy, the advance on energy price and reduction of carbon dioxide, nuclear energy is expected to play a role continuously in Korea. It means that a new concept of nuclear fuel cycle is needed to solve problems on spent nuclear fuels. The concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle including PYRO processing and SFR was presented at the 255th meeting of the Atomic Energy Commission. According to the concept of the advanced nuclear fuel cycle, actinides and long-term fissile nuclides may go out of existence in SFR. And then it is possible to dispose of short term decay wastes without a great risk bearing. Many efforts had been made to develop the KRS for the direct disposal of spent nuclear fuels in the representative geology of Korea. But in the case of the adoption of Advanced nuclear fuel cycle, the disposal of PYRO wastes should be considered. For this, we carried out the Safety Analysis on HLW Disposal Project with 5 sub-projects such as Development of HLW Disposal System, Radwaste Disposal Safety Analysis, Feasibility study on the deep repository condition, A study on the Nuclide Migration and Retardation Using Natural Barrier, and In-situ Study on the Performance of Engineered Barriers

  19. Perinatal respiratory infections and long term consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Indinnimeo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV is the most important pathogen in the etiology of respiratory infections in early life. 50% of children are affected by RSV within the first year of age, and almost all children become infected within two years. Numerous retrospective and prospective studies linking RSV and chronic respiratory morbidity show that RSV bronchiolitis in infancy is followed by recurrent wheezing after the acute episod. According to some authors a greater risk of wheezing in children with a history of RSV bronchiolitis would be limited to childhood, while according to others this risk would be extended into adolescence and adulthood. To explain the relationship between RSV infection and the development of bronchial asthma or the clinical pathogenetic patterns related to a state of bronchial hyperreactivity, it has been suggested that RSV may cause alterations in the response of the immune system (immunogenic hypothesis, activating directly mast cells and basophils and changing the pattern of differentiation of immune cells present in the bronchial tree as receptors and inflammatory cytokines. It was also suggested that RSV infection can cause bronchial hyperreactivity altering nervous airway modulation, acting on nerve fibers present in the airways (neurogenic hypothesis.The benefits of passive immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab, which seems to represent an effective approach in reducing the sequelae of RSV infection in the short- and long-term period, strengthen the implementation of prevention programs with this drug, as recommended by the national guidelines of the Italian Society of Neonatology. Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Neonatology and Satellite Meetings · Cagliari (Italy · October 26th-31st, 2015 · From the womb to the adultGuest Editors: Vassilios Fanos (Cagliari, Italy, Michele Mussap (Genoa, Italy, Antonio Del Vecchio (Bari, Italy, Bo Sun (Shanghai, China, Dorret I. Boomsma (Amsterdam, the

  20. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010: reforming the health care reform for the new decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Caraway, David L; Parr, Allan T; Fellows, Bert; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2011-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (the ACA, for short) became law with President Obama's signature on March 23, 2010. It represents the most significant transformation of the American health care system since Medicare and Medicaid. It is argued that it will fundamentally change nearly every aspect of health care, from insurance to the final delivery of care. The length and complexity of the legislation and divisive and heated debates have led to massive confusion about the impact of ACA. It also became one of the centerpieces of 2010 congressional campaigns. Essentials of ACA include: 1) a mandate for individuals and businesses requiring as a matter of law that nearly every American have an approved level of health insurance or pay a penalty; 2) a system of federal subsidies to completely or partially pay for the now required health insurance for about 34 million Americans who are currently uninsured - subsidized through Medicaid and exchanges; 3) extensive new requirements on the health insurance industry; and 4) numerous regulations on the practice of medicine. The act is divided into 10 titles. It contains provisions that went into effect starting on June 21, 2010, with the majority of provisions going into effect in 2014 and later. The perceived major impact on practicing physicians in the ACA is related to growing regulatory authority with the Independent Payment Advisory Board (IPAB) and the Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI). In addition to these specifics is a growth of the regulatory regime in association with further discounts in physician reimbursement. With regards to cost controls and projections, many believe that the ACA does not fix the finances of our health care system - neither public nor private. It has been suggested that the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) and the administration have used creative accounting to arrive at an alleged deficit reduction; however, if everything is included appropriately and

  1. Long Term RadNet Quality Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This RadNet Quality Data Asset includes all data since initiation and when ERAMS was expanded to become RadNet, name changed to reflect new mission. This includes...

  2. Long Term Hydrological (Radiological) Site Monitoring Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Quality Data Asset includes all current and historical data on the quality of water with regard to the presence of water pollutants of all kinds regulated by the...

  3. Affordances revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Nina Bonderup

    2009-01-01

    argued, is a problem for both design and empirical research. Because HCI discussions of the concept have informed CSCL, views presented within this discourse are discussed. A Merleau-Pontian account of affordances is developed, building on his view of the human being as always already being-in-the world...

  4. Long-term radiation dose reduction plan of KHNP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Saeng-Ki; Shin, Sang-Woon; Lim, Byoung-Chan [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    Annual radiation dose limit to radiation worker was substantially lowered in Korea by the adoption of 1990 recommendations of the International Commission on Radiation Protection (ICRP 60) in its legislation. On the other hand, radiation management environment in nuclear power plants is getting more worse because of the accumulation of radiation sources inside the system and the frequent need for maintenance according as the operation years of nuclear power plants increase. Therefore, Korea Hydro and Nuclear power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) has established a long-term 10 years' plan from 2001 to 2010 for the reduction of radiation dose to workers. The plan is aimed for the reduction of annual dose per unit averaged over 5 years from 0.9 man-Sv in 2001 to 0.75 man- Sv in 2010 by radiation source reduction, equipment/tool improvement or new equipment development for easy maintenance, and the improvement of administration and system.

  5. Europe: long-term strategy needed for a cleaner environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution is a politically important issue in Europe and other industrialised countries. However environmental policies which simply tax the refining and marketing of oil and its use in automobiles are not, it is argued, necessarily the best solution for the future, despite success in reducing some pollution levels in the past. The author argues for a critical reappraisal of environmental policies to ensure that pollution is actually reduced and that this should be achieved in a cost effective manner. Research is necessary to show how air quality and the environment can be improved, and measures taken should be cost-effective on a long-term basis. Regulations on cars and fuels must be uniform throughout the European Union and probably most importantly, both industry and consumers must accept that more of their revenues or incomes needs to be spent to protect the environment. (UK)

  6. The influence of the long term voyage on the lymphocytes of nuclear-powered submarine crews

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the influence of long term voyage on the number and activity of the nuclear-powered submarine crew's lymphocytes. Methods: Before and after long term voyage, the total number lymphocytes of peripheral blood were measured; pured lymphocytes were planted to count the number of T lymphocyte colonies; and the apoptosis rate T lymphocyte was measured. Results: After long term voyage, the total amount of lymphocyte is increased; the T lymphocyte make much more colonies after planting; and the apoptosis rate of T lymphocyte is raised. Conclusion: Long term voyage in nuclear-powered submarine can affect the account of peripheral blood lymphocyte and the activity of T lymphocyte. The cumulative effect of micro-radiation in cabin can affect the immune function of the crew, more protection need to be strengthened to enhance the health. (authors)

  7. Long term warranty and after sales service concept, policies and cost models

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, Anisur

    2015-01-01

    This volume presents concepts, policies and cost models for various long-term warranty and maintenance contracts. It offers several numerical examples for estimating costs to both the manufacturer and consumer. Long-term warranties and maintenance contracts are becoming increasingly popular, as these types of aftersales services provide assurance to consumers that they can enjoy long, reliable service, and protect them from defects and the potentially high costs of repairs. Studying long-term warranty and service contracts is important to manufacturers and consumers alike, as offering long-term warranty and maintenance contracts produce additional costs for manufacturers / service providers over the product’s service life. These costs must be factored into the price, or the manufacturer / dealer will incur losses instead of making a profit. On the other hand, the buyer / consumer needs to weigh the cost of maintaining it over its service life and to decide whether or not these policies are worth purchasing....

  8. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. This LSTP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed and is cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Before each disposal cell is licensed for custody and long-term care, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requires the DOE to submit such a site-specific LTSP

  9. Guidance for implementing the long-term surveillance program for UMTRA Project Title I Disposal Sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance document has two purposes: it provides guidance for writing site-specific long-term surveillance plans (LTSP) and it describes site surveillance, monitoring, and long-term care techniques for Title I disposal sites of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.). Long-term care includes monitoring, maintenance, and emergency measures needed to protect public health and safety and the environment after remedial action is completed. This document applies to the UMTRCA-designated Title I disposal sites. The requirements for long-term care of the Title I sites and the contents of the LTSPs are provided in U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations (10 CFR Section 40.27) provided in Attachment 1

  10. Nevada Offsites Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management has long-term stewardship responsibility for DoE's Nevada Offsites Project. The Nevada Offsites consist of eight sites, outside the boundaries of the Nevada Test Site, where underground nuclear tests were conducted between 1961 and 1973. The eight Nevada Offsites are Amchitka (Alaska), Shoal and Central Nevada Test Area (Nevada), Rio Blanco and Rulison (Colorado), Gasbuggy and Gnome-Coach (New Mexico), and Salmon (Mississippi). The underground tests resulted in the release of multiple radionuclides to the detonation zone (cavity, chimney, and nuclear-fractured region); however, tritium is the most likely contaminant to migrate significant distances from the detonation zone because of its occurrence both as tritiated liquid water, which moves with ground water, and as tritiated water vapor. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has conducted environmental sampling and long-term monitoring for tritium and other radionuclides since 1972 at the Nevada Offsites under the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program (LTHMP). The objectives of the monitoring were to detect denotation-related radionuclides, track the fate and transport of other constituents, ensure public safety, inform the public and the news media, and document compliance with state and federal regulations. By and large, the LTHMP has achieved its objectives, because monitoring results have shown that areas outside the withdrawn lands are unaffected by the underground nuclear detonations. The past two decades have witnessed a gradual change in land use near some of the Nevada Offsites locations. In Colorado and New Mexico, these changes have included increasing population and increased extraction of natural gas near the detonation sites. In Nevada, there is a growing interest in tapping the vast ground water reserves that are contained in the rural inter-mountain valleys and piping the water to areas where it can be put to beneficial use

  11. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will also permit

  12. Long-Term Monitoring of Permeable Reactive Barriers - Progress Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, L.

    2001-04-12

    The purpose of this project is to conduct collaborative research to evaluate and maximize the effectiveness of permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) with a broad-based working group including representatives from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), U.S. Department of Defense (DoD), and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center (NFESC) and its project partner, Battelle, are leading the DoD effort with funding from DoD's Environmental Security Technology Certification Program (ESTCP) and Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is coordinating the DOE effort with support from Subsurface Contaminant Focus Area (SCFA), a research program under DOEs Office of Science and Technology. The National Risk Management Research Laboratory's Subsurface Protection and Remediation Division is leading EPA's effort. The combined effort of these three agencies allows the evaluation of a large number of sites. Documents generated by this joint project will be reviewed by the participating agencies' principal investigators, the Permeable Barriers Group of the Remediation Technologies Development Forum (RTDF), and the Interstate Technology and Regulatory Cooperation (ITRC). The technical objectives of this project are to collect and review existing field data at selected PRB sites, identify data gaps, conduct additional measurements, and provide recommendations to DOE users on suitable long-term monitoring strategies. The specific objectives are to (1) evaluate geochemical and hydraulic performance of PRBs, (2) develop guidelines for hydraulic and geochemical characterization/monitoring, and (3) devise and implement long-term monitoring strategies through the use of hydrological and geochemical models. Accomplishing these objectives will provide valuable information regarding the optimum configuration and lifetime of barriers at specific sites. It will

  13. Northern European long term climate archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohl, Veronica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden)

    2005-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the

  14. Northern European long term climate archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company is responsible for the management and disposal of Sweden's radioactive waste. It is intended to deposit the spent nuclear fuel in a deep geological repository. This repository shall keep the radiotoxic material separated from humans and the environment for extended periods, from decades to millennia and possibly to geological timescales. During this time perspective climate induced changes such as shore-level displacement and evolution of permafrost and ice sheets are expected to occur which may affect the repository. The possible occurrence, extent and duration of these long-term changes, are therefore of interest when considering the assessment of repository performance and safety. The main climate parameters determining both surface and subsurface conditions are temperature and precipitation. As a result of the last advance of the Weichselian ice sheet only few geological archives exist, which contain information on past climatic conditions in Sweden before c 16,000 years BP. The purpose of this literature review is to compile and evaluate available information from Scandinavian, Northern and Central European geological archives, which record climatic conditions during the Weichselian time period. The compilation provides paleotemperature data sets, which may be used to explore the possible evolution of periglacial permafrost in Sweden. This report is a synopsis of 22 publications detailing climatic and environmental changes during the Weichselian time period in Northwestern Europe based on quantified paleotemperature records. Some of the data is presented as temperature curves which were digitised specifically for this report. The time range covered by the different publications varies considerably. Only few authors dealt with the whole Weichselian period and the majority cover only a few thousand years. This however is not considered to influence the reliability of the archives. The reason for the varying

  15. Long term property prediction of polyethylene nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaito, Ali Al-Abed

    properties of the nanocomposites was analyzed by examining tensile and creep-recovery behavior of the films at temperatures in the range of 25 to -100°C. Within the measured temperature range, the materials showed a nonlinear temperature dependent response. The time-temperature superposition principle was successfully used to predict the long term behavior of LLDPE nanocomposites.

  16. The Sunset Supply Base long term COTS supportability, implementing affordable methods and processes

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Michael W; Barkenhagen, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution in unlimited. This thesis represents a cross Systems Command (NAVSEA/NAVAIR) developed product. The product - the Sunset Supply Base (SSB) system - provides a complete system for addressing the risks and supportability issues involved with Commercial Off the Shelf (COTS) products in Navy combat and support systems. The SSB system was implemented on three Navy combat weapon systems at various phases of the product development life cycle. The main b...

  17. Long-term Ozone monitoring from space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S.; Johnson, J.; Serafino, G.; McPeters, R.

    Ultraviolet Spectrometer (SBUV), are archived at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the public. Standard products from TOMS include daily global total ozone and effective UV reflectivity of the earth-atmosphere system. Data products from future upper atmospheric research missions, e.g., the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS), and the High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder (HIRDLS) aboard Aura, will also be archived at the Goddard DAAC. For ozone trend analysis, a long-term data set consisting of over twenty years of ozone measurements from space and some value added research products have been produced by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center scientists (Atmospheric Chemistry and Dynamics Branch/ Code 916) and are made available to the research community (http://code916.gsfc.nasa.gov). Examples of some of these research products are:1) daily erythermal UV exposure -estimates of harmful UV-B radiation at the surface, 2) an index to track the global transport of ash and sulfur dioxide resulting from volcanic eruptions, 3) another index to track smoke emanating from large fires and dust plumes originating from desert regions, 4) aerosol optical depth, 5) tropospheric ozone obtained from cloud-slicing techniques, and 6) a merged total ozone data product consisting of monthly mean ozone merged from six satellite instruments. The Upper Atmospheric Data Support Team has been providing science and data support to assist users in accessing and using the upper atmospheric data products. A number of tools for data access, subsetting, reprojection and mapping of orbital (Level-2) products, visualization of global gridded (Level-3) products, and data analysis have been developed at the Goddard DAAC and are freely available to the data user (http://daac.gsfc.nasa.gov) This presentation will provide highlights of the standard and value-added ozone and ancillary products, and the data services provided by the DAAC Upper Atmosphere Data Support Team.

  18. Intergenerational equity and long-term stewardship plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an untold number of contaminated sites throughout the world, stewardship will be inevitable. For many such sites, stewardship will be a reasonable approach because of the uncertainties associated with present and future site conditions and site contaminants, the limited performance of available technologies, the nonavailability of technologies, and the risk and cost associated with complete cleanup. Regardless of whether stewardship is a realistic approach to site situations or simply a convenient default, it could be required at most contaminated sites for multiple generations. Because the stewardship plan is required to protect the release of hazardous contaminants to the environment, some use restrictions will be put in place to provide that protection. These use restrictions will limit access to resources for as long as the protection is required. The intergenerational quality of long-term stewardship plans and their inherent limitations on resource use require that they be designed to achieve equity among the affected generations. Intergenerational equity, defined here as the fairness of access to resources across generations, could be achieved through a well-developed stewardship plan that provides future generations with the information they need to make wise decisions about resource use. Developing and implementing such a plan would take into account the failure mechanisms of the plan's components, feature short stewardship time blocks that would allow for periodic reassessments of the site and of the stewardship program's performance, and provide present and future generations with necessary site information

  19. Optimization of cask capacity for long term spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Long term storage of spent fuel is a priority topic within the Member States of the IAEA. Long term spent fuel storage was previously addressed in an IAEA Co-ordinated Research Project /1/, which recognized the growing challenge of extending the life of storage facilities. Dry cask storage of spent fuel is playing a steadily increasing role in this regard. Storage practices should comply with IAEA safety requirements 'International Basic Safety Standards for Protection Against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation Sources' /2/, including maintaining doses as low as reasonably (taking economic/social/etc aspects. into account) achievable [i.e., the ALARA principle]. Within the framework of the IAEA Subprogramme of Spent Fuel Management, a new project was conceived, focusing on issues associated with the optimisation of cask/container loading (capacity) with respect to long term storage and the related integrity of fuel, see IAEA /3. Optimization is a part of the design process in which the combination of application objectives, regulatory limits and design margins are innovatively addressed and judiciously balanced in the final design. A primary result of a successful design optimization is a cask of superior assembly and burnup/age capacity that minimizes the total number of required cask loadings. An equally important and parallel benefit is that this process also results in reduced radiation exposure, thereby contributing significantly to maintaining doses as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA objectives). In this sense, both cask designers and regulators have the common ultimate goal of improving cask performance, and thus facilitating optimization. An initial Consultants Meeting held in November 2002 identified and discussed principal issues regarding the optimization of cask/container assembly capacity and burnup/age capability in the design of systems for long term spent fuel storage and the related integrity of fuel. Working

  20. Who owns the long term? Perspectives from global business leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lévy, Maurice; Eskew, Mike; Bernotat, Wulf H; Barner, Marianne

    2007-01-01

    Day-to-day management is challenging enough for CEOs. How do they manage for the long term as well? We posed that question to four top executives of global companies. According to Maurice Levy, chairman and CEO of Publicis Groupe, building the future is really about building the present and keeping close to the front line--those who deal with your customers and markets. He also attributes his company's success in large part to knowing when to take action: In a market where clients' needs steer your long-term future, timing is everything. UPS Chairman and CEO Mike Eskew emphasizes staying true to your vision and values over the long run, despite meeting obstacles along the way. It took more than 20 years, and many lessons learned, to produce consistent profits in what is today the company's fastest-growing and most profitable business: international small packages. Wulf H. Bernotat, CEO of E.ON, examines the challenges facing business leaders and politicians as they try to balance energy needs against potential environmental damage. He calls for educating people about consumption and waste, and he maintains that a diverse and reliable mix of energy sources is the only way to ensure a secure supply while protecting our environment. Finally, Marianne Barner, the director of corporate communications and ombudsman for children's issues at IKEA, discusses how the company is taking steps to improve the environment and be otherwise socially responsible. For example, it's partnering with NGOs to address child labor issues and, on its own, is working to help mitigate climate change. IKEA's goals include using renewable sources for 100% of its energy needs and cutting its overall energy consumption by 25%. PMID:17642126

  1. A cost of long-term memory in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Mery, Frederic; Kawecki, Tadeusz J

    2005-01-01

    Two distinct forms of consolidated associative memory are known in Drosophila: long-term memory and so-called anesthesia-resistant memory. Long-term memory is more stable, but unlike anesthesia-resistant memory, its formation requires protein synthesis. We show that flies induced to form long-term memory become more susceptible to extreme stress (such as desiccation). In contrast, induction of anesthesia-resistant memory had no detectable effect on desiccation resistance. This finding may hel...

  2. Long-term care financing through Federal tax incentives

    OpenAIRE

    Donald W. Moran; Weingart, Janet M.

    1988-01-01

    Congress and the Administration are currently exploring various methods of promoting access to long-term care. In this article, an inventory of recent legislative proposals for using the Federal tax code to expand access to long-term care services is provided. Proposals are arrayed along a functional typology that includes tax mechanisms to encourage accumulation of funds, promote purchase of long-term care insurance, or induce the diversion of funds accumulated for another purpose (such as i...

  3. Long-Term Inflation Outcomes after Hyperinflation: Theory and Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Federico Guerrero

    2006-01-01

    This paper does two things. First, it shows both anecdotal and cross-country evidence that indicates that countries that have experienced hyperinflation display significantly lower long-term rates of inflation than countries that lack the same experience. Secondly, it presents a model to rationalize the main empirical finding. There is more than one mechanism through which the long-term effects of hyperinflation may have an impact on long-term inflation outcomes. The suggested explanation thi...

  4. The Uneasy Case for Favoring Long-Term Shareholders

    OpenAIRE

    Jesse M. Fried

    2015-01-01

    This paper challenges a persistent and pervasive view in corporate law and corporate governance: that a firm’s managers should favor long-term shareholders over short-term shareholders, and maximize long-term shareholders’ returns rather than the short-term stock price. Underlying this view is a strongly-held intuition that taking steps to increase long-term shareholder returns will generate a larger economic pie over time. But this intuition, I show, is flawed. Long-term shareholders, like s...

  5. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the

  6. Safety analysis SFR 1. Long-term safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An updated assessment of the long-term safety of SKB's final repository for radioactive operational waste, SFR 1, is presented in this report. The report is included in the safety analysis report for SFR 1. The most recent account of long-term safety was submitted to the regulatory authorities in 2001. The present report has been compiled on SKB's initiative to address the regulatory authorities' viewpoints regarding the preceding account of long-term safety. Besides the new mode of working with safety functions there is another important difference between the 2001 safety assessment and the current assessment: The time horizon in the current assessment has been extended to 100,000 years in order to include the effect of future climate changes. The purpose of this renewed assessment of the long-term safety of SFR 1 is to show with improved data that the repository is capable of protecting human health and the environment against ionizing radiation in a long-term perspective. This is done by showing that calculated risks lie below the risk criteria stipulated by the regulatory authorities. SFR 1 is built to receive, and after closure serve as a passive repository for, low. and intermediate-level radioactive waste. The disposal chambers are situated in rock beneath the sea floor, covered by about 60 metres of rock. The underground part of the facility is reached via two tunnels whose entrances are near the harbour. The repository has been designed so that it can be abandoned after closure without further measures needing to be taken to maintain its function. The waste in SFR 1 is short-lived low- and intermediate-level waste. After 100 years the activity is less than half, and after 1,000 years only about 2% of the original activity remains. The report on long-term safety comprises eleven chapters. Chapter 1 Introduction. The chapter describes the purpose, background, format and contents of SAR-08, applicable regulations and injunctions, and the regulatory

  7. Strengthening long term control over radioactive sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The traditional focus of the regulation of radioactive sources is the protection of workers and the public from the misuse of sources and from accidents. Security measures were also a concern, but with the principal aim of preventing petty theft or accidental loss. Our concern, of course, is that a high risk radioactive source might be married with conventional explosives and used in a radiological dispersal device (RDD). Means must be found to protect the public from the use of high risk radioactive sources in an RDD. The task may appear daunting at first because of the widespread use of radioactive sources throughout the world. Compounding the problem is the fact that there also is a general lack of effective domestic controls on even high risk radioactive sources. The IAEA has noted that more than 100 countries lack effective control over radiation sources because most do not have the required infrastructure. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), like its counterparts in other countries, has found that modification of our regulatory programme to account for the terrorist threat is necessary. Although the work on this problem is still under way, some of the components are underlined that are believed to be the elements of an effective regulatory programme to counteract the RDD threat. The aim is a programme that achieves an appropriate balance of safety, security, public benefit and economic feasibility. The main objectives covered in this presentation cover the following topics: Categorization; Security measures; Imports/exports; Disposal; Orphan sources; Emergency response

  8. Long-term radiological aspects of management of wastes from uranium mining and milling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the contamination of uranium mill tailings by long-lived natural radionuclides, their management presents specific radiation protection aspects in the long term. This report presents several examples of the application of the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) methodology for the optimisation of radiation protection to these types of waste. The advantages and disadvantages of such an approach are discussed and several important limitations are identified

  9. Standards for Psychological Services in Long-Term Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Smith, Michael; Frazer, Deborah; Molinari, Victor; Rosowsky, Erlene; Crose, Royda; Stillwell, Nick; Kramer, Nanette; Hartman-Stein, Paula; Qualls, Sara; Salamon, Michael; Duffy, Michael; Parr, Joyce; Gallagher-Thompson, Dolores

    1998-01-01

    Describes the development of standards for psychological practice in long-term care facilities. The standards, which were developed by Psychologists in Long-Term Care, address provider characteristics, methods of referral, assessment practices, treatment, and ethical issues. Offers suggestions for use of the standards. (MKA)

  10. Factors associated with long-term mortality in acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nøjgaard, Camilla; Matzen, Peter; Bendtsen, Flemming;

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge of the long-term prognosis of acute pancreatitis (AP) is limited. The aims were to investigate: (1) prognostic factors associated with long-term mortality in patients with AP; (2) whether or not the level of serum (S-)amylase at admission had an impact on the prognosis; (3) causes of...

  11. How Does Long-Term Finance Affect Economic Volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Demirguc-Kunt, Asli; BÁLINT L. HORVÁTH; Huizinga, Harry

    2016-01-01

    This paper examines how the ability to access long-term debt affects firm-level growth volatility. The analysis finds that firms in industries with stronger preference to use long-term finance relative to short-term finance experience lower growth volatility in countries with better-developed financial systems, as these firms may benefit from reduced refinancing risk. Institutions that fac...

  12. [Developing the core competencies of long-term care professionals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Huey-Tzy; Lee, Kuang-Ting

    2012-12-01

    Longer average life expectancies and an ageing society have made long-term care an urgent and important issue in Taiwan. Although the implementation of Long-Term Care Ten-year Project four years ago has begun showing success in terms of assessing Taiwan's needs in terms of long-term care services and resources, there has been little forward progress in terms of training, recruiting and maintaining more competent professionals in the long-term care sector. This paper explores the current state of long-term care competency in Taiwan and educational strategies in place to improve the competency of long-term care professionals. Results indicate that the term geriatric competency embraces sub-competencies in direct care, communication, assessment, teamwork, cultural sensitivities and career care competencies. The term long-term care competency embraces the sub-competencies of supervision, management, information technology, resource management, and organizational skill. As a main contributor to effective long-term care, the nursing profession must employ effective strategies to develop competency-based education. Also, the profession must have an adequate supply of competent manpower to effectively respond to Taiwan's aging society. PMID:23212250

  13. Long-term hearing preservation in vestibular schwannoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Thomsen, Jens; Tos, Mirko;

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas.......The aim of the present study was to evaluate the long-term hearing during "wait and scan" management of vestibular schwannomas....

  14. Helping People Make Better Long-Term-Care Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Robert L.; Boston, Krista; Chilvers, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to describe an innovative online system to support long-term-care decision making. Design and Methods: The Long-Term Care Choices tool is a web-based system that uses expert opinion and structures decision making. Results: The system has been well accepted, and most users find it easy to use. Implications:…

  15. Determinants of long-term renal allograft outcome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuwen-Artz, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Long-term renal allograft survival is markedly affected by premature death with a functioning graft, chronic allograft nephropathy, and recurrence of the original kidney disease. To improve long-term graft survival, focus is shifting from the prevention of acute rejections to the recognition and tre

  16. 24 CFR 971.5 - Long-term viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Long-term viability. 971.5 Section... ASSESSMENT OF THE REASONABLE REVITALIZATION POTENTIAL OF CERTAIN PUBLIC HOUSING REQUIRED BY LAW § 971.5 Long-term viability. (a) Reasonable investment. (1) Proposed revitalization costs for viability must...

  17. Interim analysis in long-term clinical trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A. van Es (Gerrit Anne)

    1990-01-01

    textabstractThe purpose of this dissertation is to evaluate the usefulness of both stopping rules and estimation methods in long-term clinical trials with interim analyses. The ASPECT trial, a long-term clinical trial to assess the effect of anticoagulant therapy on mortality in patients after myoca

  18. Long-Term Stewardship At DOE's Hanford Site - 12575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)(1), which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S and M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation

  19. LONG-TERM STEWARDSHIP AT DOE HANFORD SITE - 12575

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MOREN RJ; GRINDSTAFF KD

    2012-01-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)[1], which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S&M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This

  20. Long-Term Dynamics of Autonomous Fractional Differential Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tao; Xu, Wei; Xu, Yong; Han, Qun

    This paper aims to investigate long-term dynamic behaviors of autonomous fractional differential equations with effective numerical method. The long-term dynamic behaviors predict where systems are heading after long-term evolution. We make some modification and transplant cell mapping methods to autonomous fractional differential equations. The mapping time duration of cell mapping is enlarged to deal with the long memory effect. Three illustrative examples, i.e. fractional Lotka-Volterra equation, fractional van der Pol oscillator and fractional Duffing equation, are studied with our revised generalized cell mapping method. We obtain long-term dynamics, such as attractors, basins of attraction, and saddles. Compared with some existing stability and numerical results, the validity of our method is verified. Furthermore, we find that the fractional order has its effect on the long-term dynamics of autonomous fractional differential equations.

  1. Long-term management of radioactive waste. Ethics and the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The protection of the environment and the ethical issues that it raises are important topics in the debate on the long-term management of radioactive waste. An overview of the general ethical principles developed in the wider context of the debate on the environment is presented and the specific case of the management of long-lived radioactive waste is addressed. (author)

  2. Does Early Paternal Parenting Promote Low-Income Children's Long-Term Cognitive Skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coley, Rebekah Levine; Lewin-Bizan, Selva; Carrano, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Although scholars and policy makers herald the promotive influence of fathers' parenting involvement, limited research has carefully delineated effects of fathers' parenting on low-income children's development and whether early contributions from fathers confer long-term protective effects. Using data from the Three-City Study (N = 261), analyses…

  3. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established. PMID:26251392

  4. The Womanly World of Long Term Care: The Plight of the Long Term Care Worker. Gray Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Older Women's League, Washington, DC.

    Long-term care workers (those who are paid to provide custodial care for long-term patients in nursing homes or at home) must care for a growing number of increasingly disabled or dependent persons. They are working for agencies and institutions under growing pressure to increase productivity. They face new training and competency requirements,…

  5. Protection Afforded by Fluoroquinolones in Animal Models of Respiratory Infections with Bacillus anthracis, Yersinia pestis, and Francisella tularensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Johnny W; Moen, Scott T; Healy, Daniel; Pawlik, Jennifer E; Taormina, Joanna; Hardcastle, Jason; Thomas, John M; Lawrence, William S; Ponce, Cindy; Chatuev, Bagram M; Gnade, Bryan T; Foltz, Sheri M; Agar, Stacy L; Sha, Jian; Klimpel, Gary R; Kirtley, Michelle L; Eaves-Pyles, Tonyia; Chopra, Ashok K

    2010-01-01

    Successful treatment of inhalation anthrax, pneumonic plague and tularemia can be achieved with fluoroquinolone antibiotics, such as ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin, and initiation of treatment is most effective when administered as soon as possible following exposure. Bacillus anthracis Ames, Yersinia pestis CO92, and Francisella tularensis SCHU S4 have equivalent susceptibility in vitro to ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin (minimal inhibitory concentration is 0.03 μg/ml); however, limited information is available regarding in vivo susceptibility of these infectious agents to the fluoroquinolone antibiotics in small animal models. Mice, guinea pig, and rabbit models have been developed to evaluate the protective efficacy of antibiotic therapy against these life-threatening infections. Our results indicated that doses of ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin required to protect mice against inhalation anthrax were approximately 18-fold higher than the doses of levofloxacin required to protect against pneumonic plague and tularemia. Further, the critical period following aerosol exposure of mice to either B. anthracis spores or Y. pestis was 24 h, while mice challenged with F. tularensis could be effectively protected when treatment was delayed for as long as 72 h postchallenge. In addition, it was apparent that prolonged antibiotic treatment was important in the effective treatment of inhalation anthrax in mice, but short-term treatment of mice with pneumonic plague or tularemia infections were usually successful. These results provide effective antibiotic dosages in mice, guinea pigs, and rabbits and lay the foundation for the development and evaluation of combinational treatment modalities. PMID:21127743

  6. Long-term follow-up of atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Ritsu; Grant, Eric J; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2012-06-01

    The Life Span Study (LSS) is a follow-up study of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors to investigate the radiation effects on human health and has collected data for over 60 years. The LSS cohort consists of 93,741 A-bomb survivors and another 26,580 age and sex-matched subjects who were not in either city at the time of the bombing. Radiation doses have been computed based on individual location and shielding status at the time of the bombings. Age at death and cause of death are gathered through the Japanese national family registry system and cancer incidence data have been collected through the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer registries. Noncancer disease incidence and health information are collected through biannual medical examinations among a subset of the LSS. Radiation significantly increases the risks of death (22% at 1 Gy), cancer incidence (47% at 1 Gy), death due to leukemia (310% at 1 Gy), as well as the incidence of several noncancer diseases (e.g. thyroid nodules, chronic liver disease and cirrhosis, uterine myoma, and hypertension). Significant effects on maturity (e.g. growth reduction and early menopause) were also observed. Long-term follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors have provided reliable information on health risks for the survivors and form the basis for radiation protection standards for workers and the public. PMID:22440534

  7. Long term health effects in Sweden from the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morning of 28 April 1986 was the beginning of an intensive period of radiation protection work in Sweden. During that morning the Chernobyl accident became known in the western world through the detection of radioactive contamination in Sweden and at the Forsmark nuclear power plant in particular. The environmental consequences of the fallout have been studied in various research projects. The effects on agriculture in Sweden was mainly limited to the first year after the accident. The long term effects are instead seen in products from the semi-natural ecosystems: in moose, roedeer, reindeer, mushrooms and fish from lakes in areas with a high deposition of radioactive caesium. High concentrations of 137Cs in reindeer meat in combination with an estimated effective ecological half-life of about 4 years, will cause problems for reindeer husbandry in the most contaminated parts for many years to come. In moose, roedeer and mushrooms, the ecological half-lives are very long and in some compartments seem to approach the physical half-life of 137Cs. 22 refs, 3 figs

  8. Long-term behavior of glass-ceramic zirconolite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is a part of the investigation of new containment matrices considered for specific conditioning of radionuclides after separation. The aim was to demonstrate the long-term aqueous corrosion resistance of the glass-ceramic zirconolite considered for the conditioning of plutonium and the minor actinides. This material is composed of crystals of zirconolite (CaZrTi2O7) dispersed in a residual vitreous phase. It appears that glass-ceramic zirconolite presents a better kinetic behavior than the nuclear glass R 7T7. This is mainly due to a more important rate decrease that occurs more rapidly, that induces a quantity of glass altered at least 10 times as small as for R 7T7 glass. This high slowdown of the alteration rate is attributed to the formation of an alteration film that has been the subject of a specific study. We have demonstrated that the rate decrease was controlled as for the R7T7 glass by the amorphous phase of the alteration film forming a diffusion barrier for reactive species. It seems that the porosity is not the single parameter that explains the protective effect of the gel. The main differences compared with R7T7 glass are that silicon does not control the alteration of the material and that the gel is composed of two distinct phases. We have in particular identified a dense phase enriched in titanium and neodymium that probably influences deeply the kinetics. (author)

  9. Long-term Corrosion of Copper Container in Bentonite Buffer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental method for the evaluation of copper corrosion was discussed in this report. Especially, the corrosion behavior of a copper container in a compacted bentonite environment was reviewed in detail. Several previous studies on the copper corrosion in a bentonite environment were summarized and the applied methods were illustrated firstly. On the basis of the review, it is discussed how to execute long-term copper corrosion test as regarding korean disposal environment. The selection of bentonite medium and the composition of a medium such as bentonite-sand mixture or bentonite-sand double layer was mentioned in this report. The need for protection layer on copper surface was also discussed for reducing initial copper corrosion rate. As key aspects on the corrosion test, a measuring of corrosion rate, an observation of surface morphology, an analysis of corrosion product, and a measuring of corrosion potential were pointed out. For the purpose of a experimental consistency, the necessity of standard composition for a bentonite and a underground water might be confirmed before the test. Consequently, three experimental designs were derived for the corrosion test such as a corrosion testing design at creep condition, a simple corrosion design for the evaluation for other candidate materials, and lastly, a corrosion testing design in compacted bentonite. Through this survey and discussion for a copper corrosion in bentonite environment it would be very helpful for a high level radioactive waste disposal plan in the future

  10. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  11. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Maybell, Colorado Disposal Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Maybell disposal site in Moffat County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Maybell disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete for the Maybell site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure the Maybell disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance document and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  13. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  14. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado, disposal site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-04-01

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Gunnison disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE`s determination of completion of remedial action for the Gunnison site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR {section}40.27(b) and 40 CFR {section}192.03.

  15. Long-term surveillance plan for the Cheney disposal site near Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Cheney disposal site. The site is in Mesa County near Grand Junction, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site may be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Cheney disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete and the NRC formally accepts this plan. This document describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Cheney disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03

  16. Taking into account the long term dimension associated with radioactive waste management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste introduces a new time dimension in the field of risk management. This is why, for more than 10 years, there have been reflections on the societal and organisational mechanisms allowing a responsible management over the long term of the risk associated with radioactive waste. These reflections lead one to ask questions regarding interactions between what is at stake for societal and radiation protection criteria, demanding a multidisciplinary approach to the problem. Within the framework of the European project C.O.W.A.M. 2, dedicated to the improvement of governance of radioactive waste management in Europe, a working group involving experts, authorities, waste managers, locally elected representatives and N.G.O.s, discussed the stakes associated with the long term dimension. This article presents the main results of this working group, organised around four themes: meaning of the long term and what is at stake, the ethical dimension regarding long term issues, continuity and sustainability of the surveillance and control of radioactive waste facilities, effectiveness of financing schemes for the long term management of radioactive waste. (authors)

  17. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  18. Neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Bianca P.; Aron, Arthur; Fisher, Helen E.; Brown, Lucy L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the neural correlates of long-term intense romantic love using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Ten women and 7 men married an average of 21.4 years underwent fMRI while viewing facial images of their partner. Control images included a highly familiar acquaintance; a close, long-term friend; and a low-familiar person. Effects specific to the intensely loved, long-term partner were found in: (i) areas of the dopamine-rich reward and basal ganglia system,...

  19. Long-Term Mean Wind Profiles Based on Similarity Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kelly, Mark C.; Gryning, Sven-Erik

    2010-01-01

    We provide general forms for long-term mean wind profiles from similarity-based wind profiles, beginning with a probabilistic adaptation of Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. We develop an analytical formulation for the stability distributions prevailing in the atmospheric surface layer, which in...... turn facilitates the derivation of a long-term mean wind profile based on Monin–Obukhov similarity theory. The modelled stability distributions exhibit good agreement with measurements from sites having different local conditions. The long-term wind profile formulation is further extended to include...

  20. Long-term Health and Social Care for the Elderly: An International Perspective*

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence Assous

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes how industrialized countries have taken different paths towards meeting the needs of their dependent elderly. Dependency-related needs come under the heading of social protection, since they involve general home help and medical care, even if homecare is essentially provided by members of the person's family. Thus, the diversity of medical care and social protection systems, their level, their “Bismarckian” or “Beveridgian” nature, has an impact on long-term care systems....

  1. Global prospects for nuclear power development in the long term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Population growth, economic development and improvement of quality of life will lead to significant increase of electricity consumption worldwide with more rapid growth in developing and newly industrialised countries. At the same time, concerns for environmental protection and security of supply will call for the development of alternatives to fossil fuels for electricity generation. Sustain ability will be a major driving factor for the choice of electricity generation options and strategies. Costs, and macro-economic and social impacts, will also influence future strategies in the electricity sector. Since renewable sources require significant development efforts to reach competitiveness, nuclear power is the most likely non-fossil source to be deployed on a large scale for base load electricity generation. Nuclear power is already a proven technology providing a significant share of electricity supply worldwide. In several countries, including the Republic of Korea, nuclear generated electricity is a major contributor to secure and competitive electricity supply. Technological progress aiming towards enhancing safety as well as technical and economic performance of nuclear power plants will enlarge the potential market share of nuclear generated electricity. The purpose of the paper is to give an overview of the prospects for nuclear power development in the world in the medium and long term. For the short term, up to 2005, projections of nuclear power installed capacities are rather straightforward to establish. The Agency publishes such projections every years, based upon a review of nuclear programmes in Member States. For the medium term, up to 2015, two illustrative cases have been developed by the IAEA reflecting contrasted, but not extreme, assumptions on the different parameters influencing nuclear power deployment worldwide. The paper gives estimations of the installed nuclear capacity, and of the share of nuclear power in total electricity and energy

  2. American Society of Clinical Oncology policy statement: opportunities in the patient protection and affordable care act to reduce cancer care disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, Beverly; Polite, Blase N; Halpern, Michael T; Stranne, Steven K; Winer, Eric P; Wollins, Dana S; Newman, Lisa A

    2011-10-01

    Patients in specific vulnerable population groups suffer disproportionately from cancer. The elimination of cancer disparities is critically important for lessening the burden of cancer. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act provides both opportunities and challenges for addressing cancer care disparities and access to care. The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advocates for policies that ensure access to cancer care for the underserved. Such policies include insurance reform and the reduction of economic barriers to quality health care. Building on ASCO's prior statement on disparities in cancer care (2009), this article summarizes elements of the health care law that are relevant to cancer disparities and provides recommendations for addressing major provisions in the law. It outlines specific strategies to address insurance reform, access to care, quality of care, prevention and wellness, research on health care disparities, and diversity in the health care workforce. ASCO is committed to leading efforts toward the improvement of cancer care among the most vulnerable patients. PMID:21810680

  3. Long-term outcome after drug-eluting versus bare-metal stent implantation in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: 3-year follow-up of the randomized DEDICATION (Drug Elution and Distal Protection in Acute Myocardial Infarction) Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaltoft, Anne; Kelbaek, Henning; Thuesen, Leif;

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare long-term clinical outcomes after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).......The purpose of this study was to compare long-term clinical outcomes after implantation of drug-eluting stents (DES) and bare-metal stents (BMS) in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)....

  4. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. Haney

    2007-07-31

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used t determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality.

  5. Long-term Outcomes of Childhood Onset Nephrotic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorten, Rebecca; Anwar, Zohra; Reidy, Kimberly Jean

    2016-01-01

    There are limited studies on long-term outcomes of childhood onset nephrotic syndrome (NS). A majority of children with NS have steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome (SSNS). Steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) is associated with a high risk of developing end-stage renal disease. Biomarkers and analysis of genetic mutations may provide new information for prognosis in SRNS. Frequently relapsing and steroid-dependent NS is associated with long-term complications, including dyslipidemia, cataracts, osteoporosis and fractures, obesity, impaired growth, and infertility. Long-term complications of SSNS are likely to be under-recognized. There remain many gaps in our knowledge of long-term outcomes of childhood NS, and further study is indicated. PMID:27252935

  6. Assisted Living Facilities - MO 2010 Long Term Care Facilities (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Long Term Care facilities (nursing homes) in Missouri - Data will not be made available for download via MSDIS. Interested parties should send an email inquiry to...

  7. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhi Variants in Long-Term Carriers

    OpenAIRE

    Chiou, Chien-Shun; Wei, Hsiao-Lun; Mu, Jung-Jung; Liao, Ying-Shu; Liang, Shiu-Yun; Liao, Chun-Hsing; Tsao, Chi-Sen; Wang, Shu-Chuan

    2013-01-01

    Long-term typhoid carriers can simultaneously excrete Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi variants with considerable genetic differences, a situation that complicates the interpretation of the subtyping data used in outbreak investigations and disease surveillance.

  8. In search of the elusive long-term price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Uranium Institute, WNFM, and past USCEA sessions described and compared existing price reporting systems. The McGraw-Hill conference led to a rather heated discussion as to the propriety of spot prices having the influence they do on amounts paid in long-term contracts. The Ux representative proposed a future's market as a way that producers could hedge against some of the uncertainty of volatile spot market. In discussing the search for the elusive long-term price, there are two interrelated issues. The first is obvious-the search for a starting or initializing price that is representative of recently-signed or pending long-term contracts. The second is less obvious, but perhaps more important-the search for a successful mechanism for determining later delivery values in long-term contracts. This paper addresses the question of pricing mechanisms first

  9. Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Field Sampling Plan for 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field sampling plan describes the field investigations planned for the Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Project at the Idaho National Laboratory Site in 2007. This plan and the Quality Assurance Project Plan for Waste Area Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 10, and Removal Actions constitute the sampling and analysis plan supporting long-term ecological monitoring sampling in 2007. The data collected under this plan will become part of the long-term ecological monitoring data set that is being collected annually. The data will be used to determine the requirements for the subsequent long-term ecological monitoring. This plan guides the 2007 investigations, including sampling, quality assurance, quality control, analytical procedures, and data management. As such, this plan will help to ensure that the resulting monitoring data will be scientifically valid, defensible, and of known and acceptable quality

  10. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research Network - Shared research strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agriculture faces tremendous challenges in meeting multiple societal goals, including a safe and plentiful food supply; climate change adaptation and mitigation; supplying sources of bioenergy; improving water, air, and soil quality; and maintaining biodiversity. The Long Term Agroecosystem Research...

  11. Personal Decisionmaking Styles and Long-Term Care Choices

    OpenAIRE

    Maloney, Susan K.; Finn, Jeffrey; Bloom, Diane L.; Andresen, Julie

    1996-01-01

    To learn more about how older people make decisions about long-term care (LTC), in-depth interviews were conducted with 63 elderly individuals and 56 of their relatives to obtain information on the decisionmaking process. This qualitative research showed that LTC decisionmaking does not always follow typical consumer dedisionmaking models, in which a consumer seeks a product or service, selects among the alternatives, and assesses the choice. Further, the interviews yielded four long-term car...

  12. Long-Term Contracts in Major League Baseball

    OpenAIRE

    Hakes, Jahn K.; Chad Turner

    2008-01-01

    Long-term deals are one tool that both players and franchises use to manage risk. That tool has been much discussed and empirically tested with respect to player shirking, and has more briefly, and only theoretically, discussed with respect to reducing variance in future payrolls. Our work looks at how patterns of use of long-term contracts are affected by changes in contracting rules established through collective bargaining and by expected changes in franchise revenue streams. To accomplish...

  13. Long-Term Use of Benzodiazepines: Implications and guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Potts, Nicholas L.S.; K Ranga R Krishnan

    1992-01-01

    Problems associated with physical dependence and abuse of benzodiazepines by a small percentage of patients have reduced their popularity from the most commonly prescribed psychoactive drug in the 1970s to being prescribed for mainly short periods. Patients who benefit from long-term benzodiazepine use are nearly ignored by the medical community as a whole. This article details what patient population can improve from long-term benzodiazepine therapy, the risks and benefits of treatment, and ...

  14. How Does Long-Term Finance Affect Economic Volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Demirgüç-Kunt, A.; Horváth, Bálint; Huizinga, Harry

    2016-01-01

    In an approach analogous to Rajan and Zingales (1998), we examine how the ability to access long-term debt affects firm-level growth volatility. We find that firms in industries with stronger preference to use long-term finance relative to short-term finance experience lower growth volatility in countries with better-developed financial systems, as these firms may benefit from reduced refinancing risk. Institutions that facilitate the availability of credit information and contract enforcemen...

  15. Long Term Treatment Concepts and Proactive Therapy for Atopic Eczema

    OpenAIRE

    Wollenberg, Andreas; Ehmann, Laura Maximiliane

    2012-01-01

    Atopic eczema, also known as atopic dermatitis, is a frequent, highly pruritic, chronic skin disease, which is typically running in flares. The traditional treatment mainly consists of the reactive application of topical anti-inflammatory agents such as topical corticosteroids and topical calcineurin inhibitors. The short term benefit of this approach is well known, but long term remission between flares is difficult to achieve. Therefore, innovative long-term treatment strategies targeting f...

  16. Long-term physical ageing in vitreous arsenic selenides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of long-term physical aging (approx 20 years) studied in vitreous arsenic selenides using differential scanning calorimetry are compared with conventional short-term physical aging (up to 1 year). It is shown that these effects differ not only by their amplitudes but also by compositional dependences. These results clearly testify in a favour of a sufficient difference in microstructural origin for short- and long-term physical aging in chalcogenide glasses

  17. Long-term Outcomes of Laparoscopic Surgery for Colorectal Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jeong-Eun; Joh, Yong-Geul; Yoo, Sang-hwa; Jeong, Geu-Young; Kim, Sung-Han; Chung, Choon-Sik; Lee, Dong-Gun; Kim, Seon Hahn

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The long-term results of a laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer have been reported in several studies, but reports on the results of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer are limited. We investigated the long-term outcomes, including the five-year overall survival, disease-free survival and recurrence rate, after a laparoscopic resection for colorectal cancer. Methods Using prospectively collected data on 303 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent a laparoscopic resect...

  18. Long-Term Unemployment in the Varieties of Capitalism

    OpenAIRE

    Chilosi, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Usually, when the attention is focused on the different performances of the labour market, the overall rate of unemployment is at the center stage. But this is misleading: while short term unemployment can be seen as physiological for the the working of the labour market, long-term unemployment is certainly pathological. The paper considers how the different varieties of capitalism affect the rate of long-term unemployment, rather than the aggregate rate. The liberal market variety, where emp...

  19. Long-term Planning by Short-term Prediction

    OpenAIRE

    SHALEV-SHWARTZ, Shai; Ben-Zrihem, Nir; Cohen, Aviad; Shashua, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    We consider planning problems, that often arise in autonomous driving applications, in which an agent should decide on immediate actions so as to optimize a long term objective. For example, when a car tries to merge in a roundabout it should decide on an immediate acceleration/braking command, while the long term effect of the command is the success/failure of the merge. Such problems are characterized by continuous state and action spaces, and by interaction with multiple agents, whose beha...

  20. A perspective on long-term care for the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Scanlon, William J.

    1988-01-01

    Long-term care represents a significant burden to the approximately 7 million elderly in need, their families, and the Medicaid program. Concerns exist about access, quality, cost, and the distribution of the burden of care. In this article each area is discussed, highlighting the principal issues, identifying the unique aspects that pertain to long-term care, and exploring the implications for research and policy development. Future trends, especially the growth of the elderly population, ar...

  1. Archiving Primary Data: Solutions for Long-Term Studies.

    OpenAIRE

    Mills J.A.; Teplitsky C.; Arroyo B.; Charmantier A.; Becker P.H.; Birkhead T.R.; Bize P.; Blumstein D.T.; Bonenfant C.; Boutin S.; Bushuev A.; Cam E.; Cockburn A.; Côté S.D.; Coulson J.C.

    2015-01-01

    The recent trend for journals to require open access to primary data included in publications has been embraced by many biologists, but has caused apprehension amongst researchers engaged in long-term ecological and evolutionary studies. A worldwide survey of 73 principal investigators (Pls) with long-term studies revealed positive attitudes towards sharing data with the agreement or involvement of the PI, and 93% of PIs have historically shared data. Only 8% were in favor of uncontrolled, op...

  2. Seamless Long Term Learning in Agile Teams for Sustainable Leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Qureshi, M R J

    2012-01-01

    Seamless and continuous support for long term organizational learning needs is essential for long lasting progress of the organization. Agile process model provides an excellent opportunity to cater that specific problem and also helps in motivation, satisfaction, coordination, presentation and technical skills enhancement of agile teams. This long term learning process makes organization to sustain their current successes and lead both organization and team members to successful and dynamic market leaders.

  3. Insuring Long-Term Care in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Jeffrey R. Brown; Amy Finkelstein

    2011-01-01

    Long-term care expenditures constitute one of the largest uninsured financial risks facing the elderly in the United States and thus play a central role in determining the retirement security of elderly Americans. In this essay, we begin by providing some background on the nature and extent of long-term care expenditures and insurance against those expenditures, emphasizing in particular the large and variable nature of the expenditures and the extreme paucity of private insurance coverage. W...

  4. Long-Term Neuropsychological Outcome in Preterm Twins

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanni Iannone; Clelia Tripaldi; Antonino Chindemi; Lorenzo Piscitelli; Antonio Mastrorocco; Silvano Palazzo; Luigi Esposito

    2006-01-01

    Few long-term studies have yet described neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins. Our aim was to assess, by long-term evaluation, neuropsychological outcome in preterm twins in order to define a correct follow-up program. Our study was a cohort one, with an index and a comparison group. Neonatal medical records of all preterm newborns admitted to our centre between 1991 and 1997 were reviewed and selected patients were recalled. The sample population included two matched groups of childre...

  5. Influenza in long-term care facilities: preventable, detectable, treatable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossad, Sherif B

    2009-09-01

    Influenza in long-term care facilities is an ever more challenging problem. Vaccination of residents and health care workers is the most important preventive measure. Although vaccine efficacy has been questioned, the preponderance of data favors vaccination. Antiviral resistance complicates postexposure chemoprophylaxis and treatment. Factors that limit the choice of antiviral agents in this patient population include limited vaccine supplies and impaired dexterity and confusion in long-term care residents. PMID:19726556

  6. Coastal Long Term Ecological Research: Introduction to the Special Issue

    OpenAIRE

    Karen McGlathery; Daniel Reed; Meryl Alber

    2013-01-01

    The US National Science Foundation's Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) network was established in 1980 to provide the scientific expertise, research platforms, and long-term data sets necessary to document and analyze environmental change (http://www.lternet.edu). There are currently 25 sites in the US LTER network representing a range of ecosystems, including deserts, prairies, forests, tundra, lakes, urban areas, estuaries, coastal reefs, the pelagic ocean, and production agriculture. Al...

  7. Long- term outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Arulkumaran, Nishkantha; Jawad, Susan; Smith, Stuart W.; Harper, Lorraine; Brogan, Paul; Charles D. Pusey; Salama, Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Background Primary systemic vasculitis presenting in childhood is an uncommon but serious condition. As these patients transfer to adult clinics for continuing care, defining long term outcomes with emphasis on disease and treatment- related morbidity and mortality is important. The aim of this study is to describe the long- term clinical course of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Methods The adult patients in our vasculitis clinics who had presented in childhood, with a follow up ti...

  8. Long- term outcome of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis

    OpenAIRE

    Pusey Charles D; Brogan Paul; Harper Lorraine; Smith Stuart W; Jawad Susan; Arulkumaran Nishkantha; Salama Alan D

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Primary systemic vasculitis presenting in childhood is an uncommon but serious condition. As these patients transfer to adult clinics for continuing care, defining long term outcomes with emphasis on disease and treatment- related morbidity and mortality is important. The aim of this study is to describe the long- term clinical course of paediatric patients with ANCA vasculitis. Methods The adult patients in our vasculitis clinics who had presented in childhood, with a fol...

  9. Case management for long-term and acute medical care

    OpenAIRE

    Capitman, John A.

    1988-01-01

    Case management has developed as an administrative service for controlling costs and improving the quality of health and social service delivery. Long-term care case management combined with service expansion has been examined in some detail with varied results. Less research has focused on case management for users of high-cost medical care. This overview highlights five programs and patient groups where integrated delivery and/or financing of medical and long-term care services are being de...

  10. Influential Factors in Long-term Product Service System Contracts

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini Taklimi, Seyed Reza

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation presents different aspects of long-term contract for product service system (PSS); also different issues that companies are dealt for implementation of PSS. The study consists of literature review for understanding factors which can affect long-term PSS contracts. Different generic categories of green business models which are used in PSS contracts have been addressed and in addition, various models of contracts for PSS in industries have been identified too. The important f...

  11. Informed Consent to Research in Long-Term Care Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Lingler, Jennifer Hagerty; Jablonski, Rita A; Bourbonniere, Meg; Kolanowski, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Informed consent to nursing home research is a two-tiered process that begins with obtaining the consent of a long-term care community at the institutional level and progresses to the engagement of individuals in the consent process. Drawing on a review of the literature and the authors’ research experiences and institutional review board service, this paper describes the practical implications of nurse investigators’ obligation to ensure informed consent among participants in long-term care ...

  12. Endoscopic Management of Attic Cholesteatoma: Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandri-Ciufelli, Matteo; Marchioni, Daniele; Kakehata, Seiji; Presutti, Livio; Villari, Domenico

    2016-10-01

    The main application of endoscopic surgery relies on the middle ear cholesteatoma surgical treatment, although for a definitive validation and acceptance by scientific community, long-term results are needed about recurrent and residual rates of the pathology. The aim of the present paper was to analyze the single institution experience with the long-term results of surgical treatment of attic cholesteatoma. PMID:27565391

  13. Ethical issues in long-term psychiatric management.

    OpenAIRE

    Dickenson, D

    1997-01-01

    Two general ethical problems in psychiatry are thrown into sharp relief by long term care. This article discusses each in turn, in the context of two anonymised case studies from actual clinical practice. First, previous mental health legislation soothed doubts about patients' refusal of consent by incorporating time limits on involuntary treatment. When these are absent, as in the provisions for long term care which have recently come into force, the justification for compulsory treatment an...

  14. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  15. Resilience Engineering in Critical Long Term Aerospace Software Systems: A New Approach to Spacecraft Software Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulo, D. A.

    Safety critical software systems permeate spacecraft, and in a long term venture like a starship would be pervasive in every system of the spacecraft. Yet software failure today continues to plague both the systems and the organizations that develop them resulting in the loss of life, time, money, and valuable system platforms. A starship cannot afford this type of software failure in long journeys away from home. A single software failure could have catastrophic results for the spaceship and the crew onboard. This paper will offer a new approach to developing safe reliable software systems through focusing not on the traditional safety/reliability engineering paradigms but rather by focusing on a new paradigm: Resilience and Failure Obviation Engineering. The foremost objective of this approach is the obviation of failure, coupled with the ability of a software system to prevent or adapt to complex changing conditions in real time as a safety valve should failure occur to ensure safe system continuity. Through this approach, safety is ensured through foresight to anticipate failure and to adapt to risk in real time before failure occurs. In a starship, this type of software engineering is vital. Through software developed in a resilient manner, a starship would have reduced or eliminated software failure, and would have the ability to rapidly adapt should a software system become unstable or unsafe. As a result, long term software safety, reliability, and resilience would be present for a successful long term starship mission.

  16. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell, Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer

  17. Induction of long-term potentiation and long-term depression is cell-type specific in the spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Hee Young; Jun, Jaebeom; Wang, Jigong; Bittar, Alice; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The underlying mechanism of chronic pain is believed to be changes in excitability in spinal dorsal horn (DH) neurons that respond abnormally to peripheral input. Increased excitability in pain transmission neurons, and depression of inhibitory neurons, are widely recognized in the spinal cord of animal models of chronic pain. The possible occurrence of 2 parallel but opposing forms of synaptic plasticity, long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) was tested in 2 ty...

  18. Long term radiological impact of a uranium mine restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the 1990s, many uranium mines were closed as consequence of low prices of this mineral. It was due to a decrease in the demand for uranium and an increase in the overall supply. The resulting was a further complicated implementation of sites restorations. This report deals with one of the relevant aspects of the radiological protection scope: 'the evaluation of the long term radiological impact in the population due to the uranium mine restoration activities' for the uranium mine sited in Saelices el Chico (Salamanca, Spain). These restoration activities have basically consisted of recovering the original site by filling the old open pits with the material stockpiled in the waste dumps. The main problems associated with this material include radon release and particles emission. The strategy used to solve this problem has been covered these structures with a layer with beds of clay material rock, waste material and a cover tree. The pathways considered for the radiological impact have been: 1) Inhalation; 2) Ingestion of contaminated water, milk, vegetables and meat; 3) External exposure from clouds immersion, grounds concentrations and direct gamma radiation. Three computer codes have been used with the object of evaluating the above-mentioned impact. Two of them are well-known NRC (Nuclear Regulatory Commission) codes: RESRAD 6.30 and MILDOS-AREA. We have also applied DOEFLURA, developed in ENUSA [1, 2, 3]. Four scenarios have been studied: Resident Farmer Scenario, Resident scenario, Livestock pasture scenario and Forest scenario, Estimation of radioactive doses for the member of the public in the different scenarios has been calculated with this programme. A period of 3500 years from now has been studied. (author)

  19. Influenza A vaccines using linear expression cassettes delivered via electroporation afford full protection against challenge in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Xuefei; Söderholm, Jonas; Lin, Feng; Kobinger, Gary; Bello, Alexander; Gregg, Derek A; Broderick, Kate E; Sardesai, Niranjan Y

    2012-11-01

    Alternative DNA vaccine constructs such as fully synthetic linear expressing cassettes (LECs) offer the advantage of accelerated manufacturing techniques as well as the lack of both antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial contaminants. The speed of manufacture makes LEC technology a possible future vaccination strategy for pandemic influenza outbreaks. Previously, we reported on a novel concept of DNA delivery to dermal tissue by a minimally invasive electroporation (EP) surface device powered using low voltage parameters. This device allows electroporation without penetration of electrodes into the skin. In addition to enhancing the delivery of traditional plasmid DNA vaccines, this device may also offer a safe, tolerable and efficient method to administer LECs. To assess immunogenicity and efficacy of EP-enhanced LEC delivery in mice, we designed and tested two influenza antigens in the form of LEC constructs delivered using the newly developed surface dermal EP device. Strong CTL and antibody responses were induced by the LEC versions of the DNA vaccine. When challenged with A/Canada/AB/RV1532/2009 viruses, mice immunized with LEC encoding the M2 and NP antigens recovered faster than naïve or mice immunized ID without EP. Mice immunized with equal-molar doses of LEC encoding the M2 and NP antigens demonstrated 100% survival following a lethal (100× LD50) challenge of the heterologuos and highly pathogenic H5N1 influenza virus (A/Vietnam/1203/04). These results suggest that influenza DNA vaccines based on LEC technology combined with the surface delivery platform are capable of fully protecting mice in a lethal challenge and the LEC based DNA constructs may serve as viable vaccine candidates. PMID:22406460

  20. National Strength and Conditioning Association Position Statement on Long-Term Athletic Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Rhodri S; Cronin, John B; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Haff, G Gregory; Howard, Rick; Kraemer, William J; Micheli, Lyle J; Myer, Gregory D; Oliver, Jon L

    2016-06-01

    Lloyd, RS, Cronin, JB, Faigenbaum, AD, Haff, GG, Howard, R, Kraemer, WJ, Micheli, LJ, Myer, GD, and Oliver, JL. National Strength and Conditioning Association position statement on long-term athletic development. J Strength Cond Res 30(6): 1491-1509, 2016-There has recently been a growing interest in long-term athletic development for youth. Because of their unique physical, psychological, and social differences, children and adolescents should engage in appropriately prescribed exercise programs that promote physical development to prevent injury and enhance fitness behaviors that can be retained later in life. Irrespective of whether a child is involved in organized sport or engages in recreational physical activity, there remains a need to adopt a structured, logical, and evidence-based approach to the long-term development of athleticism. This is of particular importance considering the alarmingly high number of youth who fail to meet global physical activity recommendations and consequently present with negative health profiles. However, appropriate exercise prescription is also crucial for those young athletes who are physically underprepared and at risk of overuse injury because of high volumes of competition and an absence of preparatory conditioning. Whether the child accumulates insufficient or excessive amounts of exercise, or falls somewhere between these opposing ends of the spectrum, it is generally accepted that the young bodies of modern day youth are often ill-prepared to tolerate the rigors of sports or physical activity. All youth should engage in regular physical activity and thus should be viewed as "athletes" and afforded the opportunity to enhance athleticism in an individualized, holistic, and child-centered manner. Because of emerging interest in long-term athletic development, an authorship team was tasked on behalf of the National Strength and Conditioning Association (NSCA) to critically synthesize existing literature and current

  1. ERDA's long-term waste management goals and programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an overview of the ERDA's major program for the long-term waste management of radioactive waste and provides a perspective for symposium participants with regard to the interrelationship of specific components of the program that are discussed in detail in other ERDA-sponsored papers. Needs, goals, and plans are reviewed for ERDA's management of the commercially generated wastes which are expected to be delivered to ERDA in accordance with Federal regulations. At present, ERDA responsibilities include long-term management of commercial-level wastes. Possible future regulations may give ERDA responsibility for the long-term management of commercial low-level solid wastes contaminated with transuranic nuclides. Primary planning goals and programs for the development of terminal storage facilities and waste processing technology to produce acceptable waste forms for long-term management are reviewed for each of the waste types identified above. The status of development programs for the long-term management of airborne radionuclides, which may be required at some time in the future, is also reviewed. (author)

  2. Risk assessment for long-term post-accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probabilistic risk analysis, currently conducted by the CEA (French Atomic Energy Commission) for the French replicate series of 900 MWe power plants, has identified accident sequences requiring long-term operation of some systems after the initiating event. They have been named long-term sequences. Quantification of probabilities of such sequences cannot rely exclusively on equipment failure-on-demand data: it must also take into account operating failures, the probability of which increase with time. Specific studies have therefore been conducted for a number of plant systems actuated during these long-term sequences. This has required: - Definition of the most realistic equipment utilization strategies based on existing emergency procedures for 900 MWe French plants. - Evaluation of the potential to repair failed equipment, given accessibility, repair time, and specific radiation conditions for the given sequence. - Definition of the event bringing the long-term sequence to an end. - Establishment of an appropriate quantification method, capable of taking into account the evolution of assumptions concerning equipment utilization strategies or repair conditions over time. The accident sequence quantification method based on realistic scenarios has been used in the risk assessment of the initiating event loss of reactor coolant accident occurring at power and at shutdown. Compared with the results obtained from conventional methods, this method redistributes the relative weight of accident sequences and also demonstrates that the long term can be a significant contribution to the probability of core melt

  3. Common Calibration Source for Monitoring Long-term Ozone Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalewski, Matthew

    2004-01-01

    Accurate long-term satellite measurements are crucial for monitoring the recovery of the ozone layer. The slow pace of the recovery and limited lifetimes of satellite monitoring instruments demands that datasets from multiple observation systems be combined to provide the long-term accuracy needed. A fundamental component of accurately monitoring long-term trends is the calibration of these various instruments. NASA s Radiometric Calibration and Development Facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center has provided resources to minimize calibration biases between multiple instruments through the use of a common calibration source and standardized procedures traceable to national standards. The Facility s 50 cm barium sulfate integrating sphere has been used as a common calibration source for both US and international satellite instruments, including the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS), Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet 2 (SBUV/2) instruments, Shuttle SBUV (SSBUV), Ozone Mapping Instrument (OMI), Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) (ESA), Scanning Imaging SpectroMeter for Atmospheric ChartographY (SCIAMACHY) (ESA), and others. We will discuss the advantages of using a common calibration source and its effects on long-term ozone data sets. In addition, sphere calibration results from various instruments will be presented to demonstrate the accuracy of the long-term characterization of the source itself.

  4. Wastewater treatment by soil infiltration: Long-term phosphorus removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eveborn, David; Kong, Deguo; Gustafsson, Jon Petter

    2012-10-01

    Phosphorus (P) leaching from on-site wastewater treatment systems may contribute to eutrophication. In developed countries the most common on-site treatment technique is septic systems with soil infiltration. However, the current knowledge about long term P removal in soil treatment systems is not well developed and the data used for estimation of P losses from such systems are unreliable. In this study we sampled four filter beds from community-scale soil treatment systems with an age of between 14 and 22 years to determine the long-term P removal and to investigate the chemical mechanisms behind the observed removal. For one site the long-term P removal was calculated using a mass balance approach. After analysis of the accumulated P, it was estimated that on average 12% of the long-term P load had been removed by the bed material. This indicates a low overall capacity of soil treatment systems to remove phosphorus. Batch experiments and chemical speciation modelling indicated that calcium phosphate precipitation was not an important long-term P removal mechanism, with the possible exception of one of the sites. More likely, the P removal was induced by AlPO4 precipitation and/or sorption to poorly ordered aluminium compounds, as evidenced by strong relationships between oxalate-extractable Al and P.

  5. Long-term surveillance plan for the Burro Canyon disposal cell Slick Rock, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Burro Canyon disposal cell in San Miguel County, Colorado. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites are cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Burro Canyon disposal cell. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination that remedial action is complete at the Burro Canyon disposal cell and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. Attachment 1 contains the concurrence letters from NRC. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE has implemented to ensure that the Burro Canyon disposal cell performs as designed. The program is based on site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity. Ground water monitoring will not be required at the Burro Canyon disposal cell because the ground water protection strategy is supplemental standards based on low yield from the uppermost aquifer. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project's long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR 40.27(b) and 40 CFR 192.03

  6. Long-term prognosis and causes of death after spondylodiscitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Theis; Roed, Casper; Dahl, Benny; Obel, Niels

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on long-term prognosis after spondylodiscitis are scarce. The purpose of this study was to determine long-term mortality and the causes of death after spondylodiscitis. METHODS: A nationwide, population-based cohort study using national registries of patients diagnosed with non......-post-operative pyogenic spondylodiscitis from 1994-2009, alive 1 year after diagnosis (n = 1505). A comparison cohort from the background population individually matched for sex and age was identified (n = 7525). Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed and Poisson regression analyses used to estimate mortality rate......). CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with spondylodiscitis have increased long-term mortality, mainly due to comorbidities, particularly substance abuse....

  7. Staining of palatal torus secondary to long term minocycline therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buddula Aravind

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Minocycline and other tetracycline analogs are well known to cause discoloring of alveolar bone, teeth and other tissues. The present case reports palatine torus discoloring, in a 91-year-old patient, after long term minocycline therapy. The patient was presented with staining of the palatal torus resulting from prior minocycline use for three-and-a-half years. The diagnosis of minocycline staining of palatal torus was done during a routine hygiene examination. The patient was informed that the bluish appearance of the palatal torus was the result of long term minocycline use. The patient was not willing to discontinue the antibiotic and was not concerned about the appearance. The clinician should inform patients on long term minocycline therapy about the possible side effects of staining of the alveolar bone, teeth and other soft tissue.

  8. Long-term Internship through Cooperative Education with Regional Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kenzo; Hase, Hiroyuki

    The long term internship is one of special educational programs for graduate students of Graduate School of Engineering in University of Fukui. This is a collaborative program between university and industries where selected post-graduate students are dispatched to companies for a long term and educated in real business environments. It is the final goal of the program to develop sophisticated specialists who would be able to catch the business strategy in industries and solve any problems by themselves. The program is managed in a semester (6 months) and contains 1.5 month prior education of preliminary special knowledge, ethics and secrecy, about 3 month dispatch with long-term internship, and 1.5 month post-education for complementary education and presentation. This paper presents the effect of this program which has been evolving since 2005.

  9. Long-term impact of sales promotion on brand image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijela Mandić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Sales promotion (SP is an inevitable tool in the marketing communications mix, especially in the FMCG markets, due to pressures such as retailers’ growing demands and increasing competition. This has proven to be an issue for many companies, especially those with a premium brand positioning and those concerned about the impact that SP might have on the long-term image of the company. Despite the fact that literature is replete with research on SP, it seems to be vastly generalized and mostly focused on price reductions. Thus, this paper aims to analyze and discuss the issue of the long-term impact that SP has on companies, especially on premium brands in the FMCG markets. It concludes that, when used properly and strategically, SP may have a positive long-term impact on brands.

  10. [Long-term evolution and complications of eating disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolas, Isabelle

    2008-01-31

    Eating disorders long-term evolution is good in 50% of cases, middle in 25% (recovery from eating disorders, but still psychological suffering) and bad in 25% of cases, with chronic eating disorders, anxious or depressive comorbid disorder, and bad consequences in social patients' life. Anorexia nervosa has a considerably worse long-term outcome than bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorders. Never the less, purging bulimia nervosa is often associated with other impulsive symptoms, such as addictions and suicide attempts. Chronic undernutrition leads to main long-term medical complications of eating disorders: linear growth in adolescents with anorexia nervosa, infertility, and osteoporosis. These complications need a specific medical follow up, at least once a year, added to the psychiatric and psychotherapist follow-up. PMID:18361276

  11. Considerations of long-term radiation injury in nonhemopoietic tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acute whole body doses resulting in long-term survival are limited to about 4-5 Gy if successful marrow transplantation is not performed, and the critical tissue at risk is the bone marrow. After doses approaching this limit, long-term somatic injury comprises cataracts, persistent but not permanent infertility in man, and temporary or permanent sterility in some women. If marrow tranplantation is successful, the acute dose can be increased to about 7.5 Gy. The limiting tissue now becomes the lung, and the limiting effect is pnenumonitis. Cataracts and infertility become more prevalent, and other long-term effects become apparent. The main additional nonhemopoietic somatic effects are restrictive and obstructive lung damage, and hormonal imbalances in children that result in retardation of sexual development and growth. There are also a few secondary malignancies and a few cases of leukoencephalopathy. However, the latter are associated with additional prophylactic treatments for CNS disease

  12. Stirling engine - Approach for long-term durability assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Michael T.; Bartolotta, Paul A.; Halford, Gary R.; Freed, Alan D.

    1992-01-01

    The approach employed by NASA Lewis for the long-term durability assessment of the Stirling engine hot-section components is summarized. The approach consists of: preliminary structural assessment; development of a viscoplastic constitutive model to accurately determine material behavior under high-temperature thermomechanical loads; an experimental program to characterize material constants for the viscoplastic constitutive model; finite-element thermal analysis and structural analysis using a viscoplastic constitutive model to obtain stress/strain/temperature at the critical location of the hot-section components for life assessment; and development of a life prediction model applicable for long-term durability assessment at high temperatures. The approach should aid in the provision of long-term structural durability and reliability of Stirling engines.

  13. Long-term urological outcomes in cloacal anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Brian T; Wilcox, Duncan T

    2016-04-01

    Cloacal anomalies are the most complex and severe form of congenital anorectal malformations (ARM) and urogenital malformations, and it has been well documented that increased severity of ARM leads to worse outcomes. While short-term data on persistent cloaca are available, a paucity of data on long-term outcomes exists, largely because of a lack of uniform terminology, inclusion with other ARM and evolution of the operative technique. On comprehensive review of the published literature on long-term urological outcomes in patients with cloacal anomalies, we found a significant risk of chronic kidney disease and incontinence, however, with improvements in surgical technique, outcomes have improved. Continence often requires intermittent catheterization and in some cases, bladder augmentation. The complexity of cloacal malformations and associated anomalies make long-term multidisciplinary follow-up imperative. PMID:26969235

  14. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are ralated to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product. (author)

  15. Long-term properties of bituminized waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is a survey of the factors of importance for the long term behaviour of bituminized ion exchange resins. Phenomena occurring in bituminized waste products affected by the treatment, storage and disposal are identified. Test methods have been developed for characterizing product properties, which are important for the long-term behaviour. The long-term properties of bituminized ion-exchange resins are studied in a repository environment with access of water equilibrated with concrete. In these circumstances the most important properties are related to the interactions of bituminized waste with the surrounding barriers. The most important phenomena are water uptake due to rehydration of the resins and subsequent swelling of the product

  16. Winning market positioning strategies for long term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, L F; Weinstein, K; Arndt, K

    1997-01-01

    The decision to develop an aggressive marketing strategy for its long term care facility has become a priority for the management of a one-hundred bed facility in the Rocky Mountain West. Financial success and lasting competitiveness require that the facility in question (Deer Haven) establish itself as the preferred provider of long term care for its target market. By performing a marketing communications audit, Deer Haven evaluated its present market position and created a strategy for solidifying and dramatizing this position. After an overview of present conditions in the industry, we offer a seven step process that provides practical guidance for positioning a long term care facility. We conclude by providing an example application. PMID:10179063

  17. Enabling informed consumer choice in the long-term care insurance market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzky, S; Alecxih, L M

    1999-01-01

    Provisions in the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA) may increase private long-term care insurance sales without imposing substantially more stringent consumer-protection features. The ability of consumers to make informed choices when purchasing this complex product is examined in light of these changes. Data were collected through detailed examinations of policies and interviews with industry experts, insurance companies, agents, consumer groups, and regulators. Because of the complexity of this product, the goals of expanding, consumer choice and ensuring that consumers are able to make informed decisions often work against each other. Mechanisms are discussed through which the government can facilitate informed choice and improve consumer protection. The authors contend that, because the government is providing tax incentives that encourage consumers to purchase the product, it has the responsibility to ensure that consumers understand the long-term care insurance they purchase. PMID:10537980

  18. legal aspects of the long-term safety of ultimate radioactive waste storage facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legal discussions on long-term safety under the Constitutional Law, the highest ranking law, center around the crucial point as to whether the State bears the responsibility towards future generations. The prevalent opinion affirms this because of the objective function of Basic Rights: Basic Rights provide for protection of future generations. This statement gives rise to the real legal problem which the paper investigates: For which periods, for how many generations, and in which intensity do the protective duties of the State apply. Solutions are offered via the protection of Basic Rights established for the current generation. (HSCH)

  19. Long-term surveillance plan for the Gunnison, Colorado disposal site. Revision 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the US Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Gunnison disposal site in Gunnison County, Colorado. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Gunnison disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct activities: (1) site inspections to identify threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) ground water monitoring to demonstrate disposal cell performance

  20. Long-term recurrence and death rates after acute pancreatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Helle; Tønnesen, Hanne; Tønnesen, Maja Hanne;

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death.......The aim of this study was to compare long-term recurrence and death rates after a first episode of acute pancreatitis in patients with and without gallstones. Additionally, it was of interest to find out if there were factors predictive of readmission or death....

  1. Long-term plasma exchange in pediatric CIDP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchetta, Marta; Vidal, Enrico; Sartori, Stefano; Campagnolo, Marta; Torre, Chiara Dalla; Marson, Piero; Manara, Renzo; Briani, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is not frequently used in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) because it usually gives only a short-term benefit. We report on a 16-year-old boy with renal insufficiency undergoing hemodialysis who developed CIDP and underwent TPE with dramatic long-term response to therapy. Nerve ultrasound and MRI findings are also reported. In our patient TPE was chosen because he was already undergoing hemodialysis. Though it is not considered a first-line therapy in pediatric CIDP, TPE may be a good therapeutic choice also in long-term period. PMID:25663075

  2. Monetary policy and long-term interest rates

    OpenAIRE

    Shu Wu

    1996-01-01

    This paper documents some new empirical results about the monetary policy and long-term interest rates in the United States. It shows that changes in the monetary policy stance are more predictable to the bond market in the 1990s than in the 1970s. This shift in the predictability of the monetary policy actions affects the policy¡¯s impact on long-term interest rates as well as the forecasting power of the yield spread for the future changes in short-term interest rates.

  3. The long-term outlook for nuclear capacity in Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report derives three estimates of long-term nuclear growth in Ontario for use in strategy studies of alternate nuclear fuel cycles. The low and high estimates encompass the full range of possible long-term nuclear growth rates. The middle, or base growth, estimate represents the nuclear growth pattern which seems at the present time most likely to occur. For the base growth estimate, nuclear capacity in Ontario reaches 31 GWe in 2000, grows to 175 GWe by 2060, and then remains constant. For the high growth estimate, the capacity in 2000 is 33 GWe, and climbs continuously to 833 GWe by the year 2100. (auth)

  4. [Long-term-management of organ transplant recipients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürger, Christin; Schmidt, Martina; Maschmeier, Miriam; Stella, Jaqueline; Hüsing, Anna; Wilms, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut Hans-Jürgen; Kabar, Iyad

    2016-07-01

    Due to advances in immunosuppressive therapy and surgical techniques, survival rates after solid organ transplantation have constantly improved over the last decades. In long-term care after transplantation, physicians need to focus as much on diagnosis and treatment of allograft-related complications as they should consider comorbidities and evaluate risk-factors and adverse events of immunosuppressive agents to prevent secondary diseases. In particular, cardiovascular and metabolic diseases, malignancy and infection play a major role in long-term survival. Therefore, screening of organ transplant recipients in regard to these complications and adverse events is a crucial part of follow up in these patients. PMID:27359310

  5. Geochemical modelling of long-term cement degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to investigate geochemical reactions related to long-term cement degradation caused by interaction with groundwater using a geochemical model. The results from modelling showed changes in chemical composition of pore water and cement compounds resulted from cement hydration and degradation. In this study, the volume of each cement compound was also calculated using a geochemical model. The porosity of cement caused by degradation was estimated using the change in volume of each cement compound. The results from this study provide important information to evaluate long-term durability of cement in groundwater system, which is closely related to the safety of radioactive waste disposal repository

  6. Long-term stability test of a triple GEM detector

    CERN Document Server

    Adak, R P; Das, S; Ghosal, D; Ghosh, S K; Mondal, A; Nag, D; Nayak, T K; Patra, R N; Prasad, S K; Raha, S; Sahu, P K; Sahu, S; Swain, S

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of the study is to perform the long-term stability test of gain of the single mask triple GEM detector. A simple method is used for this long- term stability test using a radioactive X-ray source with high activity. The test is continued till accumulation of charge per unit area > 12.0 mC/mm2. The details of the chamber fabrication, the test set-up, the method of measurement and the test results are presented in this paper.

  7. Towards The Long-Term Preservation of Building Information Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beetz, Jacob; Dietze, Stefan; Berndt, René;

    2013-01-01

    Long-term preservation of information about artifacts of the built environment is crucial to provide the ability to retrofit legacy buildings, to preserve cultural heritage, to ensure security precautions, to enable knowledge-reuse of design and engineering solutions and to guarantee the legal......, no existing approach is able to provide a secure and efficient long-term preservation solution covering the broad spectrum of 3D architectural data, while at the same time taking into account the demands of institutional collectors like architecture libraries and archives as well as those of the private...

  8. Human sperm chromosomes. Long-term effect of cancer treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long-term cytogenetic effect of radio- or chemotherapy or both on male germ cells was evaluated by study of the chromosomal abnormalities in spermatozoa of four men treated for cancer 5-18 years earlier. The cytogenetic analysis of 422 sperm metaphases showed no differences in the aneuploidy rate. The incidence of structural chromosome aberrations was 14.0%, however, which is much higher than in controls. Thus, the high incidence of structurally aberrant spermatozoa observed in our long-term study indicates that antitumoral treatments affect stem-cell spermatogonia and that aberrant cells can survive germinal selection and produce abnormal spermatozoa

  9. [Drug-eluting stents: long-term safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpov, Iu A; Samko, A N; Buza, V V

    2009-01-01

    The review concerns the problem of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents and their influence on late prognosis of the patients; presents long-term results of the trial of sirolimus-eluting stents implanted to patients with coronary heart disease; analyses mechanisms of development of late stent thrombosis, data from different meta-analyses and registers comparing long-term outcomes in patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents; suggests risk factors of late thromboses of drug-eluting stents; presents original evidence on 3.5-year follow-up of patients with implanted sirolimus-eluting stents and metallic stents. PMID:19537584

  10. Early sound deprivation and long-term hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welsh, L W; Welsh, J J; Healy, M P

    1996-11-01

    The long-term effects of hearing loss in early life were analyzed by tests of central auditory function. A majority of individuals failed the Compressed Speech identification with statistically significant results. There was an impact on a minority of individuals evaluated by Dichotic Sentences; little impairment was noted through Speech Reception in Noise. Delayed maturation of the central auditory complex may improve these findings, although during the period of investigation a negative impact was measured. Other issues of diagnosis, remediation, and the consequences of short- and long-term deafness are discussed. PMID:8916863

  11. Long term uranium requirements of different reactor systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to limited assured and possible uranium reserves in our country, to secure the long term requirements in uranium is one of the main problems of nuclear power development. Cumulative uranium requirements have been calculated for long term nuclear power construction program of 26.000 MWe in the period 1990 - 2000, for several reactor strategies which start with PWR or HWR reactors and finish with introduction of fast breeders in years 2000, 2005 and 2010. In some cases intermediate phase of plutonium recycling, respectively U-Th fuel cycles is assumed following the 'once through' HWR fuel cycles. (author)

  12. Performance of Organic Grain Cropping Systems in Long-Term Experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Teasdale, John R.; Cavigelli, Michel A.

    2008-01-01

    Organic farming and conventional no-tillage farming systems share many of the same benefits from protecting and improving soils. A review of recent results from two long-term systems experiments in the mid-Atlantic region of the U.S.A. demonstrates that organic cropping systems with organic amendments can increase soil carbon, nitrogen, and yield potential more than conventional no-tillage, despite the use of tillage in organic systems. However, reduced-tillage organic systems present chall...

  13. Short- and long-term effects of (−)-epicatechin on myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yamazaki, Katrina Go; Romero-Perez, Diego; Barraza-Hidalgo, Maraliz; Cruz, Michelle; Rivas, Maria; Cortez-Gomez, Brenda; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a correlation between flavonoid-rich diets and improved cardiovascular prognosis. Cocoa contains large amounts of flavonoids, in particular flavanols (mostly catechins and epicatechins). Flavonoids possess pleiotropic properties that may confer protective effects to tissues during injury. We examined the ability of epicatechin to reduce short-and long-term ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) myocardial injury. Epicatechin (1 mg·kg−1·day−1) pretreatment (Tx) was admin...

  14. The impact of private long-term care insurance on the use of long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong; Jensen, Gail A

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of privately purchased long-term care insurance (LTCI) on three major types of long-term care services: nursing home care, paid home care, and informal care received from Family and friends. Using 2002-2008 data from the ongoing Health and Retirement Study, we analyze the determinants of long-term care utilization simultaneously with the determinants of holding LTCI. We find that LTCI has modest effects on the likelihood of using long-term care services. For the very frail elderly, private LTCI enhances their access to nursing home care. For those with moderate disability, LTCI makes it more likely that they can remain at home and receive home care services, instead of going to a nursing home. We find no evidence that formal care substitutes for informal care in the presence of LTCI. These findings suggest that if LTCI becomes much more prevalent in the future, many older adults will be able to choose the type of long-term care arrangement that best suits their needs. PMID:21634261

  15. Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste: practical issues and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regulating the long-term safety of geological disposal of radioactive waste is a key part of making progress on the radioactive waste management issue. A survey of member countries has shown that differences exist both in the protection criteria being applied and in the methods for demonstrating compliance, reflecting historical and cultural differences between countries which in turn result in a diversity of decision-making approaches and frameworks. At the same time, however, these differences in criteria are unlikely to result in significant differences in long-term protection, as all the standards being proposed are well below levels at which actual effects of radiological exposure can be observed and a range of complementary requirements is foreseen. In order to enable experts from a wide range of backgrounds to debate the various aspects of these findings, the NEA organised an international workshop in November 2006 in Paris, France. Discussions focused on diversity in regulatory processes; the basis and tools for assuring long-term protection; ethical responsibilities of one generation to later generations and how these can be discharged; and adapting regulatory processes to the long time frames involved in implementing geological disposal. These proceedings include a summary of the viewpoints expressed as well as the 22 papers presented at the workshop. (author)

  16. Local Government Implementation of Long-Term Stewardship at Two DOE Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pendergrass; Roman Czebiniak; Kelly Mott; Seth Kirshenberg; Audrey Eidelman; Zachary Lamb; Erica Pencak; Wendy Sandoz

    2003-08-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up the radioactive and chemical contamination that resulted from the production of nuclear weapons. At more than one hundred sites throughout the country DOE will leave some contamination in place after the cleanup is complete. In order to protect human health and the environment from the remaining contamination DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state environmental regulatory agencies, local governments, citizens and other entities will need to undertake long-term stewardship of such sites. Long-term stewardship includes a wide range of actions needed to protect human health in the environment for as long as the risk from the contamination remains above acceptable levels, such as barriers, caps, and other engineering controls and land use controls, signs, notices, records, and other institutional controls. In this report the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) and the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) examine how local governments, state environmental agencies, and real property professionals implement long-term stewardship at two DOE facilities, Losa Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Reservation.

  17. Involvement of Proteasome and Macrophages M2 in the Protection Afforded by Telmisartan against the Acute Myocardial Infarction in Zucker Diabetic Fatty Rats with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Di Filippo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the involvement of proteasome and macrophages M2 in the protection afforded by telmisartan against the acute myocardial infarction in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF rats with metabolic syndrome. ZDF rats were treated for three weeks with telmisartan at doses of 7 and 12 mg/kg/day. After treatment, rats were subjected to a 25 min occlusion of the left descending coronary artery followed by 2 h reperfusion (I/R. At the end of the I/R period, biochemical, immunohistochemical, and echocardiographic evaluations were done. Telmisartan treatment (7 mg/kg and 12 mg/kg reduced the myocardial infarct size, the expression of proteasome subunits 20S and 26S, and the protein ubiquitin within the heart. The compound has led to an increased M2 macrophage phenotype within the cardiac specimens and a modification of the cardiac cytokine and chemokine profile. This was functionally translated in improved cardiac performance as evidenced by echography after 2 h reperfusion. 7 mg/kg/day telmisartan was sufficient to improve the left ventricular ejection fraction LVEF of the rat heart recorded after I/R (e.g., vehicle 38 ± 2.2%; telmisartan 54 ± 2.7% and was sufficient to improve the diastolic function and the myocardial performance index up to values of 0.6 ± 0.01 measured after I/R.

  18. Commentary: Personalized health planning and the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: an opportunity for academic medicine to lead health care reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinan, Michaela A; Simmons, Leigh Ann; Snyderman, Ralph

    2010-11-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (PPACA) mandates the exploration of new approaches to coordinated health care delivery--such as patient-centered medical homes, accountable care organizations, and disease management programs--in which reimbursement is aligned with desired outcomes. PPACA does not, however, delineate a standardized approach to improve the delivery process or a specific means to quantify performance for value-based reimbursement; these details are left to administrative agencies to develop and implement. The authors propose that coordinated care can be implemented more effectively and performance quantified more accurately by using personalized health planning, which employs individualized strategic health planning and care relevant to the patient's specific needs. Personalized health plans, developed by providers in collaboration with their patients, quantify patients' health and health risks over time, identify strategies to mitigate risks and/or treat disease, deliver personalized care, engage patients in their care, and measure outcomes. Personalized health planning is a core clinical process that can standardize coordinated care approaches while providing the data needed for performance-based reimbursement. The authors argue that academic health centers have a significant opportunity to lead true health care reform by adopting personalized health planning to coordinate care delivery while conducting the research and education necessary to enable its broad clinical application. PMID:20844424

  19. Do the long-term unemployed adapt to unemployment?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Witte, Hans

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The literature on the psychological consequences of unemployment suggests that an adaptation process takes place among the long-term unemployed. Their psychological well-being decreases strongly at the beginning of unemployment, to stabilize at a lower level after a certain time. This stabilization is due to an adaptation process, in which the unemployed decrease their job search behaviors and lower their employment commitment. In this cross-sectional study from Belgium, 563 short-term and 195 long-term unemployed are compared on psychological well-being, the experience of unemployment, employment commitment and job search behavior. The results are in line with the hypothesis of an adaptation process among the long-term unemployed. The short-term unemployed experienced more psychological distress than the long-term unemployed. The short-term unemployed also showed stronger employment commitment and more often applied for jobs. The results of some retrospective questions, in which the respondents had to compare their actual behaviors and well-being with those in the past, suggest that an adaptation process took place. Some policy recommendations are discussed.

  20. Immediate and Long-Term Impacts of Child Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.

    1994-01-01

    Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…

  1. Forecasting long-term energy demand of Croatian transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport sector in Croatia represents one of the largest consumers of energy today, with a share of almost one third of the country's final energy demand. Considering this fact, it is very challenging to assess future trends influencing that demand. In this paper, long-term energy demand predictions for the Croatian transport sector are presented. Special emphasis is given to different influencing mechanisms, both legal and financial. The energy demand predictions presented in this paper are based on an end-use simulation model developed and tested with Croatia as a case study. The model incorporates the detailed modal structure of the Croatian transport sector, including road, rail, air, public and water transport modes. Four long-term energy demand scenarios were analysed till the year 2050; frozen efficiency, implementation of EU legislation, electrification and modal split. Based on that analysis, significant savings can be achieved through energy efficiency improvements, electrification of personal vehicles fleet as well as gradual modal split. Comparing the frozen efficiency scenario and electrification scenario for the year 2050, it can be concluded that energy consumption, with the heavy electrification of personal vehicles fleet, can be cut by half. - Highlights: • A bottom-up model was created and used to forecast long term energy demand of Croatian transport sector. • Four different long term energy demand scenarios were created using the model. If comparing the two most extreme scenarios, energy savings can go up to 59% in the year 2050

  2. Long-term changes and trends in the lower ionosphere

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laštovička, Jan

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 27, - (2002), s. 497-507. ISSN 1474-7065 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3042101 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3042911 Keywords : lower ionosphere * long-term trends Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  3. Dietary antioxidants and long-term risk of dementia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.E. Devore (Elizabeth); F. Grodstein (Francine); F.J.A. van Rooij (Frank); A. Hofman (Albert); M.J. Stampfer (Meir); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); M.M.B. Breteler (Monique)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The Rotterdam Study previously found that higher dietary intakes of vitamins E and C related to lower risk of dementia and Alzheimer disease (AD) over 6 years of follow-up. Objective: To study consumption of major dietary antioxidants relative to long-term risk of dementia. D

  4. Long-Term Sequelae after Cerebellar Astrocytoma Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term effects on neurologic, neuropsychological, and behavioral functioning in a consecutive series of 23 children treated surgically for cerebellar pilocytic astrocytoma without additional radio- and chemotherapy are determined in a study at Sophia Children’s Hospital, Rotterdam, The Netherlands, and other medical centers.

  5. Phototherapy for Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia: Long-Term Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Audrey K., Ed.; Showacre, Jane, Ed.

    This book contains 16 papers from the 1974 conference held by the Pregnancy and Infancy Branch of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development to: (1) assess the photobiological processes involved in phototherapy used in treatment of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia, and (2) to document long term clinical experience with the treatment…

  6. Marketing in the long-term care continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurence, J Nathan; Kash, Bita A

    2010-04-01

    Today, long-term care facilities are composed of independent, assisted living, and skilled nursing facilities along with many variations of those themes in between. The clientele for these various types of facilities differ because of the level of care the facility provides as well as the amenities long-term care consumers are looking for. However, there many similarities and common approaches to how reaching the target audience through effective marketing activities. Knowing who the target audience is, how to reach them, and how to communicate with them will serve any facility well in this competitive market. Developing marketing strategies for long-term care settings is as important as understanding what elements of care can be marketed individually as a niche market. Determining the market base for a facility is equally crucial since the target populations differ among the three types of facilities. By reviewing current marketing articles and applying marketing practices, we have crafted some general principles for which each facility type can learn from. Finally, we will discuss the types of marketing and how they related to the spectrum of long-term care facilities. PMID:20446138

  7. Polycarbonates: a long-term highly sensitive radon monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Pressyanov, D; Poffijn, A; Meesen, G; Deynse, A V

    2000-01-01

    An approach for long-term (either retrospective or prospective) sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn measurements is proposed that is based on the combination of the high radon absorption ability of some polycarbonates with their alpha track-etch properties. The detection limit is projected to be <10 Bq m sup - sup 3 for an exposure time of 20 yr.

  8. Ethosuximide vs Valproate Long-term Remission of Absence Epilepsy

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap; Millichap, John J.

    2014-01-01

    Investigators from the Epilepsy Center, Lurie Children's Hospital of Chicago, and Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, examined the possible association between long-term seizure outcome of childhood absence epilepsy (CAE) and the initial treatment with ethosuximide (ESM) or valproic acid (VPA).

  9. Microfinance and rural development: a long-term perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moll, H.A.J.

    2006-01-01

    The long-term perspective on microfinance starts with a discussion of three central issues: first, views and policies, with two opposing views: "credit for target group" and "pushing the financial frontier"; second, the performance of microfinance institutions measured via two objectives: outreach a

  10. Modeling Wettability Variation during Long-Term Water Flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renyi Cao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface property of rock affects oil recovery during water flooding. Oil-wet polar substances adsorbed on the surface of the rock will gradually be desorbed during water flooding, and original reservoir wettability will change towards water-wet, and the change will reduce the residual oil saturation and improve the oil displacement efficiency. However there is a lack of an accurate description of wettability alternation model during long-term water flooding and it will lead to difficulties in history match and unreliable forecasts using reservoir simulators. This paper summarizes the mechanism of wettability variation and characterizes the adsorption of polar substance during long-term water flooding from injecting water or aquifer and relates the residual oil saturation and relative permeability to the polar substance adsorbed on clay and pore volumes of flooding water. A mathematical model is presented to simulate the long-term water flooding and the model is validated with experimental results. The simulation results of long-term water flooding are also discussed.

  11. Long term assurance of supply of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The answer of Switzerland and Great Britain to a number of questions concerning the long-term assurance of the supply of heavy water are presented. The original problems are seen in the wider context of raw materials supply and its assurance in general. Non-proliferation aspects are touched

  12. Long-Term Outcome in Pyridoxine-Dependent Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Levinus A.; Halbertsma, Feico J..; Houterman, Saskia; Wevers, Ron A.; Vreeswijk, Charlotte; Jakobs, Cornelis; Struys, Eduard; van der Hoeven, Johan H.; Sival, Deborah A.; Willemsen, Michel A.

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The long-term outcome of the Dutch pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy cohort and correlations between patient characteristics and follow-up data were retrospectively studied. Method: Fourteen patients recruited from a national reference laboratory were included (four males, 10 females, from 11 families; median age at assessment 6y; range 2y…

  13. A Digital Signature Scheme for Long-Term Security

    OpenAIRE

    Poulakis, Dimitrios; Rolland, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a signature scheme based on two intractable problems, namely the integer factorization problem and the discrete logarithm problem for elliptic curves. It is suitable for applications requiring long-term security and provides a more efficient solution than the existing ones.

  14. Long term impacts of international outsourcing of manufacturing on sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moosavirad, Seyed Hamed; Kara, Sami; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    2014-01-01

    International outsourcing seems to be a cost efficient way of production. However, there are serious concerns about its long term impacts on the environmental, social and economic sustainability. This paper aims to quantify these impacts by using input output analysis, linear programming and system...

  15. Long-Term Effects of Neurofeedback Treatment in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouijzer, Mirjam E. J.; de Moor, Jan M. H.; Gerrits, Berrie J. L.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; van Schie, Hein T.

    2009-01-01

    Previously we demonstrated significant improvement of executive functions and social behavior in children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) treated with 40 sessions of EEG neurofeedback in a nonrandomized waiting list control group design. In this paper we extend these findings by reporting the long-term results of neurofeedback treatment in…

  16. Non-proliferation aspects of long term assurance of supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meetings in this section deal with the non-proliferation aspects of long-term assurance of supply of the nuclear fuel cycle. A list of 12 fundamental questions concerning the observation and application of the non-proliferation regulations is followed by the comments made by representatives of 10 countries

  17. Long term assurance of supply of raw materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The working group discussed the long-term assurance of uranium supply. A number of key questions is presented along with the answers given by representatives of 10 countries and by EC commission. Emphasis is laid on market stability and on the difficulties in adopting to sudden changes in the supply and demand situation

  18. Long-Term Psychosomatic Effects of Biofeedback vs. Relaxation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowlis, David P.; Borzone, Ximena C.

    Differences were compared in the short-term and long-term responses of subjects with headache, insomnia, or hypertension to biofeedback training, relaxation, or a combination of both. Headache sufferers, insomniacs, and hypertensives were randomly assigned in equal numbers to biofeedback, relaxation training or a record-keeping control. Over 2…

  19. Long-Term Outcome in Guillain-Barre Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term sequelae and early predictors of sequelae were determined in a chart review of 47 children with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS of whom 30 had been treated with intravenous gammaglobulin (IVIG at The Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada.

  20. Container for long-term storage of radioactive matter (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A corrosion-resistent and inexpensive container for long-term storage of radioactive matter, in particular of spent fuel elements is described to be stored in geologic formations apt for the purpose. The container is made of copper-based alloys using tin, aluminium, nickel or beryllium and has relatively thin walls. (orig.)

  1. Subintimal angioplasty: predictors of long-term success.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Keeling, Aoife N

    2009-08-01

    To determine the clinical outcomes and success rates after percutaneous subintimal angioplasty (SIA) in patients with lower-limb occlusive lesions causing intermittent claudication (IC) or critical limb ischemia (CLI) at midterm to long-term follow-up. The secondary aim was to elicit factors predictive of a successful outcome.

  2. Gap filling strategies for long term energy flux data sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falge, E.; Baldocchi, D.; Olson, R.; Anthoni, P.; Aubinet, M.; Bernhofer, C.; Burba, G.; Ceulemans, R.; Clement, R.; Dolman, H.; Granier, A.; Gross, P.; Grünwald, T.; Hollinger, D.; Jensen, N.O.; Katul, G.; Keronen, P.; Kowalski, A.; Lai, C.T.; Law, B.E.; Meyers, T.; Moncrieff, J.; Moors, E.J.; Munger, J.W.; Pilegaard, K.; Rebmann, C.; Suyker, A.; Tenhunen, J.; Tu, K.

    2001-01-01

    At present a network of over 100 field sites are measuring carbon dioxide, water vapor and sensible heat fluxes between the biosphere and atmosphere, on a nearly continuous basis. Gaps in the long term measurements of evaporation and sensible heat flux must be filled before these data can be used fo

  3. Are long-term bisphosphonate users a reality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, B

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of long-term bisphosphonate use may be low due to low refill compliance and gaps in treatment. An analysis of the prescription history of 58,674 bisphosphonate users in Denmark found that only 2.8 % had received ten dose years of treatment or above. INTRODUCTION: This study aims to...... describe the demographics of present bisphosphonate (BP) users, to determine the prevalence of long-term BP use, and to establish if long-term use (a 10-year history of osteoporosis treatment) translated to ten dose years of bisphosphonate prescriptions filled, given the propensity for treatment gaps and...... received more than ten dose years of a BP. For any osteoporosis drug, 3.0 % had received ten dose years or more, while 23.2 % had received between 5 and 10 years of treatment. CONCLUSION: Long-term users with ten dose years or more of a BP are rare due to periods of low compliance and gaps, with a...

  4. The Basics of Long-Term Debt Issuance and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Meter, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Issuing long-term debt can be a complex, multifaceted process. Although the process varies by stare, typically the school business official and the district solicitor work with the financing ream, which includes a financial adviser, bond counsel, underwriter, raring agency, and possibly a bond insurance agent, paying agent, and architect.…

  5. PSA modeling of long-term accident sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the traditional Level 1 PSA, the long term of the accident sequences is usually taken into account in a simplified manner. For example, some of the mitigations which are needed at long term are taken into account in the PSA, but the analysis and the associated failures probabilities quantification are estimated based on generic assessments. In the context of the extension of PSA scope to include the external hazards, in France, both operator (EDF) and IRSN work for the improvement of methods to better take into account in the PSA the long term of accident sequences induced by initiators which affect the whole site containing several nuclear installations (reactors, fuel pools, ...). This is an essential prerequisite for the development of external hazards PSA. It has to be noted that in the French PSA, even before Fukushima, this type of accident sequences was already taken into account, many insight being used, as complementary information, to enhance the safety level of the plants. The recent French and international operating experience is an opportunity for tuning the actual PSA methods for long term accident sequences modeling. The paper presents the main results of the ongoing efforts in this area. (author)

  6. Acute mastoiditis in children: presentation and long term consequences.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Glynn, F

    2008-03-01

    Acute mastoiditis, a destructive bacterial infection of the mastoid bone and air cell system, is relatively uncommon today but remains a potentially serious condition. There is a lack of information in the literature regarding the long term otological problems that children may face following an episode of this condition.

  7. 41 CFR 51-6.3 - Long-term procurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Long-term procurements. 51-6.3 Section 51-6.3 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts COMMITTEE FOR PURCHASE FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED 6-PROCUREMENT...

  8. Medical Foster Care: An Alternative to Long-Term Hospitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Patricia H.; Whitworth, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a program model, Medical Foster Care, which uses registered nurses as foster parents who work closely with biological parents of abused and neglected children with acute health problems. The program reunites families, improves parenting skills, and saves money in long-term hospitalization. (Author/BB)

  9. Brachial plexus neuropathy - A long-term outcome study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geertzen, JHB; Groothoff, JW; Nicolai, JP; Rietman, JS

    2000-01-01

    This retrospective study assessed the long-term outcome of brachial plexus neuropathy in 16 patients. The mean follow up was 8 years. Nine patients complained of persistent pain and muscle weakness, four had continuing problems with various activities of daily living and 11 had trouble with some hou

  10. Towards Long-Term Preservation Policy in Electronic Archive

    OpenAIRE

    Abd El Karim Bjaja

    2005-01-01

    A Study about long-term preservation policy in electronic archives, it deals the important of the electronic government, then the challenges of preservation in electronic archives, and the media which use in preservation, and puts a policy for managing the electronic archives.

  11. Long-term outcomes in children born after assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Esther

    2012-04-01

    Millions of children have been born worldwide through assisted reproductive technology (ART), and access is increasing yearly. Our current knowledge and understanding of the long-term risks and/or benefits to the children conceived is incomplete. Investigations of the health, disease, cognitive, developmental, and behavioral outcomes are often confounded by other factors, including multiple gestations, prematurity, and low birthweight. Reports of the long-term health and psychosocial adjustment of children conceived with ART show generally good outcomes. Many of the major long-term problems observed in the children may be associated with multiple gestations, preterm delivery, and low birthweight or with subfertility of the parents. Evidence in the male infants conceived with the aid of intracytoplasmic sperm injection suggests an increased risk of reproductive tract anomalies such as hypospadias. Outcome data on health of children born after cryopreservation of cleavage stage embryos are reassuring. Measuring long-term outcomes is the first step to improving and optimizing health in the offspring conceived with medical and technological assistance. PMID:22549712

  12. Long-term Advertising Effects and Optimal Budgeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Bech Christensen, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Using pure single-source data, this paper provides evidence for theexistence and magnitude of long-term advertising effects across FMCG productcategories. Furthermore, we focus on the difficulties that arise for wellestablishedbrands when new products are introduced into the market andproduct...

  13. Long-Term Effects of Adderall XR in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The long-term tolerability and effectiveness of extended release mixed amphetamine salts (Adderall XR in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were evaluated in a 24-month, multicenter, open-label extension of 2 placebo-controlled studies at UCLA, Massachusetts General Hospital, UC-Irvine, Maitland, FL, and Shire Pharmaceutical, Wayne, PA.

  14. Health care utilisation among individuals reporting long-term pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Sjøgren, Per; Ekholm, Ola;

    2004-01-01

    the primary as well as the secondary health care sector, compared with a no pain control group. In 1994, individuals reporting long-term pain had on average 12.8 contacts per year to the primary health care sector compared with 7.3 for the control group. Use of secondary health care sector as...

  15. Gender-Based Violence in India: Long-Term Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simister, John; Mehta, Parnika S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines long-term trends in Indian society regarding domestic violence between husband and wife, and attitudes to such violence. This article analyzes crime data and uses data from several Indian household surveys: "Work Attitudes and Spending" surveys (1992 to 2007); "World Values Survey" (1990, 1995, 2001, and 2006); and…

  16. CENTRAL ASIA AND AZERBAIJAN:LONG-TERM ENERGY STRATEGIES

    OpenAIRE

    Zhukov, Stanislav; Reznikova, Oksana

    2012-01-01

    This article looks at the current state of and prospects for development of the energy sector in the post-Soviet countries of Central Asia and Azerbaijan and gives forecasts of the possibilities of implementing long-term energy projects in these regions.

  17. Methodology of long term behaviour study of containment materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here is the presentation of the papers shown in the colloquium on environment and ceramics; the Atomic Energy Commissariat (Cea) have been working for fifteen years on the long term behaviour of fission products glasses on very long periods, about several millions years. The method of studies is detailed. 2 refs

  18. Long-term priming of the meanings of ambiguous words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodd, Jennifer M.; Lopez Cutrin, Belen; Kirsch, Hannah; Millar, Allesandra; Davis, Matthew H.

    2013-01-01

    Comprehension of semantically ambiguous words (e.g., "bark") is strongly influenced by the relative frequencies of their meanings, such that listeners are biased towards retrieving the most frequent meaning. These biases are often assumed to reflect a highly stable property of an individual's long-term lexical-semantic representations. We present…

  19. Areas of Marital Dissatisfaction among Long-Term Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duba, Jill D.; Hughey, Aaron W.; Lara, Tracy; Burke, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    To better understand relational dissatisfaction and duration of long-term married couples, this study surveyed 30 couples married at least 40 years with the Marital Satisfaction Inventory. Findings suggest various areas of dissatisfaction (e.g., affective communication, conflict over child rearing) and relationship among and link to other areas of…

  20. Long-term brain slice culturing in a microfluidic platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedarethinam, Indumathi; Avaliani, N.; Tønnesen, J.;

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we present the development of a transparent poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) based microfluidic culture system for handling long-term brain slice cultures independent of an incubator. The different stages of system development have been validated by culturing GFP producing brain...... brain slice culturing for 16 days....

  1. Post-Learning Arousal Change and Long-Term Retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, V.K.; Farley, Frank H.

    This study examined the effects on long-term retention of variations in intensity and of temporal parameters of arousal following a single learning trial in a paired-associate task. The subjects were 56 female university students. Intensity of arousal was manipulated by using two levels of white noise--75 decibels and 90 decibels sound pressure…

  2. 7 CFR 1773.44 - Long-term debt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (CONTINUED) POLICY ON AUDITS OF RUS BORROWERS RUS Required Audit Procedures and Documentation § 1773.44 Long-term debt. The CPA's workpapers must document that he/she: (a) Confirmed RUS, FFB, and RTB debt to the appropriate confirmation schedule (RUS Form 690, Confirmation Schedule Obligation to the FFB as of: or...

  3. Long term benefits of hypnotherapy for irritable bowel syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Gonsalkorale, W M; Miller, V; Afzal, A.; Whorwell, P J

    2003-01-01

    Background and aims: There is now good evidence from several sources that hypnotherapy can relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome in the short term. However, there is no long term data on its benefits and this information is essential before the technique can be widely recommended. This study aimed to answer this question.

  4. Dying with Dementia in Long-Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D.; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Williams, Christianna S.; Hanson, Laura C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: To better understand the experiences and potential unmet need of persons who die in long-term care. Design and Methods: We conducted after-death interviews with staff who had cared for 422 decedents with dementia and 159 who were cognitively intact and received terminal care in U.S. nursing homes (NHs) or residential care-assisted living…

  5. Long-term field studies: positive impacts and unintended consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strier, Karen B

    2010-09-01

    Long-term field studies of wild primates can have far-reaching impacts that transcend their contributions to science. These impacts can benefit not only the study animals, study areas, and local human communities, but they can also have unintended, potentially negative consequences. Examples of some of the positive impacts from the Northern Muriqui Project of Caratinga, in Minas Gerais, Brazil, include contributions to conservation efforts on behalf of this critically endangered species, capacity building through the training of Brazilian students, and employment opportunities for local people through our collaboration with a locally administered NGO that is facilitating ecotourism, education, and reforestation programs. Some concerns about unintended consequences of the research include the effects of our trails and trail traffic on surrounding vegetation and other aspects of the environmental "footprints" that both long-term researchers and short-term visitors may leave. In addition, although precautions against potential health risks from routine exposure to human observers are now standard protocol, little is known about the other ways in which our long-term research presence can affect the primates' experiences or alter their perceptions of their social and ecological environments. Risk analysis, which weighs both the positive and negative impacts can provide useful perspectives for addressing the ethical considerations that can arise during long-term field studies. PMID:20653002

  6. N-Acetyl-L-Cysteine Affords Protection against Lead-Induced Cytotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Human Liver Carcinoma (HepG2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul B. Tchounwou

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Although lead exposure has declined in recent years as a result of change to lead-free gasoline, several epidemiological have pointed out that it represents a medical and public health emergency, especially in young children consuming high amounts of lead-contaminated flake paints. A previous study in our laboratory indicated that lead exposure induces cytotoxicity in human liver carcinoma cells. In the present study, we evaluated the role of oxidative stress in lead-induced toxicity, and the protective effect of the anti-oxidant n-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC. We hypothesized that oxidative stress plays a role in lead-induced cytotoxicity, and that NAC affords protection against this adverse effect. To test this hypothesis, we performed the MTT [3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay and the trypan blue exclusion test for cell viability. We also performed the thiobarbituric acid test for lipid peroxidation. Data obtained from the MTT assay indicated that NAC significantly increased the viability of HepG2 cells in a dosedependent manner upon 48 hours of exposure. Similar trend was obtained with the trypan blue exclusion test. Data generated from the thiobarbituric acid test showed a significant (p ≤ 0.05 increase of MDA levels in lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells compared to control cells. Interestingly, the addition of NAC to lead nitrate-treated HepG2 cells significantly decreased cellular content of reactive oxygen species (ROS, as evidenced by the decrease in lipid peroxidation byproducts. Overall, findings from this study suggest that NAC inhibits lead nitrate-induced cytotoxicity and oxidative stress in HepG2 cells. Hence, NAC may be used as a salvage therapy for lead-induced toxicity in exposed persons.

  7. Architecture analysis for European Long-Term Archiving EO systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Gil, I.; Perez Moreno, R.; Perez Navarro, O.; Leone, R.

    2012-04-01

    Over the last ten years there has been a strongly increased need for access to historical Earth Observation (EO) data series, mainly for long term science and environmental monitoring applications. As the contents of EO space data archives increases from a few years duration to a period of decades their scientific values increases dramatically. The main objective of this Long Term Data Preservation(LTDP) initiative is to guarantee the long term preservation of the data from all EO ESA and Third Parties ESA managed missions, while also ensuring their accessibility and usability, as part of a joint and cooperative approach in Europe aimed at preserving the EO European data from member states' missions. To allow the maximum value to be extracted from the data, it is well recognized that there is a need to preserve this data without time limitations, while keeping all archived data accessible and exploitable. This will be even more of a challenge in the coming years, as the large number of upcoming Earth Observation missions will lead to a major increase in the available volume of EO data The LTDP Impact Analysis and Architecture Definition project (for simplicity known as LTDP-IMPACTS) aims to define and consolidate the architecture of European Long-Term Archiving EO systems, especially in the context of ESA PDGS. To do this, we shall perform a complete assessment of the impacts of implementing the guidelines from the LTDP initiative. This assessment will be over all timescales, short, middle and long-term, and must take into account all systems involved, from the point of view of "System of System" (SoS), and their data flows, data sets and their related operational policies for LTDP implementation The LTDP guidelines, and the standards adopted as a result, will have various impacts on the legacy and future long term archiving systems, the systems used to access them, and on the overall operational concept. This will particularly apply to the ESA PDGS environment

  8. The case for long term storage of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper might advocate a different approach to the problem of radioactive waste storage/management, but in the new spirit of dialogue, all options must be considered and all viewpoints must be invited. In assessing the options for radioactive waste containment, citizens' groups and lay people can offer much in the way of critical analysis, and many in this room possess the technical know-how and expertise that can augment alternative proposals for the long term management of radioactive waste. And together a critical analysis and a technical expertise will generate response options that people can comment on democratically, and consensus options that can be implemented.The democratization of the radioactive waste issue includes education about the social, environmental, health and human security impacts of nuclear power, and these are some of the concerns addressed in this paper. Nuclear Guardianship advocates four main points: Interim containment of radioactive materials in accessible, monitored storage, so that leaks can be repaired, and future technologies for reducing and containing their radioactivity can be applied; Stringent limits on transport of radioactive materials, to avoid contaminating new sites, and to minimize accidents; Transmission to future generations of the knowledge necessary for their self-protection; The cessation of the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy, which further creates radioactive materials. Nuclear Guardianship is an educational effort aimed at developing the political, technical and ethical understandings required for the responsible care of radioactive materials, materials which remain cancer causing and mutagenic beyond a human conceptualization of time. Such an educational effort, on all levels, has yet to take place because of the secrecy which still prevails, under the mantra of national security, regarding many nuclear related matters. But let this moment mark the beginning where both educational and citizen

  9. Long-term behaviour of timber structures in torrent control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickli, Christian; Graf, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Timber is widely used for protection measures in torrent control. However, life span of woody constructions such as timber check dams is limited due to fungal decay. However, only sparse scientific information is available on the long-term behaviour of timber structures and the colonisation with decay fungi. Related to this, in practice a controversial discussion has been going on if either Norway Spruce (Picea abies) or Silver Fir (Abies alba) is more enduring and if bark removal increases resistance against fungal decay. In order to going into this matter a series of 15 timber check dams built in 1996 has been monitored. The constructions were alternatively realised with Norway Spruce and Silver Fir, half of them each with remaining and removed bark, respectively. The scientific investigations included the documentation of colonisation with rot fungi and the identification of decayed zones with a simple practical approach as well as based on drilling resistance. Colonisation by decay fungi started three years after construction (e.g. Gloeophyllum sepiarium), detecting two years later first parts with reduced wood resistance. Sixteen years after construction decay was found on all check dams but two. Wood quality was markedly better in watered sections compared to the occasionally dry lateral abutment sections. Taking the whole check dams into consideration, slightly more decay was detected in Norway Spruce compared to logs in Silver Fir and both the practical approach and the drilling resistance measurement yielded in more defects on logs without bark. However, due to limited number of replications and fungal data, it was not possible to statistically verify these results. Statistical analysis was restricted to the drilling resistance data and fruit-bodies of decay fungi of the uppermost log of each check dam. Based on this limited analysis significant differences in the effect on the drilling resistance were found for watered sections and lateral abutments

  10. Long-term Black Carbon Dynamics in Cultivated Soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Binh T; Lehmann, Johannes C; Kinyangi, James; Smernik, Ron; Riha, Susan J; Engelhard, Mark H

    2008-07-01

    Black carbon (BC) is a quantitatively important C pool in the global carbon cycle due to its relative recalcitrance against decay compared with other C pools. However, how rapidly BC is oxidized and in what way the molecular structure changes during decomposition over decadal time scales, is largely unknown. In the present study, the long-term dynamics in quality and quantity of BC were investigated in cultivated soil using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) techniques. BC particles, obtained from soil samples at 8 conversion ages stretching over 100 years and from a forest soil sample from Kenya, were manually picked under a light microscope for characterization and quantification. BC contents rapidly decreased from 12.7 to 3.8 mg C g⁻¹ soil during the first 30 years since conversion, after which they slowly decreased to a steady state at 3.51 mg C g ⁻¹soil. BC-derived C losses over 100 years were estimated at 6000 kg C ha⁻¹ to a depth of 0.1 m. The initial rapid changes in BC stocks resulted in a mean residence time of only around 8.3 years, which was likely a function of both decomposition as well as transport processes. The molecular properties of BC changed more rapidly on surfaces than in the interior of BC particles and more rapidly during the first 30 years than during the following 70 years. The Oc/C ratios (Oc is O bound to C) and carbonyl groups (C=O) increased over time by 133 and 192 %, respectively, indicating oxidation was an important degradation process controlling BC quality. Al, Si, polysaccharides, and to a lesser extent Fe were rapidly adsorbed on BC particle surfaces within the first few years after BC deposition to soil. The protection by physical and chemical stabilization was apparently sufficient to not only minimize decomposition below detection between 30 and 100 years after deposition, but also physical export by erosion and vertical transport below 0

  11. Some long term effects on land application of sewage sludge on soil fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metals may affect the growth of plants, soil microbial activity, and soil fertility in the long term. Less is known of the adverse long-term effects of metals on soil microorganisms than on crop yields, since the effects of metals added to soils in sewage sludge are difficult to assess, and few long-term experiments exist. This paper reviews evidence from controlled long-term field experiments with sewage sludges in the UK, Sweden, Germany and the USA. Adverse effects on microbial activity and populations of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii, mycorrhiza, and total microbial biomass have been detected, in some cases below the European Community's maximum allowable concentration limits for metals in sludge-treated soils. For example, N2-fixation by free- living heterotrophic bacteria was found to be inhibited at concentrations (mg kg-1) of 127 Zn, 37 Cu, 21 Ni, 3.4 Cd, 52 Cr and 71 Pb. Fixation by free-living cyanobacteria was reduced by 50% at concentrations (mg kg-1) of 114 Zn, 33 Cu, 17 Ni, 2.9 Cd, 80 Cr and 40 Pb. Numbers of Rhizobium Leguminosarum bv. trifolii were decreased by several orders of magnitude at metal concentrations (mg kg-1) of 130-200 Zn, 27-48 Cu, 11-15 Ni, and 0.8-1.0 Cd. Important factors influencing the severity of toxicity are soil texture and pH; higher pH and clay and organic C contents decrease metal toxicity considerably. The evidence presented in this review of long-term field experiments suggests that adverse effects on microbial parameters occur at modest concentrations of metals in soils. It is concluded that prevention of adverse effects on soil microbial processes, and ultimately on soil fertility, should be a factor that influences soil-protection legislation. (author)

  12. Long-term surveillance plan for the Mexican Hat disposal site Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Mexican Hat, Utah, disposal site. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. Before each disposal site is licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Mexican Hat disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the disposal site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP. This LTSP describes the long-term surveillance program the DOE will implement to ensure that the Mexican Hat disposal site performs as designed. The program is based on two distinct types of activities: (1) site inspections to identify potential threats to disposal cell integrity, and (2) monitoring of selected seeps to observe changes in flow rates and water quality. The LTSP is based on the UMTRA Project long-term surveillance program guidance and meets the requirements of 10 CFR section 40.27(b) and 40 CFR section 192.03. 18 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  13. The long-term costs of career interruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketsche, Patricia G; Branscomb, Lisette

    2003-01-01

    This article is based on a study that analyzed the long-term salary implications of career choices made by healthcare administrators. The study used a cohort of graduates from a single health administration program; these individuals had comparable levels of human capital at the outset of their careers. We estimated the effect of periods of part-time employment and job interruptions--voluntary and involuntary--on long-term salary progression. We also estimated the impact of other career choices, such as membership in a professional organization or the decision to relocate. After controlling for these choices, we estimated the residual effect of gender on salary. We found that voluntary interruptions had a greater effect on long-term salary growth than did involuntary interruptions of the same length or periods of part-time employment. Individuals evaluating options for balancing career and family constraints should understand the long-term cost of choosing a career interruption rather than part-time employment during periods of heightened responsibilities outside the workplace. Healthcare administrators should also be educated about the positive association between professional memberships and career advancement to make informed decisions about participation in such organizations. Surprisingly, after controlling for all choice variables, gender had no measurable effect on long-term salary growth. Half of those who indicated a voluntary interruption for dependent care reasons preferred part-time or flexible-hour work if it had been available. These results suggest that a pool of healthcare administrators might compete for positions if more part-time opportunities were available. PMID:12592867

  14. Physiological, Molecular and Genetic Mechanisms of Long-Term Habituation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calin-Jageman, Robert J

    2009-09-12

    Work funded on this grant has explored the mechanisms of long-term habituation, a ubiquitous form of learning that plays a key role in basic cognitive functioning. Specifically, behavioral, physiological, and molecular mechanisms of habituation have been explored using a simple model system, the tail-elicited siphon-withdrawal reflex (T-SWR) in the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. Substantial progress has been made on the first and third aims, providing some fundamental insights into the mechanisms by which memories are stored. We have characterized the physiological correlates of short- and long-term habituation. We found that short-term habituation is accompanied by a robust sensory adaptation, whereas long-term habituation is accompanied by alterations in sensory and interneuron synaptic efficacy. Thus, our data indicates memories can be shifted between different sites in a neural network as they are consolidated from short to long term. At the molecular level, we have accomplished microarray analysis comparing gene expression in both habituated and control ganglia. We have identified a network of putatively regulated transcripts that seems particularly targeted towards synaptic changes (e.g. SNAP25, calmodulin) . We are now beginning additional work to confirm regulation of these transcripts and build a more detailed understanding of the cascade of molecular events leading to the permanent storage of long-term memories. On the third aim, we have fostered a nascent neuroscience program via a variety of successful initiatives. We have funded over 11 undergraduate neuroscience scholars, several of whom have been recognized at national and regional levels for their research. We have also conducted a pioneering summer research program for community college students which is helping enhance access of underrepresented groups to life science careers. Despite minimal progress on the second aim, this project has provided a) novel insight into the network mechanisms by

  15. Long-term sealing of openings in salt formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive wastes can be disposed of in deep salt formations. Rock salt is a suitable geologic medium because of its unique characteristics. Open boreholes, shafts and drifts are created to provide physical access to the repository. Long-term seals must be emplaced in those potential pathways to prevent radioactive release to the biosphere. The sealing materials must be mechanically and, most important, geochemically stable within the host rock. Salt bricks made of compressed salt-powder are understood to be the first choice long-term sealing material. Seals built from salt bricks will be ductile. The permeability of the salt bricks is assumed to be in the order of 2*10-15 m2. Large sealing systems are built by combining the individual bricks with mortar. Raw materials for mortar are fine-grained halite powder and ground saliferous clay. The permeability of the mortar decreases with its salt content to approx. 2*10-14 m2. Moistened saliferous clay may show temporary swelling. Sealing experiments will be carried out in the Asse salt mine. Long-term seals will be built into holes of 1 m diameter. The contact and merging of the brick-wall with the surrounding rock salt will be investigated in long-term tests. Within the in situ sealing program a number of geophysical methods are applied. Acoustic emission measurements are used to study the effects of high pressure gas injection and a geoelectrical observation program is aiming to estimate the permeability in and around the long-term seal. High frequency electromagnetic methods contribute to the knowledge of the petrophysical rock properties. 11 refs., 12 figs

  16. Private Long-Term Care Insurance: Value to Claimants and Implications for Long-Term Care Financing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Pamela; Cohen, Marc A.; Miller, Jessica; Shi, Xiaomei

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to obtain a profile of individuals with private long-term care (LTC) insurance as they begin using paid LTC services and track their patterns of service use, satisfaction with services and insurance, claims denial rates, and transitions over a 28-month period. Design and Methods: Ten LTC insurance companies…

  17. Compensation for PKMζ in long-term potentiation and spatial long-term memory in mutant mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsokas, Panayiotis; Hsieh, Changchi; Yao, Yudong; Lesburguères, Edith; Wallace, Emma Jane Claire; Tcherepanov, Andrew; Jothianandan, Desingarao; Hartley, Benjamin Rush; Pan, Ling; Rivard, Bruno; Farese, Robert V; Sajan, Mini P; Bergold, Peter John; Hernández, Alejandro Iván; Cottrell, James E; Shouval, Harel Z; Fenton, André Antonio; Sacktor, Todd Charlton

    2016-01-01

    PKMζ is a persistently active PKC isoform proposed to maintain late-LTP and long-term memory. But late-LTP and memory are maintained without PKMζ in PKMζ-null mice. Two hypotheses can account for these findings. First, PKMζ is unimportant for LTP or memory. Second, PKMζ is essential for late-LTP and long-term memory in wild-type mice, and PKMζ-null mice recruit compensatory mechanisms. We find that whereas PKMζ persistently increases in LTP maintenance in wild-type mice, PKCι/λ, a gene-product closely related to PKMζ, persistently increases in LTP maintenance in PKMζ-null mice. Using a pharmacogenetic approach, we find PKMζ-antisense in hippocampus blocks late-LTP and spatial long-term memory in wild-type mice, but not in PKMζ-null mice without the target mRNA. Conversely, a PKCι/λ-antagonist disrupts late-LTP and spatial memory in PKMζ-null mice but not in wild-type mice. Thus, whereas PKMζ is essential for wild-type LTP and long-term memory, persistent PKCι/λ activation compensates for PKMζ loss in PKMζ-null mice. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14846.001 PMID:27187150

  18. Long-term surveillance plan for the Rifle, Colorado, Disposal site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This long-term surveillance plan (LTSP) describes the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) long-term care program for the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project Estes Gulch disposal site in Garfield County, Colorado. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed regulations for the issuance of a general license by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for the custody and long-term care of UMTRA Project disposal Sites in 10 CFR Part 40. The purpose of this general license is to ensure that the UMTRA Project disposal sites, will be cared for in a manner that protects the public health and safety and the environment. For each disposal site to be licensed, the NRC requires the DOE to submit a site-specific LTSP. The DOE prepared this LTSP to meet this requirement for the Estes Gulch disposal site. The general license becomes effective when the NRC concurs with the DOE's determination of completion of remedial action for the Estes Gulch site and the NRC formally accepts this LTSP

  19. Is German long-term care insurance a model for the United States?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schunk, M V; Estes, C L

    2001-01-01

    German long-term care insurance, implemented in 1995, significantly extends the coverage of care-related risks. Given the similarities of German and U.S. institutional features, the German social insurance approach has been put forward as a possible model for long-term care in the United States. Using a political economy framework, the authors conducted a policy analysis that compares the main shortfalls of long-term care (LTC) provision in the United States and Germany, examines the responses provided by LTC insurance in Germany, and relates them to broader trends and proposals for change in welfare policy in both countries. German LTC insurance includes a high degree of consumer direction and compensation and protection for informal caregivers; it supports the extension of community-based services. Its shortfalls include the continued split between health and LTC insurance. In both countries, decentralization and institutional and financial fragmentation are some of the characteristics responsible for the failure to promote egalitarian social policy and substantially expand social protection to family- and care-related risks. The German LTC program is a good model for the United States. With a social insurance approach to LTC, costs are spread across the largest possible risk pool. Major goals that can be reached with such a program include establishment of universal entitlements to LTC benefits, consumer choice, and equitability and uniformity. PMID:11562009

  20. Long-Term Environmental Research Programs - Evolving Capacity for Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, F. J.

    2008-12-01

    Long-term forestry, watershed, and ecological research sites have become critical, productive nodes for environmental science research and in some cases for work in the social sciences and humanities. The Forest Service's century-old Experimental Forests and Ranges and the National Science Foundation's 28- year-old Long-Term Ecological Research program have been remarkably productive in both basic and applied sciences, including characterization of acid rain and old-growth ecosystems and development of forest, watershed, and range management systems for commercial and other land use objectives. A review of recent developments suggests steps to enhance the function of collections of long-term research sites as interactive science networks. The programs at these sites have evolved greatly, especially over the past few decades, as the questions addressed, disciplines engaged, and degree of science integration have grown. This is well displayed by small, experimental watershed studies, which first were used for applied hydrology studies then more fundamental biogeochemical studies and now examination of complex ecosystem processes; all capitalizing on the legacy of intensive studies and environmental monitoring spanning decades. In very modest ways these collections of initially independent sites have functioned increasingly as integrated research networks addressing inter-site questions by using common experimental designs, being part of a single experiment, and examining long-term data in a common analytical framework. The network aspects include data sharing via publicly-accessible data-harvester systems for climate and streamflow data. The layering of one research or environmental monitoring network upon another facilitates synergies. Changing climate and atmospheric chemistry highlight a need to use these networks as continental-scale observatory systems for assessing the impacts of environmental change on ecological services. To better capitalize on long-term

  1. Long-Term Monitoring Research Needs: A DOE Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, B.; Davis, C. B.

    2002-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management is responsible for dealing with the nation's legacy of Cold War radioactive and hazardous waste and contamination. Major efforts are underway to deal with this legacy; these are expected to last up to decades and cost up to billions of dollars at some sites. At all sites, however, active remediation must eventually cease; if hazards then remain, the site must enter into a long-term stewardship mode. In this talk we discuss aspects of long-term monitoring pertinent to DOE sites, focusing on challenges to be faced, specific goals or targets to be met, and research needs to be addressed in order to enable DOE to meet its long-term stewardship obligations. DOE LTM research needs fall into three major categories: doing what we can do now much more efficiently; doing things we cannot do now; and proving the validity of our monitoring programs. Given the enormity of the DOE obligations, it will be highly desirable to develop much more efficient monitoring paradigms. Doing so will demand developing autonomous, remote monitoring networks of in situ sensors capable of replacing (or at least supplementing to a large extent) conventional groundwater and soil gas sampling and analysis programs. The challenges involved range from basic science (e.g., inventing in situ sensors for TCE that do not demand routine maintenance) to engineering (attaining superior reliability in data reporting in remote networks) to ergonomics (developing decent ways of selecting and presenting the "right" information from the monitoring network) to regulatory affairs (presenting convincing evidence that the more efficient systems actually provide superior monitoring). We explore these challenges in some detail, focusing on the "long" in long-term monitoring as it applies to DOE sites. Monitoring system performance validation and, ultimately, regulator and stakeholder acceptance of site closure and long-term stewardship plans depend

  2. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seetharam, Raviraja N.; Szuchmacher Blum, Amy; Soto, Carissa M.; Whitley, Jessica L.; Sapsford, Kim E.; Chatterji, Anju; Lin, Tianwei; Johnson, John E.; Guerra, Charles; Satir, Peter; Ratna, Banahalli R.

    2008-03-01

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications.

  3. Long term storage of virus templated fluorescent materials for sensing applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild type, mutant, and chemically modified Cowpea mosaic viruses (CPMV) were studied for long term preservation in the presence and absence of cryoprotectants. Viral complexes were reconstituted and tested via fluorescence spectroscopy and a UV/vis-based RNase assay for structural integrity. When viruses lyophilized in the absence of cryoprotectant were rehydrated and RNase treated, UV absorption increased, indicating that the capsids were damaged. The addition of trehalose during lyophilization protected capsid integrity for at least 7 weeks. Measurements of the fluorescence peak maximum of CPMV lyophilized with trehalose and reconstituted also indicate that the virus remained intact. Microarray binding assays indicated that CPMV particles chemically modified for use as a fluorescent tracer were intact and retained binding specificity after lyophilization in the presence of trehalose. Thus, we demonstrate that functionalized CPMV nanostructures can be stored for the long term, enabling their use in practical sensing applications

  4. Long-term ecosystem dynamics in the Serengeti: lessons for conservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, A R E; Mduma, Simon A R; Hopcraft, J Grant C; Fryxell, John M; Hilborn, Ray; Thirgood, Simon

    2007-06-01

    Data from long-term ecological studies further understanding of ecosystem dynamics and can guide evidence-based management. In a quasi-natural experiment we examined long-term monitoring data on different components of the Serengeti-Mara Ecosystem to trace the effects of disturbances and thus to elucidate cause-and-effect connections between them. The long-term data illustrated the role of food limitation in population regulation in mammals, particularly in migratory wildebeest and nonmigratory buffalo. Predation limited populations of smaller resident ungulates and small carnivores. Abiotic events, such as droughts and floods, created disturbances that affected survivorship of ungulates and birds. Such disturbances showed feedbacks between biotic and abiotic realms. Interactions between elephants and their food allowed savanna and grassland communities to co-occur. With increased woodland vegetation, predators' capture of prey increased. Anthropogenic disturbances had direct (hunting) and indirect (transfer of disease to wildlife) effects. Slow and rapid changes and multiple ecosystem states became apparent only over several decades and involved events at different spatial scales. Conservation efforts should accommodate both infrequent and unpredictable events and long-term trends. Management should plan on the time scale of those events and should not aim to maintain the status quo. Systems can be self-regulating through food availability and predator-prey interactions; thus, culling may not be required. Ecosystems can occur in multiple states; thus, there may be no a priori need to maintain one natural state. Finally, conservation efforts outside protected areas must distinguish between natural change and direct human-induced change. Protected areas can act as ecological baselines in which human-induced change is kept to a minimum. PMID:17531037

  5. [A Reflection on the Policy of Transcultural Long-Term Care for the Indigenous Peoples in Taiwan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeq, Yi-Maun; Hsu, Mutsu

    2016-06-01

    Giving high-profile attention to socio-cultural and traditional beliefs in the promotion of long-term care policies enjoys strong, consensus support in the field of transcultural nursing. To protect the rights of indigenous people in Taiwan, the Ministry of Health and Welfare incorporated the concept of cultural care into the Long-term Care Services Act, which was approved by the Legislature in May 2014. However, the policies, resource strategies, manpower allocations, and staff educations and trainings related to this act are still await implementation in indigenous areas. Beyond the concept of professional healthcare, which considers cultural sensitivity, suitability, and ability, cultural care gives greater priority to crossing cultural barriers, integrating with the lifestyle of clients, and addressing their concerns in order to improve the well-being of target populations. The present article reviews current long-term care policy to highlight the importance of considering the cultural needs of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan in order to enhance the efficiency and impact of long-term care programs. Furthermore, the findings strongly recommend that additional resources be provided in order to meet the long-term care needs of indigenous communities. Finally, cultural-specific, long-term care service strategies should be promulgated in order to upgrade well-being in order to ease and comfort the feelings of indigenous people. PMID:27250953

  6. British Columbia electricity export policy: Long-term firm exports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A policy statement on long-term firm electricity exports from British Columbia is presented, combining the recommendations of the British Columbia Energy Council with provincial objectives and input from interested parties. The general objective of the policy is to maximize net provincial benefits, defined to include financial and non-financial impacts, without negative effects on the province's energy security. Matters considered in the policy include the types of generating resources and transmission facilities permitted, the marketing of the exports, the entities allowed to engage in exports, review of export sales agreements, terms and conditions of export, and the requirement for social and environmental reviews. A background paper is included which provides the reasons for the policy direction on long-term firm electricity exports as well as more detailed information on some aspects of the policy

  7. Long-term Study of a Quadrivalent Human Papillomavirus Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferris, Daron; Samakoses, Rudiwilai; Block, Stan L;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS: Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6....... At month 30, the placebo group (n = 482) received HPV4 vaccine following the same regimen and both cohorts were followed through month 96. Subjects ≥16 years were eligible for effectiveness evaluations. The primary objective was to evaluate the long-term anti-HPV6/11/16/18 serological levels. The...... secondary objective was to estimate vaccine effectiveness against HPV6/11/16/18-related persistent infection or disease. RESULTS: For each of the HPV4 vaccine types, vaccination-induced anti-HPV response persisted through month 96. Among 429 subjects who received HPV4 vaccine at a mean age of 12, none...

  8. Long term creep strength of silver alloyed copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term creep strength of silver alloyed copper has been estimated using literature creep data for materials with less than 0.1% Ag. The available data was very limited, and it was necessary to test the differences between various data sets and extrapolation methods. Assuming constant stress level and constant or changing temperature, the creep behaviour has been assessed using mainly Larson-Miller and theta-projection approaches. The calculations indicate that the different extrapolation methods and data sources can yield strongly different life estimates. With the available incomplete data the theta projection method may give the conservative life predictions, whereas the Larson-Miller approach grossly overestimates creep life. It is recommended that supplementary data is acquired to better assess the long term creep properties of canisters in repository conditions

  9. Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program, Amchitka Island, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of the Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka Island, Alaska, is to obtain data that will assure the public safety, inform the public, the news media, and the scientific community relative to radiological contamination, and to document compliance with federal, state, and local antipollution requirements. Amchitka's geographical setting, climate, geology, hydrology, and ecology are described. Site history including event information for LONG SHOT in 1965, MILROW in 1969, and CANNIKIN in 1971 is described. Event related contamination has been observed only at the LONG SHOT site. At this site, tritium in concentrations below the drinking water standards has been observed in mud pits and wells in the area adjacent to surface ground zero. The Long-Term Hydrologic Monitoring Program for Amchitka is described. No radioactive venting, significant radioactive leakage, or bioenvironmental damage resulted from any of the nuclear tests on Amchitka

  10. Optimization of cask capacity for long term spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the IAEA Subprogramme of Spent Fuel Management, a new project was conceived, focusing on issues associated with the optimization of cask/container loading (capacity) with respect to long term storage and the related integrity of fuel. An initial Consultants Meeting held in November 2002 identified and discussed principal issues regarding the optimization of cask/container assembly capacity and burnup/age capability in the design of systems for long term spent fuel storage and the related integrity of fuel. Based on resulting working materials, a Technical Meeting was held in March 2003 to obtain country-specific views from both regulators and implementers on this topic. Discussions focused on the following issues relevant to cask loading optimization: fuel integrity, retrievability, zoning, burnup credit, damaged fuel, computer code verification, life of cask components, cask maintenance, performance confirmation, and records management. Follow-on actions and meetings will be pursued to develop a TECDOC on this subject. (author)

  11. Long-Term Problems of Nuclear Energy, October 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Text was written by Enelbert Broda in Oktober 1976. In this report, the physicist and chemist Engelbert Broda discusses various areas of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and concludes that the negative aspects outweigh the positive and that the use of nuclear energy has to be rejected in the long term. In 16 chapters the biggest and most dangerous problems are discussed. Include the unresolved question of disposal, problems of reprocessing and transport of fissile materials, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology, risks of terrorism, dismantling and decontamination of old nuclear power plants, the toxicity of fissile material, as well as the general unprofitable use of nuclear power plants. As a long-term alternative the author suggests an intensification of the exploitation of solar energy, as well as a deliberate restriction of the rising demand for energy.(roessner)

  12. Long-term RNA persistence in postmortem contexts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Kampmann, Marie-Louise; van Doorn, Nienke L; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2013-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNA) are generally considered fragile molecules that are readily degraded. However, there is growing documentation of long-term (from days to centuries) RNA persistence in a variety of contexts and tissue types, and as such a number of academic disciplines are beginning to...... exploit degraded RNA. While the reasons for its survival are not fully understood, there are several plausible mechanisms that would safeguard this molecule against degradation. However, after examining the literature available on the postmortem instability and decay mechanisms of RNA, it has become clear...... that limited experimental studies and no reviews offer an overview of these mechanisms. Hence in this review we outline molecular reasons for RNA surviving long-term postmortem, and provide specific examples of RNA survival in forensic, archival and archaeological contexts. A better understanding of...

  13. Long-Term Ageing Management Strategies for Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All nuclear power plants have implemented some form of long-term ageing management at their facility. However, methodologies have been developed recently that can provide enhancements to the existing ageing management plans. Comprehensive long-term ageing management strategies consider the role of every system, structure, and component (SSC) in the nuclear power plant and assesses how ageing can prevent those SSCs from performing those roles. While the ultimate goal of the different methodologies is the same (that is, managing the ageing of plant SSCs to assure safety and cost efficiency) their focus and stakeholders are different, and therefore, there are differences in the specific methodologies. These categories of methodologies can be defined as experience-based, regulatory-based, and economic-based methodologies. This paper will provide an overview of the three different categories of ageing management methodologies. (author)

  14. Long-Term Effects of School Size on Students' Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Humlum, Maria Knoth; Smith, Nina

    school size and alternative measures of long-term success in the educational system and the labor market. The positive impact of school size seems mainly to be driven by boys, students from families with a low educational level and students attending schools in urban areas.......We estimate the effect of school size on students' long-term outcomes such as high school completion, being out of the labor market, and earnings at the age of 30. We use rich register data on the entire population of Danish children attending grade 9 in the period 1986-2004. This allows us to...... compare the results of different fixed effect and instrumental variables estimators. We use the natural population variation in the residentail catchment areas and school openings and closures to instrument for actual school size. We find a robust positive but numerically fairly small relationship between...

  15. Long-Term Psychosocial Problems in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beyhan Bag

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Developments in methods of early diagnostic and treatment of cancer have increased the rate of survival. However, research also indicates that there has been an increase in the costs to health care system caused by both post-treatment of the disease itself and the possible psychosocial problems associated with the therapy. This evaluation stresses the importance of long-term post-treatment monitoring of cancer patients and emphasizes necessity of ensuring continuity of care. Sustainable long-term treatment and care procedures for the cancer survival patients have been developed in accordance with international regulations. The psychosocial services for cancer patients offered in our country are inadequate as these are at an early stage of development. However, establishment of organizations and coordination of various consultancy services for this group of patients can lead to prevention of workforce loss and other costs, as well as raise the quality of life for these patients.

  16. Long-Term Underground Corrosion of Stainless Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. K. Adler Flitton; T. S. Yoder

    2007-03-01

    In 1970, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) implemented the most ambitious and comprehensive long-term corrosion behavior test to date for stainless steels in soil environments. Over thirty years later, one of the six test sites was targeted to research subsurface contamination and transport processes in the vadose and saturated zones. This research directly applies to environmental management operational corrosion issues and long term stewardship scientific needs for understanding the behavior of waste forms and their near-field contaminant transport of chemical and radiological contaminants at nuclear disposal sites. This paper briefly describes the ongoing research and the corrosion analysis results of the stainless steel plate specimens recovered from the partial recovery of the first test site.

  17. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to explore the profile of acute and long-term psychiatric side effects associated with mefloquine. METHODS: Subjects (n = 73) reported to a Danish national register during five consecutive years for mefloquine associated side effects were included. Acute...... psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long......-term effects were evaluated with SF-36. SCL-90-R and SF-36 data were compared to age- and gender matched controls. RESULTS: In the SCL-90-R, clinically significant scores for anxiety, phobic anxiety and depression were found in 55%, 51%, and 44% of the mefloquine group. Substantial acute phase psychotic...

  18. Long-Term Problems of Nuclear Energy, December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Text was written by Enelbert Broda in Oktober 1976. In this report, the physicist and chemist Engelbert Broda discusses various areas of peaceful uses of nuclear energy and concludes that the negative aspects outweigh the positive and that the use of nuclear energy has to be rejected in the long term. In 16 chapters the biggest and most dangerous problems are discussed. Include the unresolved question of disposal, problems of reprocessing and transport of fissile materials, the proliferation of nuclear weapons technology, risks of terrorism, dismantling and decontamination of old nuclear power plants, the toxicity of fissile material, as well as the general unprofitable use of nuclear power plants. As a long-term alternative the author suggests an intensification of the exploitation of solar energy, as well as a deliberate restriction of the rising demand for energy.(roessner)

  19. Long-term ecophysiological responses to climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Kristine Stove; Ro-Poulsen, Helge

    Plant physiology is affected by climate change. Acclimations of photosynthetic processes are induced by short-term changes in climatic conditions. Further acclimation can be caused by longterm adjustments to climate change due to ecosystem-feedbacks. The aim of this PhD was to investigate plant...... physiological responses to climate change in a seasonal and long-term perspective. The effects of elevated CO2, passive night time warming and periodic summer drought as single factor and in combination, on plant physiology were investigated in the long-term multifactorial field experiment CLIMAITE in a Danish...... term responses of plant physiology to the climate change factors were investigated. In the CLIMAITE-experiment it has been shown that 2 years of treatment altered physiological responses in Deschampsiaand Calluna. In the work of this PhD similar responses were observed after 6 years of treatment...

  20. Linking long-term dietary patterns with gut microbial enterotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Gary D; Chen, Jun; Hoffmann, Christian; Bittinger, Kyle; Chen, Ying-Yu; Keilbaugh, Sue A; Bewtra, Meenakshi; Knights, Dan; Walters, William A; Knight, Rob; Sinha, Rohini; Gilroy, Erin; Gupta, Kernika; Baldassano, Robert; Nessel, Lisa; Li, Hongzhe; Bushman, Frederic D; Lewis, James D

    2011-10-01

    Diet strongly affects human health, partly by modulating gut microbiome composition. We used diet inventories and 16S rDNA sequencing to characterize fecal samples from 98 individuals. Fecal communities clustered into enterotypes distinguished primarily by levels of Bacteroides and Prevotella. Enterotypes were strongly associated with long-term diets, particularly protein and animal fat (Bacteroides) versus carbohydrates (Prevotella). A controlled-feeding study of 10 subjects showed that microbiome composition changed detectably within 24 hours of initiating a high-fat/low-fiber or low-fat/high-fiber diet, but that enterotype identity remained stable during the 10-day study. Thus, alternative enterotype states are associated with long-term diet. PMID:21885731