WorldWideScience

Sample records for affordable near-term burning-plasma

  1. Introduction to burning plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Momota, Hiromu

    1982-01-01

    The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles, the critical plasma Q-value for the thermal instability, and the Cherenkov's emission are discussed. The free energy of fusion-produced charged particles is large even in DT burning plasma. The primary role of fusion-produced energetic charged particles is the heating of fuel plasma. If the charged particle heating is large, burning may be thermally unstable. A zero dimensional analysis shows that the critical plasma Q-values for this thermal instability are nearly 5 for DT burning plasma of 14 keV and 1.6 for D-He 3 burning plasma of 60 keV. These critical plasma Q-values are small as compared to that required for commercial reactors. Then, some methods of burning-control should be introduced to fusion plasma. Another feature of energetic charged particles may be Cherenkov's emission of various waves in fusion plasma. The relationship between this micro-instability and transport phenomena may be the important problem to be clarified. The fusion-produced energetic charged particles have large Larmor radii, and they may have effects on balooning mode instability. (Kato, T.)

  2. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki

    2002-01-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  3. Burning plasmas in ITER for energy source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inoue, Nobuyuki [Atomic Energy Commission, Tokyo (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    Fusion research and development has two aspects. One is an academic research on science and technology, i.e., discovery and understanding of unexpected phenomena and, development of innovative technology, respectively. The other is energy source development to realize fusion as a viable energy future. Fusion research has been made remarkable progress in the past several decades, and ITER will soon realize burning plasma that is essential for both academic research and energy development. With ITER, scientific research on unknown phenomena such as self-organization of the plasma in burning state will become possible and it contributes to create a variety of academic outcome. Fusion researchers will have a responsibility to generate actual energy, and electricity generation immediately after the success of burning plasma control experiment in ITER is the next important step that has to be discussed seriously. (author)

  4. Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Mogens

    2016-01-01

    This entry presents the concept of affordances as part of an ecological approach to understanding how agents interact with objects in their environment. It examines some of the central developments of the concept, from J. J. Gibson’s original definition within psychology and Donald Norman’s design...

  5. Multi-Accuracy-Level Burning Plasma Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Garcia, J.; Giruzzi, G.; Huynh, P.; Huysmans, G.; Imbeaux, F.; Johner, J.; Scheider, M.

    2007-01-01

    The design of a reactor grade tokamak is based on a hierarchy of tools. We present here three codes that are presently used for the simulations of burning plasmas. At the first level there is a 0-dimensional code that allows to choose a reasonable range of global parameters; in our case the HELIOS code was used for this task. For the second level we have developed a mixed 0-D / 1-D code called METIS that allows to study the main properties of a burning plasma, including profiles and all heat and current sources, but always under the constraint of energy and other empirical scaling laws. METIS is a fast code that permits to perform a large number of runs (a run takes about one minute) and design the main features of a scenario, or validate the results of the 0-D code on a full time evolution. At the top level, we used the full 1D1/2 suite of codes CRONOS that gives access to a detailed study of the plasma profiles evolution. CRONOS can use a variety of modules for source terms and transport coefficients computation with different level of complexity and accuracy: from simple estimators to highly sophisticated physics calculations. Thus it is possible to vary the accuracy of burning plasma simulations, as a trade-off with computation time. A wide range of scenario studies can thus be made with CRONOS and then validated with post-processing tools like MHD stability analysis. We will present in this paper results of this multi-level analysis applied to the ITER hybrid scenario. This specific example will illustrate the importance of having several tools for the study of burning plasma scenarios, especially in a domain that present devices cannot access experimentally. (Author)

  6. U.S. Burning Plasma Organization Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonck, Raymond J.

    2009-01-01

    The national U.S. Burning Plasma Organization (USBPO) was formed to provide an umbrella structure in the U.S. fusion science research community. Its main purpose is the coordination of research activities in the U.S. program relevant to burning plasma science and preparations for participation in the international ITER experiment. This grant provided support for the continuing development and operations of the USBPO in its first years of existence. A central feature of the USBPO is the requirement for broad community participation in and governance of this effort. We concentrated on five central areas of activity of the USBPO during this grant period. These included: (1) activities of the Director and support staff in continuing management and development of the USBPO activity; (2) activation of the advisory Council; (3) formation and initial research activities of the research community Topical Groups; (4) formation of Task Groups to perform specific burning plasma related research and development activities; (5) integration of the USBPO community with the ITER Project Office as needed to support ITER development in the U.S.

  7. US plans for burning plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, D.

    1982-01-01

    The first US burning plasma experiment will be the TFTR at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The initial start-up with hydrogen is expected in December, 1983. The experiment by D-T reaction will begin in 1986. Because of the lack of shielding capability, later experiment is not yet defined. The informal scientific interaction with JET (European project) is kept. The design work on the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) continues, but is delayed. US fusion laboratories collaborated with IPP-Garching on the conceptual design of Zephyr experiment. The US continues to participate in INTOR activities, and will investigate into the critical issues relevant to both INTOR and FED in coming years. (Kato, T.)

  8. Alpha Heating and Burning Plasmas in Inertial Confinement Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betti, R; Christopherson, A R; Spears, B K; Nora, R; Bose, A; Howard, J; Woo, K M; Edwards, M J; Sanz, J

    2015-06-26

    Estimating the level of alpha heating and determining the onset of the burning plasma regime is essential to finding the path towards thermonuclear ignition. In a burning plasma, the alpha heating exceeds the external input energy to the plasma. Using a simple model of the implosion, it is shown that a general relation can be derived, connecting the burning plasma regime to the yield enhancement due to alpha heating and to experimentally measurable parameters such as the Lawson ignition parameter. A general alpha-heating curve is found, independent of the target and suitable to assess the performance of all laser fusion experiments whether direct or indirect drive. The onset of the burning plasma regime inside the hot spot of current implosions on the National Ignition Facility requires a fusion yield of about 50 kJ.

  9. NIFS symposium: toward the research of fusion burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Sanae

    1993-07-01

    NIFS symposium, entitled 'Toward the research of Fusion Burning Plasmas - Present status and Future Strategy' was held at NIFS on July 15th 1992. This NIFS symposium covers various topics related to burning plasma, e.g., JET DT experiment, Plan for DT experiment on TFTR as well as the future trends among researchers. To study the critical issues and trends of future research, a questionnaire was sent to about 100 researchers. This report presents such activities in the NIFS symposium. (author)

  10. Simulation of burning plasma dynamics in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.F.; Amano, T.; Ogawa, Y.; Inoue, N.

    1996-02-01

    Dynamics of burning plasma for various transient situations in ITER plasma has been simulated with a 1.5-dimensional up-down asymmetry Tokamak Transport Simulation Code (TTSC). We have mainly paid attention to intrinsic plasma transport processes such as the confinement improvement and the change of plasma profiles. It is shown that a large excursion of the fusion power takes place with a small improvement of the plasma confinement; e.g., an increase of the global energy confinement by a factor of 1.22 yields the fusion power excursion of ∼ 30% within a few seconds. Any feedback control of fueling D-T gas is difficult to respond to this short time scale of fusion power transient. The effect of the plasma profile on the fusion power excursion has been studied, by changing the particle transport denoted by the inward pinch parameter C V . It is found that the fusion power excursion is mild and slow, and the feedback control is quite effective in suppressing the fusion power excursion and in shortening the duration time of power transient in this case. The change in the pumping efficiency has also been studied and a large excursion of the fusion power has not been observed, because of the decrease in the fuel density itself in the case of the increase in the pumping efficiency, and the helium ash accumulation in the case of the decrease in the pumping efficiency. Finally it is shown that the MHD sawteeth activity leads to the fusion power fluctuation of ± 20%, although it is helpful for the helium ash exhaust. (author)

  11. Exploration of burning plasmas in FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meade, D.M.; Kessel, C.E.; Hammett, G.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Reactor Innovation Evaluation Studies (ARIES) have identified the key physics and technical issues that must be resolved before attractive fusion reactors can be designed and built. The Fusion Ignition Research Experiment (FIRE) design study has been undertaken to define the lowest cost facility to address the key burning plasma and advanced tokamak physics issues identified in the ARIES studies. The configuration chosen for FIRE is similar to that of ARIES-AT, a steady-state advanced tokamak reactor based on a high-βand high-bootstrap-current operating regime. The key advanced tokamak features of FIRE are: strong plasma shaping, double-null pumping divertors, low toroidal field ripple ( cr ). A longer term goal of FIRE is to explore 'steady-state' high-β advanced tokamak regimes with high bootstrap fractions (f BS ) ∼ 75% at β N ∼ 4 and moderate fusion gain (Q ∼ 5 to 10) under quasi-steady-state conditions for ∼ 3 τ cr . FIRE activities have focused on the physics and engineering assessment of a compact, high-field, cryogenic-copper-coil tokamak with: R o = 2.14 m, a = 0.595 m, B t (R o ) = 6 to 10T, I p = 4.5 to 7.7 MA with a flat top time of 40 to 20 s for 150 MW of fusion power. FIRE will utilize only metal plasma facing components; Be coated tiles for the first wall and W brush divertors to reduce tritium retention as required for fusion reactors. FIRE will be able to test divertor and plasma facing components under reactor relevant power densities since the fusion power density of 6 MWm -3 and neutron wall loading of 2.3 MWm -2 approach those expected in a reactor. (author)

  12. A Burning Plasma Experiment: the role of international collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prager, Stewart

    2003-04-01

    The world effort to develop fusion energy is at the threshold of a new stage in its research: the investigation of burning plasmas. A burning plasma is self-heated. The 100 million degree temperature of the plasma is maintained by the heat generated by the fusion reactions themselves, as occurs in burning stars. The fusion-generated alpha particles produce new physical phenomena that are strongly coupled together as a nonlinear complex system, posing a major plasma physics challenge. Two attractive options are being considered by the US fusion community as burning plasma facilities: the international ITER experiment and the US-based FIRE experiment. ITER (the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) is a large, power-plant scale facility. It was conceived and designed by a partnership of the European Union, Japan, the Soviet Union, and the United States. At the completion of the first engineering design in 1998, the US discontinued its participation. FIRE (the Fusion Ignition Research Experiment) is a smaller, domestic facility that is at an advanced pre-conceptual design stage. Each facility has different scientific, programmatic and political implications. Selecting the optimal path for burning plasma science is itself a challenge. Recently, the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee recommended a dual path strategy in which the US seek to rejoin ITER, but be prepared to move forward with FIRE if the ITER negotiations do not reach fruition by July, 2004. Either the ITER or FIRE experiment would reveal the behavior of burning plasmas, generate large amounts of fusion power, and be a huge step in establishing the potential of fusion energy to contribute to the world's energy security.

  13. Control of ITBs in Magnetically Confined Burning Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panta, S. R.; Newman, D. E.; Terry, P. W.; Sanchez, R.

    2017-10-01

    In the magnetically confined burning plasma devices (in this case Tokamaks), internal transport barriers (ITBs) are those regimes in which the turbulence is suppressed by the E X B velocity shear, reducing the turbulent transport. This often occurs at a critical gradient in the profiles. The change in the transport then modifies the density and temperature profiles feeding back on the system. These transport barriers have to be controlled both to form them for improved confinement and remove them to both prevent global instabilities and to remove the ash and unnecessary impurities in the device. In this work we focus on pellet injection and modulated RF heating as a way to trigger and control the ITBs. These have an immediate consequence on density and temperature and hence pressure profiles acting as a control knob. For example, depending upon pellet size and its radial position of injection, it either helps to form or strengthen the barrier or to get rid of ITBs in the different transport channels of the burning plasmas. This transport model is then used to investigate the control and dynamics of the transport barriers in burning plasmas using pellets and RF addition to the NBI power and alpha power.

  14. A Midsize Tokamak As Fast Track To Burning Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain ((ge) 10) with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). This could be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a more efficient magnetic divertor than those of present tokamaks is discussed.

  15. A midsize tokamak as a fast track to burning plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mazzucato

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the conceptual design of a midsize tokamak as a fast track to the investigation of burning plasmas. It is shown that it could reach large values of energy gain (≥ 10 with only a modest improvement in confinement over the scaling that was used for designing the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER. This can be achieved by operating in a low plasma recycling regime that experiments indicate can lead to improved plasma confinement. The possibility of reaching the necessary conditions of low recycling using a different magnetic divertor from those currently employed in present experiments is discussed.

  16. Testing program for burning plasma experiment vacuum vessel bolted joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsueh, P.K.; Khan, M.Z.; Swanson, J.; Feng, T.; Dinkevich, S.; Warren, J.

    1992-01-01

    As presently designed, the Burning Plasma Experiment vacuum vessel will be segmentally fabricated and assembled by bolted joints in the field. Due to geometry constraints, most of the bolted joints have significant eccentricity which causes the joint behavior to be sensitive to joint clamping forces. Experience indicates that as a result of this eccentricity, the joint will tend to open at the side closest to the applied load with the extent of the opening being dependent on the initial preload. In this paper analytical models coupled with a confirmatory testing program are developed to investigate and predict the non-linear behavior of the vacuum vessel bolted joint

  17. ITER-FEAT - The future international burning plasma experiment - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aymar, R.; Chuyanov, V.; Huguet, M.; Shimomura, Y.

    2001-01-01

    The focus of effort in the ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) since 1998 has been the development of a new design to meet revised technical objectives and a cost reduction target of about 50% of the previously accepted cost estimate. Drawing on the design solutions already developed and using the latest physics results and outputs from technology R and D projects, the Joint Central Team and Home Teams, working jointly, have been able to converge towards a new design which will allow the exploration of a range of burning plasma conditions, with a capacity to progress towards possible modes of steady state operation. As such the new ITER design, whilst having reduced technical objectives from its predecessor, will nonetheless meet the programmatic objective of providing an integrated demonstration of the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy. The main features of the current design and of its projected performance are introduced and the outlook for construction and operation is summarised. (author)

  18. Confinement projections for the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldston, R.J.; Bateman, G.; Kaye, S.M.; Perkins, F.W.; Pomphrey, N.; Stotler, D.P.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Porkolab, M.; Reidel, K.S.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Waltz, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    The mission of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX, formerly CIT) is to study the physics of self-heated fusion plasmas (Q = 5 to ignition), and to demonstrate the production of substantial amounts of fusion power (P fus = 100 to 500 MW). Confinement projections for BPX have been made on the basis of (1) dimensional extrapolation (2) theory-based modeling calibrated to experiment, and (3) statistical scaling from the available empirical data base. The results of all three approaches, discussed in this paper, roughly coincide. We presently view the third approach, statistical scaling, as the most reliable means for projecting the confinement performance of BPX, and especially for assessing the uncertainty in the projection. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  19. Systems Analysis of a Compact Next Step Burning Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kessel, C.E.; Meade, D.; Neumeyer, C.

    2002-01-01

    A new burning plasma systems code (BPSC) has been developed for analysis of a next step compact burning plasma experiment with copper-alloy magnet technology. We consider two classes of configurations: Type A, with the toroidal field (TF) coils and ohmic heating (OH) coils unlinked, and Type B, with the TF and OH coils linked. We obtain curves of the minimizing major radius as a function of aspect ratio R(A) for each configuration type for typical parameters. These curves represent, to first order, cost minimizing curves, assuming that device cost is a function of major radius. The Type B curves always lie below the Type A curves for the same physics parameters, indicating that they lead to a more compact design. This follows from that fact that a high fraction of the inner region, r < R-a, contains electrical conductor material. However, the fact that the Type A OH and TF magnets are not linked presents fewer engineering challenges and should lead to a more reliable design. Both the Type A and Type B curves have a minimum in major radius R at a minimizing aspect ratio A typically above 2.8 and at high values of magnetic field B above 10 T. The minimizing A occurs at larger values for longer pulse and higher performance devices. The larger A and higher B design points also have the feature that the ratio of the discharge time to the current redistribution time is largest so that steady-state operation can be more realistically prototyped. A sensitivity study is presented for the baseline Type A configuration showing the dependence of the results on the parameters held fixed for the minimization study

  20. Integrated predictive modelling simulations of burning plasma experiment designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, Glenn; Onjun, Thawatchai; Kritz, Arnold H

    2003-01-01

    Models for the height of the pedestal at the edge of H-mode plasmas (Onjun T et al 2002 Phys. Plasmas 9 5018) are used together with the Multi-Mode core transport model (Bateman G et al 1998 Phys. Plasmas 5 1793) in the BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code to predict the performance of the ITER (Aymar A et al 2002 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44 519), FIRE (Meade D M et al 2001 Fusion Technol. 39 336), and IGNITOR (Coppi B et al 2001 Nucl. Fusion 41 1253) fusion reactor designs. The simulation protocol used in this paper is tested by comparing predicted temperature and density profiles against experimental data from 33 H-mode discharges in the JET (Rebut P H et al 1985 Nucl. Fusion 25 1011) and DIII-D (Luxon J L et al 1985 Fusion Technol. 8 441) tokamaks. The sensitivities of the predictions are evaluated for the burning plasma experimental designs by using variations of the pedestal temperature model that are one standard deviation above and below the standard model. Simulations of the fusion reactor designs are carried out for scans in which the plasma density and auxiliary heating power are varied

  1. Proposed neutral-beam diagnostics for fast confined alpha particles in a burning plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Cooper, W.S.

    1986-10-01

    Diagnostic methods for fast confined alpha particles are essential for a burning plasma experiment. Several methods which use energetic neutral beams have been proposed. We review these methods and discuss system considerations for their implementation

  2. Relativistic electron kinetic effects on laser diagnostics in burning plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2018-02-01

    Toroidal interferometry/polarimetry (TIP), poloidal polarimetry (PoPola), and Thomson scattering systems (TS) are major optical diagnostics being designed and developed for ITER. Each of them relies upon a sophisticated quantitative understanding of the electron response to laser light propagating through a burning plasma. Review of the theoretical results for two different applications is presented: interferometry/polarimetry (I/P) and polarization of Thomson scattered light, unified by the importance of relativistic (quadratic in vTe/c) electron kinetic effects. For I/P applications, rigorous analytical results are obtained perturbatively by expansion in powers of the small parameter τ = Te/me c2, where Te is electron temperature and me is electron rest mass. Experimental validation of the analytical models has been made by analyzing data of more than 1200 pulses collected from high-Te JET discharges. Based on this validation the relativistic analytical expressions are included in the error analysis and design projects of the ITER TIP and PoPola systems. The polarization properties of incoherent Thomson scattered light are being examined as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational regimes. The theory is based on Stokes vector transformation and Mueller matrices formalism. The general approach is subdivided into frequency-integrated and frequency-resolved cases. For each of them, the exact analytical relativistic solutions are presented in the form of Mueller matrix elements averaged over the relativistic Maxwellian distribution function. New results related to the detailed verification of the frequency-resolved solutions are reported. The precise analytic expressions provide output much more rapidly than relativistic kinetic numerical codes allowing for direct real-time feedback control of ITER device operation.

  3. Review of Burning Plasma Physics. Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berk, Herb; Betti, Riccardo; Dahlburg, Jill; Freidberg, Jeff; Hopper, Bick; Meade, Dale; Navritil, Jerry; Nevins, Bill; Ono, Masa; Perkins, Rip; Prager, Stewart; Schoenburg, Kurt; Taylor, Tony; Uckan, Nermin

    2001-01-01

    The next frontier in the quest for magnetic fusion energy is the development of a basic understanding of plasma behavior in the regime of strong self-heating, the so called burning plasma regime. The general consensus in the fusion community is that the exploration of this frontier requires a new, relatively large experimental facility - a burning plasma experiment. The motivation, justification, and steps required to build such a facility are the primary focus of our report. The specific goals of the report are as follows. First, the report describes the critical scientific and engineering phenomena that are expected to arise for the first time, or else in a strongly modified form, in a burning plasma. Second, the report shows that the capabilities of existing experiments are inadequate to investigate these phenomena, thereby providing a major justification for a new facility. Third, the report compares the features and predicted performance of the three major next generation burning plasma experiments under current consideration (ITER-FEAT, FIRE, and IGNITOR), which are aimed at addressing these problems. Deliberately, no selection of the best option is made or attempted since such a decision involves complex scientific and cost issues that are beyond the scope of the present panel report. Fourth, the report makes specific recommendations regarding a process to move the burning plasma program forward, including a procedure for choosing the best option and the future activities of the Next Step Option (NSO) program. Fifth, the report attempts to provide a proper perspective for the role of burning plasmas with respect to the overall U.S. fusion program. The introduction provides the basic background information required for understanding the context in which the U.S. fusion community thinks about burning plasma issues. It sets the stage for the remainder of the report.

  4. Short-acting sulfonamides near term and neonatal jaundice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pia; Andersen, Jon Trærup; Jimenez-Solem, Espen

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the association between maternal use of sulfamethizole near term and the risk of neonatal jaundice.......To investigate the association between maternal use of sulfamethizole near term and the risk of neonatal jaundice....

  5. The importance of the toroidal magnetic field for the feasibility of a tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2000-01-01

    The next step in the demonstration of the scientific feasibility of a tokamak fusion reactor is a DT burning plasma experiment for the study and control of self-heated plasmas. In this paper, the authors examine the role of the toroidal magnetic field on the confinement of a tokamak plasma in the ELMy H-mode regime--the operational regime foreseen for ITER

  6. Review of D-T Experiments Relevant to Burning Plasma Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawryluk, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Progress in the performance of tokamak devices has enabled not only the production of significant bursts of fusion energy from deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasmas in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and the Joint European Torus (JET) but, more importantly, the initial study of the physics of burning magnetically confined plasmas. The TFTR and JET, in conjunction with the worldwide fusion effort, have studied a broad range of topics including magnetohydrodynamic stability, transport, wave-particle interactions, the confinement of energetic particles, and plasma boundary interactions. The D-T experiments differ in three principal ways from previous experiments: isotope effects associated with the use of deuterium-tritium fuel, the presence of fusion-generated alpha particles, and technology issues associated with tritium handling and increased activation. The effect of deuterium-tritium fuel and the presence of alpha particles is reviewed and placed in the perspective of the much large r worldwide database using deuterium fuel and theoretical understanding. Both devices have contributed substantially to addressing the scientific and technical issues associated with burning plasmas. However, future burning plasma experiments will operate with larger ratios of alpha heating power to auxiliary power and will be able to access additional alpha-particle physics issues. The scientific opportunities for extending our understanding of burning plasmas beyond that provided by current experiments is described

  7. Burning plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furth, H.P.; Goldston, R.J.; Zweben, S.J.

    1990-10-01

    The fraction of fusion-reaction energy that is released in energetic charged ions, such as the alpha particles of the D-T reaction, can be thermalized within the reacting plasma and used to maintain its temperature. This mechanism facilitates the achievement of very high energy-multiplication factors Q, but also raises a number of new issues of confinement physics. To ensure satisfactory reaction operation, three areas of energetic-ion interaction need to be addressed: single-ion transport in imperfectly symmetric magnetic fields or turbulent background plasmas; energetic-ion-driven (or stabilized) collective phenomena; and fusion-heat-driven collective phenomena. The first of these topics is already being explored in a number of tokamak experiments, and the second will begin to be addressed in the D-T-burning phase of TFTR and JET. Exploration of the third topic calls for high-Q operation, which is a goal of proposed next-generation plasma-burning projects. Planning for future experiments must take into consideration the full range of plasma-physics and engineering R ampersand D areas that need to be addressed on the way to a fusion power demonstration

  8. Hardware based technology assessment in support of near-term space fission missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Van Dyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger; Hrbud, Ivana; Carter, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. Successful utilization will most likely occur if frequent, significant hardware-based milestones can be achieved throughout the program. Achieving these milestones will depend on the capability to perform highly realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear systems. This paper discusses ongoing and potential research that could help achieve these milestones

  9. Hardware Based Technology Assessment in Support of Near-Term Space Fission Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houts, Mike; VanDyke, Melissa; Godfroy, Tom; Martin, James; BraggSitton, Shannon; Carter, Robert; Dickens, Ricky; Salvail, Pat; Williams, Eric; Harper, Roger

    2003-01-01

    Fission technology can enable rapid, affordable access to any point in the solar system. If fission propulsion systems are to be developed to their full potential; however, near-term customers must be identified and initial fission systems successfully developed, launched, and utilized. Successful utilization will most likely occur if frequent, significant hardware-based milestones can be achieved throughout the program. Achieving these milestones will depend on the capability to perform highly realistic non-nuclear testing of nuclear systems. This paper discusses ongoing and potential research that could help achieve these milestones.

  10. Simulation of MHD instability effects on burning plasma transport with ITB in tokamak and helical reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, K.; Yamada, I.; Taniguchi, S.; Oishi, T.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: The high performance plasma behavior is required to realize economic and environmental-friendly fusion reactors compatible with conventional power plant systems. To improve plasma confinement, the formation of internal transport barrier (ITB) is anticipated, and its behavior is analyzed by the simulation code TOTAL (Toroidal Transport Linkage Analysis). This TOTAL code comprises a 2- or 3-dimensional equilibrium and 1-dimensional predictive transport code for both tokamak and helical systems. In the tokamak code TOTAL-T, the external current drive, bootstrap current, sawtooth oscillation, ballooning mode and neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) analyses are included. The steady-state burning plasma operation is achieved by the feedback control of pellet injection fuelling and external heating power control. The impurity dynamics of iron and tungsten is also included in this code. The NTM effects are evaluated using the modified Rutherford Model with the stabilization of the ECCD current drive. The excitation of m=2/n=1 NTM leads to the 20 % reduction in the central temperature in ITER-like reactors. Recently, the external non-resonant helical field application is analyzed and its stabilization properties are evaluated. The pellet injection effects on ITB formation is also clarified in tokamak and helical plasmas. Relationship between sawtooth oscillation and impurity ejection is recently simulated in comparison with experimental data. In this conference, we will show above-stated new results on MHD instability effects on burning plasma transport. (author)

  11. DEMONSTRATION IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK OF AN ALTERNATE BASELINE SCENARIO FOR ITER AND OTHER BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUCE, T.C.; WADE, M.R.; FERRON, J.R.; HYATT, A.W.; KELLMAN, A.G.; KINSEY, J.E.; LAHAY, R.J.; LASNIER, C.J.; MURAKAMI, M.; POLITZER, P.A.; SCOVILLE, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 DEMONSTRATION IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK OF AN ALTERNATE BASELINE SCENARIO FOR ITER AND OTHER BURNING PLASMA EXPERIMENTS. Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak in stationary conditions with relatively low plasma current (q 95 > 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain Β N H 89 /q 95 2 has been maintained at values corresponding to Q = 10 operation in a burning plasma for > 6 s or 36 τ E and 2 τ R . The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q min > 1, which allows stable operation up to the no-wall ideal β limit. These plasmas maintain particle balance by active pumping rather than transient wall conditions. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption

  12. The affordances of broken affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grünbaum, Martin Gielsgaard; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2015-01-01

    We consider the use of physical and virtual objects having one or more affordances associated to simple interactions with them. Based on Kaptelinin and Nardi’s notion of instrumental affordance, we investigate what it means to break an affordance, and the two ensuing questions we deem most import...

  13. AREVA HTR concept for near-term deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lommers, L.J., E-mail: lewis.lommers@areva.com [AREVA Inc., 2101 Horn Rapids Road, Richland, WA 99354 (United States); Shahrokhi, F. [AREVA Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States); Mayer, J.A. [AREVA Inc., Marlborough, MA (United States); Southworth, F.H. [AREVA Inc., Lynchburg, VA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    This paper introduces AREVA's High Temperature Reactor (HTR) steam cycle concept for near-term industrial deployment. Today, nuclear power primarily impacts only electricity generation. The process heat and transportation fuel sectors are completely dependent on fossil fuels. In order to impact this energy sector as rapidly as possible, AREVA has focused its HTR development effort on the steam cycle HTR concept. This reduces near-term development risk and minimizes the delay before a useful contribution to this sector of the energy economy can be realized. It also provides a stepping stone to longer term very high temperature concepts which might serve additional markets. A general description of the current AREVA steam cycle HTR concept is provided. This concept provides a flexible system capable of serving a variety of process heat and cogeneration markets in the near-term.

  14. AREVA HTR concept for near-term deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommers, L.J.; Shahrokhi, F.; Mayer, J.A.; Southworth, F.H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces AREVA's High Temperature Reactor (HTR) steam cycle concept for near-term industrial deployment. Today, nuclear power primarily impacts only electricity generation. The process heat and transportation fuel sectors are completely dependent on fossil fuels. In order to impact this energy sector as rapidly as possible, AREVA has focused its HTR development effort on the steam cycle HTR concept. This reduces near-term development risk and minimizes the delay before a useful contribution to this sector of the energy economy can be realized. It also provides a stepping stone to longer term very high temperature concepts which might serve additional markets. A general description of the current AREVA steam cycle HTR concept is provided. This concept provides a flexible system capable of serving a variety of process heat and cogeneration markets in the near-term.

  15. Impurity control in near-term tokamak reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M. Jr.; Smith, D.L.; Brooks, J.N.

    1976-10-01

    Several methods for reducing impurity contamination in near-term tokamak reactors by modifying the first-wall surface with a low-Z or low-sputter material are examined. A review of the sputtering data and an assessment of the technological feasibility of various wall modification schemes are presented. The power performance of a near-term tokamak reactor is simulated for various first-wall surface materials, with and without a divertor, in order to evaluate the likely effect of plasma contamination associated with these surface materials

  16. Iterative near-term ecological forecasting: Needs, opportunities, and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Michael C; Fox, Andrew; Beck-Johnson, Lindsay M; Betancourt, Julio L; Hooten, Mevin B; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Keitt, Timothy H; Kenney, Melissa A; Laney, Christine M; Larsen, Laurel G; Loescher, Henry W; Lunch, Claire K; Pijanowski, Bryan C; Randerson, James T; Read, Emily K; Tredennick, Andrew T; Vargas, Rodrigo; Weathers, Kathleen C; White, Ethan P

    2018-02-13

    Two foundational questions about sustainability are "How are ecosystems and the services they provide going to change in the future?" and "How do human decisions affect these trajectories?" Answering these questions requires an ability to forecast ecological processes. Unfortunately, most ecological forecasts focus on centennial-scale climate responses, therefore neither meeting the needs of near-term (daily to decadal) environmental decision-making nor allowing comparison of specific, quantitative predictions to new observational data, one of the strongest tests of scientific theory. Near-term forecasts provide the opportunity to iteratively cycle between performing analyses and updating predictions in light of new evidence. This iterative process of gaining feedback, building experience, and correcting models and methods is critical for improving forecasts. Iterative, near-term forecasting will accelerate ecological research, make it more relevant to society, and inform sustainable decision-making under high uncertainty and adaptive management. Here, we identify the immediate scientific and societal needs, opportunities, and challenges for iterative near-term ecological forecasting. Over the past decade, data volume, variety, and accessibility have greatly increased, but challenges remain in interoperability, latency, and uncertainty quantification. Similarly, ecologists have made considerable advances in applying computational, informatic, and statistical methods, but opportunities exist for improving forecast-specific theory, methods, and cyberinfrastructure. Effective forecasting will also require changes in scientific training, culture, and institutions. The need to start forecasting is now; the time for making ecology more predictive is here, and learning by doing is the fastest route to drive the science forward.

  17. Ex-vessel remote maintenance development plans for the Burning Plasma Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, T.W.; Davis, F.C.

    1991-01-01

    Remote maintenance (RM) is fundamental to the basic design requirements of the Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX), and an extensive RM development and demonstration program is planned to meet these requirements. The program first draws from the experience base that exists in the fission community and Europe's Joint European Torus (JET) Project. Successful solutions are applied where possible and, in many cases, improved in order to achieve the performance demanded by a multiyear program that must be capable of efficiently executing RM procedures. Early, concurrent efforts in the design and fabrication of prototype remote handling (RH) equipment, remote tooling, and maintainable machine components will precede an extensive use of mock-up equipment in order to test, develop, and demonstrate the technology. 7 refs,. 5 figs

  18. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design of a hybrid vehicle which fully meets or exceeds the requirements set forth in the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle Program is documented. Topics addressed include the general layout and styling, the power train specifications with discussion of each major component, vehicle weight and weight breakdown, vehicle performance, measures of energy consumption, and initial cost and ownership cost. Alternative design options considered and their relationship to the design adopted, computer simulation used, and maintenance and reliability considerations are also discussed.

  19. Iterative near-term ecological forecasting: Needs, opportunities, and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietze, Michael C.; Fox, Andrew; Beck-Johnson, Lindsay; Betancourt, Julio L.; Hooten, Mevin B.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Keitt, Timothy H.; Kenney, Melissa A.; Laney, Christine M.; Larsen, Laurel G.; Loescher, Henry W.; Lunch, Claire K.; Pijanowski, Bryan; Randerson, James T.; Read, Emily; Tredennick, Andrew T.; Vargas, Rodrigo; Weathers, Kathleen C.; White, Ethan P.

    2018-01-01

    Two foundational questions about sustainability are “How are ecosystems and the services they provide going to change in the future?” and “How do human decisions affect these trajectories?” Answering these questions requires an ability to forecast ecological processes. Unfortunately, most ecological forecasts focus on centennial-scale climate responses, therefore neither meeting the needs of near-term (daily to decadal) environmental decision-making nor allowing comparison of specific, quantitative predictions to new observational data, one of the strongest tests of scientific theory. Near-term forecasts provide the opportunity to iteratively cycle between performing analyses and updating predictions in light of new evidence. This iterative process of gaining feedback, building experience, and correcting models and methods is critical for improving forecasts. Iterative, near-term forecasting will accelerate ecological research, make it more relevant to society, and inform sustainable decision-making under high uncertainty and adaptive management. Here, we identify the immediate scientific and societal needs, opportunities, and challenges for iterative near-term ecological forecasting. Over the past decade, data volume, variety, and accessibility have greatly increased, but challenges remain in interoperability, latency, and uncertainty quantification. Similarly, ecologists have made considerable advances in applying computational, informatic, and statistical methods, but opportunities exist for improving forecast-specific theory, methods, and cyberinfrastructure. Effective forecasting will also require changes in scientific training, culture, and institutions. The need to start forecasting is now; the time for making ecology more predictive is here, and learning by doing is the fastest route to drive the science forward.

  20. Network Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samson, Audrey; Soon, Winnie

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the notion of network affordance within the context of network art. Building on Gibson's theory (Gibson, 1979) we understand affordance as the perceived and actual parameters of a thing. We expand on Gaver's affordance of predictability (Gaver, 1996) to include ecological...... and computational parameters of unpredictability. We illustrate the notion of unpredictability by considering four specific works that were included in a network art exhibiton, SPEED SHOW [2.0] Hong Kong. The paper discusses how the artworks are contingent upon the parameteric relations (Parisi, 2013......), of the network. We introduce network affordance as a dynamic framework that could articulate the experienced tension arising from the (visible) symbolic representation of computational processes and its hidden occurrences. We base our proposal on the experience of both organising the SPEED SHOW and participating...

  1. Developing hydrogen infrastructure through near-term intermediate technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.M.; Checkel, M.D.; Koch, C.R.

    2003-01-01

    The development of a vehicular hydrogen fuelling infrastructure is a necessary first step towards the widespread use of hydrogen-powered vehicles. This paper proposes the case for using a near-term, intermediate technology to stimulate and support the development of that infrastructure. 'Dynamic Hydrogen Multifuel' (DHM) is an engine control and fuel system technology that uses flexible blending of hydrogen and another fuel to optimize emissions and overall fuel economy in a spark ignition engine. DHM vehicles can enhance emissions and fuel economy using techniques such as cold-starting or idling on pure hydrogen. Blending hydrogen can extend lean operation and exhaust gas recirculation limits while normal engine power and vehicle range can be maintained by the conventional fuel. Essentially DHM vehicles are a near-term intermediate technology which provides significant emissions benefits in a vehicle which is sufficiently economical, practical and familiar to achieve significant production numbers and significant fuel station load. The factors leading to successful implementation of current hydrogen filling stations must also be understood if the infrastructure is to be developed further. The paper discusses important lessons on the development of alternative fuel infrastructure that have been learned from natural gas; why were natural gas vehicle conversions largely successful in Argentina while failing in Canada and New Zealand? What ideas can be distilled from the previous successes and failures of the attempted introduction of a new vehicle fuel? It is proposed that hydrogen infrastructure can be developed by introducing a catalytic, near-term technology to provide fuel station demand and operating experience. However, it is imperative to understand the lessons of historic failures and present successes. (author)

  2. Electric power from near-term fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longhurst, G.R.; Deis, G.A.; Miller, L.G.

    1981-01-01

    This paper examines requirements and possbilities of electric power production on near-term fusion reactors using low temperature cycle technology similar to that used in some geothermal power systems. Requirements include the need for a working fluid with suitable thermodynamics properties and which is free of oxygen and hydrogen to facilitate tritium management. Thermal storage will also be required due to the short system thermal time constants on near-time reactors. It is possbile to use the FED shield in a binary power cycle, and results are presented of thermodynamic analyses of this system

  3. Practical methods for near-term piloted Mars missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubrin, Robert M.; Weaver, David B.

    1993-01-01

    An evaluation is made of ways of using near-term technologies for direct and semidirect manned Mars missions. A notable feature of the present schemes is the in situ propellant production of CH4/O2 and H2O on the Martian surface in order to reduce surface consumable and return propellant requirements. Medium-energy conjunction class trajectories are shown to be optimal for such missions. Attention is given to the backup plans and abort philosophy of these missions. Either the Russian Energia B or U.S. Saturn VII launch vehicles may be used.

  4. Simulations of the operational control of a cryogenic plant for a superconducting burning-plasma tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Mitchell, N

    2001-01-01

    In recent proposals for next generation superconducting tokamaks, such as the ITER project, the nuclear burning plasma is confined by magnetic fields generated from a large set (up to 100 GJ stored energy) of superconducting magnets. These magnets suffer heat loads in operation from thermal and nuclear radiation from the surrounding components and plasma as well as eddy currents and AC losses generated within the magnets, together with the heat conduction through supports and resistive heat generated at the current lead transitions to room temperature. The initial cryoplant for such a tokamak is expected to have a steady state capacity of up to about 85 kW at 4.5 K, comparable to the system installed for LHC at CERN. Experimental tokamaks are expected to operate at least initially in a pulsed mode with 20-30 short plasma pulses and plasma burn periods each day. A conventional cryoplant, consisting of a cold box and a set of primary heat exchangers, is ill-suited to such a mode of operation as the instantaneou...

  5. About the Toroidal Magnetic Field of a Tokamak Burning Plasma Experiment with Superconducting Coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzucato, E.

    2002-01-01

    In tokamaks, the strong dependence on the toroidal magnetic field of both plasma pressure and energy confinement is what makes possible the construction of small and relatively inexpensive burning plasma experiments using high-field resistive coils. On the other hand, the toroidal magnetic field of tokamaks using superconducting coils is limited by the critical field of superconductivity. In this article, we examine the relative merit of raising the magnetic field of a tokamak plasma by increasing its aspect ratio at a constant value of the peak field in the toroidal magnet. Taking ITER-FEAT as an example, we find that it is possible to reach thermonuclear ignition using an aspect ratio of approximately 4.5 and a toroidal magnetic field of 7.3 T. Under these conditions, fusion power density and neutron wall loading are the same as in ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor], but the normalized plasma beta is substantially smaller. Furthermore, such a tokamak would be able to reach an energy gain of approximately 15 even with the deterioration in plasma confinement that is known to occur near the density limit where ITER is forced to operate

  6. Minority Ions Acceleration by ICRH: a tool for investigating Burning Plasma Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardinali, A.; Briguglio, S.; Calabro, G.; Crisanti, F.; Di Troia, C.; Fogaccia, G.; Marinucci, M.; Vlad, G.; Zonca, F.

    2008-01-01

    A thorough numerical analysis of the quasi-linear plasma-ICRH wave interaction has been made and will be presented in order to determine the characteristic fast-ion parameters that are necessary for addressing some of the main ITER burning plasma physics issues, e.g. fast ion transport due to collective mode excitations, cross-scale couplings of micro-turbulence with meso-scale fluctuations due to energetic particles, etc. These investigations refer to the Fusion Advanced Studies Torus (FAST), a conceptual tokamak design operating with deuterium plasmas in a dimensionless parameter range as close as possible to that of ITER and equipped with ICRH as a main heating scheme. The destabilization and saturation of fast ion driven Alfvenic modes below and above the EPM (Energetic Particle Modes) stability threshold are investigated by numerical simulations with the HMGC code, which assumes the anisotropic energetic particle distribution function accelerated by ICRH as input. The results of this study, obtained by integration of many numerical tools, are presented and discussed

  7. Energetic Particle Physics In Fusion Research In Preparation For Burning Plasma Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, Nikolai N [PPPL

    2013-06-01

    The area of energetic particle (EP) physics of fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by W.W. Heidbrink and G.J. Sadler [1]. That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on Tokamak Fusion Test reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the "sea" of Alfven eigenmodes (AE) in particular by the toroidicityinduced AEs (TAE) modes and reversed shear Alfven (RSAE). In present paper we attempt a broad review of EP physics progress in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus) including helical/stellarator devices. Introductory discussions on basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e. particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others are given to help understanding the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues toward the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor).

  8. Multiframe, Single Line-of-Sight X-Ray Imager for Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, Kevin L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-01-28

    The purpose of this LDRD project was to demonstrate high spatial and temporal resolution x-ray imaging using optical detectors, and in particular the VISAR and OHRV diagnostics on the OMEGA laser. The x-ray source being imaged was a backlighter capsule being imploded by 39 beams of the OMEGA laser. In particular this approach utilized a semiconductor with the side facing the backlighter capsule coated with a thin aluminum layer to allow x rays to pass through the metal layer and then get absorbed in the semiconductor. The other side of the semiconductor was AR coated to allow the VISAR or OHRV probe beam to sample the phase change of the semiconductor as the x rays were absorbed in the semiconductor. This technique is capable of acquiring sub-picosecond 2-D or 1-D x-ray images, detector spatial resolution of better than 10 um and the ability to operate in a high neutron flux environment expected on ignition shots with burning plasmas. In addition to demonstrating this technique on the OMEGA laser, several designs were made to improve the phase sensitivity, temporal resolution and number of frames over the existing diagnostics currently implemented on the OMEGA laser. These designs included both 2-d imaging diagnostics as well as improved 1-D imaging diagnostics which were streaked in time.

  9. Development of burning plasma and advanced scenarios in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of burning plasma scenarios, steady-state scenarios at high fusion performance, and basic tokamak physics has been made by the DIII-D Team. Discharges similar to the ITER baseline scenario have demonstrated normalized fusion performance nearly 50% higher than required for Q = 10 in ITER, under stationary conditions. Discharges that extrapolate to Q ∼ 10 for longer than one hour in ITER at reduced current have also been demonstrated in DIII-D under stationary conditions. Proof of high fusion performance with full noninductive operation has been obtained. Underlying this work are studies validating approaches to confinement extrapolation, disruption avoidance and mitigation, tritium retention, ELM avoidance, and operation above the no-wall pressure limit. In addition, the unique capabilities of the DIII-D facility have advanced studies of the sawtooth instability with unprecedented time and space resolution, threshold behavior in the electron heat transport, and rotation in plasmas in the absence of external torque. (author)

  10. Demonstration in the DIII-D tokamak of an alternate baseline scenario for ITER and other burning plasma experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Wade, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Discharges which can satisfy the high gain goals of burning plasma experiments have been demonstrated in the DIII-D tokamak in stationary conditions with relatively low plasma current (q 95 > 4). A figure of merit for fusion gain β N H 89 / q 95 2 2 has been maintained at values corresponding to Q = 10 operation in a burning plasma for >6 s or 36 τ E and 2 τ R . The key element is the relaxation of the current profile to a stationary state with q min > 1, which allows stable operation up to the no-wall ideal β limit. These plasmas maintain particle balance by active pumping rather than transient wall conditioning. The reduced current lessens significantly the potential for structural damage in the event of a major disruption. (author)

  11. World oil market fundamentals - Part One: The near term outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwarkin, J.; Morton, K.; Datta, R.

    1998-03-01

    Potential implications of a number of uncertainties currently affecting the world oil market are assessed. The influence of the interplay of geopolitical events on demand and supply, inventories, prices and price trends are reviewed. Reference prices which industry and governments can use for investment and policy evaluations are provided. In this volume, the emphasis is on near term developments, with a review of the uncertainties surrounding these projections. Three different scenarios are postulated for the near term, each one taking into account different levels of Iraqi exports during the period which would effect available inventories, and hence price. Depending on which of the three scenarios actually comes to pass, unless refiners are prepared to build up inventories well beyond seasonal norms, or producers shut in, the prevailing view is that oil prices will be under severe pressure during most of 1998 and 1999. Over the longer term, however, the analysis suggests that an average real value of US$18.00 - $18.50 per barrel remains a reasonable expectation as a sustainable price. 34 refs., tabs., figs

  12. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Missions for hybrid vehicles that promise to yield high petroleum impact were identified and a preliminary design, was developed that satisfies the mission requirements and performance specifications. Technologies that are critical to successful vehicle design, development and fabrication were determined. Trade-off studies to maximize fuel savings were used to develop initial design specifications of the near term hybrid vehicle. Various designs were "driven" through detailed computer simulations which calculate the petroleum consumption in standard driving cycles, the petroleum and electricity consumptions over the specified missions, and the vehicle's life cycle costs over a 10 year vehicle lifetime. Particular attention was given to the selection of the electric motor, heat engine, drivetrain, battery pack and control system. The preliminary design reflects a modified current compact car powered by a currently available turbocharged diesel engine and a 24 kW (peak) compound dc electric motor.

  13. Near-term electric vehicle program: Phase I, final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowlett, B. H.; Murry, R.

    1977-08-01

    A final report is given for an Energy Research and Development Administration effort aimed at a preliminary design of an energy-efficient electric commuter car. An electric-powered passenger vehicle using a regenerative power system was designed to meet the near-term ERDA electric automobile goals. The program objectives were to (1) study the parameters that affect vehicle performance, range, and cost; (2) design an entirely new electric vehicle that meets performance and economic requirements; and (3) define a program to develop this vehicle design for production in the early 1980's. The design and performance features of the preliminary (baseline) electric-powered passenger vehicle design are described, including the baseline power system, system performance, economic analysis, reliability and safety, alternate designs and options, development plan, and conclusions and recommendations. All aspects of the baseline design were defined in sufficient detail to verify performance expectations and system feasibility.

  14. Near-term benefits of the plant life extension program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushansky, M.M.

    1987-01-01

    The aging process can be expected to reduce the availability and increase the production costs of nuclear power plants over time. To mitigate this process and recover or enhance plant availability, capacity, thermal efficiency, and maintenance expenditures, the utility must dedicate increased attention and commitment to a comprehensive plant life extension (PLEX) program. Improvements must be justified by balancing the cost of the recommended modifications with the economic value of benefits obtained from its implementation. It is often extremely difficult for utility management to make an optimal selection from among hundreds of proposed projects, most of which are cost-effective. A properly structured PLEX program with an emphasis on near-term benefits should provide the utility with a means of evaluating proposed projects, thus determining the optimum combination for authorization and implementation

  15. Status and near-term plans for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.G.; Callis, R.W.; Luxon, J.L.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    The DIII-D tokamak at GA Technologies began plasma operation in February of 1986 and is dedicated to the study of highly non-circular plasmas. High beta operation with enhanced energy confinement is paramount among the goals of the DIII-D research program. Commissioning of the device and facility has verified the design capability including coil and vessel loading, volt-second consumption, bakeout temperature, vessel armor, and neutral beamline thermal integrity and control systems performance. Initial experimental results demonstrate the DIII-D is capable of attaining high confinement (H-mode) discharges in a divertor configuration using modest neutral beam heating or ECH. Record values of I/sub p/aB/sub T/ have been achieved with ohmic heating as a first step toward operation at high values of toroidal beta and record values of beta have been achieved using neutral beam heating. This paper summarizes results to date and gives the near term plans for the facility. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  16. Antimatter Production for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P.; Schmidt, George R.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses the use and potential of power generated from Proton-Antiproton Annihilation. The problem is that there is not enough production of anti-protons, and that the production methods are inefficient. The cost for 1 gram of antiprotons is estimated at 62.5 trillion dollars. Applications which require large quantities (i.e., about 1 kg) will require dramatic improvements in the efficiency of the production of the antiprotons. However, applications which involve small quantities (i.e., 1 to 10 micrograms may be practical with a relative expansion of capacities. There are four "conventional" antimatter propulsion concepts which are: (1) the solid core, (2) the gas core, (3) the plasma core, and the (4) beam core. These are compared in terms of specific impulse, propulsive energy utilization and vehicle structure/propellant mass ratio. Antimatter-catalyzed fusion propulsion is also evaluated. The improvements outlined in the presentation to the Fermilab production, and other sites. capability would result in worldwide capacity of several micrograms per year, by the middle of the next decade. The conclusions drawn are: (1) the Conventional antimatter propulsion IS not practical due to large p-bar requirement; (2) Antimatter-catalyzed systems can be reasonably considered this "solves" energy cost problem by employing substantially smaller quantities; (3) With current infrastructure, cost for 1 microgram of p-bars is $62.5 million, but with near-term improvements cost should drop; (4) Milligram-scale facility would require a $15 billion investment, but could produce 1 mg, at $0.1/kW-hr, for $6.25 million.

  17. Nuclear Reactor Technology Assessment for Near Term Deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    One of the IAEA's statutory objectives is to 'seek to accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health and prosperity throughout the world.' One way this objective is achieved is through the publication of a range of technical series. Two of these are the IAEA Nuclear Energy Series and the IAEA Safety Standards Series. According to Article III.A.6 of the IAEA Statute, the safety standards establish 'standards of safety for protection of health and minimization of danger to life and property'. The safety standards include the Safety Fundamentals, Safety Requirements and Safety Guides. These standards are written primarily in a regulatory style, and are binding on the IAEA for its own programmes. The principal users are the regulatory bodies in Member States and other national authorities. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series comprises reports designed to encourage and assist R and D on, and application of, nuclear energy for peaceful uses. This includes practical examples to be used by owners and operators of utilities in Member States, implementing organizations, academia, and government officials, among others. This information is presented in guides, reports on technology status and advances, and best practices for peaceful uses of nuclear energy based on inputs from international experts. The IAEA Nuclear Energy Series complements the IAEA Safety Standards Series. Several IAEA Member States have embarked recently on initiatives to establish or reinvigorate nuclear power programmes. In response, the IAEA has developed several guidance and technical publications to identify with Member States the complex tasks associated with such an undertaking and to recommend the processes that can be used in the performance of this work. A major challenge in this undertaking, especially for newcomer Member States, is the process associated with reactor technology assessment (RTA) for near term deployment. RTA permits the evaluation, selection and deployment

  18. A remote in-vessel and ex-vessel force-reflecting telerobotic system for the burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuban, D.P.; Busko, N.

    1992-01-01

    The Burning Plasma Experiment (BPX) has made an applaudable commitment to total remote maintenance which will undoubtedly move fusion energy closer to commercial reality. This commitment poses new and formidable challenges due to the dimensional constraints, diversity of maintenance operations, and the geometrically intricate equipment arrangements. These challenges must be addressed for successful hot operation of the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory BPX. This paper reports on a new manipulator system, called the TeleMate, which is under development to contribute to this needed capability. This system combines enhancements to a proven mechanical design with state-of-the-art controls technology, to produce a flexible system that can be configured to address the numerous remote fusion applications. The mechanical portion of the system has many years of operation in existing radioactive facilities. This paper presents a system description, the development status, initial test data, and control system performance

  19. Fusion in the Era of Burning Plasma Studies: Workforce Planning for 2004 to 2014. Final report to FESA C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2004-03-29

    This report has been prepared in response to Dr. R. Orbach’s request of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (FESAC) to “address the issue of workforce development in the U.S. fusion program.” The report addresses three key questions: what is the current status of the fusion science, technology, and engineering workforce; what is the workforce that will be needed and when it will be needed to ensure that the U.S. is an effective partner in ITER and to enable the U.S. to successfully carry out the fusion program; and, what can be done to ensure a qualified, diversified, and sufficiently large workforce and a pipeline to maintain that workforce? In addressing the charge, the Panel considers a workforce that allows for a vigorous national program of fusion energy research that includes participation in magnetic fusion (ITER) and inertial fusion (NIF) burning plasma experiments.

  20. Meeting the near-term demand for hydrogen using nuclear energy in competitive power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Alistair I.; Duffey, Romney B.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is becoming the reference fuel for future transportation and, in the USA in particular, a vision for its production from advanced nuclear reactors has been formulated. Fulfillment of this vision depend on its economics in 2020 or later. Prior to 2020, hydrogen needs to gain a substantial foothold without incurring excessive costs for the establishment of the distribution network for the new fuel. Water electrolysis and steam-methane reforming (SMR) are the existing hydrogen-production technologies, used for small-scale and large-scale production, respectively. Provided electricity is produced at costs expected for nuclear reactors of near-term design, electrolysis appears to offer superior economics when the SMR-related costs of distribution and sequestration (or an equivalent emission levy) are included. This is shown to hold at least until several percentage points of road transport have been converted to hydrogen. Electrolysis has large advantages over SMRs in being almost scale-independent and allowing local production. The key requirements for affordable electrolysis are low capital cost and relatively high utilization, although the paper shows that it should be advantageous to avoid the peaks of electricity demand and cost. The electricity source must enable high utilization as well as being itself low-cost and emissions-free. By using off-peak electricity, no extra costs for enhanced electricity distribution should occur. The longer-term supply of hydrogen may ultimately evolve away from low-temperature water electrolysis but it appears to be an excellent technology for early deployment and capable of supplying hydrogen at prices not dissimilar from today's costs for gasoline and diesel provided the vehicle's power unit is a fuel cell. (author)

  1. The solenoidal transport option: IFE drivers, near term research facilities, and beam dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.; Briggs, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    Solenoidal magnets have been used as the beam transport system in all the high current electron induction accelerators that have been built in the past several decades. They have also been considered for the front end transport system for heavy ion accelerators for Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) drivers, but this option has received very little attention in recent years. The analysis reported here was stimulated mainly by the recent effort to define an affordable open-quotes Integrated Research Experimentclose quotes (IRE) that can meet the near term needs of the IFE program. The 1996 FESAC IFE review panel agreed that an integrated experiment is needed to fully resolve IFE heavy ion driver science and technology issues; specifically, open-quotes the basic beam dynamics issues in the accelerator, the final focusing and transport issues in a reactor-relevant beam parameter regime, and the target heating phenomenologyclose quotes. The development of concepts that can meet these technical objectives and still stay within the severe cost constraints all new fusion proposals will encounter is a formidable challenge. Solenoidal transport has a very favorable scaling as the particle mass is decreased (the main reason why it is preferred for electrons in the region below 50 MeV). This was recognized in a recent conceptual study of high intensity induction linac-based proton accelerators for Accelerator Driven Transmutation Technologies, where solenoidal transport was chosen for the front end. Reducing the ion mass is an obvious scaling to exploit in an IRE design, since the output beam voltage will necessarily be much lower than that of a full scale driver, so solenoids should certainly be considered as one option for this experiment as well

  2. Near-term nuclear as the nemesis of the age of pollution: re-engineering the planet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.; Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    The world's carefree Age of Pollution is ending and energy technologies are scrambling for schemes that either capture their wastes or claim corresponding offsets with reductions elsewhere. Not before time. But the transition offers boundless opportunities for political and subsidies, fudges, and deceptions. Now is the time for nuclear fission, as the only technology already providing large-scale, pollution-free energy supplies, to claim proper recognition for its demonstrated pollution-free pedigree. Our industry knows that nuclear fission really is an intrinsically superior solution over those offered by the latter-day converts to sequestration and environmental cleanliness. Our singular strength is the availability of our technology. But we must inspire society with nuclear's capacity to provide a comprehensive and affordable route to secure energy supplies with vigorous growth in its deployment, starting immediately. We must include hydrogen fuelling for vehicles to make our solution comprehensive. This paper outlines the economics. We could, however, so easily dissipate the advantage of nuclear's availability. Programs to evolve advanced reactors should be a natural adjunct to a vigorous near-term program but it would be folly to compete for leadership in energy supply based on the promise of reactor designs that cannot be deployed until after 2020. What is needed is a transition strategy. Several countries with emerging economies are showing near-term leadership in commitment of new reactors but the developed world also needs much expanded deployment of nuclear. Without that, the transition to advanced designs after 2020 could be jeopardized. (authors)

  3. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  4. Historicizing affordance theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sofie; Bang, Jytte Susanne

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss how mutually enriching points from both affordance theory and cultural-historical activity theory can promote theoretical ideas which may prove useful as analytical tools for the study of human life and human development. There are two issues that need...... to be overcome in order to explore the potentials of James Gibson’s affordance theory: it does not sufficiently theorize (a) development and (b) society. We claim that Gibson’s affordance theory still needs to be brought beyond “the axiom of immediacy.” Ambivalences in Gibson’s affordance theory...... societal character of affordance theory....

  5. Risk minimization for near-term deployment of the next generation nuclear plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lommers, L.; Southworth, F.; Riou, B.; Lecomte, M.

    2008-01-01

    The NGNP program is developing the High Temperature Reactor for high efficiency electricity production and high temperature process heat such as direct hydrogen production. AREVA leads one of three vendor teams supporting the NGNP program. AREVA has developed an NGNP concept based on AREVA's ANTARES indirect cycle HTR concept. The ANTARES-based NGNP concept attempts to manage development risk by using a conservative design philosophy which balances performance and risk. Additional risk mitigation for rapid near-term deployment is also considered. Near-term markets may not require the full capability of the indirect cycle very high temperature concept. A steam cycle concept might better serve near-term markets for high temperature steam with reduced technical and schedule risk. (authors)

  6. Photovoltaic (PV) Pricing Trends: Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, D.; Barbose, G.; Margolis, R.; Wiser, R.; Darghouth, N.; Goodrich, A.

    2012-11-01

    This report helps to clarify the confusion surrounding different estimates of system pricing by distinguishing between past, current, and near-term projected estimates. It also discusses the different methodologies and factors that impact the estimated price of a PV system, such as system size, location, technology, and reporting methods.These factors, including timing, can have a significant impact on system pricing.

  7. Upgrades, Current Capabilities and Near-Term Plans of the NASA ARC Mars Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, J. L.; Kahre, Melinda April; Haberle, Robert M.; Schaeffer, James R.

    2012-01-01

    We describe and review recent upgrades to the ARC Mars climate modeling framework, in particular, with regards to physical parameterizations (i.e., testing, implementation, modularization and documentation); the current climate modeling capabilities; selected research topics regarding current/past climates; and then, our near-term plans related to the NASA ARC Mars general circulation modeling (GCM) project.

  8. Acute maternal rehydration increases the urine production rate in the near-term human fetus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haak, MC; Aarnoudse, JG; Oosterhof, H.

    OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate the effect of a decrease of maternal plasma osmolality produced by hypotonic rehydration on the fetal urine production rate in normal near-term human fetuses. STUDY DESIGN: Twenty-one healthy pregnant women attending the clinic for antenatal care were studied

  9. Near-Term Electric Vehicle Program. Phase II: Mid-Term Summary Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-08-01

    The Near Term Electric Vehicle (NTEV) Program is a constituent elements of the overall national Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Program that is being implemented by the Department of Energy in accordance with the requirements of the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. Phase II of the NTEV Program is focused on the detailed design and development, of complete electric integrated test vehicles that incorporate current and near-term technology, and meet specified DOE objectives. The activities described in this Mid-Term Summary Report are being carried out by two contractor teams. The prime contractors for these contractor teams are the General Electric Company and the Garrett Corporation. This report is divided into two discrete parts. Part 1 describes the progress of the General Electric team and Part 2 describes the progress of the Garrett team.

  10. Near-Term Nuclear Power Revival? A U.S. and International Perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braun, C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I review the causes for the renewed interest in the near-term revival of nuclear power in the U.S. and internationally. I comment on the progress already made in the U.S. in restarting a second era of commercial nuclear power plant construction, and on what is required going forwards, from a utilities perspective, to commit to and implement new plant orders. I review the specific nuclear projects discussed and committed to in the U.S. and abroad in terms of utilities, sites, vendor and suppliers teams, and project arrangements. I will then offer some tentative conclusions regarding the prospects for a near-term U.S. and global nuclear power revival

  11. Near-Term Opportunities for Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This document contains the summary report of the workshop on global assessments for near-term opportunities for carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS), which took place on 21-22 June 2007 in Oslo, Norway. It provided an opportunity for direct dialogue between concerned stakeholders in the global effort to accelerate the development and commercialisation of CCS technology. This is part of a series of three workshops on near-term opportunities for this important mitigation option that will feed into the G8 Plan of Action on Climate Change, Clean Energy and Sustainable Development. The ultimate goal of this effort is to present a report and policy recommendations to the G8 leaders at their 2008 summit meeting in Japan.

  12. The Near-Term Impacts of Carbon Mitigation Policies on Manufacturing Industries

    OpenAIRE

    Morgenstern, Richard; Shih, Jhih-Shyang; Ho, Mun; Zhang, Xuehua

    2002-01-01

    Who will pay for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries is combined with input-output information on interindustry purchases to paint a ...

  13. Mobile robotics for CANDU reactor maintenance: case studies and near-term improvements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipsett, M. G.; Rody, K.H.

    1995-01-01

    Although robotics researchers have been promising that robotics would soon be performing tasks in hazardous environments, the reality has yet to live up to the hype. The presently available crop of robots suitable for deployment in industrial situations are remotely operated, requiring skilled users. This talk describes cases where mobile robots have been used successfully in CANDU stations, discusses the difficulties in using mobile robots for reactor maintenance, and provides near-term goals for achievable improvements in performance and usefulness. (author)

  14. Photovoltaic System Pricing Trends. Historical, Recent, and Near-Term Projections, 2015 Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, David [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Seel, Joachim [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-25

    This presentation, based on research at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, provides a high-level overview of historical, recent, and projected near-term PV pricing trends in the United States focusing on the installed price of PV systems. It also attempts to provide clarity surrounding the wide variety of potentially conflicting data available about PV system prices. This PowerPoint is the fourth edition from this series.

  15. The role of reduced aerosol precursor emissions in driving near-term warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillett, Nathan P; Von Salzen, Knut

    2013-01-01

    The representative concentration pathway (RCP) scenarios all assume stringent emissions controls on aerosols and their precursors, and hence include progressive decreases in aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions through the 21st century. Recent studies have suggested that the resultant decrease in aerosols could drive rapid near-term warming, which could dominate the effects of greenhouse gas (GHG) increases in the coming decades. In CanESM2 simulations, we find that under the RCP 2.6 scenario, which includes the fastest decrease in aerosol and aerosol precursor emissions, the contribution of aerosol reductions to warming between 2000 and 2040 is around 30%. Moreover, the rate of warming in the RCP 2.6 simulations declines gradually from its present-day value as GHG emissions decrease. Thus, while aerosol emission reductions contribute to gradual warming through the 21st century, we find no evidence that aerosol emission reductions drive particularly rapid near-term warming in this scenario. In the near-term, as in the long-term, GHG increases are the dominant driver of warming. (letter)

  16. Near-Term Actions to Address Long-Term Climate Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempert, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Addressing climate change requires effective long-term policy making, which occurs when reflecting on potential events decades or more in the future causes policy makers to choose near-term actions different than those they would otherwise pursue. Contrary to some expectations, policy makers do sometimes make such long-term decisions, but not as commonly and successfully as climate change may require. In recent years however, the new capabilities of analytic decision support tools, combined with improved understanding of cognitive and organizational behaviors, has significantly improved the methods available for organizations to manage longer-term climate risks. In particular, these tools allow decision makers to understand what near-term actions consistently contribute to achieving both short- and long-term societal goals, even in the face of deep uncertainty regarding the long-term future. This talk will describe applications of these approaches for infrastructure, water, and flood risk management planning, as well as studies of how near-term choices about policy architectures can affect long-term greenhouse gas emission reduction pathways.

  17. Assuring Access to Affordable Coverage

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Under the Affordable Care Act, millions of uninsured Americans will gain access to affordable coverage through Affordable Insurance Exchanges and improvements in...

  18. "Near-term" Natural Catastrophe Risk Management and Risk Hedging in a Changing Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Gero; Tiampo, Kristy

    2014-05-01

    Competing with analytics - Can the insurance market take advantage of seasonal or "near-term" forecasting and temporal changes in risk? Natural perils (re)insurance has been based on models following climatology i.e. the long-term "historical" average. This is opposed to considering the "near-term" and forecasting hazard and risk for the seasons or years to come. Variability and short-term changes in risk are deemed abundant for almost all perils. In addition to hydrometeorological perils whose changes are vastly discussed, earthquake activity might also change over various time-scales affected by earlier local (or even global) events, regional changes in the distribution of stresses and strains and more. Only recently has insurance risk modeling of (stochastic) hurricane-years or extratropical-storm-years started considering our ability to forecast climate variability herewith taking advantage of apparent correlations between climate indicators and the activity of storm events. Once some of these "near-term measures" were in the market, rating agencies and regulators swiftly adopted these concepts demanding companies to deploy a selection of more conservative "time-dependent" models. This was despite the fact that the ultimate effect of some of these measures on insurance risk was not well understood. Apparent short-term success over the last years in near-term seasonal hurricane forecasting was brought to a halt in 2013 when these models failed to forecast the exceptional shortage of hurricanes herewith contradicting an active-year forecast. The focus of earthquake forecasting has in addition been mostly on high rather than low temporal and regional activity despite the fact that avoiding losses does not by itself create a product. This presentation sheds light on new risk management concepts for over-regional and global (re)insurance portfolios that take advantage of forecasting changes in risk. The presentation focuses on the "upside" and on new opportunities

  19. Trade-off results and preliminary designs of Near-Term Hybrid Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Vehicle Program involved the development of preliminary designs of electric/heat engine hybrid passenger vehicles. The preliminary designs were developed on the basis of mission analysis, performance specification, and design trade-off studies conducted independently by four contractors. THe resulting designs involve parallel hybrid (heat engine/electric) propulsion systems with significant variation in component selection, power train layout, and control strategy. Each of the four designs is projected by its developer as having the potential to substitute electrical energy for 40% to 70% of the petroleum fuel consumed annually by its conventional counterpart.

  20. Evaluation of selected near-term energy-conservation options for the Midwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, A.R.; Colsher, C.S.; Hamilton, R.W.; Buehring, W.A.

    1978-11-01

    This report evaluates the potential for implementation of near-term energy-conservation practices for the residential, commercial, agricultural, industrial, transportation, and utility sectors of the economy in twelve states: Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin. The information used to evaluate the magnitude of achievable energy savings includes regional energy use, the regulatory/legislative climate relating to energy conservation, technical characteristics of the measures, and their feasibility of implementation. This work is intended to provide baseline information for an ongoing regional assessment of energy and environmental impacts in the Midwest. 80 references.

  1. Near-term Forecasting of Solar Total and Direct Irradiance for Solar Energy Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, C. N.; Riihimaki, L. D.; Berg, L. K.

    2012-12-01

    Integration of solar renewable energy into the power grid, like wind energy, is hindered by the variable nature of the solar resource. One challenge of the integration problem for shorter time periods is the phenomenon of "ramping events" where the electrical output of the solar power system increases or decreases significantly and rapidly over periods of minutes or less. Advance warning, of even just a few minutes, allows power system operators to compensate for the ramping. However, the ability for short-term prediction on such local "point" scales is beyond the abilities of typical model-based weather forecasting. Use of surface-based solar radiation measurements has been recognized as a likely solution for providing input for near-term (5 to 30 minute) forecasts of solar energy availability and variability. However, it must be noted that while fixed-orientation photovoltaic panel systems use the total (global) downwelling solar radiation, tracking photovoltaic and solar concentrator systems use only the direct normal component of the solar radiation. Thus even accurate near-term forecasts of total solar radiation will under many circumstances include inherent inaccuracies with respect to tracking systems due to lack of information of the direct component of the solar radiation. We will present examples and statistical analyses of solar radiation partitioning showing the differences in the behavior of the total/direct radiation with respect to the near-term forecast issue. We will present an overview of the possibility of using a network of unique new commercially available total/diffuse radiometers in conjunction with a near-real-time adaptation of the Shortwave Radiative Flux Analysis methodology (Long and Ackerman, 2000; Long et al., 2006). The results are used, in conjunction with persistence and tendency forecast techniques, to provide more accurate near-term forecasts of cloudiness, and both total and direct normal solar irradiance availability and

  2. Survey of tritium wastes and effluents in near-term fusion-research facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bickford, W.E.; Dingee, D.A.; Willingham, C.E.

    1981-08-01

    The use of tritium control technology in near-term research facilities has been studied for both the magnetic and inertial confinement fusion programs. This study focused on routine generation of tritium wastes and effluents, with little referene to accidents or facility decommissioning. This report serves as an independent review of the effectiveness of planned control technology and radiological hazards associated with operation. The facilities examined for the magnetic fusion program included Fusion Materials Irradiation Testing Facility (FMIT), Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), and Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in the magnetic fusion program, while NOVA and Antares facilities were examined for the inertial confinement program

  3. Vital affordances, occupying niches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dokumaci, Arseli

    2017-01-01

    This article proposes a new conceptual approach to disability and performance through a contribution that comes entirely from outside the disciplines; a re-theorisation of Gibson’s [1979. The Ecological Approach to Visual Perception. Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates] theory of affordances....... Drawing on three visual ethnographies with differently disabled individuals, and building upon my previous consideration of performance as ‘affordance creation’ in itself [Dokumaci, A. 2013. “On Falling Ill.” Performance Research 18 (4): 107–115], the article conceptualises affordances as a form of micro......-activism–one that can allow us to unpack the entanglements of disability, performance, and matter. Putting Gibson’s theory in conversation with Canguilhem’s philosophy of life, it proposes the concept ‘vital affordances’ as a new way to think through this micro-activism, and the way disabled individuals might transform...

  4. Is quality affordable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Lindfield

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The question “Is quality affordable?” is loaded with dynamite!Can a person who lives on less than US $1 per day afford a high-quality cataract operation? If the answer is ‘No’, then do we offer that person poor or low-quality services? Do people living in poverty have a ‘right’ to high-quality eye or health care? If the answer is ‘Yes’, then at what price and who should pay? Should we ignore quality and focus on affordability? Or should we provide high-quality services in the hope that someone else will pay?These are difficult questions, which policy makers, managers, and clinicians must face and try to answer.

  5. Contribution of maternal thyroxine to fetal thyroxine pools in normal rats near term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morreale de Escobar, G.; Calvo, R.; Obregon, M.J.; Escobar Del Rey, F.

    1990-01-01

    Normal dams were equilibrated isotopically with [ 125 I]T4 infused from 11 to 21 days of gestation, at which time maternal and fetal extrathyroidal tissues were obtained to determine their [ 125 I]T4 and T4 contents. The specific activity of the [ 125 I]T4 in the fetal tissues was lower than in maternal T4 pools. The extent of this change allows evaluation of the net contribution of maternal T4 to the fetal extrathyroidal T4 pools. At 21 days of gestation, near term, this represents 17.5 +/- 0.9% of the T4 in fetal tissues, a value considerably higher than previously calculated. The methodological approach was validated in dams given a goitrogen to block fetal thyroid function. The specific activities of the [ 125 I]T4 in maternal and fetal T4 pools were then similar, confirming that in cases of fetal thyroid impairment the T4 in fetal tissues is determined by the maternal contribution. Thus, previous statements that in normal conditions fetal thyroid economy near term is totally independent of maternal thyroid status ought to be reconsidered

  6. Near-term and next-generation nuclear power plant concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiga, Shigenori; Handa, Norihiko; Heki, Hideaki

    2002-01-01

    Near-term and next-generation nuclear reactors will be required to have high economic competitiveness in the deregulated electricity market, flexibility with respect to electricity demand and investment, and good public acceptability. For near-term reactors in the 2010s, Toshiba is developing an improved advanced boiling water reactor (ABWR) based on the present ABWR with newly rationalized systems and components; a construction period of 36 months, one year shorter than the current period; and a power lineup ranging from 800 MWe to 1,600 MWe. For future reactors in the 2020s and beyond, Toshiba is developing the ABWR-II for large-scale, centralized power sources; a supercritical water-cooled power reactor with high thermal efficiency for medium-scale power sources; a modular reactor with siting flexibility for small-scale power sources; and a small, fast neutron reactor with inherent safety for independent power sources. From the viewpoint of efficient uranium resource utilization, a low-moderation BWR core with a high conversion factor is also being developed. (author)

  7. Economic analysis of direct hydrogen PEM fuel cells in three near-term markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahadevan, K.; Stone, H.; Judd, K.; Paul, D.

    2007-01-01

    Direct hydrogen polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (H-PEMFCs) offer several near-term opportunities including backup power applications in state and local agencies of emergency response; forklifts in high throughput distribution centers; and, airport ground support equipment. This paper presented an analysis of the market requirements for introducing H-PEMFCs successfully, as well as an analysis of the lifecycle costs of H-PEMFCs and competing alternatives in three near-term markets. It also used three scenarios as examples of the potential for market penetration of H-PEMFCs. For each of the three potential opportunities, the paper presented the market requirements, a lifecycle cost analysis, and net present value of the lifecycle costs. A sensitivity analysis of the net present value of the lifecycle costs and of the average annual cost of owning and operating each of the H-PEMFC opportunities was also conducted. It was concluded that H-PEMFC-powered pallet trucks in high-productivity environments represented a promising early opportunity. However, the value of H-PEMFC-powered forklifts compared to existing alternatives was reduced for applications with lower hours of operation and declining labor rates. In addition, H-PEMFC-powered baggage tractors in airports were more expensive than battery-powered baggage tractors on a lifecycle cost basis. 9 tabs., 4 figs

  8. Antimatter Requirements and Energy Costs for Near-Term Propulsion Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, G. R.; Gerrish, H. P.; Martin, J. J.; Smith, G. A.; Meyer, K. J.

    1999-01-01

    The superior energy density of antimatter annihilation has often been pointed to as the ultimate source of energy for propulsion. However, the limited capacity and very low efficiency of present-day antiproton production methods suggest that antimatter may be too costly to consider for near-term propulsion applications. We address this issue by assessing the antimatter requirements for six different types of propulsion concepts, including two in which antiprotons are used to drive energy release from combined fission/fusion. These requirements are compared against the capacity of both the current antimatter production infrastructure and the improved capabilities that could exist within the early part of next century. Results show that although it may be impractical to consider systems that rely on antimatter as the sole source of propulsive energy, the requirements for propulsion based on antimatter-assisted fission/fusion do fall within projected near-term production capabilities. In fact, a new facility designed solely for antiproton production but based on existing technology could feasibly support interstellar precursor missions and omniplanetary spaceflight with antimatter costs ranging up to $6.4 million per mission.

  9. Classical boson sampling algorithms with superior performance to near-term experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, Alex; Sparrow, Chris; Clifford, Raphaël; Johnston, Eric; Birchall, Patrick M.; Montanaro, Ashley; Laing, Anthony

    2017-12-01

    It is predicted that quantum computers will dramatically outperform their conventional counterparts. However, large-scale universal quantum computers are yet to be built. Boson sampling is a rudimentary quantum algorithm tailored to the platform of linear optics, which has sparked interest as a rapid way to demonstrate such quantum supremacy. Photon statistics are governed by intractable matrix functions, which suggests that sampling from the distribution obtained by injecting photons into a linear optical network could be solved more quickly by a photonic experiment than by a classical computer. The apparently low resource requirements for large boson sampling experiments have raised expectations of a near-term demonstration of quantum supremacy by boson sampling. Here we present classical boson sampling algorithms and theoretical analyses of prospects for scaling boson sampling experiments, showing that near-term quantum supremacy via boson sampling is unlikely. Our classical algorithm, based on Metropolised independence sampling, allowed the boson sampling problem to be solved for 30 photons with standard computing hardware. Compared to current experiments, a demonstration of quantum supremacy over a successful implementation of these classical methods on a supercomputer would require the number of photons and experimental components to increase by orders of magnitude, while tackling exponentially scaling photon loss.

  10. Affordances: Ten Years On

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jill P.; Stillman, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Ten years ago the construct, affordance, was rising in prominence in scholarly literature. A proliferation of different uses and meanings was evident. Beginning with its origin in the work of Gibson, we traced its development and use in various scholarly fields. This paper revisits our original question with respect to its utility in mathematics…

  11. Geospatial Analysis of Near-Term Technical Potential of BECCS in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, E.; Sanchez, D.; Turner, P. A.; Mach, K. J.; Field, C. B.; Benson, S. M.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) removal using bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is crucial for achieving stringent climate change mitigation targets. To date, previous work discussing the feasibility of BECCS has largely focused on land availability and bioenergy potential, while CCS components - including capacity, injectivity, and location of potential storage sites - have not been thoroughly considered in the context of BECCS. A high-resolution geospatial analysis of both biomass production and potential geologic storage sites is conducted to consider the near-term deployment potential of BECCS in the U.S. The analysis quantifies the overlap between the biomass resource and CO2 storage locations within the context of storage capacity and injectivity. This analysis leverages county-level biomass production data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Billion Ton Report alongside potential CO2 geologic storage sites as provided by the USGS Assessment of Geologic Carbon Dioxide Storage Resources. Various types of lignocellulosic biomass (agricultural residues, dedicated energy crops, and woody biomass) result in a potential 370-400 Mt CO2 /yr of negative emissions in 2020. Of that CO2, only 30-31% of the produced biomass (110-120 Mt CO2 /yr) is co-located with a potential storage site. While large potential exists, there would need to be more than 250 50-MW biomass power plants fitted with CCS to capture all the co-located CO2 capacity in 2020. Neither absolute injectivity nor absolute storage capacity is likely to limit BECCS, but the results show regional capacity and injectivity constraints in the U.S. that had not been identified in previous BECCS analysis studies. The state of Illinois, the Gulf region, and western North Dakota emerge as the best locations for near-term deployment of BECCS with abundant biomass, sufficient storage capacity and injectivity, and the co-location of the two resources. Future studies assessing BECCS potential should

  12. Analysis of near-term production and market opportunities for hydrogen and related activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mauro, R.; Leach, S. [National Hydrogen Association, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-09-01

    This paper summarizes current and planned activities in the areas of hydrogen production and use, near-term venture opportunities, and codes and standards. The rationale for these efforts is to assess industry interest and engage in activities that move hydrogen technologies down the path to commercialization. Some of the work presented in this document is a condensed, preliminary version of reports being prepared under the DOE/NREL contract. In addition, the NHA work funded by Westinghouse Savannah River Corporation (WSRC) to explore the opportunities and industry interest in a Hydrogen Research Center is briefly described. Finally, the planned support of and industry input to the Hydrogen Technical Advisory Panel (HTAP) on hydrogen demonstration projects is discussed.

  13. Chemicals from Biomass: A Market Assessment of Bioproducts with Near-Term Potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biddy, Mary J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kinchin, Christopher [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-03-23

    Production of chemicals from biomass offers a promising opportunity to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil, as well as to improve the overall economics and sustainability of an integrated biorefinery. Given the increasing momentum toward the deployment and scale-up of bioproducts, this report strives to: (1) summarize near-term potential opportunities for growth in biomass-derived products; (2) identify the production leaders who are actively scaling up these chemical production routes; (3) review the consumers and market champions who are supporting these efforts; (4) understand the key drivers and challenges to move biomass-derived chemicals to market; and (5) evaluate the impact that scale-up of chemical strategies will have on accelerating the production of biofuels.

  14. Near-term electric-vehicle program. Phase II. Mid-term review summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-07-27

    The general objective of the Near-Term Electric Vehicle Program is to confirm that, in fact, the complete spectrum of requirements placed on the automobile (e.g., safety, producibility, utility, etc.) can still be satisfied if electric power train concepts are incorporated in lieu of contemporary power train concepts, and that the resultant set of vehicle characteristics are mutually compatible, technologically achievable, and economically achievable. The focus of the approach to meeting this general objective involves the design, development, and fabrication of complete electric vehicles incorporating, where necessary, extensive technological advancements. A mid-term summary is presented of Phase II which is a continuation of the preliminary design study conducted in Phase I of the program. Information is included on vehicle performance and performance simulation models; battery subsystems; control equipment; power systems; vehicle design and components for suspension, steering, and braking; scale model testing; structural analysis; and vehicle dynamics analysis. (LCL)

  15. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O.

    2008-01-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  16. Heliostat Manufacturing for near-term markets. Phase II final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This report describes a project by Science Applications International Corporation and its subcontractors Boeing/Rocketdyne and Bechtel Corp. to develop manufacturing technology for production of SAIC stretched membrane heliostats. The project consists of three phases, of which two are complete. This first phase had as its goals to identify and complete a detailed evaluation of manufacturing technology, process changes, and design enhancements to be pursued for near-term heliostat markets. In the second phase, the design of the SAIC stretched membrane heliostat was refined, manufacturing tooling for mirror facet and structural component fabrication was implemented, and four proof-of-concept/test heliostats were produced and installed in three locations. The proposed plan for Phase III calls for improvements in production tooling to enhance product quality and prepare increased production capacity. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Manufacturing Technology Program (SolMaT)

  17. Closed Nuclear Fuel Cycle Technologies to Meet Near-Term and Transition Period Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, E.D.; Felker, L.K.; Benker, D.E.; Campbell, D.O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, 37831-6152 (United States)

    2008-07-01

    A scenario that very likely fits conditions in the U.S. nuclear power industry and can meet the goals of cost minimization, waste minimization, and provisions of engineered safeguards for proliferation resistance, including no separated plutonium, to close the fuel cycle with full actinide recycle is evaluated. Processing aged fuels, removed from the reactor for 30 years or more, can provide significant advantages in cost reduction and waste minimization. The UREX+3 separations process is being developed to separate used fuel components for reuse, thus minimizing waste generation and storage in geologic repositories. Near-term use of existing and new thermal spectrum reactors can be used initially for recycle actinide transmutation. A transition period will eventually occur, when economic conditions will allow commercial deployment of fast reactors; during this time, recycled plutonium can be diverted into fast reactor fuel and conversion of depleted uranium into additional fuel material can be considered. (authors)

  18. Near term and long term materials issues and development needs for plasma interactive components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    Plasma interactive components (PICs), including the first wall, limiter blades, divertor collector plates, halo scrapers, and RF launchers, are exposed to high particle fluxes that can result in high sputtering erosion rates and high heat fluxes. In addition, the materials in reactors are exposed to high neutron fluxes which will degrade the bulk properties. This severe environment will limit the materials and designs which can be used in fusion devices. In order to provide a reasonable degree of confidence that plasma interactive components will operate successfully, a comprehensive development program is needed. Materials research and development plays a key role in the successful development of PICs. The range of operating conditions along with a summary of the major issues for materials development is described. The areas covered include plasma/materials interactions, erosion/redeposition, baseline materials properties, fabrication, and irradiation damage effects. Candidate materials and materials development needs in the near term and long term are identified

  19. Space reactor/organic Rankine conversion - A near-term state-of-the-art solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niggemann, R. E.; Lacey, D.

    The use of demonstrated reactor technology with organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power conversion can provide a low cost, minimal risk approach to reactor-powered electrical generation systems in the near term. Several reactor technologies, including zirconium hydride, EBR-II and LMFBR, have demonstrated long life and suitability for space application at the operating temperature required by an efficient ORC engine. While this approach would not replace the high temperature space reactor systems presently under development, it could be available in a nearer time frame at a low and predictable cost, allowing some missions requiring high power levels to be flown prior to the availability of advanced systems with lower specific mass. Although this system has relatively high efficiency, the heat rejection temperature is low, requiring a large radiator on the order of 3.4 sq m/kWe. Therefore, a deployable heat pipe radiator configuration will be required.

  20. Study of a nuclear energy supplied steelmaking system for near-term application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Xing L.; Kasahara, Seiji; Tachibana, Yukio; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Conventional steelmaking processes involve intensive fossil fuel consumption and CO 2 emission. The system resulting from this study ties a steelmaking plant to a nuclear plant. The latter supplies the former all energy and feedstock with the exception of iron ore. The actual design takes on a multi-disciplinary approach: The nuclear plant employs a proven next-generation technology of fission reactor with 950 °C outlet temperature to produce electricity and heat. The plant construction saving and high efficiency keep the cogeneration cost down. The steelmaking plant employs conventional furnaces but substitutes hydrogen and oxygen for hydrocarbons as reactant and fuel. Water decomposition through an experimentally-demonstrated thermochemical process manufactures the feedstock gases required. Through essential safety features, particular a fully-passive nuclear safety, the design achieves physical proximity and yet operational independence of the two plants to facilitate inter-plant energy transmission. Calculated energy and material balance of the integrated system yields slightly over 1000 t steel per 1 MWt yr nuclear thermal energy. The steel cost is estimated competitive. The CO 2 emission amounts to 1% of conventional processes. The sustainable performance, economical potential, robust safety, and use of verified technological bases attract near-term deployment of this nuclear steelmaking system. -- Highlights: ► A steelmaking concept is proposed based on multi-disciplinary approach. ► It ties advanced nuclear fission reactor and energy conversion to thermochemical manufacture and direct iron making. ► Technological strength of each area is exploited to integrate a final process. ► Heat and material balance of the process is made to predict performance and cost. ► The system rules out fossil fuel use and CO 2 emission, and is near-term deployable.

  1. Near-term deployment of carbon capture and sequestration from biorefineries in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Daniel L; Johnson, Nils; McCoy, Sean T; Turner, Peter A; Mach, Katharine J

    2018-05-08

    Capture and permanent geologic sequestration of biogenic CO 2 emissions may provide critical flexibility in ambitious climate change mitigation. However, most bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration (BECCS) technologies are technically immature or commercially unavailable. Here, we evaluate low-cost, commercially ready CO 2 capture opportunities for existing ethanol biorefineries in the United States. The analysis combines process engineering, spatial optimization, and lifecycle assessment to consider the technical, economic, and institutional feasibility of near-term carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). Our modeling framework evaluates least cost source-sink relationships and aggregation opportunities for pipeline transport, which can cost-effectively transport small CO 2 volumes to suitable sequestration sites; 216 existing US biorefineries emit 45 Mt CO 2 annually from fermentation, of which 60% could be captured and compressed for pipeline transport for under $25/tCO 2 A sequestration credit, analogous to existing CCS tax credits, of $60/tCO 2 could incent 30 Mt of sequestration and 6,900 km of pipeline infrastructure across the United States. Similarly, a carbon abatement credit, analogous to existing tradeable CO 2 credits, of $90/tCO 2 can incent 38 Mt of abatement. Aggregation of CO 2 sources enables cost-effective long-distance pipeline transport to distant sequestration sites. Financial incentives under the low-carbon fuel standard in California and recent revisions to existing federal tax credits suggest a substantial near-term opportunity to permanently sequester biogenic CO 2 This financial opportunity could catalyze the growth of carbon capture, transport, and sequestration; improve the lifecycle impacts of conventional biofuels; support development of carbon-negative fuels; and help fulfill the mandates of low-carbon fuel policies across the United States. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  2. Evaluating Modeled Impact Metrics for Human Health, Agriculture Growth, and Near-Term Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seltzer, K. M.; Shindell, D. T.; Faluvegi, G.; Murray, L. T.

    2017-12-01

    Simulated metrics that assess impacts on human health, agriculture growth, and near-term climate were evaluated using ground-based and satellite observations. The NASA GISS ModelE2 and GEOS-Chem models were used to simulate the near-present chemistry of the atmosphere. A suite of simulations that varied by model, meteorology, horizontal resolution, emissions inventory, and emissions year were performed, enabling an analysis of metric sensitivities to various model components. All simulations utilized consistent anthropogenic global emissions inventories (ECLIPSE V5a or CEDS), and an evaluation of simulated results were carried out for 2004-2006 and 2009-2011 over the United States and 2014-2015 over China. Results for O3- and PM2.5-based metrics featured minor differences due to the model resolutions considered here (2.0° × 2.5° and 0.5° × 0.666°) and model, meteorology, and emissions inventory each played larger roles in variances. Surface metrics related to O3 were consistently high biased, though to varying degrees, demonstrating the need to evaluate particular modeling frameworks before O3 impacts are quantified. Surface metrics related to PM2.5 were diverse, indicating that a multimodel mean with robust results are valuable tools in predicting PM2.5-related impacts. Oftentimes, the configuration that captured the change of a metric best over time differed from the configuration that captured the magnitude of the same metric best, demonstrating the challenge in skillfully simulating impacts. These results highlight the strengths and weaknesses of these models in simulating impact metrics related to air quality and near-term climate. With such information, the reliability of historical and future simulations can be better understood.

  3. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  4. Affordances are Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Pickering

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Peirce and Whitehead share a common project: to restrict the over-extension of reductionism, to show how matter must be sensate and to create an ontology of process and subjectivity. This article claims that biosemiotics can assist this project. Moreover, it shows that the concept of affordance is a means to produce a theory of causation that embraces physical, natural and cultural levels of order.

  5. Antibiotic prophylaxis for term or near-term premature rupture of membranes: metaanalysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Gabriele; Berghella, Vincenzo

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis in women with term or near-term premature rupture of membranes. Searches were performed in MEDLINE, OVID, Scopus, ClinicalTrials.gov, the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, ScienceDirect.com, MEDSCAPE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with the use of a combination of key words and text words related to antibiotics, premature rupture of membranes, term, and trials from inception of each database to September 2014. We included all randomized trials of singleton gestations with premature rupture of membranes at 36 weeks or more, who were randomized to antibiotic prophylaxis or control (either placebo or no treatment). The primary outcomes included maternal chorioamnionitis and neonatal sepsis. A subgroup analysis on studies with latency more than 12 hours was planned. Before data extraction, the review was registered with the PROSPERO International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (registration number CRD42014013928). The metaanalysis was performed following the Preferred Reporting Item for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses statement. Women who received antibiotics had the same rate of chorioamnionitis (2.7% vs 3.7%; relative risk [RR], 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48-1.12), endometritis (0.4% vs 0.9%; RR, 0.44, 95% CI, 0.18-1.10), maternal infection (3.1% vs 4.6%; RR, 0.48, 95% CI, 0.19-1.21), and neonatal sepsis (1.0% vs 1.4%; RR, 0.69, 95% CI, 0.34-1.39). In the planned subgroup analysis, women with latency longer than 12 hours, who received antibiotics, had a lower rate of chorioamnionitis (2.9% vs 6.1%; RR, 0.49, 95% CI, 0.27-0.91) and endometritis (0% vs 2.2%; RR, 0.12, 95% CI, 0.02-0.62) compared with the control group. Antibiotic prophylaxis for term or near-term premature rupture of membranes is not associated with any benefits in either maternal or neonatal outcomes. In women with latency longer

  6. Near term hybrid passenger vehicle development program. Phase I. Appendices C and D. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The derivation of and actual preliminary design of the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle (NTHV) are presented. The NTHV uses a modified GM Citation body, a VW Rabbit turbocharged diesel engine, a 24KW compound dc electric motor, a modified GM automatic transmission, and an on-board computer for transmission control. The following NTHV information is presented: the results of the trade-off studies are summarized; the overall vehicle design; the selection of the design concept and the base vehicle (the Chevrolet Citation), the battery pack configuration, structural modifications, occupant protection, vehicle dynamics, and aerodynamics; the powertrain design, including the transmission, coupling devices, engine, motor, accessory drive, and powertrain integration; the motor controller; the battery type, duty cycle, charger, and thermal requirements; the control system (electronics); the identification of requirements, software algorithm requirements, processor selection and system design, sensor and actuator characteristics, displays, diagnostics, and other topics; environmental system including heating, air conditioning, and compressor drive; the specifications, weight breakdown, and energy consumption measures; advanced technology components, and the data sources and assumptions used. (LCL)

  7. Alternative routes to improved fuel utilization: Analysis of near-term economic incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salo, J.P.; Vieno, T.; Vira, J.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for savings in the nuclear fuel cycle costs is discussed from the point of view of a single utility. The analysis is concentrated on the existing and near-term economic incentives for improved fuel utilization, and the context is that of a small country without domestic fuel cycle services. In the uranium fuel cycle the extended burnup produces savings in the uranium feed as well as in the fuel fabrication and waste management requirements. The front-end fuel cycle cost impact is evaluated for BWRs. In the back-end part the situation is more specific of the concrete back-end solution. Estimates for savings in the cost of direct disposal of spent fuel are presented for a Finnish case. The economics of recycle is reviewed from a recent study on the use of MOX fuel in the Finnish BWRs. The results from a comparison with once-through alternative show that spent fuel reprocessing with consequent recycle of uranium and plutonium would be economically justified only with very high uranium prices. (author)

  8. The near-term impacts of carbon mitigation policies on manufacturing industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgenstern, Richard D.; Ho Mun; Shih, J.-S.; Zhang Xuehua

    2004-01-01

    Who pays for new policies to reduce carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions in the United States? This paper considers a slice of the question by examining the near-term impact on domestic manufacturing industries of both upstream (economy-wide) and downstream (electric power industry only) carbon mitigation policies. Detailed Census data on the electricity use of four-digit manufacturing industries are combined with input-output information on inter-industry purchases to paint a detailed picture of carbon use, including effects on final demand. Regional information on electricity supply and use by region is also incorporated. A relatively simple model is developed which yields estimates of the relative burdens within the manufacturing sector of alternative carbon policies. Overall, the principal conclusion is that within the manufacturing sector (which by definition excludes coal production and electricity generation), only a small number of industries would bear a disproportionate short-term burden of a carbon tax or similar policy. Not surprisingly, an electricity-only policy affects very different manufacturing industries than an economy-wide carbon tax

  9. Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger-Vehicle Development Program. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Under contract to the Jet Propulsion Laboratory of the California Institute of Technology, Minicars conducted Phase I of the Near-Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle (NTHV) Development Program. This program led to the preliminary design of a hybrid (electric and internal combustion engine powered) vehicle and fulfilled the objectives set by JPL. JPL requested that the report address certain specific topics. A brief summary of all Phase I activities is given initially; the hybrid vehicle preliminary design is described in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Table 2 of the Summary lists performance projections for the overall vehicle and some of its subsystems. Section 4.5 gives references to the more-detailed design information found in the Preliminary Design Data Package (Appendix C). Alternative hybrid-vehicle design options are discussed in Sections 3 through 6. A listing of the tradeoff study alternatives is included in Section 3. Computer simulations are discussed in Section 9. Section 8 describes the supporting economic analyses. Reliability and safety considerations are discussed specifically in Section 7 and are mentioned in Sections 4, 5, and 6. Section 10 lists conclusions and recommendations arrived at during the performance of Phase I. A complete bibliography follows the list of references.

  10. California Power-to-Gas and Power-to-Hydrogen Near-Term Business Case Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichman, Josh [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Flores-Espino, Francisco [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Flexible operation of electrolysis systems represents an opportunity to reduce the cost of hydrogen for a variety of end-uses while also supporting grid operations and thereby enabling greater renewable penetration. California is an ideal location to realize that value on account of growing renewable capacity and markets for hydrogen as a fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) fuel, refineries, and other end-uses. Shifting the production of hydrogen to avoid high cost electricity and participation in utility and system operator markets along with installing renewable generation to avoid utility charges and increase revenue from the Low Carbon Fuel Standard (LCFS) program can result in around $2.5/kg (21%) reduction in the production and delivery cost of hydrogen from electrolysis. This reduction can be achieved without impacting the consumers of hydrogen. Additionally, future strategies for reducing hydrogen cost were explored and include lower cost of capital, participation in the Renewable Fuel Standard program, capital cost reduction, and increased LCFS value. Each must be achieved independently and could each contribute to further reductions. Using the assumptions in this study found a 29% reduction in cost if all future strategies are realized. Flexible hydrogen production can simultaneously improve the performance and decarbonize multiple energy sectors. The lessons learned from this study should be used to understand near-term cost drivers and to support longer-term research activities to further improve cost effectiveness of grid integrated electrolysis systems.

  11. Evaluation of the Terminal Precision Scheduling and Spacing System for Near-Term NAS Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thipphavong, Jane; Martin, Lynne Hazel; Swenson, Harry N.; Lin, Paul; Nguyen, Jimmy

    2012-01-01

    NASA has developed a capability for terminal area precision scheduling and spacing (TAPSS) to provide higher capacity and more efficiently manage arrivals during peak demand periods. This advanced technology is NASA's vision for the NextGen terminal metering capability. A set of human-in-the-loop experiments was conducted to evaluate the performance of the TAPSS system for near-term implementation. The experiments evaluated the TAPSS system under the current terminal routing infrastructure to validate operational feasibility. A second goal of the study was to measure the benefit of the Center and TRACON advisory tools to help prioritize the requirements for controller radar display enhancements. Simulation results indicate that using the TAPSS system provides benefits under current operations, supporting a 10% increase in airport throughput. Enhancements to Center decision support tools had limited impact on improving the efficiency of terminal operations, but did provide more fuel-efficient advisories to achieve scheduling conformance within 20 seconds. The TRACON controller decision support tools were found to provide the most benefit, by improving the precision in schedule conformance to within 20 seconds, reducing the number of arrivals having lateral path deviations by 50% and lowering subjective controller workload. Overall, the TAPSS system was found to successfully develop an achievable terminal arrival metering plan that was sustainable under heavy traffic demand levels and reduce the complexity of terminal operations when coupled with the use of the terminal controller advisory tools.

  12. Ceramic composites for near term reactor application - HTR2008-58050

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snead, L. L.; Katoh, Y.; Windes, W. E.; Shinavski, R. J.; Burchell, T. D.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, two composites types are being developed for in-core application: carbon fiber carbon composite (CFC), and silicon carbide fiber composite (SiC/SiC.) Irradiation effects studies have been carried out over the past few decades yielding radiation-tolerant CFC's and a composite of SiC/SiC with no apparent degradation in mechanical properties to very high neutron exposure. While CFC's can be engineered with significantly higher thermal conductivity, and a slight advantage in manufacturability than SiC/SiC, they do have a neutron irradiation-limited lifetime. The SiC composite, while possessing lower thermal conductivity (especially following irradiation), appears to have mechanical properties insensitive to irradiation. Both materials are currently being produced to sizes much larger than that considered for nuclear application. In addition to materials aspects, results of programs focusing on practical aspects of deploying composites for near-term reactors will be discussed. In particular, significant progress has been made in the fabrication, testing, and qualification of composite gas-cooled reactor control rod sheaths and the ASTM standardization required for eventual qualification. (authors)

  13. Landmine policy in the near-term: a framework for technology analysis and action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eimerl, D., LLNL

    1997-08-01

    Any effective solution to the problem of leftover landmines and other post-conflict unexploded ordnance (UXO) must take into account the real capabilities of demining technologies and the availability of sufficient resources to carry out demining operations. Economic and operational factors must be included in analyses of humanitarian demining. These factors will provide a framework for using currently available resources and technologies to complete this task in a time frame that is both practical and useful. Since it is likely that reliable advanced technologies for demining are still several years away, this construct applies to the intervening period. It may also provide a framework for utilizing advanced technologies as they become available. This study is an economic system model for demining operations carried out by the developed nations that clarifies the role and impact of technology on the economic performance and viability of these operations. It also provides a quantitative guide to assess the performance penalties arising from gaps in current technology, as well as the potential advantages and desirable features of new technologies that will significantly affect the international community`s ability to address this problem. Implications for current and near-term landmine and landmine technology policies are drawn.

  14. Three near term commercial markets in space and their potential role in space exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavert, Raymond B.

    2001-02-01

    Independent market studies related to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) commercialization have identified three near term markets that have return-on-investment potential. These markets are: (1) Entertainment (2) Education (3) Advertising/sponsorship. Commercial activity is presently underway focusing on these areas. A private company is working with the Russians on a commercial module attached to the ISS that will involve entertainment and probably the other two activities as well. A separate corporation has been established to commercialize the Russian Mir Space Station with entertainment and promotional advertising as important revenue sources. A new startup company has signed an agreement with NASA for commercial media activity on the International Space Station (ISS). Profit making education programs are being developed by a private firm to allow students to play the role of an astronaut and work closely with space scientists and astronauts. It is expected that the success of these efforts on the ISS program will extend to exploration missions beyond LEO. The objective of this paper is to extrapolate some of the LEO commercialization experiences to see what might be expected in space exploration missions to Mars, the Moon and beyond. .

  15. Round and round: Little consensus exists on the near-term future of natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lunan, D.

    2004-01-01

    The various combinations of factors influencing natural gas supply and demand and the future price of natural gas is discussed. Expert opinion is that prices will continue to track higher, demand will grow with the surging American economy, and supplies will remain constrained providing more fuel for another cycle of ever-higher prices. There is also considerable concern about the continuing rise in demand and tight supply situation in the near term, and the uncertainty about when, or even whether, major new sources will become available. The prediction is that the overriding impact of declining domestic supplies will put a premium on natural gas at any given time. Overall, it appears certain that higher prices are here to stay: as a result, industrial gas users will see their competitiveness eroded, and individual consumers will see their heating bills rise. Governments, too, will be affected as the increasing cost of natural gas will slow down the pace of conversion of coal-fired power generating plants to natural gas, reducing anticipated emissions benefits and in the process compromising environmental goals. Current best estimates put prices for the 2004/2005 heating season at about US$5.40 per MMBtu, whereas the longer term price range is estimated to lie in the range of US$4.75 to US$5.25 per MMBtu. 2 figs

  16. Isolation systems influence in the seismic loading propagation analysis applied to an innovative near term reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, R.; Forasassi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Integrity of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) must be ensured during the plant life in any design condition and, particularly, in the event of a severe earthquake. To investigate the seismic resistance capability of as-built structures systems and components, in the event of a Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE), and analyse its related effects on a near term deployment reactor and its internals, a deterministic methodological approach, based on the evaluation of the propagation of seismic waves along the structure, was applied considering, also, the use of innovative anti-seismic techniques. In this paper the attention is focused on the use and influence of seismic isolation technologies (e.g. isolators based on passive energy dissipation) that seem able to ensure the full integrity and operability of NPP structures, to enhance the seismic safety (improving the design of new NPPs and if possible, to retrofit existing facilities) and to attain a standardization plant design. To the purpose of this study a numerical assessment of dynamic response/behaviour of the structures was accomplished by means of the finite element approach and setting up, as accurately as possible, a representative three-dimensional model of mentioned NPP structures. The obtained results in terms of response spectra (carried out from both cases of isolated and not isolated seismic analyses) are herein presented and compared in order to highlight the isolation technique effectiveness.

  17. AP1000 will meet the challenges of near-term deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matzie, Regis A.

    2008-01-01

    The world demand for energy is growing rapidly, particularly in developing countries that are trying to raise the standard of living for billions of people, many of whom do not have access to electricity or clean water. Climate change and the concern for increased emissions of green house gases have brought into question the future primary reliance of fossil fuels. With the projected worldwide increase in energy demand, concern for the environmental impact of carbon emissions, and the recent price volatility of fossil fuels, nuclear energy is undergoing a rapid resurgence. This 'nuclear renaissance' is broad based, reaching across Asia, North America, Europe, as well as selected countries in Africa and South America. Many countries have publicly expressed their intentions to pursue the construction of new nuclear energy plants. Some countries that have previously turned away from commercial nuclear energy are reconsidering the advisability of this decision. This renaissance is facilitated by the availability of more advanced reactor designs than are operating today, with improved safety, economy, and operations. One such design, the Westinghouse AP1000 advanced passive plant, has been a long time in the making! The development of this passive technology started over two decades ago from an embryonic belief that a new approach to design was needed to spawn a nuclear renaissance. The principal challenges were seen as ensuring reactor safety by requiring less reliance on operator actions and overcoming the high plant capital cost of nuclear energy. The AP1000 design is based on the use of innovative passive technology and modular construction, which require significantly less equipment and commodities that facilitate a more rapid construction schedule. Because Westinghouse had the vision and the perseverance to continue the development of this passive technology, the AP1000 design is ready to meet today's challenge of near-term deployment

  18. Preliminary seismic analysis of an innovative near term reactor: Methodology and application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Frano, R.; Pugliese, G.; Forasassi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant (NPP) design is strictly dependent on seismic hazard and safety aspects concerned with the external events of the site. Earthquake resistant structures design requires realistic and accurate physical and theoretical models to describe the response of the nuclear power plants (NPPs) that depend on both the ground motion characteristics and the dynamic properties of the structures themselves. In order to improve the design of new NPPs and, at the same time, to retrofit existing ones the dynamic behaviour of structures subjected to critical seismic excitations that may occur during their expected service life must be evaluated. The aim of this work is to select new effective methods to assess NPPs vulnerability by properly capturing the effects of a safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) event on nuclear structures, like the near term deployment IRIS reactor, and to evaluate the seismic resistance capability of as-built structures systems and components. To attain the purpose a validated deterministic methodology based on an accurate finite element modelling coupled to substructure and time history approaches was employed for studying the overall dynamic behaviour of the NPP relevant components. Moreover the set up three-dimensional model was also validated to evaluate the performance and reliability of the adopted FEM code (mesh refinements and type element influence). This detailed numerical assessment, involving the most widely used finite element numerical codes (MSC.Marc and Ansys, allowed to solve, perform and simulate as accurately as possible the dynamic behaviour of structures which may withstand a lot of more or less complicate structural problems. To evaluate the accuracy and the reliability as well as to determine the related error of the set-up procedure, the obtained seismic analyses results in term of accelerations, propagated from the ground to the auxiliary building systems and components, and displacements were compared highlighting a

  19. Near-term viability of solar heat applications for the federal sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T. A.

    1991-12-01

    Solar thermal technologies are capable of providing heat across a wide range of temperatures, making them potentially attractive for meeting energy requirements for industrial process heat applications and institutional heating. The energy savings that could be realized by solar thermal heat are quite large, potentially several quads annually. Although technologies for delivering heat at temperatures above 100 C currently exist within industry, only a fairly small number of commercial systems have been installed to date. The objective of this paper is to investigate and discuss the prospects for near term solar heat sales to federal facilities as a mechanism for providing an early market niche to the aid the widespread development and implementation of the technology. The specific technical focus is on mid-temperature (100 to 350 C) heat demands that could be met with parabolic trough systems. Federal facilities have several features relative to private industry that may make them attractive for solar heat applications relative to other sectors. Key features are specific policy mandates for conserving energy, a long term planning horizon with well defined decision criteria, and prescribed economic return criteria for conservation and solar investments that are generally less stringent than the investment criteria used by private industry. Federal facilities also have specific difficulties in the sale of solar heat technologies that are different from those of other sectors, and strategies to mitigate these difficulties will be important. For the baseline scenario developed in this paper, the solar heat application was economically competitive with heat provided by natural gas. The system levelized energy cost was $5.9/MBtu for the solar heat case, compared to $6.8/MBtu for the life cycle fuel cost of a natural gas case. A third-party ownership would also be attractive to federal users, since it would guarantee energy savings and would not need initial federal funds.

  20. Predicting Near-Term Water Quality from Satellite Observations of Watershed Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, W. J.; Wang, L.; Hoffman, K.; West, D.; Mehta, A. V.; Lee, C.

    2017-12-01

    Despite the strong influence of watershed conditions on source water quality, most water utilities and water resource agencies do not currently have the capability to monitor watershed sources of contamination with great temporal or spatial detail. Typically, knowledge of source water quality is limited to periodic grab sampling; automated monitoring of a limited number of parameters at a few select locations; and/or monitoring relevant constituents at a treatment plant intake. While important, such observations are not sufficient to inform proactive watershed or source water management at a monthly or seasonal scale. Satellite remote sensing data on the other hand can provide a snapshot of an entire watershed at regular, sub-monthly intervals, helping analysts characterize watershed conditions and identify trends that could signal changes in source water quality. Accordingly, the authors are investigating correlations between satellite remote sensing observations of watersheds and source water quality, at a variety of spatial and temporal scales and lags. While correlations between remote sensing observations and direct in situ measurements of water quality have been well described in the literature, there are few studies that link remote sensing observations across a watershed with near-term predictions of water quality. In this presentation, the authors will describe results of statistical analyses and discuss how these results are being used to inform development of a desktop decision support tool to support predictive application of remote sensing data. Predictor variables under evaluation include parameters that describe vegetative conditions; parameters that describe climate/weather conditions; and non-remote sensing, in situ measurements. Water quality parameters under investigation include nitrogen, phosphorus, organic carbon, chlorophyll-a, and turbidity.

  1. Development of near-term batteries for electric vehicles. Summary report, October 1977-September 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajan, J.B. (comp.)

    1980-06-01

    The status and results through FY 1979 on the Near-Term Electric Vehicle Battery Project of the Argonne National Laboratory are summarized. This project conducts R and D on lead-acid, nickel/zinc and nickel/iron batteries with the objective of achieving commercialization in electric vehicles in the 1980's. Key results of the R and D indicate major technology advancements and achievement of most of FY 1979 performance goals. In the lead-acid system the specific energy was increased from less than 30 Wh/kg to over 40 Wh/kg at the C/3 rate; the peak power density improved from 70 W/kg to over 110 W/kg at the 50% state of charge; and over 200 deep-discharge cycle life demonstrated. In the nickel/iron system a specific energy of 48 Wh/kg was achieved; a peak power of about 100 W/kg demonstrated and a life of 36 cycles obtained. In the nickel/zinc system, specific energies of up to 64 Wh/kg were shown; peak powers of 133 W/kg obtained; and a life of up to 120 cycles measured. Future R and D will emphasize increased cycle life for nickel/zinc batteries and increased cycle life and specific energy for lead-acid and nickel/iron batteries. Testing of 145 cells was completed by NBTL. Cell evaluation included a full set of performance tests plus the application of a simulated power profile equivalent to the power demands of an electric vehicle in stop-start urban driving. Simplified test profiles which approximate electric vehicle demands are also described.

  2. Advanced wind turbine near-term product development. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1996-01-01

    In 1990 the US Department of Energy initiated the Advanced Wind Turbine (AWT) Program to assist the growth of a viable wind energy industry in the US. This program, which has been managed through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, has been divided into three phases: (1) conceptual design studies, (2) near-term product development, and (3) next-generation product development. The goals of the second phase were to bring into production wind turbines which would meet the cost goal of $0.05 kWh at a site with a mean (Rayleigh) windspeed of 5.8 m/s (13 mph) and a vertical wind shear exponent of 0.14. These machines were to allow a US-based industry to compete domestically with other sources of energy and to provide internationally competitive products. Information is given in the report on design values of peak loads and of fatigue spectra and the results of the design process are summarized in a table. Measured response is compared with the results from mathematical modeling using the ADAMS code and is discussed. Detailed information is presented on the estimated costs of maintenance and on spare parts requirements. A failure modes and effects analysis was carried out and resulted in approximately 50 design changes including the identification of ten previously unidentified failure modes. The performance results of both prototypes are examined and adjusted for air density and for correlation between the anemometer site and the turbine location. The anticipated energy production at the reference site specified by NREL is used to calculate the final cost of energy using the formulas indicated in the Statement of Work. The value obtained is $0.0514/kWh in January 1994 dollars. 71 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. An Examination of Selected Datacom Options for the Near-Term Implementation of Trajectory Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Walter W.; Lachter, Joel B.; Battiste, Vernol; Lim, Veranika; Brandt, Summer L.; Koteskey, Robert W.; Dao, Arik-Quang V.; Ligda, Sarah V.; Wu, Shu-Chieh

    2011-01-01

    A primary feature of the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) is trajectory based operations (TBO). Under TBO, aircraft flight plans are known to computer systems on the ground that aid in scheduling and separation. The Future Air Navigation System (FANS) was developed to support TBO, but relatively few aircraft in the US are FANSequipped. Thus, any near-term implementation must provide TBO procedures for non-FANS aircraft. Previous research has explored controller clearances, but any implementation must also provide procedures for aircraft requests. The work presented here aims to surface issues surrounding TBO communication procedures for non-FANS aircraft and for aircraft requesting deviations around weather. Three types of communication were explored: Voice, FANS, and ACARS,(Aircraft Communications Addressing and Reporting System). ACARS and FANS are datacom systems that differ in that FANS allows uplinked flight plans to be loaded into the Flight Management System (FMS), while ACARS delivers flight plans as text that must be entered manually via the Control Display Unit (CDU). Sixteen pilots (eight two-person flight decks) and four controllers participated in 32 20-minute scenarios that required the flight decks to navigate through convective weather as they approached their top of descents (TODs). Findings: The rate of non-conformance was higher than anticipated, with aircraft off path more than 20% of the time. Controllers did not differentiate between the ACARS and FANS datacom, and were mixed in their preference for Voice vs. datacom (ACARS and FANS). Pilots uniformly preferred Voice to datacom, particularly ACARS. Much of their dislike appears to result from the slow response times in the datacom conditions. As a result, participants frequently resorted to voice communication. These results imply that, before implementing TBO in environments where pilots make weather deviation requests, further research is needed to develop communication

  4. Modeling the Near-Term Risk of Climate Uncertainty: Interdependencies among the U.S. States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, T. S.; Backus, G.; Warren, D.

    2010-12-01

    Decisions made to address climate change must start with an understanding of the risk of an uncertain future to human systems, which in turn means understanding both the consequence as well as the probability of a climate induced impact occurring. In other words, addressing climate change is an exercise in risk-informed policy making, which implies that there is no single correct answer or even a way to be certain about a single answer; the uncertainty in future climate conditions will always be present and must be taken as a working-condition for decision making. In order to better understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions, this study estimates the impacts from responses to climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity by employing a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. Using the results from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change’s (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) as a proxy for climate uncertainty, changes in hydrology over the next 40 years were mapped and then modeled to determine the physical consequences on economic activity and to perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of the economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. The analysis determines industry-level effects, employment impacts at the state level, interstate population migration, consequences to personal income, and ramifications for the U.S. trade balance. The conclusions show that the average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs. Further analysis shows that an increase in uncertainty raises this risk. This paper will present the methodology behind the approach, a summary of the underlying models, as well as the path forward for improving the approach.

  5. Evolution of near term PBMR steam and cogeneration applications - HTR2008-58219

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhr, R. W.; Hannink, R.; Paul, K.; Kriel, W.; Greyvenstein, R.; Young, R.

    2008-01-01

    US and international applications for large onsite cogeneration (steam and power) systems are emerging as a near term market for the PBMR. The South African PBMR demonstration project applies a high temperature (900 deg. C) Brayton cycle for high efficiency power generation. In addition, a number of new applications are being investigated using an intermediate temperature range (700-750 deg. C) with a simplified heat supply system design. This intermediate helium delivery temperature supports conventional steam Rankine cycle designs at higher efficiencies than obtained from water type reactor systems. These designs can be adapted for cogeneration of steam, similar to the design of gas turbine cogeneration plants that supply steam and power at many industrial sites. This temperature range allows use of conventional or readily qualifiable materials and equipment, avoiding some cost premiums associated with more difficult operating conditions. As gas prices and CO 2 values increase, the potential value of a small nuclear reactor with advanced safety characteristics increases dramatically. Because of its smaller scale, the 400-500 MWt PBMR offers the economic advantages of onsite thermal integration (steam, hot water and desalination co-production) and of providing onsite power at cost versus at retail industrial rates avoiding transmission and distribution costs. Advanced safety characteristics of the PBMR support the location of plants adjacent to steam users, district energy systems, desalination plants, and other large commercial and industrial facilities. Additional benefits include price stability, long term security of energy supply and substantial CO 2 reductions. Target markets include existing sites using gas fired boilers and cogeneration units, new projects such as refinery and petrochemical expansions, and coal-to-liquids projects where steam and power represent major burdens on fuel use and CO 2 emissions. Lead times associated with the nuclear licensing

  6. Assessing the near-term risk of climate uncertainty : interdependencies among the U.S. states.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loose, Verne W.; Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Tidwell, Vincent Carroll; Stamber, Kevin Louis; Reinert, Rhonda K.; Backus, George A.; Warren, Drake E.; Zagonel, Aldo A.; Ehlen, Mark Andrew; Klise, Geoffrey T.; Vargas, Vanessa N.

    2010-04-01

    Policy makers will most likely need to make decisions about climate policy before climate scientists have resolved all relevant uncertainties about the impacts of climate change. This study demonstrates a risk-assessment methodology for evaluating uncertain future climatic conditions. We estimate the impacts of climate change on U.S. state- and national-level economic activity from 2010 to 2050. To understand the implications of uncertainty on risk and to provide a near-term rationale for policy interventions to mitigate the course of climate change, we focus on precipitation, one of the most uncertain aspects of future climate change. We use results of the climate-model ensemble from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's (IPCC) Fourth Assessment Report 4 (AR4) as a proxy for representing climate uncertainty over the next 40 years, map the simulated weather from the climate models hydrologically to the county level to determine the physical consequences on economic activity at the state level, and perform a detailed 70-industry analysis of economic impacts among the interacting lower-48 states. We determine the industry-level contribution to the gross domestic product and employment impacts at the state level, as well as interstate population migration, effects on personal income, and consequences for the U.S. trade balance. We show that the mean or average risk of damage to the U.S. economy from climate change, at the national level, is on the order of $1 trillion over the next 40 years, with losses in employment equivalent to nearly 7 million full-time jobs.

  7. Ecological and biomedical effects of effluents from near-term electric vehicle storage battery cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-05-01

    An assessment of the ecological and biomedical effects due to commercialization of storage batteries for electric and hybrid vehicles is given. It deals only with the near-term batteries, namely Pb/acid, Ni/Zn, and Ni/Fe, but the complete battery cycle is considered, i.e., mining and milling of raw materials, manufacture of the batteries, cases and covers; use of the batteries in electric vehicles, including the charge-discharge cycles; recycling of spent batteries; and disposal of nonrecyclable components. The gaseous, liquid, and solid emissions from various phases of the battery cycle are identified. The effluent dispersal in the environment is modeled and ecological effects are assessed in terms of biogeochemical cycles. The metabolic and toxic responses by humans and laboratory animals to constituents of the effluents are discussed. Pertinent environmental and health regulations related to the battery industry are summarized and regulatory implications for large-scale storage battery commercialization are discussed. Each of the seven sections were abstracted and indexed individually for EDB/ERA. Additional information is presented in the seven appendixes entitled; growth rate scenario for lead/acid battery development; changes in battery composition during discharge; dispersion of stack and fugitive emissions from battery-related operations; methodology for estimating population exposure to total suspended particulates and SO/sub 2/ resulting from central power station emissions for the daily battery charging demand of 10,000 electric vehicles; determination of As air emissions from Zn smelting; health effects: research related to EV battery technologies. (JGB)

  8. Developing an Onboard Traffic-Aware Flight Optimization Capability for Near-Term Low-Cost Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wing, David J.; Ballin, Mark G.; Koczo, Stefan, Jr.; Vivona, Robert A.; Henderson, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    The concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR) combines Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) IN and airborne automation to enable user-optimal in-flight trajectory replanning and to increase the likelihood of Air Traffic Control (ATC) approval for the resulting trajectory change request. TASAR is designed as a near-term application to improve flight efficiency or other user-desired attributes of the flight while not impacting and potentially benefiting ATC. Previous work has indicated the potential for significant benefits for each TASAR-equipped aircraft. This paper will discuss the approach to minimizing TASAR's cost for implementation and accelerating readiness for near-term implementation.

  9. Making care affordable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, S

    1999-01-01

    The YRG Centre for AIDS Research and Education (CARE) in Chennai, India runs an integrated care program ensuring appropriate and affordable care to everyone who needs it. The program includes both voluntary counseling/testing and hospital/home-based care. YRG CARE developed several strategies for the care program, which include 1) different fees for an HIV test, 2) free counseling service, 3) different charges for other care services, 4) a subsidized pharmacy (involving purchasing drugs directly from manufacturers and wholesalers, ordering free samples from manufacturers, and acquiring drugs through the drug component of its clinical research projects, from overseas hospitals, and from YRG CARE hospital and community-based patients who have not used them), and 5) subsidized meals.

  10. Meeting the near-term demand for hydrogen using nuclear energy in competitive power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2004-01-01

    Hydrogen is becoming the reference fuel for future transportation and the timetable for its adoption is shortening. However, to deploy its full potential, hydrogen production either directly or indirectly needs to satisfy three criteria: no associated emissions, including CO 2 ; wide availability; and affordability. This creates a window of great opportunity within the next 15 years for nuclear energy to provide the backbone of hydrogen-based energy systems. But nuclear must establish its hydrogen generating role long before the widespread deployment of Gen IV high-temperature reactors, with their possibility of producing hydrogen directly by heat rather than electricity. For Gen IV the major factors will be efficiency and economic cost, particularly if centralized storage is needed and/or credits for avoided emissions and/or oxygen sales. In the interim, despite its apparently lower overall efficiency, water electrolysis is the only available technology today able to meet the first and second criteria. The third criterion includes costs of electrolysis and electricity. The primary requirements for affordable electrolysis are low capital cost and high utilisation. Consequently, the electricity supply must enable high utilisation as well as being itself low-cost and emissions-free. Evolved Gen III+ nuclear technologies can produce electricity on large scales and at rates competitive with today's CO 2 -emitting, fossil-fuelled technologies. As an example of electrolytic hydrogen's potential, we show competitive deployment in a typical competitive power market. Among the attractions of this approach are reactors supplying a base-loaded market - though permitting occasional, opportunistic diversion of electricity during price spikes on the power grid - and easy delivery of hydrogen to widely distributed users. Gen IV systems with multiple product streams and higher efficiency (e.g., the SCWR) can also be envisaged which can use competitive energy markets to advantage

  11. Near-term markets for PEM fuel cell power modules: industrial vehicles and hydrogen recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintawar, P.S.; Block, G.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' Nuvera Fuel Cells, Inc. is a global leader in the development and advancement of multifuel processing and fuel cell technology. With offices located in Italy and the USA, Nuvera is committed to advancing the commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell power modules for industrial vehicles and equipment and stationary applications by 2006, natural gas fuel cell power systems for cogeneration applications by 2007, and on-board gasoline fuel processors and fuel cell stacks for automotive applications by 2010. Nuvera Fuel Cells Europe is ISO 9001:2000 certified for 'Research, Development, Design, Production and Servicing of Fuel Cell Stacks and Fuel Cell Systems.' In the chemical industry, one of the largest operating expenses today is the cost of electricity. For example, caustic soda and chlorine are produced today using industrial membrane electrolysis which is an energy intensive process. Production of 1 metric ton of caustic soda consumes 2.5 MWh of energy. However, about 20% of the electricity consumed can be recovered by converting the hydrogen byproduct of the caustic soda production process into electricity via PEM fuel cells. The accessible market is a function of the economic value of the hydrogen whether flared, used as fuel, or as chemical. Responding to this market need, we are currently developing large hydrogen fuel cell power modules 'Forza' that use excess hydrogen to produce electricity, representing a practical economic alternative to reducing the net electricity cost. Due for commercial launch in 2006, Forza is a low-pressure, steady state, base-load power generation solution that will operate at high efficiency and 100% capacity over a 24-hour period. We believe this premise is also true for chemical and electrochemical plants and companies that convert hydrogen to electricity using renewable sources like windmills or hydropower. The second near-term market that Nuvera is developing utilizes a 5.5 kW hydrogen fueled power module 'H 2 e

  12. Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Affordance theory provides a useful lens to explore the action opportunities that arise between users and technology, especially in education. However developments in the theory have resulted both in confusion and misapplication, due partly to issues related to affordance theory's ontology. This paper outlines two ...

  13. Space Resource Utilization: Near-Term Missions and Long-Term Plans for Human Exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Gerald B.

    2015-01-01

    A primary goal of all major space faring nations is to explore space: from the Earth with telescopes, with robotic probes and space telescopes, and with humans. For the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), this pursuit is captured in three important strategic goals: 1. Ascertain the content, origin, and evolution of the solar system and the potential for life elsewhere, 2. Extend and sustain human activities across the solar system (especially the surface of Mars), and 3. Create innovative new space technologies for exploration, science, and economic future. While specific missions and destinations are still being discussed as to what comes first, it is imperative for NASA that it foster the development and implementation of new technologies and approaches that make space exploration affordable and sustainable. Critical to achieving affordable and sustainable human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO) is the development of technologies and systems to identify, extract, and use resources in space instead of bringing everything from Earth. To reduce the development and implementation costs for space resource utilization, often called In Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU), it is imperative to work with terrestrial mining companies to spin-in/spin-off technologies and capabilities, and space mining companies to expand our economy beyond Earth orbit. In the last two years, NASA has focused on developing and implementing a sustainable human space exploration program with the ultimate goal of exploring the surface of Mars with humans. The plan involves developing technology and capability building blocks critical for sustained exploration starting with the Space Launch System (SLS) and Orion crew spacecraft and utilizing the International Space Station as a springboard into the solar system. The evolvable plan develops and expands human exploration in phases starting with missions that are reliant on Earth, to performing ever more challenging and

  14. Retention of knowledge and experience from experts in near-term operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, H.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (TNPS) will be put into commercial operation in May, 2007. Right-sizing is on the way to adapt the organization to the new stage of TNPS. TNPS is facing challenges of dilution of expertise by the rightsizing. This condition is aggravated by the incipient training system and a very competitive fighting for attracting technical experts in nuclear area, because the very ambitious projects of nuclear plants which are thriving in China. This can lead to the compromise of the capability to safely and economically operate TNPS. Indubitably, a personnel training plays a very crucial role in knowledge management, especially for countries as China which are weak in professional education system. Key knowledge and skills for safely and reliably operating nuclear power plants can be effectively identified by personnel training system developed in a systematic way and properly implemented. And only by sound and sufficient training can adequate number of replacements be produced. Well-developed IT platform can help the information management in such an era of information and internet. Information should be collected in a systematic way instead of stacking information on an ad hoc basis. But the project database must be established in an well-organized way, and the information should be aroused from sleeping, so that usable data will not be lost and are readily accessible on intranet and available to users. Or else the engineers take great pain to search for data like looking for a needle in a haystack, while useful data are gathering dust somewhere deep in the databank something. Compared to the well-developed industrial countries, there is quite a room in fundamental aspects which are cardinal requisites for effective knowledge management. These factors Contributing to Knowledge Management in Near-Term Operating Plants include not simply training and information management but also almost all other technical and management related to the

  15. Affordances Theory in Multilingualism Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronin, Larissa; Singleton, David

    2012-01-01

    The concept of affordances originating in Gibson's work (Gibson, 1977) is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010). Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated…

  16. Affordances theory in multilingualism studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Aronin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of affordances originating in Gibson’s work (Gibson, 1977 is gaining ground in multilingualism studies (cf. Aronin and Singleton, 2010; Singleton and Aronin, 2007; Dewaele, 2010. Nevertheless, studies investigating affordances in respect of teaching, learning or using languages are still somewhat rare and tend to treat isolated aspects of multilingualism. This is despite the fact that the theory of affordances can actually provide a valuable, supplementary, up-to-date framework within which a clearer, sharper description and explication of the intriguing range of attributes of multilingual communities, educational institutions and individuals, as well as teaching practices, become feasible. It is important that not only researchers and practitioners (teachers, educators, parents, community and political actors but also language users and learners themselves should be aware of how to identify or, if necessary, design new affordances for language acquisition and learning. The aim of this article is to adapt the concept of affordances to multilingualism studies and additional language teaching, and in so doing advance theoretical understanding in this context. To this end the article contains a brief summary of the findings so far available. The article also goes further into defining the ways of how affordances work in relation to multilingualism and second language teaching and puts forward an integrated model of affordances.

  17. Advanced tokamak burning plasma experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Ramos, J.; Schultz, J.; Nevins, W.N.

    2001-01-01

    A new reduced size ITER-RC superconducting tokamak concept is proposed with the goals of studying burn physics either in an inductively driven standard tokamak (ST) mode of operation, or in a quasi-steady state advanced tokamak (AT) mode sustained by non-inductive means. This is achieved by reducing the radiation shield thickness protecting the superconducting magnet by 0.34 m relative to ITER and limiting the burn mode of operation to pulse lengths as allowed by the TF coil warming up to the current sharing temperature. High gain (Q≅10) burn physics studies in a reversed shear equilibrium, sustained by RF and NB current drive techniques, may be obtained. (author)

  18. A Melodic Contour Repeatedly Experienced by Human Near-Term Fetuses Elicits a Profound Cardiac Reaction One Month after Birth

    OpenAIRE

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Bassereau, Sophie; Ribeiro, Aurélie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; DeCasper, Anthony J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Human hearing develops progressively during the last trimester of gestation. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, and process complex auditory streams. Fetal and neonatal studies show that they can remember frequently recurring sounds. However, existing data can only show retention intervals up to several days after birth. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that auditory memories can last at least six weeks. Experimental fe...

  19. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point

    OpenAIRE

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-01-01

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. For...

  20. Management of hyperbilirubinemia in near ... term newborns according to American Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines: Report of three cases

    OpenAIRE

    Naomi Esthemita Dewanto; Rinawati Rohsiswatmo

    2009-01-01

    All neonates have a transient rise in bilirubin levels, and about 30-50% of infants become visibly jaundiced.1,2 Most jaundice is benign; however, because of the potential brain toxicity of bilirubin, newborn infants must be monitored to identify those who might develop severe hyperbilirubinemia and, in rare cases, acute bilirubin encephalopathy or kernicterus. Ten percent of term infants and 25% of near-term infants have significant hyperbilirubinemia and requir...

  1. Neurodevelopmental outcomes of near-term small-for-gestational-age infants with and without signs of placental underperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Saavedra, Miguel; Crovetto, Francesca; Triunfo, Stefania; Savchev, Stefan; Peguero, Anna; Nadal, Alfons; Parra, Guido; Gratacos, Eduard; Figueras, Francesc

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate 2-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of near-term, small-for-gestational-age (SGA) newborns segregated by presence or absence of histopathology reflecting placental underperfusion (PUP). A cohort of consecutive near-term (≥ 34.0 weeks) SGA newborns with normal prenatal umbilical artery Doppler studies was selected. All placentas were inspected for evidence of underperfusion and classified in accordance with established histologic criteria. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at 24 months (age-corrected) were then evaluated, applying the Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition (Bayley-III) to assess cognitive, language, and motor competencies. The impact of PUP on each domain was measured via analysis of covariance, logistic and ordinal regression, with adjustment for smoking, socioeconomic status, gestational age at birth, gender, and breastfeeding. A total of 83 near-term SGA deliveries were studied, 46 (55.4%) of which showed signs of PUP. At 2 years, adjusted neurodevelopmental outcomes were significantly poorer in births involving PUP (relative to SGA infants without PUP) for all three domains of the Bayley scale: cognitive (105.5 vs 96.3, adjusted-p = 0.03), language (98.6 vs 87.8, adjusted-p<0.001), and motor (102.7 vs 94.5, adjusted-p = 0.007). Similarly, the adjusted likelihood of abnormal cognitive, language, and motor competencies in instances of underperfusion was 9.3-, 17.5-, and 1.44-fold higher, respectively, differing significantly for the former two domains. In a substantial fraction of near-term SGA babies without Doppler evidence of placental insufficiency, histologic changes compatible with PUP are still identifiable. These infants are at greater risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 years. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  3. Collaborative Affordances of Medical Records

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Houben, Steven

    2017-01-01

    by Sellen and Harper (2003) on the affordances of physical paper. Sellen and Harper describe how the physical properties of paper affords easy reading, navigation, mark-up, and writing, but focuses, we argue, mainly on individual use of paper and digital technology. As an extension to this, Collaborative...... Affordances; being portable across patient wards and the entire hospital, by providing collocated access, by providing a shared overview of medical data, and by giving clinicians ways to maintain mutual awareness. We then discuss how the concept of Collaborative Affordances can be used in the design of new...... technology by providing a design study of a ‘Hybrid Patient Record’ (HyPR), which is designed to seamlessly blend and integrate paper-based with electronic patient records....

  4. Bullying and social media affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Brailas, Alexios

    2016-01-01

    What constitutes a good and sustainabledigital living?Social media literacyCan we talk about social media intelligence?Can we talk about digital intelligence?How bullying is complicated by special social media affordances?

  5. Planning and User Interface Affordances

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    St. Amant, Robert

    1999-01-01

    .... We identify a number of similarities between executing plans and interacting with a graphical user interface, and argue that affordances for planning environments apply equally well to user interface environments...

  6. Neonatal physiological correlates of near-term brain development on MRI and DTI in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rose, PhD

    2014-01-01

    Results suggest that at near-term age, thalamus WM microstructure may be particularly vulnerable to certain neonatal risk factors. Interactions between albumin, bilirubin, phototherapy, and brain development warrant further investigation. Identification of physiological risk factors associated with selective vulnerability of certain brain regions at near-term age may clarify the etiology of neurodevelopmental impairment and inform neuroprotective treatment for VLBW preterm infants.

  7. Impacts of Near-Term Climate Change on Irrigation Demands and Crop Yields in the Columbia River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, K.; Chinnayakanahalli, K. J.; Stockle, C. O.; Nelson, R. L.; Kruger, C. E.; Brady, M. P.; Malek, K.; Dinesh, S. T.; Barber, M. E.; Hamlet, A. F.; Yorgey, G. G.; Adam, J. C.

    2018-03-01

    Adaptation to a changing climate is critical to address future global food and water security challenges. While these challenges are global, successful adaptation strategies are often generated at regional scales; therefore, regional-scale studies are critical to inform adaptation decision making. While climate change affects both water supply and demand, water demand is relatively understudied, especially at regional scales. The goal of this work is to address this gap, and characterize the direct impacts of near-term (for the 2030s) climate change and elevated CO2 levels on regional-scale crop yields and irrigation demands for the Columbia River basin (CRB). This question is addressed through a coupled crop-hydrology model that accounts for site-specific and crop-specific characteristics that control regional-scale response to climate change. The overall near-term outlook for agricultural production in the CRB is largely positive, with yield increases for most crops and small overall increases in irrigation demand. However, there are crop-specific and location-specific negative impacts as well, and the aggregate regional response of irrigation demands to climate change is highly sensitive to the spatial crop mix. Low-value pasture/hay varieties of crops—typically not considered in climate change assessments—play a significant role in determining the regional response of irrigation demands to climate change, and thus cannot be overlooked. While, the overall near-term outlook for agriculture in the region is largely positive, there may be potential for a negative outlook further into the future, and it is important to consider this in long-term planning.

  8. Do differences in future sulfate emission pathways matter for near-term climate? A case study for the Asian monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, Rachel E.; Bollasina, Massimo A.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Dunstone, Nick J.; Marenco, Franco; Messori, Gabriele; Bernie, Dan J.

    2018-03-01

    Anthropogenic aerosols could dominate over greenhouse gases in driving near-term hydroclimate change, especially in regions with high present-day aerosol loading such as Asia. Uncertainties in near-future aerosol emissions represent a potentially large, yet unexplored, source of ambiguity in climate projections for the coming decades. We investigated the near-term sensitivity of the Asian summer monsoon to aerosols by means of transient modelling experiments using HadGEM2-ES under two existing climate change mitigation scenarios selected to have similar greenhouse gas forcing, but to span a wide range of plausible global sulfur dioxide emissions. Increased sulfate aerosols, predominantly from East Asian sources, lead to large regional dimming through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. This results in surface cooling and anomalous anticyclonic flow over land, while abating the western Pacific subtropical high. The East Asian monsoon circulation weakens and precipitation stagnates over Indochina, resembling the observed southern-flood-northern-drought pattern over China. Large-scale circulation adjustments drive suppression of the South Asian monsoon and a westward extension of the Maritime Continent convective region. Remote impacts across the Northern Hemisphere are also generated, including a northwestward shift of West African monsoon rainfall induced by the westward displacement of the Indian Ocean Walker cell, and temperature anomalies in northern midlatitudes linked to propagation of Rossby waves from East Asia. These results indicate that aerosol emissions are a key source of uncertainty in near-term projection of regional and global climate; a careful examination of the uncertainties associated with aerosol pathways in future climate assessments must be highly prioritised.

  9. Near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets--economy wide versus technology specific approaches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanden, B.A.; Azar, Christian

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to offer suggestions when it comes to near-term technology policies for long-term climate targets based on some insights into the nature of technical change. We make a distinction between economy wide and technology specific policy instruments and put forward two key hypotheses: (i) Near-term carbon targets such as the Kyoto protocol can be met by economy wide price instruments (carbon taxes, or a cap-and-trade system) changing the technologies we pick from the shelf (higher energy efficiency in cars, buildings and industry, wind, biomass for heat and electricity, natural gas instead of coal, solar thermal, etc.). (ii) Technology specific policies are needed to bring new technologies to the shelf. Without these new technologies, stricter emission reduction targets may be considered impossible to meet by the government, industry and the general public, and therefore not adopted. The policies required to bring these more advanced technologies to the shelf are more complex and include increased public research and development, demonstration, niche market creation, support for networks within the new industries, standard settings and infrastructure policies (e.g., when it comes to hydrogen distribution). There is a risk that the society in its quest for cost-efficiency in meeting near-term emissions targets, becomes blindfolded when it comes to the more difficult, but equally important issue of bringing more advanced technologies to the shelf. The paper presents mechanisms that cause technology look in, how these very mechanisms can be used to get out of the current 'carbon lock-in' and the risk with premature lock-ins into new technologies that do not deliver what they currently promise. We then review certain climate policy proposals with regards to their expected technology impact, and finally we present a let-a-hundred-flowers-bloom strategy for the next couple of decades

  10. Interactions among Amazon land use, forests and climate: prospects for a near-term forest tipping point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepstad, Daniel C; Stickler, Claudia M; Filho, Britaldo Soares-; Merry, Frank

    2008-05-27

    Some model experiments predict a large-scale substitution of Amazon forest by savannah-like vegetation by the end of the twenty-first century. Expanding global demands for biofuels and grains, positive feedbacks in the Amazon forest fire regime and drought may drive a faster process of forest degradation that could lead to a near-term forest dieback. Rising worldwide demands for biofuel and meat are creating powerful new incentives for agro-industrial expansion into Amazon forest regions. Forest fires, drought and logging increase susceptibility to further burning while deforestation and smoke can inhibit rainfall, exacerbating fire risk. If sea surface temperature anomalies (such as El Niño episodes) and associated Amazon droughts of the last decade continue into the future, approximately 55% of the forests of the Amazon will be cleared, logged, damaged by drought or burned over the next 20 years, emitting 15-26Pg of carbon to the atmosphere. Several important trends could prevent a near-term dieback. As fire-sensitive investments accumulate in the landscape, property holders use less fire and invest more in fire control. Commodity markets are demanding higher environmental performance from farmers and cattle ranchers. Protected areas have been established in the pathway of expanding agricultural frontiers. Finally, emerging carbon market incentives for reductions in deforestation could support these trends.

  11. On the Fielding of a High Gain, Shock-Ignited Target on the National Ignitiion Facility in the Near Term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, L.J.; Betti, R.; Schurtz, G.P.; Craxton, R.S.; Dunne, A.M.; LaFortune, K.N.; Schmitt, A.J.; McKenty, P.W.; Bailey, D.S.; Lambert, M.A.; Ribeyre, X.; Theobald, W.R.; Strozzi, D.J.; Harding, D.R.; Casner, A.; Atzemi, S.; Erbert, G.V.; Andersen, K.S.; Murakami, M.; Comley, A.J.; Cook, R.C.; Stephens, R.B.

    2010-01-01

    Shock ignition, a new concept for igniting thermonuclear fuel, offers the possibility for a near-term (∼3-4 years) test of high gain inertial confinement fusion on the National Ignition Facility at less than 1MJ drive energy and without the need for new laser hardware. In shock ignition, compressed fusion fuel is separately ignited by a strong spherically converging shock and, because capsule implosion velocities are significantly lower than those required for conventional hotpot ignition, fusion energy gains of ∼60 may be achievable on NIF at laser drive energies around ∼0.5MJ. Because of the simple all-DT target design, its in-flight robustness, the potential need for only 1D SSD beam smoothing, minimal early time LPI preheat, and use of present (indirect drive) laser hardware, this target may be easier to field on NIF than a conventional (polar) direct drive hotspot ignition target. Like fast ignition, shock ignition has the potential for high fusion yields at low drive energy, but requires only a single laser with less demanding timing and spatial focusing requirements. Of course, conventional symmetry and stability constraints still apply. In this paper we present initial target performance simulations, delineate the critical issues and describe the immediate-term R and D program that must be performed in order to test the potential of a high gain shock ignition target on NIF in the near term.

  12. M2 priority screening system for near-term activities: Project documentation. Final report December 11, 1992--May 31, 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-08-12

    From May through August, 1993, the M-2 Group within M Division at LANL conducted with the support of the LANL Integration and Coordination Office (ICO) and Applied Decision Analysis, Inc. (ADA), whose purpose was to develop a system for setting priorities among activities. This phase of the project concentrated on prioritizing near-tenn activities (i.e., activities that must be conducted in the next six months) necessary for setting up this new group. Potential future project phases will concentrate on developing a tool for setting priorities and developing annual budgets for the group`s operations. The priority screening system designed to address the near-term problem was developed, applied in a series of meeting with the group managers, and used as an aid in the assignment of tasks to group members. The model was intended and used as a practical tool for documenting and explaining decisions about near-term priorities, and not as a substitute for M-2 management judgment and decision-making processes.

  13. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  14. Three key affordances for serendipity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björneborn, Lennart

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Serendipity is an interesting phenomenon to study in information science as it plays a fundamental – but perhaps underestimated – role in how we discover, explore, and learn in all fields of life. The purpose of this paper is to operationalize the concept of serendipity by providing termi...... terminological “building blocks” for understanding connections between environmental and personal factors in serendipitous encounters. Understanding these connections is essential when designing affordances in physical and digital environments that can facilitate serendipity. Design....../methodology/approach In this paper, serendipity is defined as what happens when we, in unplanned ways, encounter resources (information, things, people, etc.) that we find interesting. In the outlined framework, serendipity is understood as an affordance, i.e., a usage potential when environmental and personal factors correspond...... the three key affordances and three key personal serendipity factors: curiosity, mobility, and sensitivity. Ten sub-affordances for serendipity and ten coupled personal sub-factors are also briefly outlined. Related research is compared with and mapped into the framework aiming at a theoretical validation...

  15. Affordable Care Act and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quality care for older women, and ends the gender discrimination that requires women to pay more for the same insurance coverage ... the Affordable Care Act and 13 million more women will gain coverage by 2016. Maternity Coverage Preventive ... Expanded Insurance Coverage Endnotes Download "rb. ...

  16. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators will be shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  17. Characterization of low-level waste from the industrial sector, and near-term projection of waste volumes and types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKenzie, D.R.

    1988-01-01

    A telephone survey of low-level waste generators has been carried out in order to make useful estimates of the volume and nature of the waste which the generators are shipping for disposal when the compacts and states begin operating new disposal facilities. Emphasis of the survey was on the industrial sector, since there has been little information available on characteristics of industrial LLW. Ten large industrial generators shipping to Richland, ten shipping to Barnwell, and two whose wastes had previously been characterized by BNL were contacted. The waste volume shipped by these generators accounted for about two-thirds to three-quarters of the total industrial volume. Results are given in terms of the categories of LLW represented and of the chemical characteristics of the different wastes. Estimates by the respondents of their near-term waste volume projections are presented

  18. Use of a Prototype Airborne Separation Assurance System for Resolving Near-Term Conflicts During Autonomous Aircraft Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhydt, Richard; Eischeid, Todd M.; Palmer, Michael T.; Wing, David J.

    2003-01-01

    NASA is currently investigating a new concept of operations for the National Airspace System, designed to improve capacity while maintaining or improving current levels of safety. This concept, known as Distributed Air/Ground Traffic Management (DAGTM), allows appropriately equipped autonomous aircraft to maneuver freely for flight optimization while resolving conflicts with other traffic and staying out of special use airspace and hazardous weather. In order to perform these tasks, pilots use prototype conflict detection, prevention, and resolution tools, collectively known as an Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS). While ASAS would normally allow pilots to resolve conflicts before they become hazardous, evaluation of system performance in sudden, near-term conflicts is needed in order to determine concept feasibility. An experiment was conducted in NASA Langley's Air Traffic Operations Lab to evaluate the prototype ASAS for enabling pilots to resolve near-term conflicts and examine possible operational effects associated with the use of lower separation minimums. Sixteen commercial airline pilots flew a total of 32 traffic scenarios that required them to use prototype ASAS tools to resolve close range pop-up conflicts. Required separation standards were set at either 3 or 5 NM lateral spacing, with 1000 ft vertical separation being used for both cases. Reducing the lateral separation from 5 to 3 NM did not appear to increase operational risk, as indicated by the proximity to the intruder aircraft. Pilots performed better when they followed tactical guidance cues provided by ASAS than when they didn't follow the guidance. In an effort to improve compliance rate, ASAS design changes are currently under consideration. Further studies will of evaluate these design changes and consider integration issues between ASAS and existing Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems (ACAS).

  19. Fisiognomica emozionale. Affordances, estasi, atmosfere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tonino Griffero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Through an atmospherological approach, primarily inspired by the so-called Aisthetik or New Aesthetics (Gernot Böhme and the New Phenomenology (Hermann Schmitz, the paper defines the atmospheric perception as a first pathemic impression and investigates the relationship between this kind of perception and the expressive qualities of the surrounding spaces. The aim is to understand atmospheres as (amodal, transmodal, sinaesthetic affordances that permeate the lived space, namely as ‘ecological’ and affective invites or meanings which are ontologically rooted in things and quasi-things.

  20. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  1. Feasibility Study for a Near Term Demonstration of Laser-Sail Propulsion from the Ground to Low Earth Orbit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Edward E., IV; Johnson, Les; Thomas, Herbert D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper adds to the body of research related to the concept of propellant-less in-space propulsion utilizing an external high energy laser (HEL) to provide momentum to an ultra-lightweight (gossamer) spacecraft. It has been suggested that the capabilities of Space Situational Awareness assets and the advanced analytical tools available for fine resolution orbit determination make it possible to investigate the practicalities of a ground to Low Earth Orbit (LEO) demonstration at delivered power levels that only illuminate a spacecraft without causing damage to it. The degree to which this can be expected to produce a measurable change in the orbit of a low ballistic coefficient spacecraft is investigated. Key system characteristics and estimated performance are derived for a near term mission opportunity involving the LightSail 2 spacecraft and laser power levels modest in comparison to those proposed previously by Forward, Landis, or Marx. [1,2,3] A more detailed investigation of accessing LightSail 2 from Santa Rosa Island on Eglin Air Force Base on the United States coast of the Gulf of Mexico is provided to show expected results in a specific case.

  2. HPS: A space fission power system suitable for near-term, low-cost lunar and planetary bases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, M.G.; Poston, D.I.; Ranken, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    Near-term, low-cost space fission power systems can enhance the feasibility and utility of lunar and planetary bases. One such system, the Heatpipe Power System (HPS), is described in this paper. The HPS draws on 40 yr of United States and international experience to enable a system that can be developed in <5 yr at a cost of <$100M. Total HPS mass is <600 kg at 5 kWe and <2000 kg at 50 kWe, assuming that thermoelectric power conversion is used. More advanced power conversion systems could reduce system mass significantly. System mass for planetary surface systems also may be reduced (1) if indigenous material is used for radiation shielding and (2) because of the positive effect of the gravitational field on heatpipe operation. The HPS is virtually non-radioactive at launch and is passively subcritical during all credible launch accidents. Full-system electrically heated testing is possible, and a ground nuclear power test is not needed for flight qualification. Fuel burnup limits are not reached for several decades, thus giving the system long-life potential

  3. Cryogenic distillation: a fuel enrichment system for near-term tokamak-type D-T fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, B.; Davis, J.F.

    1980-02-01

    The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio

  4. TECHNOLOGICAL TOOLS: FROM TECHNICAL AFFORDANCES TO EDUCATIONAL AFFORDANCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicos Valanides

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The integration of these tools in education and in authentic and effective learning/teaching environments has become an issue of great concern among educators, researchers and other related audiences. All emphasize the need to design and develop technology-enhanced curricula and teaching/learning environments (formal, non-formal and informal that are developmentally appropriate for young and/or older learners. The vision is to integrate the tools and their associated technical affordance in teaching/learning environments in such a way, so that all learners, irrespective of their cognitive differences and abilities, could increase their learning gains, and develop the abilities and skills that are needed for citizens of the 21st century.

  5. A Technology Development Roadmap for a Near-Term Probe-Class X-ray Astrophysics Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daelemans, Gerard J.; Petre, Robert; Bookbinder, Jay; Ptak, Andrew; Smith, Randall

    2013-01-01

    funded through the NASA Physics of the Cosmos (PCOS) Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program; some through the end of FY13, others though FY14. These technology needs are those identified as critical for a near-term mission and briefly described in the 2012 NASA X-ray Mission Concepts Study. This Technology Development Roadmap (TDR) provides a more complete description of each, updates the status, and describes the steps to mature them. For each technology, a roadmap is presented for attaining TRL-6 by 2020 at the latest, and 2018 for most. The funding required for each technology to attain TRL-5 and TRL-6 is presented and justified through a description of the steps needing completion. The total funding required for these technologies to reach TRL-6 is relatively modest, and is consistent with the planned PCOS SAT funding over the next several years. The approximate annual cost through 2018 is $8M. The total cost for all technologies to be matured is $62M (including funding already awarded for FY13 and FY14). This can be contrasted to the $180M recommended by NWNH for technology development for IXO, primarily for the maturation of the mirror technology. The technology described in Section 3 of this document is exclusively that needed for a near-term Probe-class mission, to start in 2017, or for a mission that can be recommended by the next Decadal survey committee for an immediate start. It is important to note that there are other critical X-ray instrumentation technologies under development that are less mature than the ones discussed here, but are essential for a major X-ray mission that might start in the late 2020s. These technologies, described briefly in Section 4, are more appropriately funded through the Astronomy and Physics Research and Analysis (APRA) program.

  6. SU-E-J-143: Short- and Near-Term Effects of Proton Therapy On Cerebral White Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uh, J; Merchant, T; Ogg, R; Sabin, N; Hua, C [St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States); Indelicato, D [University of Florida Proton Therapy Institute, Jacksonville, FL (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To assess early effects of proton therapy on the structural integrity of cerebral white matter in relation to the subsequent near-term development of such effects. Methods: Sixteen children (aged 2–19 years) with craniopharyngioma underwent proton therapy of 54 Cobalt Gray Equivalent (CGE) in a prospective therapeutic trial. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed at baseline before proton therapy and every 3 months thereafter. Tract-based spatial statics analysis of DTI data was performed to derive the fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) in 26 volumes of interest (VOIs). The dose distributions were spatially normalized to identify VOIs prone to high doses. The longitudinal percentage changes of the FA and RD in these VOIs at 3 and 12 months from the baseline were calculated, and their relationships were evaluated. Results: The average dose was highest to the cerebral peduncle (CP), corticospinal tract (CST) in the pons, pontine crossing tract (PCT), anterior/posterior limbs of the internal capsule (ALIC/PLIC), and genu of the corpus callosum (GCC). It ranged from 33.3 GCE (GCC) to 49.7 GCE (CP). A mild but statistically significant (P<0.05) decline of FA was observed 3 months after proton therapy in all VOIs except the PLIC and ranged from −1.7% (ALIC) to −2.8% (PCT). A significant increase of RD was found in the CP (3.5%) and ALIC (2.1%). The average longitudinal change from the baseline was reduced at 12 months for most VOIs. However, the standard deviation increased, indicating that the temporal pattern varied individually. The follow-up measurements at 3 and 12 months correlated for the CP, CST, PCT, and GCC (P < 0.04). Conclusion: DTI data suggest early (3 months) effects of proton therapy on microstructures in the white matter. The subsequent follow-up indicated individual variation of the changes, which was partly implied by the early effects.

  7. A melodic contour repeatedly experienced by human near-term fetuses elicits a profound cardiac reaction one month after birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier-Deferre, Carolyn; Bassereau, Sophie; Ribeiro, Aurélie; Jacquet, Anne-Yvonne; Decasper, Anthony J

    2011-02-23

    Human hearing develops progressively during the last trimester of gestation. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, and process complex auditory streams. Fetal and neonatal studies show that they can remember frequently recurring sounds. However, existing data can only show retention intervals up to several days after birth. Here we show that auditory memories can last at least six weeks. Experimental fetuses were given precisely controlled exposure to a descending piano melody twice daily during the 35(th), 36(th), and 37(th) weeks of gestation. Six weeks later we assessed the cardiac responses of 25 exposed infants and 25 naive control infants, while in quiet sleep, to the descending melody and to an ascending control piano melody. The melodies had precisely inverse contours, but similar spectra, identical duration, tempo and rhythm, thus, almost identical amplitude envelopes. All infants displayed a significant heart rate change. In exposed infants, the descending melody evoked a cardiac deceleration that was twice larger than the decelerations elicited by the ascending melody and by both melodies in control infants. Thus, 3-weeks of prenatal exposure to a specific melodic contour affects infants 'auditory processing' or perception, i.e., impacts the autonomic nervous system at least six weeks later, when infants are 1-month old. Our results extend the retention interval over which a prenatally acquired memory of a specific sound stream can be observed from 3-4 days to six weeks. The long-term memory for the descending melody is interpreted in terms of enduring neurophysiological tuning and its significance for the developmental psychobiology of attention and perception, including early speech perception, is discussed.

  8. Follow-up into young adulthood after cardiopulmonary resuscitation in term and near-term newborn infants. II. Neuropsychological consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viggedal, G; Lundälv, E; Carlsson, G; Kjellmer, I

    2002-01-01

    Brain injury after neonatal cardiopulmonary resuscitation in the term baby is often described as an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but little is known about possible late cognitive consequences. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate whether children who needed cardiopulmonary resuscitation because of presumed mild and moderate intra-partum asphyxia with no evidence of neurological impairments at 18 mo of age may display neuropsychological impairments later in life. A long-term follow-up of young adults was carried out. A blinded comprehensive neuropsychological assessment of the main aspects of cognitive functions was made. The subjects who were resuscitated were divided into two groups according to the clinical course: 20 cases with mild asphyxia and 11 cases with moderate asphyxia, all followed prospectively and compared with 18 healthy controls. The 31 subjects were born at term or near-term and selected randomly from 59 infants born in 1969-1978 at Sahlgren's Hospital, Göteborg. All infants with early neurological impairments were excluded. No major differences could be established between the two clinical groups and normal controls in any aspects of cognitive function or intelligence. All the groups performed within the normal range in all tests. A tendency toward minor deficits in verbal ability in the mild group compared to the controls was found. Only one subject had a clear, defined memory deficit. Infants who underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitatation at birth without neurological deficits at 18 mo of age did not show any cognitive deficits or neuropsychological impairments in adulthood even though inferior performance on some verbal subtests was observed compared to the control group.

  9. A melodic contour repeatedly experienced by human near-term fetuses elicits a profound cardiac reaction one month after birth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn Granier-Deferre

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Human hearing develops progressively during the last trimester of gestation. Near-term fetuses can discriminate acoustic features, such as frequencies and spectra, and process complex auditory streams. Fetal and neonatal studies show that they can remember frequently recurring sounds. However, existing data can only show retention intervals up to several days after birth.Here we show that auditory memories can last at least six weeks. Experimental fetuses were given precisely controlled exposure to a descending piano melody twice daily during the 35(th, 36(th, and 37(th weeks of gestation. Six weeks later we assessed the cardiac responses of 25 exposed infants and 25 naive control infants, while in quiet sleep, to the descending melody and to an ascending control piano melody. The melodies had precisely inverse contours, but similar spectra, identical duration, tempo and rhythm, thus, almost identical amplitude envelopes. All infants displayed a significant heart rate change. In exposed infants, the descending melody evoked a cardiac deceleration that was twice larger than the decelerations elicited by the ascending melody and by both melodies in control infants.Thus, 3-weeks of prenatal exposure to a specific melodic contour affects infants 'auditory processing' or perception, i.e., impacts the autonomic nervous system at least six weeks later, when infants are 1-month old. Our results extend the retention interval over which a prenatally acquired memory of a specific sound stream can be observed from 3-4 days to six weeks. The long-term memory for the descending melody is interpreted in terms of enduring neurophysiological tuning and its significance for the developmental psychobiology of attention and perception, including early speech perception, is discussed.

  10. The effect of oxygen content during an initial sustained inflation on heart rate in asphyxiated near-term lambs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, K S; Ong, T; Polglase, G R; Crossley, K J; Moss, T J M; Hooper, S B

    2015-07-01

    At birth, an initial sustained inflation (SI) uniformly aerates the lungs, increases arterial oxygenation and rapidly improves circulatory recovery in asphyxiated newborns. We hypothesised that lung aeration, in the absence of an increase in arterial oxygenation, can increase heart rate (HR) in asphyxiated near-term lambs. Lambs were delivered and instrumented at 139±2 days of gestation. Asphyxia was induced by umbilical cord clamping and then delaying the onset of ventilation until mean carotid arterial pressures (CAPs) had decreased <20 mm Hg. Lambs then received a single 30-s SI using nitrogen (N2; n=6), 5% oxygen (O2; n=6), 21% O2 (n=6) or 100% O2 (n=6) followed by ventilation in air for 30 min. HR, CAP and pulmonary blood flow (PBF) were continuously recorded. HR and PBF increased more quickly in lambs resuscitated with 100% and 21% O2 than with 5% O2 or N2. HR and PBF recovery in the 5% O2 group was delayed relative to all other oxygen SI groups. HR in 5%, 21% and 100% O2 groups reached 100 bpm before the SI was complete. HR and PBF in the N2 group did not increase until 10 s after the SI was completed and ventilation was initiated with air. CAP tended to increase quicker in all O2 groups than in N2 group. Oxygen content during an SI is important for circulatory recovery in asphyxiated lambs. This increase in HR is likely driven by the increase in PBF and venous return to the heart. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Options for near-term phaseout of CO(2) emissions from coal use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharecha, Pushker A; Kutscher, Charles F; Hansen, James E; Mazria, Edward

    2010-06-01

    The global climate problem becomes tractable if CO(2) emissions from coal use are phased out rapidly and emissions from unconventional fossil fuels (e.g., oil shale and tar sands) are prohibited. This paper outlines technology options for phasing out coal emissions in the United States by approximately 2030. We focus on coal for physical and practical reasons and on the U.S. because it is most responsible for accumulated fossil fuel CO(2) in the atmosphere today, specifically targeting electricity production, which is the primary use of coal. While we recognize that coal emissions must be phased out globally, we believe U.S. leadership is essential. A major challenge for reducing U.S. emissions is that coal provides the largest proportion of base load power, i.e., power satisfying minimum electricity demand. Because this demand is relatively constant and coal has a high carbon intensity, utility carbon emissions are largely due to coal. The current U.S. electric grid incorporates little renewable power, most of which is not base load power. However, this can readily be changed within the next 2-3 decades. Eliminating coal emissions also requires improved efficiency, a "smart grid", additional energy storage, and advanced nuclear power. Any further coal usage must be accompanied by carbon capture and storage (CCS). We suggest that near-term emphasis should be on efficiency measures and substitution of coal-fired power by renewables and third-generation nuclear plants, since these technologies have been successfully demonstrated at the relevant (commercial) scale. Beyond 2030, these measures can be supplemented by CCS at power plants and, as needed, successfully demonstrated fourth-generation reactors. We conclude that U.S. coal emissions could be phased out by 2030 using existing technologies or ones that could be commercially competitive with coal within about a decade. Elimination of fossil fuel subsidies and a substantial rising price on carbon emissions are the

  12. Urine production rate and renal blood flow in the near-term ovine fetus are not related to high and low voltage electrocortical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J; Dassel, ACM; Aarnoudse, JG

    Studies in both the human and ovine near-term fetus have identified the clustering of physiologic and behavioral parameters into states. In a recent study in the human fetus a considerable decrease was found in fetal urine production during nonrapid eye movement (non-REM) compared with REM sleep.

  13. Dynamic properties of energy affordability measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heindl, Peter; Schuessler, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    Measures of affordability and of fuel poverty are applied in practice to assess the affordability of energy services, for example, or of water or housing. The extensive body of literature on affordability measures has little overlap with the existing literature on poverty measurement. A comprehensive assessment of the response of affordability measures as a result of changes in the distribution of income or expenditure (the dynamic properties) is missing. This paper aims to fill this gap by providing a conceptual discussion on the ‘dynamics’ of both energy affordability measures and fuel poverty measures. Several types of measures are examined in a microsimulation framework. Our results indicate that some measures exhibit odd dynamic behavior. This includes measures used in practice, such as the low income/high cost measure and the double median of expenditure share indicator. Odd dynamic behavior causes the risk of drawing false policy recommendations from the measures. Thus, an appropriate response of affordability measures to changes in relevant variables is a prerequisite for defining meaningful measures that inform about affordability or deprivation in certain domains of consumption. - Highlights: • We investigate changes in fuel poverty measures as result from changes in income and expenditure. • More generally, we investigate dynamic behavior of affordability measures using microsimulation. • We propose axioms regarding dynamic behavior of affordability measures. • Some measures which are used in practice show unintuitive dynamic behavior. • Inappropriate dynamic behavior causes a risk of false policy implications.

  14. 55 Actant affordances: a brief history of affordance theory and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    He combined affordances and perceptual information in a simple matrix, as shown in figure ... Secondly it shows up cases of False Affordances that appear to be useful ..... Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations.

  15. 24 CFR 572.120 - Affordability standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... by homeowners in the eligible property. Financing that would impair the continued affordability of... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Affordability standards. 572.120 Section 572.120 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development...

  16. The concept of a structural affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian Alsmith

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available I provide an analysis of the concept of an “affordance” that enables one to conceive of “structural affordance” as a kind of affordance relation that might hold between an agent and its body. I then review research in the science of humanoid bodily movement to indicate the empirical reality of structural affordance.

  17. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...

  18. Affordances of agricultural systems analysis tools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ditzler, Lenora; Klerkx, Laurens; Chan-Dentoni, Jacqueline; Posthumus, Helena; Krupnik, Timothy J.; Ridaura, Santiago López; Andersson, Jens A.; Baudron, Frédéric; Groot, Jeroen C.J.

    2018-01-01

    The increasingly complex challenges facing agricultural systems require problem-solving processes and systems analysis (SA) tools that engage multiple actors across disciplines. In this article, we employ the theory of affordances to unravel what tools may furnish users, and how those affordances

  19. Affordability Funding Models for Early Childhood Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purcal, Christiane; Fisher, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a model of the approaches open to government to ensure that early childhood services are affordable to families. We derived the model from a comparative literature review of affordability approaches taken by government, both in Australia and internationally. The model adds significantly to the literature by proposing a means to…

  20. What Does Electronic Conferencing Afford Distance Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of technology for distance learning in higher education and examines the similarities and differences between face-to-face seminars and online discussions. Considers the concept of affordance in relation to information and communication technologies and distance education; and examines affordances of electronic conferencing and…

  1. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  2. Developing indigenous safeguards capabilities within the MPC ampersand A program: A transition from near-term upgrades to long-term sustainability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, P.W.; Leutters, F.O.; Horton, R.D.; Soo Hoo, M.S.

    1997-01-01

    Approximately five years ago, the United States and countries of ampersand Former Soviet Union (FSU) started the Cooperative Threat Reduction program. The program's purpose was to accelerate reduction of the risk of nuclear proliferation, including such threats as theft, diversion, and unauthorized possession of nuclear materials. This goal would be accomplished through near-term upgrades to strengthen the nuclear material protection, control, and accounting systems within the FSU countries. In addition to this near-term goal, a long-term goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Material Protection, Control, and Accounting (MPC ampersand A) program is to promote a new safeguards culture and to support the establishment of a sustaining MPC ampersand A infrastructure in the FSU. This long-term goal is vital to assuring that the near-term upgrades remain effective for safeguarding nuclear material as these countries experience political and social changes. The MPC ampersand A program is managed by DOE's Russia/Newly Independent States (NIS) Nuclear Materials Security Task Force. A coordinated effort is underway to promote and to help establish a new safeguards culture and a sustaining infrastructure. Elements being implemented at both the national and site levels include system operational performance evaluations, development of MPC ampersand A training, operational procedures, national MPC ampersand A regulations, and adaptation of modern MPC ampersand A methodologies to suit the conditions in the FSU countries. This paper identifies current efforts in several countries that are undergoing transition from near-term upgrades to sustainable MPC ampersand A systems

  3. African Universities Need Affordable and Reliable Broadband ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-12

    Oct 12, 2010 ... But it's a different story in most parts of Africa, where limited library ... on effective and affordable information and communication technology (ICT) ... who are using open-source software that complies with international open ...

  4. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    OpenAIRE

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of “musicking” grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of “musical affordances” and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances – via soliciting different forms of entrainment – enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel exper...

  5. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gjøsæter, Tor

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR) application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented realit...

  6. Growing community : rooftop gardens for affordable housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weeks, K.N. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-07-01

    This paper reviewed the processes used in recently designed affordable housing roof garden projects in California, Montana and Georgia. Gardens create a sense of community through shared space and social interactions. As such, roof gardens can give residents of affordable housing the opportunity to experience the community-fostering benefits of gardening, with the added advantages of potentially lower energy bills and wastewater fees. The factors that should be considered in planning, design, construction and maintenance of roof gardens for affordable housing were also outlined. As places of refuge, gardens help people relax and promote healing, which is particularly important for physical, emotional, social and economic well-being. For the many residents of affordable housing who earn less than 50 per cent of the area median income, gardens offer a venue for establishing relationships with neighbours, many of whom they might otherwise never meet. They also offer a means to improved nutrition and food security, education and positive recreation for youth, and better aesthetic surroundings. While motivations for choosing green roofs varied widely across the projects, affordability was linked to 3 main areas, namely saving costs in design, construction and operations; getting the roof to generate funding; and, improving the quality of life in affordable housing. 17 refs., 12 figs.

  7. Prediction of near-term increases in suicidal ideation in recently depressed patients with bipolar II disorder using intensive longitudinal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depp, Colin A; Thompson, Wesley K; Frank, Ellen; Swartz, Holly A

    2017-01-15

    There are substantial gaps in understanding near-term precursors of suicidal ideation in bipolar II disorder. We evaluated whether repeated patient-reported mood and energy ratings predicted subsequent near-term increases in suicide ideation. Secondary data were used from 86 depressed adults with bipolar II disorder enrolled in one of 3 clinical trials evaluating Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy and/or pharmacotherapy as treatments for depression. Twenty weeks of daily mood and energy ratings and weekly Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were obtained. Penalized regression was used to model trajectories of daily mood and energy ratings in the 3 week window prior to HDRS Suicide Item ratings. Participants completed an average of 68.6 (sd=52) days of mood and energy ratings. Aggregated across the sample, 22% of the 1675 HDRS Suicide Item ratings were non-zero, indicating presence of at least some suicidal thoughts. A cross-validated model with longitudinal ratings of energy and depressed mood within the three weeks prior to HDRS ratings resulted in an AUC of 0.91 for HDRS Suicide item >2, accounting for twice the variation when compared to baseline HDRS ratings. Energy, both at low and high levels, was an earlier predictor than mood. Data derived from a heterogeneous treated sample may not generalize to naturalistic samples. Identified suicidal behavior was absent from the sample so it could not be predicted. Prediction models coupled with intensively gathered longitudinal data may shed light on the dynamic course of near-term risk factors for suicidal ideation in bipolar II disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Prediction of cognitive and motor development in preterm children using exhaustive feature selection and cross-validation of near-term white matter microstructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadl, Kornél; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Yeom, Kristin W; Stevenson, David K; Rose, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    Advanced neuroimaging and computational methods offer opportunities for more accurate prognosis. We hypothesized that near-term regional white matter (WM) microstructure, assessed on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), using exhaustive feature selection with cross-validation would predict neurodevelopment in preterm children. Near-term MRI and DTI obtained at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age in 66 very-low-birth-weight preterm neonates were assessed. 60/66 had follow-up neurodevelopmental evaluation with Bayley Scales of Infant-Toddler Development, 3rd-edition (BSID-III) at 18-22 months. Linear models with exhaustive feature selection and leave-one-out cross-validation computed based on DTI identified sets of three brain regions most predictive of cognitive and motor function; logistic regression models were computed to classify high-risk infants scoring one standard deviation below mean. Cognitive impairment was predicted (100% sensitivity, 100% specificity; AUC = 1) by near-term right middle-temporal gyrus MD, right cingulate-cingulum MD, left caudate MD. Motor impairment was predicted (90% sensitivity, 86% specificity; AUC = 0.912) by left precuneus FA, right superior occipital gyrus MD, right hippocampus FA. Cognitive score variance was explained (29.6%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.296) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, Genu RD, right fusiform gyrus AD. Motor score variance was explained (31.7%, cross-validated Rˆ2 = 0.317) by left posterior-limb-of-internal-capsule MD, right parahippocampal gyrus AD, right middle-temporal gyrus AD. Search in large DTI feature space more accurately identified neonatal neuroimaging correlates of neurodevelopment.

  9. The Burning Plasma Experiment conventional facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Commander, J.C.

    1991-01-01

    The Burning Program Plasma Experiment (BPX) is phased to start construction of conventional facilities in July 1994, in conjunction with the conclusion of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) project. This paper deals with the conceptual design of the BPX Conventional Facilities, for which Functional and Operational Requirements (F ampersand ORs) were developed. Existing TFTR buildings and utilities will be adapted and used to satisfy the BPX Project F ampersand ORs to the maximum extent possible. However, new conventional facilities will be required to support the BPX project. These facilities include: The BPX building; Site improvements and utilities; the Field Coil Power Conversion (FCPC) building; the TFTR modifications; the Motor Generation (MG) building; Liquid Nitrogen (LN 2 ) building; and the associated Instrumentation and Control (I ampersand C) systems. The BPX building will provide for safe and efficient shielding, housing, operation, handling, maintenance and decontamination of the BPX and its support systems. Site improvements and utilities will feature a utility tunnel which will provide a space for utility services--including pulse power duct banks and liquid nitrogen coolant lines. The FCPC building will house eight additional power supplied for the Toroidal Field (TF) coils. The MG building will house the two MG sets larger than the existing TFTR MG sets. This paper also addresses the conventional facility cost estimating methodology and the rationale for the construction schedule developed. 6 figs., 1 tab

  10. Technology Issues of Burning Plasma Diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, A. S.

    2008-01-01

    The ITER Tokamak will require many diagnostics both for safe and reliable operation of the machine and for understanding of the physics underlying the performance. The design of these diagnostics raises many challenging technical issues not faced on smaller machines. These arise partly from the increase demands on established diagnostics arising from the increased size, higher magnetic field, large heating power, and in particular the dramatically longer pulse duration of ITER, which make issue such as power loading on first wall components more challenging. The demands on reliability and availability of the machine in order to achieve the objectives within the agreed time schedule also place severe additional demands on the design, quality assurance and maintainability of diagnostics. ITER will produce many orders of magnitude more neutrons than previous Tokamaks and will be a licensed nuclear facility. This has important implications for the traceability, quality assurance and availability of safety critical diagnostics, and for the control of the design and procurement of all diagnostics. The high neutron flux/fluence also constrains the design of diagnostics, which must offer shielding consistent with the allowable dose rates on critical components of the Tokamak, and themselves be tolerant of the radiation level at the diagnostic. This paper presents an overview of the more critical issues for ITER diagnostics

  11. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies report. Volume 2: Supplement to design trade-off studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Results of studies leading to the preliminary design of a hybrid passenger vehicle which is projected to have the maximum potential for reducing petroleum consumption in the near term are presented. Heat engine/electric hybrid vehicle tradeoffs, assessment of battery power source, and weight and cost analysis of key components are among the topics covered. Performance of auxiliary equipment, such as power steering, power brakes, air conditioning, lighting and electrical accessories, heating and ventilation is discussed along with the selection of preferred passenger compartment heating procedure for the hybrid vehicle. Waste heat from the engine, thermal energy storage, and an auxiliary burner are among the approaches considered.

  12. Generic evaluation of feedwater transients and small break loss-of-coolant accidents in GE-designed operating plants and near-term operating license applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of a generic evaluation of feedwater transients, small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and other TMI-2-related events for General Electric Company (GE)-designed operating plants and near-term operating license applications to confirm or establish the bases for the continued safe operation of the operating plants. The results of this evaluation are presented in this report in the form of a set of findings and recommendations in each of the principal review areas. Additional review of the accident is continuing and further information is being obtained and evaluated. Any new information will be reviewed and modifications will be made as appropriate

  13. Motivation for a near term gun launch to space demonstration and a variable induction power supply concept to minimize initial demonstration costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmer, M.R.

    1993-01-01

    The history of the Gun Launch to Space (GLTS) concept is briefly reviewed along with recent progress and motivations for a near term launch demonstration. A current multiplying reconfigurable inductor design is developed which could couple to an existing battery system to power a GLTS railgun demonstration at the 300 megajoule muzzle energy level. The design is developed using proven approaches and performance levels and appears capable of reducing the power supply cost for an initial GLTS demonstration below that of a simple battery charged inductor system. Possible uses are (1) launching of space weapons; (2) launching of communication satellites; (3) and launching of satellites for space disposal of radioactive wastes

  14. Intrauterine growth-restricted sheep fetuses exhibit smaller hindlimb muscle fibers and lower proportions of insulin-sensitive Type I fibers near term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Dustin T; Cadaret, Caitlin N; Beede, Kristin A; Riley, Hannah E; Macko, Antoni R; Anderson, Miranda J; Camacho, Leticia E; Limesand, Sean W

    2016-06-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) reduces muscle mass and insulin sensitivity in offspring. Insulin sensitivity varies among muscle fiber types, with Type I fibers being most sensitive. Differences in fiber-type ratios are associated with insulin resistance in adults, and thus we hypothesized that near-term IUGR sheep fetuses exhibit reduced size and proportions of Type I fibers. Placental insufficiency-induced IUGR fetuses were ∼54% smaller (P fetal muscles develop smaller fibers and have proportionally fewer Type I fibers, which is indicative of developmental adaptations that may help explain the link between IUGR and adulthood insulin resistance. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  15. What is an affordance? 40 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osiurak, François; Rossetti, Yves; Badets, Arnaud

    2017-06-01

    About 40 years ago, James J. Gibson coined the term "affordance" to describe the action possibilities offered to an animal by the environment with reference to the animal's action capabilities. Since then, this notion has acquired a multitude of meanings, generating confusion in the literature. Here, we offer a clear operationalization of the concept of affordances and related concepts in the field of tool use. Our operationalization is organized around the distinction between the physical (what is objectively observable) and neurocognitive (what is subjectively experienced) levels. This leads us to propose that motor control (dorso-dorsal system), mechanical knowledge (ventro-dorsal system) and function knowledge (ventral system) could be neurocognitive systems respectively involved in the perception of affordances, the understanding of mechanical actions and the storage of contextual relationships (three action-system model; 3AS). We end by turning to two key issues that can be addressed within 3AS. These issues concern the link between affordances and tool incorporation, and the constraints posed by affordances for tool use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Affordances for robots: a brief survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas E. Horton

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we consider the influence of Gibson's affordance theory on the design of robotic agents. Affordance theory (and the ecological approach to agent design in general has in many cases contributed to the development of successful robotic systems; we provide a brief survey of AI research in this area. However, there remain significant issues that complicate discussions on this topic, particularly in the exchange of ideas between researchers in artificial intelligence and ecological psychology. We identify some of these issues, specifically the lack of a generally accepted definition of "affordance" and fundamental differences in the current approaches taken in AI and ecological psychology. While we consider reconciliation between these fields to be possible and mutually beneficial, it will require some flexibility on the issue of direct perception.

  17. Affordances in Mobile Augmented Reality Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tor Gjøsæter

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the affordances of augmented reality content in a mobile augmented reality application. A user study was conducted by performing a multi-camera video recording of seven think aloud sessions. The think aloud sessions consisted of individual users performing tasks, exploring and experiencing a mobile augmented reality (MAR application we developed for the iOS platform named ARad. We discuss the instrumental affordances we observed when users interacted with augmented reality content, as well as more complex affordances rising from conventions from media content, AR and the traditional WIMP paradigm. We find that remediation of traditional newspaper content through the MAR medium can provide engaging, pleasing and exciting user experiences. However, the some of the content still suffers from being shoveled onto the MAR platform without adapting it properly. Finally, we discuss what content was most successfully mediated to the user and how the content impacts the user experience.

  18. An Activity Theory Approach to Affordance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentsen, Klaus B.; Trettvik, Johan

    2002-01-01

    We present an analysis of the concept of affordance as it was originally introduced by J. J. Gibson, and elaborate on this concept, acknowledging, that the general theoretical landscape in psychology is in fundamental ways different from the situation in which Gibson found himself when he crafted...... the notion. Specifically we will suggest the inclusion of the ecological theory of perception in the paradigm of cultural historical psychology and activity theory developed in the former Soviet Union by most notably Lev Vygotsky, S. L. Rubinshtein, A. N. Leontjev and others. It will be suggested, that much...... of the confusion in HCI concerning the concept of affordance is a consequence of the attempt of using it inside a theoretical paradigm that is unable to capture and encompass one of the most essential aspect of Gibsons concept of affordance, that is its foundation in activity...

  19. Affordances and the musically extended mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krueger, Joel

    2014-01-06

    I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of "musicking" grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of "musical affordances" and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances - via soliciting different forms of entrainment - enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I argue that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  20. The Transformation of Ergonomic Affordances into Cultural Affordances: The Case of the Alnuset System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiappini, Giampaolo

    2012-01-01

    Is it possible to study the ergonomic affordances offered by a system designed for educational aims and their transformation into cultural affordances? To this purpose, what references can we adopt? This work describes the theoretical framework used to realise this study referring to AlNuSet, a system realised within the EC ReMath project to…

  1. Gill dimensions in near-term embryos of Amazonian freshwater stingrays (Elasmobranchii: Potamotrygonidae and their relationship to the lifestyle and habitat of neonatal pups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallice Paxiúba Duncan

    Full Text Available This comparative study of gill morphometrics in near-term embryos of freshwater stingray potamotrygonids examines gill dimensions in relation to neonatal lifestyle and habitat. In embryos of the potamotrygonids Paratrygon aiereba, Plesiotrygon iwamae, Potamotrygon motoro, Potamotrygon orbignyi, and cururu ray Potamotrygon sp. the number and length of filaments, total gill surface area, mass-specific surface area, water-blood diffusion distance, and anatomical diffusion factor were analysed. In all potamotrygonids, the 3rd branchial arch possessed a larger respiratory surface than the other gill arches. Larger embryos had more gill surface area and large spiracles, which are necessary to maintain the high oxygen uptake needed due to their larger body size. However, the higher mass-specific gill surface area observed in near-term embryos may be advantageous because neonates can use hypoxic environments as refuges against predators, as well as catch small prey that inhabit the same environment. As expected from their benthic mode of life, freshwater stingrays are sluggish animals compared to pelagic fishes. However, based on gill respiratory morphometry (such as gill area, mass-specific gill area, the water-blood diffusion barrier, anatomical diffusion factor, and relative opening of the spiracle, subtypes of lifestyles can be observed corresponding to: active, intermediate, and sluggish species according to Gray's scale.

  2. Affordances and distributed cognition in museum exhibitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Achiam, Marianne; May, Michael; Marandino, Martha

    2014-01-01

    consistent framework. Here, we invoke the notions of affordance and distributed cognition to explain in a coherent way how visitors interact with exhibits and exhibit spaces and make meaning from those interactions, and we exemplify our points using observations of twelve visitors to exhibits at a natural...... history museum. We show how differences in exhibit characteristics give rise to differences in the interpretive strategies used by visitors in their meaning-making process, and conclude by discussing how the notions of affordance and distributed cognition can be used in an exhibit design perspective....

  3. Affordances of Ditches for Children in Preschool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerstrup, Inger Elisabeth; Møller, Maja Steen

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to expand understanding of the affordances provided by ditches in a Danish preschool context. Affordances are defined as the meaningful action possibilities of the environment. At a forest preschool, a group of 21 children aged approximately 3to 6.5 years accompanied by two to three...... offered varied and changing action possibilities for the preschool children. The paper discusses the possible incorporation of this largely unrecognized design element by planners and managers of green spaces and playgrounds for children in preschool....

  4. Neonatal physiological correlates of near-term brain development on MRI and DTI in very-low-birth-weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Stecher Guzman, Ximena; Hintz, Susan R; Stevenson, David K; Barnea-Goraly, Naama

    2014-01-01

    Structural brain abnormalities identified at near-term age have been recognized as potential predictors of neurodevelopment in children born preterm. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between neonatal physiological risk factors and early brain structure in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants using structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at near-term age. Structural brain MRI, diffusion-weighted scans, and neonatal physiological risk factors were analyzed in a cross-sectional sample of 102 VLBW preterm infants (BW ≤ 1500 g, gestational age (GA) ≤ 32 weeks), who were admitted to the Lucile Packard Children's Hospital, Stanford NICU and recruited to participate prior to routine near-term brain MRI conducted at 36.6 ± 1.8 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) from 2010 to 2011; 66/102 also underwent a diffusion-weighted scan. Brain abnormalities were assessed qualitatively on structural MRI, and white matter (WM) microstructure was analyzed quantitatively on DTI in six subcortical regions defined by DiffeoMap neonatal brain atlas. Specific regions of interest included the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum, anterior and posterior limbs of the internal capsule, the thalamus, and the globus pallidus. Regional fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated using DTI data and examined in relation to neonatal physiological risk factors including gestational age (GA), bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), and sepsis, as well as serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), glucose, albumin, and total bilirubin. Brain abnormalities were observed on structural MRI in 38/102 infants including 35% of females and 40% of males. Infants with brain abnormalities observed on MRI had higher incidence of BPD (42% vs. 25%) and sepsis (21% vs. 6%) and higher mean and peak serum CRP levels, respectively, (0.64 vs. 0.34 mg/dL, p = .008; 1.57 vs. 0.67

  5. No Role for Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecher, Diane

    2013-01-01

    Motor affordances have been shown to play a role in visual object identification and categorization. The present study explored whether working memory is likewise supported by motor affordances. Use of motor affordances should be disrupted by motor interference, and this effect should be larger for objects that have motor affordances than for…

  6. Organizational Media Affordances : Operationalization and Associations with Media Use

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Ronald E.; Evans, Sandra K.; Pearce, Katy E.; Sivunen, Anu; Vitak, Jessica; Treem, Jeffrey W.

    2017-01-01

    The concept of affordances has been increasingly applied to the study of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in organizational contexts. However, almost no research operationalizes affordances, limiting comparisons and programmatic research. This article briefly reviews conceptualizations and possibilities of affordances in general and for media, then introduces the concept of organizational media affordances as organizational resources. Analysis of survey data from a large Nord...

  7. Diabetes and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burge, Mark R; Schade, David S

    2014-07-01

    The Affordable Care Act--"Obamacare"--is the most important federal medical legislation to be enacted since Medicare. Although the goal of the Affordable Care Act is to improve healthcare coverage, access, and quality for all Americans, people with diabetes are especially poised to benefit from the comprehensive reforms included in the act. Signed into law in 2010, this massive legislation will slowly be enacted over the next 10 years. In the making for at least a decade, it will affect every person in the United States, either directly or indirectly. In this review, we discuss the major changes in healthcare that will take place in the next several years, including (1) who needs to purchase insurance on the Web-based exchange, (2) the cost to individuals and the rebates that they may expect, (3) the rules and regulations for purchasing insurance, (4) the characteristics of the different "metallic" insurance plans that are available, and (5) the states that have agreed to participate. With both tables and figures, we have tried to make the Affordable Care Act both understandable and appreciated. The goal of this comprehensive review is to highlight aspects of the Affordable Care Act that are of importance to practitioners who care for people with diabetes by discussing both the positive and the potentially negative aspects of the program as they relate to diabetes care.

  8. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-01

    for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car's roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount

  9. Housing Affordability And Children's Cognitive Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Sandra; Holupka, C Scott

    2016-11-01

    Housing cost burden-the fraction of income spent on housing-is the most prevalent housing problem affecting the healthy development of millions of low- and moderate-income children. By affecting disposable income, a high burden affects parents' expenditures on both necessities for and enrichment of their children, as well as investments in their children. Reducing those expenditures and investments, in turn, can affect children's development, including their cognitive skills and physical, social, and emotional health. This article summarizes the first empirical evidence of the effects of housing affordability on children's cognitive achievement and on one factor that appears to contribute to these effects: the larger expenditures on child enrichment by families in affordable housing. We found that housing cost burden has the same relationship to both children's cognitive achievement and enrichment spending on children, exhibiting an inverted U shape in both cases. The maximum benefit occurs when housing cost burden is near 30 percent of income-the long-standing rule-of-thumb definition of affordable housing. The effect of the burden is stronger on children's math ability than on their reading comprehension and is more pronounced with burdens above the 30 percent standard. For enrichment spending, the curve is "shallower" (meaning the effect of optimal affordability is less pronounced) but still significant. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  10. Options for Affordable Fission Surface Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houts, Mike; Gaddis, Steve; Porter, Ron; Van Dyke, Melissa; Martin, Jim; Godfroy, Tom; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon; Garber, Anne; Pearson, Boise

    2006-01-01

    Fission surface power systems could provide abundant power anywhere on the surface of the moon or Mars. Locations could include permanently shaded regions on the moon and high latitudes on Mars. To be fully utilized, however, fission surface power systems must be safe, have adequate performance, and be affordable. This paper discusses options for the design and development of such systems. (authors)

  11. Affordability Constraints in Major Defense Acquisitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    memo, does not provide a detailed recipe for those who must produce quantitative affordability constraints. Enclosure 8 of the January 7, 2015 version...3.0’s full title includes “Achieving Dominant Capabilities 2015 Lot 2028 Lot 2038 Lot $0 $100 $200 $300 $400 $ 500 $600 $700 $800 $900 0 10000 20000

  12. The Affordances of Social Media Platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bucher, T.; Helmond, A.; Burgess, J.; Marwick, A.; Poell, T.

    2018-01-01

    This chapter reflects on the concept of affordance as a key term for understanding and analysing social media interfaces and the relations between technology and its users. In outlining its specific intellectual trajectory from psychology, to technology and design studies, sociology, and

  13. Towards Affordable Disclosure of Spoken Word Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Hiemstra, Djoerd; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Larson, M; Fernie, K; Oomen, J; Cigarran, J.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken word archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, the least we want to be

  14. Towards Affordable Disclosure of Spoken Heritage Archives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, M; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Heeren, W.F.L.; Fernie, K; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Oomen, J; Hiemstra, Djoerd

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents and discusses ongoing work aiming at affordable disclosure of real-world spoken heritage archives in general, and in particular of a collection of recorded interviews with Dutch survivors of World War II concentration camp Buchenwald. Given such collections, we at least want to

  15. Affordances of Instrumentation in General Chemistry Laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Kristin Mary Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to find out what students in the first chemistry course at the undergraduate level (general chemistry for science majors) know about the affordances of instrumentation used in the general chemistry laboratory and how their knowledge develops over time. Overall, students see the PASCO(TM) system as a useful and accurate…

  16. Near-term oil prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynch, M.C.

    2001-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation included 36 slides that described the state of oil prices and how to predict them. Prices are random, stochastic, chaotic, mean-reverting and driven by speculators, oil companies and OPEC. The many factors that enable price forecasting are economic growth, weather, industry behaviour, speculators, OPEC policy choices, Mexico/Russia production policy, non-OPEC supply and the interpretation of the above factors by OPEC, speculators, traders and the petroleum industry. Several graphs were included depicting such things as WTI price forecasts, differentials, oil market change in 2001, inventory levels, and WTI backwardation. The presentation provided some explanations for price uncertainties, price surges and collapses. U.S. GDP growth and the volatility of Iraq's production was also depicted. The author predicted that economic growth will occur and that oil demand will go up. Oil prices will fluctuate as the Middle East will be politically unstable and weather will be a major factor that will influence oil prices. The prices are likely to be more volatile than in the 1986 to 1995 period. 2 tabs., 22 figs

  17. Near-term market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Information is reviewed available to DOE on uranium marketing and price situation. It is concluded that past procurement activity and slippage in needs has placed the uranium users in a comfortable supply position for the next few years. As a consequence, there has been a relatively low level of procurement activity the last few years, which have been accompanied by price stability. U.S. procurement has strongly favored U.S. suppliers, however, the potential exists for procurement of foreign uranium, particularly in long-term contracts. Domestic producers, having expanded their production and sales capability, will be in a strong position for deliveries over the next several years

  18. ATC modernization and NextGen near-term achievable goals : hearing before the Subcommittee on Aviation of the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure, House of Representatives, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, first session, March 18, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-18

    This letter responds to your request that we address questions submitted for the record : related to the March 18, 2009, hearing entitled ATC Modernization: Near-Term Achievable : Goals. Our attached responses to these questions are based on a review...

  19. Affordability for sustainable energy development products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riley, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Clean cookstoves that also generate electricity improve affordability. • Excel spreadsheet model to assist stakeholders to choose optimum technology. • Presents views for each stakeholder villager, village and country. • By adding certain capital costs, affordability and sustainability are improved. • Affordability is highly dependent on carbon credits and social understandings. - Abstract: Clean burning products, for example cooking stoves, can reduce household air pollution (HAP), which prematurely kills 3.5 million people each year. By careful selection of components into a product package with micro-finance used for the capital payment, barriers to large-scale uptake of products that remove HAP are reduced. Such products reduce smoke from cooking and the lighting from electricity produced, eliminates smoke from kerosene lamps. A bottom-up financial model, that is cognisant of end user social needs, has been developed to compare different products for use in rural areas of developing countries. The model is freely available for use by researchers and has the ability to assist in the analysis of changing assumptions. Business views of an individual villager, the village itself and a country view are presented. The model shows that affordability (defined as the effect on household expenses as a result of a product purchase) and recognition of end-user social needs are as important as product cost. The effects of large-scale deployment (greater that 10 million per year) are described together with level of subsidy required by the poorest people. With the assumptions given, the model shows that pico-hydro is the most cost effective, but not generally available, one thermo-acoustic technology option does not require subsidy, but it is only at technology readiness level 2 (NASA definition) therefore costs are predicted and very large investment in manufacturing capability is needed to meet the cost target. Thermo-electric is currently the only

  20. Refining Grasp Affordance Models by Experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Buch, Anders Glent

    2010-01-01

    We present a method for learning object grasp affordance models in 3D from experience, and demonstrate its applicability through extensive testing and evaluation on a realistic and largely autonomous platform. Grasp affordance refers here to relative object-gripper configurations that yield stable...... with a visual model of the object they characterize. We explore a batch-oriented, experience-based learning paradigm where grasps sampled randomly from a density are performed, and an importance-sampling algorithm learns a refined density from the outcomes of these experiences. The first such learning cycle...... is bootstrapped with a grasp density formed from visual cues. We show that the robot effectively applies its experience by downweighting poor grasp solutions, which results in increased success rates at subsequent learning cycles. We also present success rates in a practical scenario where a robot needs...

  1. Affordances and the musically extended mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel eKrueger

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I defend a model of the musically extended mind. I consider how acts of musicking grant access to novel emotional experiences otherwise inaccessible. First, I discuss the idea of musical affordances and specify both what musical affordances are and how they invite different forms of entrainment. Next, I argue that musical affordances—via soliciting different forms of entrainment—enhance the functionality of various endogenous, emotion-granting regulative processes, drawing novel experiences out of us with an expanded complexity and phenomenal character. I suggest that music therefore ought to be thought of as part of the vehicle needed to realize these emotional experiences. I appeal to different sources of empirical work to develop this idea.

  2. Affordability of medicines in the European Union.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Zaprutko

    Full Text Available Medications and their prices are key issues for healthcare. Although access to medicines at affordable prices had been specified as a key objective of the European Health Policy, it seems that these goals have not been achieved. Therefore, we attempted an evaluation of affordability of selected medicines at full prices.The analysis concerned 2012 and was conducted between 2013 and 2015 in all the European Union (EU countries divided into 3 groups depending on the date of their accession to the EU. Finally, we considered 9 originators used in the treatment of schizophrenia and multiple sclerosis. Information on drug prices were collected from pharmacies. Participation in the study was voluntary and anonymous in order to avoid accusations of advertising. To evaluate affordability, several factors were used (e.g. minimum earnings and Gini coefficient. Due to unavailability in some countries, the exact number of analyzed medicines varies.Drug prices vary significantly between EU Member States. Almost eleven fold difference was observed between Germany (EUR 1451.17 and Croatia (EUR 132.77 in relation to Interferone beta-1a 22 μg. Generally, prices were the highest in Germany. The cheapest drugs were found in various countries but never in the poorest ones like Bulgaria or Romania. Discrepancies in wages were observed too (the smallest minimum wage was EUR 138.00 in Bulgaria and the highest EUR 1801.00 in Luxembourg. Full price of olanzapine 5mg, however, was higher in Bulgaria (EUR 64.53 than, for instance, in Belgium (EUR 37.26.Analyzed medications are still unaffordable for many citizens of the EU. Besides, access to medicines is also impaired e.g. due to parallel trade. Unaffordability of medications may lead to the patients' non-compliance and therefore to increased direct and indirect costs of treatment. Common European solutions are needed to achieve a real affordability and accessibility of medications.

  3. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Ludovic; Orth, Dominic; Mantel, Bruno; Boulanger, Jérémie; Hérault, Romain; Dicks, Matt

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale), as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i) a horizontal-edge route (H) was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii) a vertical-edge route (V) afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii), a double-edge route (D) was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU) (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer) were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector) of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion), hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion), hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion) and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion). Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D route

  4. Affordance Realization in Climbing: Learning and Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic Seifert

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate how the affordances of an indoor climbing wall changed for intermediate climbers following a period of practice during which hold orientation was manipulated within a learning and transfer protocol. The learning protocol consisted of four sessions, in which eight climbers randomly ascended three different routes of fixed absolute difficulty (5c on the French scale, as fluently as possible. All three routes were 10.3 m in height and composed of 20 hand-holds at the same locations on an artificial climbing wall; only hold orientations were altered: (i a horizontal-edge route (H was designed to afford horizontal hold grasping, (ii a vertical-edge route (V afforded vertical hold grasping, and (iii, a double-edge route (D was designed to afford both horizontal and vertical hold grasping. Five inertial measurement units (IMU (3D accelerometer, 3D gyroscope, 3D magnetometer were attached to the hip, feet and forearms to analyze the vertical acceleration and direction (3D unitary vector of each limb and hip in ambient space during the entire ascent. Segmentation and classification processes supported detection of movement and stationary phases for each IMU. Depending on whether limbs and/or hip were moving, a decision tree distinguished four states of behavior: stationary (absence of limb and hip motion, hold exploration (absence of hip motion but at least one limb in motion, hip movement (hip in motion but absence of limb motion and global motion (hip in motion and at least one limb in motion. Results showed that with practice, the learners decreased the relative duration of hold exploration, suggesting that they improved affordance perception of hold grasp-ability. The number of performatory movements also decreased as performance increased during learning sessions, confirming that participants' climbing efficacy improved as a function of practice. Last, the results were more marked for the H route, while the D

  5. Active Affordance Learning in Continuous State and Action Spaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, C.; Hindriks, K.V.; Babuska, R.

    2014-01-01

    Learning object affordances and manipulation skills is essential for developing cognitive service robots. We propose an active affordance learning approach in continuous state and action spaces without manual discretization of states or exploratory motor primitives. During exploration in the action

  6. Activation characteristics of candidate structural materials for a near-term Indian fusion reactor and the impact of their impurities on design considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    H, L. SWAMI; C, DANANI; A, K. SHAW

    2018-06-01

    Activation analyses play a vital role in nuclear reactor design. Activation analyses, along with nuclear analyses, provide important information for nuclear safety and maintenance strategies. Activation analyses also help in the selection of materials for a nuclear reactor, by providing the radioactivity and dose rate levels after irradiation. This information is important to help define maintenance activity for different parts of the reactor, and to plan decommissioning and radioactive waste disposal strategies. The study of activation analyses of candidate structural materials for near-term fusion reactors or ITER is equally essential, due to the presence of a high-energy neutron environment which makes decisive demands on material selection. This study comprises two parts; in the first part the activation characteristics, in a fusion radiation environment, of several elements which are widely present in structural materials, are studied. It reveals that the presence of a few specific elements in a material can diminish its feasibility for use in the nuclear environment. The second part of the study concentrates on activation analyses of candidate structural materials for near-term fusion reactors and their comparison in fusion radiation conditions. The structural materials selected for this study, i.e. India-specific Reduced Activation Ferritic‑Martensitic steel (IN-RAFMS), P91-grade steel, stainless steel 316LN ITER-grade (SS-316LN-IG), stainless steel 316L and stainless steel 304, are candidates for use in ITER either in vessel components or test blanket systems. Tungsten is also included in this study because of its use for ITER plasma-facing components. The study is carried out using the reference parameters of the ITER fusion reactor. The activation characteristics of the materials are assessed considering the irradiation at an ITER equatorial port. The presence of elements like Nb, Mo, Co and Ta in a structural material enhance the activity level as well

  7. Experiments on affordance in the journal "ecological psychology"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trettvik, Johan

    2009-01-01

    There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances.......There are two general aims: 1) to review how the concept of affordance is construed, in theory as well as in practice/experiments, and 2) to review the experiments on affordances....

  8. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability.Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland.Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland.Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker.Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage.Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  9. Price, availability and affordability of medicines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda S. Mhlanga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Medicines play an important role in healthcare, but prices can be a barrier to patient care. Few studies have looked at the prices of essential medicines in low- and middle-income countries in terms of patient affordability. Aim: To determine the prices, availability and affordability of medicines along the supply chain in Swaziland. Setting: Private- and public-sector facilities in Manzini, Swaziland. Methods: The standardised methodology designed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to survey 16 chronic disease medicines. Data were collected in one administrative area in 10 private retail pharmacies and 10 public health facilities. Originator brand (OB and lowest-priced generic equivalent (LPG medicines were monitored and these prices were then compared with international reference prices (IRPs. Affordability was calculated in terms of the daily wage of the lowest-paid unskilled government worker. Results: Mean availability was 68% in the public sector. Private sector OB medicines were priced 32.4 times higher than IRPs, whilst LPGs were 7.32 times higher. OBs cost473% more than LPGs. The total cumulative mark-ups for individual medicines range from 190.99% – 440.27%. The largest contributor to add-on cost was the retail mark-up (31% – 53%. Standard treatment with originator brands cost more than a day’s wage. Conclusion: Various policy measures such as introducing price capping at all levels of the medicine supply chain, may increase the availability, whilst at the same time reducing the prices of essential medicines for the low income population.

  10. Contraceptive Coverage and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschann, Mary; Soon, Reni

    2015-12-01

    A major goal of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act is reducing healthcare spending by shifting the focus of healthcare toward preventive care. Preventive services, including all FDA-approved contraception, must be provided to patients without cost-sharing under the ACA. No-cost contraception has been shown to increase uptake of highly effective birth control methods and reduce unintended pregnancy and abortion; however, some institutions and corporations argue that providing contraceptive coverage infringes on their religious beliefs. The contraceptive coverage mandate is evolving due to legal challenges, but it has already demonstrated success in reducing costs and improving access to contraception. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Design and cost of near-term OTEC (Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) plants for the production of desalinated water and electric power. [Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabas, T.; Panchal, C.; Genens, L.

    1990-01-01

    There currently is an increasing need for both potable water and power for many islands in the Pacific and Caribbean. The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) technology fills these needs and is a viable option because of the unlimited supply of ocean thermal energy for the production of both desalinated water and electricity. The OTEC plant design must be flexible to meet the product-mix demands that can be very different from site to site. This paper describes different OTEC plants that can supply various mixes of desalinated water and vapor -- the extremes being either all water and no power or no water and all power. The economics for these plants are also presented. The same flow rates and pipe sizes for both the warm and cold seawater streams are used for different plant designs. The OTEC plant designs are characterized as near-term because no major technical issues need to be resolved or demonstrated. The plant concepts are based on DOE-sponsored experiments dealing with power systems, advanced heat exchanger designs, corrosion and fouling of heat exchange surfaces, and flash evaporation and moisture removal from the vapor using multiple spouts. In addition, the mature multistage flash evaporator technology is incorporated into the plant designs were appropriate. For the supply and discharge warm and cold uncertainties do exist because the required pipe sizes are larger than the maximum currently deployed -- 40-inch high-density polyethylene pipe at Keahole Point in Hawaii. 30 refs., 6 figs., 8 tabs.

  12. Development of a high-heat flux cooling element with potential application in a near-term fusion power plant divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nicholas, Jack Robert, E-mail: jack.nicholas@eng.ox.ac.uk [Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Ireland, Peter [Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Hancock, David [CCFE, Culham, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Robertson, Dan [Rolls-Royce Plc., Derby, Derbyshire (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Laminate jet impingement system introduced for high pressure operation (17 MPa+). • Numerical thermo-fluid analysis on baseline geometry. • Cascade impingement shown to reduce divertor mass flow rate requirements and increase fluid temperature change. • Numerical thermo-fluid analysis validated using scaled experiments with air. - Abstract: A low temperature jet impingement based heat sink module has been developed for potential application in a near-term fusion power plant divertor. The design is composed of a number of hexagonal CuCrZr sheets bonded together in a stack to form a laminate structure. This method allows the production of complex flow paths using relatively simple manufacturing techniques. The thermo-fluid performance of a baseline design employing cascade jet impingement has been assessed and compared to a non-cascade case. Experimental validation of the numerical work was carried out on a scaled model using air as the working fluid. Local heat transfer coefficients were obtained on the surface using surface temperature data from thermochromic liquid crystals.

  13. Capital investment requirements for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation in power generation on near term to century time scales and global to regional spatial scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturvedi, Vaibhav; Clarke, Leon; Edmonds, James; Calvin, Katherine; Kyle, Page

    2014-01-01

    Our paper explores the implication of climate mitigation policy and electricity generation technology performance for capital investment demands by the electric power sector on near term to century time scales. We find that stabilizing GHG emissions will require additional investment in the electricity generation sector over and above investments that would be needed in the absence of climate policy, in the range of 15 to 29 trillion US$ (48–94%) depending on the stringency of climate policy during the period 2015 to 2095 under default technology assumptions. This increase reflects the higher capital intensity of power systems that control emissions as well as increased electrification of the global economy. Limits on the penetration of nuclear and carbon capture and storage technology could increase costs substantially. Energy efficiency improvements can reduce the investment requirement by 18 to 24 trillion US$ (compared to default technology climate policy assumptions), depending on climate policy scenario. We also highlight the implications of different technology evolution scenarios for different regions. Under default technology set, the heaviest investments across scenarios in power generation were observed in China, India, SE Asia and Africa regions with the latter three regions dominating in the second half of the 21st century. - Highlights: • We present electricity generation investment requirement under different scenarios. • A climate policy will lead to substantial increase in investment requirement. • Stringency of climate policy has significant implications for investments. • Technology evolution and performance alter investment requirements significantly. • China, India, Southeast Asia and Africa dominate as investment destinations

  14. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition 'to the brain,' focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude-action, value-action or knowledge-action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio-ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio-ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio-ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit between local

  15. Engineering an Affordable Self-Driving Car

    KAUST Repository

    Budisteanu, Alexandru Ionut

    2018-01-17

    "More than a million people die in car accidents each year, and most of those accidents are the result of human errorヤ Alexandru Budisteanu is 23 years old and owns a group of startups including Autonomix, an Artificial Intelligence software for affordable self-driving cars and he designed a low-cost self-driving car. The car\\'s roof has cameras and low-resolution 3D LiDAR equipment to detect traffic lanes, other cars, curbs and obstacles, such as people crossing by. To process this dizzying amount of data, Alexandru employed Artificial Intelligence algorithms to extract information from the visual data and plot a safe route for the car. Then, he built a manufacturing facility in his garage from Romania to assembly affordable VisionBot Pick and Place robots that are used to produce electronics. During this lecture, Alexandru will talk about this autonomous self-driving car prototype, for which he received the grand prize of the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, and was nominated by TIME magazine as one of the worldメs most influential teens of 2013.

  16. What are the affordances of information and communication technologies?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grainne Conole

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines the notion that Information and Communication Technologies (ICT have affordances that epitomize the features of our late modern age (Giddens, 1991 and explores whether these affordances (Salomon, 1993, p. 51 can be used to facilitate particular approaches to educational practice. It argues that a clear articulation of these affordances would enable us to understand how these technologies can be most effectively used to support learning and teaching. We believe that any one affordance can be considered to have both positive and negative connotations and the paper draws on social and educational theory to provide an initial taxonomy of these affordances.

  17. Social affordances and the possibility of ecological linguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kono, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    This paper includes an effort to extend the notion of affordance from a philosophical point of view the importance of ecological approach for social psychology, ethics, and linguistics. Affordances are not always merely physical but also interpersonal and social. I will conceptualize affordance in general and social affordance in particular, and will elucidate the relation between intentional action and affordances, and that between affordances and free will. I will also focus on the relation between social institution and affordance. An extended theory of affordances can provide a way to analyze in concrete ways how social institution works as an implicit background of interpersonal interactions. Ecological approach considers social institution as the producer and maintainer of affordances. Social institutions construct the niches for human beings. Finally, I will argue the possibility of the ecological linguistics. Language is a social institution. The system of signs is the way to articulate and differentiate interpersonal affordances. Language acquires its meaning, i.e. communicative power in the interpersonal interactions, and interpersonal interactions, in turn, develop and are elaborated through the usage of signs. Communication is seen as never aimed to transmit inner ideas to others, but to guide and adjust the behaviors of others thorough articulating the affordance of responsible-ness.

  18. Correlates of housing affordability stress among older Australians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Jeromey B

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence and correlates of housing affordability stress among community-dwelling older Australians. The 2002 ABS General Social Survey was used to measure the prevalence of housing affordability stress. Rare event logistic regression was used to measure the potential correlates of housing affordability stress. Almost 5% of Australians aged 55 years and older, and 20% of those younger than 55 years, are estimated to experience housing affordability stress. Men and women living alone are more likely to experience affordability stress when compared to couples. Low-income earners, those with a consumer debt or who do not hold assets, are at a heightened risk of such stress. Home ownership, regardless of income, is the strongest buffer against housing affordability problems in old age. Although the prevalence of housing affordability stress is low among older Australians when compared to the younger population, a definite social gradient exists in those at risk.

  19. Long-term functional outcomes and correlation with regional brain connectivity by MRI diffusion tractography metrics in a near-term rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Illa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR affects 5-10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI parameters and connectivity. METHODOLOGY: At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. CONCLUSIONS: The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their

  20. Long-term functional outcomes and correlation with regional brain connectivity by MRI diffusion tractography metrics in a near-term rabbit model of intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5-10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation) and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters and connectivity. At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR

  1. Single Sustained Inflation followed by Ventilation Leads to Rapid Cardiorespiratory Recovery but Causes Cerebral Vascular Leakage in Asphyxiated Near-Term Lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina S Sobotka

    Full Text Available A sustained inflation (SI rapidly restores cardiac function in asphyxic, bradycardic newborns but its effects on cerebral haemodynamics and brain injury are unknown. We determined the effect of different SI strategies on carotid blood flow (CaBF and cerebral vascular integrity in asphyxiated near-term lambs.Lambs were instrumented and delivered at 139 ± 2 d gestation and asphyxia was induced by delaying ventilation onset. Lambs were randomised to receive 5 consecutive 3 s SI (multiple SI; n = 6, a single 30 s SI (single SI; n = 6 or conventional ventilation (no SI; n = 6. Ventilation continued for 30 min in all lambs while CaBF and respiratory function parameters were recorded. Brains were assessed for gross histopathology and vascular leakage.CaBF increased more rapidly and to a greater extent during a single SI (p = 0.01, which then decreased below both other groups by 10 min, due to a higher cerebral oxygen delivery (p = 0.01. Blood brain barrier disruption was increased in single SI lambs as indicated by increased numbers of blood vessel profiles with plasma protein extravasation (p = 0.001 in the cerebral cortex. There were no differences in CaBF or cerebral oxygen delivery between the multiple SI and no SI lambs.Ventilation with an initial single 30 s SI improves circulatory recovery, but is associated with greater disruption of blood brain barrier function, which may exacerbate brain injury suffered by asphyxiated newborns. This injury may occur as a direct result of the initial SI or to the higher tidal volumes delivered during subsequent ventilation.

  2. Long-Term Functional Outcomes and Correlation with Regional Brain Connectivity by MRI Diffusion Tractography Metrics in a Near-Term Rabbit Model of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illa, Miriam; Eixarch, Elisenda; Batalle, Dafnis; Arbat-Plana, Ariadna; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-01-01

    Background Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) affects 5–10% of all newborns and is associated with increased risk of memory, attention and anxiety problems in late childhood and adolescence. The neurostructural correlates of long-term abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR are unknown. Thus, the aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive description of the long-term functional and neurostructural correlates of abnormal neurodevelopment associated with IUGR in a near-term rabbit model (delivered at 30 days of gestation) and evaluate the development of quantitative imaging biomarkers of abnormal neurodevelopment based on diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) parameters and connectivity. Methodology At +70 postnatal days, 10 cases and 11 controls were functionally evaluated with the Open Field Behavioral Test which evaluates anxiety and attention and the Object Recognition Task that evaluates short-term memory and attention. Subsequently, brains were collected, fixed and a high resolution MRI was performed. Differences in diffusion parameters were analyzed by means of voxel-based and connectivity analysis measuring the number of fibers reconstructed within anxiety, attention and short-term memory networks over the total fibers. Principal Findings The results of the neurobehavioral and cognitive assessment showed a significant higher degree of anxiety, attention and memory problems in cases compared to controls in most of the variables explored. Voxel-based analysis (VBA) revealed significant differences between groups in multiple brain regions mainly in grey matter structures, whereas connectivity analysis demonstrated lower ratios of fibers within the networks in cases, reaching the statistical significance only in the left hemisphere for both networks. Finally, VBA and connectivity results were also correlated with functional outcome. Conclusions The rabbit model used reproduced long-term functional impairments and their neurostructural

  3. NASA's Space Launch System: Affordability for Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Todd A.; Creech, Stephen D.

    2012-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Space Launch System (SLS) Program, managed at the Marshall Space Flight Center, is charged with delivering a new capability for human exploration beyond Earth orbit in an austere economic climate. But the SLS value is clear and codified in United States (U.S.) budget law. The SLS Program knows that affordability is the key to sustainability and will provide an overview of initiatives designed to fit within the funding guidelines by using existing engine assets and hardware now in testing to meet a first launch by 2017 within the projected budget. It also has a long-range plan to keep the budget flat, yet evolve the 70-tonne (t) initial lift capability to 130-t lift capability after the first two flights. To achieve the evolved configuration, advanced technologies must offer appropriate return on investment to be selected through the competitive process. For context, the SLS will be larger than the Saturn V that took 12 men on 6 trips for a total of 11 days on the lunar surface some 40 years ago. Astronauts train for long-duration voyages on platforms such as the International Space Station, but have not had transportation to go beyond Earth orbit in modern times, until now. To arrive at the launch vehicle concept, the SLS Program conducted internal engineering and business studies that have been externally validated by industry and reviewed by independent assessment panels. In parallel with SLS concept studies, NASA is now refining its mission manifest, guided by U.S. space policy and the Global Exploration Roadmap, which reflects the mutual goals of a dozen member nations. This mission planning will converge with a flexible heavy-lift rocket that can carry international crews and the air, water, food, and equipment they need for extended trips to asteroids and Mars. In addition, the SLS capability will accommodate very large science instruments and other payloads, using a series of modular fairings and

  4. Affordable Laser Communication in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Constance E.; Sparks, R.; Pompea, S.

    2006-12-01

    Several companies sell systems that illustrate laser communication such as Arbor Scientific1. These systems can be too expensive for classroom use. We will demonstrate a technique to modulate a standard diode laser using a microphone or other sound source that is capable of transmitting voice and music. This affordable system can transmit over 350 feet using simple, inexpensive parts readily available at your local electronics store. We will provide a list of parts necessary for assembly, detailed assembly instructions, as well as some suggested investigations using the laser communication system. This system can be used in the classroom either as a demonstration or hands-on activity to explore the physics and technology involved, citing more sophisticated laser communication systems on board spacecraft such as the Mercury Messenger Mission and the Mars Telecommunications Orbiter. 1http://www.arborsci.com

  5. Visual Descriptor Learning for Predicting Grasping Affordances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Mikkel Tang

    2016-01-01

    by the task of grasping unknown objects given visual sensor information. The contributions from this thesis stem from three works that all relate to the task of grasping unknown objects but with particular focus on the visual representation part of the problem. First an investigation of a visual feature space...... consisting of surface features was performed. Dimensions in the visual space were varied and the effects were evaluated with the task of grasping unknown object. The evaluation was performed using a novel probabilistic grasp prediction approach based on neighbourhood analysis. The resulting success......-rates for predicting grasps were between 75% and 90% depending on the object class. The investigations also provided insights into the importance of selecting a proper visual feature space when utilising it for predicting affordances. As a consequence of the gained insights, a semi-local surface feature, the Sliced...

  6. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  7. Do already grasped objects activate motor affordances?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iani, Cristina; Ferraro, Luca; Maiorana, Natale Vincenzo; Gallese, Vittorio; Rubichi, Sandro

    2018-04-07

    This study investigated whether in a stimulus-response compatibility (SRC) task affordance effects in response to picture of graspable objects emerge when these objects appear as already grasped. It also assessed whether the observed effects could be explained as due to spatial compatibility between the most salient part in the object/display and the hand of response rather than to action potentiation. To this aim, we conducted three behavioural experiments in which participants were required to discriminate the vertical orientation (upright vs. inverted) of an object presented in the centre of the screen, while ignoring the right-left orientation of its handle. The object could be presented alone, as already grasped, as partially masked (Experiment 1) or with a human hand close to its graspable side (Experiment 2). In addition, to assess the role of perceptual salience, the object could be presented with a human hand or a non-biological (a geometrical shape) distractor located opposite to the object's graspable side. Results showed faster responses when the object's handle was located on the same side of the responding hand with a larger effect when upright objects were shown as already grasped (Experiment 1) or when a hand was displayed close to its handle (Experiment 2), and a smaller reversed effect when the hand or the geometrical shape was located opposite to the handled side (Experiment 3). We interpreted these findings as indicating that handle orientation effects emerging in SRC tasks may result from the interplay between motor affordance and spatial compatibility mechanisms.

  8. Achieving affordable housing through energy efficiency strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copiello, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    Cooperation between public and private sector has achieved a remarkable widespread, in the Italian context, over the last two decades. Nevertheless, the increasing difficulty in accessing the capital market and the rising cost of funding sources, both noticeable over the past few years, led to a slowdown of Public–Private Partnership (PPP) initiatives. Meanwhile, the community is expressing new needs to be satisfied, such as the conversion of brownfields, the recovery of housing stock dating back to former times, as well as the refurbishment of public offices or schools. Emerging priorities include the supply of affordable dwellings for low to medium income households. This essay aims to examine a case study in which PPP and buildings energy efficiency have been successfully combined, in order to jointly contribute to the achievement of a social housing settlement. Thanks to energy efficiency measures—concerning building envelope insulation, heating system and other installations—the agreed rent results far higher than social rent of protected tenancies, and furthermore above the range of fair rents characterising other regulated tenancies, but mildly lower than market rents. All this allows to achieve an equity yield rate satisfying from the perspective of a venture philanthropy investment. -- Highlights: •Provision of affordable dwellings is an emerging priority within Italian context. •Lack of public funds leads to promote Public–Private Partnership schemes. •Without public grants the adoption of a venture philanthropy approach is needed. •The examined case study allows to explain the role of buildings energy efficiency. •Buildings energy efficiency may boost feasibility of social housing transactions

  9. Imagined Affordance: Reconstructing a Keyword for Communication Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Nagy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology studies, emerging theories of materiality, affect, and mediation all necessitate a richer and more nuanced definition for affordance than the field currently uses. To solve this, we develop the concept of imagined affordance. Imagined affordances emerge between users’ perceptions, attitudes, and expectations; between the materiality and functionality of technologies; and between the intentions and perceptions of designers. We use imagined affordance to evoke the importance of imagination in affordances—expectations for technology that are not fully realized in conscious, rational knowledge. We also use imagined affordance to distinguish our process-oriented, socio-technical definition of affordance from the “imagined” consensus of the field around a flimsier use of the term. We also use it in order to better capture the importance of mediation, materiality, and affect. We suggest that imagined affordance helps to theorize the duality of materiality and communication technology: namely, that people shape their media environments, perceive them, and have agency within them because of imagined affordances.

  10. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roope O. Kaaronen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective

  11. Affording Sustainability: Adopting a Theory of Affordances as a Guiding Heuristic for Environmental Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaaronen, Roope O.

    2017-01-01

    Human behavior is an underlying cause for many of the ecological crises faced in the 21st century, and there is no escaping from the fact that widespread behavior change is necessary for socio-ecological systems to take a sustainable turn. Whilst making people and communities behave sustainably is a fundamental objective for environmental policy, behavior change interventions and policies are often implemented from a very limited non-systemic perspective. Environmental policy-makers and psychologists alike often reduce cognition ‘to the brain,’ focusing only to a minor extent on how everyday environments systemically afford pro-environmental behavior. Symptomatic of this are the widely prevalent attitude–action, value–action or knowledge–action gaps, understood in this paper as the gulfs lying between sustainable thinking and behavior due to lack of affordances. I suggest that by adopting a theory of affordances as a guiding heuristic, environmental policy-makers are better equipped to promote policies that translate sustainable thinking into sustainable behavior, often self-reinforcingly, and have better conceptual tools to nudge our socio–ecological system toward a sustainable turn. Affordance theory, which studies the relations between abilities to perceive and act and environmental features, is shown to provide a systemic framework for analyzing environmental policies and the ecology of human behavior. This facilitates the location and activation of leverage points for systemic policy interventions, which can help socio–ecological systems to learn to adapt to more sustainable habits. Affordance theory is presented to be applicable and pertinent to technically all nested levels of socio–ecological systems from the studies of sustainable objects and households to sustainable urban environments, making it an immensely versatile conceptual policy tool. Finally, affordance theory is also discussed from a participatory perspective. Increasing the fit

  12. Bootstrapping Relational Affordances of Object Pairs using Transfer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fichtl, Severin; Kraft, Dirk; Krüger, Norbert

    2018-01-01

    leverage past knowledge to accelerate current learning (which we call bootstrapping). We learn Random Forest based affordance predictors from visual inputs and demonstrate two approaches to knowledge transfer for bootstrapping. In the first approach (direct bootstrapping), the state-space for a new...... affordance predictor is augmented with the output of previously learnt affordances. In the second approach (category based bootstrapping), we form categories that capture underlying commonalities of a pair of existing affordances and augment the state-space with this category classifier’s output. In addition......, we introduce a novel heuristic, which suggests how a large set of potential affordance categories can be pruned to leave only those categories which are most promising for bootstrapping future affordances. Our results show that both bootstrapping approaches outperform learning without bootstrapping...

  13. Effects of dexmedetomidine on H-FABP, CK-MB, cTnI levels, neurological function and near-term prognosis in patients undergoing heart valve replacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Chen, Qiang; Guo, Hao; Li, Zhishan; Zhang, Jinfeng; Lv, Lei; Guo, Yongqing

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of dexmedetomidine on heart-type fatty acid binding protein (H-FABP), creatine kinase isoenzymes (CK-MB), and troponin I (cTnI) levels, neurological function and near-term prognosis in patients undergoing heart valve replacement. Patients undergoing heart valve replacement were randomly allocated to remifentanil anesthesia (control group, n=48) or dexmedetomidine anesthesia (observation group, n=48). Hemodynamic parameters were measured before anesthesia induction (T1), 1 min after intubation (T2), 10 min after start of surgery (T3), and on completion of surgery (T4). Levels of plasma H-FABP, CK-MB and cTnI were measured 10 min before anesthesia induction (C1), 10 min after start of surgery (C2), on completion of surgery (C3), 6 h after surgery (C4), and 24 h after surgery (C5). S100β protein and serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) were detected 10 min before anesthesia induction (C1), and 24 h after surgery (C5). Neurological and cardiac function was evaluated 24 h after surgery. Incidence of cardiovascular adverse events was recorded for 1 year of follow-up. There were no significant differences in the average heart rate between the two groups during the perioperative period. The mean arterial pressure in the observation group was significantly lower than control group (PH-FABP, CK-MB and cTnI at C2, C3, C4 and C5, were significantly higher than C1, but significantly lower in the observation versus control group (P<0.05). Twenty-four hours after surgery, levels of S100β and NSE in both groups were higher than those before induction (P<0.05), but significantly lower in the observation versus control group (P<0.05). Twenty-four hours after surgery, neurological function scores were better, and myocardial contractility and arrhythmia scores significantly lower in the observation versus control group (P<0.05 for all). After follow-up for 1 year, incidence of cardiovascular adverse events was significantly lower in the observation

  14. Near term feasibility of nuclear reactor for sea-water desalting: coupling of standard condensing nuclear power stations to low grade heat multieffect distillation plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adar, J.; Manor, S.; Schaal, M.

    1977-01-01

    Commercial nuclear power reactors exist only in standard sizes and designs. No large nuclear back-pressure turbines are available today. Therefore, near term large scale nuclear desalination plants must be tailored to the NSSS sizes and available turbines and not the contrary. Standard condensing nuclear turbines could operate continuously with a back-presure of up to 5-7'' Hg (depending on the supplier). It means that they can exhaust huge amounts of steam at 56 0 C - 64 0 C with a loss of electricity production of 6% - 10% when compared to 2 1/2'' Hg normal condensing pressure. The horizontal aluminium tube multi-effect distillation process developed by ''Israel Desalination Engineering'' Ltd. is very suitable for the use of such low-grade heat: 4 to 9 effects can operate within these temperature ranges. A special flash-chamber constitutes a positive barrier against any possible contamination being carried over by the steam exhausted from the turbine to the desalination plant. Flow sheets, heat and mass balances have been prepared for two standard sizes of NSSS and turbines (1882sup(Mwth) and 2785sup(Mwth)), two ''back-pressures'' (5 1/2'' and 7'' Hg), and corresponding desalination plants. Only standard equipment is being used in the steam and electricity producing plant. The desalination plant consists of 6 to 12 parallel double lines, each of them similar to a large prototype now being designed and which is going to be coupled to an old fossil power station. Water production varies between 50 and 123 sup(us MGD) and water cost between 23 and 36 sup(cents)/M 3 . Total energy requirements of the desalination plant represent only 19 to 50% of the total water cost as against 75% for a single purpose plant. Costs are based on actual bids for the power plant and actual estimates for the desalination prototype. The operation is designed to be flexible so that the power plant can be operated either in conjunction with the desalination plant, or as a single purpose

  15. The near-term prediction of drought and flooding conditions in the northeastern United States based on extreme phases of AMO and NAO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berton, Rouzbeh; Driscoll, Charles T.; Adamowski, Jan F.

    2017-10-01

    A series of hydroclimatic teleconnection patterns were identified between variations in either Atlantic or Pacific oceanic indices with precipitation and discharge anomalies in the northeastern United States. We hypothesized that temporal annual or seasonal changes in discharge could be explained by variations in extreme phases of the Atlantic Multi-decadal Oscillation (AMO index, SST: Sea Surface Temperature anomalies) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO index, SLP: Sea-Level Pressure anomalies) up to three seasons in advance. The Merrimack River watershed, the fourth largest basin in New England, with a drainage area of 13,000 km2, is a compelling study site because it not only provides an opportunity to investigate the teleconnection between hydrologic variables and large-scale climate circulation patterns, but also how those patterns may become obscured by anthropogenic disturbances such as river regulation or urban development. We considered precipitation and discharge data of 21 gauging stations within the Merrimack River watershed, including the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF), NH, with a median record length of 55 years beginning as early as 1904. The discharge anomalies were statistically significant (p-value ≤ 0.2) between extreme positive and negative phases of AMO (1857-2011) and NAO (1900-2011) and revealed the potential teleconnectivity of climate circulation patterns with discharge. Annual and seasonal correlations of discharge were examined with the extreme phases of AMO and NAO at zero-, one-, or two- year/season lags (total of 30 scenarios). When AMO was greater than 0.2, the strongest correlations of AMO and NAO with discharge were observed at headwater catchments. This correlation weakened downstream towards larger regulated and/or developed sub-basins. We introduced a simple approach for near-term prediction of drought and flooding events. An exponential decay function was regressed through the historic occurrence of the relative

  16. Energy efficiency and economic value in affordable housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chegut, Andrea; Eichholtz, Piet; Holtermans, Rogier

    2016-01-01

    Strong rental protection in the affordable housing market often prohibits landlords from charging rental premiums for energy-efficient dwellings. This may impede (re)development of energy efficient affordable housing. In the Netherlands, affordable housing institutions regularly sell dwellings from their housing stock to individual households. If they can sell energy efficient dwellings at a premium, this may stimulate investments in the environmental performance of homes. We analyze the value effects of energy efficiency in the affordable housing market, by using a sample of 17,835 homes sold by Dutch affordable housing institutions in the period between 2008 and 2013. We use Energy Performance Certificates to determine the value of energy efficiency in these transactions. We document that dwellings with high energy efficiency sell for 2.0–6.3% more compared to otherwise similar dwellings with low energy efficiency. This implies a premium of some EUR 3,000 to EUR 9,700 for highly energy efficient affordable housing. - Highlights: • Dutch affordable housing suppliers recoup sustainability investment by selling dwellings. • Energy-efficient affordable dwellings sell at a premium. • A-labeled dwellings are 6.3% – 9,300 euros – more valuable than C-labeled ones. • The combined value effect of refurbishing an affordable housing dwelling, including improving the energy efficiency, of 20% would more than pay for the retrofit.

  17. The Price of (Perceived Affordance: Commentary for Huron and Berec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Gjerdingen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available It is argued that the symbolic objects in music and musical scores can permit affordances much as physical objects can. This construction of "affordance" places greater emphasis on cultural forms and human memory than the original idea proposed by James J. Gibson, and it aligns itself more closely with the refinements to "affordance" suggested by Donald Norman. For symbolic objects to permit strongly perceived affordances, it may be necessary for perceivers to have developed schematized perception in the course of over-learning culturally significant forms.

  18. Embodiment as First Affordance: Tinkering, Tuning, Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Spatz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article begins from a discussion of philosophical realism and the turn towards close analysis of skilled material practices that characterizes many recent critical interventions. I examine the roots of this turn and suggest that skilled practice is a privileged site for the enactment and testing of realist ontologies. However, I question the extent to which realist thinkers have emphasized practices in which materials outside the human body are central over those in which embodiment itself is the primary medium of practice. Thinkers of realist ontology, I argue, have neglected embodiment as the primary site of an engagement with the fine-grained detail of the world. In contrast, I propose that realist ontologies developed through reference to technological engagements not only apply equally well to embodied practices but actually find their original and primary manifestation there. The body itself is the ‘first affordance’ and the site at which questions of realism and objectivity are first encountered and resolved in practice. I illustrate this point by considering how three modes of material engagement — tinkering, tuning, and tracking — manifest in embodied practices ranging from dance and sport to those of everyday life. I conclude by emphasizing the continuing political importance of embodiment as first affordance and its crucial place as a ‘fragile junction’ between ecology and technology.

  19. Income dynamics and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore-Sheppard, Lara D

    2014-12-01

    To examine the sources of family income dynamics leading to movement into and out of Medicaid expansion and subsidy eligibility under the Affordable Care Act. Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP): 1996, 2001, 2004, 2008 panels. Considering four broad subsidy eligibility categories for monthly Modified Adjusted Gross Income (MAGI) (400 percent FPL), I use duration analysis to examine determinants of movements between categories over the course of a year. Using detailed monthly data, I determine the members of tax-filing units and calculate an approximation of MAGI at the monthly level. The analysis sample is adults ages 22-64 years. Incomes are highly variable within a year, particularly at the lower end of the income distribution. Employment transitions, including transitions not involving a period of nonemployment, and family structure changes strongly predict sufficient income volatility to trigger a change in subsidy category. Income volatility arising from employment and family structure changes is likely to trigger changes in subsidy eligibility within the year, but the sources and effects of the volatility differ substantially depending on the individual's position in the income distribution. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  20. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baber, Chris; Khattab, Ahmad; Russell, Martin; Hermsdörfer, Joachim; Wing, Alan

    2017-10-11

    We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL). In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects) and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  1. Creating Affording Situations: Coaching through Animate Objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Baber

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the ways in which animate objects can be used to cue actions as part of coaching in Activities of Daily Living (ADL. In this case, changing the appearance or behavior of a physical object is intended to cue actions which are appropriate for a given context. The context is defined by the intention of the users, the state of the objects and the tasks for which these objects can be used. We present initial design prototypes and simple user trials which explore the impact of different cues on activity. It is shown that raising the handle of a jug, for example, not only cues the act of picking up the jug but also encourages use of the hand adjacent to the handle; that combinations of lights (on the objects and auditory cues influence activity through reducing uncertainty; and that cueing can challenge pre-learned action sequences. We interpret these results in terms of the idea that the animate objects can be used to create affording situations, and discuss implications of this work to support relearning of ADL following brain damage or injury, such as might arise following a stroke.

  2. American surgery and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stain, Steven C; Hoyt, David B; Hunter, John G; Joyce, Geoffrey; Hiatt, Jonathan R

    2014-09-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) attempts to change the way we finance and deliver health care by coordinating the delivery of primary, specialty, and hospital services in accountable care organizations. The ways in which accountable care organizations will develop and evolve is unclear; however, the effects on surgeons and their patients will be substantial. High-value care in the ACA emphasizes quality, safety, resource use and appropriateness, and the patient's experience of care. Payment will be linked to these principles. Department chairs overseeing a clinical enterprise in academic medical centers now must add financial and quality measures to the traditional missions of education, research, and clinical service. At a time when surgical training is in dramatic evolution, with work hour limitations for residents and an emphasis on quality, productivity, and increasing oversight of trainees for faculty, residency programs will need to meet the increasing demands of an aging population and newly insured patients under the ACA. The American College of Surgeons, with its century-long commitment to quality improvement, research-based standards, and performance measurement and verification, has begun its Inspiring Quality Campaign, is developing new educational tools, and is preparing proposals for payment reform based on surgeons' participation in quality programs.

  3. Air Traffic Management Technology Demostration Phase 1 (ATD) Interval Management for Near-Term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibler, Jennifer L.; Wilson, Sara R.; Hubbs, Clay E.; Smail, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The Interval Management for Near-term Operations Validation of Acceptability (IM-NOVA) experiment was conducted at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in support of the NASA Airspace Systems Program's Air Traffic Management Technology Demonstration-1 (ATD-1). ATD-1 is intended to showcase an integrated set of technologies that provide an efficient arrival solution for managing aircraft using Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) surveillance, navigation, procedures, and automation for both airborne and ground-based systems. The goal of the IMNOVA experiment was to assess if procedures outlined by the ATD-1 Concept of Operations were acceptable to and feasible for use by flight crews in a voice communications environment when used with a minimum set of Flight Deck-based Interval Management (FIM) equipment and a prototype crew interface. To investigate an integrated arrival solution using ground-based air traffic control tools and aircraft Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) tools, the LaRC FIM system and the Traffic Management Advisor with Terminal Metering and Controller Managed Spacing tools developed at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) were integrated into LaRC's Air Traffic Operations Laboratory (ATOL). Data were collected from 10 crews of current 757/767 pilots asked to fly a high-fidelity, fixed-based simulator during scenarios conducted within an airspace environment modeled on the Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) Terminal Radar Approach Control area. The aircraft simulator was equipped with the Airborne Spacing for Terminal Area Routes (ASTAR) algorithm and a FIM crew interface consisting of electronic flight bags and ADS-B guidance displays. Researchers used "pseudo-pilot" stations to control 24 simulated aircraft that provided multiple air traffic flows into the DFW International Airport, and recently retired DFW air traffic controllers served as confederate Center, Feeder, Final

  4. Embodied perception: A proposal to reconcile affordance and spatial perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Canal Bruland, R.; van der Kamp, J.

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception,

  5. To be an affordable healthy house, case study Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silitonga, Shanty

    2018-03-01

    House has a paramount meaning in human life. Provision of adequate housing will be able to improve the quality of life. Provision of an affordable house is a major step to fulfilling the needs of houses in the big city. Medan has built a lot of affordable houses, and mostly it takes place in the suburbs. Although the affordable house is for low-income people, it must be worthy of its physical condition, affordable in the budget and healthy for its users. House often saw only as physical alone, the provision of a house only to achieve solely in quantity regardless its quality. This study aims to examine the condition of affordable houses in the suburbs of Medan. The research method used qualitative descriptive, using indicator according to affordable healthy house standard according to the regulation in Indonesia and other related theories. This study took place in Medan by taking three areas in the suburbs of Medan. The results show that most affordable houses in the suburbs of Medan are unhealthy. There are several design recommendations for the houses to meet the affordable healthy house category; the most important is the addition of ventilation and window holes.

  6. Urging Affordable Access to High-Value Cancer Drugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    This infographic highlights some of the main messages from the President’s Cancer Panel report Promoting Value, Affordability, and Innovation in Cancer Drug Treatment. The graphic includes the panel’s recommendations to maximize the value and affordability of cancer drug treatment.

  7. Availability and affordability of antiglaucoma drugs in Benin city ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness. Affordability and availability are key factors that determine access to effective treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the availability and affordability of antiglaucoma medicines in Benin City. A cross sectional survey of the major drug distribution sectors was conducted.

  8. Facilitating investment in affordable housing : Towards an Australian model. Draft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lawson, J.M.; Berry, M.; Milligan, V.; Yates, J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper argues that sustainable and affordable finance provides a crucial pillar to support the provision of affordable housing in the long term. This finance can take on a variety of forms, comprising grants, public loans, commercial loans as well as shareholder equity. It can be facilitated by

  9. Dissociating Simon and affordance compatibility effects: silhouettes and photographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Zissis

    2014-12-01

    When a graspable object's handle is oriented to the same side as the response hand, responses are quicker and more accurate than when it is oriented to the opposite side. This effect has been attributed to the affordance of the object's handle (Tucker & Ellis, 1998). Recent findings suggest this effect results instead from an abstract spatial response code (i.e., Simon effect; Cho & Proctor, 2010). However, the stimuli used in these previous studies differ in the amount of object and environmental depth information they contain, which may be critical to conveying an affordance. This information could explain these disparate findings as well as dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects. Four experiments demonstrate that the Simon effect results from the absence of this information, as in a silhouette, and the affordance effect results from its presence, as in a photograph. A fifth experiment confirmed that modifying information associated with the affordance, rather than the modification itself, produced the effects observed in the previous experiments. These findings support the following: (a) the internal details of an object and environmental depth can dissociate Simon and affordance compatibility effects, (b) this information is necessary to convey the object's graspable affordance, and (c) the outer shape of the object is not sufficient to elicit an affordance effect. These findings are discussed in relation to the theory of embodied cognition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Ground Processing Affordability for Space Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingalls, John; Scott, Russell

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicles and most of their payloads spend the majority of their time on the ground. The cost of ground operations is very high. So, why so often is so little attention given to ground processing during development? The current global space industry and economic environment are driving more need for efficiencies to save time and money. Affordability and sustainability are more important now than ever. We can not continue to treat space vehicles as mere science projects. More RLV's (Reusable Launch Vehicles) are being developed for the gains of reusability which are not available for ELV's (Expendable Launch Vehicles). More human-rated vehicles are being developed, with the retirement of the Space Shuttles, and for a new global space race, yet these cost more than the many unmanned vehicles of today. We can learn many lessons on affordability from RLV's. DFO (Design for Operations) considers ground operations during design, development, and manufacturing-before the first flight. This is often minimized for space vehicles, but is very important. Vehicles are designed for launch and mission operations. You will not be able to do it again if it is too slow or costly to get there. Many times, technology changes faster than space products such that what is launched includes outdated features, thus reducing competitiveness. Ground operations must be considered for the full product Lifecycle, from concept to retirement. Once manufactured, launch vehicles along with their payloads and launch systems require a long path of processing before launch. Initial assembly and testing always discover problems to address. A solid integration program is essential to minimize these impacts, as was seen in the Constellation Ares I-X test rocket. For RLV's, landing/recovery and post-flight turnaround activities are performed. Multi-use vehicles require reconfiguration. MRO (Maintenance, Repair, and Overhaul) must be well-planned--- even for the unplanned problems. Defect limits and

  11. An Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) for Space Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, C. M.; Bollo, T. R.; Garcia, J. L.

    2012-01-01

    NASA bas recently emphasized the importance of affordability for Commercial Crew Development Program (CCDP), Space Launch Systems (SLS) and Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV). System architects and designers are challenged to come up with architectures and designs that do not bust the budget. This paper describes the Affordability Comparison Tool (ACT) analyzes different systems or architecture configurations for affordability that allows for a comparison of: total life cycle cost; annual recurring costs, affordability figures-of-merit, such as cost per pound, cost per seat, and cost per flight, as well as productivity measures, such as payload throughput. Although ACT is not a deterministic model, the paper develops algorithms and parametric factors that use characteristics of the architectures or systems being compared to produce important system outcomes (figures-of-merit). Example applications of outcome figures-of-merit are also documented to provide the designer with information on the relative affordability and productivity of different space transportation applications.

  12. Young children's tool innovation across culture: Affordance visibility matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neldner, Karri; Mushin, Ilana; Nielsen, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Young children typically demonstrate low rates of tool innovation. However, previous studies have limited children's performance by presenting tools with opaque affordances. In an attempt to scaffold children's understanding of what constitutes an appropriate tool within an innovation task we compared tools in which the focal affordance was visible to those in which it was opaque. To evaluate possible cultural specificity, data collection was undertaken in a Western urban population and a remote Indigenous community. As expected affordance visibility altered innovation rates: young children were more likely to innovate on a tool that had visible affordances than one with concealed affordances. Furthermore, innovation rates were higher than those reported in previous innovation studies. Cultural background did not affect children's rates of tool innovation. It is suggested that new methods for testing tool innovation in children must be developed in order to broaden our knowledge of young children's tool innovation capabilities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Rodionova, Yulia; Falcetti, Elisabetta

    2008-01-01

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability

  14. Utility payments in Ukraine: Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom)], E-mail: y.rodionova@ssees.ucl.ac.uk; Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability.

  15. Utility payments in Ukraine. Affordability, subsidies and arrears

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fankhauser, Samuel [London School of Economics, London (United Kingdom); Rodionova, Yulia [School of Slavonic and East European Studies, University College London, 16 Taviton street, London WC1H 0BW (United Kingdom); Falcetti, Elisabetta [European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD), London (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    The transition from a planned economy to a market economy has caused considerable hardship for the people of Eastern Europe. One important aspect of the social costs of transition is access to, and the affordability of, basic services like electricity, heat and water, which under communism had been supplied fairly cheaply and abundantly. This paper provides evidence on this issue from the Ukraine Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS). The paper identifies considerable differences in both access and affordability between different localities in Ukraine. Social protection measures can help to alleviate affordability constraints, but the analysis finds that social support is not well targeted. The currently low tariffs prevent an escalation of affordability problems but constraints nevertheless exist. Many households have accumulated substantial arrears as a consequence, although non-payment is a complex issue and not solely a function of affordability. (author)

  16. The Affording Mars Workshop: Background and Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley A.; Carberry, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    . The workshop was organized around three topical breakout sessions: 1. The ISS and the path to Mars: The critical coming decade 2. Affordability and sustainability: what does it mean and what are its implications within guidelines established at the start of the workshop? 3. Notional sequence(s) of cost-achievable missions for the 2020s to 2030s, including capability objectives at each stage and opportunities for coordinated robotic partnerships.

  17. Critical Care Implications of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogra, Anjali P; Dorman, Todd

    2016-03-01

    To provide an overview of key elements of the Affordable Care Act. To evaluate ways in which the Affordable Care Act will likely impact the practice of critical care medicine. To describe strategies that may help health systems and providers effectively adapt to changes brought about by the Affordable Care Act. Data sources for this concise review include search results from the PubMed and Embase databases, as well as sources relevant to public policy such as the text of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act and reports of the Congressional Budget Office. As all of the Affordable Care Act's provisions will not be fully implemented until 2019, we also drew upon cost, population, and utilization projections, as well as the experience of existing state-based healthcare reforms. The Affordable Care Act represents the furthest reaching regulatory changes in the U.S. healthcare system since the 1965 Medicare and Medicaid provisions of the Social Security Act. The Affordable Care Act aims to expand health insurance coverage to millions of Americans and place an emphasis on quality and cost-effectiveness of care. From models which link pay and performance to those which center on episodic care, the Affordable Care Act outlines sweeping changes to health systems, reimbursement structures, and the delivery of critical care. Staffing models that include daily rounding by an intensivist, palliative care integration, and expansion of the role of telemedicine in areas where intensivists are inaccessible are potential strategies that may improve quality and profitability of ICU care in the post-Affordable Care Act era.

  18. The Value of Full Correction: Achieving Excellent and Affordable Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Julie Bass

    2016-01-01

    Patients often come to medical aesthetic offices with hopes to fully correct lost facial volume and achieve a natural appearance. Unfortunately, the cost per syringe of dermal filler can be a barrier to desired outcomes. Many aesthetic practitioners do the best they can with the amount of product the patient can afford, often falling short of the "wow" effect for the patient. This article describes what one office implemented to solve the conundrum of affordability while still allowing offices to cover its own financial realities. This tool can help patients achieve beautiful, natural, and affordable outcomes while helping offices advance in manufacturer's tiers, improve word-of-mouth advertising, and increase job satisfaction.

  19. Affordances in activity theory and cognitive systems engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, H.; Andersen, H.H.K.; Bødker, S.

    2001-01-01

    on design for low level interaction modalities. To incorporate the concept of affordances in the design of human computer interaction it is necessary to systematically unravel affordances that supporthuman action possibilities. Furthermore, it is a necessity that Gibson's theory of affordances...... is supplemented by careful analyses of other human modalities and activities than visual perception. Within HMI two well established perspectives on HMI,Activity Theory (AT) and Cognitive Systems Engineering (CSE), have discussed such analyses and design of action possibilities focusing on providing computer...... to cover deeper semantic and pragmatic aspects of the ecology of work, as compared with the previous applications of Gibson's theory in HMI....

  20. Housing Affordability in Ghana: A focus on Kumasi and Tamale ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    `123456789jkl''''#

    Department of Real ... affordable housing delivery system in Ghana. It found that ... markets; and hence has a significant impact on .... housing projects during this era were the ...... Table 4: Construction Materials in Kumasi and Tamale, 2010.

  1. Getting a grip on affordances, attention and visual fields

    OpenAIRE

    Linden, Lotje van der; Theeuwes, Jan; Ellis, Rob

    2013-01-01

    van der Linden, L., Theeuwes, J., & Ellis, R. (2012). Getting a grip on affordances, attention, and visual fields. Poster presented at the 2012 William James Graduate School Symposium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

  2. the role of financial institutions towards affordable housing to urban

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mugumbate

    weak positive effect (=.345) of housing finance on affordable housing and contributed to ..... Officers and 81 selected beneficiaries (middle income earners) of the several ..... transaction has to be independently valued by the Chief. Government ...

  3. The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The Influence of Affordable Daycare on Women's Empowerment in India ... services for the poor likely contribute to gender inequality by restricting women's educational ... a state that performs poorly in terms of women's empowerment in India.

  4. Challenges of Integrating Affordable and Sustainable Housing in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed Jamaludin, S. Z. H.; Mahayuddin, S. A.; Hamid, S. H. A.

    2018-04-01

    Developing countries including Malaysia have begun to comprehend the needs for affordable and sustainable housing development. The majority of the population is still aspiring for a comfortable, safe and reasonably priced house. Households in the low-middle income range face difficulties to find housing that can satisfy their needs and budget. Unfortunately, most of the housing development programs are considering affordability rather than sustainable aspects. Furthermore, developers are more interested in profit and neglect sustainability issues. Thus, the aim of this paper is to review the challenges in integrating affordable housing and sustainable practices in Malaysia. This paper is produced based on an extensive literature review as a basis to develop strategies of integrated affordable and sustainable housing in Malaysia. The challenges are divided into four sections, namely market challenges, professional challenges, societal challenges and technological challenges. The outcomes of this paper will assist in the decision making involving housing development and in enhancing quality of life for sustainable communities.

  5. Practical measurement of affordability: An application to medicines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.M. Niëns (Laurens); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); A. Cameron (ALexandra); M. Ewen (Margaret); R. Laing (Richard); W.B.F. Brouwer (Werner)

    2012-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ To develop two practical methods for measuring the affordability of medicines in developing countries. __Methods:__ The proposed methods - catastrophic and impoverishment methods - rely on easily accessible aggregated expenditure data and take into account a

  6. Developing an Assessment Framework for Affordable and Sustainable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Pullen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable housing has been subject to research, practice and policy making for some considerable time. More recently attention has been drawn to the separate problem of declining affordability in housing. This paper describes research aimed at developing an assessment framework for both affordability and sustainability as part of the effort to incorporate both of these features into new housing projects. The research has a particular focus on developments aimed at urban densification. Background literature on both affordability and sustainability is reviewed as well as emerging schemes aimed at dealing with both aspects of housing developments. Performance indicators are identified and these are incorporated in an interim assessment framework which is tested using a group of industry experts. The research has highlighted areas where further development is required to attain quantitative assessments of affordable and sustainable housing developments

  7. Imagined affordance: reconstructing a keyword for communication theory

    OpenAIRE

    Neff, G; Nagy, P

    2015-01-01

    In this essay, we reconstruct a keyword for communication—affordance. Affordance, adopted from ecological psychology, is now widely used in technology studies, yet the term lacks a clear definition. This is especially problematic for scholars grappling with how to theorize the relationship between technology and sociality for complex socio-technical systems such as machine-learning algorithms, pervasive computing, the Internet of Things, and other such “smart” innovations. Within technology s...

  8. Increasing the Supply of Affordable Housing in Urban India - Mumbai

    OpenAIRE

    Viswanathan, Upasna

    2014-01-01

    The need for housing in today's world is irrefutable. The growing population, accompanied with the fast pace of urbanization, are producing great housing demand, in urban areas in particular. This study focused on one segment of housing - affordable housing, in Mumbai, India, the demand for which has been on a steady rise over the past decade. Though traditionally the State was the provider of affordable housing, private sector has been increasingly involved in the segment, beginning the econ...

  9. Embodied Perception: A Proposal to Reconcile Affordance and Spatial Perception

    OpenAIRE

    Ca?al-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2015-01-01

    Proffitt's embodied approach to perception is deeply indebted to Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception, in particular the idea that the primary objects of perception are affordances or what the environment offers for action. Yet, rather than directly addressing affordance perception, most of the empirical work evaluating Proffitt's approach focuses on the perception of spatial properties of the environment. We propose that theoretical and empirical efforts should be directed towar...

  10. Stable and variable affordances are both automatic and flexible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Borghi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The mere observation of pictures or words referring to manipulable objects is sufficient to evoke their affordances since objects and their nouns elicit components of appropriate motor programs associated with object interaction. While nobody doubts that objects actually evoke motor information, the degree of automaticity of this activation has been recently disputed. Recent evidence has indeed revealed that affordances activation is flexibly modulated by the task and by the physical and social context. It is therefore crucial to understand whether these results challenge previous evidence showing that motor information is activated independently from the task. The context and the task can indeed act as an early or late filter. We will review recent data consistent with the notion that objects automatically elicit multiple affordances and that top-down processes select among them probably inhibiting motor information that is not consistent with behaviour goals. We will therefore argue that automaticity and flexibility of affordances are not in conflict. We will also discuss how language can incorporate affordances showing similarities, but also differences, between the motor information elicited by vision and language. Finally we will show how the distinction between stable and variable affordances can accommodate all these effects.

  11. Affordable Development and Demonstration of a Small NTR Engine and Stage: A Preliminary NASA, DOE, and Industry Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowski, Stanley K.; Sefcik, Robert J.; Fittje, James E.; McCurdy, David R.; Qualls, Arthur L.; Schnitzler, Bruce G.; Werner, James E.; Weitzberg, Abraham; Joyner, Claude R.

    2015-01-01

    The Nuclear Thermal Rocket (NTR) represents the next evolutionary step in cryogenic liquid rocket engines. Deriving its energy from fission of uranium-235 atoms contained within fuel elements that comprise the engine's reactor core, the NTR can generate high thrust at a specific impulse of approx. 900 seconds or more - twice that of today's best chemical rockets. In FY'11, as part of the AISP project, NASA proposed a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) effort that envisioned two key activities - "Foundational Technology Development" followed by system-level "Technology Demonstrations". Five near-term NTP activities identified for Foundational Technology Development became the basis for the NCPS project started in FY'12 and funded by NASA's AES program. During Phase 1 (FY'12-14), the NCPS project was focused on (1) Recapturing fuel processing techniques and fabricating partial length "heritage" fuel elements for the two candidate fuel forms identified by NASA and the DOE - NERVA graphite "composite" and the uranium dioxide (UO2) in tungsten "cermet". The Phase 1 effort also included: (2) Engine Conceptual Design; (3) Mission Analysis and Requirements Definition; (4) Identification of Affordable Options for Ground Testing; and (5) Formulation of an Affordable and Sustainable NTP Development Strategy. During FY'14, a preliminary plan for DDT&E was outlined by GRC, the DOE and industry for NASA HQ that involved significant system-level demonstration projects that included GTD tests at the NNSS, followed by a FTD mission. To reduce development costs, the GTD and FTD tests use a small, low thrust (approx. 7.5 or 16.5 klbf) engine. Both engines use graphite composite fuel and a "common" fuel element design that is scalable to higher thrust (approx. 25 klbf) engines by increasing the number of elements in a larger diameter core that can produce greater thermal power output. To keep the FTD mission cost down, a simple "1-burn" lunar flyby mission was considered along with

  12. Are essential medicines in Malaysia accessible, affordable and available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Kamaruzaman; Ibrahim, Mohamed I M

    2005-12-01

    To assess the pharmaceutical sector to know whether people have access to essential medicines. The study was conducted in 20 public health clinics, five public district drug stores and 20 private retail pharmacies selected randomly in five different areas randomly selected (four states and a federal territory). The methodology used was adopted from the World Health Organization study protocol. The degree of attainment of the strategic pharmaceutical objectives of improved access is measured by a list of tested indicators. Access is measured in terms of the availability and affordability of essential medicines, especially to the poor and in the public sector. The first survey in the public health clinics and public district drug stores gathered information about current availability of essential medicines, prevalence of stock-outs and affordability of treatment (except drug stores). The second survey assessed affordability of treatment in public health clinics and private retail pharmacies. Availability, stock-out duration, percent of medicines dispensed, accessibility and affordability of key medicines. The average availability of key medicines in the public health clinics for the country was 95.4%. The average stock-out duration of key medicines was 6.5 days. However, average availability of key medicines in the public district drug stores was 89.2%; with an average stock-out duration of 32.4 days. Medicines prescribed were 100% dispensed to the patients. Average affordability for public health clinics was 1.5 weeks salary and for the private pharmacies, 3.7 weeks salary. The present pharmaceutical situation in the context of essential medicines list implementation reflected that the majority of the population in Malaysia had access to affordable essential medicines. If medicines need to be obtained from the private sector, they are hardly affordable. Although the average availability of essential medicines in Malaysia was high being more than 95.0%, in certain

  13. Availability, accessibility, and affordability of neurodiagnostic tests in 37 countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLane, Hannah C; Berkowitz, Aaron L; Patenaude, Bryan N; McKenzie, Erica D; Wolper, Emma; Wahlster, Sarah; Fink, Günther; Mateen, Farrah J

    2015-11-03

    To determine the availability, accessibility, and affordability of EEG, EMG, CSF analysis, head CT, and brain MRI for neurologic disorders across countries. An online, 60-question survey was distributed to neurology practitioners in 2014 to assess the presence, wait time, and cost of each test in private and public health sectors. Data were stratified by World Bank country income group. Affordability was calculated with reference to the World Health Organization's definition of catastrophic health expenditure as health-related out-of-pocket expenditure of >40% of disposable household income, and assessment of providers' perceptions of affordability to the patient. Availability of EEG and EMG is correlated with higher World Bank income group (correlation coefficient 0.38, test for trend p = 0.046; 0.376, p = 0.043); CSF, CT, and MRI did not show statistically significant associations with income groups. Patients in public systems wait longer for neurodiagnostic tests, especially MRI, EEG, and urgent CT (p private sector (US $55.25 vs $214.62, p income group is associated with a 29% decrease in the estimated share of the population who can afford a given test (95% confidence interval -33.4, 25.2; p income countries surveyed, only the top 10% or 20% of the population was able to afford tests below catastrophic levels. In surveyed lower-middle-income countries, >40% of the population, on average, could not afford neurodiagnostic tests. Neurodiagnostic tests are least affordable in the lowest income settings. Closing this "diagnostic gap" for countries with the lowest incomes is essential. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.

  14. The Affordance Template ROS Package for Robot Task Programming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephen; Dinh, Paul; Hambuchen, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    This paper introduces the Affordance Template ROS package for quickly programming, adjusting, and executing robot applications in the ROS RViz environment. This package extends the capabilities of RViz interactive markers by allowing an operator to specify multiple end-effector waypoint locations and grasp poses in object-centric coordinate frames and to adjust these waypoints in order to meet the run-time demands of the task (specifically, object scale and location). The Affordance Template package stores task specifications in a robot-agnostic XML description format such that it is trivial to apply a template to a new robot. As such, the Affordance Template package provides a robot-generic ROS tool appropriate for building semi-autonomous, manipulation-based applications. Affordance Templates were developed by the NASA-JSC DARPA Robotics Challenge (DRC) team and have since successfully been deployed on multiple platforms including the NASA Valkyrie and Robonaut 2 humanoids, the University of Texas Dreamer robot and the Willow Garage PR2. In this paper, the specification and implementation of the affordance template package is introduced and demonstrated through examples for wheel (valve) turning, pick-and-place, and drill grasping, evincing its utility and flexibility for a wide variety of robot applications.

  15. Affordability Engineering: Bridging the Gap Between Design and Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, J. D.; DePasquale, Dominic; Lim, Evan

    2010-01-01

    Affordability is a commonly used term that takes on numerous meanings depending on the context used. Within conceptual design of complex systems, the term generally implies comparisons between expected costs and expected resources. This characterization is largely correct, but does not convey the many nuances and considerations that are frequently misunderstood and underappreciated. In the most fundamental sense, affordability and cost directly relate to engineering and programmatic decisions made throughout development programs. Systems engineering texts point out that there is a temporal aspect to this relationship, for decisions made earlier in a program dictate design implications much more so than those made during latter phases. This paper explores affordability engineering and its many sub-disciplines by discussing how it can be considered an additional engineering discipline to be balanced throughout the systems engineering and systems analysis processes. Example methods of multidisciplinary design analysis with affordability as a key driver will be discussed, as will example methods of data visualization, probabilistic analysis, and other ways of relating design decisions to affordability results.

  16. Making Sense of Biodiversity: The Affordances of Systems Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; McPhearson, Timon

    2018-01-01

    We see two related, but not well-linked fields that together could help us better understand biodiversity and how it, over time, provides benefits to people. The affordances approach in environmental psychology offers a way to understand our perceptual appraisal of landscapes and biodiversity and, to some extent, intentional choice or behavior, i.e., a way of relating the individual to the system s/he/it lives in. In the field of ecology, organism-specific functional traits are similarly understood as the physiological and behavioral characteristics of an organism that informs the way it interacts with its surroundings. Here, we review the often overlooked role of traits in the provisioning of ecosystem services as a potential bridge between affordance theory and applied systems ecology. We propose that many traits can be understood as the basis for the affordances offered by biodiversity, and that they offer a more fruitful way to discuss human-biodiversity relations than do the taxonomic information most often used. Moreover, as emerging transdisciplinary studies indicate, connecting affordances to functional traits allows us to ask questions about the temporal and two-way nature of affordances and perhaps most importantly, can serve as a starting point for more fully bridging the fields of ecology and environmental psychology with respect to how we understand human-biodiversity relationships.

  17. The Role of Motor Affordances in Visual Working Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane Pecher

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Motor affordances are important for object knowledge. Semantic tasks on visual objects often show interactions with motor actions. Prior neuro-imaging studies suggested that motor affordances also play a role in visual working memory for objects. When participants remembered manipulable objects (e.g., hammer greater premotor cortex activation was observed than when they remembered non-manipulable objects (e.g., polar bear. In the present study participants held object pictures in working memory while performing concurrent tasks such as articulation of nonsense syllables and performing hand movements. Although concurrent tasks did interfere with working memory performance, in none of the experiments did we find any evidence that concurrent motor tasks affected memory differently for manipulable and non-manipulable objects. I conclude that motor affordances are not used for visual working memory.

  18. Affordability and Paradigms in Agent-Based Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boldur E. Barbat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at substantiating that in universities with scarce resources, applied Information Technologies (IT research is affordable, even in most advanced and dynamic sub-domains. This target is split into four specific objectives: a to set up a framework for IT research affordability in universities representative for current East-European circumstances; b to outline a workable approach based on synergistic leverage and to assess the paradigms prevalent in modern artificial intelligence through this ``affordability filter''; c to describe the evolution and the current stages of two undertakings exploiting paradigms founded on emergence (the sub-domains are stigmergic coordination and agent self-awareness; d to summarise for both sub domains the mechanisms and the architectonics (the focus is on computer science aspects; implementation details will be given in future papers. The results in both directions appear as promising and reveal significant potential for transdisciplinarity. From this perspective, the paper is a call to improved cooperation.

  19. Conflict between object structural and functional affordances in peripersonal space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalénine, Solène; Wamain, Yannick; Decroix, Jérémy; Coello, Yann

    2016-10-01

    Recent studies indicate that competition between conflicting action representations slows down planning of object-directed actions. The present study aims to assess whether similar conflict effects exist during manipulable object perception. Twenty-six young adults performed reach-to-grasp and semantic judgements on conflictual objects (with competing structural and functional gestures) and non-conflictual objects (with similar structural and functional gestures) presented at difference distances in a 3D virtual environment. Results highlight a space-dependent conflict between structural and functional affordances. Perceptual judgments on conflictual objects were slower that perceptual judgments on non-conflictual objects, but only when objects were presented within reach. Findings demonstrate that competition between structural and functional affordances during object perception induces a processing cost, and further show that object position in space can bias affordance competition. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of affordances in Libras acquisition as second language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica Puhl

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Libras is a visual-spatial language used by the Brazilian deaf community. Following the principles of spatiality and vision, the user of the sign language resorts more easily to stimuli from the environment than the user of the oral language. Thus, the hypothesis of this research is that the affordances (environmental properties that enable psychologically possible actions would be a facilitator element in the process of Libras acquisition. In this paper we use the narrative and interpretive-qualitative research to discuss the role of affordances in the listener perception, interpretation and action cycle in Libras acquisition as second language. Results show that the Libras’ iconic signs can be considered important affordances in the early stages of the acquisition. It is also observed the importance of the permanence in the niche where Libras is used for the sign language development.

  1. Affordances of Spreadsheets In Mathematical Investigation: Potentialities For Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel Calder

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This article, is concerned with the ways learning is shaped when mathematics problems are investigated in spreadsheet environments. It considers how the opportunities and constraints the digital media affords influenced the decisions the students made, and the direction of their enquiry pathway. How might the learning trajectory unfold, and the learning process and mathematical understanding emerge? Will the spreadsheet, as the pedagogical medium, evoke learning in a distinctive manner? The article reports on an aspect of an ongoing study involving students as they engage mathematical investigative tasks through digital media, the spreadsheet in particular. It considers the affordances of this learning environment for primary-aged students.

  2. Approach to an Affordable and Sustainable Space Transportation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, Caey M.; Rhodes, R. E.; Robinson, J. W.; Henderson, E. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes an approach and a general procedure for creating space transportation architectural concepts that are at once affordable and sustainable. Previous papers by the authors and other members of the Space Propulsion Synergy Team (SPST) focused on a functional system breakdown structure for an architecture and definition of high-payoff design techniques with a technology integration strategy. This paper follows up by using a structured process that derives architectural solutions focused on achieving life cycle affordability and sustainability. Further, the paper includes an example concept that integrates key design techniques discussed in previous papers. !

  3. Patterns in Health Care Access and Affordability Among Cancer Survivors During Implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nipp, Ryan D; Shui, Amy M; Perez, Giselle K; Kirchhoff, Anne C; Peppercorn, Jeffrey M; Moy, Beverly; Kuhlthau, Karen; Park, Elyse R

    2018-03-29

    Cancer survivors face ongoing health issues and need access to affordable health care, yet studies examining health care access and affordability in this population are lacking. To evaluate health care access and affordability in a national sample of cancer survivors compared with adults without cancer and to evaluate temporal trends during implementation of the Affordable Care Act. We used data from the National Health Interview Survey from 2010 through 2016 to conduct a population-based study of 30 364 participants aged 18 years or older. We grouped participants as cancer survivors (n = 15 182) and those with no reported history of cancer, whom we refer to as control respondents (n = 15 182), matched on age. We excluded individuals reporting a cancer diagnosis prior to age 18 years and those with nonmelanoma skin cancers. We compared issues with health care access (eg, delayed or forgone care) and affordability (eg, unable to afford medications or health care services) between cancer survivors and control respondents. We also explored trends over time in the proportion of cancer survivors reporting these difficulties. Of the 30 364 participants, 18 356 (57.4%) were women. The mean (SD) age was 63.5 (23.5) years. Cancer survivors were more likely to be insured (14 412 [94.8%] vs 13 978 [92.2%], P care (odds ratio [OR], 1.38; 95% CI, 1.16-1.63), forgone medical care (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.45-2.12), and/or inability to afford medications (OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.46-2.14) and health care services (OR, 1.46; 95% CI, 1.27-1.68) (P care decreased each year (B = 0.47; P = .047), and the proportion of those needing and not getting medical care also decreased each year (B = 0.35; P = .04). In addition, the proportion of cancer survivors who reported being unable to afford prescription medication decreased each year (B=0.66; P = .004) and the proportion of those unable to afford at least 1 of 6 services decreased each year (B = 0

  4. Pedagogical Affordances of Multiple External Representations in Scientific Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hsin-Kai; Puntambekar, Sadhana

    2012-12-01

    Multiple external representations (MERs) have been widely used in science teaching and learning. Theories such as dual coding theory and cognitive flexibility theory have been developed to explain why the use of MERs is beneficial to learning, but they do not provide much information on pedagogical issues such as how and in what conditions MERs could be introduced and used to support students' engagement in scientific processes and develop competent scientific practices (e.g., asking questions, planning investigations, and analyzing data). Additionally, little is understood about complex interactions among scientific processes and affordances of MERs. Therefore, this article focuses on pedagogical affordances of MERs in learning environments that engage students in various scientific processes. By reviewing literature in science education and cognitive psychology and integrating multiple perspectives, this article aims at exploring (1) how MERs can be integrated with science processes due to their different affordances, and (2) how student learning with MERs can be scaffolded, especially in a classroom situation. We argue that pairing representations and scientific processes in a principled way based on the affordances of the representations and the goals of the activities is a powerful way to use MERs in science education. Finally, we outline types of scaffolding that could help effective use of MERs including dynamic linking, model progression, support in instructional materials, teacher support, and active engagement.

  5. Subjective perception versus objective indicators of overcrowding and housing affordability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sunega, Petr; Lux, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 31, č. 4 (2016), s. 695-717 ISSN 1566-4910 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36154G Institutional support: RVO:68378025 Keywords : Housing * Indicators * Overcrowding * Housing affordability Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography Impact factor: 1.178, year: 2016

  6. Teaching Text Structure: Examining the Affordances of Children's Informational Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Cindy D.; Clark, Sarah K.; Reutzel, D. Ray

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the affordances of informational texts to serve as model texts for teaching text structure to elementary school children. Content analysis of a random sampling of children's informational texts from top publishers was conducted on text structure organization and on the inclusion of text features as signals of text…

  7. Affordances of Learning Technologies in Higher Education Multicultural Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arenas, Edilson

    2015-01-01

    A cluster of research has been conducted in higher education to investigate the affordances (action possibilities) and the influence information and communication technologies (ICT) may have on students' learning experiences and outcomes. Such studies have given rise to the implementation of a wide range of educational frameworks with a great deal…

  8. Energy affordability and the benefits system in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miniaci, Raffaele; Scarpa, Carlo; Valbonesi, Paola

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss a number of ways to define and measure the affordability of energy consumption, and we examine the emergence of energy poverty in Italy in the period from 1998 to 2011. The paper examines the eligibility criteria for claiming the benefits available to support energy consumption for vulnerable families and it identifies the potential beneficiaries. The study assesses the appropriateness of the eligibility criteria by comparing the population targeted by the policy with the population actually facing affordability problems. A simulation exercise, using the hypothetical scenario most likely to result in energy benefits being made available, shows that, regardless of the affordability index adopted, the provision of state energy benefits has little impact on fuel poverty. - Highlights: • The paper provides a discussion of alternative measure of energy affordability. • We examine the emergence of fuel poverty in Italy from 1998 to 2011. • We assess the appropriateness of the Italian energy benefits eligibility criteria. • A simulation shows that the energy benefits have little impact on fuel poverty

  9. Affordances for Second Language Learning in "World of Warcraft"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rama, Paul S.; Black, Rebecca W.; van Es, Elizabeth; Warschauer, Mark

    2012-01-01

    What are the affordances of online gaming environments for second language learning and socialization? To answer this question, this qualitative study examines two college-age Spanish learners' experiences participating in the Spanish language version of the massively multi-player online game "World of Warcraft." Using data culled from participant…

  10. The ICCE Framework: Framing Learning Experiences Afforded by Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Aroutis; Shah, Mamta

    2015-01-01

    There is a need for game-based learning frameworks that provide a lens for understanding learning experiences afforded in digital games. These frameworks should aim to facilitate game analyses, identification of learning opportunities, and support for learner experiences. This article uses the inquiry, communication, construction, and expression…

  11. Cost considerations in determining the affordability of adjuvant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive breast cancer, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. Affordability and value differ in patient groups with different baseline prognoses. This is illustrated below using the hazard ratio (HR) of survival rates obtained from a. Cochrane review[2] and personal communication ...

  12. Affordability of cataract surgery using the Big Mac prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van C. Lansingh

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The price of cataract surgery does not consider the patient's capacity to pay, based on a simple tool such as the BMcI. This suggests affordability issues, particularly when patients work for minimum wages and/or do not have access to free health care.

  13. Affordances and Alignments: Continuing Challenges in Advising Undergraduate Psychology Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrum, R. Eric

    2018-01-01

    Challenges abound in providing accurate and useful information to prospective and declared psychology majors about their career options and how to make decisions that will lead to satisfying and rewarding postgraduate lives. One component of this challenge is that by majoring in psychology, career affordances (i.e., the opportunities and…

  14. The Affordances Of Repackaged Popular Music From The Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.M.R. Driessen (Simone)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis explores the affordances of repackaged popular music from the past. Particularly, how they feature in audiences’ reflections on different stages and transitions in their life course. Three case studies highlight different modes of repackaging and illustrate how

  15. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 9. Concepts in Biotechnology An Affordable Overview of Biotechnology Through Self Study ... Author Affiliations. Narayan S Punekar1. Molecular Enzymology Group, Biotechnology Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Mumbai 400 076, India.

  16. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the enabling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The artic...

  17. The Messiness of Meaning Making: Examining the Affordances of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Having incorporated a digital aspect to our academic literacy course, and having monitored this over the last three years, we have come to believe that online mentoring can serve as an essential form of tutoring and mentoring. Our study is located in the field of New Literacy Studies and examines the affordances of a digital ...

  18. Essential Medicines in Nigeria: Foregrounding Access to Affordable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Within every functional healthcare system, access to quality and affordable essential medicine stands out as one of the building blocks. However ... Keywords: Access to medicines, Essential medicines, Healthcare, Public health facilities, Counterfeit medicines, Traditional medicines, Health systems, Systems theory ...

  19. Educational Affordances and Learning Design in Music Software Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Lee; Leong, Samuel

    2017-01-01

    Although music software has become increasingly affordable and widely adopted in today's classrooms, concerns have been raised about a lack of consideration for users' needs during the software development process. This paper examines intra- and inter-sectoral communication pertaining to software development and music education to shed light on…

  20. Learning at Work: Organisational Affordances and Individual Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryson, Jane; Pajo, Karl; Ward, Robyn; Mallon, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organisational affordances for the development of individuals' capability, and the engagement of workers at various levels with those opportunities. Design/methodology/approach: A case study of a large New Zealand wine company, using in-depth interviews. Interviews were…

  1. 24 CFR 1000.101 - What is affordable housing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What is affordable housing? 1000.101 Section 1000.101 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  2. Gift Planning: You Can't Afford Not to

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morley, Richard H.; Gaudette, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The process of reaching out to donors and securing gifts from alumni and other community members presents its share of challenges for community colleges. But, as funding experts Richard H. Morley and Mike Gaudette of the Council for Resource Development write in "Gift Planning: You Can't Afford Not To," there exists a huge financial incentive for…

  3. A typology of affordances: untangling sociomaterial interactions through video analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, W.; Mendelson, O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study we untangle the sociomaterial interactions between developers, users, and artifacts by analyzing what types of affordances occur in the interactions between actors and artifacts in the context of group generativity. Hereto, we conducted an in-depth ethnographic and interaction analysis

  4. Material Affordances: The Potential of Scrapbooks in the Composition Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Kara Poe

    2013-01-01

    A multiliteracies pedagogy has renewed our interest in materiality, or how the physical text interacts with the author's choices and the context to contribute to the message, yet little attention has been paid to materiality in analog texts, such as the scrapbook, even though this medium contains affordances (capabilities and limitations) that…

  5. Affordance Theory and Multiple Language Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordt, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    This article argues that the concept of affordances as put forward by James J. Gibson can make a major contribution to our understanding of multilingualism. It can throw some light on multilingualism in general as well as on specific aspects like successful and unsuccessful transfer, the challenges involved in teaching for multilingualism,…

  6. Affordable comfort 95 - investing in our energy future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This report describes the topics from the conference on Affordable Comfort, held March 26-31, 1995. Topics are concerned with energy efficiency in homes, retrofitting, weatherization, and monitoring of appliances, heating, and air conditioning systems for performance, as well as topics on electric utilities.

  7. Active design in affordable housing: A public health nudge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Garland

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This pilot study investigates the impact of active design (AD strategies on physical activity (PA among adults living in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED certified affordable housing developments in the South Bronx, New York. One building incorporates LEED Innovation in Design (ID Credit: Design for Health through Increased Physical Activity. Tenants in an affordable housing building (AH incorporating active design strategies completed PA self-assessments at their lease signing and one year later in 2015. Trained research assistants obtained body measurements. Residents of neighboring non-AD affordable housing (MCV served as a comparison. Thirty four adults were recruited from AH and 29 from MCV, retention was 56% (n = 19 and 52% (n = 15 respectively at one year. The two groups' body mass index (BMI and high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR were not statistically significantly different when analyzed as continuous variables, although BMI category had a greater decline at AH than at MCV (p = 0.054. There was a 31.5% increase in AH participants meeting MPA requirements and a statistically significant improvement in females (p = 0.031; while there was no change in the MCV participants overall or when stratified by gender. AH participants were significantly more likely to have reported increased stair use and less likely to have reported no change or decreased stair use than participants from MCV participants (p = 0.033. Housing has a role in individual health outcomes and behavior change, broad adoption of active design strategies in affordable housing is warranted to improve physical activity measures. Keywords: Active design, Physical activity, Built environment, Affordable housing

  8. Overview of JET results, near term plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pamela, J.; Rapp, J

    2003-09-01

    In preparation of ITER operation the JET programme has been focussed to consolidate the ITER reference scenario, the ELMy H-mode, and furthermore to mature the Advanced Tokamak Scenarios, candidate for steady state operation on ITER. In type-I ELMy H-modes simultaneously high confinement (f{sub H98}{approx}1) and high densities (n/n{sup GW}>0.85) were achieved in stationary conditions by several techniques: (a) increasing plasma triangularity (close to ITER values), (b) argon seeding and (c) periodic pellet fuelling. Techniques for controlling high-pressure operation (control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTM)) and improving amelioration of transient divertor heat loads due to ELMs have been elaborated. In Advanced Tokamak Scenarios the improvement of LHCD coupling to the plasma led to reversed shear plasmas, providing reliable access to strong Internal Transport barriers (ITBs) at lower auxiliary heating powers. The successful development of real-time feedback schemes allowed ITBs to be controlled in steady state conditions (7.5 s, 27x{tau}{sub E}). In particular the capability to control both the pressure and current profiles has been demonstrated. Studies related to in-vessel material migration have been further extended, in particular with a new quartz-micro balance diagnostic, further tile analysis and an experimental campaign in helium. This led to new insights, underlining the importance of carbon erosion in the main chamber and chemical erosion in the inner divertor on JET. Altogether this might enable the control of Tritium co-deposition. Detritiation technologies are being developed which could find application on ITER. Enhancements of the facility are undertaken, in view of further extending the operational range closer to ITER, thereby supporting the optimisation of ITER operating scenarios and of ITER auxiliaries.

  9. National Software Capacity: Near-Term Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-05-01

    34 sweatshops " [Singhal 90]. Because they work for below market wages, they allow software development costs in the commercial sector to be reduced or...arrangements. Presently, the command/management director is far too often at a technological disadvantage because of the job assignment structure. A...facto commercial standards on the supply of both raw and skilled labor needs to be evaluated in light of the purely technological disadvantages or

  10. Near-term quantum computing for applications

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — From habitat automation to navigation and scheduling of tasks to networking, the challenges of modern space exploration are as much computational as they are...

  11. ICRF heating on the burning plasma experiment (BPX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Ryan, P.M.; Swain, D.W.; Tolliver, J.S.; Yugo, J.J.; Goldston, R.J.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaye, S.M.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Mau, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    RF power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) has been chosen as the primary heating technique for BPX. This decision is based on the wide success of ICRF heating in existing experiments (JET, TFTR, JT-60), the capability of ion cyclotron waves to penetrate the high-density plasmas of BPX, the ability to concentrate ICRF power deposition near the plasma center, and the ready availability of high-power sources at the appropriate frequency. The primary task of the ICRF system is to heat the plasma to ignition. However, other important roles are envisaged; these include the stabilization of sawteeth, preheating of the plasma during current ramp-up, and possible control of the plasma current profile by means of fast-wave current drive. We give a brief overview of the RF system, describe the operating scenarios planned for BPX, and discuss some of the antenna design issues for BPX. 4 refs., 3 figs

  12. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridolfini, V Pericoli [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Barbato, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy); Buratti, P [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, CR Frascati, Rome (Italy)] (and others)

    2005-12-15

    A tokamak plasma with internal transport barriers (ITBs) is the best candidate for a steady ITER operation, since the high energy confinement allows working at plasma currents (I{sub p}) lower than the reference scenario. To build and sustain an ITB at the ITER high density ({>=}10{sup 20} m{sup -3}) and largely dominant electron (e{sup -}) heating is not trivial in most existing tokamaks. FTU can instead meet both requests, thanks to its radiofrequency heating systems, lower hybrid (LH, up to 1.9 MW) and electron cyclotron (EC up to 1.2 MW). By the combined use of them, ITBs are obtained up to peak densities n{sub e0} > 1.3 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3}, with central e{sup -} temperatures T{sub e0} {approx} 5.5 keV, and are sustained for as long as the heating pulse is applied (>35 confinement times, {tau}{sub E}). At n{sub e0} {approx} 0.8 x 10{sup 20} m{sup -3} T{sub e0} can be larger than 11 keV. Almost full current drive (CD) and an overall good steadiness is attained within about one {tau}{sub E}, 20 times faster than the ohmic current relaxation time. The ITB extends over a central region with an almost flat or slightly reversed q profile and q{sub min} {approx} 1.3 that is fully sustained by off-axis lower hybrid current drive. Consequent to this is the beneficial good alignment of the bootstrap current, generated by the ITB large pressure gradients, with the LH driven current. Reflectometry shows a clear change in the turbulence close to the ITB radius, consistent with the reduced e{sup -} transport. Ions (i{sup +}) are significantly heated via collisions, but thermal equilibrium with electrons cannot be attained since the e{sup -}-i{sup +} equipartition time is always 4-5 times longer than {tau}{sub E}. No degradation of the overall ion transport, rather a reduction of the i{sup +} heat diffusivity, is observed inside the ITB. The global confinement has been improved up to 1.6 times over the scaling predictions. The ITB radius can be controlled by adjusting the LH power deposition profile that is affected mostly by the q value of the discharge, while the ITB strength can be varied through central EC heating. FTU experiments have shown that ITER-like e-ITBs are achievable.

  13. High density internal transport barriers for burning plasma operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pericoli Ridolfini, V.

    2005-01-01

    One of the proposed ITER scenarios foresees the creation and sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB) in order to improve the confinement properties of the hot core plasma. The more stringent requests are: the ITB must be sustained with electron heating only with no or very small external momentum source, the strong collisional coupling at the envisaged density (line average >1.0 1020 m-3) must not prevent the barrier existence, the bootstrap current created by the large induced gradients must have a radial profile consistent with that requested by the barrier creation and sustainment. To all these items the studies carried out in FTU in the same density range (ne0 ?1.5 1020 m-3) provide encouraging prospects. With pure electron heating and current drive (LH+ECH) steady electron barrier are generated and maintained with central e- temperature >5.0 keV. Almost full CD conditions are established with a bootstrap current close to 25% of the total and well aligned with that driven by the LH waves and responsible for the barrier building. The clear change in the density fluctuations close to the ITB radius, observed by reflectometry, indicates stabilization of turbulence that is consistent with the drop of the thermal electron diffusivity inside the ITB to very low values, ?e<0.5 m2/s estimated by the transport analysis. The 10 fold neutron rate increase testifies a significant collisional ion heating, even though usually ?Ti0/Ti0 does not exceed 40%, because the e--i + equipartition time, always 4-5 times longer than the energy confinement time, does not allow thermal equilibrium with electrons to be attained. The ion thermal diffusivity inside the barrier must be lowered to the neoclassical level to account for the observed Ti(r) profiles, clearly indicating at least a non-degraded ion transport. The global confinement in turn improves by 1.6 times above the FTU L-scaling. The ITB radius can be controlled by varying the LH power deposition profile that is affected mostly by the total current, while its strength by varying the amount of the ECH power delivered inside the ITB. The density profile remains enough peaked despite the inward particle Ware pinch is negligible, while no evidence of impurity accumulation is observed. (Author)

  14. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-09-21

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  15. Optimization and Control of Burning Plasmas Through High Performance Computing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, Alexei [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-12-18

    This project has revived the FACETS code, that has been developed under SciDAC fund- ing in 2008-2012. The code has been dormant for a number of years after the SciDAC funding stopped. FACETS depends on external packages. The external packages and libraries such as PETSc, FFTW, HDF5 and NETCDF that are included in FACETS have evolved during these years. Some packages in FACETS are also parts of other codes such as PlasmaState, NUBEAM, GACODES, and UEDGE. These packages have been also evolved together with their host codes which include TRANSP, TGYRO and XPTOR. Finally, there is also a set of packages in FACETS that are being developed and maintained by Tech-X. These packages include BILDER, SciMake, and FcioWrappers. Many of these packages evolved significantly during the last several years and FACETS had to be updated to synchronize with the re- cent progress in the external packages. The PI has introduced new changes to the BILDER package to support the updated interfaces to the external modules. During the last year of the project, the FACETS version of the UEDGE code has been extracted from FACETS as a standalone package. The PI collaborates with the scientists from LLNL on the updated UEDGE model in FACETS. Drs. T. Rognlien, M. Umansky and A. Dimits from LLNL are contributing to this task.

  16. Gyrokinetic Particle Simulation of Turbulent Transport in Burning Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, P.H.; Lin, Z.; Wang, W.; Horton, W.; Klasky, S.; Decyk, V.; Ma, K.-L.; Chames, J.; Adams, M.

    2011-01-01

    The three-year project GPS-TTBP resulted in over 152 publications and 135 presentations. This summary focuses on the scientific progress made by the project team. A major focus of the project was on the physics intrinsic rotation in tokamaks. Progress included the first ever flux driven study of net intrinsic spin-up, mediated by boundary effects (in collaboration with CPES), detailed studies of the microphysics origins of the Rice scaling, comparative studies of symmetry breaking mechanisms, a pioneering study of intrinsic torque driven by trapped electron modes, and studies of intrinsic rotation generation as a thermodynamic engine. Validation studies were performed with C-Mod, DIII-D and CSDX. This work resulted in very successful completion of the FY2010 Theory Milestone Activity for OFES, and several prominent papers of the 2008 and 2010 IAEA Conferences. A second major focus was on the relation between zonal flow formation and transport non-locality. This culminated in the discovery of the ExB staircase - a conceptually new phenomenon. This also makes useful interdisciplinary contact with the physics of the PV staircase, well-known in oceans and atmospheres. A third topic where progress was made was in the simulation and theory of turbulence spreading. This work, now well cited, is important for understanding the dynamics of non-locality in turbulent transport. Progress was made in studies of conjectured non-diffusive transport in trapped electron turbulence. Pioneering studies of ITB formation, coupling to intrinsic rotation and hysteresis were completed. These results may be especially significant for future ITER operation. All told, the physics per dollar performance of this project was quite good. The intense focus was beneficial and SciDAC resources were essential to its success.

  17. Lower placental growth factor and higher free β-hCG and PAPP-A levels in the fetal circulation of near-term pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Verónica; Espinoza-Caicedo, Jasson A; Salazar-Pousada, Danny; Escobar, Gustavo S; Pérez-López, Faustino R; Chedraui, Peter

    2017-01-01

    An imbalance between anti- and angiogenic factors during early placentation is key for the development of preeclampsia. Nevertheless, the majority of studies addressing this issue relate to maternal blood and not the fetal circulation. To measure placental growth factor (PlGF), free beta human chorionic gonadotropin (β-hCG), and pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) levels in the fetal circulation of near-term pregnancies complicated with severe preeclampsia (n = 20), and their controls matched for parity, and maternal and gestational age. Upon delivery, a blood sample was withdrawn from the umbilical artery and vein of each case and its control in order to measure the proposed analytes using direct fluoroimmunoassay. Preeclampsia cases showed significantly lower median PlGF levels in fetal circulation as compared to controls (25.2 versus 36.9 and 23.6 versus 33.9 pg/mL, artery and vein, respectively, p < 0.05). Contrarily, cases displayed higher concentrations of PAPP-A (1024.0 versus 720.9 [median] and 1027.0 ± 298.4 versus 690.3 ± 401.9 mIU/L, artery and vein, respectively, p < 0.05), and free β-hCG (mean: 33.9 ± 4.3 versus 17.2 ± 4.0 and 30.1 ± 5.2 versus 13.7 ± 3.3 ng/mL, artery, and vein respectively, p < 0.05). Lower PlGF and higher PAPP-A and free β-hCG levels were found in the fetal circulation of near-term severe preeclamptic pregnancies. There is a need for more research in this regard.

  18. Perception of Affordances and Experience of Presence in Virtual Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Grabarczyk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent developments in virtual reality technology raise a question about the experience of presence and immersion in virtual environments. What is immersion and what are the conditions for inducing the experience of virtual presence? In this paper, we argue that crucial determinants of presence are perception of affordances and sense of embodiment. In the first section of this paper, we define key concepts and introduce important distinctions such as immersion and presence. In the second and third sections, we respectively discuss presence, immersion and their determinants in detail. In the fourth and fifth sections, we argue for the importance of perception of affordances and sense of embodiment in increasing the degree of presence. Finally, we show the consequences of our view and discuss possible future implications.

  19. High School Girls’ Everyday Aesthetics on Instagram: The Affordance Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jou-Chun Su

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study explores high school girls’ Instagram aesthetic practices based on the affordance theory. We conduct in-depth interviews and photo analyses of 10 subjects to reveal how these girls interact with the app’s interface, and what strategic practices they have developed to interact with the affordances preset by Instagram. The findings demonstrate that Instagram has become a realm for everyday aesthetics due to its design priority on photos. These high school girls navigate in plural art worlds as they share their reframed photos with a variety of social groups, of which each has its own discrete aesthetic convention. This indicates that Instagram’s interface design has successfully associated itself with taste and beauty, eliciting these girls to collect more reframing apps in order to achieve their own distinction. As a result, aesthetics takes shape in everyday life, but they take their own aestheticized life as the real one.

  20. Small businesses and the Affordable Care Act of 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Sara R; Davis, Karen; Nicholson, Jennifer L; Stremikis, Kristof

    2010-09-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) includes several short- and long-term provisions designed to help small businesses pay for and maintain health insurance for their workers, and to allow workers without employer coverage to gain access to affordable, comprehensive health insurance. Provisions include a small business tax credit to offset premium costs for firms that offer coverage starting this taxable year, establishment of state-based insurance exchanges that promise to lower administrative costs and pool risk more broadly, and creation of new market rules and an essential benefit standard to protect small firms and their workers. Analysis shows that up to 16.6 million workers are in firms that would be eligible for the tax credit in 2010 to 2013. Over the next 10 years, small businesses and organizations could receive an estimated $40 billion in federal support through the premium credit program.

  1. Active design in affordable housing: A public health nudge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Elizabeth; Garland, Victoria; Peters, Dominique; Doucette, John; Thanik, Erin; Rajupet, Sritha; Sanchez, Sadie H

    2018-06-01

    This pilot study investigates the impact of active design (AD) strategies on physical activity (PA) among adults living in two Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certified affordable housing developments in the South Bronx, New York. One building incorporates LEED Innovation in Design (ID) Credit: Design for Health through Increased Physical Activity. Tenants in an affordable housing building (AH) incorporating active design strategies completed PA self-assessments at their lease signing and one year later in 2015. Trained research assistants obtained body measurements. Residents of neighboring non-AD affordable housing (MCV) served as a comparison. Thirty four adults were recruited from AH and 29 from MCV, retention was 56% (n = 19) and 52% (n = 15) respectively at one year. The two groups' body mass index (BMI) and high-risk waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were not statistically significantly different when analyzed as continuous variables, although BMI category had a greater decline at AH than at MCV (p = 0.054). There was a 31.5% increase in AH participants meeting MPA requirements and a statistically significant improvement in females (p = 0.031); while there was no change in the MCV participants overall or when stratified by gender. AH participants were significantly more likely to have reported increased stair use and less likely to have reported no change or decreased stair use than participants from MCV participants (p = 0.033). Housing has a role in individual health outcomes and behavior change, broad adoption of active design strategies in affordable housing is warranted to improve physical activity measures.

  2. System Qualities Ontology, Tradespace and Affordability (SQOTA) Project: Phase 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-30

    effectiveness and practicality 3. Balance Agility, Assurance, and Affordability: Develop SE MPTs that work with high assurance in the face of... work supported, in whole or in part, by the U.S. Department of Defense through the Office of the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Research and...model-driven, set-based, full life cycle approaches. These will enable much more rapid, concurrent, flexible, scalable definition and analysis of the

  3. Augmented Reality in science education – affordances for student learning

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Håkon

    2016-01-01

    Most extant studies examining augmented reality (AR) have focused on the technology itself. This paper presents findings addressing the issue of AR for educational purposes based on a sequential survey distributed to 35 expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from four countries. There was consensus among experts in relation to a focus on ‘learning before technology’, and they in particular supplemented affordances identified in literature with perspectives re...

  4. Paying for Cures: Perspectives on Solutions to the "Affordability Issue".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Sarah Karlsberg; Messner, Donna; Mestre-Ferrandiz, Jorge; Tambor, Ellen; Towse, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Curative therapies and other medicines considered "game-changing" in terms of health gain can be accompanied by high demand and high list prices that pose budget challenges to public and private payers and health systems-the so-called affordability issue. These challenges are exacerbated when longer term effectiveness, and thus value for money, is uncertain, but they can arise even when treatments are proven to be highly cost-effective at the time of launch. This commentary reviews innovative payment solutions proposed in the literature to address the affordability issue, including the use of credit markets and of staged payments linked to patient outcomes, and draws on discussions with payers in the United States and Europe on the feasibility or desirability of operationalizing any of the alternative financing and payment strategies that appear in the literature. This included a small number of semistructured interviews. We conclude that there is a mismatch between the enthusiasm in the academic literature for developing new approaches and the scepticism of payers that they can work or are necessary. For the foreseeable future, affordability pressures will continue to be handled by aggressive price bargaining, high co-pays (in systems in which this is possible), and restricting access to subgroups of patients. Of the mechanisms we explored, outcomes-based payments were of most interest to payers, but the costs associated with operating such schemes, together with implementation challenges, did not make them an attractive option for managing affordability. Copyright © 2018 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Monolithic QCL design approaches for improved reliability and affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Many advances have been made recently in mid-wave infrared and long-wave infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) technologies, and there is an increasing demand for these laser sources for ever expanding Naval, DoD and homeland security applications. We will discuss in this paper a portfolio of various Naval Air Warfare Weapons Division's current and future small business innovative research programs and efforts on significantly improving QCLs' performance, affordability, and reliability.

  6. Structuring Payment to Medical Homes After the Affordable Care Act

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Samuel T.; Abrams, Melinda K.; Baron, Richard J.; Berenson, Robert A.; Rich, Eugene C.; Rosenthal, Gary E.; Rosenthal, Meredith B.; Landon, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a leading model of primary care reform, a critical element of which is payment reform for primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) has emerged as a model of delivery system reform, and while there is theoretical alignment between the PCMH and ACOs, the discussion of physician payment within each model has remained distinct. Here we compare payment for medical homes with that for acco...

  7. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  8. Situational Affordance - Appreciating human Interpretations in New Product Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiasen, John Bang; Koch, Christian

    2009-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes. The arti......New Product Development (NPD) takes place within a web of connected actors who do not master fully the objects of the process, but rather they interpret the affordance - the en-abling and constraining framing by objects such as sketches, drawings, specifications, mock-ups and prototypes....... The article draws on critical comments and extends Hutchby’s concept of affordance. Even if Hutchby does not study an artefact as a micro-level phe-nomenon from an engineering perspective and only considers the consumption of an arte-fact, we use him to study the development of artefacts in NPD. Hutchby...... to negotiate technical and non-technical aspects alike, while Sierra uses a CAD-system to support joint-development crossing organisational boundaries. The cases share features such as triadic relations; customer’s problem, product designers and artefact. For example, a wheelchair is presented to Sierra...

  9. Motorcycle helmets in Vietnam: ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Dang Viet; Stevenson, Mark R; Ivers, Rebecca Q

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated motorcycle helmet ownership, quality, purchase price, and affordability in Vietnam. A random sample of motorcyclists was interviewed to investigate aspects of helmet ownership, the purchase price, and affordability of a motorcycle helmet. Multivariate modeling conducted to determine factors associated with the purchase price and affordability of motorcycle helmets. Helmet quality was assessed based on current legal requirements in Vietnam. The prevalence of helmet use in Vietnam remains low (23.3%) despite a high level of helmet ownership (94%), indicating that this is an important area for public health intervention. Overall the quality of helmets appeared to be good; however, few helmets displayed legally required information. Motorcyclists with a high income purchase more helmets for their household rather than more expensive helmets. To ensure that helmets are accessible to the community, policy-makers need to consider pricing motorcycle helmets at a price indicated by the results of this study. Prior to universal motorcycle helmet legislation, the government will also need to ensure that standard helmets are available and that enforcement is at a level to ensure that motorcycle helmets are actually used.

  10. Normative Interfaces: Affordances, Gender, and Race in Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Cirucci

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates social network site affordances and their implications for perceptions of marginalized communities. I employ Facebook as a case study and speak with young adult users to comprehend how socially marginalized groups are perceived through Facebook’s affordances. In particular, I consider: How familiar are users with Facebook’s tools and functionalities? How are issues of gender and race represented through the site’s interface? How do users conceive of gender and race? The findings suggest that gender is perceived as a more important identifier than race and that Facebook is post-racial, because of the user interface choices made. In addition, my participants view Facebook as an official social space that should include “authentic” identities; although Facebook has shaped authentic to mean accurate. I conclude that while the construction of affordances is a negotiation between user, interface, and designer, the designers have the most power because they have created the spaces in ways that will most benefit Facebook. In addition, users who are more situated in the socio-cultural majority have no desire to enact agency within Facebook’s structure because they are accustomed to forms and official documents that are well suited to fit their identification needs.

  11. Cost and affordability of healthy food in rural South Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, P R; Coveney, J; Verity, F; Carter, P; Schilling, M

    2012-01-01

    As in many other countries, Australian consumers have recently had to accommodate increases in costs of basic food, and during the financial year 2007-2008 overall food prices rose by nearly 4%. Food costs are mediating factors in food choice, especially for low-income groups, where food security is often tenuous. There are reports that rural populations may have higher levels of food insecurity, although the evidence is often contradictory. To assess cost and affordability of food in rural areas this study used the Healthy Food Basket (HFB) methodology, which has been applied in a number of settings. The HFBs were costed at supermarkets and stores in different locations with different degrees of rurality. Compared with metropolitan areas, healthy food is more expensive in rural areas; costs are even higher in more remote areas. The overall affordability of HFB in rural areas was not significantly different from metro areas. The main difference concerned low socio-economic status (SES) groups, where the proportion of household income spent on the HFB was three times that of higher SES groups. The unaffordability of healthy food, or 'food stress' in low SES groups is a concern, especially when this group carries the greatest burden of diet-related disease. Findings suggest that there is a need to consider both rurality and SES when developing policy responses to decrease the cost and increase the affordability of healthy foods in rural and remote areas.

  12. Learning outcomes afforded by self-assessed, segmented video–print combinations

    OpenAIRE

    Jack Koumi

    2015-01-01

    Learning affordances of video and print are examined in order to assess the learning outcomes afforded by hybrid video–print learning packages. The affordances discussed for print are: navigability, surveyability and legibility. Those discussed for video are: design for constructive reflection, provision of realistic experiences, presentational attributes, motivational influences and teacher personalisation. The video affordances are examined through a framework of pedagogic design principles...

  13. Advanced Modular Power Approach to Affordable, Supportable Space Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Kimnach, Greg L.; Fincannon, James; Mckissock,, Barbara I.; Loyselle, Patricia L.; Wong, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies of missions to the Moon, Mars and Near Earth Asteroids (NEA) indicate that these missions often involve several distinct separately launched vehicles that must ultimately be integrated together in-flight and operate as one unit. Therefore, it is important to see these vehicles as elements of a larger segmented spacecraft rather than separate spacecraft flying in formation. The evolution of large multi-vehicle exploration architecture creates the need (and opportunity) to establish a global power architecture that is common across all vehicles. The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Modular Power System (AMPS) project managed by NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is aimed at establishing the modular power system architecture that will enable power systems to be built from a common set of modular building blocks. The project is developing, demonstrating and evaluating key modular power technologies that are expected to minimize non-recurring development costs, reduce recurring integration costs, as well as, mission operational and support costs. Further, modular power is expected to enhance mission flexibility, vehicle reliability, scalability and overall mission supportability. The AMPS project not only supports multi-vehicle architectures but should enable multi-mission capability as well. The AMPS technology development involves near term demonstrations involving developmental prototype vehicles and field demonstrations. These operational demonstrations not only serve as a means of evaluating modular technology but also provide feedback to developers that assure that they progress toward truly flexible and operationally supportable modular power architecture.

  14. 24 CFR 1000.102 - What are eligible affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What are eligible affordable housing activities? 1000.102 Section 1000.102 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to... § 1000.102 What are eligible affordable housing activities? Eligible affordable housing activities are...

  15. User Costs and Housing Expenses : Towards a more Comprehensive Approach to Affordability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; Heylen, K.

    2011-01-01

    Recently housing affordability has reached the agenda in Flanders and the Netherlands, giving a good reason to present a review of the concept of affordability and different definitions. The concept of short-term affordability, which is concerned with financial access to a dwelling and is based on

  16. 77 FR 70583 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules; Rate Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-26

    ... Parts 144, 147, 150, et al. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market Rules... and 156 [CMS-9972-P] RIN 0938-AR40 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Health Insurance Market... Affordable Care Act with respect to health insurance issuers and group health plans that are non-federal...

  17. Estimated Budget Impact of Adopting the Affordable Care Act's Required Smoking Cessation Coverage on United States Healthcare Payers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Christine L; Ferrufino, Cheryl P; Bruno, Marianna; Kowal, Stacey

    2017-01-01

    Despite abundant information on the negative impacts of smoking, more than 40 million adult Americans continue to smoke. The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires tobacco cessation as a preventive service with no patient cost share for all FDA-approved cessation medications. Health plans have a vital role in supporting smoking cessation by managing medication access, but uncertainty remains on the gaps between smoking cessation requirements and what is actually occurring in practice. This study presents current cessation patterns, real-world drug costs and plan benefit design data, and estimates the 1- to 5-year pharmacy budget impact of providing ACA-required coverage for smoking cessation products to understand the fiscal impact to a US healthcare plan. A closed cohort budget impact model was developed in Microsoft Excel ® to estimate current and projected costs for US payers (commercial, Medicare, Medicaid) covering smoking cessation medicines, with assumptions for coverage and smoking cessation product utilization based on current, real-world national and state-level trends for hypothetical commercial, Medicare, and Medicaid plans with 1 million covered lives. A Markov methodology with five health states captures quit attempt and relapse patterns. Results include the number of smokers attempting to quit, number of successful quitters, annual costs, and cost per-member per-month (PMPM). The projected PMPM cost of providing coverage for smoking cessation medications is $0.10 for commercial, $0.06 for Medicare, and $0.07 for Medicaid plans, reflecting a low incremental PMPM impact of covering two attempts ranging from $0.01 for Medicaid to $0.02 for commercial and Medicare payers. The projected PMPM impact of covering two quit attempts with access to all seven cessation medications at no patient cost share remains low. Results of this study reinforce that the impact of adopting the ACA requirements for smoking cessation coverage will have a limited near-term impact

  18. Plastic modes of listening: affordance in constructed sound environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjolin, Anders

    This thesis is concerned with how the ecological approach to perception with the inclusion of listening modes, informs the creation of sound art installation, or more specifically as referred to in this thesis as constructed sound environments. The basis for the thesis has been a practiced based research where the aim and purpose of the written part of this PhD project has been to critically investigate the area of sound art, in order to map various approaches towards participating in and listening to a constructed sound environment. The main areas has been the notion of affordance as coined by James J. Gibson (1986), listening modes as coined by Pierre Schaeffer (1966) and further developed by Michel Chion (1994), aural architects as coined by Blesser and Salter (2007) and the holistic approach towards understanding sound art developed by Brandon LaBelle (2006). The findings within the written part of the thesis, based on a qualitative analysis, have informed the practice that has resulted in artefacts in the form of seven constructed sound environments that also functions as case studies for further analysis. The aim of the practice has been to exemplify the methodology, strategy and progress behind the organisation and construction of sound environments The research concerns point towards the acknowledgment of affordance as the crucial factor in understanding a constructed sound environment. The affordance approach govern the idea that perceiving a sound environment is a top-down process where the autonomic quality of a constructed sound environment is based upon the perception of structures of the sound material and its relationship with speaker placement and surrounding space. This enables a researcher to side step the conflicting poles of musical/abstract and non-musical/realistic classification of sound elements and regard these poles as included, not separated elements in the analysis of a constructed sound environment.

  19. Delivering affordable cancer care in high-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Richard; Peppercorn, Jeffrey; Sikora, Karol; Zalcberg, John; Meropol, Neal J; Amir, Eitan; Khayat, David; Boyle, Peter; Autier, Philippe; Tannock, Ian F; Fojo, Tito; Siderov, Jim; Williamson, Steve; Camporesi, Silvia; McVie, J Gordon; Purushotham, Arnie D; Naredi, Peter; Eggermont, Alexander; Brennan, Murray F; Steinberg, Michael L; De Ridder, Mark; McCloskey, Susan A; Verellen, Dirk; Roberts, Terence; Storme, Guy; Hicks, Rodney J; Ell, Peter J; Hirsch, Bradford R; Carbone, David P; Schulman, Kevin A; Catchpole, Paul; Taylor, David; Geissler, Jan; Brinker, Nancy G; Meltzer, David; Kerr, David; Aapro, Matti

    2011-09-01

    The burden of cancer is growing, and the disease is becoming a major economic expenditure for all developed countries. In 2008, the worldwide cost of cancer due to premature death and disability (not including direct medical costs) was estimated to be US$895 billion. This is not simply due to an increase in absolute numbers, but also the rate of increase of expenditure on cancer. What are the drivers and solutions to the so-called cancer-cost curve in developed countries? How are we going to afford to deliver high quality and equitable care? Here, expert opinion from health-care professionals, policy makers, and cancer survivors has been gathered to address the barriers and solutions to delivering affordable cancer care. Although many of the drivers and themes are specific to a particular field-eg, the huge development costs for cancer medicines-there is strong concordance running through each contribution. Several drivers of cost, such as over-use, rapid expansion, and shortening life cycles of cancer technologies (such as medicines and imaging modalities), and the lack of suitable clinical research and integrated health economic studies, have converged with more defensive medical practice, a less informed regulatory system, a lack of evidence-based sociopolitical debate, and a declining degree of fairness for all patients with cancer. Urgent solutions range from re-engineering of the macroeconomic basis of cancer costs (eg, value-based approaches to bend the cost curve and allow cost-saving technologies), greater education of policy makers, and an informed and transparent regulatory system. A radical shift in cancer policy is also required. Political toleration of unfairness in access to affordable cancer treatment is unacceptable. The cancer profession and industry should take responsibility and not accept a substandard evidence base and an ethos of very small benefit at whatever cost; rather, we need delivery of fair prices and real value from new technologies

  20. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  1. Near-term hybrid vehicle program, phase 1. Appendix B: Design trade-off studies. [various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    The relative attractiveness of various hybrid/electric power train configurations and electrical and mechanical drive-line components was studied. The initial screening was concerned primarily with total vehicle weight and economic factors and identified the hybrid power train combinations which warranted detailed evaluation over various driving cycles. This was done using a second-by-second vehicle simulation program which permitted the calculations of fuel economy, electricity usage, and emissions as a function of distance traveled in urban and highway driving. Power train arrangement possibilities were examined in terms of their effect on vehicle handling, safety, serviceability, and passenger comfort. A dc electric drive system utilizing a separately excited motor with field control and battery switching was selected for the near term hybrid vehicle. Hybrid vehicle simulations showed that for the first 30 mi (the electric range of the vehicle) in urban driving, the fuel economy was 80 mpg using a gasoline engine and 100 mpg using a diesel engine. In urban driving the hybrid would save about 75% of the fuel used by the conventional vehicle and in combined urban/highway driving the fuel saving is about 50%.

  2. The improvement of near-term CdTe processing and product capabilities and establishment of next-generation CdTe technology. Annual technical progress report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.; Albright, S. [Golden Photon, Inc., CO (United States)

    1997-07-01

    The potential of photovoltaics to become a major global business enterprise still lingers outside the limits of industrial capabilities. For the Cadmium Sulfide/Cadmium Telluride (CdS/CdTe) system this potential has continued to focus on improvements in efficiency, stability, and cost reduction. This triad is the primary objective of the present subcontract with NREL entitled {open_quotes}The Improvement of Near-term CdTe Processing and Product Capabilities & Establishment of Next Generation CdTe Technology{close_quotes}. This subcontract represents an intermediate stage of NREL`s plan to assist the growth of the photovoltaic industry in overcoming the scientific and technical barriers to commercialization. This report outlines the progress that has been made during the period of August 1995 through August 1996. The objectives of this subcontract are to improve processing methods, quantify and understand efficiency improvement mechanisms, meet life-testing goals, and address cadmium safety concerns. Task and subtask goals are defined to meet these objectives in specific areas. The approach to fulfilling the subcontract goals is through a balanced plan of process improvement and mechanism identification. These are carried out and continued through monitoring under various long term and accelerated stress conditions. GPI maintains an on-going awareness of all safety related issues, can in particular, those involving cadmium.

  3. Factors relating to readmission of term and near-term neonates in the first two weeks of life. Early Discharge Survey Group of the Health Professional Advisory Board of the Greater New York Chapter of the March of Dimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A K; Damus, K; Kim, M H; King, K; Harper, R; Campbell, D; Crowley, K A; Lakhani, M; Cohen-Addad, N; Kim, R; Harin, A

    1999-01-01

    A multisite study of term and near term infants readmitted in the first two weeks of life to 9 New York City area hospitals in 1995 was conducted to evaluate factors related to readmission, including length of newborn stay. Of the 30,884 infants born at the 9 study hospitals 391 newborns were readmitted. The major admission diagnoses were infection, 40.7%, hyperbilirubinemia, 39.1%, and feeding and/or gastrointestinal problems, 10.5%. In the first week, 65.1% of readmissions were for hyperbilirubinemia and 19.1% were for infection or suspected sepsis. In the second week, 67.8% of readmissions were for infection and 7.6% were for hyperbilirubinemia. Hyperbilirubinemia was the most frequent diagnosis for White and Asian infants, while infection was most frequent for African-American and Hispanic infants. Age at readmission was younger and the interval from discharge was shorter for infants with hyperbilirubinemia. Abnormalities which should have precluded early discharge included feeding difficulties, cyanotic congenital heart defects, hemolytic disease of the newborn, early jaundice or early high bilirubin levels. Attention to identification of infants at risk and programs such as lactation counseling and universal screening for bilirubin (with appropriate interpretation) prior to discharge could have reduced the necessity for readmission regardless of the newborn length of stay.

  4. Understanding on-line community: the affordances of virtual space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Ruhleder

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing numbers of on-line venues for learning are emerging as virtual communities become more accessible and commonplace. This paper looks at one particular virtual community, an on-line degree programme at the University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, which offers an M.S. in Library and Information Science (called LEEP. It draws on a framework presented by Mynatt, et al. (1998, which provides a lens for talking about on-line community as a set of affordances. This framework is applied to illustrate the interactions, artefacts, and expectations that shape this community.

  5. Exploring Affordances of Social Media Use in Election Campaigns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrby, Signe; Jensen, Tina Blegind

    case study of the political parties’ use of Facebook in the Danish general election in 2011. Our preliminary findings reveal three main categories of affordances that the political parties wish to pursue: 1) they want to facilitate direct communication to promote political interests and create room...... for dialogue in a controlled environment, 2) they want to project an image of authenticity through an informal media, and 3) they want to create interaction and involvement through dynamic relationships with voters. A closer look at the parties’ actual use of Facebook reveals that their intention of generating...

  6. Learning Objects and Grasp Affordances through Autonomous Exploration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Dirk; Detry, Renaud; Pugeault, Nicolas

    2009-01-01

    We describe a system for autonomous learning of visual object representations and their grasp affordances on a robot-vision system. It segments objects by grasping and moving 3D scene features, and creates probabilistic visual representations for object detection, recognition and pose estimation...... image sequences as well as (3) a number of built-in behavioral modules on the one hand, and autonomous exploration on the other hand, the system is able to generate object and grasping knowledge through interaction with its environment....

  7. Did the Affordable Care Act's Dependent Coverage Mandate Increase Premiums?

    OpenAIRE

    Briggs Depew; James Bailey

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the impact of the Affordable Care Act's dependent coverage mandate on insurance premiums. The expansion of dependent coverage under the ACA allows young adults to remain on their parent's private health insurance plans until the age of 26. We find that the mandate has led to a 2.5-2.8 percent increase in premiums for health insurance plans that cover children, relative to single-coverage plans. We find no evidence that the mandate caused an increase in the amount of the employe...

  8. An Investigation Into Design Criteria for Affordable Housing Supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdul Lateef

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Affordable housing provision constitutes a very large scheme in any countries due to income distribution and national development. The supply of housing depends on many activities and processes. The purpose of the houses is to meet the requirement of the householders therefore design criteria must address the users’ requirements. The establishment of the design criteria constitutes an important activity at the initial phase of the housing development. The design criteria are prepared by the design team in collaboration with many stakeholders especially the householders. Housinsg design criteria are the requirements that must be considered prior to construction of the housing. Lack of adequate information on the design criteria would lead to poor householders’ satisfactions, increase in maintenance cost, abandonments and completed but not occupy housing. In Malaysia, many of these consequences are prevalent. However, while information on the house owners’ requirements is inconclusive, this current research set out to investigate the design criteria of affordable housing. The increase in the affordable housing gap in Malaysia can be reduced if the designers have a comprehensive understanding of users’ requirements and the design criteria. Through a cross sectional survey questionnaire, comprising 25 criteria, 7 criteria were found to be extremely critical. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin measure of sampling adequacy indicated that the strength of the relationships among variables was strong (KMO =0.716. Bartlett’s test of sphericity, which tests the overall significance of all the correlations within the correlation matrix, was significant χ2 (325 = 1825.075, p<0.001, indicating the data were drawn from the same population and that the criteria were related.Sustainability considerations are now being considered by the providers of affordable housing. Deductively, the results lead to the conclusion that a major factor responsible for the poor

  9. Augmented Reality in science education – affordances for student learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Brandt, Harald; Swensen, Hakon

    2016-01-01

    Most extant studies examining augmented reality (AR) have focused on the technology itself. This paper presents findings addressing the issue of AR for educational purposes based on a sequential survey distributed to 35 expert science teachers, ICT designers and science education researchers from...... four countries. There was consensus among experts in relation to a focus on ‘learning before technology’, and they in particular supplemented affordances identified in literature with perspectives related to interactivity, a creator perspective and inquiry based science. Expert reflections were...

  10. The affordances and use of green citizen engagement web tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheele, Christian Elling; Hoff, Jens Villiam

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse if and how three different green web applications create the basis for different levels of environmental citizen participation. This is relevant in both an e-governance context and an environmental policy context, as it is normally assumed that ICT...... that differences in affordance translates into differences in use. Theoretically, the paper departs from Contextual New Medium Theory. This theory focuses on technological practices, and demonstrates how these are created in interplay between technology, policy ideas and actor skills. Empirically, the paper...

  11. Enabling Dedicated, Affordable Space Access Through Aggressive Technology Maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jonathan E.; Kibbey, Timothy P.; Cobb, C. Brent; Harris, Lawanna L.

    2014-01-01

    A launch vehicle at the scale and price point which allows developers to take reasonable risks with high payoff propulsion and avionics hardware solutions does not exist today. Establishing this service provides a ride through the proverbial technology "valley of death" that lies between demonstration in laboratory and flight environments. NASA's NanoLaunch effort will provide the framework to mature both earth-to-orbit and on-orbit propulsion and avionics technologies while also providing affordable, dedicated access to low earth orbit for cubesat class payloads.

  12. Drug affordability-potential tool for comparing illicit drug markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groshkova, Teodora; Cunningham, Andrew; Royuela, Luis; Singleton, Nicola; Saggers, Tony; Sedefov, Roumen

    2018-06-01

    The importance of illicit drug price data and making appropriate adjustments for purity has been repeatedly highlighted for understanding illicit drug markets. The European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction (EMCDDA) has been collecting retail price data for a number of drug types alongside drug-specific purity information for over 15 years. While these data are useful for a number of monitoring and analytical purposes, they are not without their limitations and there are circumstances where additional adjustment needs to be considered. This paper reviews some conceptual issues and measurement challenges relevant to the interpretation of price data. It also highlights the issues with between-country comparisons of drug prices and introduces the concept of affordability of drugs, going beyond purity-adjustment to account for varying national economies. Based on a 2015 European data set of price and purity data across the heroin and cocaine retail markets, the paper demonstrates a new model for drug market comparative analysis; calculation of drug affordability is achieved by applying to purity-adjusted prices 2015 Price Level Indices (PLI, Eurostat). Available data allowed retail heroin and cocaine market comparison for 27 European countries. The lowest and highest unadjusted prices per gram were observed for heroin: in Estonia, Belgium, Greece and Bulgaria (lowest) and Finland, Ireland, Sweden and Latvia (highest); for cocaine: the Netherlands, Belgium and the United Kingdom (lowest) and Turkey, Finland, Estonia and Romania (highest). The affordability per gram of heroin and cocaine when taking into account adjustment for both purity and economy demonstrates different patterns. It is argued that purity-adjusted price alone provides an incomplete comparison of retail price across countries. The proposed new method takes account of the differing economic conditions within European countries, thus providing a more sophisticated tool for cross

  13. Awareness on Sustainable Affordable Housing Among Homebuyers in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ang Salem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns about the delivery of Sustainable Affordable Housing (SAH in Malaysia. The built environment, operation and demolishment of housing have the profound impact on our nature environment. SAH can be a solution toward sustainability development because it considered from an environmental friendly, socially enhancing, and economically benefits perfectives towards housing development. This paper aims to explore the awareness of homebuyers in Malaysia towards sustainable affordable housing. This research used the method of unstructured interview among homebuyers toward SAH in Malaysia. Based on the finding of the study, the awareness of homebuyers in SAH are relatively inadequate. Respondents are required the brief explanation on concept and elements of SAH for continue the interview. Based on Porter Five Forces Model, homebuyers’ requirements hold the bargaining power of customers to determine the features of housing provided by property provider. The knowledge of homebuyers on SAH is crucial for the sustainable development, because homebuyers are one of the key drivers for implementing the sustainable requirements in housing development.

  14. Sonic mediatization of the book: affordances of the audiobook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iben Have

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses cultural changes resulting from the growing number of audiobook users and changes in audiobook use emerging from digital technological developments of the past decade. The sonification of the written text is inscribed in the general transformation and mediatization of the printed book but offers radically different affordances than do visually perceived e-books. New portable digital audio media change the act of reading, moving it towards fields of practice in which reading has not been common before: the gym, the bicycle ride, gardening, resting in the dark, etc. From being a medium typically associated with children, the visually handicapped, or the dyslexic, the audiobook has developed into a popular phenomenon, which, we argue, has as much in common with other kinds of mediated mobile listening practices, like music and radio listening, as it has with the reading of printed books. Taking an inductive approach from the micro-level of the individual’s use, the term affordances will be used as a methodological tool within the concept of mediatization.

  15. Aldo van Eyck’s Playgrounds: Aesthetics, Affordances, and Creativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Withagen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck’s play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child. Whereas a slide or a swing almost dictates what a child is supposed to do, van Eyck’s play equipment invites the child to actively explore the numerous affordances (action possibilities it provided. However, it is argued that the standardization (e.g., equal distances between blocks or bars that tends to characterize van Eyck’ play equipment has negative effects on the playability. This standardization, which was arguably the result of the aesthetic motives of the designer, might be appealing to children when simply looking at the equipment, but it is not of overriding importance to them when playing in it. Indeed, a recent study indicates that the affordances provided by messy structures appear to have a greater appeal to playing children.

  16. Cortical processing of object affordances for self and others’ action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eMaranesi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The perception of objects does not rely only on visual brain areas, but also involves cortical motor regions. In particular, different parietal and premotor areas host neurons discharging during both object observation and grasping. Most of these cells often show similar visual and motor selectivity for a specific object (or set of objects, suggesting that they might play a crucial role in representing the potential motor act afforded by the object. The existence of such a mechanism for the visuomotor transformation of object physical properties in the most appropriate motor plan for interacting with them has been convincingly demonstrated in humans as well. Interestingly, human studies have shown that visually presented objects can automatically trigger the representation of an action provided that they are located within the observer’s reaching space (peripersonal space. The affordance effect also occurs when the presented object is outside the observer’s peripersonal space, but inside the peripersonal space of an observed agent. These findings recently received direct support by single neuron studies in monkey, indicating that space-constrained processing of objects in the ventral premotor cortex might be relevant to represent objects as potential targets for one’s own or others' action.

  17. Unpacking physics representations: Towards an appreciation of disciplinary affordance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Fredlund

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This theoretical article problematizes the access to disciplinary knowledge that different physics representations have the possibility to provide; that is, their disciplinary affordances. It is argued that historically such access has become increasingly constrained for students as physics representations have been rationalized over time. Thus, the case is made that such rationalized representations, while powerful for communication from a disciplinary point of view, manifest as learning challenges for students. The proposal is illustrated using a vignette from a student discussion in the physics laboratory about circuit connections for an experimental investigation of the charging and discharging of a capacitor. It is concluded that in order for students to come to appreciate the disciplinary affordances of representations, more attention needs to be paid to their “unpacking.” Building on this conclusion, two questions are proposed that teachers can ask themselves in order to begin to unpack the representations that they use in their teaching. The paper ends by proposing directions for future research in this area.

  18. AFFORDABILITY OF LOW INCOME HOUSING IN PUMWANI, NAIROBI, KENYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispino C. Ochieng

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Since 1987, in Kenya, through the National Housing Corporation (NHC, an arm of the central government that delivers affordable houses, the local government embarked on the redevelopment of Pumwani the oldest surviving affordable low income housing in Nairobi. Pumwani was started in 1923 and it targeted early African immigrants to Nairobi. Currently, the old Pumwani is home to some of the city’s poorest dwellers majorities who depend on the informal sector for an income. Redevelopment was targeted at housing all the genuine dwellers. Instead delivery ended up with house types that were at first rejected by the beneficiaries. Although the new housing was slightly of an improved physical and spatial quality it was unaffordable. Beneficiaries were required to pay an average monthly rent of US$157 for up to eighteen years towards purchase of the new house. In the beginning, some of them had declined to take position of the newly built houses. To raise the basic rent majorities of those who have since moved in have opted to rent out some of the space. To date there is still standoff with some of the houses still unoccupied. Except during the period of social survey when the beneficiaries were brought in to supply the necessary information, the entire construction process was undertaken by NHC under a turnkey project. Among other factors the construction process was at fault for it raised the costs. Also, some of the basic housing needs were not effectively looked into. There was a housing mismatch.

  19. Social Media, Privacy, and Self-Disclosure: The Turbulence Caused by Social Media’s Affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Trepte

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The struggle we currently perceive in terms of social media privacy may be the result of the incompatible natures of “warm” and “cold” affordances. Whereas social media’s warm affordances reflect long-standing privacy routines and expectations, cold affordances seem to challenge and sometimes violate them. Sharing under the realm of warm affordances means sharing according to the routines and habits we know. Sharing under the realm of cold affordances means understanding social media’s terms and conditions and how they reflect on our relationships and experiences - similar to assimilating to a new culture that seems opaque and constantly in flux.

  20. Do Affordable Housing Projects Harm Suburban Communities? Crime, Property Values, and Taxes in Mount Laurel, NJ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Len; Derickson, Elizabeth S; Massey, Douglas S

    2013-06-01

    This paper offers a mixed-method analysis of the municipal-level consequences of an affordable housing development built in suburban New Jersey. Opponents of affordable housing development often suggest that creating affordable housing will harm surrounding communities. Feared consequences include increases in crime, declining property values, and rising taxes. To evaluate these claims, the paper uses the case of Mt. Laurel, NJ - the site of a landmark affordable housing legal case and subsequent affordable housing development. Employing a multiple time series group control design, we compare crime rates, property values, and property taxes in Mt. Laurel to outcomes in similar nearby municipalities that do not contain comparable affordable housing developments. We find that the opening of the affordable housing development was not associated with trends in crime, property values, or taxes, and discuss management practices and design features that may have mitigated potential negative externalities.

  1. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Zhang, Qiang; Gouldson, Andy; He, Kebin

    2015-01-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO 2 , 28% of NO x , 26% of PM 2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM 2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM 2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m −3 , the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies. (letter)

  2. To what extent can China’s near-term air pollution control policy protect air quality and human health? A case study of the Pearl River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xujia; Hong, Chaopeng; Zheng, Yixuan; Zheng, Bo; Guan, Dabo; Gouldson, Andy; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2015-10-01

    Following a series of extreme air pollution events, the Chinese government released the Air Pollution Prevention and Control Action Plan in 2013 (China’s State Council 2013). The Action Plan sets clear goals for key regions (i.e. cities above the prefecture level, Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Province, the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta) and establishes near-term control efforts for the next five years. However, the extent to which the Action Plan can direct local governments’ activities on air pollution control remains unknown. Here we seek to evaluate the air quality improvement and associated health benefits achievable under the Action Plan in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) area from 2012 to 2017. Measure-by-measure quantification results show that the Action Plan would promise effective emissions reductions of 34% of SO2, 28% of NOx, 26% of PM2.5 (particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter), and 10% of VOCs (volatile organic compounds). These emissions abatements would lower the PM2.5 concentration by 17%, surpassing the 15% target established in the Action Plan, thereby avoiding more than 2900 deaths and 4300 hospital admissions annually. We expect the implementation of the Action Plan in the PRD would be productive; the anticipated impacts, however, fall short of the goal of protecting the health of local residents, as there are still more than 33 million people living in places where the annual mean ambient PM2.5 concentrations are greater than 35 μg m-3, the interim target-3 of the World Health Organization (WHO). We therefore propose the next steps for air pollution control that are important not only for the PRD but also for all other regions of China as they develop and implement effective air pollution control policies.

  3. The affordable care ACT on loyalty programs for federal beneficiaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piacentino, Justin J; Williams, Karl G

    2014-02-01

    To discuss changes in the law that allow community pharmacy loyalty programs to include and offer incentives to Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries. The retailer rewards exception of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 and its change to the definition of remuneration in the civil monetary penalties of the Anti-Kickback Statute now allow incentives to be earned on federal benefit tied prescription out-of-pocket costs. The criteria required to design a compliant loyalty program are discussed. Community pharmacies can now include Medicare and Medicaid beneficiaries in compliant customer loyalty programs, where allowed by state law. There is a need for research directly on the influence of loyalty programs and nominal incentives on adherence.

  4. AN UNCERTAIN FEDERALISM: THE STATES AND THE AFFORDABLE CARE ACT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, L Christopher

    2014-01-01

    This article provides an initial assessment of the Affordable Care Act's recent implementation experience in the states. Drawing on state-level and regional analyses that have been coordinated by the ACA Implementation Network--a cooperative effort involving researchers in 35 states--this article highlights the uncertain policy environment associated with the politics and complexities of the ACA. Understanding the ACA implementation experience requires an appreciation for political context, but must also take into account underlying demographic, market, and state administrative capacity issues in the states. There are indications that the ACA implementation experience is moving from a highly charged partisan nature to a more accommodating posture long associated with intergovernmental relations between the federal and state government in health and human services administration. In short, the key questions going forward will turn on how, not whether, the ACA is implemented.

  5. ADAM (Affordable Desktop Application Manager): a Unix desktop application manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebana, M.; Marquina, M.; Ramos, R.

    1996-01-01

    ADAM stands for Affordable Desktop Application Manager. It is a GUI developed at CERN with the aim to ease access to applications. The motivation to develop ADAM came from the unavailability of environments like COSE/CDE and their heavy resource consumption. ADAM has proven to be user friendly: new users are able to customize it to their needs in few minutes. Groups of users may share through ADAM a common application environment. ADAM also integrates the Unix and the PC world. PC users can excess Unix applications in the same way as their usual Windows applications. This paper describes all the ADAM features, how they are used at CERN Public Services, and the future plans for ADAM. (author)

  6. Gender performativity in physics: affordances or only constraints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Anna T.; Lundin, Mattias

    2014-06-01

    In this forum we engage in a dialogue with Allison Gonsalves's paper `"Physics and the girly girl—there is a contradiction somewhere": Doctoral students' positioning around discourses of gender and competence in physics'. In her paper Gonsalves uses a sociocultural approach to examine women doctoral students' stories about becoming physicists. In doing so her paper focuses on how discourses of masculinity and femininity can create available and unavailable positions for the women students. In this dialogue we do a parallel reading of two of the student narratives presented by Gonsalves, using Judith Butler's (1990) concept of discursive agency as a means to more explicitly bring the affordances for women identity constitution offered by their localized physicist context to the fore, rather focusing on its, often more visible, constraints.

  7. Three Words and the Future of the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Nicholas

    2015-06-01

    As an essential part of its effort to achieve near universal coverage, the Affordable Care Act (ACA) extends sizable tax credits to most people who buy insurance on the newly established health care exchanges. Yet several lawsuits have been filed challenging the availability of those tax credits in the thirty-four states that refused to set up their own exchanges. The lawsuits are premised on a strained interpretation of the ACA that, if accepted, would make a hash of other provisions of the statute and undermine its effort to extend coverage to the uninsured. The courts should reject this latest effort to dismantle a critical feature of the ACA. Copyright © 2015 by Duke University Press.

  8. Affordances and synchronization in collective creative construction tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tylén, Kristian; Fusaroli, Riccardo

    What does it mean to cooperate? How do we share meanings and actions in order to reach a common goal? In this paper we explore the relation between cooperative coordination and heart rate. We argue that in cooperative contexts participants synchronize their heart rhythms according to two factors......: the affordances of the task at hand and the gradual consolidation of collaborative practices. Six groups of participants were instructed to construct LEGO models of six abstract notions (“responsibility”, “knowledge”, “justice” etc.), both individually and in groups. We combine video analysis and heart rate...... measurements and employ recurrence analysis techniques to quantify the mutual adaptability of heart rates among the participants in the different tasks. We show that during individual tasks individual heart rates synchronize both within and between groups (but not with controls) plausibly due...

  9. Design and construction of an optical compact and affordable tweezers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, M.C.; Perez Moret, Y.; Arronte, M.; Ponce, L.

    2009-01-01

    The following paper presents a new design allowing a reduction on the amount of required optical elements for the construction of the optical tweezers, which results in a compact and affordable system. The latter is composed by a 40 mW Nd: YAG (532 nm) laser and commercially available optics and mounts. A virtual instrument, developed using Lab View 8.0, controls both a XYZ table and a web camera for visualizing. The quality of the laser beam at the end of optical system was characterized using the knife-edge method, resulting in a Gaussian shaped (TEM00) intensity profile. It is presented as well the necessary information to align and calibrate each optical element. (Author)

  10. Collaborative Affordances of Hybrid Patient Record Technologies in Medical Work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houben, Steven; Frost, Mads; Bardram, Jakob E

    2015-01-01

    explored the integration of paper and digital technology, there are still a wide range of open issues in the design of technologies that integrate digital and paper-based medical records. This paper studies the use of one such novel technology, called the Hybrid Patient Record (HyPR), that is designed......The medical record is a central artifact used to organize, communicate and coordinate information related to patient care. Despite recent deployments of electronic health records (EHR), paper medical records are still widely used because of the affordances of paper. Although a number of approaches...... to digitally augment a paper medical record. We report on two studies: a field study in which we describe the benefits and challenges of using a combination of electronic and paper-based medical records in a large university hospital and a deployment study in which we analyze how 8 clinicians used the Hy...

  11. Pico Reentry Probes: Affordable Options for Reentry Measurements and Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ailor, William H.; Kapoor, Vinod B.; Allen, Gay A., Jr.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James O.; Rasky, Daniel J.

    2005-01-01

    It is generally very costly to perform in-space and atmospheric entry experiments. This paper presents a new platform - the Pico Reentry Probe (PREP) - that we believe will make targeted flight-tests and planetary atmospheric probe science missions considerably more affordable. Small, lightweight, self-contained, it is designed as a "launch and forget" system, suitable for experiments that require no ongoing communication with the ground. It contains a data recorder, battery, transmitter, and user-customized instrumentation. Data recorded during reentry or space operations is returned at end-of-mission via transmission to Iridium satellites (in the case of earth-based operations) or a similar orbiting communication system for planetary missions. This paper discusses possible applications of this concept for Earth and Martian atmospheric entry science. Two well-known heritage aerodynamic shapes are considered as candidates for PREP: the shape developed for the Planetary Atmospheric Experiment Test (PAET) and that for the Deep Space II Mars Probe.

  12. The challenge of making nuclear technologies acceptable, accessible and affordable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramamurthy, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: It is more than five decades since the first successful demonstration of nuclear power for commercial electricity production. The same decades have also seen the successful demonstration of several other applications of nuclear technologies that can contribute directly to human development, as for example, in the Food and Agriculture, Human and animal Health, Environment and Water sectors. In spite of several successful demonstrations and applications in these fields, it is somewhat strange that their full potential is yet to be realized. More importantly, their availability to populations across the world is highly skewed. Three barriers have been identified for the wide spread use of nuclear technologies for development- Acceptability, Accessibility and Affordability. It is an unfortunate twist of fate that the first public demonstration of nuclear technology was its destructive power. The following demonization of anything nuclear was further compounded by the discussions on the unresolved questions on tackling long lived radioactive wastes, our inability to arrive at a global consensus on nuclear disarmament and issues of nuclear proliferation. These have certainly had a negative impact on the public acceptance of nuclear technologies across the board. While the recent concerns on the global climate change following the emission of carbon-di-oxide from excessive hydrocarbon burning for meeting our increasing energy needs have revived the interest in nuclear energy, a lot needs to be done to de-demonize nuclear technologies in public mind leading to increased acceptance of nuclear technologies for development. Lack of resources, infrastructure and trained man power also have a negative impact on the accessibility and affordability of the nuclear technologies for development. It is argued that only education holds the key for this. The role of international partnerships is also highlighted in realizing the full potential of nuclear technologies for

  13. Conductive Cotton Filters for Affordable and Efficient Water Purification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available It is highly desirable to develop affordable, energy-saving, and highly-effective technologies to alleviate the current water crisis. In this work, we reported a low-cost electrochemical filtration device composing of a conductive cotton filter anode and a Ti foil cathode. The device was operated by gravity feed. The conductive cotton filter anodes were fabricated by a facile dying method to incorporate carbon nanotubes (CNTs as fillers. The CNTs could serve as adsorbents for pollutants adsorption, as electrocatalysts for pollutants electrooxidation, and as conductive additives to render the cotton filters highly conductive. Cellulose-based cotton could serve as low-cost support to ‘host’ these CNTs. Upon application of external potential, the developed filtration device could not only achieve physically adsorption of organic compounds, but also chemically oxide these compounds on site. Three model organic compounds were employed to evaluate the oxidative capability of the device, i.e., ferrocyanide (a model single-electron-transfer electron donor, methyl orange (MO, a common recalcitrant azo-dye found in aqueous environments, and antibiotic tetracycline (TC, a common antibiotic released from the wastewater treatment plants. The devices exhibited a maximum electrooxidation flux of 0.37 mol/h/m2 for 5.0 mmol/L ferrocyanide, of 0.26 mol/h/m2 for 0.06 mmol/L MO, and of 0.9 mol/h/m2 for 0.2 mmol/L TC under given experimental conditions. The effects of several key operational parameters (e.g., total cell potential, CNT amount, and compound concentration on the device performance were also studied. This study could shed some light on the good design of effective and affordable water purification devices for point-of-use applications.

  14. Availability, prices and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahal, Harinder Singh; St Fort, Nazaire; Bero, Lisa

    2013-12-01

    Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere and faces numerous challenges, including inadequate medication access for its residents. The objective of this study was to determine the availability, prices, and affordability of essential medicines in Haiti and compare these findings to other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional nationwide survey in 2011 of availability and consumer prices of 60 essential medicines in Haiti using a standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International. The survey was conducted in 163 medicine outlets in four health care sectors (public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors). Medicine prices were expressed as ratios relative to the International Reference Price. Affordability was calculated by comparing the costs of treatment for common conditions with the salary of the lowest paid government worker and was compared to available data from four Latin American countries. For generic medicines, the availability in public, retail, nonprofit and mixed sectors was 20%, 37%, 24% and 23% of medications, respectively. Most of the available medicines were priced higher than the International Reference Price. The lowest paid government worker would need 2.5 days' wages to treat an adult respiratory infection with generic medicines from the public sector. For treatment of common conditions with originator brands (OB) purchased from a retail pharmacy, costs were between 1.4 (anaerobic bacterial infection) and 13.7 (hyperlipidemia) days' wages, respectively. Treatment of pediatric bacterial infections with the OB of ceftriaxone from a retail pharmacy would cost 24.6 days' wages. Prices in Bolivia, Colombia, Mexico and Nicaragua were frequently lower for comparable medications. The availability of essential medicines was low and prices varied widely across all four sectors. Over 75% of Haitians live on less than US$ 2.00 /day; therefore, most medication regimens are largely unaffordable

  15. Tobacco affordability, sales and excise revenues in the 28 European Union countries in 2011-2014

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantin Krasovsky

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The Guidelines for the FCTC Article 6 state: When establishing their levels of taxation, Parties should make tobacco products less affordable over time in order to reduce consumption. The objective is to estimate the impact of changes in tobacco affordability on tobacco consumption and tobacco excise revenues in 2011-2014 in 28 European Union countries. Material and Methods Tobacco affordability index was calculated using the Eurostat data on harmonized consumer price i...

  16. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved ...

  17. Innovative Processing Methods for the Affordable Manufacture of Multifunctional High Temperature Coatings, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to investigate the feasibility of using advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional high...

  18. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-09-29

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved in Parkinson's disease, but find no evidence that there is an increased sensitivity to the effects of object affordances on voluntary action.

  19. Automatic activation of motor programs by object affordances in patients with Parkinson's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguro, Hiroaki; Ward, Robert; Bracewel, Martyn; Hindle, John; Rafal, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Clinical observations of kinesia paradoxica and freezing in patients with Parkinson's disease suggest that the automatic activation of motor programmes by visual stimuli may not require intact basal ganglia function, and that an increased sensitivity to such object affordances may contribute to some symptoms of the disease. Employing a paradigm that measures the degree of interference from object affordances on voluntary actions, we confirm that activation of object affordances are preserved in Parkinson's disease, but find no evidence that there is an increased sensitivity to the effects of object affordances on voluntary action. PMID:19616073

  20. Developing affordable multi-touch technologies for use in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Mark; Ilie, Carolina; Schofield, Damian; Vampola, David

    2012-02-01

    Physics is one of many areas which has the ability to benefit from a number of different teaching styles and sophisticated instructional tools due to it having both theoretical and practical applications which can be explored. The purpose of this research is to develop affordable large scale multi-touch interfaces which can be used within and outside of the classroom as both an instruction technology and a computer supported collaborative learning tool. Not only can this technology be implemented at university levels, but also at the K-12 level of education. Pedagogical research indicates that kinesthetic learning is a fundamental, powerful, and ubiquitous learning style [1]. Through the use of these types of multi-touch tools and teaching methods which incorporate them, the classroom can be enriched to allow for better comprehension and retention of information. This is due in part to a wider range of learning styles, such as kinesthetic learning, which are being catered to within the classroom. [4pt] [1] Wieman, C.E, Perkins, K.K., Adams, W.K., ``Oersted Medal Lecture 2007: Interactive Simulations for teaching physics: What works, what doesn't and why,'' American Journal of Physics. 76 393-99.

  1. Grasping the World: Object-Affordance Effect in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Sevos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available For schizophrenic patients, the world can appear as deprived of practical meaning, which normally emerges from sensory-motor experiences. However, no research has yet studied the integration between perception and action in this population. In this study, we hypothesize that patients, after having controlled the integrity of their visuospatial integration, would nevertheless present deficit in sensory-motor simulation. In this view, we compare patients to control subjects using two stimulus-response compatibility (SRC tasks. Experiment 1 is performed to ensure that visuo-spatial integration is not impaired (Simon Effect. Experiment 2 replicates a study from Tucker and Ellis (1998 to explore the existence of sensory-motor compatibility between stimulus and response (Object Affordance. In control subjects, the SRC effect appears in both experiments. In schizophrenic patients, it appears only when stimuli and responses share the same spatial localization. This loss of automatic sensory-motor simulation could emerge from a lack of relation between the object and the subject’s environment.

  2. Affordable CZT SPECT with dose-time minimization (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugg, James W.; Harris, Brian W.; Radley, Ian

    2017-03-01

    PURPOSE Pixelated CdZnTe (CZT) detector arrays are used in molecular imaging applications that can enable precision medicine, including small-animal SPECT, cardiac SPECT, molecular breast imaging (MBI), and general purpose SPECT. The interplay of gamma camera, collimator, gantry motion, and image reconstruction determines image quality and dose-time-FOV tradeoffs. Both dose and exam time can be minimized without compromising diagnostic content. METHODS Integration of pixelated CZT detectors with advanced ASICs and readout electronics improves system performance. Because historically CZT was expensive, the first clinical applications were limited to small FOV. Radiation doses were initially high and exam times long. Advances have significantly improved efficiency of CZT-based molecular imaging systems and the cost has steadily declined. We have built a general purpose SPECT system using our 40 cm x 53 cm CZT gamma camera with 2 mm pixel pitch and characterized system performance. RESULTS Compared to NaI scintillator gamma cameras: intrinsic spatial resolution improved from 3.8 mm to 2.0 mm; energy resolution improved from 9.8% to reconstruction, result in minimized dose and exam time. With CZT cost improving, affordable whole-body CZT general purpose SPECT is expected to enable precision medicine applications.

  3. Strategic options towards an affordable high-performance infrared camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduor, Patrick; Mizuno, Genki; Dutta, Achyut K.; Lewis, Jay; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2016-05-01

    The promise of infrared (IR) imaging attaining low-cost akin to CMOS sensors success has been hampered by the inability to achieve cost advantages that are necessary for crossover from military and industrial applications into the consumer and mass-scale commercial realm despite well documented advantages. Banpil Photonics is developing affordable IR cameras by adopting new strategies to speed-up the decline of the IR camera cost curve. We present a new short-wave IR (SWIR) camera; 640x512 pixel InGaAs uncooled system that is high sensitivity low noise ( 500 frames per second (FPS)) at full resolution, and low power consumption (market adoption by not only demonstrating high-performance IR imaging capability value add demanded by military and industrial application, but also illuminates a path towards justifiable price points essential for consumer facing application industries such as automotive, medical, and security imaging adoption. Among the strategic options presented include new sensor manufacturing technologies that scale favorably towards automation, multi-focal plane array compatible readout electronics, and dense or ultra-small pixel pitch devices.

  4. The Affordable Care Act Medicaid Expansions and Personal Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Kyle J; Waidmann, Timothy A

    2017-09-01

    Using a novel data set from a major credit bureau, we examine the early effects of the Affordable Care Act Medicaid expansions on personal finance. We analyze less common events such as personal bankruptcy, and more common occurrences such as medical collection balances, and change in credit scores. We estimate triple-difference models that compare individual outcomes across counties that expanded Medicaid versus counties that did not, and across expansion counties that had more uninsured residents versus those with fewer. Results demonstrate financial improvements in states that expanded their Medicaid programs as measured by improved credit scores, reduced balances past due as a percent of total debt, reduced probability of a medical collection balance of $1,000 or more, reduced probability of having one or more recent medical bills go to collections, reduction in the probability of experiencing a new derogatory balance of any type, reduced probability of incurring a new derogatory balance equal to $1,000 or more, and a reduction in the probability of a new bankruptcy filing.

  5. Practical and affordable ways to cultivate leadership in your organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaufin, Joyce R; Kennedy, Kathy I; Struthers, Ellen D

    2010-01-01

    Leadership can be cultivated through the intentional actions of managers and others in public health organizations. This article provides a rationale for taking innovative and proactive steps to build leadership, discusses four general strategies for doing so, and presents seven practical, creative, and affordable actions that can have a positive influence on efforts to cultivate leadership qualities in the public health workforce. Each action is illustrated with an actual contemporary example from a local public health agency. The actions include providing formal or informal coaching/mentoring opportunities; assigning staff to lead new projects or collaborations, projects outside their disciplines, projects that cause growth in their information technology capacity, or orphan or struggling projects; facilitating a book club; and institutionalizing reflection. The best way to ensure that effective leadership is available when the organization needs it is to intentionally develop it through an ongoing process. Leadership growth can be supported during the ordinary course of business in a public health organization through thoughtful challenges, sharing ideas and experiences, and especially through the example set by managers and those in positions of authority.

  6. Priority Setting, Cost-Effectiveness, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persad, Govind

    2015-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) may be the most important health law statute in American history, yet much of the most prominent legal scholarship examining it has focused on the merits of the court challenges it has faced rather than delving into the details of its priority-setting provisions. In addition to providing an overview of the ACA's provisions concerning priority setting and their developing interpretations, this Article attempts to defend three substantive propositions. First, I argue that the ACA is neither uniformly hostile nor uniformly friendly to efforts to set priorities in ways that promote cost and quality. Second, I argue that the ACA does not take a single, unified approach to priority setting; rather, its guidance varies depending on the aspect of the healthcare system at issue (Patient Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Medicare, essential health benefits) and the factors being excluded from priority setting (age, disability, life expectancy). Third, I argue that cost-effectiveness can be achieved within the ACA's constraints, but that doing so will require adopting new approaches to cost-effectiveness and priority setting. By limiting the use of standard cost-effectiveness analysis, the ACA makes the need for workable rivals to cost-effectiveness analysis a pressing practical concern rather than a mere theoretical worry.

  7. Precise, flexible and affordable gene stacking for crop improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Weiqiang; Ow, David W

    2017-09-03

    The genetic engineering of plants offers a revolutionary advance for crop improvement, and the incorporation of transgenes into crop species can impart new traits that would otherwise be difficult to obtain through conventional breeding. Transgenes introduced into plants, however, can only be useful when bred out to field cultivars. As new traits are continually added to further improve transgenic cultivars, clustering new DNA near previously introduced transgenes keep from inflating the number of segregating units that breeders must assemble back into a breeding line. Here we discuss various options to introduce DNA site-specifically into an existing transgenic locus. As food security is becoming a pressing global issue, the old proverb resonates true to this day: "give a man a fish and you feed him for a day; teach a man to fish and you feed him for a lifetime." Hence, we describe a recombinase-mediate gene stacking system designed with freedom to operate, providing an affordable option for crop improvement by less developed countries where food security is most at risk.

  8. Structuring payment to medical homes after the affordable care act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Samuel T; Abrams, Melinda K; Baron, Richard J; Berenson, Robert A; Rich, Eugene C; Rosenthal, Gary E; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Landon, Bruce E

    2014-10-01

    The Patient-Centered Medical Home (PCMH) is a leading model of primary care reform, a critical element of which is payment reform for primary care services. With the passage of the Affordable Care Act, the Accountable Care Organization (ACO) has emerged as a model of delivery system reform, and while there is theoretical alignment between the PCMH and ACOs, the discussion of physician payment within each model has remained distinct. Here we compare payment for medical homes with that for accountable care organizations, consider opportunities for integration, and discuss implications for policy makers and payers considering ACO models. The PCMH and ACO are complementary approaches to reformed care delivery: the PCMH ultimately requires strong integration with specialists and hospitals as seen under ACOs, and ACOs likely will require a high functioning primary care system as embodied by the PCMH. Aligning payment incentives within the ACO will be critical to achieving this integration and enhancing the care coordination role of primary care in these settings.

  9. Alcohol affordability and alcohol demand: cross-country trends and panel data estimates, 1975 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Jon P

    2014-04-01

    Relatively little is known about cross-country differences in alcohol affordability or factors that determine differences in affordability over time. This information is potentially important for alcohol policy, especially policies that focus on higher taxes or prices to reduce total alcohol consumption. This study estimates cross-country alcohol consumption relationships using economic models incorporating income and prices and alternative models based on alcohol affordability. The data and analysis are restricted to higher income countries. Data for alcohol consumption per capita (ages 15+) are analyzed for 2 samples: first, 17 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development for the period 1975 to 2000; second, 22 countries in the European Union for the period from 2000 to 2008. Panel data models are utilized, with country and time fixed-effects to control for confounding influences. In economic demand models, covariates are real per capita income and real alcohol price indices. In affordability models, income is divided by prices to yield an index of alcohol affordability. Analysis of data trends reveals that much of the increase in affordability is due to rising real incomes, and not falling real prices. Economic models of demand perform slightly better statistically, but differences are not substantial as income and affordability are highly correlated. For both samples, exogenous rates of growth of alcohol consumption are negative. Price and income elasticities, on average, are within the range of prior estimates. Affordability elasticities are between 0.21 and 0.25. Although alcohol affordability is a valid concept statistically, its use in policy discussions tends to hide underlying causes of changes in affordability. A better approach is a comparison and analysis of trends and cross-country differences in real incomes and real alcohol prices together with the affordability index. Country-level analysis of income and price

  10. Affordance of Braille Music as a Mediational Means: Significance and Limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyu-Yong; Kim, Mi-Jung

    2014-01-01

    Affordance refers to the properties or designs of a thing that offer the function of the thing. This paper discusses the affordance of Braille music in terms of three notions: mediational means, mastery and appropriation, and focuses on answering the following three questions: (i) How do musicians with visual impairments (MVI) perceive Braille…

  11. 78 FR 41074 - 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... real life problem faced by public housing authorities using innovations in affordable housing design... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [Docket No. FR-5689-N-05] 60-Day Notice of Proposed Information Collection: Innovation in Affordable Housing Design Student Competition AGENCY: Office of Policy...

  12. 78 FR 73204 - Announcement of Requirements and Registration for “Innovation in Affordable Housing Student...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-05

    ... response to a real life affordable housing design issue. The goals of this new competition are: To... competition will officially open on January 6, 2014, when the real life affordable housing design issue is... DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT [FR-5745-N-01] Announcement of Requirements and...

  13. Defining and Measuring the Affordability of New Medicines : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Overton, Paul M.; Shalet, Natalie; Postma, Maarten

    Background In many healthcare systems, affordability concerns can lead to restrictions on the use of expensive efficacious therapies. However, there does not appear to be any consensus as to the terminology used to describe affordability, or the thresholds used to determine whether new drugs are

  14. 24 CFR 1000.104 - What families are eligible for affordable housing activities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... affordable housing activities? 1000.104 Section 1000.104 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... Activities § 1000.104 What families are eligible for affordable housing activities? The following families... Indian area. (b) A non-low income Indian family may receive housing assistance in accordance with § 1000...

  15. The Role of Affordances in the Evolutionary Process Reconsidered A Niche Construction Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Withagen, Rob; van Wermeskerken, Margot

    Gibson asserted that affordances are the primary objects of perception. Although this assertion is especially attractive when considered in the context of evolutionary theory, the role that affordances play in the evolution of animals' perceptual and action systems is still unclear. Trying to

  16. 75 FR 32480 - Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Administration on Aging Funding Opportunity: Affordable Care Act Medicare Beneficiary Outreach and Assistance Program Funding for Title VI Native American Programs Purpose of Notice: Availability of funding opportunity announcement. Funding Opportunity Title/Program Name: Affordable Care Act Medicare...

  17. Students' Affordance of Teleologic Explanations and Anthropomorphic Language in Eliciting Concepts in Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Romiro G.

    2015-01-01

    This study ascertains that the students' affordance of teleologic explanations and anthropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in Physics is influenced by their age and learning exposure and experience. Using Explicative-Reductive Method of Descriptive Research, this study focused on the determinants of students' affordance of…

  18. 77 FR 36272 - SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE) announces in this notice the release of the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop Solar for public comment. Interested persons are encouraged to learn about the SunShot Prize: America's Most Affordable Rooftop rules at eere.energy.gov/solar/sunshot/prize.html.

  19. Obstacles and Affordances for Integer Reasoning: An Analysis of Children's Thinking and the History of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Jessica Pierson; Lamb, Lisa L.; Philipp, Randolph A.; Whitacre, Ian; Schappelle, Bonnie P.; Lewis, Melinda L.

    2014-01-01

    We identify and document 3 cognitive obstacles, 3 cognitive affordances, and 1 type of integer understanding that can function as either an obstacle or affordance for learners while they extend their numeric domains from whole numbers to include negative integers. In particular, we highlight 2 key subsets of integer reasoning: understanding or…

  20. Improving perceptions of healthy food affordability: results from a pilot intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Lauren K; Abbott, Gavin; Thornton, Lukar E; Worsley, Anthony; Ball, Kylie; Crawford, David

    2014-03-10

    Despite strong empirical support for the association between perceived food affordability and dietary intake amongst families with a lower socioeconomic position (SEP), there is limited evidence of the most effective strategies for promoting more positive perceptions of healthy food affordability among this group. This paper reports findings from a pilot intervention that aimed to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability amongst mothers. Participants were 66 mothers who were the parents of children recruited from primary schools located in socioeconomically disadvantaged suburbs. Intervention group participants viewed a slideshow focussed on healthy snack food affordability that illustrated cheaper healthier alternatives to common snack foods as well as food budgeting tips and price comparison education. A mixed between-within ANCOVA was conducted to examine group differences in perceived affordability of healthy food across three time points. Results revealed no difference in perceived affordability of healthy food between the two groups at baseline whereas at post-intervention and follow-up, mothers in the intervention group perceived healthy food as more affordable than the control group. Focussing on education-based interventions to improve perceptions of healthy food affordability may be a promising approach that complements existing nutrition promotion strategies.

  1. Effects of Affordance Perception on the Initiation and Actualization of Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smith, Joanne; Pepping, Gert-Jan

    2010-01-01

    Studies have shown information specifying some affordances may be faster or easier to perceive than others. This article investigates the effect of affordance perception on the time taken to initiate and perform an action. In particular it focuses on how action timing varies as a function of a

  2. Affordance estimation for vision-based object replacement on a humanoid robot

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Wail; Wächter, Mirko; Szedmak, Sandor

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address the problem of finding replacements of missing objects, involved in the execution of manipulation tasks. Our approach is based on estimating functional affordances for the unknown objects in order to propose replacements. We use a vision-based affordance estimation syste...

  3. Affordances and Cognitive Walkthrough for Analyzing Human-Virtual Human Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.; op den Akker, Hendrikus J.A.; Esposito, A.; Bourbakis, N.; Avouris, N.; Hatzilygeroudis, I.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how the psychological notion of affordance, known from human computer interface design, can be adopted for the analysis and design of communication of a user with a Virtual Human (VH), as a novel interface. We take as starting point the original notion of affordance, used to

  4. Affordances shape pass kick behavior in association football : effects of distance and social context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pepping, Gert-Jan; Heijmerikx, Johan; de Poel, Harjo J.

    2011-01-01

    A prerequisite for accurate passing in association football is that a player perceives the affordances, that is, the opportunities for action, of a given situation. The present study examined how affordances shape passing in association football by comparing the performance of pass-kicks in two task

  5. 16 CFR 1061.8 - Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... protection afforded. 1061.8 Section 1061.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL APPLICATIONS FOR EXEMPTION FROM PREEMPTION § 1061.8 Information on the heightened degree of protection afforded... State or local requirement provides a significantly higher degree of protection from the risk of injury...

  6. Insights into the use and affordances of social and collaborative applications for student projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omolola Ola Bankole

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of social and collaborative computing has the potential of assisting learning and improving the ability to work together as part of a team. Team work is a graduate attribute that students need to acquire before transitioning from university into the workplace. The aim of this exploratory research was to provide insights into the use of social and collaborative applications by Computer Science students, and the emergent affordances student project teams have created with the use of these applications. It answers the questions: What elearning platforms or applications do students use to collaborate for team projects? What technology affordance draws students to use these applications? This study adopts affordance theory as the theoretical framework. Two types of content analysis: conventional content analysis and summative content analysis were used to analyse the data. Data was gathered using a pre-designed questionnaire with the teams during the first semester of 2016. Findings show that the university’s elearning platform is utilised for some of their courses; however students seem to prefer free and open source platforms. Student project teams used applications such as WhatsApp, Telegram, Dropbox, Google Drive, Google Docs, as well as email messages, to work jointly, and were successfully able to complete their team projects. Four types of technology affordances: communicative-affordance, document share-affordance, course resource-affordance, and integrity-affordance, were identified as being relevant.

  7. 77 FR 9882 - Arsenic Small Systems Compliance and Alternative Affordability Criteria Working Group; public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-21

    ... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. This meeting will... held via the Internet using a Webcast and teleconference. Registrants will receive an Internet access... affordability criteria that give extra weight to small, rural, and lower income communities. Based upon input...

  8. A Framework for Aligning Needs, Abilities and Affordances to Inform Design and Practice of Educational Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonenko, Pavlo D.; Dawson, Kara; Sahay, Shilpa

    2017-01-01

    This paper addresses the need for enhancing our awareness of user-centered design in educational technology through a more explicit and systematic alignment between the needs of educational technology users (learners and educators) and the affordances provided by the technology. First, we define the term "affordance" and discuss it from…

  9. Some perspectives on affordable healthcare systems in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y T; Yan, Y S; Poon, C C Y

    2007-01-01

    Consistent with the global population trend, China is becoming an aging society. Over one-fifth of the world's elderly population (aged 65 and over) lives in China. Statistics show that the elderly populace in China constitutes 8% of the total population in 2006 and the percentage will be tripled to become 24% in 2050. As a result, there is inevitably an increase in the prevalence of chronic disease that accounted for almost 80% of all deaths in China in 2005. On the other hand, from 1978 to 2003, the total expenditure on healthcare in China increased from 11.02 billion RMB up to 658.41 billion RMB, and in terms of GDP, it is an increase from 3.04% to 5.62%. The annual average increase (12.1%) in healthcare investment is therefore even higher than the annual rate of GDP increase (9.38%) during the last two decades. Meeting the long-term healthcare needs of this growing elderly population and escalating healthcare expenditure pose a grim challenge to the current Chinese healthcare system and the solvency of state budgets. In fact, the healthcare services in China have become less accessible since the early 1980s when its costs soared up. The rising costs have prevented many Chinese people from seeking early medical care. The phenomenon has created a wide disparity in seeking healthcare between urban and rural areas. These trends are of particular concern to the elderly, who have higher healthcare needs yet lesser means to afford the services. Furthermore, according to the 3rd National Health Service Survey, 79.1% of rural residents and 44.8% of urban citizens did not have any form of medical insurance. Such a low percentage of coverage of medical insurance indicates that many people may not be able to afford medical services when they suffer from severe diseases. Therefore, there is a great need of a more effective and low-cost healthcare system. A new system that can allow multi-level, multi-dimensional and standardized healthcare services for urban and rural

  10. Affordable Development and Qualification Strategy for Nuclear Thermal Propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold P., Jr.; Doughty, Glen E.; Bhattacharyya, Samit K.

    2013-01-01

    Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) is a concept which uses a nuclear reactor to heat a propellant to high temperatures without combustion and can achieve significantly greater specific impulse than chemical engines. NTP has been considered many times for human and cargo missions beyond low earth orbit. A lot of development and technical maturation of NTP components took place during the Rover/NERVA program of the 60's and early 70's. Other NTP programs and studies followed attempting to further mature the NTP concept and identify a champion customer willing to devote the funds and support the development schedule to a demonstration mission. Budgetary constraints require the use of an affordable development and qualification strategy that takes into account all the previous work performed on NTP to construct an existing database, and include lessons learned and past guidelines followed. Current guidelines and standards NASA uses for human rating chemical rocket engines is referenced. The long lead items for NTP development involve the fuel elements of the reactor and ground testing the engine system, subsystem, and components. Other considerations which greatly impact the development plans includes the National Space Policy, National Environmental Policy Act, Presidential Directive/National Security Council Memorandum #25 (Scientific or Technological Experiments with Possible Large-Scale Adverse Environmental Effects and Launch of Nuclear Systems into Space), and Safeguards and Security. Ground testing will utilize non-nuclear test capabilities to help down select components and subsystems before testing in a nuclear environment to save time and cost. Existing test facilities with minor modifications will be considered to the maximum extent practical. New facilities will be designed to meet minimum requirements. Engine and test facility requirements are based on the driving mission requirements with added factors of safety for better assurance and reliability

  11. Affordable Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery for Heavy Duty Trucks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subramanian, Swami Nathan [Eaton Corporation

    2017-06-30

    Nearly 30% of fuel energy is not utilized and wasted in the engine exhaust. Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based waste heat recovery (WHR) systems offer a promising approach on waste energy recovery and improving the efficiency of Heavy-Duty diesel engines. Major barriers in the ORC WHR system are the system cost and controversial waste heat recovery working fluids. More than 40% of the system cost is from the additional heat exchangers (recuperator, condenser and tail pipe boiler). The secondary working fluid loop designed in ORC system is either flammable or environmentally sensitive. The Eaton team investigated a novel approach to reduce the cost of implementing ORC based WHR systems to Heavy-Duty (HD) Diesel engines while utilizing safest working fluids. Affordable Rankine Cycle (ARC) concept aimed to define the next generation of waste energy recuperation with a cost optimized WHR system. ARC project used engine coolant as the working fluid. This approach reduced the need for a secondary working fluid circuit and subsequent complexity. A portion of the liquid phase engine coolant has been pressurized through a set of working fluid pumps and used to recover waste heat from the exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and exhaust tail pipe exhaust energy. While absorbing heat, the mixture is partially vaporized but remains a wet binary mixture. The pressurized mixed-phase engine coolant mixture is then expanded through a fixed-volume ratio expander that is compatible with two-phase conditions. Heat rejection is accomplished through the engine radiator, avoiding the need for a separate condenser. The ARC system has been investigated for PACCAR’s MX-13 HD diesel engine.

  12. Cancer preventive services, socioeconomic status, and the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Gregory S; Kou, Tzuyung Doug; Dor, Avi; Koroukian, Siran M; Schluchter, Mark D

    2017-05-01

    Out-of-pocket expenditures are thought to be an important barrier to the receipt of cancer preventive services, especially for those of a lower socioeconomic status (SES). The Affordable Care Act (ACA) eliminated out-of-pocket expenditures for recommended services, including mammography and colonoscopy. The objective of this study was to determine changes in the uptake of mammography and colonoscopy among fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries before and after ACA implementation. Using Medicare claims data, this study identified women who were 70 years old or older and had not undergone mammography in the previous 2 years and men and women who were 70 years old or older, were at increased risk for colorectal cancer, and had not undergone colonoscopy in the past 5 years. The receipt of procedures in the 2-year period before the ACA's implementation (2009-2010) and after its implementation (2011 to September 2012) was also identified. Multivariate generalized estimating equation models were used to determine the independent association and county-level quartile of median income and education with the receipt of testing. For mammography, a lower SES quartile was associated with less uptake, but the post-ACA disparities were smaller than those in the pre-ACA period. In addition, mammography rates increased from the pre-ACA period to the post-ACA period in all SES quartiles. For colonoscopy, in both the pre- and post-ACA periods, there was an association between uptake and educational level and, to some extent, income. However, there were no appreciable changes in colonoscopy and SES after implementation of the ACA. The removal of out-of-pocket expenditures may overcome a barrier to the receipt of recommended preventive services, but for colonoscopy, other procedural factors may remain as deterrents. Cancer 2017;123:1585-1589. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  13. Affordable and personalized lighting using inverse modeling and virtual sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Chandrayee; Chen, Benjamin; Richards, Jacob; Dhinakaran, Aparna; Agogino, Alice; Martin, Rodney

    2014-03-01

    Wireless sensor networks (WSN) have great potential to enable personalized intelligent lighting systems while reducing building energy use by 50%-70%. As a result WSN systems are being increasingly integrated in state-ofart intelligent lighting systems. In the future these systems will enable participation of lighting loads as ancillary services. However, such systems can be expensive to install and lack the plug-and-play quality necessary for user-friendly commissioning. In this paper we present an integrated system of wireless sensor platforms and modeling software to enable affordable and user-friendly intelligent lighting. It requires ⇠ 60% fewer sensor deployments compared to current commercial systems. Reduction in sensor deployments has been achieved by optimally replacing the actual photo-sensors with real-time discrete predictive inverse models. Spatially sparse and clustered sub-hourly photo-sensor data captured by the WSN platforms are used to develop and validate a piece-wise linear regression of indoor light distribution. This deterministic data-driven model accounts for sky conditions and solar position. The optimal placement of photo-sensors is performed iteratively to achieve the best predictability of the light field desired for indoor lighting control. Using two weeks of daylight and artificial light training data acquired at the Sustainability Base at NASA Ames, the model was able to predict the light level at seven monitored workstations with 80%-95% accuracy. We estimate that 10% adoption of this intelligent wireless sensor system in commercial buildings could save 0.2-0.25 quads BTU of energy nationwide.

  14. Affordable Exploration of Mars: Recommendations from a Community Workshop on Sustainable Initial Human Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thronson, Harley; Carberry, Chris; Cassady, R. J.; Cooke, Doug; Hopkins, Joshua; Perino, Maria A.; Kirkpatrick, Jim; Raftery, Michael; Westenberg, Artemis; Zucker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that within two decades initial human missions to Mars are affordable under plausible budget assumptions and with sustained international participation. In response to this idea, a distinguished group of experts from the Mars exploration stakeholder communities attended the "Affording Mars" workshop at George Washington University in December, 2013. Participants reviewed and discussed scenarios for affordable and sustainable human and robotic exploration of Mars, the role of the International Space Station over the coming decade as the essential early step toward humans to Mars, possible "bridge" missions in the 2020s, key capabilities required for affordable initial missions, international partnerships, and a usable definition of affordability and sustainability. We report here the findings, observations, and recommendations that were agreed to at that workshop.

  15. Tempting foods and the affordability axiom: Food cues change beliefs about the costs of healthy eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Sarah E; Baskett, Kaily; Bradshaw, Hannah K; Prokosch, Marjorie L; DelPriore, Danielle J; Rodeheffer, Christopher D

    2016-12-01

    Many consumers report that healthy eating is more expensive than unhealthy eating (the affordability axiom). We hypothesize that endorsement of this belief may be driven by the motivation to eat unhealthy foods. We tested this hypothesis in three studies. Study 1 revealed that the affordability axiom is associated with poorer eating habits and higher Body Mass Index (BMI). Study 2 found that the presence of a tasty food cue in the environment increased endorsement of affordability axiom. Study 3 found that these effects were moderated by one's food intake goals. Food cues led non-dieters to increase endorsement of the affordability axiom, but had the opposite effect among those seeking to restrict their calorie intake. The affordability axiom might persist as a means of validating unhealthy food choices. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Defining and Measuring the Affordability of New Medicines: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoñanzas, Fernando; Terkola, Robert; Overton, Paul M; Shalet, Natalie; Postma, Maarten

    2017-08-01

    In many healthcare systems, affordability concerns can lead to restrictions on the use of expensive efficacious therapies. However, there does not appear to be any consensus as to the terminology used to describe affordability, or the thresholds used to determine whether new drugs are affordable. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate how affordability is defined and measured in healthcare. MEDLINE, EMBASE and EconLit databases (2005-July 2016) were searched using terms covering affordability and budget impact, combined with definitions, thresholds and restrictions, to identify articles describing a definition of affordability with respect to new medicines. Additional definitions were identified through citation searching, and through manual searches of European health technology assessment body websites. In total, 27 definitions were included in the review. Of these, five definitions described affordability in terms of the value of a product; seven considered affordability within the context of healthcare system budgets; and 15 addressed whether products are affordable in a given country based on economic factors. However, there was little in the literature to indicate that the price of medicines is considered alongside both their value to individual patients and their budget impact at a population level. Current methods of assessing affordability in healthcare may be limited by their focus on budget impact. A more effective approach may involve a broader perspective than is currently described in the literature, to consider the long-term benefits of a therapy and cost savings elsewhere in the healthcare system, as well as cooperation between healthcare payers and the pharmaceutical industry to develop financing models that support sustainability as well as innovation.

  17. Understanding the adoption dynamics of medical innovations: affordances of the da Vinci robot in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrishami, Payam; Boer, Albert; Horstman, Klasien

    2014-09-01

    This study explored the rather rapid adoption of a new surgical device - the da Vinci robot - in the Netherlands despite the high costs and its controversial clinical benefits. We used the concept 'affordances' as a conceptual-analytic tool to refer to the perceived promises, symbolic meanings, and utility values of an innovation constructed in the wider social context of use. This concept helps us empirically understand robot adoption. Data from 28 in-depth interviews with diverse purposively-sampled stakeholders, and from medical literature, policy documents, Health Technology Assessment reports, congress websites and patients' weblogs/forums between April 2009 and February 2014 were systematically analysed from the perspective of affordances. We distinguished five interrelated affordances of the robot that accounted for shaping and fulfilling its rapid adoption: 'characteristics-related' affordances such as smart nomenclature and novelty, symbolising high-tech clinical excellence; 'research-related' affordances offering medical-technical scientific excellence; 'entrepreneurship-related' affordances for performing better-than-the-competition; 'policy-related' affordances indicating the robot's liberalised provision and its reduced financial risks; and 'communication-related' affordances of the robot in shaping patients' choices and the public's expectations by resonating promising discourses while pushing uncertainties into the background. These affordances make the take-up and use of the da Vinci robot sound perfectly rational and inevitable. This Dutch case study demonstrates the fruitfulness of the affordances approach to empirically capturing the contextual dynamics of technology adoption in health care: exploring in-depth actors' interaction with the technology while considering the interpretative spaces created in situations of use. This approach can best elicit real-life value of innovations, values as defined through the eyes of (potential) users

  18. Encapsulating the delivery of affordable housing: An overview of Malaysian practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaluddin Nor Baizura

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban population increases much faster than other geographical areas and this brings huge challenges to Malaysian government especially those responsible for the provision of housing. Moreover, the rise of living cost and pressure towards the current economic situation had inevitably led to huge demands for affordable housing. Thus, affordability and inaccessibility of people in owning a house has become one of the major issues in Malaysia. These issues are not only faced by the low-income group but mostly experienced by urban dwellers including the middle-income group whom are not eligible to apply for low-cost housing delivered by the government, yet cannot afford to buy a house. Hence, the Malaysian government had therefore established the Perumahan Rakyat 1 Malaysia (PR1MA as the catalyst in providing adequate, quality and affordable houses. Furthermore, the Syarikat Perumahan Negara Berhad (SPNB and the state governments also play their big role in providing affordable house at the state level. In trying to ensure smooth delivery of affordable housing, a systematic approach is required. This paper intends to examine the delivery of affordable housing in Malaysia. The objective was to assess the parties involved, and the various stages of the process. The methodology adopted for this study includes in-depth interviews with affordable housing agencies. Investigation showed that the major problem relates to a mismatch in the delivery of affordable housing. Moreover, the political and economic aspects, as well as the organization situation had also influenced the inefficiency of affordable housing delivery system. Additionally, the significant of this paper is expected to formulate an improved strategy and guidance in delivery system, thus ensuring that the method of practice is applicable throughout the country.

  19. Affordances and Landscapes: Overcoming the Nature–Culture Dichotomy through Niche Construction Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Escribano, Manuel; De Pinedo-García, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we reject the nature–culture dichotomy by means of the idea of affordance or possibility for action, which has important implications for landscape theory. Our hypothesis is that, just as the idea of affordance can serve to overcome the subjective–objective dichotomy, the ideas of landscape and ecological niche, properly defined, would allow us to also transcend the nature–culture dichotomy. First, we introduce an overview of landscape theory, emphasizing processual landscape theory as the most suitable approach for satisfying both cultural and naturalist approaches. After that, we introduce the idea of affordance and we analyze a tension between sociocultural and transcultural affordances (affordances that depend on cultural conventions and affordances that depend on lawful information and bodily aspects of agents). This tension has various implications for landscape theory and ecological niches. Our proposal is that sociocultural and transcultural aspects of affordances could be systematically accommodated if we apply niche construction theory (the theory that explains the process by which organisms modify their selective environments) as a methodological framework for explaining the emergence of ecological niches. This approach will lead us to an integrative account of landscapes as the products of the interaction between human and environmental elements, making it a clear example of a concept that transcends the nature–culture dichotomy. PMID:29375426

  20. Affordances and Landscapes: Overcoming the Nature-Culture Dichotomy through Niche Construction Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heras-Escribano, Manuel; De Pinedo-García, Manuel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we reject the nature-culture dichotomy by means of the idea of affordance or possibility for action, which has important implications for landscape theory. Our hypothesis is that, just as the idea of affordance can serve to overcome the subjective-objective dichotomy, the ideas of landscape and ecological niche, properly defined, would allow us to also transcend the nature-culture dichotomy. First, we introduce an overview of landscape theory, emphasizing processual landscape theory as the most suitable approach for satisfying both cultural and naturalist approaches. After that, we introduce the idea of affordance and we analyze a tension between sociocultural and transcultural affordances (affordances that depend on cultural conventions and affordances that depend on lawful information and bodily aspects of agents). This tension has various implications for landscape theory and ecological niches. Our proposal is that sociocultural and transcultural aspects of affordances could be systematically accommodated if we apply niche construction theory (the theory that explains the process by which organisms modify their selective environments) as a methodological framework for explaining the emergence of ecological niches. This approach will lead us to an integrative account of landscapes as the products of the interaction between human and environmental elements, making it a clear example of a concept that transcends the nature-culture dichotomy.

  1. Surgeon Reimbursements in Maxillofacial Trauma Surgery: Effect of the Affordable Care Act in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khansa, Ibrahim; Khansa, Lara; Pearson, Gregory D

    2016-02-01

    Surgical treatment of maxillofacial injuries has historically been associated with low reimbursements, mainly because of the high proportion of uninsured patients. The Affordable Care Act, implemented in January of 2014, aimed to reduce the number of uninsured. If the Affordable Care Act achieves this goal, surgeons may benefit from improved reimbursement rates. The authors' purpose was to evaluate the effects of the Affordable Care Act on payor distribution and surgeon reimbursements for maxillofacial trauma surgery at their institution. A review of all patients undergoing surgery for maxillofacial trauma between January of 2012 and December of 2014 was conducted. Insurance status, and amounts billed and collected by the surgeon, were recorded. Patients treated before implementation of the Affordable Care Act were compared to those treated after. Five hundred twenty-three patients were analyzed. Three hundred thirty-four underwent surgery before implementation of the Affordable Care Act, and 189 patients underwent surgery after. After implementation of the Affordable Care Act, the proportion of uninsured decreased (27.2 percent to 11.1 percent; p reimbursement rate increased from 14.3 percent to 19.8 percent (p reimbursement rate increased. These trends should be followed over a longer term to determine the full effect of the Affordable Care Act.

  2. Simple, Affordable and Sustainable Borehole Observatories for Complex Monitoring Objectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopf, A.; Hammerschmidt, S.; Davis, E.; Saffer, D.; Wheat, G.; LaBonte, A.; Meldrum, R.; Heesemann, M.; Villinger, H.; Freudenthal, T.; Ratmeyer, V.; Renken, J.; Bergenthal, M.; Wefer, G.

    2012-04-01

    Around 20 years ago, the scientific community started to use borehole observatories, so-called CORKs or Circulation Obviation Retrofit Kits, which are installed inside submarine boreholes, and which allow the re-establishment and monitoring of in situ conditions. From the first CORKs which allowed only rudimentary fluid pressure and temperature measurements, the instruments evolved to multi-functional and multi-level subseafloor laboratories, including, for example, long-term fluid sampling devices, in situ microbiological experiments or strainmeter. Nonetheless, most boreholes are still left uninstrumented, which is a major loss for the scientific community. In-stallation of CORKs usually requires a drillship and subsequent ROV assignments for data download and instru-ment maintenance, which is a major logistic and financial effort. Moreover, the increasing complexity of the CORK systems increased not only the expenses but led also to longer installation times and a higher sensitivity of the in-struments to environmental constraints. Here, we present three types of Mini-CORKs, which evolved back to more simple systems yet providing a wide range of possible in situ measurements. As a regional example the Nankai Trough is chosen, where repeated subduction thrust earthquakes with M8+ occurred. The area has been investigated by several drilling campaigns of the DSDP, ODP and IODP, where boreholes were already instrumented by different CORKs. Unfortunately, some of the more complex systems showed incomplete functionality, and moreover, the increased ship time forced IODP to rely on third party funds for the observatories. Consequently, the need for more affordable CORKs arose, which may be satisfied by the systems presented here. The first type, the so-called SmartPlug, provides two pressure transducers and four temperature sensors, and monitors a hydrostatic reference section and an isolated zone of interest. It was already installed at the Nankai Trough accretionary

  3. SunShot Initiative: Making Solar Energy Affordable for All Americans (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2013-10-01

    Through SunShot, DOE supports efforts by private companies, universities, and national laboratories to drive down the cost of solar electricity to $0.06 per kilowatt-hour, making solar energy affordable for more American families and businesses.

  4. Closing the Communal Gap: The Importance of Communal Affordances in Science Career Motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Elizabeth R; Thoman, Dustin B; Smith, Jessi L; Diekman, Amanda B

    2015-12-01

    To remain competitive in the global economy, the United States (and other countries) is trying to broaden participation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) by graduating an additional 1 million people in STEM fields by 2018. Although communion (working with, helping, and caring for others) is a basic human need, STEM careers are often (mis)perceived as being uncommunal. Across three naturalistic studies we found greater support for the communal affordance hypothesis, that perceiving STEM careers as affording greater communion is associated with greater STEM career interest, than two alternative hypotheses derived from goal congruity theory. Importantly, these findings held regardless of major (Study 1), college enrollment (Study 2), and gender (Studies 1-3). For undergraduate research assistants, mid-semester beliefs that STEM affords communion predicted end of the semester STEM motivation (Study 3). Our data highlight the importance of educational and workplace motivational interventions targeting communal affordances beliefs about STEM.

  5. A study of social information control affordances and gender difference in Facebook self-presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Feng-Yang; Tseng, Chih-Yi; Tseng, Fan-Chuan; Lin, Cathy S

    2013-09-01

    Affordances refer to how interface features of an IT artifact, perceived by its users in terms of their potentials for action, may predict the intensity of usage. This study investigates three social information affordances for expressive information control, privacy information control, and image information control in Facebook. The results show that the three affordances can significantly explain how Facebook's interface designs facilitate users' self-presentation activities. In addition, the findings reveal that males are more engaged in expressing information than females, while females are more involved in privacy control than males. A practical application of our study is to compare and contrast the level of affordances offered by various social network sites (SNS) like Facebook and Twitter, as well as differences in online self-presentations across cultures. Our approach can therefore be useful to investigate how SNS design features can be tailored to specific gender and culture needs.

  6. Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing Information Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean C. Bennett d/b/a Affordable Tuckpointing (the Company) is located in Arnold, Missouri. The Complaint involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in St. Louis, Missouri.

  7. Affordable housing as a niche product: The case of the Danish “SocialHousing Plus”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    Establishing affordable housing is a growing demand in many larger cities there is however a number of challenges related to establishing affordable housing, as well as many different approaches. This paper presents a case-study of an affordable housing concept in the Danish social housing sector......, the “SocialHousing Plus” (“AlmenBolig+”) which is based on lowering production costs as well as operation costs including residential self-management, large-scale production of pre-fab housing units, low-energy solutions and other innovative approaches. The concept was developed in 2007, and has so far...... resulted in the production of more than 1.500 dwellings. The paper will discuss the results of the concept, and the various challenges related to it. Based on the theory of Technological Transition (Geels, 2002) it will discuss the options and limitations of providing affordable housing through developing...

  8. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  9. Leveraging the Affordances of the Emerging 3d Internet for Entrepreneurial ”Next Practices”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Flåten, Bjørn-Tore

    ” for entrepreneurial practices? Our second research question focuses on understanding how entrepreneurs utilize their social networks. Our approach to entrepreneurship is social-- concerned with the dynamics of social interactions and networked information ecology. Methods We are currently conducting 10 case studies...... for entrepreneurship. Unfortunately, the literature offers sparse knowledge at the industry level. There is a lack of overview regarding 3D Internet entrepreneurship practices and the real challenges faced by entrepreneurs. In this study, we explore the potential as well as the hindrances to new venture creation...... related to the 3D Internet. Our theoretical basis is affordances, or the material and social properties of any technology in relation to affording actions by humans. Our first research question focuses on the perception of affordances by entrepreneurs: what does the 3D Internet offer or afford as a “space...

  10. Tablets for Learning in Higher Education:The Top 10 Affordances

    OpenAIRE

    Godsk, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    Based on a small-scale literature review this paper identifies the top 10 affordances of post PC tablets (sometimes referred to as ‘tablet computers’) for higher education in settings where the technology is used for learning. The review shows that the predominant affordances of the technology are related to its ability to support engaging, inclusive, and/or collaborative learning, to provide flexibility in place, and to include multimedia and interactive content in teaching practice. However...

  11. Availability and Affordability of Insurance Under Climate Change. A Growing Challenge for the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, E.; Roth, R.J. Jr; Lecomte, E.

    2005-01-01

    The paper explores the insurability of risks from climate change, and ways in which insurance affordability and availability could be adversely impacted in the U.S. i n the coming years. It includes examples where affordability and availability of insurance are already at risk from rising weather-related losses and how future financial exposure for insurers, governments, businesses and consumers could worsen if current climate and business trends continue

  12. Health-care reform or labor market reform? A quantitative analysis of the affordable care act

    OpenAIRE

    Nakajima, Makoto; Tuzemen, Didem

    2015-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires all individuals to have health insurance, and introduces penalties to large firms that do not offer affordable coverage to their employees. While the possible effects of the ACA on the insurance decision of individuals have been studied, what is less studied is how the ACA can affect labor demand. In particular, since the ACA does not require small firms to offer health insurance, and does not require firms to offer health insuranc...

  13. Effects of the Affordable Care Act on part-time employment: Early evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Dillender, Marcus; Heinrich, Carolyn J.; Houseman, Susan N.

    2016-01-01

    The Affordable Care Act (ACA) requires employers with at least 50 full-time-equivalent employees to offer "affordable" health insurance to employees working 30 or more hours per week. If employers do not comply with the mandate, they may face substantial financial penalties. Employers can potentially circumvent the mandate by reducing weekly hours below the 30-hour threshold or by using other nonstandard employment arrangements (direct-hire temporaries, agency temporaries, small contractors, ...

  14. flexZhouse: New business model for affordable housing in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Zairul bin Mohd Noor

    2017-01-01

    Central to this PhD research was the problem of the lack of affordable housing for young starters in Malaysia. The solutions for affordable housing that are available in the market do not truly solve the problem from the customer’s point of view. Hence, it was important to analyse the contributing factors associated with the term ‘affordability’. The term touches upon interconnected elements that cover many issues ranging from demand (housing needs, demographics, household income, quality hou...

  15. A Challenge Facing the Malaysian Pharmaceutical Sector: Quality and Affordability of the National Medications

    OpenAIRE

    Abubaker Abdellah; Noordin MI; Shade AM Khalifa; Rafdzah Zaki; Ahmad S Sulaiman; Ali Abdellah; Hesham R El-Seedi

    2016-01-01

    Background: Enhancing public satisfaction of the quality and affordability of medicines is an important task in health services. Objective: This study was intended to assess the trust and acceptance of public concerning quality and affordability of locally manufactured medicines in Malaysia. Methodology: A cross sectional study was performed, and a validated Likert scale questionnaire was used in this study. The results were analyzed using the statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) so...

  16. Affordable mobile robotic platforms for teaching computer science at African universities

    OpenAIRE

    Gyebi, Ernest; Hanheide, Marc; Cielniak, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    Educational robotics can play a key role in addressing some of the challenges faced by higher education in Africa. One of the major obstacles preventing a wider adoption of initiatives involving educational robotics in this part of the world is lack of robots that would be affordable by African institutions. In this paper, we present a survey and analysis of currently available affordable mobile robots and their suitability for teaching computer science at African universities. To this end, w...

  17. Affordability Assessment to Implement Light Rail Transit (LRT for Greater Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjang Nugroho

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The high population density and the increasing visitors in Yogyakarta aggravate the traffic congestion problem. BRT (Bus Rapid Transit services, Trans Jogja has not managed to solve this problem yet. Introducing Light Rail Transit (LRT has been considered as one of the solutions to restrain the congestion in Greater Yogyakarta. As the first indication that the LRT can be built in Greater Yogyakarta, the transportation affordability index was used to understand whether the LRT tariff was affordable. That tariff was calculated based on government policy in determining railway tariff. The forecasted potential passengers and LRT route have been analyzed as the previous steps to get LRT tariff. Potential passenger was forecasted from gravity mode, and the proposed LRT route was chosen using Multi Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA. The existing transportation affordability index was calculated for comparison analysis using the percentage of the expenditures for transportation made by monthly income of each household. The result showed that the LRT for Greater Yogyakarta was the most affordable transport mode compared to the Trans Jogja Bus and motorcycle. The affordability index of Tram Jogja for people having average income was 10.66% while another people with bottom quartile income was 13.56%. Keywords: Greater Yogyakarta, LRT, affordability.

  18. Understanding social engagement in autism: Being different in perceiving and sharing affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annika eHellendoorn

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper I will argue that the notion of affordances offers an alternative to theory of mind (ToM approaches in studying social engagement in general and in explaining social engagement in autism spectrum disorder (ASD specifically. Affordances are the possibilities for action offered by the environment. In contrast to ToM approaches, the concept of affordances implies the complementarity of person and environment and rejects the dualism of mind and behaviour. In line with the Gibsonian idea that a child must eventually perceive the affordances of the environment for others as well for herself in order to become socialized, I will hypothesize that individuals with ASD often do not perceive the same affordances in the environment as other people do and have difficulties perceiving others' affordances. This can lead to a disruption of interpersonal behaviours. I will further argue that the methods for studying social engagement should be adapted if we want to take interaction into account.

  19. Relative Affordability of Health Insurance Premiums under CHIP Expansion Programs and the ACA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gresenz, Carole Roan; Laugesen, Miriam J; Yesus, Ambeshie; Escarce, José J

    2011-10-01

    Affordability is integral to the success of health care reforms aimed at ensuring universal access to health insurance coverage, and affordability determinations have major policy and practical consequences. This article describes factors that influenced the determination of affordability benchmarks and premium-contribution requirements for Children's Health Insurance Program (CHIP) expansions in three states that sought to universalize access to coverage for youth. It also compares subsidy levels developed in these states to the premium subsidy schedule under the Affordable Care Act (ACA) for health insurance plans purchased through an exchange. We find sizeable variability in premium-contribution requirements for children's coverage as a percentage of family income across the three states and in the progressivity and regressivity of the premium-contribution schedules developed. These findings underscore the ambiguity and subjectivity of affordability standards. Further, our analyses suggest that while the ACA increases the affordability of family coverage for families with incomes below 400 percent of the federal poverty level, the evolution of CHIP over the next five to ten years will continue to have significant implications for low-income families.

  20. Health Migration: Crossing Borders for Affordable Health Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Miller-Thayer

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 45.7 million people in the United States are uninsured and unknown numbers of this population are underinsured, severely limiting their access to medical care. To address this problem, people use innovative strategies to increase their access through cross-border care options. The U.S.-Mexico border provides unique challenges and opportunities for health care in this context. The lower cost of medical and dental procedures and medications in Mexico makes that country an attractive alternative for low-income populations in the United States. Thus segments of the U.S. population practice transnational medical consumerism in an attempt to optimize their health by using the resources available in both countries. This practice has economic benefits for the people who access health care at an affordable rate and for the medical markets of the country providing the care. Drawing on data collected in the field in 2002, 2004, and 2005, this paper presents some of the complexities and dynamics of medical pluralism occurring at the U.S.-Mexico border.Environ 45,7 millions de personnes vivant aux Etats-Unis n’ont pas de couverture sociale et nombreux sont celles à être sous-assurées, ce qui limite considérablement leur accès aux soins. Face à ce problème, les Américains font preuve d'ingéniosité pour améliorer leur accès aux soins : ils se font soigner au-delà des frontières. Dans ce contexte, la frontière entre les Etats-Unis et le Mexique offre des opportunités uniques de soins. Le Mexique constitue en effet une alternative séduisante pour les Américains à faible revenu, car les tarifs des actes médicaux et dentaires, et des médicaments, sont nettement inférieurs à ceux en vigueur aux Etats-Unis. Ainsi, certains Américains pratiquent le consumérisme médical transnational et recourent aux ressources disponibles dans les deux pays afin d’optimiser leur santé. Cette pratique présente des avantages économiques

  1. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruineberg, Jelle; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism's tendency toward an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston's work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the system "brain-body-landscape of affordances." Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism's selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients.

  2. User-inspired design methodology using Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM for construction projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maheswari J. Uma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, design phase of construction projects is often performed with incomplete and inaccurate user preferences. This is due to inefficiencies in the methodologies used for capturing the user requirements that can subsequently lead to inconsistencies and result in non-optimised end-result. Iterations and subsequent reworks due to such design inefficiencies is one of the major reasons for unsuccessful project delivery as they impact project performance measures such as time and cost among others. The existing design theories and practice are primarily based on functional requirements. Function-based design deals with design of artifact alone, which may yield favourable or unfavourable consequences with the design artifact. However, incorporating other interactions such as interactions between user & designer is necessary for optimised end-result. Hence, the objective of this research work is to devise a systematic design methodology considering all the three interactions among users, designers and artefacts for improved design efficiency. In this study, it has been attempted to apply the theory of affordances in a case project that involves the design of an offshore facility. A step-by-step methodology for developing Affordance Structure Matrix (ASM, which integrates House of Quality (HOQ and Design Structure Matrix (DSM, is proposed that can effectively capture the user requirements. HOQ is a popular quality management tool for capturing client requirements and DSM is a matrix-based tool that can capture the interdependency among the design entities. The proposed methodology utilises the strengths of both the tools, as DSM compliments HOQ in the process. In this methodology, different affordances such as AUA (Artifact-User-Affordance, AAA (Artifact-Artifact-Affordance and DDA (Designer-Designer-Affordance are captured systematically. Affordance is considered to be user-driven in this context that is in contrast to prevailing design

  3. Understanding and using technological affordances: a response to Boyle and Cook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gráinne Conole

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Our use of affordance draws on Salomon (Salomon, 1993 who takes the definition back to Gibson and Norman (Gibson, 1977; Norman, 1988. Perhaps a key difference between the use of the term affordance in design is the emphasis on intended use, whereas our approach reflects Salomon's focus on ‘possible' use. Like Gibson the approach taken in our paper is focused on the relationship between the infrastructure of information and communication technologies and people's use of those technologies. We are interested in asking questions about what uses ICT invites and facilitates, what it lends itself to and what it can do well. A potential difficulty with using a term so popular in the field of design is that ‘use' tends to be focused on how something ‘should' be used, what it is designed for. Discussion about affordance can be limited to the intended, prescribed or designed function of technology. We are also interested in exploring the creative and innovative way people respond to technologies and perhaps adapt them for use in unforeseen circumstances. An affordance of the technology does not simply refer to the intended use but also to the unintended consequences. Google's use of hyper text links to drive the indexing of web searches might be an example of an affordance that is a consequence of creative engagement with technology, the adaptation rather than a feature of the original design related to hypertext. Another example of this adaptive use of hypertext might include its use by teachers to provide a digital framework for formative assessment and support for student learning. Class room teachers were quick to adapt presentation software and hyper text to present more interactive activity lessons. Software affording transmission modes of delivery was thereby adapted to users needs and a more interactive affordance created.

  4. Trend in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh: findings from the ITC Bangladesh Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nargis, Nigar; Stoklosa, Michal; Drope, Jeffrey; Fong, Geoffrey T; Quah, Anne C K; Driezen, Pete; Shang, Ce; Chaloupka, Frank J; Hussain, A K M Ghulam

    2018-04-19

    The price of tobacco products in relation to the income of tobacco users-affordability-is recognised as a key determinant of tobacco use behaviour. The effectiveness of a price increase as a deterrent to tobacco use depends on how much price increases in relation to the income of the potential users. The aim of this paper is to examine the distribution of and trends in the affordability of tobacco products in Bangladesh. Using four waves of International Tobacco Control Survey data on Bangladesh, this study measures affordability of tobacco products at the individual level as the ratio of self-reported price and self-reported income. The trends in affordability by brand categories of cigarettes and of bidi and smokeless tobacco are estimated using multivariate linear regression analysis. Despite significant increase in price, the affordability of cigarettes increased between 2009 and 2014-2015 due to income growth outpacing price increase. The increase was disproportionately larger for more expensive brands. The affordability of bidis increased over this period as well. The affordability of smokeless tobacco products remained unchanged between 2011-2012 and 2014-2015. The tax increases that were implemented during 2009-2015 were not enough to increase tobacco product prices sufficiently to outweigh the effect of income growth, and to reduce tobacco consumption. The findings from this research inform policymakers that in countries experiencing rapid economic growth, significant tax increases are needed to counteract the effect of income growth, in order for the tax increases to be effective in reducing tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  5. Can poor consumers pay for energy and water? An affordability analysis for transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankhauser, S.; Sladjana Tepic

    2007-01-01

    Low-income households spend a substantial share of their income on utility services such as electricity, heating and water. The difficulty of these socially vulnerable consumers to absorb further price increases is often used as an argument against tariff reform. However, detailed quantitative information on the affordability of tariff adjustments for low-income consumers is actually quite scarce. Much of the available information is based on households. This paper takes a more detailed look at the affordability of electricity, district heating and water for low-income consumers in transition countries. While the available data are incomplete, the paper finds that affordability is a problem for low-income consumers in most countries, in particular in the water sector and in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The affordability consequences of tariff reform ultimately depend on the speed of tariff adjustments relative to the growth in household income, the level of tariffs needed for cost recovery, the level of effective tariffs at the outset (tariffs adjusted for non-payment) and the demand response to the tariff increase. The paper finds that delaying tariff reform by a few years makes little difference to affordability constraints, and may therefore not be an effective way to mitigate the social impact of utility reform. (author)

  6. Can poor consumers pay for energy and water? An affordability analysis for transition countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Tepic, Sladjana

    2007-01-01

    Low-income households spend a substantial share of their income on utility services such as electricity, heating and water. The difficulty of these socially vulnerable consumers to absorb further price increases is often used as an argument against tariff reform. However, detailed quantitative information on the affordability of tariff adjustments for low-income consumers is actually quite scarce. Much of the available information is based on households. This paper takes a more detailed look at the affordability of electricity, district heating and water for low-income consumers in transition countries. While the available data are incomplete, the paper finds that affordability is a problem for low-income consumers in most countries, in particular in the water sector and in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). The affordability consequences of tariff reform ultimately depend on the speed of tariff adjustments relative to the growth in household income, the level of tariffs needed for cost recovery, the level of effective tariffs at the outset (tariffs adjusted for non-payment) and the demand response to the tariff increase. The paper finds that delaying tariff reform by a few years makes little difference to affordability constraints, and may therefore not be an effective way to mitigate the social impact of utility reform

  7. Close interpersonal proximity modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saccone, Elizabeth J; Szpak, Ancret; Churches, Owen; Nicholls, Michael E R

    2018-01-01

    Research suggests that the human brain codes manipulable objects as possibilities for action, or affordances, particularly objects close to the body. Near-body space is not only a zone for body-environment interaction but also is socially relevant, as we are driven to preserve our near-body, personal space from others. The current, novel study investigated how close proximity of a stranger modulates visuomotor processing of object affordances in shared, social space. Participants performed a behavioural object recognition task both alone and with a human confederate. All object images were in participants' reachable space but appeared relatively closer to the participant or the confederate. Results revealed when participants were alone, objects in both locations produced an affordance congruency effect but when the confederate was present, only objects nearer the participant elicited the effect. Findings suggest space is divided between strangers to preserve independent near-body space boundaries, and in turn this process influences motor coding for stimuli within that social space. To demonstrate that this visuomotor modulation represents a social phenomenon, rather than a general, attentional effect, two subsequent experiments employed nonhuman joint conditions. Neither a small, Japanese, waving cat statue (Experiment 2) nor a metronome (Experiment 3) modulated the affordance effect as in Experiment 1. These findings suggest a truly social explanation of the key interaction from Experiment 1. This study represents an important step toward understanding object affordance processing in real-world, social contexts and has implications broadly across fields of social action and cognition, and body space representation.

  8. System engineering of complex optical systems for mission assurance and affordability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Anees

    2017-08-01

    Affordability and reliability are equally important as the performance and development time for many optical systems for military, space and commercial applications. These characteristics are even more important for the systems meant for space and military applications where total lifecycle costs must be affordable. Most customers are looking for high performance optical systems that are not only affordable but are designed with "no doubt" mission assurance, reliability and maintainability in mind. Both US military and commercial customers are now demanding an optimum balance between performance, reliability and affordability. Therefore, it is important to employ a disciplined systems design approach for meeting the performance, cost and schedule targets while keeping affordability and reliability in mind. The US Missile Defense Agency (MDA) now requires all of their systems to be engineered, tested and produced according to the Mission Assurance Provisions (MAP). These provisions or requirements are meant to ensure complex and expensive military systems are designed, integrated, tested and produced with the reliability and total lifecycle costs in mind. This paper describes a system design approach based on the MAP document for developing sophisticated optical systems that are not only cost-effective but also deliver superior and reliable performance during their intended missions.

  9. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: Promoting Competition in the Individual Marketplaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusano, David; Lucia, Kevin

    2016-02-01

    A main goal of the Affordable Care Act is to provide Americans with access to affordable coverage in the individual market, achieved in part by pro­moting competition among insurers on premium price and value. One primary mechanism for meeting that goal is the establishment of new individual health insurance marketplaces where consumers can shop for, compare, and purchase plans, with subsidies if they are eligible. In this issue brief, we explore how the Affordable Care Act is influencing competition in the individual marketplaces in four states--Kansas, Nevada, Rhode Island, and Washington. Strategies include: educating consumers and providing coverage information in one place to ease decision-making; promoting competition among insurers; and ensuring a level playing field for premium rate development through the rate review process.

  10. An affordable and easy-to-use diagnostic method for keratoconus detection using a smartphone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askarian, Behnam; Tabei, Fatemehsadat; Askarian, Amin; Chong, Jo Woon

    2018-02-01

    Recently, smartphones are used for disease diagnosis and healthcare. In this paper, we propose a novel affordable diagnostic method of detecting keratoconus using a smartphone. Keratoconus is usually detected in clinics with ophthalmic devices, which are large, expensive and not portable, and need to be operated by trained technicians. However, our proposed smartphone-based eye disease detection method is small, affordable, portable, and it can be operated by patients in a convenient way. The results show that the proposed keratoconus detection method detects severe, advanced, and moderate keratoconus with accuracies of 93%, 86%, 67%, respectively. Due to its convenience with these accuracies, the proposed keratoconus detection method is expected to be applied in detecting keratoconus at an earlier stage in an affordable way.

  11. The role of business agreements in defining textbook affordability and digital materials: A document analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Raible

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Adopting digital materials such as eTextbooks and e-coursepacks is a potential strategy to address textbook affordability in the United States. However, university business relationships with bookstore vendors implicitly structure which instructional resources are available and in what manner. In this study, a document analysis was conducted on the bookstore contracts for the universities included in the State University System of Florida. Namely, issues of textbook affordability, digital material terminology and seller exclusivity were investigated. It was found that textbook affordability was generally conceived in terms of print rental textbooks and buyback programs, and that eTextbooks were priced higher than print textbooks (25% to 30% markup. Implications and recommendations for change are shared. DOI: 10.18870/hlrc.v5i4.284

  12. Self-organization, free energy minimization, and optimal grip on a field of affordances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelle eBruineberg

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we set out to develop a theoretical and conceptual framework for the new field of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience. This framework should be able to integrate insights from several relevant disciplines: theory on embodied cognition, ecological psychology, phenomenology, dynamical systems theory, and neurodynamics. We suggest that the main task of Radical Embodied Cognitive Neuroscience is to investigate the phenomenon of skilled intentionality from the perspective of the self-organization of the brain-body-environment system, while doing justice to the phenomenology of skilled action. In previous work, we have characterized skilled intentionality as the organism’s tendency towards an optimal grip on multiple relevant affordances simultaneously. Affordances are possibilities for action provided by the environment. In the first part of this paper, we introduce the notion of skilled intentionality and the phenomenon of responsiveness to a field of relevant affordances. Second, we use Friston’s work on neurodynamics, but embed a very minimal version of his Free Energy Principle in the ecological niche of the animal. Thus amended, this principle is helpful for understanding the embeddedness of neurodynamics within the dynamics of the brain-body-environment system. Next, we show how we can use this adjusted principle to understand the neurodynamics of selective openness to the environment: interacting action-readiness patterns at multiple timescales contribute to the organism’s selective openness to relevant affordances. In the final part of the paper, we emphasize the important role of metastable dynamics in both the brain and the brain-body-environment system for adequate affordance-responsiveness. We exemplify our integrative approach by presenting research on the impact of Deep Brain Stimulation on affordance responsiveness of OCD patients.

  13. Exploring the Multi-Layered Affordances of Composing and Performing Interactive Music with Responsive Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einarsson, Anna; Ziemke, Tom

    2017-01-01

    The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc. The concept of affordances has frequently been invoked in musical research, which has seen a " bodily turn " in recent years, similar to the development of the embodied cognition approach in the cognitive sciences. We therefore begin by broadly delineating its usage in the cognitive sciences in general, and in music research in particular. We argue that what is still missing in the discourse on musical affordances is an encompassing theoretical framework incorporating the sociocultural dimensions that are fundamental to the situatedness and embodiment of interactive music performance and composition. We further argue that the cultural affordances framework, proposed by Rietveld and Kiverstein (2014) and recently articulated further by Ramstead et al. (2016) in this journal, although not previously applied to music, constitutes a promising starting point. It captures and elucidates this complex web of relationships in terms of shared landscapes and individual fields of affordances. We illustrate this with examples foremost from the first author's artistic work as composer and performer of interactive music. This sheds new light on musical composition as a process of construction-and embodied mental simulation-of situations, guiding the performers' and audience's attention in shifting fields of affordances. More generally, we

  14. Proposed regulations could limit access to affordable health coverage for workers' children and family members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Ken; Graham-Squire, Dave; Roby, Dylan H; Kominski, Gerald F; Kinane, Christina M; Needleman, Jack; Watson, Greg; Gans, Daphna

    2011-12-01

    Key Findings. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is designed to offer premium subsidies to help eligible individuals and their families purchase insurance coverage when affordable job-based coverage is not available. However, the law is unclear on how this affordability protection is applied in those instances where self-only coverage offered by an employer is affordable but family coverage is not. Regulations recently proposed by the Department of the Treasury would make family members ineligible for subsidized coverage in the exchange if an employee is offered affordable self-only coverage by an employer, even if family coverage is unaffordable. This could have significant financial consequences for low- and moderate-income families that fall in this gap. Using an alternative interpretation of the law could allow the entire family to enter the exchange when family coverage is unaffordable, which would broaden access to coverage. However, this option has been cited as cost prohibitive. In this brief we consider a middle ground alternative that would base eligibility for the individual worker on the cost of self-only coverage, but would use the additional cost to the employee for family coverage as the basis for determining affordability and eligibility for subsidies for the remaining family members. We find that: Under the middle ground alternative scenario an additional 144,000 Californians would qualify for and use premium subsidies in the California Health Benefit Exchange, half of whom are children. Less than 1 percent of those with employer-based coverage would move to subsidized coverage in the California Health Benefit Exchange as a result of having unaffordable coverage on the job.

  15. On the relevance of Gibson's affordance concept for geographical information science (GISc).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonietz, David; Timpf, Sabine

    2015-09-01

    J. J. Gibson's concept of affordances has provided a theoretical basis for various studies in geographical information science (GISc). This paper sets out to explain its popularity from a GISc perspective. Based on a short review of previous work, it will be argued that its main contributions to GISc are twofold, including an action-centered view of spatial entities and the notion of agent-environment mutuality. Using the practical example of pedestrian behavior simulation, new potentials for using and extending affordances are discussed.

  16. Students' affordance of teleologic explanations and antrhropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romiro Gordo Bautista

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This study ascertains the students’ affordance of teleologic explanations and anthropomorphic language in eliciting concepts in Physics as influenced by their age and learning exposure and experience. Using Explicative-Reductive Method of Descriptive Research, this study focused on the determinants of students’ affordance of teleologic-anthropomorphic reasoning to select concepts in Physics: Kinematics, Dynamics, Statics and Introduction to Thermodynamics.  It was found out that the respondents had intermittently committed teleologic-anthropomorphic languages across age and nature of their secondary education. Furthermore, teleologic-anthropomorphic languages were found correctible by classroom interventions as indicated by the test results on age and curricular exposure.

  17. Understanding Structures and Affordances of Extended Teams in Global Software Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali Babar, Muhammad; Zahedi, Mansooreh

    2013-01-01

    Growing popularity of Global Software Development (GSD) has resulted in an increasing number of cross-organizational teams that are formed according to Extended Team Model (ETM). There is little known about the structures (work, social, and communication) that may exist in ETM and what affordances...... in the studied team help deal with different GSD challenges, these structures appear to have certain challenges inherent in them and the affordances they provide. We make a few recommendations for improving the current structures to deal with the observed challenges. Our findings are expected to provide insights...

  18. A Prototype using Territories and an Affordance Tree for Social Simulation Gameplay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geishauser, Tilman; Cheong, Yun-Gyung; Nelson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Smart objects are a representation strategy for games and virtual worlds, in which information about object interac- tions is distributed into the ob jects themselves: an ob ject knows how it can be used, what kinds of effects it has, etc. In this work, we describe a prototype that aims to explore...... so- cial simulation using smart objects. We extend the concept of smart objects to include a model of human behavior with regard to territoriality. To manage complexity in worlds with many such objects we employ a tree structure, which we call an Affordance Tree. The Affordance Tree allows...

  19. Refusal to enrol in Ghana's National Health Insurance Scheme: is affordability the problem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusi, Anthony; Enemark, Ulrika; Hansen, Kristian S; Asante, Felix A

    2015-01-17

    Access to health insurance is expected to have positive effect in improving access to healthcare and offer financial risk protection to households. Ghana began the implementation of a National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS) in 2004 as a way to ensure equitable access to basic healthcare for all residents. After a decade of its implementation, national coverage is just about 34% of the national population. Affordability of the NHIS contribution is often cited by households as a major barrier to enrolment in the NHIS without any rigorous analysis of this claim. In light of the global interest in achieving universal health insurance coverage, this study seeks to examine the extent to which affordability of the NHIS contribution is a barrier to full insurance for households and a burden on their resources. The study uses data from a cross-sectional household survey involving 2,430 households from three districts in Ghana conducted between January-April, 2011. Affordability of the NHIS contribution is analysed using the household budget-based approach based on the normative definition of affordability. The burden of the NHIS contributions to households is assessed by relating the expected annual NHIS contribution to household non-food expenditure and total consumption expenditure. Households which cannot afford full insurance were identified. Results show that 66% of uninsured households and 70% of partially insured households could afford full insurance for their members. Enroling all household members in the NHIS would account for 5.9% of household non-food expenditure or 2.0% of total expenditure but higher for households in the first (11.4%) and second (7.0%) socio-economic quintiles. All the households (29%) identified as unable to afford full insurance were in the two lower socio-economic quintiles and had large household sizes. Non-financial factors relating to attributes of the insurer and health system problems also affect enrolment in the NHIS. Affordability

  20. High Working Memory Load Increases Intracortical Inhibition in Primary Motor Cortex and Diminishes the Motor Affordance Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Scott M; Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Aron, Adam R

    2016-05-18

    Motor affordances occur when the visual properties of an object elicit behaviorally relevant motor representations. Typically, motor affordances only produce subtle effects on response time or on motor activity indexed by neuroimaging/neuroelectrophysiology, but sometimes they can trigger action itself. This is apparent in "utilization behavior," where individuals with frontal cortex damage inappropriately grasp affording objects. This raises the possibility that, in healthy-functioning individuals, frontal cortex helps ensure that irrelevant affordance provocations remain below the threshold for actual movement. In Experiment 1, we tested this "frontal control" hypothesis by "loading" the frontal cortex with an effortful working memory (WM) task (which ostensibly consumes frontal resources) and examined whether this increased EEG measures of motor affordances to irrelevant affording objects. Under low WM load, there were typical motor affordance signatures: an event-related desynchronization in the mu frequency and an increased P300 amplitude for affording (vs nonaffording) objects over centroparietal electrodes. Contrary to our prediction, however, these affordance measures were diminished under high WM load. In Experiment 2, we tested competing mechanisms responsible for the diminished affordance in Experiment 1. We used paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation over primary motor cortex to measure long-interval cortical inhibition. We found greater long-interval cortical inhibition for high versus low load both before and after the affording object, suggesting that a tonic inhibition state in primary motor cortex could prevent the affordance from provoking the motor system. Overall, our results suggest that a high WM load "sets" the motor system into a suppressed state that mitigates motor affordances. Is an irrelevant motor affordance more likely to be triggered when you are under low or high cognitive load? We examined this using physiological measures

  1. Robust High Temperature Environmental Barrier Coating System for Ceramic Matrix Composite Gas Turbine Components using Affordable Processing Approach, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Research is proposed to demonstrate the use of advanced manufacturing techniques to enable the affordable application of multi-functional thermal / environmental...

  2. The Affordances of Mobile-App Supported Teacher Observations for Peer Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Sercan; Baran, Evrim; Sert, Olcay

    2018-01-01

    Mobile technologies offer new affordances for teacher observation in teacher education programs, albeit under-examined in contrast to video technologies. The purpose of this article is to investigate the integration of mobile technologies into teacher observation. Using a case study method, the authors compare the traditional narrative paper-pen,…

  3. Awareness, Perceptions, and Communication Needs about the Affordable Care Act across the Life Span

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Caroline D.; Friedman, Daniela B.; Sisson, Diana C.; Tanner, Andrea; Kornegay, Vance L.; Owens, Otis L.; Weis, Megan A.; Patterson, Lee L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: By March 2014, all U.S. citizens were required to have health insurance according to the Affordable Care Act (ACA). Purpose: Study objectives were to explore individuals' opinions, perceptions, and communication sources and needs about the ACA and to assess differences by age group. Methods: In November 2013, 10 1-hour focus groups (5…

  4. Learners with Dyslexia: Exploring Their Experiences with Different Online Reading Affordances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chwen Jen; Keong, Melissa Wei Yin; Teh, Chee Siong; Chuah, Kee Man

    2015-01-01

    To date, empirically derived guidelines for designing accessible online learning environments for learners with dyslexia are still scarce. This study aims to explore the learning experience of learners with dyslexia when reading passages using different online reading affordances to derive some guidelines for dyslexia-friendly online text. The…

  5. Pathways in Learning to Teach Elementary Science: Navigating Contexts, Roles, Affordances and Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Deborah C.; Jang, Shinho

    2011-01-01

    This case study of a fifth-year elementary intern's pathway in learning to teach science focused on her science methods course, placement science teaching, and reflections as a first-year teacher. We studied the sociocultural contexts within which the intern learned, their affordances and constraints, and participants' perspectives on their roles…

  6. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act: The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combe, Laurie G.; Sharpe, Susan; Feeser, Cynthia Jo; Ondeck, Lynnette; Fekaris, Nina

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) serves a vital role in the delivery of health care to our nation's students within the healthcare system reshaped by the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, commonly known as…

  7. Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High-Temperature Distributed Engine Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    long lasting, high temperature modules is to use high temperature electronics on ceramic modules. The electronic components are “ brazed ” onto the...Copyright © 2012 by ISA Technology Requirements and Development for Affordable High - Temperature Distributed Engine Controls Alireza Behbahani 1...with regards to high temperature capability. The Government and Industry Distributed Engine Controls Working Group (DECWG) [5] has been established

  8. Mobile Service Affordability for the Needy, Addiction, and ICT Policy Implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L-F. Pau (Louis-François)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractThis paper links communications and media usage to social and household economics boundaries. It highlights that in present day society, communications and media are a necessity, but not always affordable, and that they furthermore open up for addictive behaviours which raise additional

  9. SmartFluo: A Method and Affordable Adapter to Measure Chlorophyll a Fluorescence with Smartphones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedrichs, Anna; Busch, Julia; van der Woerd, H.J.; Zielinski, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    In order to increase the monitoring capabilities of inland and coastal waters, there is a need for new, affordable, sensitive and mobile instruments that could be operated semi-automatically in the field. This paper presents a prototype device to measure chlorophyll a fluorescence: the SmartFluo.

  10. Use of Welcome to Medicare Visits Among Older Adults Following the Affordable Care Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Arpit; Lloyd, Jennifer T; Strawbridge, Larisa M; Wensky, Suzanne G

    2018-01-01

    To encourage greater utilization of preventive services among Medicare beneficiaries, the 2010 Affordable Care Act waived coinsurance for the Welcome to Medicare visit, making this benefit free starting in 2011. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of the Affordable Care Act on Welcome to Medicare visit utilization. A 5% sample of newly enrolled fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries for 2005-2016 was used to estimate changes in Welcome to Medicare visit use over time. An interrupted time series model examined whether Welcome to Medicare visits increased significantly after 2011, controlling for pre-intervention trends and other autocorrelation. Annual Welcome to Medicare visit rates began at 1.4% in 2005 and increased to 12.3% by 2016. The quarterly Welcome to Medicare visit rate, which was almost 1% at baseline, was increasing by 0.06% before the 2011 Affordable Care Act provision (pAct provision, the rate increased by about 1% in the first quarter of 2011 (intercept, pAct trends of lower utilization persisted over time for non-whites and improved less quickly for men, regions other than Northeast, and beneficiaries without any supplemental insurance. The Affordable Care Act, and perhaps the removal of cost sharing, was associated with increased use of the Welcome to Medicare visit; however, even with the increased use, there is room for improvement. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. 77 FR 4564 - Request for Information Regarding the Reinsurance Program Under the Affordable Care Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ...? 12. What COIs could arise for such potential subcontractors? Data Collection 13. Describe current... comments in the CMS drop slots located in the main lobby of the building. A stamp- in clock is available... reinsurance program. Section 1321(c)(1) of the Affordable Care Act directs the Secretary to take such actions...

  12. 78 FR 7348 - Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act; Exchange Functions: Eligibility for Exemptions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    ...) of title 22, United States Code (relating to Peace Corps volunteers); or the Nonappropriated Fund... indicate that, consistent with existing language in Sec. 155.200(b), granting certificates of exemption is... affordability programs. We note that we expect to modify the proposed language in Sec. 155.227 (78 FR 4711) to...

  13. Motivation for Aggressive Religious Radicalization: Goal Regulation Theory and a Personality × Threat × Affordance Hypothesis

    OpenAIRE

    Ian eMcGregor; Joseph eHayes; Mike ePrentice; Mike ePrentice

    2015-01-01

    A new set of hypotheses is presented regarding the cause of aggressive religious radicalization. It is grounded in classic and contemporary theory of human motivation and goal regulation, together with recent empirical advances in personality, social, and neurophysiological psychology. We specify personality traits, threats, and group affordances that combine to divert normal motivational processes toward aggressive religious radicalization. Conducive personality traits are oppositional, anxi...

  14. Assessing Affordances of Selected Cloud Computing Tools for Language Teacher Education in Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofemile, Abdulmalik Yusuf

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports part of a study that hoped to understand Teacher Educators' (TE) assessment of the affordances of selected cloud computing tools ranked among the top 100 for the year 2010. Research has shown that ICT and by extension cloud computing has positive impacts on daily life and this informed the Nigerian government's policy to…

  15. 77 FR 20615 - DAU Industry Day: “Affordability, Efficiency, and the Industrial Base”

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... the Industrial Base'' AGENCY: Defense Acquisition University (DAU), DoD. ACTION: Event notice. SUMMARY... to discuss affordability, efficiency, and the industrial base. After a variety of presenters, the... this time of fiscal austerity, while maintaining a healthy industrial base. Following the plenary...

  16. Medicine prices, availability, and affordability in the Shaanxi Province in China: implications for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Minghuan; Zhou, Zhongliang; Wu, Lina; Shen, Qian; Lv, Bing; Wang, Xiao; Yang, Shimin; Fang, Yu

    2015-02-01

    In 2009, China implemented the National Essential Medicines System (NEMS) to improve access to high-quality low-cost essential medicines. To measure the prices, availability and affordability of medicines in China following the implementation of the NEMS. 120 public hospitals and 120 private pharmacies in ten cities in Shaanxi Province, Western China. The standardized methodology developed by the World Health Organization and Health Action International was used to collect data on prices and availability of 49 medicines. Median price ratio; availability as a percentage; cost of course of treatment in days' wages of the lowest-paid government workers. In the public hospitals, originator brands (OBs) were procured at 8.89 times the international reference price, more than seven times higher than the lowest-priced generics (LPGs). Patients paid 11.83 and 1.69 times the international reference prices for OBs and generics respectively. A similar result was observed in the private pharmacies. The mean availabilities of OBs and LPGs were 7.1 and 20.0 % in the public hospitals, and 12.6 and 29.2 % in the private pharmacies. Treatment with OBs is therefore largely unaffordable, but the affordability of the LPGs is generally good. High prices and low availability of survey medicines were observed. The affordability of generics, but not OBs, is reasonable. Effective measures should be taken to reduce medicine prices and improve availability and affordability in Shaanxi Province.

  17. 78 FR 64930 - Open Forum on College Value and Affordability and College Ratings System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...-437-0833), or email us at: [email protected] . Or write to: U.S. Department of Education... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Open Forum on College Value and Affordability and College Ratings System AGENCY: Office of the Under Secretary, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: In August 2013...

  18. Mirror Worlds: Examining the Affordances of a Next Generation Immersive Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Aakash; Williams, Daron; Terry, Krista; Robinson, Kelly; Newbill, Phyllis

    2018-01-01

    As technologies continue to develop and evolve, it is imperative that instructional technologists, learning scientists, and educators involved with examining learning affordances of emerging technologies investigate the potential of innovative environments to promote and facilitate learning. This paper, as such, will describe a newly developed…

  19. Reduced affordability of cigarettes and socio-economic inequalities in smoking continuation in Stakhanov, Ukraine, 2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leinsalu, Mall; Stickley, Andrew; Kunst, Anton E.

    2015-01-01

    The recent tobacco excise tax increase and economic crisis reduced cigarette affordability in Ukraine dramatically. Using survey data from Stakhanov (n = 1691), eastern Ukraine, we employed logistic regression analysis to examine whether socio-economic status was associated with the continuation of

  20. Redefining Technological Literacy in the Workplace: A Qualitative Study of Social Affordances in Workplace Email

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacci, Tina Marie

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation examines the social affordances of workplace email use. Through group and individual interviews of six knowledge workers in a distributed real estate firm, it explores the extent workplace writers recognize and rely on extra-textual devices (i.e., copy, blind-copy, and forward devices) and email applications (i.e., email…